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Sample records for human choriogonadotropin hcg

  1. Comparison of triple-risk assessment of fetal trisomy 21 including total human choriogonadotropin (hCG) or its free beta-subunit (free beta hCG).

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    Sancken, U; Bahner, D

    2003-01-01

    Second trimester total hCG and free betahCG levels in maternal serum samples of 33 pregnancies affected by fetal trisomy 21 and of 188 matched controls were compared in a retrospective study. To find out differences of discriminating efficacy by using one of these markers a multivariate discriminant analysis was performed. Statistical evaluation was performed for hCG/free betahCG frequency distributions. Discriminant analysis was carried out using the status 'affected' or 'unaffected' as the group variable and the serum markers unconjugated estriol (uE3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and alternatively, hCG or free betahCG, as discriminant variables. The median of free betahCG MoM values in affected pregnancies was slightly higher (1.90 MoM) than the median of total hCG MoM values (1.72 MoM) but a lower standard deviation was stated for the logarithmic hCG MoM values (SD = 0.49) compared with free betahCG MoM values (SD = 0.51). A two-tailed Student's t test revealed no significant differences of hCG and free betahCG MoM values in both the affected and unaffected pregnancies. By inclusion of free betahCG the discriminant analysis classified 26 out of 33 affected cases correctly and 45 out of 188 unaffected cases incorrectly. For the inclusion of hCG these ratios were 25/33 and 41/188, respectively. Taking in account the individual maternal age risks at a defined false-positive rate of 5% including free betahCG yielded a higher detection rate than including hCG. However, using 1:380 (age-related at-term risk of a 35-year-old woman) as a cut-off risk including hCG yielded a higher detection rate than including free betahCG. For the observed cases none of the markers, hCG or free betahCG, was superior in Down syndrome screening. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Carbohydrate composition of the alpha-subunit of human choriogonadotropin (hCG alpha) and the free alpha molecules produced in pregnancy: most free alpha and some combined hCG alpha molecules are fucosylated.

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    Blithe, D L

    1990-06-01

    The carbohydrate compositions of pregnancy-derived hCG alpha (dissociated from intact hCG) and free alpha-subunit were analyzed using a combination of chemical analysis, lectin affinity chromatography, and glycosidase sensitivity. For direct compositional analysis, parallel samples were hydrolyzed in trifluoroacetic acid and analyzed for sialic acid and neutral sugars without prior derivatization. Separation of the monosaccharides was achieved by HPLC on a Dionex CarboPac column eluted at high pH, and the resolved monosaccharides were quantified by pulsed amperometric detection. The amounts of sugar that were found relative to peptide indicated the presence of two N-linked oligosaccharides per molecule on both hCG alpha and free alpha. Free alpha contained 2.5-fold higher amounts of sialic acid and galactose as well as a higher amount of N-acetylglucosamine than did hCG alpha. Free alpha also contained a 6-fold higher amount of fucose than did hCG alpha (1.2 vs. 0.2 residues of fucose/molecule). Serial fractionation of intact hCG alpha and free alpha molecules by lectin affinity chromatography indicated that virtually all of the hCG alpha-subunits contained at least one Concanavalin-A (Con-A)-binding site, whereas as many as 32% of the free alpha molecules could not bind to Con-A. Chromatography on Lens culinaris (Lch) resulted in 12% binding of hCG alpha and approximately 72% binding of free alpha (80-85% of the Con-A-bound free alpha and 47-48% of the Con-A-nonbound free alpha bound to Lch). Endoglycosidase-H (endo-H) treatment of hCG alpha released a portion of the oligosaccharides. The endo-H-released material appeared to be a monoantennary hybrid based on DEAE-binding properties and carbohydrate composition. In contrast to hCG alpha, free alpha was completely resistant to endo-H treatment. Incubation of endo-H-resistant hCG alpha with glycopeptidase-A resulted in the release of two components, which could be separated into monoantennary and biantennary

  3. Internalization of 125I-human choriogonadotropin in bovine luteal slices. A biochemical study.

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    Chegini, N; Rao, C V; Carman, F R

    1984-04-01

    Various intracellular organelles as well as outer cell membranes of bovine corpora lutea intrinsically contain gonadotropin receptors (Rao et al., J biol chem 256 (1981) 2628 [5]). In order to investigate whether exogenously added human choriogonadotropin (hCG) can internalize and bind to the intracellular sites, bovine luteal slices that had been carefully checked with respect to structural and functional integrity were incubated with 0.1 nM 125I-hCG. Following incubation, specific radioactivity was found to be associated with various intracellular organelles, but not with cytosol. The order of radioactivity uptake by subcellular organelles following a 2-h incubation was: Golgi medium greater than Golgi heavy greater than Golgi light greater than plasma membranes = rough endoplasmic reticulum greater than mitochondria-lysosomes- greater than nuclei. The 5'-nucleotidase activity and electron microscopic examination of the fractions revealed that the presence of radioactivity in the intracellular organelles cannot be attributed solely to plasma membrane contamination. The internalization and intracellular binding of 125I-hCG was time and temperature-dependent. Only excess unlabeled hCG and hLH (but not hCG subunits, FSH and PRL) competed with 125I-hCG for internalization in luteal slices. Very little or no 125I-hCG added was internalized in liver or kidney slices; luteal, liver and kidney slices accumulated neither 125I-BSA nor 125I. The radioactivity eluted from various luteal subcellular organelles was able to rebind to fresh corresponding organelles and came off Sepharose 6B columns in a position corresponding to native 125I-hCG. The gel filtration profile of detergent-solubilized radioactivity revealed that 125I-hCG was macromolecular bound. The degraded and altered 125I-hCG was found in the incubation media.

  4. The Effects of Anti-Hcg Monoclonal Antibodies on Human Cancer Cell Lines

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    Mirshahi M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human cancer cell lines express human choriogonadotropin (hCG, its subunits and derivatives, regardless of their origin and type. It appears that hCG is a common phenotype in human cancer cell lines. In this research, the effects of hCG targeting monoclonal antibodies (7D9, T18H7 and T8B12 on human cancer cell lines were evaluated. Methods: Monoclonal antibody secreting hybridomas were proliferated and injected intraperitoneally to Balb/C mice after treatment with pristine. Two weeks later, ascites fluid was collected. Purification of aforementioned antibodies from ascites fluid was performed using G-protein affinity followed by ion exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE and ELISA confirmed the structure and functional integrity of the purified antibodies, respectively. Two human cancer cell lines "Hela" and "MDA" were treated by the purified antibodies. Three days later, different wells were imaged and the cells counted. Results: SDS-PAGE gel (None-reducing indicated consistency of band migration patterns with control antibodies. ELISA test using hCG antigens indicated that the produced antibodies could detect hCG antigens. Cell lines were cultured and treated with different concentrations of each antibody. Counting and imaging different wells of treated plates, indicated that 7D9 antibody had a more significant (P<0.01 cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines than the control cells. Conclusion: HCG targeting monoclonal antibodies can be used for targeted cancer therapy, as human cancer cells express hCG gene. 7D9 antibody that exhibits protease activity is a proper candidate for this purpose, as it possesses both antagonistic and enzymatic properties.

  5. Lack of immunological analogy between the beta-subunits of cholera toxin and human choriogonadotropin.

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    Acevedo, H F; Kellen, J A

    1986-01-01

    A chemical relatedness has been described between the beta-subunit of cholera toxin and that of the four dimeric glycoprotein hormones (hCG, hLH, hFSH and hTSH). However, antibodies induced by cholera toxin did not crossreact, when tested by labeled hCG binding and immunocytochemistry, with the beta-subunit of hCG. It appears that differences in the tertiary structures, as shown in this study, account for distinct epitopes. Similarities in biological activity between these two compounds, such as induction of adenyl cyclase or a protective effect against some tumors, are not based on immunological mechanisms.

  6. HCG variants, the growth factors which drive human malignancies

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    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-01-01

    The term human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) refers to a group of 5 molecules, each sharing the common amino acid sequence but each differing in meric structure and carbohydrate side chain structure. The 5 molecules are each produced by separate cells and each having separate biological functions. hCG and sulfated hCG are hormones produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG is an autocrine produced by placental cytotrophoblast cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG drives malignancy in placental cancers, and in testicular and ovarian germ cell malignancies. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are autocrines produce by most advanced malignancies. These molecules, particularly the malignancy promoters are presented in this review on hCG and cancer. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are critical to the growth and invasion, or malignancy of most advanced cancers. In many ways, while hCG may appear like a nothing, a hormone associated with pregnancy, it is not, and may be at the center of cancer research. PMID:22206043

  7. 21 CFR 862.1155 - Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system... Test Systems § 862.1155 Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system. (a) Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system intended for the early detection of pregnancy—(1) Identification. A human...

  8. [Mechanism of regulation of synthesis and secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, David; Chirinos, Mayel; García-Becerra, Rocío

    2008-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an essential hormone for development and sustaining of gestation. Adequate hCG production is fundamental for pregnancy success since abnormal hCG serum concentrations have been correlated with pregnancy anomalies such as recurrent abortions and preeclampsia. Regulation of hCG production involves diverse molecules associated with different signaling pathways, which have complicated the establishment of the mechanisms involved in its production. The present study provides a critical review of the most relevant findings related to hCG production and functions during pregnancy, in order to help to understand some related pathologies and to treat them more adequately.

  9. Effect of additional human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on follicular growth and ovulation in gonadotrophin-treated gilts.

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    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Cassar, Glen; Friendship, Robert M; Garcia, José C; Dominguez, J Carlos; Kirkwood, Roy N

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of additional human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on the ovarian response of gilts previously treated with 200 IU hCG combined with 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) (eCG/hCG). Seventy-one prepuberal gilts (105 ± 7.5 kg) were assigned to groups: i) eCG/hCG (hCG-0; n = 25); ii) eCG/hCG followed by 100 IU of hCG at 24 h (hCG-100; n = 24); iii) eCG/hCG followed by 200 IU hCG at 24 h (hCG-200; n = 10); and iv) controls (CON; n = 12). Ovulation response was assessed by ovarian dissection or real-time ultrasonography. Additional hCG did not significantly improve numbers of gilts ovulating. Numbers of corpora lutea increased with hCG, and was higher in hCG-200 (P hCG-0, the frequency of cysts in gilts was higher in hCG-100 (P hCG-200 (P hCG. We conclude that supplemental hCG will increase the number of corpora lutea but will be associated with follicular cyst development in a dose dependent manner.

  10. Myth vs. Fact: The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Diet

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    ... exactly is hCG? Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced during pregnancy to help nourish the growing fetus. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved hCG for a number of medical uses. ... understand that hormones are powerful and must be prescribed with caution. ...

  11. Potential role of hCG in apoptosis of human luteinized granulosa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRATA, Rei; HOJO, Takuo; SANO, Masahiro; HAYASHI, Nobuyoshi; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) forms after ovulation and acts as a temporary endocrine gland that produces progesterone (P4), a hormone that is essential for implantation and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. In pregnant women, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by the conceptus prevents luteolysis. hCG also increases the survival of cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGCs). To clarify the maintenance mechanism of the human CL, we investigated the effects of hCG and P4 receptor antagonists, onapristone (OP) and RU486, on the viability of hLGCs. With the patients’ consent, hLGCs were isolated from follicular aspirates for in vitro fertilization. The cells were cultured with hCG (0.1, 1, 10, 100 IU/ml), OP (10, 25, 50, 100 μM), RU486 (100 μM), P4 (1, 10, 25, 50 μM) or some combination of the four for 24 h. Cell viability was significantly increased by hCG (100 IU/ml) and significantly decreased by OP (100 μM) compared with the control. Cells treated with hCG and OP together were significantly less viable than the control and OP-treated cells. The combined treatment also significantly increased CASP3 activity and cleaved CASP3 protein expression. Furthermore, P4 addition reversed the reduction in cell viability caused by the combination of hCG and OP treatment. The overall findings suggest that hCG cooperates with P4 to increase survival of hLGCs and to induce apoptosis when P4 action supported by hCG is attenuated in the human CL. PMID:25451535

  12. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

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    Yu, Nan; Yan, Wenjie; Yin, Tailang; Wang, Yaqin; Guo, Yue; Zhou, Danni; Xu, Mei; Ding, Jinli; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo-secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion.

  13. Presence of. beta. hCG mRNA in the human pituitary

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    van Strien, A.; van Wezenbeek, P. (Organon International BV, Oss (Netherlands))

    1989-07-11

    A strong structural and biological similarity exist between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH). They share the same {alpha} subunit and have evolutionary related {beta} subunits. hCG is synthesized in first trimester placenta, whereas LH is synthesized in the pituitary. Substances with immunological, physical and biological properties of hCG have, however, been observed in postmenopausal urinary gonadotropin preparations as well as in pituitary extracts. Despite this finding it has not yet been proven that the hCG-like material is identical to placental hCG. This report describes the presence of a minor messenger RNA species in the human pituitary. RNA was isolated from five human pituitary glands and an amplified cDNA library was prepared.

  14. Hyperglycosylated hCG: a Unique Human Implantation and Invasion Factor.

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    Evans, Jemma

    2016-03-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), as one of the first embryonic products, has been extensively investigated for its role in implantation and placental development. Discovery of an over-glycosylated form of this hormone, hyperglycosylated hCG (hCG-H), has provided an additional level of complexity in our understanding of the implantation and placentation process; the structure, activity and functional implications of alterations in hCG isoforms throughout pregnancy are still being characterized. HCG-H comprises up to 90% of total hCG measurable in serum and urine during the first 2-3 weeks of pregnancy when invasive trophoblast activity is high, dropping to negligible proportions, less than 5%, of total hCG at the end of the first trimester. Functionally, hCG-H promotes trophoblast invasion during early pregnancy and has potential roles in immune cell modulation and endothelial function within the uterus at the time of pregnancy initiation. Altered levels of hCG-H are characteristics of pregnancy complications of altered trophoblast function and inadequate placentation, such as pre-eclampsia, and also over-abundance of invasive cytotrophoblasts, such as Down's syndrome. Improving our basic knowledge of the functional role-specific hCG isoforms plays in the complex cascade of events involved in implantation and placental development, and determining dynamic changes in the structure and activity of hCG isoforms throughout gestation will facilitate evidence-based decisions in assisted reproduction/in vitro fertilization based on the potential of embryos to implant, provide biomarkers for diagnosis of pregnancy complications associated with altered placental development and enhance understanding of how hCG isoforms may influence receptivity of the endometrium. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Early serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trends after medication abortion.

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    Pocius, Katherine D; Maurer, Rie; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B; Bartz, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Despite increased reliance on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for early pregnancy monitoring, there is limited information about hCG trends soon after medication abortion. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a predictable decline in serum hCG values shortly after medication abortion. This is a retrospective study of women with early intrauterine pregnancies who underwent medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol and had a serum hCG level on Day 1 (day of mifepristone) and a repeat value on Day 2 to 6. The percent hCG decline was calculated from baseline to repeat measure, with repeat values from the same patient accounted for through repeated measure analysis of variance. Eighty-eight women with a mean gestational age of 5.5 weeks and median baseline hCG of 5220 IU met study criteria over a 3-year period. The mean decline (±SD) in hCG from the Day 1 baseline value was 56.9%±29.5% on Day 3, 73.5%±38.6% on Day 4, 86.1%±8.8% on Day 5, and 92.9%±3.4% on Day 6. Eighty-two women (93% of the cohort) had a complete abortion without further intervention. The least square means hCG decline among these women was 57.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 50.3-64.9%] on Day 3, 78.9% (95% CI: 75.0-82.8%) on Day 4 and 86.2% (95% CI: 81.3-91.1%) on Day 5. There is a rapid decline in serum hCG within the first few days after early medication abortion. Further research is needed to delineate how soon after medication abortion this decline may be specific enough to confirm abortion completion. This study provides the largest cohort of patients followed with serial hCG values in the first few days after medication abortion. Our findings demonstrate the trend in hCG decline in this population, which may be predictable by Day 5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trend within the first few days after medical abortion: a prospective study.

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    Pocius, Katherine D; Bartz, Deborah; Maurer, Rie; Stenquist, Asha; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2017-03-01

    To prospectively describe the decline in serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the first 5 days after complete medical abortion and evaluate the influence of initial hCG and gestational duration. We conducted a prospective, physiologic study of women ≤63 days gestation who underwent medical abortion with 200 mg mifepristone and 800 mcg buccal misoprostol. We stratified enrollment into two gestational cohorts, hCG values on Day 1 (day of mifepristone), Day 3, Day 5 and a routine follow up hCG on Days 7-14. We calculated the percent hCG decline from Day 1 to each repeat measure and evaluated trends based on initial serum hCG level and gestation. We enrolled 66 women; 59 were protocol-adherent and included in our analysis. Mean gestation on Day 1 was 49 days and mean baseline hCG was 72,332 IU. Fifty-seven subjects (97%) had a complete medical abortion without further intervention. The mean serum hCG decline among subjects with complete medical abortion was 70.0±10.6% [range 36.9-98.6%] on Day 3 and 91.4±4.4% [range 68.4-97.7%] on Day 5. The mean serum hCG decline from Day 1 to routine follow-up on Days 7-9 was 97.1±1.7% [range 92.4-99.2%], from Day 1 to Day 10-11 was 98.5±1.4% [range 94.7-99.6%] and from Day 1 to Day 12-14 was 98.7±2.8% [range 86.7-99.9%]. There was no difference in percent hCG decline stratified by initial hCG or gestation. There is a rapid and predictable decline in serum hCG as early as Day 5 after complete medical abortion through 63 days gestation. Rate of hCG decline is not affected by initial hCG or gestational duration. For women who require confirmation of complete abortion sooner than 1 week after mifepristone, due to patient preference, logistical constraints or in the setting of pregnancy of unconfirmed location, a single repeat hCG on Day 5 may be clinically useful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of multiple injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on urine and serum endogenous steroids concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Pralong, François; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2011-12-10

    Since it is established that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) affects testosterone production and release in the human body, the use of this hormone as a performance enhancing drug has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Nowadays, the only validated biomarker of a hCG doping is its direct quantification in urine. However, this specific parameter is subjected to large inter-individual variability and its determination is directly dependent on the reliability of hCG immunoassays used. In order to counteract these weaknesses, new biomarkers need to be evidenced. To address this issue, a pilot clinical study was performed on 10 volunteers submitted to 3 subsequent hCG injections. Blood and urine samples were collected during two weeks in order to follow the physiological effects on related compounds such as the steroid profile or hormones involved in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The hCG pharmacokinetic observed in all subjects was, as expected, prone to important inter-individual variations. Using ROC plots, level of testosterone and testosterone on luteinizing hormone ratio in both blood and urine were found to be the most relevant biomarker of a hCG abuse, regardless of inter-individual variations. In conclusion, this study showed the crucial importance of reliable quantification methods to assess low differences in hormonal patterns. In regard to these results and to anti-doping requirements and constraints, blood together with urine matrix should be included in the anti-doping testing program. Together with a longitudinal follow-up approach it could constitute a new strategy to detect a hCG abuse, applicable to further forms of steroid or other forbidden drug manipulation.

  18. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations during the late first trimester are associated with fetal growth in a fetal sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaktarovic, Mirjana; Korevaar, Tim I M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Visser, Theo J; Peeters, Robin P; Steegers, Eric A P

    2017-02-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy-specific hormone that regulates placental development. hCG concentrations vary widely throughout gestation and differ based on fetal sex. Abnormal hCG concentrations are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We studied the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth and birth weight. In addition, we investigated effect modification by gestational age of hCG measurement and fetal sex. Total serum hCG (median 14.4 weeks, 95 % range 10.1-26.2), estimated fetal weight (measured by ultrasound during 18-25th weeks and >25th weeks) and birth weight were measured in 7987 mother-child pairs from the Generation R cohort and used to establish fetal growth. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a standardized birth weight lower than the 10th percentile of the study population. There was a non-linear association of hCG with birth weight (P = 0.009). However, only low hCG concentrations measured during the late first trimester (11th and 12th week) were associated with birth weight and SGA. Low hCG concentrations measured in the late first trimester were also associated with decreased fetal growth (P = 0.0002). This was the case for both male and female fetuses. In contrast, high hCG concentrations during the late first trimester were associated with increased fetal growth amongst female, but not male fetuses. Low hCG in the late first trimester is associated with lower birth weight due to a decrease in fetal growth. Fetal sex differences exist in the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth.

  19. Standardization of Epitopes for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Immunoassays.

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    Berger, Peter; Lapthorn, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    hCG and its variants are markers for pregnancy tests, pregnancyrelated complications, trophoblastic diseases, pre-natal screening of Down's syndrome and doping controls. Strong demands are imposed on diagnostic methods by the dynamic changes in the absolute and relative levels of hCG protein backbone variants and glycosylation isoforms in serum and urine during development of pregnancy or the progression/remission of tumors. Observed differences in the results between commercial diagnostic immunoassays reflect the unequal molar recognition of the different metabolic hCG variants, in particular the hCG beta core fragment (hCGβcf), by the diagnostic antibodies (Abs), as their epitopes are not standardized, and the fact that suboptimal hCG standards are used. To rapidly characterize Abs by their epitope recognition and specificity to evaluate their suitability for diagnostic immunoassays a procedure of comparative epitope mapping has been developed using epitope-defined reference Abs. Comparative epitope mapping of diagnostic Abs will provide the basis for the standardization of diagnostic antigenic domains/epitopes and consequently for improved reliability of hCG measurements. Diagnostic first line assays likely consist of pairs of Abs that recognize specific epitopes at the top of the neighboring peptide loops 1 and 3 (Ł1+3) and the cystine knot (ck) of hCGβ, respectively. In future, significant improvements of reliability, robustness and comparability of the results of immunoassays for complex glycoproteins such as hCG will be achieved by the use (i) of standardized diagnostic Abs against welldefined epitopes and (ii) of the new International Standards for hCG and for five hCG variants established by WHO, that are calibrated in molar (SI) units.

  20. 125I-labelled human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as an elimination marker in the evaluation of hCG decline during chemotherapy in patients with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T B; Engbaek, F; Marqversen, J

    1999-01-01

    The rate of reduction in the concentration of serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) following chemotherapy for germ cell tumours may follow a complex pattern, with longer apparent half-life during later stages of chemotherapy, even in patients treated successfully. The commonly used half-life...

  1. Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Knockout (LuRKO) Mice and Transgenic Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)-Overexpressing Mice (hCG αβ+) Have Bone Phenotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yarram, S. J; Perry, M. J; Christopher, T. J; Westby, K; Brown, N. L; Lamminen, T; Rulli, S. B; Zhang, F.-P; Huhtaniemi, I; Sandy, J. R; Mansell, J. P

    2003-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the role of sex steroids during periods of major skeletal turnover, but the interaction of the gonadotropic hormones, which include LH, FSH, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG...

  2. Effect the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG hormone following superovulation treatment in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polmer Situmorang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A numbers of studies had been reported to evaluate the effect of hormone for superovulation treatment in buffaloes, however the numbers of embryo recovered is still very small. One of the limiting factors which affect the numbers of embryo recovered is preovulatery LH concentration. The experiment was carried out to study the effect of hCG following superovulation treatments in buffaloes as an effort to increase the embryo recovered. Ten (10 buffaloes in three different genotypes (Riverine, swamp and its crosses were superovulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. A total of 12 ml FSH (Folltropin was injected intramuscularry twice a day with 12 hours interval in a decreasing doses for 4 days (2.5, 2.5; 2.0, 2.0; 1.0, 1.0 and 0.5, 0.5 ml. Prostaglandin was injected intramuscularry 2 days after the first injection of FSH followed by administration of 500 IU hCG two days later. At the same days of administration of hCG, artificial insemination (AI using frozen semen was conducted and repeated again after 12 and 24 hours. Blood collecting was conducted 3 times a week for obtaining the progesteron level of plasma blood. Embryo was collected by non-surgically technique on day 6 of estrus cycle by flushing each horn of uterus with 500 ml Dubelco's Phosphat Buffer Saline (DBPS. Parameter recorded were diameter of ovary (DO, total corpus luteum (TCL, number of embryo collected (NE, percentage of recovery rate (%RR and peak progesteron level (PP. Administration of hCG significantly increase the response of buffalo to superovulation treatment. The mean of DO (cm, TCL, NE and RR (% was 4.0, 6.3, 2.1 and 37.2 and 4.5, 7.5, 3.9 and 48.1 for controll and 500 IU hCG respectively. The mean NE was significantly higher (P<0.05 in hCG than those control. The peak progesterone concentration was highly significant higher (P<0.01 in hCG (8.9 ng/ml than those control (6.8 ng/ml. Both left and right ovary gave a similar response to superovulation treatments. In

  3. Production of specific antisera for radioimmunoassay of human luteinizing hormone (LH) in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). [/sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorell, J.I.; Jeppsson, S.; Holmstrom, B.

    1976-09-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay for LH, which measures plasma LH in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described. Rabbits were immunized with highly purified native LH. One of the antisera with a difference in its reactivity against LH and hCG was further purified by affinity chromatography on a column with hCG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The adsorbed antiserum and /sup 125/I-LH was used in a double antibody assay. The LH standard (MRC/68/40) efficiently inhibited the binding of /sup 125/I-LH, and the standard curve showed a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml in the sample. hCG up to 10,000 ng/ml did not inhibit the binding of /sup 125/I-LH. The plasma level of LH in pregnant women in the first trimester was low (1.3 +- 0.1 ng/ml). When LH was measured in fertile or menopausal women with or without stimulation with LH/FSH releasing hormone (LH-RH)/sup x/ the results agreed to those found with our conventional LH-assay based on antiserum against hCG.

  4. Long-term progression and therapeutic response of visceral metastatic disease non-invasively monitored in mouse urine using beta-human choriogonadotropin secreting tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Giulio; Emmenegger, Urban; Lee, Christina R; Shaked, Yuval; Folkins, Christopher; Mossoba, Miriam; Medin, Jeffrey A; Man, Shan; Zhu, Zhenping; Witte, Larry; Kerbel, Robert S

    2008-10-01

    Historically, the use of mouse models of metastatic disease to evaluate anticancer therapies has been hampered because of difficulties in detection and quantification of such lesions without sacrificing the mice, which in turn may also be dictated by institutional or ethical guidelines. Advancements in imaging technologies have begun to change this situation. A new method to non-invasively measure tumor burden, as yet untested to monitor spontaneous metastases, is the use of transplanted tumors expressing secretable human beta-chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) that can be measured in urine. We describe examples of beta-hCG-transfected tumor cell lines for evaluating the effect of different therapies on metastatic disease, which in some cases involved monitoring tumor growth for >100 days. We used beta-hCG-tagged mouse B16 melanoma and erbB-2/Her-2-expressing human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 models, and drug treatments included metronomic low-dose cyclophosphamide chemotherapy with or without a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-targeting antibody (DC101) or trastuzumab, the erbB-2/Her-2-targeting antibody. Both experimental and spontaneous metastasis models were studied; in the latter case, an increase in urine beta-hCG always foreshadowed the development of lung, liver, brain, and kidney metastases. Metastatic disease was unresponsive to DC101 or trastuzumab monotherapy treatment, as assessed by beta-hCG levels. Our results also suggest that beta-hCG levels may be set as an end point for metastasis studies, circumventing guidelines, which have often hampered the use of advanced disease models. Collectively, our data indicates that beta-hCG is an effective noninvasive preclinical marker for the long term monitoring of untreated or treated metastatic disease.

  5. A study of intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) before frozen-thawed embryo transfer after two or more implantation failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pinxiu; Wei, Lihong; Li, Xinlin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) before frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) after two or more implantation failures (TIFs). The study was a prospective randomized single-blind study of 161 cycles in patients undergoing FET who had TIFs. The intervention group received an intrauterine injection of 1000 IU of hCG before embryo transfer (ET) (n = 62). A placebo group (n = 49) received an intrauterine injection of physiological saline before ET. A control group (n = 50) did not receive an intrauterine injection. Clinical pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and ongoing pregnancy rates were compared between the three groups. The clinical pregnancy rates were 59.68%, 53.06%, and 32.00% in the hCG group, placebo group, and control group, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the hCG and placebo groups than in the control group. There were no significant differences in the abortion rates among the three groups. An intrauterine administration of hCG before FET significantly improved the pregnancy rates after TIFs. But local injury caused by the operation of intrauterine perfusion may play an important role in improving clinical pregnancy rates.

  6. hCG activates Epac-Erk1/2 signaling regulating Progesterone Receptor expression and function in human endometrial stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Pizarro, Alejandro; Archiles, Sebastián; Argandoña, Felipe; Valencia, Cecilia; Zavaleta, Keyla; Cecilia Johnson, M; González-Ramos, Reinaldo; Devoto, Luigi

    2017-06-01

    How does hCG signal in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and what is its role in regulating ESC function? hCG signaling in ESCs activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) pathway through exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) (Epac) and transiently increases progesterone receptor (PR) transcript and protein expression and its transcriptional function. hCG is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the endometrium, which abundantly expresses LH/hCG receptors. hCG signals through cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) in gonadal cells, but in endometrial epithelial cells, hCG induces Erk1/2 activation independent of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Few data exist concerning the signal transduction pathways triggered by hCG in ESCs and their role in regulation of ESC function. This is an in vitro study comprising patients undergoing benign gynecological surgery (n = 46). Endometrial samples were collected from normal cycling women during the mid-secretory phase for ESCs isolation. The study conducted in an academic research laboratory within a tertiary-care hospital. The activation of the Erk1/2 signal transduction pathway elicited by hCG was evaluated in ESC. Signaling pathway inhibitors were used to examine the roles of PKA, PI3K, PKC, adenylyl cyclase and Epac on the hCG-stimulated up-regulation of phospho-Erk1/2 (pErk1/2). Erk1/2 phosphorylation was determined by immunoblot. siRNA targeting Epac was used to investigate the molecular mechanisms. To assess the role of Erk1/2 signaling induced by hCG on ESC function, gene expression regulation was examined by immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR. The role of PR on the regulation of transcript levels was studied using progesterone and the PR antagonist RU486. All experiments were conducted using at least three different cell culture preparations in triplicate. Addition of hCG to ESCs in vitro induced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 through cAMP accumulation. Such

  7. Anticuerpos monoclonales contra la gonadotropina coriónica humana (hCG para su uso en la detección de embarazo Monoclonal antibodies against human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG for their use in pregnancy detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha V. Rodríguez Pendás

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta la generación de 2 anticuerpos monoclonales (AcM de ratón dirigidos contra la hormona gonadotropina coriónica humana (hCG, a partir de la inmunización de ratones BALB/c con hCG humana, purificada en el Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología (INEN. Los AcM obtenidos son de la clase IgG y fueron purificados a partir de líquido ascítico, mediante cromatografía de afinidad en proteína G Sepharosa. El estudio de afinidad y especificidad demostró que estos anticuerpos podían ser útiles en ensayos inmunoenzimáticos, con el uso de uno de ellos en el sistema microELISA, de nuestra institución, para la detección cualitativa de embarazo en orina.The generation of 2 mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (CGh, starting from the immunization of BALB/c mice with human CGh purified at the National Institute of Endocrinology (NIEN is reported. IgG monoclonal antibodies were obtained. They were purified starting from the ascitic fluid by affinity chromatography in protein G Sepharose. The affinity and specificity study showed that these antibodies could be useful in immunoenzimatic assays, using one of them in the microELISA system of our institution for the qualitative detection of pregnancy in urine.

  8. Human LH and hCG stimulate differently the early signalling pathways but result in equal testosterone synthesis in mouse Leydig cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Gilioli, Lisa; Potì, Francesco; Giva, Lavinia Beatrice; Marino, Marco; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Pagotto, Uberto; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

    2017-01-05

    Human luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating development and reproductive functions by acting on the same receptor (LHCGR). We compared the LH and hCG activity in gonadal cells from male mouse in vitro, i.e. primary Leydig cells, which is a common tool used for gonadotropin bioassay. Murine Leydig cells are naturally expressing the murine LH receptor (mLhr), which binds human LH/hCG. Cultured Leydig cells were treated by increasing doses of recombinant LH and hCG, and cell signaling, gene expression and steroid synthesis were evaluated. We found that hCG is about 10-fold more potent than LH in cAMP recruitment, and slightly but significantly more potent on cAMP-dependent Erk1/2 phosphorylation. However, no significant differences occur between LH and hCG treatments, measured as activation of downstream signals, such as Creb phosphorylation, Stard1 gene expression and testosterone synthesis. These data demonstrate that the responses to human LH/hCG are only quantitatively and not qualitatively different in murine cells, at least in terms of cAMP and Erk1/2 activation, and equal in activating downstream steroidogenic events. This is at odds with what we previously described in human primary granulosa cells, where LHCGR mediates a different pattern of signaling cascades, depending on the natural ligand. This finding is relevant for gonadotropin quantification used in the official pharmacopoeia, which are based on murine, in vivo bioassay and rely on the evaluation of long-term, testosterone-dependent effects mediated by rodent receptor.

  9. The steroid response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation in men with Klinefelter syndrome does not change using immunoassay or mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roli, L; Santi, D; Belli, S; Tagliavini, S; Cavalieri, S; De Santis, M C; Baraldi, E; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Granata, A R; Pagotto, U; Pasquali, R; Rochira, V; Carani, C; Simoni, M; Trenti, T

    2017-08-01

    Liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed in parallel to Immunoassays (IAs) and today is proposed as the "gold standard" for steroid assays. Leydig cells of men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are able to respond to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, even if testosterone (T) production was impaired. The aim was to evaluate how results obtained by IAs and LC-MS/MS can differently impact on the outcome of a clinical research on gonadal steroidogenesis after hCG stimulation. A longitudinal, prospective, case-control clinical trial. (clinicaltrial.gov NCT02788136) was carried out, enrolling KS men and healthy age-matched controls, stimulated by hCG administration. Serum steroids were evaluated at baseline and for 5 days after intramuscular injection of 5000 IU hCG using both IAs and LC-MS/MS. 13 KS patients (36 ± 9 years) not receiving T replacement therapy and 14 controls (32 ± 8 years) were enrolled. T, progesterone, cortisol, 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17OHP) and androstenedione, were significantly higher using IAs than LC-MS/MS. IAs and LC-MS/MS showed direct correlation for all five steroids, although the constant overestimation detected by IAs. Either methodology found the same 17OHP and T increasing profile after hCG stimulation, with equal areas under the curves (AUCs). Although a linearity between IA and LC-MS/MS is demonstrated, LC-MS/MS is more sensitive and accurate, whereas IA shows a constant overestimation of sex steroid levels. This result suggests the need of reference intervals built on the specific assay. This fundamental difference between these two methodologies opens a deep reconsideration of what is needed to improve the accuracy of steroid hormone assays.

  10. Heightened seizure susceptibility associated with brain dermoid cyst and the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Paolo; Rocchi, Raffaele; Cerase, Alfonso; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2007-07-15

    It is known that the intramuscular injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) lowers the threshold for motor evoked responses (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in humans. We describe the case of a patient with a clinically silent left-sided nasofrontal dermoid cyst who, while being treated with hCG/LH for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, presented with simple partial seizures, ipsilateral to the cyst, with secondary generalization. Motor cortex excitability was studied by single and paired TMS and MEPs were recorded from FDI. Resting motor threshold (RMT), active motor threshold (AMT), MEP size, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were tested during and after suspension of hormonal therapy. RMT and AMT were lower, MEP size was larger, ICI was decreased while ICF was slightly diminished during treatment. Overall, this indicated a reduced intracortical inhibition during hormonal therapy. It is concluded that treatment with hCG/LH may favour seizure onset in the presence of potentially epileptogenic lesions such as an intracranial dermoid cyst.

  11. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG: a new test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2014-11-01

    Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a variant of hCG with large oligosaccharide side chains. Although hCG is produced by syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG marks cytotrophoblast cell. Hyperglycosylated hCG signals placental implantation. Total hCG in serum and urine is measured by the Siemens Immulite hCG pregnancy test; the result is in milli-international unit per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG is determined by the B152 microtiter plate assay; the result is in nanogram per milliliter. Hyperglycosylated hCG results can be converted to milli-international unit per milliliter equivalents by multiplying by 11. The test measures proportion hyperglycosylated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG / total hCG. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG marks cases intent on developing persistent hydatidiform mole (68% detection at 17% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG also marks persistent hydatidiform mole (100% detection at 5.1% false detection). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG distinguishes choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm cases, absolutely discriminating aggressive cases and minimally aggressive cases. Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG identifies quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease cases. It recognizes quiescent cases that become persistent disease (100% detection at 0% false positive). Proportion hyperglycosylated hCG is an invaluable test for discriminating gestational trophoblastic diseases.

  12. Induction of ovulation in quarter horse mares through the use of deslorelin acetate and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Figueiredo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to compare two protocols of induction for ovulation by desloreline acetate and hCG in Quarter Horse mares. The choice of the animals was based on the observations by the estrus, by rectal palpation of the ovaries and by ultrassonography of the follicular dynamics. After estrus detection and follicle control, the measurement of the follicles and the classification of uterus were carried out. The animals that had dominant follicle (diameter more than 35 mm and swollen uterus were used. In these conditions, the mares received hCG or desloreline acetate. Once ovulation occurred, the artificial insemination was carried. Two groups were performed: G1 (20 animals received 1.5 mg desloreline acetate and G2 (20 animals received 1700 IU of hCG. Following 6h intervals, the control follicular was performed by ultrasonography. The follicular average diameter was 42.6 cm for the groups and set up a score of 0 to 3 of uterine edema displayed by the device as well as the time of ovulation. In conclusion, the desloreline acetate showed better performance than hCG, because the ovulation was induced in less time (nine hours than hCG (p<0.05.The pregnancy rate was 80 and 75 %, respectively in G1 and G2.

  13. Estrogen Modulates Specific Life and Death Signals Induced by LH and hCG in Human Primary Granulosa Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Gilioli, Lisa; Marino, Marco; Vecchi, Eugenia; Morini, Daria; Nicoli, Alessia; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

    2017-04-28

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones used for assisted reproduction acting on the same receptor (LHCGR) and mediating different intracellular signaling. We evaluated the pro- and anti-apoptotic effect of 100 pM LH or hCG, in the presence or in the absence of 200 pg/mL 17β-estradiol, in long-term, serum-starved human primary granulosa cells (hGLC) and a transfected granulosa cell line overexpressing LHCGR (hGL5/LHCGR). To this purpose, phospho-extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2), protein kinase B (pAKT), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (pCREB) activation and procaspase 3 cleavage were evaluated over three days by Western blotting, along with the expression of target genes by real-time PCR and cell viability by colorimetric assay. We found that LH induced predominant pERK1/2 and pAKT activation STARD1, CCND2 and anti-apoptotic XIAP gene expression, while hCG mediated more potent CREB phosphorylation, expression of CYP19A1 and procaspase 3 cleavage than LH. Cell treatment by LH is accompanied by increased (serum-starved) cell viability, while hCG decreased the number of viable cells. The hCG-specific, pro-apoptotic effect was blocked by a physiological dose of 17β-estradiol, resulting in pAKT activation, lack of procaspase 3 cleavage and increased cell viability. These results confirm that relatively high levels of steroidogenic pathway activation are linked to pro-apoptotic signals in vitro, which may be counteracted by other factors, i.e., estrogens.

  14. hCG - related molecules and their measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerba, Anna; Białas, Piotr; Pięta, Paweł Piotr; Jankowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) synthesized by trophoblast cells is a powerful tool of pregnancy monitoring. It was showed that similarly to pregnancy also trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic malignancies produce variety of hCG molecules. In urine and serum of both pregnant women and tumors patients a fifteen various forms of hCG, such as: regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and predominant hyperglycosylated hCG free β, were identified. These forms might be useful in order to recognize between physiological and pathological pregnancies as well as cancers. Even the presence of these different hormone variants is well documented the commercially available biochemical tests detecting hCG failed to identified and distinguish among these forms. Especially hard is to identify glycan chains linked to heterodimer. Thus, a detailed analysis of hCG-related molecules produced during physiological and pathological condition, together with a new tests development are needed.

  15. Timing of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone administration in IVF/ICSI protocols using GnRH agonist or antagonists: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Min; Liu, Xiru; Qi, Hongbo

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of altering the timing of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or antagonist. We systematically searched six databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the effects of altering the timing of hCG administration on the clinical outcome of IVF and ICSI using GnRH agonist or antagonist were included. A meta-analysis was conducted following a quality evaluation performed with Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.2. Seven RCTs and a total of 1295 participants were included. Significant difference was observed regarding estradiol and progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration and oocyte retrieval between early hCG and late hCG administration group and in favor of the latter. The fertilization rate was not statistically different between early and 24-h late hCG groups, but it is significantly higher in the 48-h late hCG group. The pooled results showed no significant differences in the ongoing pregnancy rate per oocyte pick-up, the miscarriage rate and the live birth rate. The prolongation of follicular phase by delaying hCG administration could increase estradiol, progesterone levels and oocyte retrieval, which will not influence ongoing pregnancy rate per oocyte pick-up, miscarriage rate and live birth rate. Postponing hCG may enable increased flexibility of cycle scheduling to avoid weekend procedures.

  16. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regulates the expression of Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR)via the ERK1/2 pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xianzhong; SUN Yan; WU Jianyun; PAN Hongmei; ZHANG Jiahua

    2007-01-01

    It has previously been shown that Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) can stimulate steroidogenesis in Leydig cells.In the present study,the mechanisms of hCGstimulated steroidogenesis in Leydig cells of immaturated pigs were investigated.It was found that both hCG and 8Br-cAMP could enhance the expression level of both the Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and mRNA,and increase the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 (ERK1/2) significantly depending on stimulating time.However,the effect of 8-Br-cAMP was more significant than that of hCG.While appending the inhibitor of Protein Kinase A (PKA) to Leydig cells in culture,the expression level of StAR protein,mRNA and the activity of ERK1/2 began to drop significantly,but the level of StAR mRNA could still be detectable.While appending the inhibitor of MAPK (PD98059),the expression level of StAR protein and mRNA declined significantly.These results infer that at the beginning of hCG stimulation,hCG increases the level of StAR protein by cAMP-PKA.With prolonged stimulating time,hCG increases the level of StAR protein through cAMP-PKA-ERK1/2.

  17. A Positive Feedback Loop between Glial Cells Missing 1 and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Regulates Placental hCGβ Expression and Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Mei-Leng; Wang, Liang-Jie; Chuang, Pei-Yun; Chang, Ching-Wen; Lee, Yun-Shien; Lo, Hsiao-Fan; Tsai, Ming-Song

    2015-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is composed of a common α subunit and a placenta-specific β subunit. Importantly, hCG is highly expressed in the differentiated and multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast, which is formed via trophoblast cell fusion and stimulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). Although the ubiquitous activating protein 2 (AP2) transcription factors TFAP2A and TFAP2C may regulate hCGβ expression, it remains unclear how cAMP stimulates placenta-specific hCGβ gene expression and trophoblastic differentiation. Here we demonstrated that the placental transcription factor glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) binds to a highly conserved promoter region in all six hCGβ paralogues by chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-chip) analyses. We further showed that cAMP stimulates GCM1 and the CBP coactivator to activate the hCGβ promoter through a GCM1-binding site (GBS1), which also constitutes a previously identified AP2 site. Given that TFAP2C may compete with GCM1 for GBS1, cAMP enhances the association between the hCGβ promoter and GCM1 but not TFAP2C. Indeed, the hCG-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway also stimulates Ser269 and Ser275 phosphorylation of GCM1, which recruits CBP to mediate GCM1 acetylation and stabilization. Consequently, hCG stimulates the expression of GCM1 target genes, including the fusogenic protein syncytin-1, to promote placental cell fusion. Our study reveals a positive feedback loop between GCM1 and hCG regulating placental hCGβ expression and cell differentiation. PMID:26503785

  18. Differences in signal activation by LH and hCG are mediated by the LH/CG receptor`s extracellular hinge region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGrzesik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD, as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10 deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region s. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge region

  19. hCG, the wonder of today's science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background hCG is a wonder. Firstly, because hCG is such an extreme molecule. hCG is the most acidic glycoprotein containing the highest proportion of sugars. Secondly, hCG exists in 5 common forms. Finally, it has so many functions ranging from control of human pregnancy to human cancer. This review examines these molecules in detail. Content These 5 molecules, hCG, sulfated hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG, hCG free beta and hyperglycosylated free beta are produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells (group 1), and by placental cytotrophoblast cells and human malignancies (group 2). Group 1 molecules are both hormones that act on the hCG/LH receptor. These molecules are central to human menstrual cycle and human pregnancy. Group 2 molecules are autocrines, that act by antagonizing a TGF beta receptor. These molecules are critical to all advanced malignancies. Conclusions The hCG groups are molecules critical to both the molecules of pregnancy or human life, and to the advancement of cancer, or human death. PMID:22455390

  20. Validación de un juego de reactivos (CUALINEN-HCG para la detección cualitativa de gonadotropina coriónica humana en el embarazo Validation of a kit of reagents (CUALINEN-HCG for the qualitative detection of human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema E. García Dafonte

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentaron los resultados de la estandarización de un juego de reactivos (CUALINEN-HCG para la detección de la gonadotropina coriónica humana (HCG en muestras de orina de mujeres embarazadas y de su validación diagnóstica en el nivel primario. CUALINEN-HCG es un microELISA de doble captura, que cuenta con un anticuerpo monoclonal específico para la subunidad b de la hCG (AcM-b hCG-IG1 y de conjugados enzimáticos con el sustrato colorimétrico correspondiente, obtenido y purificado en el Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Los resultados de la validación analítica del CUALINEN-HCG mostraron que era capaz de distinguir entre muestras de orinas positivas y negativas con una relación positivo/negativo de 10 veces; se obtuvieron coeficientes de variación del 6 % en estudios de precisión (interensayos e intraensayos realizados para el control positivo. Se procesaron 91 muestras de orina matutina de mujeres con amenorrea de entre 4 y 16 sem a partir de la última fecha de menstruación. En las que el embarazo fue diagnosticado posteriormente. Se logró la validación en el nivel primario del CUALINEN-HCG con una sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica de 85 y 95 %, respectivamente y una exactitud diagnóstica del 90 %. Se recomendó su uso como herramienta auxiliar para el diagnóstico del embarazo en nivel primario a partir de la primera semana de ausencia de la menstruación (5 sem de amenorrea.The results of the standardization of a Kit of reagents (CUALINEN-HCG, for the detection of the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG in urine and their diagnostic validation at primary level are presented. CUALINEN-HCG is a double capture micro ELISA that involves the participation of a specific monoclonal antibody for the b subunit of the hCG (AcM-bhCG-IG1 and the enzymatic conjugated with the corresponding colorimetric substrate, obtained and purified in the National Institute of Endocrinology. The results of the analytic validation of the

  1. The Effect of Human Recombinant Interferon Gamma (hrIFN-γ) on hCG Secretion of Trophoblast and Protein Synthesis of Decidual Tissue in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹咏清; 陈幼珍

    1996-01-01

    In this study the effect of human recombinant interferon gamma (hrIFN-γ) on hCG secretion of human first trimester trophoblast and protein synthesis of decidual tissue was investigated in vitro. The results indicated that hrIFN-γ at the doses of 250 U/ml medium and 2500 U/ml medium decreased hCG secretion of trophoblast obviously (P < 0. 0,5, P<0. 01 ) in a dose dependent manner. The effect of hrIFN-γ on protein synthesis at the doses of 10 U to 1,000 U/ml medium inhibited the3 H leucine incorporation obviously. The cpm values between control and experimental groups were significantly different (P <0. 05 ) in a dosedependent manner. Furthermore its inhibitory effect is in a dose-dependent manner and was neutralized by IFN-γ antiserum. The IFN-α at the doses used did not find any effect on protein synthesis in decidual tissue.

  2. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    KAUST Repository

    Sarhan, Abbaa

    2013-10-17

    Objective: We have recently showed that MFGE8, a novel epithelial cell protein in the human endometrium, upregulated during the window of implantation. We hypothesized that MFGE8 may act as a key modulator of endometrial remodeling and trophoblast invasion. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the in vitro regulation of human endometrial epithelial cells MFGE8 transcription, translation, and secretion by sex steroids and hCG; and (ii) to examine the possibility of MFGE8 secretion via microvesicles. Design: Experimental in vitro study using Ishikawa cells. Setting: University center. Interventions: Treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and human chorionic gonatropin (hCG). Main outcome measures: MFGE8 mRNA and protein expression, and identification of secreted microvesicles by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting. Results: E2, but not P4 or hCG, significantly upregulated MFGE8 mRNA expression. hCG significantly increased MFGE8 secretion. Microvesicels obtained after ultracentrifugation were visualized with atomic force microscopy ranging from ~100 to 200 nm. In addition to the expected 46 kD protein, the microvesicles contained a second form of secreted MFGE8 measuring ~30 kD which was confirmed by MS. Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  3. Human placental development is impaired by abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies: hCG signaling is impaired in trisomy 21 pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Marpeau, Olivier; Guibourdenche, Jean; Ferreira, Fatima; Badet, Josette; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Frendo, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    ...), which is essential to placental development. In trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21) pregnancies, CTs do not fuse and differentiate properly into STs, leading to the secretion of an abnormal and weakly bioactive hCG...

  4. HCG concentration and receptor gene expression in placental tissue from trisomy 18 and 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, E; Bao, S; Eblen, A; Li, X; Lei, Z M; Meuris, S; Rao, C V

    2000-01-01

    Trisomy 21 is associated with high maternal serum concentrations of intact human chorionic gonadotrophin alpha(HCG) and free beta-HCG whereas these concentrations are markedly decreased in trisomy 18. In this study, we investigated the effect of trisomy 21 and 18 on endogenous HCG concentrations and luteinizing hormone (LH)/HCG receptor expression in placental villous tissue in eight trisomy 21, six trisomy 18 and 42 chromosomally normal samples, collected at 12-16 weeks gestation. The tissue concentrations of intact HCG, free alpha-HCG and free beta-HCG subunits were measured using solid-phase two-site immunoradiometric assay. LH/HCG receptor expression was evaluated with immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Villous tissue in trisomy 21 contained higher beta-HCG concentrations than the controls (P trisomy 18 cases, the beta-HCG concentration was lower than in the control group (P trisomy 21 and 18, compared with controls with the strongest signal in cases of trisomy 18 (P trisomy 21 the high tissue HCG concentration and expression of LH/HCG receptor in the trophoblast may reflect the relative immaturity of the trophoblastic tissue whereas in trisomy 18, the very low concentration of endogenous HCG, associated with an over-expression of LH/HCG receptor in the trophoblast, is probably secondary to the poor differentiation of the cytotrophoblast.

  5. Validation of 125I-hCG as a marker for elimination of hCG and stability of 125I-hCG after in vivo injection in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T B; Marqversen, J; Engbaek, F;

    1999-01-01

    We have recently introduced 125I-hCG as an elimination marker in patients with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) producing testicular cancer. 125I-hCG is a well-known reagent in clinical biochemistry and is used extensively in hCG assays. Previous studies have shown that the iodination process...... leaves the hCG molecule mainly intact. The iodination, purification and stability of 125I-hCG tracer are described. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not 125I is associated with hCG after the injection of 125I-hCG intravenously (i.v.) in humans. Three different methods were used....... Following injection of 125I-hCG, the plasma disappearance of radioactivity and hCG were followed for a period of 28 days in 13 normal subjects. Serum from a normal healthy male following injection of 125I-hCG was analysed using a double antibody direct binding radioimmunoassay specific for holo-hCG and high...

  6. Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β- hCG) Clearance Curves in Women with Successfully Expectantly Managed Tubal Ectopic Pregnancies: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Samir; Mavrelos, Dimitrios; Sawyer, Elinor; Ben-Nagi, Jara; Koch, Marianne; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor

    2015-01-01

    To establish clearance curves for serum β -hCG in women with successfully expectantly managed tubal ectopic pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. Non- viable tubal ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed on transvaginal ultrasound. If initial serum β hCG was less than 5000 IU/L and patients were asymptomatic, expectant management was offered. Patients underwent serial β hCG measurements until serum β hCG was less than 20 IU/l, or the urine pregnancy test was negative. Early Pregnancy and Gynaecology Assessment Unit, Kings College Hospital, London (December 1998 to July 2006). We included 161 women with diagnosed non-viable tubal ectopic pregnancy who underwent successful expectant management. Serum β hCG level. Mean initial serum β- hCG was 488 IU/L (41 - 4883) and median serum β hCG clearance time was 19 days (5 - 82). The average half-life of β hCG clearance was 82.5 hours (±SD 50.2) in patients with steadily declining serum β- hCG levels compared to 106.7 hours (±SD 72.0) in patients with primarily plateauing β-hCG levels in the declining phase. However, these differences were not significant (p>0.05). We identified a median follow-up of 19 days until serum β hCG clearance in women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and successful expectant management. Although non- significant, women with initially plateauing serum β hCG showed a longer follow-up time until clearance compared to women with steadily declining β hCG levels. This information may serve as a guideline enabling clinicians to predict the length of follow-up for women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and expectant management.

  7. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression normograms for patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia treated with EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine) chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Westerdijk, K.; Sweep, F.C.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background We present normograms for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression in patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) successfully treated with multiagent chemotherapy in order to predict treatment resistance. Patients and methods We collected data for 46 patients w

  8. The biological function of hyperglycosylated hCG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurence A Cole; Stephen A Butler

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) is a variant of hCG made by cytotrophoblast cell.Here we examine the role of hyperglycosylated hCG in placenta growth and invasion.Methods:JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells and term cytotrophoblast monolayer culture were prepared.The effect of supplemental hyperglycosylated hCG and hCG was investigated. Growth of these cells was examined by increase incell number.Invasion was investigated using Matrigel basement membrane cells.The proportion of cell invadingMatrigel was determined. Results:Term cytotrophoblast cell andJEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells grew to5427±834 cells (109%) and7114±553 cells(142%).With the supplementation of hyperglycosylated hCG, they grew significantly wider to7633±177 cells(142%) and10315±1477 cells(206%).With the supplementation of hCG they diminished to4227±769 cells(78%) and5620±657 cells(79%).Term cytotrophoblast cell andJEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells penetratedMatigel membranes to(40.0±10.0)% and(46.0±9.8)%.Hyperglycosylated hCG significantly enhanced penetration to(76.0±13.0)% and(84.0±6.6)%. hCG diminished penetration to(32.0±9.1)% and(32.0±4.5)%.Conclusions:Hyperglycosylated hCG enhances both cytotrophoblast growth and cytotrophoblast cell invasion. hCG minimally suppresses growth and invasion.

  9. Measurement of plasma human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and beta-hCG activities in the late luteal phase: evidence of the occurrence of spontaneous menstrual abortions in infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, M; Roger, M; Barrat, J; Michelon, B

    1979-02-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and beta-hCG activities were measured during the late luteal phase in 321 cycles of 147 infertile women. In 71 cycles the hCG measurement permitted the diagnosis of pregnancy between the 10th and 14th days after the thermal nadir. The slope of the regression line derived from hCG levels during the first 22 days of pregnancy was significantly lower in pregnancies which aborted before the 60th day than in normal pregnancies (P less than 0.01). Among 72 cycles ended by apparently normal menses which exhibited an LH-hCG activity at least equal to 7 mIU of hCG/ml during the late luteal phase, the beta-hCG activity was measured in 49 cycles during which hCG had not been given. Significant beta-hCG activity (greater than or equal to 4 mIU of hCG/ml) was detected in 19 cases. This finding supports the assumption that secretory trophoblastic tissue had been present and that spontaneous menstrual abortions had occurred in these women.

  10. Establishing reference intervals for hCG in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Khushbu K; Qavi, Abraham J; Hock, Karl G; Gronowski, Ann M

    2017-03-01

    Plasma concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been shown to increase with age due to pituitary secretion. We previously recommended that an hCG cutoff of 14.0IU/L be used for women ≥55years of age. However, it remains unknown whether concentrations >14.0IU/L can be expected in women with advanced age. Our objectives were to establish plasma hCG reference intervals and correlate follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and hCG concentrations in postmenopausal females ≥55years. Residual plasma samples from 798 women ≥55years were utilized with 303, 269, and 226 samples belonging to the age groups 55-69, 70-84, and ≥85years, respectively. FSH and hCG were measured using the Abbott ARCHITECT. All positive hCG samples (hCG ≥5IU/L) were analyzed for potential heterophile antibody interference and 3 were excluded. Electronic medical records were reviewed and patients with malignancy were excluded. 8% (56/666) of women age≥55years had plasma hCG ≥5IU/L. There were 19, 16, and 21 patients with hCG ≥5IU/L in the age groups 55-69, 70-84, and ≥85years, respectively. The highest hCG concentrations observed in each age group were: 55-69years maximum=11.7IU/L and 97.5th percentile=9.6IU/L; 70-84years maximum=18.09IU/L, 97.5th percentile=6.2IU/L; ≥85years maximum=11.1IU/L and 97.5th percentile=10.0IU/L, and the overall 97.5th percentile=8.5IU/L for all women ≥55years of age. Neither hCG nor FSH concentrations continued to increase with age in women ≥55years. The prevalence of positive hCG in women ≥55years is 8%. This study confirms our previously recommended cutoff of 14IU/L for women ≥55years of age. In women ≥55years of age, FSH concentrations do not predict hCG concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunoregulatory Properties of Break Down Products of Human Choriogonadotropin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Khan (Nisar Ahmed)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractReproductive function in the female is cyclic. A series of functional interrelationships between the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary, and the ovaries leads to the monthly rupture of an ovarian follicle and extrusion of an egg (“ovulation”), which is then transported to the fallopian

  12. Immunoregulatory Properties of Break Down Products of Human Choriogonadotropin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Khan (Nisar Ahmed)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractReproductive function in the female is cyclic. A series of functional interrelationships between the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary, and the ovaries leads to the monthly rupture of an ovarian follicle and extrusion of an egg (“ovulation”), which is then transported to the fallopian

  13. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Regression Curve for Predicting Response to EMA/CO (Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Cyclophosphamide and Vincristine) Regimen in Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaburi, Athithan; Boonyapipat, Sathana; Supasinth, Yuthasak

    2015-01-01

    An hCG regression curve has been used to predict the natural history and response to chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic disease. We constructed hCG regression curves in high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) treated with EMA/CO and identified an optimal hCG level to detect EMA/CO resistance in GTN. Eighty-one women with GTN treated with EMA/CO were classified as primary high-risk GTN (n=65) and single agent-resistance GTN (n=16). The hCG levels prior to each course of chemotherapy were plotted in the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles to construct the hCG regression curves. Diagnostic performance was evaluated for an optimal cut-off value. The median hCG levels were 264,482 mIU/mL mIU/mL and 495.5 mIU/mL mIU/mL for primary high-risk GTN and single agent-resistance GTN, respectively. The 50th percentile of the hCG level in primary high-risk GTN and single agent-resistance turned to normal before the 4th and the 2nd course of chemotherapy, respectively. The 90th percentile of the hCG level in primary high-risk GTN and single agent-resistance turned to normal before the 9th and the 2nd course of chemotherapy, respectively. The hCG level of ≥118.6 mIU/mL mIU/mL at the 5thcourse of EMA/CO predicted the EMA/CO resistance in primary high-risk GTN patients with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 100%. EMA/CO resistance in primary high-risk GTN can be predicted by using an hCG regression curve in combination with the cut-off value of 118.6 mIU/mL at the 5thcourse of chemotherapy.

  14. Absence of TGF-β Receptor Activation by Highly Purified hCG Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Hannu; Hautala, Laura; Koli, Katri; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2015-12-01

    Recently, several LH/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) receptor-independent activities for hCG have been described, including activation of the TGF-β receptor (TGFβR) by hyperglycosylated hCG and stimulation of trophoblast invasion. Because the hCG concentrations used in these studies have been rather high, reflecting physiological hCG levels in pregnancy, even a minor contamination with growth factors, which act at very low concentrations, may be significant. Several commercial hCG preparations have been found to contain significant amounts of epidermal growth factor (EGF), which we also confirmed here. Furthermore, we found that some hCG preparations also contain significant amounts of TGF-β1. These hCG preparations were able to activate ERK1/2 in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells or TGFβR in mink lung epithelial cells transfected with a reporter gene for TGFβR activation. No such activation was found with highly purified hCG or its free β-subunit (hCGβ), irrespective of whether they were hyperglycosylated or not. Taken together, our results suggest that the growth factor contaminations in the hCG preparations can cause activation of TGFβR and, at least in JEG-3 cells, MAPK signaling. This highlights the importance to carefully control for potential contaminations and that highly purified hCG preparations have to be used for biological studies.

  15. Intact HCG, free HCG beta subunit and HCG beta core fragment: longitudinal patterns in urine during early pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McChesney, Ruth; Wilcox, Allen J; O'Connor, John F; Weinberg, Clarice R; Baird, Donna D; Schlatterer, John P; McConnaughey, D Robert; Birken, Steven; Canfield, Robert E

    2005-01-01

    Detecting and monitoring early pregnancy depend on the measurement of HCG. Little is known about how production of various forms of HCG may evolve over the earliest weeks of pregnancy, particularly in naturally conceived pregnancies...

  16. Follicle-stimulating hormone potentiates the steroidogenic activity of chorionic gonadotropin and the anti-apoptotic activity of luteinizing hormone in human granulosa-lutein cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Nicoli, Alessia; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-02-15

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating ovarian function and pregnancy, respectively. Since these molecules act on the same receptor (LHCGR), they were traditionally assumed as equivalent in assisted reproduction techniques (ART), although differences between LH and hCG were demonstrated at molecular and physiological level. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that co-treatment with a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose in the ART therapeutic range potentiates different LH- and hCG-dependent responses in vitro, measured in terms of cAMP, phospho-CREB, -ERK1/2 and -AKT activation, gene expression, progesterone and estradiol production in human granulosa-lutein cells (hGLC). We show that in the presence of FSH, hCG biopotency is about 5-fold increased, in the presence of FSH, in terms of cAMP activation. Accordingly, CREB phosphorylation and steroid production is increased under hCG and FSH co-treatment. LH effects, evaluated as steroidogenic cAMP/PKA pathway activation, do not change in the presence of FSH, which, however, increases LH-dependent ERK1/2 and AKT, but not CREB phosphorylation, resulting in anti-apoptotic effects. The different modulatory activity of FSH on LH and hCG action in vitro corresponds to their different physiological functions, reflecting proliferative effects exerted by LH during the follicular phase and before trophoblast development, and the high steroidogenic potential of hCG requested to sustain pregnancy from the luteal phase onwards.

  17. The Role of HCG in Implantation: A Mini-Review of Molecular and Clinical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrigiannakis, Antonis; Vrekoussis, Thomas; Zoumakis, Emmanouel; Kalantaridou, Sophia N.; Jeschke, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex process involving continuous molecular cross-talk between the embryo and the decidua. One of the key molecules during this process is human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG effectively modulates several metabolic pathways within the decidua contributing to endometrial receptivity. Herein, a brief overview of the molecular mechanisms regulated by HCG is presented. Furthermore, we summarize the existing evidence regarding the clinical impact on reproductive outcomes after endometrial priming with HCG prior to embryo transfer. Although promising, further evidence is needed to clarify the protocol that would lead to beneficial outcomes. PMID:28629172

  18. Atomic Gas Distribution in HCG31 and HCG92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Yun, M.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Heckman, T. M.; Zhu, G.

    2014-01-01

    We present Green Bank Telescope (GBT) 5x5 grid observations surrounding the actively star forming groups Hickson Compact Group, HCG 31 and HCG 92. We find that the total HI content of the groups are 2x10^10 and 2.5x10^10 solar masses respectively. The HI in HCG31 is mostly associated with the central region, however, there is a faint extension of the order of 10^9 solar masses of gas toward the southeast direction detected at the GBT pointing centered at a distance of 185 kpc from the group center. The velocity range of the HI is similar to the HI in the central pixel indicating its kinematic link to the gas in the center of the group. HCG 92 shows strong HI emission at a position of a pointing 4' offset from the center. The ``HI-wing" at velocities 6350-6500 km/s (Borthakur et al. 2010) were found to be confined to a few pointings adjacent to the peak suggesting that the wing as is localized and not extended. However, this must be gas stripped due to interactions and are dynamically connected to the Arc-N (Williams et al. 2002). We comment on the survival of the gas from the ionizing photons of the metagalactic ultraviolet background and those produced by the starburst. The implication of the existence of an HI rich environments surrounding the starbursts support the possibility of continued and future star formation in these groups.

  19. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Visser, W Edward; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P

    2015-09-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on reference range (RR) methodology and determinants of gestational hCG levels is crucial. Moreover, a better understanding of gestational hCG physiology can improve current screening programs and future clinical management. Serum total hCG levels were determined in 8195 women participating in the Generation R Study. Gestational age specific RRs using 'ultrasound derived gestational age' (US RRs) were calculated and compared with 'last menstrual period derived gestational age' (LMP RRs) and a model-based RR. We also investigated which pregnancy characteristics were associated with hCG levels. Compared to the US RRs, the LMP RRs were lower, most notably for the median and lower limit levels. No considerable differences were found between RRs calculated in the general population or in uncomplicated pregnancies only. Maternal smoking, BMI, parity, ethnicity, fetal gender, placental weight and hyperemesis gravidarum symptoms were associated with total hCG. We provide gestational RRs for total hCG and show that total hCG values and RR cut-offs during pregnancy vary depending on pregnancy dating methodology. This is likely due to the influence of hCG on embryonic growth, suggesting that ultrasound based pregnancy dating might be less reliable in women with high/low hCG levels. Furthermore, we identify different pregnancy characteristics that influence total hCG levels considerably and should therefore be accounted for in clinical studies.

  20. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration: mathematical modelling of the hCG concentration in circulation and initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the GnRHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple corpora lutea has been one focus with emphasis on one hand to avoid development of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and, on the other hand, to provide adequate levels of progesterone to sustain implantation. The present study evaluates the use of micro-dose hCG for LPS support and examines the potential advances and disadvantages. Based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of hCG, the mathematical modelling of the concentration profiles of hCG during the luteal phase has been evaluated in connection with several different approaches for hCG administration as LPS. It is suggested that the currently employed LPS provided in connection with the GnRHa trigger (i.e. 1.500 IU) is too strong, and that daily micro-dose hCG administration is likely to provide an optimised LPS with the current available drugs. Initial clinical results with the micro-dose hCG approach are presented.

  1. Urinary hyperglycosylated hCG in first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, SA; Mantingh, A; Cole, LA

    2000-01-01

    Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotrophin (H-hCG), also known as Invasive Trophoblast Antigen or ITA, is a unique metabolic variant of hCG with more complex oligosaccharide side chains. Concentrations are independent of regular hCG. Urine H-hCG has recently proved to be a highly sensitive mark

  2. Urinary hyperglycosylated hCG in first trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, SA; Mantingh, A; Cole, LA

    2000-01-01

    Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotrophin (H-hCG), also known as Invasive Trophoblast Antigen or ITA, is a unique metabolic variant of hCG with more complex oligosaccharide side chains. Concentrations are independent of regular hCG. Urine H-hCG has recently proved to be a highly sensitive mark

  3. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); S. Schalekamp-Timmermans (S.); W.E. Visser (Wil Edward); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); T.J. Visser (Theo); M. Medici (Marco); R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on refere

  4. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); S. Schalekamp-Timmermans (S.); W.E. Visser (Wil Edward); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); T.J. Visser (Theo); M. Medici (Marco); R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on refere

  5. Decreased levels of genuine large free hCG alpha in men presenting with abnormal semen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plas Eugen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and its free subunits (hCG alpha, hCG beta are produced in the male reproductive tract and found in high concentrations in seminal fluid, in particular hCG alpha. This study aimed to elucidate changes in peptide hormone profiles in patients showing abnormal semen analyses and to determine the genuineness of the highly abundant hCG alpha. Methods Seminal plasma was obtained from 45 male patients undergoing semen analysis during infertility workups. Comprehensive peptide hormone profiles were established by a panel of immunofluorometric assays for hCG, hCG alpha, hCG beta and its metabolite hCG beta core fragment, placental lactogen, growth hormone and prolactin in seminal plasma of patients with abnormal semen analysis results (n = 29 versus normozoospermic men (n = 16. The molecular identity of large hyperglycosylated hCG alpha was analyzed by mass-spectrometry and selective deglycosylation. Results hCG alpha levels were found to be significantly lower in men with impaired semen quality (1346 +/- 191 vs. 2753 +/- 533 ng/ml, P = 0.022. Moreover, patients with reduced sperm count had reduced intact hCG levels compared with normozoospermic men (0.097 +/- 0.022 vs. 0.203 +/- 0.040 ng/ml, P = 0.028. Using mass-spectrometry, the biochemical identity of hCG alpha purified from seminal plasma was verified. Under non-reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, hCG alpha isolated from seminal plasma migrated in a manner comparable with large free hCG alpha with an apparent molecular mass (Mr, app of 24 kDa, while hCG alpha dissociated from pregnancy-derived holo-hCG migrated at approximately 22 kDa. After deglycosylation with PNGase F under denaturing conditions, all hCG alpha variants showed an Mr, app of 15 kDa, indicating identical amino acid backbones. Conclusions The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of hCG, particularly its free alpha subunit, in spermatogenesis. The

  6. Intra-group diffuse light in compact groups of galaxies. HCG 79, HCG 88 and HCG 95

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, C D; Rocha, Cristiano Da; Oliveira, Claudia Mendes de

    2005-01-01

    Deep $B$ and $R$ images of three Hickson Compact Groups, HCG 79, HCG 88 and HCG 95, were analyzed using a new wavelet technic to measure possible intra-group diffuse light present in these systems. The method used, OV\\_WAV, is a wavelet technic particularly suitable to detect low-surface brightness extended structures, down to a $S/N = 0.1$ per pixel, which corresponds to a 5-$\\sigma$-detection level in wavelet space. The three groups studied are in different evolutionary stages, as can be judged by their very different fractions of the total light contained in their intra-group halos: $46\\pm11$\\% for HCG 79 and $11\\pm26$\\% for HCG 95, in the $B$ band, and HCG 88 had no component detected down to a limiting surface brightness of $29.1~B~mag~arcsec^{-2}$. For HCG 95 the intra-group light is red, similar to the mean colors of the group galaxies themselves, suggesting that it is formed by an old population with no significant on-going star formation. For HCG 79, however, the intra-group material has significantl...

  7. Application of immunomagnetic particles to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for improvement of detection sensitivity of HCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsiao-Ting; Yeh, Jay Z; Wu, Po-Hua; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at using superparamagnetic particles to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SPIO-ELISA) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to enhance detection sensitivity of hCG. We found that N-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) was the best cross-linking reagent to link anti hCG α antibody to superparamagnetic particle (SPIO-anti hCG α antibody immunomagnetic particle). To improve the specificity of the assay, a horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-hCG beta monoclonal antibody was used to detect captured hCG using double antibody sandwich ELISA assay. SPIO-ELISA application to determine hCG increased the sensitivity to 1 mIU/mL, which is a level of sensitivity enabling the diagnosis of pregnancy during the early gestational period.

  8. In vitro effect of 4-nonylphenol on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated hormone secretion, cell viability and reactive oxygen species generation in mice Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Tomáš; Tvrdá, Eva; Tušimová, Eva; Kováčik, Anton; Bistáková, Jana; Forgács, Zsolt; Lukáč, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    Nonylphenol is considered an endocrine disruptor and has been reported to affect male reproductive functions. In our in vitro study, we evaluated the effects of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on cholesterol levels, hormone formation and viability in cultured Leydig cells from adult ICR male mice. We also determined the potential impact of 4-NP on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 44 h of cultivation. The cells were cultured with addition of 0.04; 0.2; 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 μg/mL of 4-NP in the present of 1 IU/mL human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and compared to the control. The quantity of cholesterol was determined from culture medium using photometry. Determination of hormone production was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Metabolic activity assay was used for quantification of cell viability. The chemiluminescence technique, which uses a luminometer to measure reactive oxygen species, was employed. Applied doses of 4-NP (0.04-5.0 μg/mL) slight increase cholesterol levels and decrease production of dehydroepiandrosterone after 44 h of cultivation, but not significantly. Incubation of 4-NP treated cells with hCG significantly (P concentration (5.0 μg/mL). The viability was significantly (P cells. Taken together, the results of our in vitro study reported herein is consistent with the conclusion that 4-nonylphenol is able to influence hormonal profile, cell viability and generate ROS.

  9. Luteal phase HCG support for unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss - a low hanging fruit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Chelsea; Azores-Gococo, Denise; Swart, Linda; Holoch, Kristin; Savaris, Ricardo F; Likes, Creighton E; Miller, Paul B; Forstein, David A; Lessey, Bruce A

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined by two or more failed pregnancies and accounts for only 1-5% of pregnancy failures. Treatment options for unexplained RPL (uRPL) are limited. Previous studies suggest a link between delayed implantation and pregnancy loss. Based on this, a timely signal for rescue of the corpus luteum (CL) using human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) could improve outcomes in women with uRPL. This retrospective cohort study included 98 subjects with uRPL: 45 underwent 135 monitored cycles without HCG support; and 53 underwent 142 cycles with a single mid-luteal HCG injection. Based on Log-rank Mantel-Cox survival curves, miscarriage rate and time to pregnancy decreased in the HCG group (P = 0.0005). Women receiving luteal HCG support had an increased chance of an ongoing pregnancy compared with those not receiving it (RR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-3.6; number need to treat (NNT) = 7; 95% CI 4-18). Subjects receiving HCG support had a significant absolute risk reduction (ARR) of miscarriage (P HCG in women with RPL appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Seong Young; Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Seung Hun [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE{sub 3}) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE{sub 3} were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p<0.001, respectively). The median value of hCG were correlated withmateral age (r=0.13, p=0.04) but those of aFP and eU{sub 3} weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE{sub 3} between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67{+-}27.44, vs 54.65{+-}126.36, 46.45{+-}30.08 vs 51.33{+-}38.50 and 8.01{+-}11.01 vs 6.68{+-}7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP < or 0.7 multiples of median (MOM), hCG> or 2.1 MOM and E{sub 3} < or 0.7 MOM. Patients were screen positive for neural tube defect if aFP >2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other

  11. 1550-nm wavelength-tunable HCG VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Huang, Michael; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate wavelength-tunable VCSELs using high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the top output mirror on VCSELs, operating at 1550 nm. Tunable HCG VCSELs with a ~25 nm mechanical tuning range as well as VCSELs with 2 mW output power were realized. Error-free operation of an optical link using directly-modulated tunable HCG VCSELs transmitting at 1.25 Gbps over 18 channels spaced by 100 GHz and transmitted over 20 km of single mode fiber is demonstrated, showing the suitability of the HCG tunable VCSEL as a low cost source for WDM communications systems.

  12. Novel C617Y mutation in the 7th transmembrane segment of luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor in a Japanese boy with peripheral precocious puberty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagasaki, Keisuke; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Yohei; Kikuchi, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    ... mutations of the LHCGR gene encoding the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LH/CGR). The patient is an 8-year-old boy who started to develop pubic hair and penile enlargement at 6 years of age...

  13. hCG stimulates angiogenic signals in lymphatic endothelial and circulating angiogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Andrea; Lukosz, Margarete; Hess, Alexandra P; Baston-Büst, Dunja M; Krüssel, Jan S; Heiss, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has long been associated with the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, where angiogenesis plays an important role. However, the function of hCG in angiogenesis and the recruitment of vascular active cells are not fully understood. In this study, the role of hCG and its receptor in circulating angiogenic and human endothelial cells, including lymphatic, uterine microvascular, and umbilical vein endothelial cells, was examined. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were used to detect LH/hCG receptor expression and the expression of hCG-induced angiogenic molecules. HIF-1α was determined via ELISA and downstream molecules, such as CXCL12 and CXCR4, via real-time PCR. Chemotaxis was analyzed using Boyden chambers. Our results show that the LH/hCG receptor was present in all tested cells. Furthermore, hCG was able to stimulate LH/hCG-receptor-specific migration in a dose-dependent fashion and induce key angiogenic molecules, including HIF-1α, CXCL12, and CXCR4. In conclusion, our findings underscore the importance of hCG as one of the first angiogenic molecules produced by the conceptus. hCG itself alters endothelial motility, recruitment, and expression of pro-angiogenic molecules and may therefore play an important role in vascular adaption during implantation and early placental formation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Status of a Unique Vaccine against hCG for Contraception and Advanced Stage Cancers expressing ectopically hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwar GP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dear Egon!br God bless you on your 95th Birthday! May you complete 100 years.br Being submitted in your honor is a brief article on my continuing work to make available a unique vaccine preventing pregnancy in women without blocking ovulation, her normal production of sex steroid hormones and retaining her regular menstrual cycles and bleeding profiles.br The vaccine is directed at the Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, which emerges following fertilization of the egg [1]. Healthy, non-pregnant women do not make it, the basis on which its detection in serum or urine serves as a reliable test for diagnosis of pregnancy. It plays a critical role in implantation of the embryo & thereby to the onset of pregnancy. The purpose of the vaccine is to generate bioeffective antibodies neutralizing hCG & thereby prevent the onset of pregnancy.br As you can imagine, the making of a workable vaccine, competent to make antibodies against a tolerant molecule to the woman’s immune system (she literally bathes in hCG during pregnancy was not simple. What was also demanded was high immunogenicity of the vaccine to make fairly high titres of antibodies to counteract the large amount of hCG made in early pregnancy. At each stage, it required testing in humans and before that could be done, appropriate toxicology studies & approval of Regulatory and Ethics Committees was needed each taking its time. Eventually the vaccine has to be amenable to industrial production to reach the public, hence a recombinant vaccine had to be developed. Given below is a brief write-up on the evolution of the vaccine against the human chorionic gonadotropin.br Yours, Pran

  15. The value of HCG serum concentrations after trigger in predicting pregnancy and live birth rates in IVF-ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Junxia; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Ningyuan; Hu, Yali; Sun, Haixiang

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if an association existed between serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) level at 12 h after trigger and IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm (ICSI) treatment outcomes. Women undergoing initial IVF-ICSI and embryo transfer treatment using the long luteal phase gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol between April 2012 and March 2013 for tubal factor were included (n = 699). In the clinical pregnancy group, HCG after trigger was significantly elevated (276.0 ± 5.1 versus 198.5 ± 6.1 mIU/mL; P HCG was 201.2 mIU/ml. Compared with the lower HCG group, the clinical pregnancy rate in the higher HCG group was increased in obese and non-obese patients (77.8% versus 57.3%, P HCG was associated with a better IVF-ICSI treatment outcome (OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.99 to 6.45). Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher across increasing quartiles of HCG. An elevated level of serum HCG at 12 h after trigger was associated with a better IVF-ICSI outcome. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined ovulation triggering with GnRH agonist and hCG in IVF patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Kurdija, Kristijan; Orešković, Slavko; Čehić, Ermin; Pavičić-Baldani, Dinka; Škrgatić, Lana

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the review is to analyse the combination of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist with a human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) trigger, for final oocyte maturation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. The concept being a ''dual trigger'' combines a single dose of the GnRH agonist with a reduced or standard dosage of hCG at the time of triggering. The use of a GnRH agonist with a reduced dose of hCG in high responders demonstrated luteal phase support with improved pregnancy rates, similar to those after conventional hCG and a low risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The administration of a GnRH agonist and a standard hCG in normal responders, demonstrated significantly improved live-birth rates and a higher number of embryos of excellent quality, or cryopreserved embryos. The concept of the ''double trigger" represents a combination of a GnRH agonist and a standard hCG, when used 40 and 34 h prior to ovum pick-up, respectively. The use of the ''double trigger" has been successfully offered in the treatment of empty follicle syndrome and in patients with a history of immature oocytes retrieved or with low/poor oocytes yield. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the aforementioned observations prior to clinical implementation.

  17. An HCG-rich microenvironment contributes to ovarian cancer cell differentiation into endothelioid cells in a three-dimensional culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Min; Fan, Chao; Gao, Sainan; Shen, Aiguo; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yuquan

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and its effects on vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation in ovarian cancer cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in three-dimensional matrices preconditioned by an endothelial-trophoblast cell co-culture system. The co-culture model was established using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HTR-8 trophoblast cells in a three-dimensional culture system. The co-cultured cells were removed with NH4OH, and ovarian cancer cells were implanted into the preconditioned matrix. VM was identified morphologically and by detecting vascular markers expressed by cancer cells. The specificity of the effects of exogenous HCG in the microenvironment was assessed by inhibition with a neutralizing anti-HCG antibody. HCG siRNA was used to knock down endogenous HCG expression in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. HTR-8 cells 'fingerprinted' HUVECs to form capillary-like tube structures in co-cultures. In the preconditioned HCG-rich microenvironment, the number of vessel-like network structures formed by HCG receptor-positive OVCAR-3 cells and the expression levels of CD31, VEGF and factor VIII were significantly increased. The preconditioned HCG-rich microenvironment significantly increased the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF‑1α) and VM formation in OVCAR-3 cells under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with a neutralizing anti-HCG antibody but not HCG siRNA significantly inhibited the formation of vessel-like network structures. HCG in the microenvironment contributes to OVCAR-3 differentiation into endothelioid cells in three-dimensional matrices preconditioned with an endothelial-trophoblast cell co-culture system. HCG may synergistically enhance hypoxia-induced vascular markers and HIF-1α expression. These findings would provide perspectives on new therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer.

  18. Abnormally elevated serum hCG in a patient with end-stage renal disease seeking abortion: to be expected or a cause for concern? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin W; Zerden, Matthew L; Morse, Jessica E

    2015-07-01

    A patient with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis was referred to our abortion clinic with a concern for molar pregnancy. By 12 weeks, her human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level was over 500,000. A review of the literature demonstrates that elevated hCG should be expected in this population and should not alter care.

  19. LH and hCG Action on the Same Receptor Results in Quantitatively and Qualitatively Different Intracellular Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Lispi, Monica; Longobardi, Salvatore; Milosa, Fabiola; La Marca, Antonio; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Pignatti, Elisa; Simoni, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Human luteinizing hormone (hLH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) act on the same receptor (LHCGR) but it is not known whether they elicit the same cellular and molecular response. This study compares for the first time the activation of cell-signalling pathways and gene expression in response to hLH and hCG. Using recombinant hLH and recombinant hCG we evaluated the kinetics of cAMP production in COS-7 and hGL5 cells permanently expressing LHCGR (COS-7/LHCGR, hGL5/LHCGR), as well as cAMP, ERK1/2, AKT activation and progesterone production in primary human granulosa cells (hGLC). The expression of selected target genes was measured in the presence or absence of ERK- or AKT-pathways inhibitors. In COS-7/LHCGR cells, hCG is 5-fold more potent than hLH (cAMP ED50: 107.1±14.3 pM and 530.0±51.2 pM, respectively). hLH maximal effect was significantly faster (10 minutes by hLH; 1 hour by hCG). In hGLC continuous exposure to equipotent doses of gonadotropins up to 36 hours revealed that intracellular cAMP production is oscillating and significantly higher by hCG versus hLH. Conversely, phospho-ERK1/2 and -AKT activation was more potent and sustained by hLH versus hCG. ERK1/2 and AKT inhibition removed the inhibitory effect on NRG1 (neuregulin) expression by hLH but not by hCG; ERK1/2 inhibition significantly increased hLH- but not hCG-stimulated CYP19A1 (aromatase) expression. We conclude that: i) hCG is more potent on cAMP production, while hLH is more potent on ERK and AKT activation; ii) hGLC respond to equipotent, constant hLH or hCG stimulation with a fluctuating cAMP production and progressive progesterone secretion; and iii) the expression of hLH and hCG target genes partly involves the activation of different pathways depending on the ligand. Therefore, the LHCGR is able to differentiate the activity of hLH and hCG. PMID:23071612

  20. The Risk of Preeclampsia According to High Thyroid Function in Pregnancy Differs by hCG Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; Chaker, Layal; Medici, Marco; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Visser, Theo J; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-12-01

    During pregnancy, there is an increased demand for thyroid hormone. The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important physiological stimulator of thyroid function. Already high-normal maternal free T4 concentrations are associated with a higher risk of preeclampsia. The objective of the investigation was to study our hypothesis that hCG concentrations can distinguish a physiological form of high thyroid function from a more pathological form of high thyroid function and that the risk of preeclampsia would differ accordingly. TSH, free T4, hCG, or thyroperoxidase antibody concentrations were determined in pregnant women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. The study was conducted in the general community. A nonselected sample of 5146 pregnant women participated in the study. There were no interventions. Preeclampsia was measured. Women with high hCG-associated high thyroid function did not have a higher risk of preeclampsia than women with normal thyroid function. In contrast, women with low hCG and high thyroid function had a 3.4- to 11.1-fold higher risk of preeclampsia. These risk estimates were amplified in women with a high body mass index. Women with a low hCG and suppressed TSH (hCG was not associated with preeclampsia, and results remained similar after exclusion of thyroperoxidase antibody-positive women. This study suggests that, in contrast to women with a high hCG associated high thyroid function, women with low hCG and high thyroid function during pregnancy are at a higher risk of developing preeclampsia. The additional measurement of hCG may therefore help to distinguish a more pathological form of high thyroid function and women at a high risk of preeclampsia.

  1. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V;

    2016-01-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the Gn......RHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple...... corpora lutea has been one focus with emphasis on one hand to avoid development of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and, on the other hand, to provide adequate levels of progesterone to sustain implantation. The present study evaluates the use of micro-dose hCG for LPS support and examines the potential...

  2. First trimester maternal serum AFP and total hCG in aneuploidies other than trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K; Heath, V; Flack, N; Ong, C; Nicolaides, K H

    2000-08-01

    Total human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured in maternal serum at 10-14 weeks of gestation from 53 pregnancies affected by trisomy 18, 42 cases with trisomy 13, 46 with Turner's syndrome and 13 with other sex aneuploides. The only significant association was the finding of reduced levels of total hCG in cases of trisomy 18 and 13. The association of increased levels of AFP in cases of trisomy 18 with ventral wall defects and the slight increase in AFP in cases of sex chromosomal anomalies other than Turner's syndrome was found. AFP and total hCG are not likely to replace the markers free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in first trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Intrafollicular Endocrine Milieu After Addition of hCG to Recombinant FSH During Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, L L; Andersen, A Nyboe; Loft, A;

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: The role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) supplementation on the intrafollicular steroid milieu has been studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the impact on steroid levels in follicular fluids (FFs) after different doses of hCG supplementation to recombinant FSH...... protocol with recombinant FSH 150 IU/d and randomized from stimulation day 1 to supplementation with hCG: D0, 0 IU/d; D50, 50 IU/d; D100, 100 IU/d; and D150, 150 IU/d. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Intrafollicular hormone concentrations in relation to treatment groups, follicular sizes, and embryo quality were...... measured. RESULTS: In large follicles, hCG supplementation induced a nearly 3-fold increase of estradiol (nanomoles per liter) [D0: 1496; D50: 3138; D100: 4338; D150: 4009 (P

  4. H I in group interactions: HCG 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kelley M.; Cluver, M. E.; Yahya, Sahba; Leisman, Lukas; Serra, Paolo; Lucero, Danielle M.; Passmoor, Sean S.; Carignan, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Extending deep observations of the neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) to the environment around galaxy groups can reveal a complex history of group interactions which is invisible to studies that focus on the stellar component. Hickson Compact Group 44 (HCG 44) is a nearby example, and we have combined H I data from the Karoo Array Telescope, Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey, in order to achieve high column density sensitivity (N _{H {I}}<2× 10^{18} cm-2) to the neutral gas over a large field of view beyond the compact group itself. We find that the giant H I tail north of HCG 44 contains 1.1 × 109 M⊙ of gas and extends 450 kpc from the compact group: twice as much mass and 33 per cent further than previously detected. However, the additional gas is still unable to account for the known H I deficiency of HCG 44. The tail likely formed through a strong tidal interaction and H I clouds in the tail have survived for 1 Gyr or more after being stripped. This has important implications for understanding the survival of neutral clouds in the intragroup and circumgroup medium, and we discuss their survival in the context of simulations of cold gas in hot haloes. HCG 44 is one of a growing number of galaxy groups found to have more extended H I in the intragroup and circumgroup medium than previously measured. Our results provide constraints for simulations on the properties of galaxy group haloes, and reveal a glimpse of what will be seen by future powerful H I telescopes and surveys.

  5. H I in Group Interactions: HCG 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kelley M.; Cluver, M. E.; Yahya, Sahba; Leisman, Lukas; Serra, Paolo; Lucero, Danielle M.; Passmoor, Sean S.; Carignan, Claude

    2016-09-01

    Extending deep observations of the neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) to the environment around galaxy groups can reveal a complex history of group interactions which is invisible to studies that focus on the stellar component. Hickson Compact Group 44 (HCG 44) is a nearby example and we have combined H I data from the Karoo Array Telescope, Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey, in order to achieve high column density sensitivity (NHI gas over a large field-of-view beyond the compact group itself. We find the giant H I tail north of HCG 44 contains 1.1 × 109 M⊙ of gas and extends 450 kpc from the compact group: twice as much mass and 33% further than previously detected. However, the additional gas is still unable to account for the known H I deficiency of HCG 44. The tail likely formed through a strong tidal interaction and H I clouds in the tail have survived for 1 Gyr or more after being stripped. This has important implications for understanding the survival of neutral clouds in the intragroup and circumgroup medium, and we discuss their survival in the context of simulations of cold gas in hot halos. HCG 44 is one of a growing number of galaxy groups found to have more extended H I in the intragroup and circumgroup medium than previously measured. Our results provide constraints for simulations on the properties of galaxy group halos, and reveal a glimpse of what will be seen by future powerful H I telescopes and surveys.

  6. HI in Group Interactions: HCG 44

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Kelley M; Yahya, Sahba; Leisman, Lukas; Serra, Paolo; Lucero, Danielle M; Passmoor, Sean S; Carignan, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Extending deep observations of the neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) to the environment around galaxy groups can reveal a complex history of group interactions which is invisible to studies that focus on the stellar component. Hickson Compact Group 44 (HCG 44) is a nearby example and we have combined HI data from the Karoo Array Telescope, Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey, in order to achieve high column density sensitivity (N_HI < 2x10^18 cm^-2) to the neutral gas over a large field-of-view beyond the compact group itself. We find the giant HI tail north of HCG 44 contains 1.1x10^9 M_Sun of gas and extends 450 kpc from the compact group: twice as much mass and 33% further than previously detected. However, the additional gas is still unable to account for the known HI deficiency of HCG 44. The tail likely formed through a strong tidal interaction and HI clouds in the tail have survived for 1 Gyr or more after being stripped. This has important implications for understan...

  7. Maternal urinary beta-core hCG in chromosomally abnormal pregnancies in the first trimester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornman, LH; Morssink, LP; Wortelboer, MJM; Beekhuis, [No Value; DeWolf, BTHM; Pratt, JJ; Mantingh, A

    We evaluated urinary beta-core human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-core hCG) in the detection of fetal Down's syndrome (DS) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Urine was collected prior to performing chorionic villous sampling (CVS) between 10 and 12 completed weeks from the last menstrual period.

  8. Pre-evacuation hCG glycoforms in uneventful complete hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C.M.G.; Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Ariaens, H.J.; Steen, R. van der; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sweep, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the glycoform distribution patterns of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) obtained by chromatofocusing in pre-evacuation serum are different for patients who will eventually develop into persistent trophoblastic disease in case of complete hydatidiform mole

  9. Maternal urinary beta-core hCG in chromosomally abnormal pregnancies in the first trimester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornman, LH; Morssink, LP; Wortelboer, MJM; Beekhuis, [No Value; DeWolf, BTHM; Pratt, JJ; Mantingh, A

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated urinary beta-core human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-core hCG) in the detection of fetal Down's syndrome (DS) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Urine was collected prior to performing chorionic villous sampling (CVS) between 10 and 12 completed weeks from the last menstrual period. I

  10. Is maternal serum total hCG a marker of trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K; Berry, E; Crossley, J A; Aitken, D A; Nicolaides, K H

    2000-04-01

    In a study of 130 first trimester cases of trisomy 21 and 959 controls we have shown that the median MoM for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is lower (0.82) and that for total human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is higher (1.31) than in the control group. For AFP 15.3% of cases were below the 5th centile and for total hCG 19. 8% were above the 95th centile. The median shift observed for AFP and total hCG is poorer than that for pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) or free beta-hCG and together with maternal age, AFP and total hCG could only be expected to detect 40% of cases. In combination with PAPP-A, total hCG would identify 52% of cases, somewhat less than the 67% observed with free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. However, we have demonstrated for total hCG a significant temporal change in median MoM with gestational age. Before 70 days the median MoM was less than 0.5, between 70 and 83 days this increased to 1.13, and between 84 and 97 days this increased to 1.52. This median shift has significant implications for interpreting previous studies and even more significant implications for detection rates. When population parameters specific to the gestational age in question are used, detection rates with total hCG and PAPP-A increase from 47% at 70-83 days to 60% at 84-97 days. This observation explains much of the confusion around total hCG in the first trimester and shows the importance of selecting analyte pairs and population parameters appropriate to the time in gestation when screening is performed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Alternative Epac/cAMP Pathway and the MAPK Pathway Mediate hCG Induction of Leptin in Placental Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymó, Julieta Lorena; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Maskin, Bernardo; Dueñas, José Luis; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Sánchez Margalet, Víctor; Varone, Cecilia Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy, particularly in the placenta, where it works as an autocrine hormone. In this work, we demonstrated that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) added to JEG-3 cell line or to placental explants induces endogenous leptin expression. We also found that hCG increased cAMP intracellular levels in BeWo cells in a dose-dependent manner, stimulated cAMP response element (CRE) activity and the cotransfection with an expression plasmid of a dominant negative mutant of CREB caused a significant inhibition of hCG stimulation of leptin promoter activity. These results demonstrate that hCG indeed activates cAMP/PKA pathway, and that this pathway is involved in leptin expression. Nevertheless, we found leptin induction by hCG is dependent on cAMP levels. Treatment with (Bu)2cAMP in combination with low and non stimulatory hCG concentrations led to an increase in leptin expression, whereas stimulatory concentrations showed the opposite effect. We found that specific PKA inhibition by H89 caused a significant increase of hCG leptin induction, suggesting that probably high cAMP levels might inhibit hCG effect. It was found that hCG enhancement of leptin mRNA expression involved the MAPK pathway. In this work, we demonstrated that hCG leptin induction through the MAPK signaling pathway is inhibited by PKA. We observed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation increased when hCG treatment was combined with H89. In view of these results, the involvement of the alternative cAMP/Epac signaling pathway was studied. We observed that a cAMP analogue that specifically activates Epac (CPT-OMe) stimulated leptin expression by hCG. In addition, the overexpression of Epac and Rap1 proteins increased leptin promoter activity and enhanced hCG. In conclusion, we provide evidence suggesting that hCG induction of leptin gene expression in placenta is mediated not only by activation of the MAPK signaling pathway but also by the

  12. Polymorphisms of the bovine luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene and its association with superovulation traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Li, Shu-Jing; Chao, Lu-Ming; Yang, Li-Guo

    2012-03-01

    The major limitation to the development of embryo transfer technique in cattle is the highly variable between individuals in ovulatory response to FSH-induced superovulation. The objective of this study was to identify a predictor to forecast superovulation response on the basis of associations between superovulation performance and gene polymorphism, variation in the bovine luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene was investigated using PCR-single-strand conformational (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of G51656T, A51703G, A51726G and G51737A were identified at the intron 9 of the LHCGR gene in 171 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation, and evaluated its associations with superovulatory response. Association analysis showed that these four SNPs had significant effects on the total number of ova (TNO) (P superovulation response and can be used to predict the most appropriate dose of FSH for superovulation in Chinese Holstein cows.

  13. HCG induces β1,4-GalT I expression and promotes embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Xie, Yunpeng; Fan, Jianhui; Sui, Linlin; Xu, Yuefei; Zhang, Ningning; Ma, Yanni; Li, Yinghua; Kong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Embryo implantation is regarded as a critical physiological process for the success of pregnancy. There are so many reports on the research of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in artificial insemination, but the impact of HCG on endometrial receptivity has not been elucidated. Beta1, 4-Galactosyltransferase-I (β1,4-GalT-I) is ubiquitously expresses in human tissues with the exception of the brain. It not only transfers galactose from UDP-galactoside to GlcNAc to form Galβl,4-GlcNAc, but plays crucial role as cell adhesion molecule by recognizing and adhering other extracellular matrix and galactose of cell surface glycoprotein and glycolipid in cancer cells invasion and migration. The process of the embryos implantation is very similar to tumor invasion, so many biological factors participate in the tumor invasion also play a role in embryo implantation. We hypothesize that β1,4-GalT-I may take part in embryo implantation. In this study, we demonstrated that the over expression of β1,4-GalT-I was induced by HCG in RL95-2 cells. Moreover, the expression of some molecules, such as TIMP-1, LN and MMPs could be regulated by engineered expression of β1,4-GalT-I and therefore lead to the significantly alteration of adhesion capability of RL95-2 cells, even result in reduced adhesive ability between JAR cells and RL95-2 cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that HCG can obviously increase the EGFR signaling pathways-dependent molecular expression through β1,4-GalT-I, HCG also improved the adhesive ability between JAR cells and RL95-2 cells (PHCG provides a mechanism to bridge embryo to endometrium through β1,4-GalT.

  14. Endocrine effects of hCG supplementation to recombinant FSH throughout controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF: a dose–response study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Leif; Smitz, J; Loft, A;

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the endocrine response in relation to the Δ-4 and Δ-5 pathways of ovarian steroidogenesis after different doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) supplementation to recombinant FSH from Day 1 of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF.......To analyse the endocrine response in relation to the Δ-4 and Δ-5 pathways of ovarian steroidogenesis after different doses of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) supplementation to recombinant FSH from Day 1 of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF....

  15. Hepatic ethoxy-, methoxy- and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activities in Landrace and Duroc pigs stimulated with HCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaratskaia, G; Zlabek, V; Ropstad, E; Tajet, H; Andresen, Ø

    2010-12-01

    The effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation on the activities of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) and pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD) was studied in intact male pigs of purebred Landrace and Duroc breeds. Pigs were divided into four groups: two control groups of each breed, without hCG stimulation (n = 20 for each breed), and two experimental groups (n = 18 for each breed), with hCG stimulation (Pregnyl(®); N.V. Organon, Oss, The Netherlands, 30 IU/kg live weight). Pigs were slaughtered 3 days after hCG stimulation and enzyme activities were measured in hepatic microsomes using two approaches. First, only one substrate concentration was used for the analysis of each enzyme activity. We found that EROD activity was suppressed by hCG-stimulation in Landrace (p = 0.004), but not Duroc pigs (p > 0.05). Generally, EROD activity was higher in Duroc pigs compared with Landrace (p = 0.017). Methoxyresorufin O-demethylase and PROD activities did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). To further characterize EROD, MROD and PROD, enzyme kinetic studies were performed. V(max) values for EROD and MROD in both breeds were lower after hCG stimulation (p Landrace and p Landrace and Duroc pigs being higher in Duroc pigs (p < 0.05). We concluded that both hCG stimulation and breed differences may be important in the regulation of EROD and MROD activities. This study provides the first data on the effect of hCG stimulation and thus high testicular steroids, on EROD, MROD and PROD activities. Further studies are needed to investigate individual CYP450 enzymes and their regulation in porcine tissues.

  16. Mid-trimester maternal serum HCG and alpha fetal protein levels: clinical significance and prediction of adverse pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsopoulos, Georgios; Gkogkos, Panagiotis; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Maternal serum human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and Alpha Fetal Protein (AFP) were originally introduced to detect trisomy 21 and neural tube defects. However, in the absence of aneuploidy or neural tube defects, mid-trimester maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies with unexplained mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and/or maternal serum AFP, are at increased risk for pregnancy complications resulting from placental insufficiency. Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG>2.5 MoM associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death(IUFD). Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP levels >2.5 MoM are thought to reflect a defect in placentation and associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Combined mid-trimester elevation in maternal serum hCG and AFP levels suggest a more complex type of placental pathology. They have stronger association with pregnancy complications including: late fetal loss, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, IUGR, preterm delivery and IUFD. Mid-trimester maternal serum hCG or AFP levels alone cannot detect all pregnant women with increased risk to develop pregnancy complications. Multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester (maternal serum hCG and AFP screening, uterine artery Doppler and placental morphology) may allow us to identify women with increased risk to develop severe placental insufficiency and pregnancy complications. However, future prospective studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of multiparameter testing of placental function in mid-trimester.

  17. PLAC4 and beta-HCG mRNA levels are not altered in the maternal circulation of pregnancies with trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzola, Irina; Rusterholz, Corinne; Zannoni, Letizia; Rizzo, Nicola; Zhong, Xiao Yan; Caramelli, Elisabetta; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Farina, Antonio; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2008-12-01

    Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP-A) are placentally produced proteins whose levels are altered in pregnancies with trisomy 21. PLAC4 is located on chromosome 21 and its expression is restricted to the placenta. Here we investigated whether the levels of beta-HCG-, PAPP-A- and PLAC4 mRNA could be able to discriminate pregnancies whose fetus is affected by trisomy 21. Hundred and forty-three blood samples from normal pregnancies and eight samples from trisomic pregnancies were collected. Total RNA was extracted from whole maternal blood, reverse-transcribed and the three mRNAs were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Hundred and nine controls were also tested for the serum levels of PAPP-A and HCG proteins. Beta-HCG and PLAC4 mRNAs were detected in all samples, in higher amounts than in plasma, whereas the detection rate for PAPP-A mRNA was below 10%. The levels of beta-HCG mRNA significantly correlated with the circulatory concentrations of the HCG protein. However, neither beta-HCG- nor PLAC4 mRNAs show a significant difference between cases and controls. Maternal blood levels of beta-HCG-, PLAC4- and PAPP-A mRNAs are not useful markers for the screening of pregnancies with trisomy 21 as their concentrations are either not significantly altered (beta-HCG and PLAC4) or too low to be detected (PAPP-A).

  18. Rat epididymal epithelial cells and 17beta-estradiol synthesis under hCG stimulation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Marchlewicz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells of human and animal epididymis display features of steroidogenic cells. Rat epididymal epithelial cells in vitro produce androgens which are converted to 17beta-estradiol, and released into the medium. The regulation of the epididymal steroidogenesis is not fully understood but it could be expected that it remains under LH influence. In previous study we observed that the morphology of rat epididymal epithelial cells in vitro was affected by hCG and the increase of amount of lipid droplets, glycogen and PAS-positive substances was observed. The present studies show the organelles which take part in synthesis of steroids in rat epididymal epithelial cells in vitro and the effect of hCG on E2 synthesis. The cells were cultured in the medium with/without DHT and without DHT in supplementation with hCG. After hCG stimulation the amount of an active mitochondria were increased when compared to the amount of mitochondria in the epididymal epithelial cells cultured without DHT. Ultrastructure of the cells was similar to the cells cultured with DHT, while the cytoplasm of the cells cultured without DHT was disorganized. The synthesis of 17beta-estradiol was stimulated by hCG, that exerted its effect through LH/hCG receptors, localized in the epididymal epithelial cells.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of glycoprotein hormones in the presence of a large excess of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, B E; Oliveira, J E; Damiani, R; Dalmora, S L; Bartolini, P; Ribela, M T C P

    2012-04-07

    The present work describes reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic methodologies (RP-HPLC) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the human glycoprotein hormones thyrotropin (hTSH), follitropin (hFSH), choriogonadotropin (hCG) and lutropin (hLH) in the presence of a large excess (up to 250:1) of human serum albumin (HSA). Chromatographic profiles with a good separation between the hormone and HSA were obtained by using a C4 column and specific gradient elution conditions for each hormone. Parameters such as resolution factor, tailing factor and relative retention time, were determined, and are useful for the evaluation of the quality of the separation obtained between the active pharmaceutical ingredient and the excipient present in the final formulation. The potential of each method for quantification of both HSA and the hormone was also demonstrated. Besides furnishing chromatographic quantifications that can substitute for in vivo bioassays and animal use, the chromatograms also provide a direct panorama of the quality and heterogeneity of the protein of interest.

  20. Cannonball lung metastases as a presenting feature of ectopic hCG expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hsin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cannonball metastases refer to well-defined spherical nodules scattered over both lungs, being a classical presentation of hematogenous tumor spreading. Striking progression of lung metastases without established primary malignancy can raise a diagnostic challenge. We herein report three cases with cannonball metastases at initial presentation. Two patients ended up having a choriocarcinoma but no awareness of the presence of primary tumors, and the third had abrupt lung metastases of endometrial cancer while she was being asymptomatic. Relentless progression was illustrated by clinical and radiographic changes. Ectopic expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG would seemingly go some way responsible for fulminant cancer spreading associated with poor prognosis in our patients. The goal of this presentation is to raise awareness of ectopic hCG expression in patients presenting with similar astonishing scenarios.

  1. Abnormal hCG levels in a patient with treated stage I seminoma: a diagnostic dilemma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aherne, Noel J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report the case of a patient with treated Stage Ia seminoma who was found to have an elevated beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on routine follow - up. This instigated restaging and could have lead to commencement of chemotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a bodybuilder, and following a negative metastatic work - up, admitted to injecting exogenous beta hCG. This was done to reduce withdrawal symptoms from androgen abuse. The patient remains well eight years post diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the need for surgical oncologists to conduct vigilant screening of young male patients with a history of testicular germ cell tumours and who may indulge in steroid abuse.

  2. Abnormal hCG levels in a patient with treated stage I seminoma: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick David G

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the case of a patient with treated Stage Ia seminoma who was found to have an elevated beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG on routine follow – up. This instigated restaging and could have lead to commencement of chemotherapy. Case presentation The patient was a bodybuilder, and following a negative metastatic work – up, admitted to injecting exogenous beta hCG. This was done to reduce withdrawal symptoms from androgen abuse. The patient remains well eight years post diagnosis. Conclusion This case highlights the need for surgical oncologists to conduct vigilant screening of young male patients with a history of testicular germ cell tumours and who may indulge in steroid abuse.

  3. The Expression and Significance of CD44v6 and HCG in Endometrial Cancer%CD44v6和 HCG 在子宫内膜癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴光兰; 张燕华; 张铭艳

    2012-01-01

      目的检测 HCG 和 CD44v6在正常子宫内膜、子宫内膜不典型增生和不同分化程度子宫内膜癌组织中表达的不同,探讨 HCG 和 CD44v6与子宫内膜癌发生、发展的关系.方法采用免疫组织化学 SP 法,检测正常子宫内膜30例、子宫内膜不典型增生30例、不同分化程度子宫内膜癌38例中 HCG 和 CD44v6的表达.结果 CD44v6在正常子宫内膜组织、子宫内膜不典型增生、子宫内膜癌组织中的阳性表达分别为28.57%,58.33%,88.89%,三者比较差异有显著性;HCG 阳性表达分别为35.71%,66.67%,91.67%,三者比较差异亦有显著性(P <0.05).结论 CD44v6和 HCG 在正常子宫内膜、子宫内膜不典型增生及子宫内膜癌组织中的表达不同,可作为良性增生和子宫内膜癌鉴别的参考指标.%  Objective To detect the expression of CD44v6 and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in normal endometrium, endometrial atypical hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and investigate the development and prognosis of HCG and CD 44v6 in endome-tria1 carcinoma.Methods Expression of HCG and CD44v6 was assayed by immunohistochemistry in 30 cases with normal endometrium ,30 cases with endometrial atypical hyperplasia and 38 cases with endometrial carcinoma .Gold immunoelectron microscopy technique was used to detect espression of HCG and CD44v6 protein in endometrial carcinoma .Results The expression quantity of CD44v6 in normal endometri-um,endometrial atypical hyperplasia and cancer tissues were 28.57%,58.33%,88.89% respectively(P <0.05).The expression quantity of HCG were 35.71%,66.67%,91.67% respectively(P <0.05).Conclusion The immunohistochemical analysis show a trend toward in -creased HCG and CD44v6 expression in endometrial carcinoma and endometrial atypical hyperplasia compared to normal endometrium .HCG and CD44v6 may play an important role in tumor production of endometrial carcinoma .

  4. Effect of kisspeptin-10, LH and hCG on serum testosterone concentrations in stallions, donkeys and mules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Rana Waseem; Shah, Syed Aftab Hussain; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2017-07-21

    This study was conducted to determine the response of serum testosterone (T) in male equines (stallions, donkeys and mules) after administering intravenous doses of kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and saline as a control. The animals were divided into four groups of three each: Group I, 3 ml of 0.95% saline; Group II, 50 μg KP-10; Group III, 2500 IU hCG and group IV, 400 μg LH. The administration of KP-10 and hCG to stallions resulted in a significant increase in serum T concentration at 240 min; whereas it was significantly higher at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min with LH treatment as compared to pre-dose concentrations. Both KP-10 and hCG significantly elevated the T concentrations in donkeys at 120 and 240 min, respectively; whereas it was significantly higher at 60, 120, and 240 min with LH treatment as compared to pre-dose concentration. Both KP-10 and LH elevated T in donkeys at 240 min as compared to the control and hCG concentrations. After 120 and 240 min, T concentrations in mules were higher (p hCG and LH as compared to the control. In conclusion, the administration of KP-10, hCG and LH elevate the serum T concentration in normal male equines. It is suggested that KP-10 may be useful in situations where an increase in T is desired. Further work is required to determine the effect of KP-10 on T in male equids with reproductive abnormalities before it can be used in clinical situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal hCG concentrations in early IVF pregnancies: associations with number of cells in the Day 2 embryo and oocytes retrieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbo, T G; Eskild, A

    2015-12-01

    Do number of cells in the transferred cleavage stage embryo and number of oocytes retrieved for IVF influence maternal hCG concentrations in early pregnancies? Compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo, transfer of a 4-cell embryo results in higher hCG concentrations on Day 12 after transfer, and more than 20 oocytes retrieved were associated with low hCG concentrations. Maternal hCG concentration in very early pregnancy varies considerably among women, but is likely to be an indicator of time since implantation of the embryo into the endometrium, in addition to number and function of trophoblast cells. We followed 1047 pregnancies after IVF/ICSI from oocyte retrieval until Day 12 after embryo transfer. Women were recruited in Norway during the years 2005-2013. Successful pregnancies after transfer of one single embryo that had been cultured for 2 days were included. Maternal hCG was quantified on Day 12 after embryo transfer by chemiluminescence immunoassay, which measures intact hCG and the free β-hCG chain. Information on a successful pregnancy, defined as birth after >16 weeks, was obtained by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Transfer of a 4-cell embryo resulted in higher maternal hCG concentrations compared with transfer of a 2-cell embryo (134.8 versus 87.8 IU/l, P 20) was associated with low hCG concentrations (P hCG concentrations in early pregnancy. Although embryo transfer was performed at the same time after fertilization, we do not know the exact time of implantation. A further limitation to our study is that the number of pregnancies after transfer of a 2-cell embryo was small (27 cases). Number of cells in the transferred embryo and number of oocytes retrieved may influence the conditions and timing for embryo implantation in different ways and thereby influence maternal hCG concentrations. Such knowledge may be important for interpretation of hCG concentrations in early pregnancy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  6. Predictive value of CA125, VEGF,β-HCG in the early diagnosis of ectopic gestation and drug conservative treatment prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Shi; Shao-Hua Pei

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the predictive value of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) in the early diagnosis of ectopic gestation and its prognosis of the patients.Method:A total of 125 patients with ectopic gestation treated in our hospital from January 2015 to October 2015 were selected as the research object, and 120 patients with normal intrauterine pregnancy after routine physical examination were selected as the control group. The serum levels of CA125, VEGF,β-HCG in two groups were determined with ELISA.Results:The serum levels of CA125, VEGF in ectopic gestation group were significantly higher than control groups, while the level ofβ-HCG was lower than the normal control group. The levels of CA125, VEGF of effective group in patients with ectopic gestation were lower than ineffective group, while the level ofβ-HCG was higher than ineffective group. The detection area, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value under the ROC curve were greater than single index detection when combined the detection of serum CA125, VEGF,β-HCG.Conclusion:the detection of serum CA125, VEGF,β-HCG can be used as the evaluation index in the early diagnosis and prognosis of ectopic gestation, by combing various indexes detection to improve the clinical diagnosis accuracy for ectopic gestation, and the detection method is simple and fast that worth clinical promotion.

  7. Pulsatile GnRH Is Superior to hCG in Therapeutic Efficacy in Adolescent Boys With Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadodism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunxiu; Liu, Ying; Qin, Miao; Wu, Di; Wang, Xiaoling

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of two different treatments that have not been evaluated in peripuberty boys with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of GnRH or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment in adolescent boys with HH. Twelve patients received 8-10 μg of GnRH, sc injected every 90 minutes using a pump. Another 22 patients received hCG, injected im as follows: for the first 3 months, 1000 IU of hCG was injected two times per week and then once every other day for the next 3 months. The dose of hCG was increased to 2000 IU after a 6-month treatment and the above cycle was repeated for another 6 months. All patients were treated for 12-14 months and followed up every 3 months. Thirty-five participants were chosen from Beijing Children's Hospital from 2008 to 2014. Twenty-three patients with Kallmann syndrome and 12 with normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The age ranged from 10 to 16 years. Twelve patients were treated with pulsatile pump GnRH (group 1), and 22 patients were treated with im hCG (group 2). One patient was treated successively with hCG and GnRH, which was removed in data analysis. Testicular volume was measured by an orchidometer. The levels of T, LH, and FSH serum were measured with a chemiluminesent immunoassay. Bone age was measured by x-ray. Patients treated with GnRH showed larger testes than those treated with hCG. Patients in both groups showed a significantly increased length of penis and T levels. But the difference of the two groups was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in side effects in both groups. Boys with HH may be effectively treated with GnRH. We suggested that GnRH exhibits higher efficacy in treating adolescent boys with HH than hCG.

  8. [Precocious puberty due to HCG secreting pinealoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D

    The present report concerns a six years nine months old boy in whom a HCG secreting pineal tumor (pinealocytoma type I) was responsible for precocious puberty. Features : polydipsia, deepened voice, pubic hair, penile enlargement without corresponding testicular growth. Serum basal concentrations of LH (150 mU/ml), testosterone (85.80 nanomole/l), HCG (115 ng/ml) and its beta subunit (15 ng/ml) were markedly elevated, FSH was low (3.9 mU/ml) ] dissociated hypopituitarism was also present. A surgical removal of the tumor was performed (RIA of the neoplastic tissue revealed high HCG and beta HCG activity) and after the operation the child had radiation therapy. Recovery for the foregoing procedure was rapid, but after some months, in spite chemotherapy his condition deteriorated progressively. The apparent limitation of pinealoma and precocious puberty to the male sex is discussed and supposed to be partly the result of the ectopic gonadotropin secretion. These tumors are compared to other HCG secreting carcinomas located elsewhere in the body and causing sexual precocity in boys only.

  9. Star Formation in Hi Tails: HCG 92, HCG 100 and 6 Interacting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMello, D. F.; Urrutia-Viscarra, F.; MendesdeOliveira, C.; Torres-Flores, S.; Carrasco, E. R.; Cypriano, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present new Gemini spectra of 14 new objects found within the HI tails of Hickson Compact Groups 92 and 100. Nine of them are GALEX Far-UV (FUV) and Near-UV (NUV) sources. The spectra confirm that these objects are members of the compact groups and have metallicities close to solar, with an average value of 12+log(O/H)approx.8.5. They have average FUV luminosities 7 x 10(exp 40) erg/s, very young ages (HI tails, NGC 2623, NGC 3079, NGC 3359, NGC 3627, NGC 3718, NGC 4656. We found 35 UV sources with ages < 100 Myr, however most of them are on average less luminous/massive than the UV sources found around HCG 92 and 100. We speculate that this might be an environmental effect and that compact groups of galaxies are more favorable to TDG formation than other interacting systems.

  10. Development of a recombinant hCG-specific single chain immunotoxin cytotoxic to hCG expressing cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nand, Kripa N; Gupta, Jagdish C; Panda, A K; Jain, S K

    2015-02-01

    A large number of cancers express human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or its subunits ectopically. Patients harboring such cancers have poor prognosis and adverse survival. PiPP is a monoclonal antibody of high affinity and specificity for hCGβ/hCG. Work was carried out to develop a PiPP based recombinant immunotoxin for the immunotherapy of hCG expressing cancers. Recombinant PiPP antibody was constructed in scFv format in which gene encoding the VH and VL domains were joined through a linker. This scFv gene was fused to the gene expressing Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38), and cloned in a Escherichia coli based expression vector under the control of strong bacteriophage T7 promoter. Immunotoxin conjugating scFv(PiPP) and PE38, was expressed in E. coli as recombinant protein. Recombinant PiPP immunotoxin was purified from the bacterial cell lysate and tested for binding and killing of hCGβ expressing lymphoma, T-lymphoblastic leukemia and lung carcinoma cells in vitro. Immunotoxin showed nearly 90% killing on the cells. This is the first ever report on recombinant immunotoxin for binding and cytotoxicity to hCG expressing cancer cells, and thus can be a potential candidate for the immunotherapy of hCG expressing cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrafollicular endocrine milieu after addition of hCG to recombinant FSH during controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, L L; Andersen, A Nyboe; Loft, A; Smitz, J

    2014-02-01

    The role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) supplementation on the intrafollicular steroid milieu has been studied. The objective of the study was to assess the impact on steroid levels in follicular fluids (FFs) after different doses of hCG supplementation to recombinant FSH for controlled ovarian stimulation. This was a prospective randomized dose-response study conducted at Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. From 62 in vitro fertilization patients, 334 FFs were selected for analyses. Patients were treated using a GnRH agonist protocol with recombinant FSH 150 IU/d and randomized from stimulation day 1 to supplementation with hCG: D0, 0 IU/d; D50, 50 IU/d; D100, 100 IU/d; and D150, 150 IU/d. Intrafollicular hormone concentrations in relation to treatment groups, follicular sizes, and embryo quality were measured. In large follicles, hCG supplementation induced a nearly 3-fold increase of estradiol (nanomoles per liter) [D0: 1496; D50: 3138; D100: 4338; D150: 4009 (P D100: 72; D150: 56 (P D100 and the highest in D0. Large follicles giving rise to good-quality embryos had significantly higher estradiol and progesterone levels and estradiol to T, estradiol to androstenedione, and progesterone to estradiol ratios, compared with small follicles, leading to poor-quality embryos. Increasing doses of hCG supplementation markedly stimulated the intrafollicular concentration of both estradiol and androgens, with a shift toward a more androgenic milieu. In large follicles with oocytes giving rise to good-quality embryos, the FFs were significantly more estrogenic than in small follicles with oocytes developing into poor quality embryos.

  12. Detection of hCG Responsive Expression of the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein in Mouse Leydig Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Pulak R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein, a novel mitochondrial protein, is involved in the regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis through its mediation of the intramitochondrial transport of the steroid substrate, cholesterol, to the cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450scc enzyme. The expression of StAR protein is regulated by cAMP-dependent signaling in steroidogenic cells. During the course of our studies in mouse Leydig cells, we employ several methods for studying the regulation of StAR protein expression by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. A sensitive quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was utilized for determining StAR mRNA expression. Stimulation of mLTC-1 mouse Leydig tumor cells with hCG resulted in the coordinate regulation of StAR mRNA expression and progesterone accumulation in a time-response manner. The validity and accuracy of quantitative RT-PCR results in mLTC-1 cells were verified by a competitive PCR approach and were further confirmed in primary cultures of isolated mouse Leydig cells. Immunoblotting studies demonstrated an increase in the levels of the StAR protein in a concentration dependent manner following hCG stimulation in mLTC-1 cells. Northern hybridization analysis revealed three StAR transcripts, all of which were of sufficient size to encode functional StAR protein, and which were coordinately expressed in response to hCG. Collectively, the experimental approaches utilized in the present investigation allow for the demonstration and characterization of hCG mediated regulation of StAR mRNA and StAR protein expression in mouse Leydig cells.

  13. A 3D analysis of the metal distribution in the compact group of galaxies HCG 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Flores, Sergio; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Alfaro-Cuello, Mayte; Rodrigo Carrasco, Eleazar; de Mello, Duilia; Amram, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    We present new Gemini/GMOS integral field unit observations of the central region of the merging compact group of galaxies HCG 31. Using this data set, we derive the oxygen abundances for the merging galaxies HCG 31A and HCG 31C. We found a smooth metallicity gradient between the nuclei of these galaxies, suggesting a mixing of metals between these objects. These results are confirmed by high-resolution Fabry-Perot data, from which we infer that gas is flowing between HCG 31A and HCG 31C.

  14. Serum hCG Levels following the Ovulatory Injection: Associations with Patient Weight and Implantation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorhasan, Dorette J.; McGovern, Peter G.; Cho, Michael; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Ahmad, Khaliq; McCulloh, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To test if serum hCG levels the morning after the ovulatory hCG injection correlate with (1) retrieval efficiency, (2) oocyte maturity, (3) embryo quality, (4) pregnancy, and/or (5) time to implantation in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Design. Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting. University-based IVF clinic. Patient(s). All IVF/ICSI cycles from April 2005 to February 2008 whose hCG administration was confirmed (n = 472 patients). Intervention(s). Serum hCG was measured the morning following the ovulatory injection, on the 16th day following retrieval, and repeated on day 18 for those with positive results. Main Outcome Measure(s). Number of follicles on the day of hCG injection, number of oocytes retrieved, maturity of oocytes, embryo quality, pregnancy outcome, and time to implantation. Result(s). hCG levels did not correlate with retrieval efficiency, oocyte maturity, embryo quality, or pregnancy. Postinjection hCG levels were inversely associated with patient weight and time to implantation. Conclusion(s). No correlation was found between hCG level and any parameter of embryo quality. Patient weight affected hCG levels following hCG injection and during the early period of pregnancy following implantation. No association between postinjection hCG level and time of implantation (adjusted for patient weight) was apparent. PMID:26587025

  15. [Influence of hCG glycosylation on its functions in female reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborná, I; Fingerová, H

    2017-01-01

    To review contemporary knowledge of the hCG molecule, its isoforms and the importance of glycosylation. Biologic variants and glycoforms of hCG have different biological activities and functions related to the control of menstrual cycle, conception, gestation as well as gynaecologic and non-gynaecologic malignancies. A review. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Olomouc. To present own experience and an overview of recent literature in molecular biology, clinical biochemistry and clinical practice. Recent knowledge of the role of hCG glycosylation in physiologic and pathologic events in female organism will provide a better understanding of regulation of processes like ovulation (co-operation of pituitary hCG with LH), implantation and hemochorial placentation (invasivity of hyperglycosylated hCG). Some biologic variants and isoforms of hCG are important for the prediction of certain pathologies of pregnancy, prenatal screening of inborn errors (free beta hCG) as well as in the treatment of infertility.

  16. Association of a missense mutation in the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor gene (LHCGR) with superovulation traits in Chinese Holstein heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Upon binding luteinizing hormone in the ovary, the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) is necessary for follicular maturation and ovulation, as well as luteal function. We detected mutations in the LHCGR gene and evaluated their association with superovulation. Methods Using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing, we examined polymorphisms in LHCGR and the genotypes associated with superovulation traits in 127 Chinese Holstein heifers. Results A G/T polymorphism (ss52050737) in exon 11 was significantly associated with the total number of ova and the number of transferable embryos. Conclusions LHCGR may be a new predictor for superovulation in Chinese Holstein heifers. PMID:23140330

  17. Human choriogonadotropin binds to a lutropin receptor with essentially no N-terminal extension and stimulates cAMP synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, I H; Ji, T H

    1991-07-15

    The lutropin (LH) receptor, which belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors, consists of an extracellular hydrophilic N-terminal extension of 341 amino acids and a membrane-embedded C-terminal region of 333 amino acids. This C-terminal region comprises a short N terminus, seven transmembrane domains, three cytoplasmic loops, three exoplasmic loops, and a C terminus. Recently, it was reported that the N-terminal extension of the LH receptor alone or a naturally occurring variant LH receptor similar to the N-terminal extension is capable of binding the hormone with an affinity slightly higher than that of the native receptor. This finding raises a question as to whether the N-terminal extension represents the entire hormone binding site and, if so, how is hormone binding transduced to the activation of a G-protein? In an attempt to answer this important question, we have prepared truncated receptors containing an N-terminal extension as short as 10 amino acids. Surprisingly, the truncated receptors were not only capable of binding the hormone, albeit with low affinities, but also capable of stimulating cAMP synthesis. These results suggest a possibility that the hormone, at least in part, interacts with the membrane-embedded C-terminal region and modulates it to activate adenylate cyclase. The low hormone binding affinities of the truncated receptors taken together with high affinity hormone binding to the N-terminal extension of the LH receptor indicate the existence of two or more contact points between the receptor and the hormone.

  18. Short-term androgen priming by use of aromatase inhibitor and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lossl, K; Andersen, C Yding; Loft, A;

    2008-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may augment follicular responsiveness. The present study tested whether short-term androgen priming by aromatase inhibitor and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) before controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) increases the number of top...

  19. Analytical sensitivity of four commonly used hCG point of care devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamer, Sandy M; Foley, Kevin F; Schmidt, Robert L; Greene, Dina N

    2015-04-01

    Point of care (POC) hCG assays are often used to rule-out pregnancy and therefore diagnostic sensitivity, especially at low concentrations of hCG, is important. There are very few studies in the literature that seek to verify the claimed analytical sensitivity of hCG POC devices. The analytical sensitivity of four commonly used hCG POC devices (Alere hCG Combo Cassette, ICON 20 hCG, OSOM hCG Combo Test, and Sure-Vue Serum/Urine hCG-STAT) was challenged using urine samples (n=50) selected based on quantitative hCG concentrations. The majority of these specimens (n=40) had an hCG concentration between 20 and 200 U/L. Each specimen/device combination was reviewed by three individuals. Statistical calculations were performed using Stata 12. The analytical sensitivity of the OSOM was significantly lower inferior than that of the other POC devices. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of the Alere, ICON 20 and Sure-Vue devices. There was no significant difference in the individual interpretation of the hCG POC results. All hCG POC devices evaluated in this study were susceptible to false negative results at low concentrations of urine hCG. Laboratorians and clinicians should be aware that there are limitations when using urine hCG POC devices to rule out early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hyperprolactinemia induced by hCG leads to metabolic disturbances in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Laura D; Stevens, Guillermina; Bonaventura, Maria Marta; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A; Poutanen, Matti; Calandra, Ricardo S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Rulli, Susana B

    2016-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a growing epidemic; it increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, fatty liver, and several cancers. Several reports have indicated a link between hormonal imbalances and insulin resistance or obesity. Transgenic (TG) female mice overexpressing the human chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit (hCGβ+ mice) exhibit constitutively elevated levels of hCG, increased production of testosterone, progesterone and prolactin, and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hCG hypersecretion on possible alterations in the glucose and lipid metabolism of adult TG females. We evaluated fasting serum insulin, glucose, and triglyceride levels in adult hCGβ+ females and conducted intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests at different ages. TG female mice showed hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia, as well as glucose intolerance and insulin resistance at 6 months of age. A 1-week treatment with the dopamine agonist cabergoline applied on 5-week-old hCGβ+ mice, which corrected hyperprolactinemia, hyperandrogenism, and hyperprogesteronemia, effectively prevented the metabolic alterations. These data indicate a key role of the hyperprolactinemia-induced gonadal dysfunction in the metabolic disturbances of hCGβ+ female mice. The findings prompt further studies on the involvement of gonadotropins and prolactin on metabolic disorders and might pave the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Identification of patients with persistent trophoblastic disease after complete hydatidiform mole by using a normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cromvoirt, Suzanne M E; Thomas, Chris M G; Quinn, Michael A; McNally, Orla M; Bekkers, Ruud L M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a reference 24-hour urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curve in patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) as diagnostic tool in the prediction of persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). From 2004 to 2011, 312 cases suitable for this study were registered at the Hydatidiform Mole Registry of the Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne, Australia. hCG levels of 61 patients diagnosed as having PTD according to FIGO 2000 criteria were compared with the 95th-percentile (p95) of the normal regression curve derived from hCG levels of 251 cases of uneventful CHM. In the test group of 61 patients PTD was diagnosed by FIGO 2000 criteria after a mean (±SD, min.-max.) of 7.6 (±3.4, 3.0-16.7) weeks after evacuation of the mole while in the same group hCG values for the first time exceeded the upper limit of the 95th percentile significantly earlier after 4.5 (±1.9, 2.0-9.9) weeks (PhCG levels of 14% of the cases of uneventful CHM at least once exceeded the upper limit of p95, showing that one single value above p95 is not accurate enough for the diagnosis of PTD. The normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve may be used as a tool in the follow-up of an individual case of CHM after evacuation. At least one hCG level exceeding the upper limit of p95 within 11weeks after evacuation could be added to the current FIGO criteria, in order to diagnose PTD early, but the lack of it may also prevent unnecessary treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical significance of detecting CEA, CA199, AFP, HCG, CA153, CA125 in postoperative treatment of patients with ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Pan; Zhen-Hua Du

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical significance of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), a tire protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) in the postoperative treatment of patients with ovarian cancer.Methods:210 cases of patients with ovarian cancer after initial treatment from January 2015 to December 2015, 232 cases of patients with ovarian benign tumor and 250 cases of healthy women were selected, CEA, CA199, AFP, HCG, CA153 and CA125 levels were detected, and the levels after chemotherapy in patients with ovarian carcinoma were detected.Results:CEA, CA199, AFP, HCG, CA153 and CA125 levels in patients with ovarian cancer were (12.37±7.43) ng/mL, (84.04±26.96) U/mL, (37.46±9.47) μg/L, (110.54±35.51) IU/L, (51.23±9.20) U/mL and (64.36±42.68) U/mL, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in normal controls and patients with benign ovarian lesions, and were considered to be statistically significant. Chemotherapy after two cycles, CEA, CA199, AFP, HCG, CA153 and CA125 levels in patients with ovarian cancer were significantly lower than that before chemotherapy, and were considered to be statistically different. Chemotherapy after four cycles, CEA, CA199, AFP, HCG, CA153 and CA125 levels in patients with ovarian cancer continue to decrease, and were significantly lower than that of chemotherapy after two cycles, and had statistical differences.Conclusion:CEA, CA199, AFP, HCG, CA153 and CA125 can be used as important indicators for monitoring the chemotherapy effects, early recurrence and metastasis of ovarian cancer.

  3. The impact of different time intervals between hCG priming and oocyte retrieval on ART outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Bahadori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal oocyte morphology has been associated with the hormonal environment to which the gametes are exposed. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the oocytes morphology, fertilization rate, embryos quality, and implantation rate resulted of retrieved oocytes in different times after human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG administration. Materials and Methods: A total of 985 metaphase II oocytes were retrieved 35, 36, 37 and 38 h after the injection of HCG as groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Oocyte morphology was divided into (I normal morphology, (II extracytoplasmic abnormalities, (III cytoplasmic abnormalities and (IV intracytoplasmic vacuoles and in each group, oocytes were evaluated according to this classification. Results: Extracytoplasmic abnormalities were encountered in 17.76% and 31.1% of these oocytes (groups 3 and 4 respectively, p=0.007 in comparison with 12.23% group 2. Cytoplasmic abnormalities in group 4 were higher than other groups. 23.88% (p=0.039 and 43.25% (p=0.089 of resulted 2PN (two pronucleus from groups 3 and 4 showed grade Z3 respectively in comparison to group 2 (16.44%. Normal and various categories of abnormal oocytes did not differ regarding fertilization and cleavage rates (p=0.061. However, group 4 showed significant difference in the rate of embryos fragmentation (grade III and IV embryo in comparison with group 2 (40.96% vs. 24.93%, p=0.078. The pregnancy rate was higher in G2 and G3 groups (28.5 and 24.13% respectively. Conclusion: Oocyte retrieval time following HCG priming affected on oocyte morphology, 2PN pattern and embryos qualities subsequently. Both good quality embryo formation and pregnancy outcomes were noticeably higher when oocytes were retrieved 36 h after HCG priming in ART program.

  4. Analytical and Clinical Validation of the Immulite 1000 hCG Assay for Quantitative Analysis in Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, Frances L.; Moffett, Courtney; Gronowski, Ann M.; Grenache, David G.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Woodworth, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background The Siemens Immulite hCG assay detects all major hCG variants in serum. Currently, this assay is only FDA approved for qualitative measurement of hCG in urine. Methods Complete validation of the hCG assay in urine was performed on the Siemens Immulite 1000 immunoassay platform. Reference intervals were established for females hCG assay was precise for measuring hCG in urine from pregnant patients with intra- and inter-assay imprecision of hCG and hCGβ respectively. The assay was non-linear for hCGβcf. No hook effect was observed at concentrations up to 1,200,000 pmol/l, for hCGβ or hCGβcf. The reference intervals were hCG assay can accurately quantify hCG in urine. PMID:23470427

  5. The molecular relationship between antigenic domains and epitopes on hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Peter; Lapthorn, Adrian J

    2016-08-01

    Antigenic domains are defined to contain a limited number of neighboring epitopes recognized by antibodies (Abs) but their molecular relationship remains rather elusive. We thoroughly analyzed the antigenic surface of the important pregnancy and tumor marker human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a cystine knot (ck) growth factor, and set antigenic domains and epitopes in molecular relationships to each other. Antigenic domains on hCG, its free hCGα and hCGβ subunits are dependent on appropriate inherent molecular features such as molecular accessibility and protrusion indices that determine bulging structures accessible to Abs. The banana-shaped intact hCG comprises ∼7500Å(2) of antigenic surface with minimally five antigenic domains that encompass a continuum of overlapping non-linear composite epitopes, not taking into account the C-terminal peptide extension of hCGβ (hCGβCTP). Epitopes within an antigenic domain are defined by specific Abs, that bury nearly 1000Å(2) of surface accessible area on the antigen and recognize a few up to 15 amino acid (aa) residues, whereby between 2 and 5 of these provide the essential binding energy. Variability in Ab binding modes to the contact aa residues are responsible for the variation in affinity and intra- and inter-species specificity, e.g. cross-reactions with luteinizing hormone (LH). Each genetically distinct fragment antigen binding (Fab) defines its own epitope. Consequently, recognition of the same epitope by different Abs is only possible in cases of genetically identical sequences of its binding sites. Due to combinatorial V(D)J gene segment variability of heavy and light chains, Abs defining numerous epitopes within an antigenic domain can be generated by different individuals and species. Far more than hundred Abs against the immuno-dominant antigenic domains of either subunit at both ends of the hCG-molecule, the tips of peptide loops one and three (Ł1+3) protruding from the central ck, encompassing h

  6. Cross-talk between cAMP and MAPK pathways in HSD11B2 induction by hCG in placental trophoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Shu

    Full Text Available Overexposure of the fetus to glucocorticoids in gestation is detrimental to fetal development. The passage of maternal glucocorticoids into the fetal circulation is governed by 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (HSD11B2 in the placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG plays an important role in maintaining placental HSD11B2 expression via activation of the cAMP pathway. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the activation of the cAMP pathway by hCG and subsequent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts. We found that treatment of the placental syncytiotrophoblasts with either hCG or dibutyl cAMP (dbcAMP could promote the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 not only reduced the basal HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels but also attenuated HSD11B2 levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. By contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 with PD98059 increased the basal mRNA and protein levels of HSD11B2 and had no effect on HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is involved in both basal and hCG/cAMP-induced expression of HSD11B2, and ERK1/2 may play a role opposite to p38 MAPK at least in the basal expression of HSD11B2 in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts and that there is complicated cross-talk between hCG/cAMP and MAPK cascades in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression.

  7. Biological functions of hCG and hCG-related molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Laurence A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background hCG is a term referring to 4 independent molecules, each produced by separate cells and each having completely separate functions. These are hCG produced by villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG produced by cytotrophoblast cells, free beta-subunit made by multiple primary non-trophoblastic malignancies, and pituitary hCG made by the gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. Results and discussion hCG has numerous functions. hCG promotes progesterone production by corpus luteal cells; promotes angiogenesis in uterine vasculature; promoted the fusion of cytotrophoblast cell and differentiation to make syncytiotrophoblast cells; causes the blockage of any immune or macrophage action by mother on foreign invading placental cells; causes uterine growth parallel to fetal growth; suppresses any myometrial contractions during the course of pregnancy; causes growth and differentiation of the umbilical cord; signals the endometrium about forthcoming implantation; acts on receptor in mother's brain causing hyperemesis gravidarum, and seemingly promotes growth of fetal organs during pregnancy. Hyperglycosylated hCG functions to promote growth of cytotrophoblast cells and invasion by these cells, as occurs in implantation of pregnancy, and growth and invasion by choriocarcinoma cells. hCG free beta-subunit is produced by numerous non-trophoblastic malignancies of different primaries. The detection of free beta-subunit in these malignancies is generally considered a sign of poor prognosis. The free beta-subunit blocks apoptosis in cancer cells and promotes the growth and malignancy of the cancer. Pituitary hCG is a sulfated variant of hCG produced at low levels during the menstrual cycle. Pituitary hCG seems to mimic luteinizing hormone actions during the menstrual cycle.

  8. Biological functions of hCG and hCG-related molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background hCG is a term referring to 4 independent molecules, each produced by separate cells and each having completely separate functions. These are hCG produced by villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, hyperglycosylated hCG produced by cytotrophoblast cells, free beta-subunit made by multiple primary non-trophoblastic malignancies, and pituitary hCG made by the gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. Results and discussion hCG has numerous functions. hCG promotes progesterone production by corpus luteal cells; promotes angiogenesis in uterine vasculature; promoted the fusion of cytotrophoblast cell and differentiation to make syncytiotrophoblast cells; causes the blockage of any immune or macrophage action by mother on foreign invading placental cells; causes uterine growth parallel to fetal growth; suppresses any myometrial contractions during the course of pregnancy; causes growth and differentiation of the umbilical cord; signals the endometrium about forthcoming implantation; acts on receptor in mother's brain causing hyperemesis gravidarum, and seemingly promotes growth of fetal organs during pregnancy. Hyperglycosylated hCG functions to promote growth of cytotrophoblast cells and invasion by these cells, as occurs in implantation of pregnancy, and growth and invasion by choriocarcinoma cells. hCG free beta-subunit is produced by numerous non-trophoblastic malignancies of different primaries. The detection of free beta-subunit in these malignancies is generally considered a sign of poor prognosis. The free beta-subunit blocks apoptosis in cancer cells and promotes the growth and malignancy of the cancer. Pituitary hCG is a sulfated variant of hCG produced at low levels during the menstrual cycle. Pituitary hCG seems to mimic luteinizing hormone actions during the menstrual cycle. PMID:20735820

  9. Her2+ and b-HCG Producing Undifferentiated Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivaz-Mohammadi, Sahar; Gonzalez-Ibarra, Fernando; Abdul, Waheed; Tarar, Omer; Malik, Khurram; Syed, Amer K

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old Hispanic female with a history of anemia, schizoaffective disorder, and psychosis was admitted for anemia associated with fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, night sweats, weight loss, and abdominal and lower back pain for the past two months. On routine management, she was found to have a positive serum b-HCG of 80.4 (0-5 mIU/mL) but the patient denied any sexual activity in her life. During her admission, U/S of the pelvis was noncontributory. CT angiogram of the chest was significant for prominent mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes, diffusely thickened stomach suggesting gastric malignancy with multiple hypoenhancing lesions in the liver and diffuse lytic lesions in the spine and sacrum suspicious for metastatic disease. The MRI of the abdomen confirmed the CT angiogram findings. After these findings, EGD was performed which showed lesions in the antrum, body of the stomach, fundus, and cardia on the lesser curvature of the stomach body correlating with carcinoma. The biopsy was positive for Her2, b-HCG producing poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent one successful round of chemotherapy with Taxotene, Cisplatin, and 5-FU for Stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma.

  10. hCG in screening for aneuploidy: a possible role for its glycoforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, S; Leguy, M C; Bruneel, A; Fournier, T; Anselem, O; Guibourdenche, J

    2014-06-01

    Fetal trisomy 21 is associated with elevated maternal serum hCG and its free beta-subunit (hCG-beta) in vivo, and abnormal placental hCG production and glycosylation in vitro. Other maternal serum markers may also be disrupted in major aneuploidies (T21, T18, T13). We evaluated our aneuploidy screening practices, focusing on hCG-beta and hCG glycoforms, and retrospectively analyzed 55 aneuploidy cases diagnosed over a 2 year period, determining maternal serum hCG glycoforms profiles using 2D-electrophoresis. Screening efficiency reached 96.7%. T21 was associated with elevated hCG-beta while T18 presented with diminished serum markers. hCG glycoforms tended to be basic in aneuploidy (mainly T13). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photonic heterostructure High Contrast Grating as a novel polarization control and light confinement system in HCG VCSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebski, M.; Dems, M.; Chen, J.; Qijie, W.; Dao Hua, Z.; Czyszanowski, T.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present results of computer optical simulations of VCSEL with modified high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) as a top mirror. We consider the HCG of two different designs which determine the lateral aperture. Such HCG mirror provides selective guiding effect. We show that proper design of aperture of HCG results in almost sixfold increase in cavity Q-factor for zero order mode and a discrimination of higher order modes.

  12. GnRHa trigger and individualized luteal phase hCG support according to ovarian response to stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Polyzos, N P; Alsbjerg, B

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger followed by a bolus of 1.500 IU hCG in a group of patients at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) reduce the OHSS incidence compared with hCG trigger? SUMMARY ANSWER: A GnRHa trigger followed by early luteal hCG support with one bolus...

  13. Influences of β-HCG administration on carbon isotope ratios of endogenous urinary steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Thomas; Baume, Norbert; Strahm, Emanuel; Emery, Caroline; Saugy, Martial

    2012-05-01

    Several factors influencing the carbon isotope ratios (CIR) of endogenous urinary steroids have been identified in recent years. One of these should be the metabolism of steroids inside the body involving numerous different enzymes. A detailed look at this metabolism taking into account differences found between steroids excreted as glucuronides or as sulphates and hydrogen isotope ratios of different steroids pointed out possibility of unequal CIR at the main production sites inside the male body - the testes and the adrenal glands. By administration of β-HCG it is possible to strongly stimulate the steroid production within the testes without influencing the production at the adrenal glands. Therefore, this treatment should result in changed CIR of urinary androgens in contrast to the undisturbed pre-treatment values. Four male volunteers received three injections of β-HCG over a time course of 5 days and collected their urine samples at defined intervals after the last administration. Those samples showing the largest response in contrast to the pre-administration urines were identified by steroid profile measurements and subsequent analysed by GC/C/IRMS. CIR of androsterone, etiocholanolone, testosterone, 5α- and 5β-androstanediol and pregnanediol were compared. While pregnanediol was not influenced, most of the investigated androgens showed depleted values after treatment. The majority of differences were found to be statistically significant and nearly all showed the expected trend towards more depleted δ(13)C-values. These results support the hypothesis of different CIR at different production sites inside the human body. The impact of these findings on doping control analysis will be discussed.

  14. Impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A K; Dhaliwal, G S; Ghuman, S P S; Agarwal, S K

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to establish the impact of buserelin acetate or hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation on subsequent luteal profile and conception rate in buffalo. The buffalo (n=45) were subjected to an estrous synchronization protocol (synthetic analog of PGF2α administered, through intramuscular route, 11 days apart), followed by artificial insemination (AI) during mid to late estrus. On day 5 post-ovulation, buffalo were administered (i.m.) normal saline (Control, n=14), buserelin acetate (20μg, d5-BA, n=14) or human chorionic gonadotropin (3000IU, d5-hCG, n=17). Ovarian ultrasonography was conducted on the day of induced estrus and on days 0, 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to assess preovulatory follicle or corpus luteum (CL) diameter. Also, on these days, jugular vein blood sampling was conducted for the estimation of plasma progesterone. First service conception rate was greater (χ(2)=5.18, P>0.05) in d5-BA and d5-hCG groups (71.4% and 47.1%, respectively) as compared to control (28.6%). Both treatment groups had a greater (Ppost-treatment period in comparison to that control treatment group. Treatment-induced accessory CL formation was observed in 92.9% and 76.5% buffalo of d5-BA and d5-hCG groups, respectively. In conclusion, buserelin acetate and hCG administration on day 5 post-ovulation leads to accessory CL formation that may have a role in enhancing conception rate.

  15. The effect of intrauterine HCG injection on IVF outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, A; Pundir, J; Elsherbini, M; Dave, S; El-Toukhy, T; Khalaf, Y

    2016-09-01

    In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effect of intrauterine HCG infusion before embryo transfer on IVF outcomes (live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate and spontaneous aboretion rate) was investigated. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Randomized studies in women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection comparing intrauterine HCG administration at embryo transfer compared with no intrauterine HCG were eligible for inclusion. Eight randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 3087 women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were enrolled (intrauterine HCG group: n = 1614; control group: n = 1473). No significant difference was found in the live birth rate (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.53) and spontaneous abortion rate (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34) between women who received intrauterine HCG and those who did not receive HCG. Although this review was extensive and included randomized controlled trials, no significant heterogeneity was found, and the overall included numbers are relatively small. In conclusion the current evidence does not support the use of intrauterine HCG administration before embryo transfer. Well-designed multicentre trials are needed to provide robust evidence.

  16. Evaluation and significance of hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG) in liquid-based paps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivukula, Mamatha; Austin, R Marshall; Shidham, Vinod B

    2007-01-01

    Objective Hyperchromatic crowded groups (HCG), a term first introduced into the cytology literature by DeMay in 1995, are commonly observed in Pap tests and may rarely be associated with serious but difficult to interpret lesions. In this study, we specifically defined HCG as dark crowded cell groups with more than 15 cells which can be identified at 10× screening magnification. Methods We evaluated consecutive liquid-based (Surepath) Pap tests from 601 women (age 17–74 years, mean age 29.4 yrs) and observed HCG in 477 cases. In all 477 HCG cases, Pap tests were found to be satisfactory and to contain an endocervical sample. HCG were easily detectible at 10× screening magnification (size up to 400 um, mean 239.5 um) and ranged from 1 to 50 (mean 19.5) per Pap slide. Results HCG predominantly represented 3-Dimensional groups of endocervical cells with some nuclear overlap (379/477 – 79%), reactive endocervical cells with relatively prominent nucleoli and some nuclear crowding (29/477 – 6%), clusters of inflammatory cells (25/477 – 5.2%), parabasal cells (22/477 – 4.6%), endometrial cells (1/477 – 0.2%). Epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) were present in only 21 of 477 cases (4.6%). 18 of 21 women with HCG-associated ECA were less than 40 years old; only 3 were =/> 40 years. HCG-associated final abnormal Pap test interpretations were as follows: ASCUS (6/21 – 28%), LSIL (12/21 – 57%), ASC-H (2/21 – 9.5%), and HSIL/CIN2-3 (3/21 – 14%). The association of HCG with ECA was statistically significant (p = 0.0174. chi-square test). In patients with ECA, biopsy results were available in 10 cases, and 4 cases of biopsy-proven CIN2/3 were detected. Among these four cases, HCG in the Pap tests, in retrospect represented the lesional high grade cells in three cases (one HSIL case and two ASC-H cases). Interestingly, none of the 124 cases without HCG were found to have an epithelial cell abnormality. Conclusion We conclude: a. HCG are observed in a high

  17. 人绒毛膜促性腺激素诱发排卵的优缺点%Advantage and disadvantage of hCG trigger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文红; 梁晓燕

    2012-01-01

    The midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) is absolutely required for final maturation of the oocyte, initiation of follicular rupture and corpus luteum function. Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) or GnRH analogue (GnRH-a) is used for final oocyte maturation in assisted conception cycles. Which one is used usually depends on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocol with different hypothalamus-pituitary condition. hCG trigger induces better luteum function, pregnancy rate, hut higher ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). GnRH-a causes lower OHSS with impaired pregnant and miscarriage rate, which could he improved hy intensity luteum supply. We do not recommend that GnRH agonists are routinely used as a final oocyte maturation trigger in fresh autologous cycles because of lowered ongoing pregnancy and live hirth rates. An exception could he made for women with high risk of OHSS.

  18. Galaxy interactions in compact groups - II. Abundance and kinematic anomalies in HCG 91c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Heckman, Timothy M.; Yun, Min S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2015-07-01

    Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 91 (HCG 91) were observed with the WiFeS integral field spectrograph as part of our ongoing campaign targeting the ionized gas physics and kinematics inside star-forming members of compact groups. Here, we report the discovery of H II regions with abundance and kinematic offsets in the otherwise unremarkable star-forming spiral HCG 91c. The optical emission line analysis of this galaxy reveals that at least three H II regions harbour an oxygen abundance ˜0.15 dex lower than expected from their immediate surroundings and from the abundance gradient present in the inner regions of HCG 91c. The same star-forming regions are also associated with a small kinematic offset in the form of a lag of 5-10 km s-1 with respect to the local circular rotation of the gas. H I observations of HCG 91 from the Very Large Array and broad-band optical images from Pan-STARRS (Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System) suggest that HCG 91c is caught early in its interaction with the other members of HCG 91. We discuss different scenarios to explain the origin of the peculiar star-forming regions detected with WiFeS, and show that evidence points towards infalling and collapsing extraplanar gas clouds at the disc-halo interface, possibly as a consequence of long-range gravitational perturbations of HCG 91c from the other group members. As such, HCG 91c provides evidence that some of the perturbations possibly associated with the early phase of galaxy evolution in compact groups impact the star-forming disc locally, and on sub-kpc scales.

  19. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone: a proof of concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Laursen, Rita Jakubcionyte; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter

    2015-10-01

    inconvenient exogenous progesterone preparation. Further hCG may reduce the cost of stimulation and may collectively be used for stimulation of the follicular phase, ovulation induction and for luteal phase support. An unrestricted grant from ARTS Biologics made this study possible. None of the authors has any competing interests to declare. ClinicalTrial.gov number: NCT01504139. 28 December 2011. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An open-label clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG in adult men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc G; Stegmann, Barbara J; Shankar, R Ravi; Guan, Yanfen; Tzontcheva, Anjela; McCrary Sisk, Christine; Behre, Hermann M

    2017-03-07

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in men results in insufficient testicular function and deficiencies in testosterone and spermatogenesis. Combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (recFSH) have been successful in the treatment of HH. Corifollitropin alfa is a long-acting FSH-analog with demonstrated action in women seeking infertility care. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG to increase testicular volume and induce spermatogenesis in men with HH. This was a Phase III, multi-center, open-label, single-arm trial of corifollitropin alfa in azoospermic men aged 18 to 50 years with HH. After 16 weeks of pretreatment of 23 subjects with hCG alone, 18 subjects with normalized testosterone (T) levels who remained azoospermic entered the 52-week combined treatment phase with hCG twice-weekly and 150 μg corifollitropin alfa every other week. The increase in testicular volume (primary efficacy endpoint) and induction of spermatogenesis resulting in a sperm count ≥1 × 10(6)/mL (key secondary efficacy endpoint) during 52 weeks of combined treatment were assessed. Safety was evaluated by the presence of anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs). Mean (±SD) testicular volume increased from 8.6 (±6.09) mL to 17.8 (±8.93) mL (geometric mean fold increase, 2.30 [95% CI: 2.03, 2.62]); 14 (77.8%) subjects reached a sperm count ≥1 × 10(6)/mL. No subject developed confirmed anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies during the trial. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Corifollitropin alfa 150 μg administrated every other week combined with twice-weekly hCG for 52 weeks increased testicular volume significantly, and induced spermatogenesis in >75% of men with HH who had remained azoospermic after hCG treatment alone. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01709331 .

  1. Maternal plasma levels of cell-free β-HCG mRNA as a prenatal diagnostic indicator of placenta accrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Li, J; Yan, P; Ye, Y H; Peng, W; Wang, S; Wang, X Tong

    2014-09-01

    Several biomarkers, including maternal serum creatinine kinase and α-fetoprotein, have been described as potential tools for the diagnosis of placental abnormalities. This study aimed to determine whether maternal plasma mRNA levels of the β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) could predict placenta accreta prenatally. Sixty-eight singleton pregnant women with prior cesarean deliveries (CDs) were classified into three groups: normal placentation (35 women, control group); placenta previa alone (21 women, placenta previa group); and both placenta previa and placenta accreta (12 women, placenta previa/accreta group). Maternal plasma concentrations of cell-free β-HCG mRNA were measured by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM). Cell-free β-HCG mRNA concentrations (MoM, range) were significantly higher in women with placenta accreta (3.65, 2.78-7.19) than in women with placenta previa (0.94, 0.00-2.97) or normal placentation (1.00, 0.00-2.69) (Steel-Dwass test, P placenta previa/accreta group, the concentration of cell-free β-HCG mRNA was significantly higher among women who underwent CDs with hysterectomy (4.41, 3.49-7.19) than among women whose CDs did not result in hysterectomy (3.20, 2.78-3.70) (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.012). An increased level of cell-free β-HCG mRNA in the maternal plasma of women with placenta accreta may arise from direct uteroplacental transfer of cell-free placental mRNA molecules. The concentration of cell-free β-HCG mRNA in maternal plasma may be applicable to the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta, especially to identify women with placenta accreta likely to require hysterectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Galaxy Interactions in Compact Groups II: abundance and kinematic anomalies in HCG 91c

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, F P A; Borthakur, S; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Heckman, T M; Yun, M S; Chambers, K C

    2015-01-01

    Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 91 (HCG 91) were observed with the WiFeS integral field spectrograph as part of our ongoing campaign targeting the ionized gas physics and kinematics inside star forming members of compact groups. Here, we report the discovery of HII regions with abundance and kinematic offsets in the otherwise unremarkable star forming spiral HCG 91c. The optical emission line analysis of this galaxy reveals that at least three HII regions harbor an oxygen abundance ~0.15 dex lower than expected from their immediate surroundings and from the abundance gradient present in the inner regions of HCG 91c. The same star forming regions are also associated with a small kinematic offset in the form of a lag of 5-10 km/s with respect to the local circular rotation of the gas. HI observations of HCG 91 from the Very Large Array and broadband optical images from Pan-STARRS suggest that HCG 91c is caught early in its interaction with the other members of HCG 91. We discuss different scenarios to explain...

  3. Induksi Superovulasi dengan Kombinasi CIDR, Hormon FSH dan hCG pada Induk Sapi Potong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Kaiin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of superovulation treatment using combination of CIDR, FSH and hCG in beef cattle as donor embryos using MOET programme. All animals had been palpated to evaluated the ovary status and normal cows were used as donor and synchronized with CIDR (Eazy BreedTM . At day 10 of oestrus cycle, cows were divided into two groups, first group: cows were injected intramuscularly with FSH (Antrin 40 IU per cow with decreasing doses (for 4 days and second group cows were treated the same way but at day 5 after FSH injection, they were injected intramuscularly with 1,500 IU hCG (Chorulon. Embryo collection was done at day 7 after Artificial Insemination (AI. Average number of corpora lutea (CL in animals that superovulated with CIDR, FSH and hCG was significantly higher (P<0.05 compared to animals treated with CIDR and FSH only (5.52. Average number of embryo collection and number of transferable embryos were also higher in group treated with hCG (6.00 vs 5.44 compared with those treated without hCG (4.33 vs 3.17. The conclusion is hCG superovulation injection with CIDR and FSH can increase the respon of superovulation

  4. Intrauterine administration of hCG immediately after oocyte retrieval and the outcome of ICSI: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navali, N; Gassemzadeh, A; Farzadi, L; Abdollahi, S; Nouri, M; Hamdi, K; Mallah, F; Jalilvand, F

    2016-11-01

    Does the intrauterine administration of hCG immediately after oocyte retrieval in antagonist cycles with ICSI and fresh embryo transfer (ET) influence the implantation rate or chemical and clinical pregnancy rates? The intrauterine administration of hCG after oocyte retrieval increases the implantation rate and chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. Over half of IVF/ICSI cycles fail due to implantation failure. Intrauterine administration of hCG, a few minutes before ET, increased the implantation and pregnancy rates in most but not in all studies. The effect of intrauterine administration of hCG, after oocyte retrieval, has not yet been studied. The study was a parallel, triple-blind randomized clinical trial (RCT) performed from September 2015 to February 2016, in a university hospital. We recruited women undergoing antagonist ovarian stimulation, ICSI and ET. For an effect size of 0.2, power of 80% at a significance level of 0.05, we needed 150 participants. Accounting for a 7% dropout rate, a total of 160 women was considered appropriate. A computer-generated randomization list with a block size of 4, with 1:1 allocation was used. The treatment allocation was placed in a sealed, opaque, envelope and picked up consecutively. Immediately after oocyte retrieval, patients in the intervention and control groups were treated with intrauterine injection of hCG and saline, respectively. Participants underwent ET on Day 3. A beta-hCG test was done at 2 weeks. If positive, three transvaginal-ultrasonographies (TVSs) were done at 3, 4 and 10 weeks after ET. The participants were called up thereafter and questioned about the continuity of their pregnancy. Of 1990 women attending the infertility clinic of our university hospital, 508 were IVF/ICSI candidates during the study period, and 245 of the patients on an antagonist cycle met the criteria to be invited into our trial. Inclusion criteria were normal ovarian reserve, age ≤41, undergoing ICSI, and fresh ET and normal

  5. Determination of biological activity of gonadotropins hCG and FSH by Förster resonance energy transfer based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazina, Olga; Allikalt, Anni; Tapanainen, Juha S; Salumets, Andres; Rinken, Ago

    2017-02-09

    Determination of biological activity of gonadotropin hormones is essential in reproductive medicine and pharmaceutical manufacturing of the hormonal preparations. The aim of the study was to adopt a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signal transduction pathway based assay for quantification of biological activity of gonadotropins. We focussed on studying human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as these hormones are widely used in clinical practice. Receptor-specific changes in cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, second messenger in GPCR signalling) were monitored by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor protein (T)Epac(VV) in living cells upon activation of the relevant gonadotropin receptor. The BacMam gene delivery system was used for biosensor protein expression in target cells. In the developed assay only biologically active hormones initiated GPCR-mediated cellular signalling. High assay sensitivities were achieved for detection of hCG (limit of detection, LOD: 5 pM) and FSH (LOD: 100 pM). Even the small-scale conformational changes caused by thermal inactivation and reducing the biological activity of the hormones were registered. In conclusion, the proposed assay is suitable for quantification of biological activity of gonadotropins and is a good alternative to antibody- and animal-testing-based assays used in pharmaceutical industry and clinical research.

  6. Determination of biological activity of gonadotropins hCG and FSH by Förster resonance energy transfer based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazina, Olga; Allikalt, Anni; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Salumets, Andres; Rinken, Ago

    2017-01-01

    Determination of biological activity of gonadotropin hormones is essential in reproductive medicine and pharmaceutical manufacturing of the hormonal preparations. The aim of the study was to adopt a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signal transduction pathway based assay for quantification of biological activity of gonadotropins. We focussed on studying human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as these hormones are widely used in clinical practice. Receptor-specific changes in cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, second messenger in GPCR signalling) were monitored by a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor protein TEpacVV in living cells upon activation of the relevant gonadotropin receptor. The BacMam gene delivery system was used for biosensor protein expression in target cells. In the developed assay only biologically active hormones initiated GPCR-mediated cellular signalling. High assay sensitivities were achieved for detection of hCG (limit of detection, LOD: 5 pM) and FSH (LOD: 100 pM). Even the small-scale conformational changes caused by thermal inactivation and reducing the biological activity of the hormones were registered. In conclusion, the proposed assay is suitable for quantification of biological activity of gonadotropins and is a good alternative to antibody- and animal-testing-based assays used in pharmaceutical industry and clinical research. PMID:28181555

  7. Effects of preventing O-glycosylation on the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a member of a family of heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones that have a common alpha subunit but differ in their hormone-specific beta subunits. The beta subunit of hCG (hCG beta) is unique among the beta subunits in that it contains four mucin-like O-linked oligosaccharides attached to a carboxyl-terminal extension. To study the effects of O-glycosylation on the secretion and assembly of hCG, expression vectors containing either the hCG beta gene alone o...

  8. GnRH agonist trigger versus hCG trigger in GnRH antagonist in IVF/ICSI cycles: A review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyasin, Ashraf; Mehdinejadiani, Shayesteh; Ghasemi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Routinely, a bolus of 5.000-10.000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is used for the final follicular maturation and ovulation as a standard method. HCG has the same effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) with long half-life. It has the long lutheotrophic effect which increases the risk of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS). Recently, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) trigger has been used for the induction of final follicular maturation and ovulation with the aim of reducing the OHSS risk. Several studies have shown that the releases of endogenous follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH after administration of GnRH agonist in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles are able to precede the final follicular maturation leading to removal of fertile oocyte with normal development of the embryo and ultimately pregnancy. But based on the results of some studies, using GnRH-a trigger leads to defect luteal-phase resulting to reduce the implantation and clinical pregnancy rates and also increase abortion in fresh embryo transfer cycles compared to routine IVF cycle with hCG triggering . Also, in recent years, studies have continued to modify the luteal phase support, so that the fresh embryo transfer is possible too. In this review, we examined the benefits, problems, and also ways to reform GnRH agonist triggering complications. PMID:27738657

  9. Influence of hCG on inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in ram testicular arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Matteo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experimental evidence suggests a relationship between the vasodilatory effect of hCG and the NOS system in the testis. The influence of hCG administration on testicular vascular NOS gene expression has not been fully investigated. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the presence of the nitric oxide syntheses gene in ram testicular arteries and the influence of hCG administration on its expression. Materials and methods: Both testicular arteries of sixteen rams were extracted before and after i.v. administration of 5000 IU of hCG or placebo. The expression of the iNOS gene was investigated by real time PCR. Data were analyzed by means of Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: PCR revealed the presence of iNOS mRNA in all basal samples but the expression of the iNOS gene was significantly reduced in all arteries obtained 24 h after the administration of either hCG or placebo. A significant reduction in the expression of iNOS gene was observed in the testicular arteries extracted after 24 h in both treated and placebo groups. On the other hand hCG stimulation did not significantly influence iNOS expression following its administration compared to a placebo. Conclusion: Ram testicular arteries express the iNOS gene but hCG stimulation did not significantly influence iNOS expression. A significant reduction in the expression of this gene was observed in the testicular arteries extracted after 24 h in both treated and placebo groups, suggesting that iNOS expression on the testicular artery could be influenced by the spermatic vessel ligation of the controlateral testis.

  10. Human placental development is impaired by abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Marpeau, Olivier; Guibourdenche, Jean; Ferreira, Fatima; Badet, Josette; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Frendo, Jean-Louis

    2007-11-01

    Placental development is markedly abnormal in women bearing a fetus with trisomy 21, with defective syncytiotrophoblast (ST) formation and function. The ST occurs from cytotrophoblast (CT) fusion and plays an essential role by secreting human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is essential to placental development. In trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21) pregnancies, CTs do not fuse and differentiate properly into STs, leading to the secretion of an abnormal and weakly bioactive hCG. In this study we report for the first time, a marked decrease in the number of mature hCG receptor (LH/CG-R) molecules expressed at the surface of T21-affected CTs. The LH/CG-R seems to be functional based on sequencing that revealed no mutations or deletions and binding of recombinant hCG as well as endogenous hCG. We hypothesize that weakly bioactive hCG and lower LH/CG-R expression may be involved in the defect of ST formation. Interestingly, the defective ST formation is mimicked in normal CT cultures by using LH/CG-R small interfering RNA, which result in a lower hCG secretion. Furthermore, treatment of T21-affected CTs with recombinant hCG overcomes in vitro the T21 phenotype, allowing CTs to fuse and form a large ST. These results illustrate for the first time in trisomy 21 pathology, how abnormal endogenous hCG signaling impairs human placental development.

  11. The role of HCG increment in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment as a predictor for treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aviad; Almog, Benny; Cohen, Yoni; Bibi, Guy; Rimon, Eli; Levin, Ishai

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the role HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment as a predictor for treatment success. Medical records of all women who were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy between January 2001 and June 2013 were reviewed. Four hundred and nine patients received methotrexate due to ectopic pregnancy. The "single dose" methotrexate protocol with 50mg/m(2) was administered to patients with progressing ectopic pregnancy. HCG levels in days 1, 4 and 7 were used to evaluate methotrexate treatment success. The percentage of HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment was compared between patients who were successfully treated and those who failed treatment with methotrexate. Single dose methotrexate was successful in 309 patients (75.4%, success group). The medians of HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate administration were significantly higher in the "failure group" (21% vs. 4%, pHCG percent increment prior to methotrexate administration was shown to be an independent predictor for treatment outcome. Receiver operator characteristic curve for HCG percent change was 0.751, at a cutoff value of HCG increment HCG increment in the 48h prior to methotrexate administration is an independent predictor for methotrexate treatment success. HCG increment <12% prior to methotrexate treatment is a good predictor for treatment success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Urinary β-HCG in Benign and Malignant Urinary Tract Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-B. Halim

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectable leve ls of HCG have been reported in conditions other th an normal pregnancy, including threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors, carcinomas of the stomach, liver, pancreas and breast as well as multiple myeloma and melanoma. The present study was conducted to estimate urinary β-HCG in bladder cancer and benign urinary tract disorders. 163 individuals were included, 68 with bladder cancer (60 males and 8 females, 64 with benign urinary tract diseases (55 males and 9 females and 31 normal healthy controls (26 males and 5 females. Urinary β-HCG was estimated by the ELISA technique using the reagents supplied by DRG International Inc., Germany. Results of th e study revealed an overexpression of β-HCG in mali gnant and benign urinary tract diseases. 60.3% of the cancer patients and 29.7% of patients with benign diseases showed urinary β-HCG values above the upper limit of the control group (2mIU/ml .

  13. [Serum testosterone response to chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) injection in normal and cryptorchid children (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fideleff, H L; Baigorri, A M; Guitelman, A; Hollander, T; Villuendas, V; Espínola, B

    1980-01-01

    Plasma testosterone (ng/ml) was measured in a group of prepuberal children with intrascrotal testes (n = 15) and in a group of prepuberal cryptorchid children (7 unilateral and 3 bilateral; n = 10) before and after stimulus with 3000IU of HCG (Group A) and with 5000IU (Group B). The serum testosterone before HCG stimulus was similar in normal (Group A: 1.10 +/- 0.03: Group B: 1.18 +/- 0.31) as well as in those of the cryptorchid children (Group A: 1 +/- 0.28; Group B: 1.19 +/- 0.36). The stimulus with 3000IU of HCG did not significantly raise the plasma testosterone in both normal (2.42 +/- 1.09) and cryptorchid children (1.70 +/- 0.5). The stimulus with 5000IU of HCG increased the plasma testosterone to 3.52 +/- 1 in normal children and 3.26 +/- 1.2 in cryptorchid children (p less than 0.05 with respect to the pre HCG values), with no difference in the response between the normal and the cryptorchid children.

  14. Effect of ghrelin on proliferation, apoptosis and secretion of progesterone and hCG in the placental JEG-3 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa

    2010-07-01

    To determine the effect of ghrelin on placental cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion we cultured human JEG-3 cells with 100, 250, 500 or 1000 pg/ml of ghrelin for 48 hours. Ghrelin stimulated cell proliferation and decreased caspase-3 activity. All of the investigated ghrelin concentrations decreased progesterone (P(3)) but had no effect on human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) secretion. Stimulatory effects on cell proliferation paralleled inhibitory effects on cell apoptosis suggesting a possible role for ghrelin in placental formation or remodeling.

  15. Fabrication of SiC membrane HCG blue reflector using nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Yu; Matsutani, Akihiro; Lu, Tien-Chang; Wang, Shing-Chung; Koyama, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    We designed and fabricated a suspended SiC-based membrane high contrast grating (HCG) reflectors. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) was employed to verify the structural parameters including grating periods, grating height, filling factors and air-gap height. From the optimized simulation results, the designed SiC-based membrane HCG has a wide reflection stopband (reflectivity (R) HCG reflectors were fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and two-step etching technique. The corresponding reflectivity was measured by using a micro-reflectivity spectrometer. The experimental results show a high reflectivity (R<90%), which is in good agreement with simulation results. This achievement should have an impact on numerous III-N based photonic devices operating in the blue wavelength or even ultraviolet region.

  16. Timing of IUI Treatment after hCG Administration 1-48 h Affecting Pregnancy Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan YANG; Zu-mei SHI; Hui JIN; Li-ping ZHU; Kun-ming LI; Jian-zhi YANG; Zhi-qin CHEN; Xiao-ming TENG; Hui-fen CHEN; Yu WANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the different time of administration of hCG affecting pregnancy rate of IUI. Methods A total of 189 infertile couples underwent 331 cycles of IUI with husband’s sperm.They were separated into 3 groups according to the time of hCG administration in IUI:hCG 1-23 h(group A):hCG 24-36 h (group B);hCG 37—48 h(group C). Results There were no statistical differences among 3 groups.None of the other relative factors,such as the female age,the different methods of ovulation and the cause of infertility,showed differences in pregnancy rate among 3 groups. Conclusion IUI can be performed any time after administration of hCG(1—48 h).

  17. Significance of pregnancy test false negative results due to elevated levels of β-core fragment hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Eapen, Saji; Smith, Peter; Warren, Graham; Zinaman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Very high levels of β-core fragment human chorionic gonadotrophin (βcf-hCG) are reported to potentially cause false negative results in point-of-care (POC)/over-the-counter (OTC) pregnancy tests. To investigate this further, women's daily early morning urine samples, collected prior to conception and during pregnancy, were analysed for intact, free β-, and βcf-hCG. The proportion of βcf-hCG was found to be related to that of hCG produced and in circulation. Therefore, best practice for accuracy testing of POC/OTC pregnancy tests would be to test devices against clinical samples containing high levels of βcf-hCG as well as standards spiked with biologically relevant ratios.

  18. Agonist trigger: what is the best approach? Agonist trigger and low dose hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    Low-dose hCG supplementation after GnRH agonist trigger may normalize reproductive outcome while minimizing the occurrence of OHSS in high risk IVF patients. (Fertil Steril (R) 2012;97:529-30. (C) 2012 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)......Low-dose hCG supplementation after GnRH agonist trigger may normalize reproductive outcome while minimizing the occurrence of OHSS in high risk IVF patients. (Fertil Steril (R) 2012;97:529-30. (C) 2012 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)...

  19. GnRHa trigger for final oocyte maturation: is HCG trigger history?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger. Early trials showed a severe luteal phase insufficiency after GnRHa trigger despite the application of standard luteal phase support protocols. Subsequent research has led to modifications of the luteal phase support, resulting in reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after...... HCG trigger in normal- and high-responders. GnRHa trigger facilitates a tailored approach to subsequent luteal phase support, taking into account the ovarian response to stimulation. In the future, GnRHa is likely to be used for trigger in all women co-treated with GnRH antagonists....

  20. Characterization of a transgenic mouse model that hypersecretes hCG and develops gonadal tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Betina

    2010-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se estudiaron distintos aspectos de la regulación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-gonadal (HHG) en un modelo de ratones transgénicos que produce niveles elevados de la hormona gonadotrofina coriónica humana (hCG) y desarrolla tumores gonadales (ratones hCGDE+). Se partió de la hipótesis que los elevados niveles de esteroides sexuales inducidos por la hipersecreción de hCG desde edades tempranas del desarrollo, actuarían sobre el eje HHG alterando la síntesis y secreción de ...

  1. Role of day 4 HCG as an early predictor of success after methotrexate therapy for ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, S; Manjunath, A P; Salahudin, A; Jeyaseelan, L; Gowri, V; Abu-Heija, A; Al Kharusi, L

    2017-08-01

    To validate whether change in serum HCG levels between days 0 and 4 confer any prognostic value during methotrexate therapy and to quantify its change. This is a retrospective study of 48 tubal ectopic pregnancies treated with single dose methotrexate protocol at University Hospital, Muscat, Oman from January 2012 to December 2013. The clinical outcome was analyzed based on the complete resolution of HCG levels or need for additional doses of methotrexate or recourse to surgery. The percentage change in HCG levels between days 0 and 4 (HCG index) of methotrexate were calculated and receiver operator characteristics curve was plotted to identify the best cutoff levels. In order to get a robust 95% confidence interval, bootstrap method using R software was done using 1000 re-sampling. ROC curve and the predictive values were estimated using MEDCALC software. The mean HCG level on day 4 is significantly higher in treatment failure group (4254±4095 IU/L vs. 2109±3646 IU/L, P=0.008). The HCG levels between day 0 and 4 decreased in 42.7% (21/48) of cases and 80.9% of these cases had treatment success. The HCG levels increased in 57.4% (27/48) of cases and 33.3% of these cases had treatment success. (P=0.001). A 10 percent decline in day 4 HCG levels predict the treatment success with sensitivity of 77% and Specificity 81%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.67-0.92), (PHCG values on day 4, decrease in HCG level from day 0 to 4 and 10% or more fall in day 4 HCG levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Desenvolvimento folicular no pós-parto de vacas da raça Gir tratadas com acetato de buserelina (GnRH ou gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG Follicular development in Gir breed cows (Bos indicus treated with buserelin acetate or human chorionic gonadotrophin during the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álan Maia Borges

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 22 vacas da raça Gir (Bos indicus em anestro pós-parto, amamentando e mantidas sob regime de pastejo. O padrão de crescimento folicular foi estudado em 15 animais, enquanto os outros sete foram utilizados somente no acompanhamento da resposta aos tratamentos hormonais. Ultra-sonografia em tempo real foi realizada diariamente, do quarto ao qüinquagésimo dia de lactação, por meio de aparelho equipado com probe de 5MHz. Nenhum animal apresentou estro, ovulação ou luteinização folicular durante o período de avaliação. Verificaram-se quatro a oito ondas foliculares surgindo em intervalos de seis a sete dias, cujo diâmetro máximo dos folículos dominantes e subordinados foi de 8,9±0,6 e 6,3±0,7mm, respectivamente. Aos 56 dias pós-parto, as 22 vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: 11 tratadas com 4,2 mig de acetato de buserelina e 11 com 3.000UI de hCG. A ovulação, regressão e luteinização folicular foram verificadas em animais dos dois tratamentos e uma nova onda folicular surgiu dentro de dois a três dias após a terapia hormonal. Corpos lúteos de menor tamanho e concentrações de progesterona abaixo de 1ng/mL indicaram baixa atividade luteal.This experiment was carried out with 22 anestrus Gir cows (Bos indicus, with the postpartum follicular growth studied in 15 of these suckling and kept on pasture, while the seven others were used only for hormonal treatments. Daily real time ultrasonography was done from 4th to the 50th day, using B-mode ultrasound scanner equipped with a linear array 5.0MHz probe. No animal showed estrus, ovulation or follicular luteinization during de experimental period. Four to eight follicular waves emerged each six or seven days and maximum diameter of dominant and subordinate follicles were 8.9±0.6mm and 6.3±0.7mm, respectively. On day 56 of postpartum all cows were separated in two groups: 11 cows were treated either with 4.2 mug of buserelin acetate and 11 with 3,000UI of hCG

  3. Empty follicle syndrome after GnRHa triggering versus hCG triggering in COS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan C; Garcia-Velasco, Juan; Humaidan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the incidence of empty follicle syndrome (EFS) in oocyte donors who had final oocyte maturation triggered with GnRHa and to compare the incidence of EFS in this group of patients with IVF patients who had final oocyte maturation with hCG....

  4. Discovery of a giant HI tail in the galaxy group HCG 44

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, Paolo; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Oosterloo, Tom; McDermid, Richard M; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Emsellem, Eric; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a giant HI tail in the intra-group medium of HCG 44 as part of the Atlas3D survey. The tail is ~300 kpc long in projection and contains ~5x10^8 M_sun of HI. We detect no diffuse stellar light at the location of the tail down to ~28.5 mag/arcsec^2 in g band. We speculate that the tail might have formed as gas was stripped from the outer regions of NGC 3187 (a member of HCG 44) by the group tidal field. In this case, a simple model indicates that about 1/3 of the galaxy's HI was stripped during a time interval of <1 Gyr. Alternatively, the tail may be the remnant of an interaction between HCG 44 and NGC 3162, a spiral galaxy now ~650 kpc away from the group. Regardless of the precise formation mechanism, the detected HI tail shows for the first time direct evidence of gas stripping in HCG 44. It also highlights that deep HI observations over a large field are needed to gather a complete census of this kind of events in the local Universe.

  5. Verifying the effectiveness of medical abortion; ultrasound versus hCG testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Christian; Safar, Peter; Bygdeman, Marc; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2003-08-15

    The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is an established method for termination of pregnancy. However, there is no general agreement about how best to evaluate the treatment outcome. In 217 women with an unwanted pregnancy below 49 days of amenorrhoea, ultrasound examination and serum hCG test were performed before treatment and at follow-up. Treatment was successful in 98.2%. At follow-up their hCG dropped to a mean of 3% (S.D. 3) of initial levels and the endometrium measured a mean of 10 mm (S.D. 4). Interpretation of endometrium was difficult in some cases because of inhomogeneous structure. Using hCG was reliable in 98.5% of successful abortions. For ultrasound the corresponding figure was 89.8% for the cases with a confirmed intrauterine pregnancy before treatment but only 66% if all pregnancies were included. Measuring serum hCG before treatment and at follow-up is more effective than ultrasound to confirm a successful medically induced abortion in early pregnancy.

  6. Predictive value of plasma hCG measured 14 days after Day-2 single embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Oldenburg, Anna; Toftager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prediction of pregnancy outcome after IVF is important for patients and clinicians. Early plasma hCG (p-hCG) levels are the best known predictor of pregnancy outcome, but no studies has been restricted to single embryo transfer (SET) of Day-2 embryos. The aim of the present study...

  7. Vaginal Fluid hCG Levels for Detecting Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Artimani

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any different in hCG levels of vaginal fluids from normal pregnant women, women with confirmed PROM and with suspected PROM. After irrigating the posterior vaginal fornix with 3 ml of sterile saline and procuring vaginal washing , we measured hCG levels. Samples were analyzed from 38 normal pregnant women , 31 women with confirmed PROM , 28 women with suspected PROM. The mean of vaginal fluid hCG levels of normal pregnant women were 11.2 (0.00-98.6 mIu/ml. That of women with PROM was 140.2 (0.5 , 390.1 and that of women with suspected PROM was 21.5 (0.0 , 143.9. Sensivity was 80%, specility 83% , positive predictive value 73.7% , negative predictive value 88.1% , using a cut-value 20. It was concluded that the hCG level in vaginal fluid is a marker of PROM during third trimester.

  8. "Follicular HCG endometrium priming for IVF patients experiencing resisting thin endometrium. A proof of concept study"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, E G; Kyrou, D; Zervakakou, G;

    2013-01-01

    A thin endometrium is one of the most difficult problems encountered in assisted reproduction every day practice. Whether a daily dose of 150 IU HCG for 7 days concomitant with estrogen administration in estrogen replacement cycles can increase the endometrial thickness and improve pregnancy outc...

  9. First trimester intact hCG as an early marker of trisomy 21: a promise unrecognised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin; Cowans, Nicholas J; Uldbjerg, Niels; Vereecken, Annie; Tørring, Niels

    2008-12-01

    An initial study of trisomy 21 cases showed that prior to 10 weeks, maternal serum levels of intact hCG in the early first trimester are lower than normal. Here we further study the levels prior to and after 10 weeks of gestation to further establish whether or not the intact hCG is effective as a very early screening marker. Fifty-nine samples from pregnancies with trisomy 21 were identified, 31 were collected between the sixth and ninth weeks of gestation and 28 after the tenth week. A series of 629 gestational age-matched samples collected during the same period formed the control group. Intact hCG was measured by a DELFIA assay. The multiples of the median (MoM) in cases (n = 31) collected prior to 10 weeks were 0.79 (CI 0.62-0.98) at a median gestation of 9.1 weeks. Prior to 9 weeks (n = 14) the median was 0.774 (CI 0.54-1.09) at a median gestation of 8.5 weeks. Modelling the detection rate for a 3 or 5% false-positive rate when screening using intact hCG, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 8-10 weeks of gestation indicated that 71 or 77% of cases would be detected. More data are needed to establish a secure MoM for intact hCG in pregnancies prior to 10 weeks, before it could be considered a suitable screening marker. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Routine Β-HCG Monitoring for Single-Dose Methotrexate Treatment in Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yuxin; Zhang, Guorui; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jinghe; Liu, Zhufeng

    2017-08-08

    To evaluate an alternative monitoring protocol without D4 β-HCG measurement for predicting the need for a repeated methotrexate (MTX) dose in patients undergoing single-dose MTX therapy for ectopic pregnancy. Single center, Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). University-affiliated hospital. 184 ectopic pregnancy patients who were treated with MTX between January 2009 and December 2016 were included in the study. Single-dose MTX treatment (50mg/m(2)) MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The patients were treated with repeated doses of MTX every 7 days, if necessary, according to Stovall's protocol or with laparoscopic surgery in cases of tubal rupture. The success of a single-dose of MTX according to the alternative measure was defined as a >50% decrease in the β-HCG level between day (D) 1 and D7 in clinically stable patients. The sensitivity, specificity, false-negative rate, false-positive rate and attributable risk of this new monitoring measure were calculated and compared to the traditional regimen. The new protocol had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 88.7%, respectively, for predicting a required second dose in patients whose D1 β-HCG levels were HCG level ≥2000 mIU/mL, both monitoring regimens had the same efficiency. The new monitoring model without the D4 β-HCG measurement may offer both patients and clinicians multiple options to monitor single-dose MTX therapy for selected ectopic pregnancy patients, with a comparable clinical efficiency to Stovall's protocol and less expense and follow-up burden to patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Inhibition of diabetes in NOD mice by human pregnancy factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Khan, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of Th1 mediated autoimmune diseases regress in many patients during pregnancy. A prominent feature of pregnancy is the presence of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG) in blood and urine. In this report we tested the effect of clinical grade hCG (c-hCG) on the development of

  12. Inhibition of diabetes in NOD mice by human pregnancy factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Khan, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of Th1 mediated autoimmune diseases regress in many patients during pregnancy. A prominent feature of pregnancy is the presence of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG) in blood and urine. In this report we tested the effect of clinical grade hCG (c-hCG) on the development of

  13. Predictive value of serum HCG concentrations in pregnancies achieved after single fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Galia; Shavit, Tal; Esh-Broder, Efrat; Weon-Young, Son; Tulandi, Togas; Holzer, Hananel

    2017-09-01

    Possible differences between serum HCG levels in pregnancies achieved after transfer of a single fresh or a vitrified-warmed blastocyst were evaluated. Out of 1130 single blastocyst transfers resulting in positive HCG results, 789 were single fresh blastocyst transfers and 341 single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfers. The initial serum HCG levels of 869 clinical intrauterine pregnancies were evaluated, 638 after the transfer of a single fresh blastocysts and 231 after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocysts. The HCG levels from cycles resulting in a clinical intrauterine pregnancy were significantly higher after the transfer of a single vitrified-warmed blastocyst (383 ± 230 IU/l) versus a fresh transfer (334 ± 192 IU/l; P = 0.01). Threshold values for predicting a clinical pregnancy for a fresh blastocyst were 111 IU/l and for a vitrified-warmed blastocyst 137 IU/l. Our study shows that the overall beta-HCG levels are comparable after the transfer of a fresh or vitrified-warmed blastocyst, suggesting that vitrification most probably does not affect the ability of the embryos to produce beta-HCG. This study further shows that when clinicians counsel patients, they should take into account that higher HCG levels are needed after a vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer to predict a clinical intrauterine pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical and laboratory issues associated with persistent low-level elevations of hCG in a female of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Loring K; Rangan, Aruna; Fenster, Tamatha B; Magotra, Minoti; Nimaroff, Michael

    2014-03-20

    Persistent low-level elevations of serum concentrations of hCG in a non-pregnant female of childbearing age were investigated by a number of laboratory techniques including heterophile blocking reagents, polyethylene glycol precipitation, serial dilutions and hCG measurements on several different instrument/reagent systems. The results of these studies indicated that this patient had immunoreactive hCG in her serum that was not the intact hCG molecule but primarily the free β-hCG subunit. Differential diagnoses are discussed along with recommendation for continued surveillance of serum hCG concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Laurence A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is a glycoprotein hormone comprising 2 subunits, alpha and beta joined non covalently. While similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH, hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents, rather than as a single molecule like LH and the other glycoprotein hormones. These are regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG. For 88 years regular hCG has been known as a promoter of corpus luteal progesterone production, even though this function only explains 3 weeks of a full gestations production of regular hCG. Research in recent years has explained the full gestational production by demonstration of critical functions in trophoblast differentiation and in fetal nutrition through myometrial spiral artery angiogenesis. While regular hCG is made by fused villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells make the variant hyperglycosylated hCG. This variant is an autocrine factor, acting on extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells to initiate and control invasion as occurs at implantation of pregnancy and the establishment of hemochorial placentation, and malignancy as occurs in invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Hyperglycosylated hCG inhibits apoptosis in extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells promoting cell invasion, growth and malignancy. Other non-trophoblastic malignancies retro-differentiate and produce a hyperglycosylated free beta-subunit of hCG (hCG free beta. This has been shown to be an autocrine factor antagonizing apoptosis furthering cancer cell growth and malignancy. New applications have been demonstrated for total hCG measurements and detection of the 3 hCG variants in pregnancy detection, monitoring pregnancy outcome, determining risk for Down syndrome fetus, predicting preeclampsia, detecting pituitary hCG, detecting and managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, diagnosing quiescent

  16. Impact of Buserelin Acetate or hCG Administration on the Day of First Artificial Insemination on Subsequent Luteal Profile and Conception Rate in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A K; Ghuman, Sps; Dhaliwal, G S; Agarwal, S K; Phogat, J B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of buserelin acetate (BA) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the day of first artificial insemination (AI) on subsequent luteal profile (diameter of corpus luteum (CL) and plasma progesterone) and conception rate in Murrah buffalo. The present experiment was carried out at two locations in 117 buffalo that were oestrus-synchronized using cloprostenol (500 μg) administered (i.m.) 11 days apart followed by AI during standing oestrus. Based on treatment (i.m.) at the time of AI, buffalo were randomly categorized (n = 39 in each group) into control (isotonic saline solution, 5 ml), dAI-BA (buserelin acetate, 20 μg) and dAI-hCG (hCG, 3000 IU) group. Out of these, 14 buffalo of each group were subjected to ovarian ultrasonography on the day of oestrus to monitor the preovulatory follicle and on days 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to monitor CL diameter. On the day of each sonography, jugular vein blood samples were collected for the estimation of progesterone concentrations. All the buffalo (n = 117) were confirmed for pregnancy on day 40 post-ovulation. The conception rate was better (p hCG (66.7%) groups as compared to their control counterparts (30.8%). Furthermore, the buffalo of dAI-hCG group had improved (p  0.05) to exhibit stimulatory impact of treatment on luteal profile when compared to control group. In brief, buserelin acetate or hCG treatment on the day of first AI leads to an increase in conception rate; however, an appreciable impact on post-ovulation luteal profile was observed only in hCG-treated Murrah buffalo. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. "hCG priming" effect in controlled ovarian stimulation through a long protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsaklis Aris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in patients down-regulated by GnRH analogues (GnRHa, a short-term pre-treatment with recombinant LH (rLH, prior to recombinant FSH (rFSH administration, increases the number of small antral follicle prior to FSH stimulation and the yield of normally fertilized embryos. However, no data exist in the literature regarding the potential beneficial effect of "hCG priming" in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH through a long GnRH-a protocol, which binds the same receptor (LH/hCGR, though it is a much more potent compared to LH. The primary aims of this study were to assess the effect of short-term pre-rFSH administration of hCG in women entering an ICSI treatment cycle on follicular development, quality of oocytes and early embryo development. The secondary endpoints were to record the effects on endometrial quality and pregnancy rate. Methods Patients with a history of at least one previous unsuccessful ICSI cycle were randomly assigned into two groups to receive treatment with either a long protocol with rFSH (control group or a long protocol with rFSH and pre-treatment with hCG (hCG group. In particular, in the latter group, a fixed 7 days course of 200 IU/day hCG was administered as soon as pituitary desensitization was confirmed. Results The mean number of oocytes retrieved was not significantly different between the two treatment groups, although the percentage of mature oocytes tended to be higher but not significantly different in hCG-treated patients. The percentage of patients with more than one grade 3 embryos was higher in the pre-treatment group, which also showed a higher pregnancy rate. Conclusion All the above clinical observations, in conjunction with previous data, suggest a point towards a beneficial "hCG priming" effect in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation through a long GnRH-a down-regulation protocol, particularly in patients with previous ART failures.

  18. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    stimulation. In addition, an interaction analysis was performed in order to assess whether the ovarian response (18 oocytes) has a moderating effect on the association of PE on the day of hCG with live birth rates after IVF. Live birth rates were not significantly different between cycles with and those without PE when a bivariate analysis was performed [odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56-1.09]. However, when a multivariable analysis was performed, controlling for the effect of the aforementioned confounders, live birth rates (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48-0.97) were significantly decreased in the group with PE on the day of hCG. The number of oocytes retrieved was the most potent confounder, causing a 29.4% reduction in the OR for live birth between the two groups compared. Furthermore, a moderating effect of ovarian response on the association between PE and live birth rates was not supported in the present analysis since no interaction was detected between PE and the type of ovarian response (18 oocytes). This is a retrospective analysis of data collected during a 12-year period, and although the effect of the most important confounders was controlled for in the multivariable analysis, the presence of residual bias cannot be excluded. This analysis highlights the need for a multivariable approach when researchers or clinicians aim to evaluate the impact of PE on pregnancy rates in their own clinical setting. Failure to do so might explain why many past studies have failed to identify the detrimental effect of PE in fresh IVF cycles. None. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Integration of GaAs-based VCSEL array on SiN platform with HCG reflectors for WDM applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sulakshna; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Wang, Ruijun; Haglund, Emanuel P.; Westbergh, Petter; Sanchez, Dorian; Haglund, Erik; Haglund, Åsa; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Le Thomas, Nicolas; Roelkens, Gunther; Larsson, Anders; Baets, Roel

    2015-02-01

    We present a GaAs-based VCSEL structure, BCB bonded to a Si3N4 waveguide circuit, where one DBR is substituted by a free-standing Si3N4 high-contrast-grating (HCG) reflector realized in the Si3N4 waveguide layer. This design enables solutions for on-chip spectroscopic sensing, and the dense integration of 850-nm WDM data communication transmitters where individual channel wavelengths are set by varying the HCG parameters. RCWA shows that a 300nm-thick Si3N4 HCG with 800nm period and 40% duty cycle reflects strongly (HCG's influence on the VCSEL wavelength, allowing for a 15-nm-wide wavelength setting range with low threshold gain (<1000 cm-1).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CO in HCG galaxies with enhanced warm H2 (Lisenfeld+,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Appleton, P. N.; Cluver, M. E.; Guillard, P.; Alatalo, K.; Ogle, P.

    2014-07-01

    The files name hcgxxco10offx_offy.fits are the fits files spectra in Fig. A1 (CO(1-0) spectra). The files name hcgxxco21offx_offy.fits are the fits files of the spectra in Fig. A2 (CO(2-1) spectra). Here, xx stands for the HCG number of the galaxy and offx, offy are the offsets with respect to the central pointing. (3 data files).

  1. Addition of low dose hCG to rFSh benefits older women during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomaa Hala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the outcome of IVF cycles in women receiving controlled ovarian stimulation with recFSH or recFSH plus low dose hCG. Methods A retrospective case control study, performed at a private practice affiliated with an academic institute. Patients were infertile women who were treated with IVF/ICSI and controlled ovarian stimulation in a long GnRH agonist protocol using either low dose hCG in addition to recFSH [N = 88] or recFSH alone [N = 99]. Primary outcomes were mean FSH dose, number of mature eggs, number of fertilized eggs, and serum levels of estradiol. Secondary outcomes were endometrial thickness, cycle cancellations and pregnancy rates. Results A significant increase in number of mature and fertilized eggs was observed in women over 40 years of age using low dose hCG in addition to recFSH. The estradiol level was significantly higher on the day of hCG administration and the serum level of FSH on cycle day 7 and on the day of hCG administration were lower. Conclusion Addition of low dose hCG to recFSH compared with recFSH alone significantly modified cycle characteristics in patients >/= 40 years and could be of potential benefit for IVF cycles in older infertile women.

  2. Persistent low levels of serum hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies: an unrecognized pitfall in the diagnosis of trophoblastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Aguilera, B; Syrios, P; Gadisseur, R; Luyckx, F; Cavalier, E; Beckers, A; Valdes-Socin, H

    2016-06-01

    Phantom hCG refers to persistent mild elevations of hCG, leading physicians to unnecessary treatments whereas neither a true hCG nor a trophoblastic disease is present. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman with persistent low levels of serum hCG detected one month after miscarriage. As choriocarcinoma was suspected, a chemotherapy trial of methotrexate was prescribed, without any hCG reduction. Subsequently, laparoscopy ruled out a trophoblastic residue and the patient was referred to the Endocrine Unit for further investigations. While low levels of hCG were still detected in serum, no hCG was detected in the urine. In addition, when serum was processed in a HBT tube for revealing heterophilic antibodies, hCG was no longer detected. Such finding indicated the presence of phantom hCG due to heterophilic mouse antibodies interaction. This case raises the need of clinico-biological discussion to avoid inappropriate therapeutic decisions. Based on this case experience and after review of the literature, we suggest that current gynecological protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of trophoblastic disease should consider the inclusion of urinary hCG and/or a test for serum heterophilic antibodies when appropriate.

  3. Human chorionic gonadotropin and implantation%人绒毛膜促性腺激素与胚胎种植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 陈晓燕; 徐少元

    2013-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)is a glycoprotein hormone comprised of 2 subunits a and b that are noncovalently joined. HCG is primarily produced by the embryo and later by the syncytiotrophoblast. HCG has been detected at variable levels both in pre-implantation embryo culture media in vitro and in women serum after fertilization around implantation period or early pregnancy. HCG is not only considered to assess embryo competence both in anatomic and biochemical,but also contributes to improve luteal function and endometrial modification or placenta construction for supporting early pregnancy.

  4. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  5. 彩超臀位妊娠与血清HCG关系研究%Study on the Relationship between Ultrasound and Serum HCG of Breech Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖苏英

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过尿人绒毛膜促性腺激素测定,血清HCG定量测定在正常宫内妊娠,输卵管异位妊娠和妊娠臀位时。方法放射免疫标记血清HCG动态定量测定,每3d用同样的方法进行血清HCG定量测定。200例生育年龄妇女,平均年龄29.8岁,诊断绝经1月后被发现臀位妊娠18例。结果18例停经1个月的臀位妊娠血清hcg定量测定>20mlu辕ml, 20mlu / ml, 38mlu / ml urine determination of < HCG qualitative. Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasound breech pregnancy serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as a quantitative determination of value than normal pregnancy is low, the ratio of ectopic pregnancy high. according to the clinical manifestations, early diagnosis, to avoid severe complications such as uterine rupture.

  6. Faillure in the effect of the analogue (hCG of luteinizing hormone on the luteal angiogenesis in rats (Rattus novergicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gonçalves Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the mechanisms that affect the control of the ovarian activity is essential for the success of reproduction biotechnologies. Although a number of studies have been carried out in which the luteinizing hormone (LH was used to control the ovarian activity, little is known about its influence in the morphology and vascular formation of the corpus luteum, aiming to increase the local blood flow. Thus, the objective of the present experiment was the quantification of the vascular density of corpora lutea (Cls in animals treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG just after ovulation. Therefore, eighteen wistar rats were used in this experiment. Eight rats in the treated group and ten rats in the control group. Corpora lutea were divided into two groups: group (A treated with hCG in the following morning after copulation, and group (B control animals which received an injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Ovaries from each group were used for preparation of histological sections for vascular density qualification. No statistical significance was found between the two groups tested.

  7. Reducing the trigger dose of recombinant hCG in high-responder patients attending an assisted reproductive technology program: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Colangelo, Enrica Concetta; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing the dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) used to trigger final oocyte maturation in assisted reproductive technology programs is regarded as a useful intervention in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, but the minimal effective dose has not been yet identified. In this study, the capacity of a reduced dose of recombinant hCG (r-hCG) to provide adequate oocyte maturation was tested for the first time. Thirty-five high-responder patients received a dose of 125 µg (half of the standard dose) of r-hCG for triggering final oocyte maturation. The number of oocytes retrieved per patient and the proportion of mature oocytes were evaluated. As a result, a mean number of 14 oocytes were retrieved, of which 85% were found to be mature (MII). There was only one patient developing a moderate form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and not requiring hospitalization. It is suggested that r-hCG at 125 µg can be effective in triggering final oocyte maturation in high-responder patients. Additional properly powered and controlled studies are needed to support this contention.

  8. Linear regression of postevacuation serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations predicts postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Sweep, F.C.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) follow-up after evacuation of hydatidiform moles is essential to identify patients requiring chemotherapeutic treatment for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). We propose a model based on linear regression of postevacuation serum hCG co

  9. High oestradiol concentration after ovarian stimulation is associated with lower maternal serum beta-HCG concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suying; Kuang, Yanping; Wu, Yu; Feng, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Li; Sun, Yijuan; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-08-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between maternal serum oestradiol and progesterone levels after fresh embryo transfer or frozen embryo transfer (FET), and serum beta-HCG levels in early pregnancy and neonatal birth weight was examined. Included for analysis were 5643 conceived singletons: 2610 after FET and 3033 after fresh embryo transfer. Outcome measures included maternal serum oestradiol, progesterone, beta-HCG levels during the peri-implantation period, birth weight and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Results at 4, 5 and 6 weeks' gestation were as follows: serum oestradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in women who underwent fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (all P HCG levels were significantly lower than in women who underwent FET (P HCG levels were negatively correlated with serum oestradiol; and birth weight was negatively correlated with serum oestradiol. Incidence of SGA in fresh embryo transfer was increased significantly compared with FET (P HCG in early pregnancy, lower birth weight and higher incidence of SGA. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep Imaging of the HCG 95 Field. I. Ultra-diffuse Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong Dong; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Zhao, Hai Bin; Pan, Zhi Zheng; Li, Bin; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu; Guo, KeXin; An, Fang Xia; Li, Yu Bin

    2017-09-01

    We present a detection of 89 candidates of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a 4.9 degree2 field centered on the Hickson Compact Group 95 (HCG 95) using deep g- and r-band images taken with the Chinese Near Object Survey Telescope. This field contains one rich galaxy cluster (Abell 2588 at z = 0.199) and two poor clusters (Pegasus I at z = 0.013 and Pegasus II at z = 0.040). The 89 candidates are likely associated with the two poor clusters, giving about 50–60 true UDGs with a half-light radius {r}{{e}}> 1.5 {kpc} and a central surface brightness μ (g,0)> 24.0 mag arcsec‑2. Deep z\\prime -band images are available for 84 of the 89 galaxies from the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS), confirming that these galaxies have an extremely low central surface brightness. Moreover, our UDG candidates are spread over a wide range in g ‑ r color, and ∼26% are as blue as normal star-forming galaxies, which is suggestive of young UDGs that are still in formation. Interestingly, we find that one UDG linked with HCG 95 is a gas-rich galaxy with H i mass 1.1× {10}9 M ⊙ detected by the Very Large Array, and has a stellar mass of {M}\\star ∼ 1.8× {10}8 M ⊙. This indicates that UDGs at least partially overlap with the population of nearly dark galaxies found in deep H i surveys. Our results show that the high abundance of blue UDGs in the HCG 95 field is favored by the environment of poor galaxy clusters residing in H i-rich large-scale structures.

  11. EFFECT OF PMSG FOLLOWED BY HCG ON ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION IN WEANED SOWS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Naskar; Kadirvel, G; M.H. Khan; A. Lamare

    2012-01-01

    A total of 60 crossbred sows (Hampshire X Khasi Local) were selected a week after weaning and divided into two groups (30 in each). The sows in group-I were injected with 800 IU of PMSG followed by 400 IU of HCG 56 hours after PMSG. In Group-II served as untreated / control. Natural service was given to all estrus sows after 96 hours of hormonal treatment. It was noticed that 90 % of sow exhibited all the sign of estrus after 96 hours and 75 % of sows were sexually receptive to boar. The aver...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HCG and RSCG compact group galaxies with WISE (Zucker+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, C.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K.; Gallagher, S.; Alatalo, K.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2016-07-01

    For this study, we draw our sample from groups in the HCG catalog (Hickson 1982, VII/213) and the Redshift Survey Compact Group catalog (RSCG; Barton et al. 1996AJ....112..871B). We utilize new ALLWISE coadds from Lang (unWISE; 2014AJ....147..108L), which preserve the native resolution of the raw frames (~6.1", 6.4", 6.5" and 12.0" for bands W1, W2, W3, and W4). (1 data file).

  13. The Role of Serum Beta hCG in Early Diagnosis and Management Strategy of Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Kameswari; Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao

    2016-07-01

    The presentation of Ectopic Pregnancy (EP) can be highly variable and serum Beta hCG estimation plays an important role in early diagnosis. Aim of the study was to determine the trends of hCG levels in EP and to explore the role of hCG in decisions related to management and follow-up of EPs. A retrospective study of women who had EPs from January 2006 to December 2012 at an advanced tertiary care centre in southern India was carried out. These women had undergone treatment based on the hospital protocol. The study identified 337 women with EP. Thirty one surgically confirmed cases were diagnosed below the discriminatory zone of 1500 mIU/ml. Among women who had Beta hCG estimations 48 hours apart, plateauing was observed in 22.5% while decrease >15% was noted in 26.8%. Almost half (47.9%) of the cases had an increase >15% and a few (2.8%) demonstrated an initial fall followed by a rise in titres. In 23.9% of these women, there was a rise >53% similar to intrauterine pregnancy. The average pre-treatment Beta hCG was 429.8, 3866.2 and 12961.5 mIU/ml for those who received expectant, medical and direct surgical treatment respectively. 43 women with relative contraindications received medical management and 39 were lost to follow-up after medical and expectant management. Excluding them, the success rate of these two modalities was 76.6% and 85.0% respectively. No single level of Beta hCG is diagnostic of EP and serial levels can demonstrate atypical trends in some cases. Hence, interpretation of these results should be done in conjunction with clinical and sonographic findings to arrive at a correct diagnosis.

  14. Intragroup diffuse light in compact groups of galaxies II. HCG 15, 35 and 51

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rocha, C; de Oliveira, C Mendes

    2008-01-01

    This continuing study of intragroup light in compact groups of galaxies aims to establish new constraints to models of formation and evolution of galaxy groups, specially of compact groups, which are a key part in the evolution of larger structures, such as clusters. In this paper we present three additional groups (HCG 15, 35 and 51) using deep wide field $B$ and $R$ band images observed with the LAICA camera at the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory (CAHA). This instrument provides us with very stable flatfielding, a mandatory condition for reliably measuring intragroup diffuse light. The images were analyzed with the OV\\_WAV package, a wavelet technique that allows us to uncover the intragroup component in an unprecedented way. We have detected that 19, 15 and 26% of the total light of HCG 15, 35 and 51, respectively, is in the diffuse component, with colours that are compatible with old stellar populations and with mean surface brightness that can be as low as $28.4 {\\rm B mag arcsec^{-2}}$. Dyn...

  15. Bio-equivalent doses of recombinant HCG and recombinant LH during ovarian stimulation result in similar oestradiol output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Laursen, Rita Jakubcionyte

    2017-01-01

    and HCG bind to the same receptor, significant molecular, structural and functional differences exist, inducing differences in bioactivity. This randomized controlled study compared the effect of recombinant FSH stimulation combined with daily either micro-dose recombinant HCG or recombinant LH...... supplementation in a 1:1 bioactivity ratio from day 1 of stimulation in a long gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist down regulation protocol. A total of 100 patients from a public clinic completed the study. The primary end-point was the oestradiol level on the day of ovulation trigger and the median...

  16. Concomitant use of FSH and low-dose recombinant hCG during the late follicular phase versus conventional controlled ovarian stimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Carla Andrade Rebello; Setti, Amanda Souza; Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Maldonado, Luiz Guilherme Louzada; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2017-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-dose hCG supplementation on ICSI outcomes and controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cost. Three hundred and thirty patients undergoing ICSI were split into groups according to the COS protocol: (i) control group (n = 178), including patients undergoing conventional COS treatment; and (ii) low-dose hCG group (n = 152), including patients undergoing COS with low-dose hCG supplementation. Lower mean total doses of FSH administered and higher mean oestradiol level and mature oocyte rates were observed in the low-dose hCG group. A significantly higher fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate and blastocyst formation rate were observed in the low-dose hCG group as compared to the control group. The miscarriage rate was significantly higher in the control group compared to the low-dose hCG group. A significantly lower incidence of OHSS was observed in the low-dose hCG group. There was also a significantly lower gonadotropin cost in the low-dose hCG group as compared to the control group ($1235.0 ± 239.0×$1763.0 ± 405.3, p hCG and FSH results in a lower abortion rate and increased number of mature oocytes retrieved, as well as improved oocyte quality, embryo quality and blastocyst formation and reduced FSH requirements.

  17. Management of Nonpregnant Women with Elevated Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd C. Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is useful in evaluating and monitoring early pregnancy as well as trophoblastic disease. Here we describe the management of women with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin in a case of a 51-year-old female who was unsuccessfully treated for ectopic pregnancy. She was subsequently diagnosed with pituitary hCG production, which should be considered as differential diagnosis before treatment is initiated.

  18. A peptide mimic of an antigenic loop of alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone: solution structure and interaction with a llama V-HH domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrat, G.; Renisio, J.G.; Morelli, X.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.; Cambillau, C.; Darbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its alpha and beta subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the alpha subunit. We have d

  19. The Association Between LH Serum Levels at the time of hCG Injection and Clinical Pregnancy during IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Wiweko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some studies showed that recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (r-FSH administration without LH supplementation has a good success rate on in vitro fertilization (IVF. However, LH role in IVF has been controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between serum LH levels at the time of hCG injection and clinical pregnancy during IVF. This retrospective study included 136 patients underwent long protocol IVF from January 2005 to December 2009 in Yasmin Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. The controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation protocol used in this study was gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist and r-FSH.  Serum LH level was measured on the day of hCG administration and the outcome evaluated was the clinical pregnancy following IVF cycles. There were 32 IVF cycles resulted in pregnancy out of 136 cycles (23.5%. There was significant difference between serum LH levels on the day of hCG administration and clinical pregnancy outcome (p=0.036. LH serum level cut-off value of ≥1.050 IU/l was the best value to predict pregnancy outcome with 62.5% sensitivity, 59.4% specificity, 83.3% positive predictive value, and 32.76% negative predictive value. It was concluded that there was an association between serum LH levels at the time of hCG injection and clinical pregnancy during IVF. Keywords: IVF cycles, LH levels serum, hCG administration   Hubungan Kadar LH saat Penyuntikan hCG dengan Kejadian Kehamilan pada Fertilisasi In vitro Abstrak Pemberian follicles stimulating hormone rekombinan (r-FSH tanpa suplementasi LH memiliki tingkat keberhasilan fertilisasi in vitro (FIV yang baik namun, peran LH pada FIV masih kontroversial. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi hubungan antara kadar serum LH pada hari penyuntikan hCG dengan kehamilan klinis selama FIV. Penelitian retrospektif ini melibatkan 136 perempuan yang menjalani FIV siklus pertama dengan protokol panjang mulai bulan Januari 2005 sampai

  20. A Graphene Oxide-Based Fluorescent Method for the Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG has been regarded as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pregnancy and some cancers. Because the currently used methods (e.g., disposable Point of Care Testing (POCT device for hCG detection require the use of many less stable antibodies, simple and cost-effective methods for the sensitive and selective detection of hCG have always been desired. In this work, we have developed a graphene oxide (GO-based fluorescent platform for the detection of hCG using a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-labeled hCG-specific binding peptide aptamer (denoted as FITC-PPLRINRHILTR as the probe, which can be manufactured cheaply and consistently. Specifically, FITC-PPLRINRHILTR adsorbed onto the surface of GO via electrostatic interaction showed a poor fluorescence signal. The specific binding of hCG to FITC-PPLRINRHILTR resulted in the release of the peptide from the GO surface. As a result, an enhanced fluorescence signal was observed. The fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to the hCG concentration in the range of 0.05–20 IU/mL. The detection limit was found to be 20 mIU/mL. The amenability of the strategy to hCG analysis in biological fluids was demonstrated by assaying hCG in the urine samples.

  1. Effect of Adding Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to The Endometrial Preparation Protocol in Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eftekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, one of the initial embryonic signals, isprobably a major regulator of the embryo-endometrial relationship. This study aims to assess theadvantage of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase of hormonally prepared cycles forthe transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Infertile women who werecandidates for frozen-thawed embryo transfers entered the study and were divided into two groups,HCG and control. The endometrial preparation method was similar in both groups: all women receivedestradiol valerate (6 mg po per day from the second day of the menstrual cycle and progesteronein oil (100 mg intramuscular (I.M. when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Estradiol andprogesterone were continued until the tenth week of gestation. In the HCG group, patients received anHCG 5000 IU injection on the first day of progesterone administration and the day of embryo transfer.Results: In this study, 130 couples participated: 65 in the HCG group and 65 in the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding basic characteristics.Implantation rate, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and abortion rateswere similar in both groups.Conclusion: Although HCG has some advantages in assisted reproductive technology (ARTcycles, our study did not show any benefit of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase offrozen cycles (Registration Number: IRCT201107266420N4.

  2. Early hCG addition to rFSH for ovarian stimulation in IVF provides better results and the cDNA copies of the hCG receptor may be an indicator of successful stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevis Dimitris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple, safe and cost-effective treatment protocol in ovarian stimulation is of great importance in IVF practice, especially in the case of previous unsuccessful attempts. hCG has been used as a substitute of LH because of the degree of homology between the two hormones. The main aim of this prospective randomized study was to determine, for the first time, whether low dose hCG added to rFSH for ovarian stimulation could produce better results compared to the addition of rLH in women entering IVF-ET, especially in those women that had previous IVF failures. An additional aim was to find an indicator that would allow us to follow-up ovarian stimulation and, possibly, modify it in order to achieve a better IVF outcome; and that indicator may be the cDNA copies of the LH/hCG receptor. Group A patients (n = 58 were administered hCG and Group B rLH (n = 56 in addition to rFSH in the first days of ovarian stimulation. The number of follicles and oocytes and, most importantly, implantation and pregnancy rates were shown to be statistically significantly higher in the hCG group. This study has also determined, for the first time to our best knowledge, m-RNA for LH/hCG receptors in the lymphocytes of peripheral blood 40 h before ovum pick-up. cDNA levels of the hCG receptor after ovarian stimulation were significantly higher among women receiving hCG compared to those receiving LH. In addition, higher levels were encountered among women with pregnancy compared to those without, although this was not statistically significant due to the small number of pregnancies. It seems that hCG permits a highly effective and more stable occupancy of rLH/hCG receptors and gives more follicles and more oocytes. The determination of cDNA copies could be, in the future, a marker during ovulation induction protocols and of course a predictor for the outcome of ART in the special subgroup of patients with previous failures.

  3. CLINICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECSYS® FREE-ΒHCG AND PAPP-A FOR FIRST TRIMESTER TRISOMY 21 RISK ASSESSMENT IN GESTATIONAL WEEKS 8+0 TO 14+0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; aulesa, C; Eiben, Bernd;

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening for fetal trisomy 21 (T21) in the first trimester includes analysis of the serological markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta choriogonadotropin (free βhCG). With the launch of these assays on the cobas e and Elecsys platforms, we investigated...

  4. Effect of Repeated Administration of hCG on Ovarian Response in PMSG-superovulated Ouled Djellal Ewes (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamraoui, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated administration of hCG on ovarian response in PMSG-superovulated ewes. Intravaginal pessaries containing 40 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA were inserted in all ewes (n=9 and remained in situ for 14 days. Two days prior to pessary removal, all ewes were treated with 1000 IU of PMSG. On the day of sponge removal (day 0, the females were randomly assigned to 2 treatments. The first group (n=3 did not receive any hCG, while the second group (n=6 treated inter-muscular with hCG (500 IU during days 0-2. On day 8, laparotomy was performed to assess numbers of corpora lutea (CL and anovulatory follicles (AF. Blood samples were collected for analysis of serum progesterone (P4 using radioimmunoassay (RIA method. The results obtained for first and second group was in number of CL (6.33±1.15 and 10.50±5.54, number of AF (2 ±3.46 and 4.16±5.70, then the levels of P4 (5.75± 4.45 and 13.22±6.80 ng/ml, respectively. These results indicate that the repeated administration of hCG post-sponge removal increases number of CL and improves luteal function in ewes after PMSG-superovulatory treatment.

  5. Dynamics of the development of multiple follicles by early versus late hCG administration in ART program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagario, Maddalena; Trerotoli, Paolo; Chincoli, Annarosa; Cobuzzi, Isabella; Vacca, Margherita P; Falagario, Doriana; Nardelli, Claudia; Depalo, Raffaella

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate, in patients stimulated with recombinant FSH and GnRH antagonists, whether triggering the final maturation of oocytes affects IVF outcomes. Five hundred and six IVF procedures were divided into three groups according to the timing of hCG administration: when at least 2 follicles reached the diameter of 17 mm, at least 2 follicles reached 18 mm and at least 2 follicles reached 20 mm. The main outcome was the number of mature oocyte that was the dependent variable of a multivariate model whose independents were, age, AFC, hCG timing, E2 levels at hCG day, number of follicles in different categories of dimension. Secondary endpoints were to compare fertilization, implantation and pregnancy rates in a multilevel multivariate model whose covariates were age, BMI, AFC, embryo quality and cause of infertility. Timing did not result a statistically significant factor influencing the number of oocytes collected, which was influenced by age, AFC, number of follicles between 12.1 and 15.9 mm and E2 levels. Implantation rate and pregnancy rate appear to be affected only by embryo quality. The number of oocytes collected and the probability of pregnancy are not associated with the time of hCG administration.

  6. Value of serum β-HCG, P, CA125, and color Doppler ultrasound in early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Li Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical value of serum β-HCG, P, CA125, and color Doppler ultrasound in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP). Methods:A total of 50 patients with EP who were admitted in our hospital from September, 2014 to September, 2015 were included in the study and served as the observation group, while 50 normal pregnant women were served as the control group. A volume of 5 mL of fasting elbow venous blood the day on admission in the two groups was extracted, and then was centrifuged for serum. The chemiluminescence immunoassay was used to detect the levels of serum β-HCG, P, and CA125. After 48h,β-HCG level was detected again. The vaginal color Doppler diasonograph was used to detect the changes of RI and PSV. The blood supply of LH was observed. Results:The levels of serumβ-HCG, P, and CA125 in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). When β-HCG<2 000 IU/L, after 48 h, β-HCG level was doubled in 3 cases (6.0%) in the observation group, while in 49 cases (98.0%) in the control group, and the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant (P<0.05). RI in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while PSV was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Blood supply in the observation group was in a half ring shape, accounting for 58.0%;in the control group was in a ring shape, accounting for 70.0%, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions:Determination of the levels of serumβ-HCG, P, and CA125 in the pregnant women, in combined with the vaginal color Doppler ultrasound detection of RI and PSV, can contribute to distinguish the normal intrauterine pregnancy with EP and prevent the misdiagnosis, which can provide an accurate reference value for the early diagnosis and timely treatment of EP, and can be used as an ideal method for the diagnosis of EP.

  7. EFFECT OF PMSG FOLLOWED BY HCG ON ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION IN WEANED SOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naskar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 crossbred sows (Hampshire X Khasi Local were selected a week after weaning and divided into two groups (30 in each. The sows in group-I were injected with 800 IU of PMSG followed by 400 IU of HCG 56 hours after PMSG. In Group-II served as untreated / control. Natural service was given to all estrus sows after 96 hours of hormonal treatment. It was noticed that 90 % of sow exhibited all the sign of estrus after 96 hours and 75 % of sows were sexually receptive to boar. The average interval between treatments to onset of estrus was 87.74 ± 10.72 hours. The duration of estrus varied from 40 to 56 hours with an average of 42.2 ± 3.24 hours in treatment group. Whereas, in control group it ranged from 27 to 52 hours with an average of 36.78 ± 4.12 hours. The furrowing rate was 88 and 90.9 % respectively in treated and control group, while the litter size was 10.37 ± 0.57 and 9.15 +0.34 and number of live born per litter was 9.24 ± 0.43 and 8.78 ± 0.27 respectively. Present finding suggested that it is possible to induce and synchronize fertile estrus with PMSG followed by HCG in weaned sows. The study also suggested that estrus synchronization followed by synchronized furrowing might be practiced to reduced pre-weaning piglet mortality during winter.

  8. Downregulation of LH and FSH receptors after hCG and eCG treatments in the porcine oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małysz-Cymborska, I; Andronowska, A

    2016-10-01

    The influence of induction of ovulation and superovulation with eCG and hCG on LH and FSH receptor levels in porcine oviducts on day 3 postcoitum was studied. In experiment I, gilts were assigned into cyclic (control; n = 5) and inseminated (n = 5) groups. In experiment II, there were 3 groups of animals: inseminated (n = 5), induced ovulation/inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n = 5) and superovulated/inseminated (1500 IU eCG, 1000 IU hCG; n = 5) gilts. Oviduct tissues were collected 3 d after insemination or PBS infusion. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of FSH receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LH/CGR) was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR and protein levels using Western blots. Localization of LH/CGR and FSHR-positive cells was studied by immunohistochemical staining. Insemination by itself did not influence mRNA and protein levels of LH/CGR. However, FSHR mRNA expression in the isthmus and ampulla of the oviduct was affected by insemination (P hCG and eCG did not affect LH/CGR and FSHR mRNA expression, either in the isthmus or in the ampulla. Nevertheless, superovulation decreased LH/CGR protein level in the oviductal ampulla (P hCG, especially in high doses, can change LH/CGR and FSHR levels in porcine oviducts. This may in turn alter many signaling pathways, eg, PGs or vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis, and consequently disturb the oviductal environment, with possible detrimental effects on fertilization and/or embryonic development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A randomized three-way cross-over study in healthy pituitary-suppressed women to compare the bioavailability of human chorionic gonadotrophin (Pregnyl®) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, B.M.J.L.; Geurts, T.B.P.; Odink, J.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of s.c. and i.m. administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG; Pregnyl®). In a randomized, single centre, three-way cross-over study, 18 healthy pituitary-suppressed volunteers were assigned to single HCG injections of 5000 and 1

  10. Mobilities of the inner three core residues and the Man(α1→6) branch of the glycan at Asn78 of the α-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin are restricted by the protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Thijssen-van Zuylen, C.W.E.M.; Beer, T. de; Leeflang, B.R.; Boelens, R.; Kaptein, R.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone involved in the maintenance of the corpus luteum in early pregnancy. The free -subunit of hCG has a biological activity of its own, namely, stimulation of prolactin secretion from term pregnancy decidual cells [Blithe, D. L.,

  11. Structural analysis of gubernaculum testis in cryptorchid patients submitted to treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel S. El Zoghbi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To make a histological and stereological analysis of gubernaculum testis elastic system fibers, collagen and striated muscle cells in patients with cryptorchidism treated with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gubernacula tissue samples were obtained from 12 patients with cryptorchidism. Patients' ages ranged from 1 to 3 years (mean 1.8. Of the 12 patients, 6 were treated with hCG. The samples were stained with Masson's trichrome to highlight muscle fibers and collagen, and Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin to highlight the elastic system fibers. The volumetric density of these components was determined by stereological methods. RESULTS: The volumetric density of collagen was increased in patients treated with hCG, ranging from 85.62% to 94.48%, while in patients not submitted to hCG treatment the volume density ranged from 52.12% to 89.46% (p = 0.0052. The volumetric density of the elastic system fibers was higher in patients treated with hCG, ranging from 9.62% to 19.62%, while patients not submitted to hCG treatment the volume density of elastic system fibers was between 10.38% and 12.38% (p = 0.0030. The volume density of striated muscle fibers in patients treated with hCG ranged from 4.76% to 39.16%, while and in patients not treated hCG it ranged from 3.24% to 11.14% (p = 0.0052. CONCLUSION: Gubernacular components alter significantly when submitted to treatment with hCG. Patients who underwent hCG treatment and had no complete testicular migration had an increase in the concentration of elastic and striated muscle fibers and a decrease in the volumetric density of collagen.

  12. A link between high serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin and chorionic expression of its mature functional receptor (LHCGR in Down's syndrome pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG is released from placental trophoblasts and is involved in establishing pregnancy by maintaining progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum. Serum hCG is detected in the maternal circulation within the first 2–3 wks of gestation and peaks at the end of the first trimester before declining. In Down's syndrome (DS pregnancies, serum hCG remains significantly high compared to gestation age-matched uncompromised pregnancies. It has been proposed that increased serum hCG levels could be due to transcriptional hyper-activation of the CGB (hCG beta gene, or an increased half life of glycosylated hCG hormone, or both. Another possibility is that serum hCG levels remain high due to reduced availability of the hormone's cognate receptor, LHCGR, leading to lack of hormone utilization. We have tested this hypothesis by quantifying the expression of the hCG beta (CGB RNA, LHCGR RNA and LHCGR proteins in chorionic villous samples. We demonstrate that chorionic expression of hCG beta (CGB mRNA directly correlates with high serum hCG levels. The steady-state synthesis of LHCGR mRNA (exons 1–5 in DS pregnancies was significantly higher than that of controls, but the expression of full-length LHCGR mRNA (exons 1–11 in DS was comparable to that of uncompromised pregnancies. However, the synthesis of high molecular weight mature LHCGR proteins was significantly reduced in DS compared to uncompromised pregnancies, suggesting a lack of utilization of circulating hCG in DS pregnancies.

  13. Combined GnRH-agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin trigger improves ICSI cycle outcomes in patients with history of poor fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rony T; Pereira, Nigel; Artusa, Lisa; Kelly, Amelia G; Pasternak, Monica; Lekovich, Jovana P; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of a combined GnRH-agonist (GnRH-a) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger in improving ICSI cycle outcomes in patients with poor fertilization history after standard hCG trigger in prior ICSI cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with a fertilization rate of trigger were compared to those who underwent another ICSI cycle with a combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger. Oocyte maturity, fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates were compared. A multiple linear regression model was used to explore the association between combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger (vs hCG trigger alone) and fertilization rate. A total of 427 patients with mean age of 37.3 ± 1.94 years and mean baseline fertilization rate of 17.9 ± 2.03% were included, of which 318 (74.5%) and 109 (25.5%) patients underwent a subsequent ICSI cycle with hCG and combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger, respectively. The baseline parameters of the male and female partner were similar. The mean fertilization rate in the combined trigger group was 16.4% (95% CI: 7.58-25.2%) higher than the hCG trigger group, even after adjustment for confounders. Patients in the combined trigger group had higher oocyte maturity (82.1 vs 69.8%), higher clinical pregnancy (27.5 vs 5.67%), and higher live birth rates (20.2 vs 3.46%) compared to the hCG trigger group. Combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger in ICSI cycles increase oocyte maturity, fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates in patients with a history of poor fertilization after standard hCG trigger alone.

  14. Luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin: origins of difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Janet; Smitz, Johan

    2014-03-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are widely recognized for their roles in ovulation and the support of early pregnancy. Aside from the timing of expression, however, the differences between LH and hCG have largely been overlooked in the clinical realm because of their similar molecular structures and shared receptor. With technologic advancements, including the development of highly purified and recombinant gonadotropins, researchers now appreciate that these hormones are not as interchangeable as once believed. Although they bind to a common receptor, emerging evidence suggests that LH and hCG have disparate effects on downstream signaling cascades. Increased understanding of the inherent differences between LH and hCG will foster more effective diagnostic and prognostic assays for use in a variety of clinical contexts and support the individualization of treatment strategies for conditions such as infertility.

  15. CAN INITIAL βHCG VALUES PREDICT THE NEED FOR SECOND DOSE OF METHOTREXATE IN MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narayanan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Prediction of requirement of second dose of methotrexate in patients treated with single dose would help in guiding treatment and counseling. The aim of this study is to determine whether pretreatment beta HCG values can predict the need for second dose of methotrexate in medically managed ectopic pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 46 women with ectopic pregnancies who were managed medically were included. The median of beta HCG titres on day 1, day 4 and day 7 was assessed in patients who responded to single dose methotrexate and those who required a second dose. RESULTS Out of the 46 patients studied, 41 responded to medical treatment (success 91%. 14 out of 41 required second dose of methotrexate (34%. Two patients required third dose of methotrexate. Five patients required surgery. DISCUSSION The median of day 1 and day 4 beta HCG values were not statistically different between those who responded to single dose methotrexate and those who required a second dose. Only day 7 values were found to be different. CONCLUSION The beta-hCG titre on day 1 and day 4 is not a predictor of requirement of second dose of methotrexate.

  16. Discontinuation of rLH two days before hCG may increase the number of oocytes retrieved in IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Session Donna R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administration of recombinant luteinizing hormone (rLH in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation may benefit a subpopulation of patients. However, late follicular phase administration of high doses of rLH may also reduce the size of the follicular cohort and promote monofollicular development. Methods To determine if rLH in late follicular development had a negative impact on follicular growth and oocyte yield, IVF patients in our practice who received rFSH and rLH for the entire stimulation were retrospectively compared with those that had the rLH discontinued at least two days prior to hCG trigger. Results The two groups had similar baseline characteristics before stimulation with respect to age, FSH level and antral follicle count. However, the group which had the rLH discontinued at least two days prior to their hCG shot, had a significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved, including a higher number of MII oocytes and number of 2PN embryos. Conclusions When using rLH for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, administering it from the start of stimulation and stopping it in the late follicular phase, at least two days prior to hCG trigger, may increase oocyte and embryo yield.

  17. Effect of GnRH and hCG on progesterone concentration and ovarian and luteal blood flow in diestrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L F C; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Ginther, O J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of reproductive hormones (GnRH, hCG, LH and progesterone) on the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian blood flow. Diestrous mares received a single treatment of saline, 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH), or 1500IU hCG 10days after ovulation. Plasma LH and progesterone concentrations, resistance index (RI) for ovarian artery blood-flow, and percentage of corpus luteum (CL) with color-Doppler signals of blood flow were determined immediately before treatment (hour 0) and at hours 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. In the GnRH group, LH increased (Pblood-flow signals was greater at hour 0.5 in the GnRH group than in the saline group and was intermediate in the hCG group. The similarity among groups in progesterone concentration indicated that changes in progesterone were not involved in the GnRH and hCG stimulation of ovarian vascular perfusion. Effects of treatment might have been mediated through LH; however, since hCG biological activity is primarily LH-like, the differences in timing and degree of ovarian and luteal blood flow changes after GnRH or hCG administration in the present study suggest that GnRH might have a direct effect on ovarian blood vessels and vascular control.

  18. WITNESSING GAS MIXING IN THE METAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE HICKSON COMPACT GROUP HCG 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Flores, S.; Alfaro-Cuello, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); De Oliveira, C. Mendes [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas da Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, CEP:05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amram, P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Carrasco, E. R. [Gemini Observatory/AURA, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); De Mello, D. F., E-mail: storres@dfuls.cl [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time direct evidence that in a merger of disk galaxies, the pre-existing central metallicities will mix as a result of gas being transported in the merger interface region along the line that joins the two coalescing nuclei. This is shown using detailed two-dimensional kinematics as well as metallicity measurements for the nearby ongoing merger in the center of the compact group HCG 31. We focus on the emission line gas, which is extensive in the system. The two coalescing cores display similar oxygen abundances. While in between the two nuclei, the metallicity changes smoothly from one nucleus to the other indicating a mix of metals in this region, which is confirmed by the high-resolution Hα kinematics (R = 45,900). This nearby system is especially important because it involves the merging of two fairly low-mass and clumpy galaxies (LMC-like galaxies), making it an important system for comparison with high-redshift galaxies.

  19. Suzaku Observation of HCG 62: Temperature, Abundance, and Extended Hard X-ray Emission Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Tokoi, Kazuyo; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ohashi, Takaya; Yamasaki, Noriko Y; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Matsushita, Kyoko; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hoshino, Akio; Tamura, Takayuki; Egawa, Chihiro; Kawano, Naomi; Ota, Naomi; Isobe, Naoki; Kawaharada, Madoka; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Hughes, John P

    2007-01-01

    We present results of 120 ks observation of a compact group of galaxies HCG~62 ($z=0.0145$) with Suzaku XIS and HXD-PIN\\@. The XIS spectra for four annular regions were fitted with two temperature {\\it vapec} model with variable abundance, combined with the foreground Galactic component. The Galactic component was constrained to have a common surface brightness among the four annuli, and two temperature {\\it apec} model was preferred to single temperature model. We confirmed the multi-temperature nature of the intra-group medium reported with Chandra and XMM-Newton, with a doughnut-like high temperature ring at radii 3.3--6.5$'$ in a hardness image. We found Mg, Si, S, and Fe abundances to be fairly robust. We examined the possible ``high-abundance arc'' at $\\sim 2'$ southwest from the center, however Suzaku data did not confirm it. We suspect that it is a misidentification of an excess hot component in this region as the Fe line. Careful background study showed no positive detection of the extended hard X-ra...

  20. Galaxy evolution in a complex environment: a multi-wavelength study of HCG 7

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, I S; Fedotov, K; Durrell, P R; Heiderman, A; Elmegreen, D M; Charlton, J C; Hibbard, J E; Tzanavaris, P; Chandar, R; Johnson, K E; Maybhate, A; Zabludoff, A E; Gronwall, C; Szathmary, D; Hornschemeier, A E; English, J; Whitmore, B; de Oliveira, C Mendes; Mulchaey, J S

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] The environment where galaxies are found heavily influences their evolution. Close groupings, like the cores of galaxy clusters or compact groups, evolve in ways far more dramatic than their isolated counterparts. We have conducted a multiwavelength study of HCG7, consisting of four giant galaxies: 3 spirals and 1 lenticular. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging to identify and characterize the young and old star cluster populations. We find young massive clusters (YMC) mostly in the three spirals, while the lenticular features a large, unimodal population of globular clusters (GC) but no detectable clusters with ages less than ~Gyr. The spatial and approximate age distributions of the ~300 YMCs and ~150 GCs thus hint at a regular star formation history in the group over a Hubble time. While at first glance the HST data show the galaxies as undisturbed, our deep ground-based, wide-field imaging that extends the HST coverage reveals faint signatures of stellar material in the intra-group medi...

  1. Adjuvant gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist trigger with human chorionic gonadotrophin to enhance ooplasmic maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Elias, Rony T; Neri, Queenie V; Gerber, Rachel S; Lekovich, Jovana P; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates whether an adjuvant gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) improves fresh intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle outcomes in patients with poor fertilization history after standard HCG trigger alone. This study compared 156 patients with trigger who underwent another ICSI cycle with a combined 2 mg GnRHa and 1500 IU HCG ovulatory trigger. There was no difference in the baseline demographics, ovarian stimulation outcomes or sperm parameters of the groups. More mature oocytes were retrieved in the combined trigger group compared with the HCG trigger group: 12 (9-14) versus 10 (7-12); P = 0.01. The fertilization rate in the combined trigger group (59.2%) was higher than the HCG group (35.3%); P = 0.01. The odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth were 1.8 and 1.7 times higher, respectively, when comparing the former group to the latter; P = 0.03. The results suggest that combined GnRHa and HCG trigger in ICSI cycles is a reasonable approach to increase oocyte maturity, specifically ooplasmic maturity, thereby increasing fertilization and improving ICSI cycle outcomes in patients with a history of poor fertilization after standard HCG trigger alone. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma after human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following hydatidiform mole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestá, Izildinha; Leite, Fábio Vicente; Michelin, Odair Carlito

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC) is rare and frequently leads to death. CASES: Two young patients presented with previous molar pregnancy and spontaneous serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalization. Patient 1 was referred to our center after partial response to chemo......BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC) is rare and frequently leads to death. CASES: Two young patients presented with previous molar pregnancy and spontaneous serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalization. Patient 1 was referred to our center after partial response...... 3 years after diagnosis. Patient 2 presented with persistently high hCG, though the affected organ was not identified. Chemotherapy was unsuccessful. Patient reevaluation showed an isolated pulmonary mass. Pulmonary lobectomy was performed; 2 weeks later, hCG was normal and consolidation with 2...

  3. Taxa de gestação em cabras Alpinas e Saanen tratadas com hCG no terceiro dia após o estro Pregnancy rate and progesterone concentration of Alpine and Saanen goats treated with hCG the third day after estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Prosperi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação da gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG sobre a taxa e duração da gestação e sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 em cabras lactantes das raças Alpina (83 e Saanen (60, na estação de acasalamento induzida pelo programa de fotoperíodo artificial. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois tratamentos após a cobrição; as cabras do tratamento 1 (T1 controle receberam solução salina via intramuscular (1ml, e as do tratamento 2 (T2 receberam 250UI do hCG, no terceiro dia no pós-estro. As taxas de gestação, detectadas por exame ultra-sonográfico, realizado no 35º após a cobrição, para as cabras das raças Alpina e Saanen controle e tratadas, foram de 80,4; 70,3; 72,7; 81,5%, respectivamente, não diferindo entre os tratamentos e entre as raças (P>0,05. A taxa média de gestação foi 77,2 e 75,0% para os animais controle e tratados, respectivamente. A duração da gestação não foi influenciada pelos tratamentos (P>0,05. As amostras de sangue para análise da concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 foram coletadas de cinco cabras Alpina por tratamento, no dia do estro (dia 0 e aos 3, 8, 15, 21, 42 e 60 dias após o estro. Não houve diferença na concentração plasmática média de P4 entre os tratamentos (P>0,05, sendo de 5,84ng/ml para T1 e 5,76ng/ml para T2. Observou-se diferença em relação aos dias de coleta (PThe experimental objective was to evaluate the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration on pregnancy rate and gestation length and on serum concentration of progesterone (P4 in Alpine (83 and Saanen (60 dairy goats induced by artificial photoperiod to enter the breeding season. Animals were randomly allocated to two treatments following estrus: in treatment 1 (T1 goats received 1ml saline solution and in treatment 2 (T2 animals received 250IU of hCG in 1ml saline intramuscularly during the third day after estrus. Pregnancy rates detected by

  4. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with angiogenesis in germ cell testicular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilés-Salas Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cell testicular tumors have survival rate that diminishes with high tumor marker levels, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. hCG may regulate vascular neoformation through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between hCG serum levels, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression in germ cell testicular tumors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 101 patients. Serum levels of hCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured prior to surgery. Vascular density (VD and VEGF tissue expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and underwent double-blind analysis. Results Histologically, 46% were seminomas and 54%, non-seminomas. Median follow-up was 43 ± 27 months. Relapse was present in 7.5% and mortality in 11.5%. Factors associated with high VD included non-seminoma type (p = 0.016, AFP ≥ 14.7 ng/mL (p = 0.0001, and hCG ≥ 25 mIU/mL (p = 0.0001. In multivariate analysis, the only significant VD-associated factor was hCG level (p = 0.04. When hCG levels were stratified, concentrations ≥ 25 mIU/mL were related with increased neovascularization (p Conclusion This is the first study that relates increased serum hCG levels with vascularization in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, its expression might play a role in tumor angiogenesis, independent of VEGF expression, and may explain its association with poor prognosis. hCG might represent a molecular target for therapy.

  5. Effects of flunixin meglumine, recombinant bovine somatotropin and/or human chorionic gonadotropin on pregnancy rates in Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, R C; Perdigão, A; Mesquita, F S; Sá Filho, M; Nogueira, G P; Machado, R; Membrive, C M B; Binelli, M

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to compare pharmacological strategies aiming to inhibit prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF(2α)) synthesis (flunixin meglumine; FM), stimulate growth of the conceptus (recombinant bovine somatotropin; bST) and progesterone (P(4)) synthesis (human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG), as well as their combinations, regarding their ability to improve pregnancy rates in beef cattle. Lactating Nelore cows (N = 975), 35 to 70 days postpartum, were synchronized and inseminated by timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 0. On Day 7, cattle were allocated into eight groups and received one of the following treatments: saline (S) on Days 7 and 16 (Group Control); S on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group FM); bST on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group bST); bST on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group bST + FM); hCG on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group hCG); hCG on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group hCG + FM); bST and hCG on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group bST + hCG), or bST and hCG on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group bST + hCG + FM). The aforementioned treatments were administered at the following doses: 2.2 mg/kg FM (Banamine®; Intervet Schering-Plough, Cotia, SP, Brazil), 500 mg bST (Boostin®; Intervet Schering-Plough), and 2500 IU hCG (Chorulon®; Intervet Schering-Plough). Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 40 days after TAI by transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnancy rates were not significantly different among treatments. However, there was a main effect of hCG treatment to increase pregnancy rates (63.0 vs. 55.4%; P = 0.001). Concentrations of P(4) did not differ significantly among groups on Day 7 or on Day 16. However, consistent with the higher pregnancy rates, hCG increased P(4) concentrations on Day 16 (10.6 vs. 9.6 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.05). We concluded that hCG treatment 7 days after TAI improved pregnancy rates of lactating Nelore cows, possibly via a mechanism leading to induction of higher P(4) concentrations, or by reducing the luteolytic stimulus during maternal recognition of

  6. Androgen-responsive non-coding small RNAs extend the potential of HCG stimulation to act as a bioassay of androgen sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodie, M E; Mudaliar, M A V; Herzyk, P; McMillan, M; Boroujerdi, M; Chudleigh, S; Tobias, E S; Ahmed, S F

    2017-10-01

    It is unclear whether a short-term change in circulating androgens is associated with changes in the transcriptome of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). To explore the effect of hCG stimulation on the PBMC transcriptome, 12 boys with a median age (range) of 0.7 years (0.3, 11.2) who received intramuscular hCG 1500u on 3 consecutive days as part of their investigations underwent transcriptomic array analysis on RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after hCG stimulation. Median pre- and post-hCG testosterone for the overall group was 0.7 nmol/L (hCG stimulation with a pre and post median serum testosterone of hCG effects, all 9 of the hCG responders consistently demonstrated a 20% or greater increase in the expression of piR-37153 and piR-39248, non-coding PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). In addition, of the 9 responders, 8, 6 and 4 demonstrated a 30, 40 and 50% rise, respectively, in a total of 2 further piRNAs. In addition, 3 of the responders showed a 50% or greater rise in the expression of another small RNA, SNORD5. On comparing fold-change in serum testosterone with fold-change in the above transcripts, a positive correlation was detected for SNORD5 (P = 0.01). The identification of a dynamic and androgen-responsive PBMC transcriptome extends the potential value of the hCG test for the assessment of androgen sufficiency. © 2017 The authors.

  7. Sliding scale HCG trigger yields equivalent pregnancy outcomes and reduces ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: Analysis of 10,427 IVF-ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnala, Vinay; Melnick, Alexis; Irani, Mohamad; Reichman, David; Schattman, Glenn; Davis, Owen; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate pregnancy outcomes and the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) using a sliding scale hCG protocol to trigger oocyte maturity and establish a threshold level of serum b-hCG associated with optimal oocyte maturity. Retrospective cohort. Academic medical center. Fresh IVF cycles from 9/2004-12/2011. 10,427 fresh IVF-ICSI cycles met inclusion criteria. hCG was administered according to E2 level at trigger: 10,000IU vs. 5,000IU vs. 4,000IU vs. 3,300IU vs. dual trigger (2mg leuprolide acetate + 1,500IU hCG). Serum absorption of hCG was assessed according to dose and BMI. Oocyte maturity was analyzed according to post-trigger serum b-hCG. Fertilization, clinical pregnancy, live birth and OHSS rates were examined by hCG trigger dose. Post-trigger serum b-hCG 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 mIU/mL was associated with reduced oocyte maturity as compared b-hCG >50 (67.8% vs. 71.4% vs. 73.3% vs. 78.9%, respectively, PhCG 20-50 mIU/mL was associated with a 40.1% reduction in live birth (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.87). No differences in IVF outcomes per retrieval were seen for varying doses of hCG or dual trigger when controlling for patient age. The incidence of moderate to severe OHSS was 0.13% (n = 14) and severe OHSS was 0.03% (n = 4) of cycles. Moderate stimulation with sliding scale hCG at trigger and fresh transfer is associated with low rates of OHSS and favorable pregnancy rates. Doses as low as 3,300IU alone or dual trigger with 1,500IU are sufficient to facilitate oocyte maturity.

  8. Witnessing Gas Mixing in the Metal Distribution of the Hickson Compact Group HCG 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Flores, S.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Amram, P.; Alfaro-Cuello, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; de Mello, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time direct evidence that in a merger of disk galaxies, the pre-existing central metallicities will mix as a result of gas being transported in the merger interface region along the line that joins the two coalescing nuclei. This is shown using detailed two-dimensional kinematics as well as metallicity measurements for the nearby ongoing merger in the center of the compact group HCG 31. We focus on the emission line gas, which is extensive in the system. The two coalescing cores display similar oxygen abundances. While in between the two nuclei, the metallicity changes smoothly from one nucleus to the other indicating a mix of metals in this region, which is confirmed by the high-resolution Hα kinematics (R = 45,900). This nearby system is especially important because it involves the merging of two fairly low-mass and clumpy galaxies (LMC-like galaxies), making it an important system for comparison with high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina) - Observing run: GS-2012B-Q-60.

  9. Deep Chandra observations of HCG 16. I. Active nuclei, star formation, and galactic winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, E.; Zezas, A.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Trevisan, M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, 12227-010, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Ponman, T. J.; Raychaudhury, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mamon, G. A., E-mail: eosullivan@cfa.harvard.edu [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris (UMR 7095 CNRS and UMPC), 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-10-01

    We present new, deep Chandra X-ray and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610 MHz observations of the spiral-galaxy-rich compact group HCG 16, which we use to examine nuclear activity, star formation, and high-luminosity X-ray binary populations in the major galaxies. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838. All three nuclei are variable on timescales of months to years, and for NGC 833 and NGC 835 this is most likely caused by changes in accretion rate. The deep Chandra observations allow us to detect for the first time an Fe Kα emission line in the spectrum of the Seyfert 2 nucleus of NGC 835. We find that NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with only weak nuclear activity, in agreement with previous optical studies. We estimate the star formation rates in the two galaxies from their X-ray and radio emission, and compare these results with estimates from the infrared and ultraviolet bands to confirm that star formation in both galaxies is probably declining after galaxy-wide starbursts were triggered ∼400-500 Myr ago. We examine the physical properties of their galactic superwinds, and find that both have temperatures of ∼0.8 keV. We also examine the X-ray and radio properties of NGC 848, the fifth largest galaxy in the group, and show that it is dominated by emission from its starburst.

  10. Air-suspended TiO2-based HCG reflectors for visible spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ehsan; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Johan; Carlsson, Stefan; Rossbach, Georg; Haglund, Åsa

    2015-02-01

    For GaN-based microcavity light emitters, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and resonant cavity light emitting diodes (RCLEDs) in the blue-green wavelength regime, achieving a high reflectivity wide bandwidth feedback mirror is truly challenging. The material properties of the III-nitride alloys are hardly compatible with the conventional distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and the newly proposed high-contrast gratings (HCGs). Alternatively, at least for the top outcoupling mirror, dielectric materials offer more suitable material combinations not only for the DBRs but also for the HCGs. HCGs may offer advantages such as transverse mode and polarization control, a broader reflectivity spectrum than epitaxially grown DBRs, and the possibility to set the resonance wavelength after epitaxial growth by the grating parameters. In this work we have realized an air-suspended TiO2 grating with the help of a SiO2 sacrificial layer. The deposition processes for the dielectric layers were fine-tuned to minimize the residual stress. To achieve an accurate control of the grating duty cycle, a newly developed lift-off process, using hydrogen silesquioxan (HSQ) and sacrificial polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resists, was applied to deposit the hard mask, providing sub-10 nm resolution. The finally obtained TiO2/air HCGs were characterized in a micro-reflectance measurement setup. A peak power reflectivity in excess of 95% was achieved for TM polarization at the center wavelength of 435 nm, with a reflectivity stopband width of about 80 nm (FWHM). The measured HCG reflectance spectra were compared to corresponding simulations obtained from rigorous coupled-wave analysis and very good agreement was found.

  11. Deep Chandra Observations of HCG 16. I. Active Nuclei, Star Formation, and Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E.; Zezas, A.; Vrtilek, J. M.; Giacintucci, S.; Trevisan, M.; David, L. P.; Ponman, T. J.; Mamon, G. A.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-10-01

    We present new, deep Chandra X-ray and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope 610 MHz observations of the spiral-galaxy-rich compact group HCG 16, which we use to examine nuclear activity, star formation, and high-luminosity X-ray binary populations in the major galaxies. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838. All three nuclei are variable on timescales of months to years, and for NGC 833 and NGC 835 this is most likely caused by changes in accretion rate. The deep Chandra observations allow us to detect for the first time an Fe Kα emission line in the spectrum of the Seyfert 2 nucleus of NGC 835. We find that NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with only weak nuclear activity, in agreement with previous optical studies. We estimate the star formation rates in the two galaxies from their X-ray and radio emission, and compare these results with estimates from the infrared and ultraviolet bands to confirm that star formation in both galaxies is probably declining after galaxy-wide starbursts were triggered ~400-500 Myr ago. We examine the physical properties of their galactic superwinds, and find that both have temperatures of ~0.8 keV. We also examine the X-ray and radio properties of NGC 848, the fifth largest galaxy in the group, and show that it is dominated by emission from its starburst.

  12. Does Postevacuation β -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Level Predict the Persistent Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    β -human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level is not a reliable marker for early identification of persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after evacuation of hydatidiform mole. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate β -HCG regression after evacuation as a predictive factor of malignant GTN in complete molar pregnancy. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 260 patients with complete molar pregnancy. Sixteen of the 260 patients were excluded. Serum leve...

  13. MicroRNA array and microarray evaluation of endometrial receptivity in patients with high serum progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of higher progesterone (P level on endometrial receptivity. Methods This was a prospective analysis conducted in the Reproductive Medical Center of Peking University Third Hospital. All patients received IVF treatment and canceled embryo transfer in the same cycle and were divided into group 1 (normal P; 7 patients and group 2 (elevated P; 12 patients. Endometrial biopsies were performed 6 days after oocyte retrieval. The global miRNA and mRNA gene expressions in endometrial biopsies were investigated with a V4.0 miRNA probe and 22 K Human Genome Array. Fold ratios were derived to compare gene regulation between the groups. Spp1 and Ang gene expression was selected to verify the array results by RT-PCR and the protein expression of osteopontin and VEGF was determined using an immunohistochemical method. Results There were 4 miRNA (all down-regulated and 22 mRNA (13 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated exhibiting differential expression between the groups on the microRNA and microarray chips. miRNA-451, Spp1, and Ang expression in RT-PCR verified the array results. Osteopontin and VEGF were also shown to have positive expression in the endometrium. Conclusions Data from microRNA and microarray analysis suggests dissimilar endometrial receptivity in patients with high P levels on the day of hCG, and elevated osteopontin and decreased VEGF had poor pregnancy rates.

  14. 动态监测血清β-HCG和PROG在胚胎移植后先兆流产早期诊断中的应用%The effect of Dynamic monitoring serumβ-HCG and PROG on early diagnosis of threatened abortion after embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖雪晴; 张丹; 吴尊凤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of Dynamic monitoring serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) and progesterone (PROG) on early diagnosis of threatened abortion after embryo transfer. Methods 60 pregnant women after carrying out embryo transfer were divided into normal pregnant group, threatened abortion group and abortion group according to their clinical manifestations, 20 cases in each group.And serum progesterone and β-HCG levels were compared in all groups. Results At 15th, 16th, 17th day of the pregnancy, serum progesterone level in the abortion group was lower than that in other two groups, but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in serum progesterone level between normal pregnancy group and threatened abortion group. There were significant difference on β-HCG level between three groups and one group in different time (P<0.05). Theβ-HCG level in the abortion group was significantly lower than that in the threatened abortion group (P<0.05), and theβ-HCG level in the threatened abortion group was significantly lower than that in the normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Conclusion Serum progesterone andβ-HCG are highly instructive for IVF-ET early diagnosis of threatened abortion. The serum progesterone and β-HCG combined detection can improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the prediction for the patients with threatened abortion, effectively guide the treatment, improve the therapeutic effect and reduce patients' economic burdens.%目的 探讨血清β-绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)和孕酮(PROG)检测在胚胎移植后先兆流产早期诊断中的临床意义.方法 60例胚胎移植后早孕孕妇分为正常妊娠组( n=20例)、先兆性流产组(n=20例)和流产组(n=20例).比较3组孕妇血清PROG和β-HCG水平.结果 胚胎移植后妊娠第15、16、17 d,流产组孕妇的血清孕酮水平比其他两组低,但无统计学意义,先兆性流产组孕妇的血清孕酮水平和正常妊

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Serumβ-HCG in Patients with Ectopic Pregnancy%宫外孕患者血清β-HCG定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶春妃; 朱晓莉

    2016-01-01

    Objective By patients serumβ-HCG quantitative analysis is simple and effective method of early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.Methods using chemiluminescence method to detect the contents ofβ-HCG serum of 623 cases of ectopic pregnancy patients and 250 cases of normal pregnancy group ofβ-HCG levels and compare.Results 250 cases of normal pregnancy serumβ-HCG average concentration is 71.78 mIU/mL,623 cases of ectopic pregancy group serumβ-HCG average concentration of 37.49 mIU/mL.Ectopic pregnancy patients serumβ-HCG average concentration is lower than normal pregnancy;Ectopic pregnancy patients serum concentration ofβ-HCG on between 15mIU/mL to 45 mIU/mL.Conclusion Ectopic pregnancy patients serum beta HCG levels significantly lower than the control group ( ﹤0.05),β-HCG serum quantitative analysis has an important value for early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy diagnosis,worth clinical promotion.%目的:通过患者血清β-HCG定量分析探讨早期诊断宫外孕的简便有效的方法。方法采用化学发光方法检测623例宫外孕患者血清β-HCG含量与250例正常妊娠组β-HCG含量并进行比较。结果250例正常妊娠组的血清β-HCG平均浓度为71.78 mIU/mL,623例宫外孕组的血清β-HCG平均浓度为37.49 mIU/mL。宫外孕患者的血清β-HCG平均浓度低于正常妊娠组;宫外孕患者血清β-HCG的浓度集中在15~45 mIU/mL。结论异位妊娠组患者血清β-HCG水平明显低于对照组(<0.05),对早期诊断宫外孕诊断具有重要的价值。

  16. A randomized controlled dose-response pilot study of addition of hCG to recombinant FSH during controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, A; Egeberg, Anne Noes; Smitz, J;

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to define an optimal dose of hCG in combination with rFSH from the first day of stimulation in the GnRH agonist protocol applied to IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Supplementation with hCG from the first day of stimulation may increase the number of top-quality embryos per patient. Daily doses...... of hCG up to 150 IU are compatible with good live birth rates. A ceiling level of estradiol (E(2)) was reached with hCG doses above 100 IU/day. A positive dose-response was seen for pre-ovulatory progesterone, but concentrations remained below values for which an impairment of endometrial receptivity...... has been previously reported. We suggest a large clinical trial to be proceeded with a group given 100 IU hCG daily versus a control group. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Prospective multicentre studies have indicated increased live birth rates and increased number of top-quality embryos when...

  17. The effect of post-mating hCG or progesterone administration on reproductive performance of Afshari × Booroola-Merino crossbred ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Behnam; Hajizadeh, Rahman; Shahir, Mohammad-Hossein; Aliyari, Davood

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the efficiency of hCG/CIDR after breeding to increase the reproductive performance, 35 synchronized ewes were mated with fertile rams and were assigned to three treatment groups. Ewes in hCG group (n = 12) received 400 IU hCG on day 11 post-mating, and ewes in CIDR group (n = 11) received CIDR from day 7 until day 19 post-mating. Ewes in the control group (n = 12) did not receive any treatment. Blood samples were collected on days 7, 12, 17, and 22 post-mating. Plasma P4 concentrations were higher on days 12 and 17 post-mating in hCG- and CIDR-treated groups (P hCG and control groups were higher than that in CIDR group (P hCG group produced more quadruplets (P hCG group (3.6%) was less than that in control (11.8%; P  0.05) groups. Post-mating administration of hCG or CIDR did not affect the lamb birth weight in single and quadruplet births (P > 0.05), but the birth weight of twin lambs was higher in the hCG and CIDR groups (P hCG and CIDR groups (P hCG/CIDR administration post-mating increased the maternal P4 concentrations and enhanced reproductive performance.

  18. Bio-equivalent doses of recombinant HCG and recombinant LH during ovarian stimulation result in similar oestradiol output: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Laursen, Rita Jakubcionyte; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Haahr, Thor; Yding Andersen, Claus; Humaidan, Peter

    2017-08-01

    In nature, HCG is secreted by the implanting embryo from peri-implantation and onwards. In contrast, LH is mandatory for steroidogenesis and follicular development during the follicular phase, working in synergy with FSH. Moreover, LH is mandatory for the function of the corpus luteum. Although LH and HCG bind to the same receptor, significant molecular, structural and functional differences exist, inducing differences in bioactivity. This randomized controlled study compared the effect of recombinant FSH stimulation combined with daily either micro-dose recombinant HCG or recombinant LH supplementation in a 1:1 bioactivity ratio from day 1 of stimulation in a long gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist down regulation protocol. A total of 100 patients from a public clinic completed the study. The primary end-point was the oestradiol level on the day of ovulation trigger and the median oestradiol level in the HCG supplemented group was 8662 pmol/l versus 9203 pmol/l in the recombinant LH supplemented group; therefore, no significant difference was found. Moreover, no differences were observed in the number of oocytes retrieved or in the live birth rate. We conclude that recombinant HCG and recombinant LH are equally effective in boosting oestradiol synthesis during ovarian stimulation when used in a 1:1 bioactivity ratio. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Live birth of twins after performing early hCG administration as a modification of natural cycle in vitro fertilization, in a women with decreased ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Jordana H; Sokal-Arnon, Tamar; Son, Weon-Young; Tan, Seang Lin; Dahan, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    This case reports the first twin live births achieved in a woman with a serum FSH of such magnitude -80 IU/L, after following early hCG administration in natural cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF). Case report. A 27-year-old with 2 years of primary infertility presented with regular menses since menarche. FSH following clomiphene citrate challenge test was 80 IU/L. Antral follicle count was 1. After failing two IVF cycles, natural cycle IVF with early hCG administration was attempted. Ovulation with 10,000 IU hCG was triggered when the dominant follicle was 10 mm in mean diameter. Two smaller follicles were also present. Oocyte collection was performed 38 h after hCG injection. Three mature oocytes were retrieved. Two oocytes fertilized normally. Two good-quality embryos were transferred on day 2. Bichorionic biamniotic pregnancy was achieved and healthy twins were delivered at term. This case suggests that natural cycles with early hCG administration should be investigated further as an option for poor responders to retrieve more than one mature oocyte, and prevent premature ovulation. We believe this case to represent the patient with the highest serum FSH level, reflective of ovarian reserve at the time of treatment, to achieve a live birth. It is also the first case report to describe this modification on the traditional natural cycle.

  20. The clinical significance of preoperative serum CEA,β-HCG and CXs detection in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Hua Yang; Juan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical significance of preoperative serum CEA,β-HCG and CXs detection in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer and provide reference for clinical diagnosis and disease treatment.Methods:Non-small cell lung cancer patients treated in our hospital from April 2009 to April 2014 were analyzed. Correlation between preoperative serum CEA,β-HCG as well as Cxs and clinical stages as well as prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer was assayed. Healthy subjects in our hospital during the same period were taken as control group.Results:Serum CEA,β-HCG and Cxs had no obvious correlation with patients’ age and gender, but CEA andβ-HCG had negative correlation with the clinical stages and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer while Connexin43 had positive correlation with the clinical stages and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.Conclusions:Preoperative serum CEA combined withβ-HCG and CXs detection can be taken as key molecules in clinical diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

  1.  The Values of CA-125, Progesterone, ß-HCG and Estradiol in the Early Prediction of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Abdul Qadir Al-Moayed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: To explore the diagnostic value and measurement of serum CA-125, the single measurement of progesterone (P,ß-HCG, and estradiol (E2 in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.Methods: Serum levels of CA-125, progesterone, ß-HCG and estradiol were measured by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA techniques in 40 symptomatic women with ectopic pregnancy and 24 women with normal intrauterine pregnancy during gestational age of 4-10 weeks at Al-Kadhmiya Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, between November 2010 and June 2011.Results: The mean ±SEM serum levels of CA-125, progesterone, ß-HCG, and estradiol in patients with ectopic pregnancies (16.51±2.39U/ml; 2.54±0.47ng/ml; 72.75±12.27mIU/ml; 13.4±2.14pg/ml; respectively were significantly lower than the levels in normal intrauterine pregnancies (74.25±18.5U/ml; 28.36±3.7ng/ml; 249.54±18.0mIU/ml; 112.7±23.6pg/ml; respectively. When using a CA-125 concentration of 20.5 U/ml as a cut-off value for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy, sensitivity was 75.7�20specificity 100�20the positive predictive value was100�0and the negative predictive value 71.4�onclusion: The measurement of CA-125 and progesterone levels is useful in discriminating ectopic from normal gestations.

  2. Potential Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Sjögren Syndrome With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Sjögren syndrome (SS) ameliorate during pregnancy, through dampening (immunotolerance) of the maternal immune system which protects the fetus from rejection. A large number of studies have shown that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) contributes to this tolerance. Studies on animal models have reaffirmed that hCG treatment mimics the benefits of pregnancy. Based on the scientific evidence, randomized clinical trials comparing hCG with current therapies and/or placebo are recommended for RA, SS, and for other autoimmune diseases such as, type 1 diabetes and ankylosing spondylitis, which also get better during pregnancy and hCG treatment seems to help.

  3. Studies on stabilities of some human chorionic gonadotropin complexes with {beta}-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Moumita [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sen, Kamalika [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sen, Souvik [Malda Town Divisional Railway Hospital, Malda 732102 (India); Lahiri, Susanta, E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.i [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone, whose one of the structural subunits is identical to that of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). As a consequence, the receptors of TSH also act as receptor for hCG hormone. Keeping in mind this interesting property of hCG we have studied the complex formation ability of various no-carrier-added {beta}-emitting isotopes of {sup 61}Cu (3.3 h), {sup 62}Zn (9.2 h), {sup 90}Nb (14.60 h) and {sup 99}Mo (66.02 h) with hCG molecule. Stability of the hCG-M (M=metal ions) complexes was investigated by dialysis with respect to triple distilled water and ringer lactate solution, which has the same composition as extracellular fluid.

  4. Determination of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Postmortem Samples in Ectopic Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiere, Cristian; Lesta, Maria del Mar; Fanton, Laurent; Ventura, Francesco; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Increased human chorionic gonadotropin levels (HCG) can be detected in femoral blood, bile, and vitreous humor collected during autopsy of pregnant women using a standard kit designed for living patients. In the study herein, the concentrations of HCG were measured in postmortem serum, vitreous, bile, cerebrospinal, and pericardial fluids in 4 cases of fatal ectopic pregnancy and 40 controls using a quantitative electrochemiluminescence immunoassay designed for living patients. No false-negative cases were identified in any of the analyzed samples in any of the ectopic pregnancy cases. No correlations were found between total HCG levels in postmortem serum and the other tested specimens. The results of this study would suggest that higher HCG in bile, vitreous, pericardial, and cerebrospinal fluids may confirm the existence of ectopic pregnancy and therefore identify other situations in which this hormone is increased, although gestational age cannot be reliably estimated using these values. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Effect of intrauterine injection of human chorionic gonadotropin before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostajeran, Fatemeh; Godazandeh, Farzaneh; Ahmadi, Sayed Mehdi; Movahedi, Minoo; Jabalamelian, Seyed Abolfazl

    2017-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the most important factor to controlled implantation is one of the early embryonic signals in primates that is secreted by the embryo before its implantation. This study was designed to assess the effects of intrauterine injection of hCG before the embryo transfer in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle on pregnancy rate in infertile patients. This randomized study was done on 100 infertile patients in two groups: intervention group received injection of 700 IU of intrauterine hCG 10 min before embryo transfer and control group did not receive hCG. The pregnancy rate was tested 2 weeks after embryo transfer, and if the pregnancy test was positive, a transvaginal ultrasound was performed 3 weeks later to search for signs of pregnancy, such as the presence of a gestational sac, embryo, and fetal heart rate, and confirmed as successful pregnancy. Pregnancy test was positive in 13 (28.6%) of 46 patients in hCG group and in control group was positive in 6 (12.5%) of 48 patients. The pregnancy rate between hCG group and control group was not significantly different (P = 0.54). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with IVF fertilization was 20.8% and in their controls was 7.4% (P = 0.51). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with ICSI fertilization was 36.4% and in their controls was 19% (P = 0.16). The intrauterine injection of 700 IU of hCG before embryo transfer improved pregnancy rate compared to control group but was not significantly different.

  6. Purificación de la hormona Gonadotropina Coriónica humana (HCG por cromatografía de inmunoafinidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayami Dorta Hernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se repota la purificación de la hormona Gonadotropina Coriónica Humana (HCG a escala experimental, a partir de concentrados de orina de mujeres gestales, utilizando el método de inmunopurificación por cromatografía de afinidad. Para ello se acoplaron convalentemente anticuerpos monoclonales específicos por la subunidad ß de la HCG a polímeros de Sefarosa CL 4B activada con Bromuro de Cianógeno (PHARMACIA, Suecia. Se logró aislar la glicoproteína HCG con más de un 95 % de pureza, utilizando KSCN 3M como tampón de elución. La proteína obtenida mantuvo su actividad natural, determinada por Dipstick Cromatográfico y análisis por Western-blot.

  7. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM). Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). Free testosterone (T...

  8. Dual trigger with combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin significantly improves the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist cycles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Ming-Huei; Wu, Frank Shao-Ying; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwu, Yuh-Ming

    2013-01-01

    ...) agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can improve the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles...

  9. Interaction Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Modifies Secondary And Tertiary Protein Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hakeim Hussein K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP have good biocompatibility and bioactivity inside human body. In this study, the interaction between CaPNP and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was analyzed to determine the changes in the protein structure in the presence of CaPNP and the quantity of protein adsorbed on the CaPNP surface. The results showed a significant adsorption of hCG on the CaPNP nanoparticle surface. The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 68.23 µg/mg. The thermodynamic parameters, including ∆H° and ∆G°, of the adsorption process are positive, whereas ∆S° is negative. The circular dichroism results of the adsorption of hCG on CaPNP showed the changes in its secondary structure; such changes include the decomposition of α-helix strand and the increase in β-pleated sheet and random coil percentages. Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein. The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface.

  10. Comparative study between uses of GnRH- agonist versus hCG as an ovulation trigger in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome in antagonist protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Nadkarni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the major causes of infertility. Almost 75% of ovulatory women have PCOS. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies are known complications of PCOS in ART. Many studies are available now, to reduce the incidence and severity of OHSS in these patients, at the same time achieving acceptable pregnancy rate .In our study, we used Antagonist protocol in PCOS patients and compared the results using GnRH-Agonist versus hCG as ovulation trigger. Methods: This is double blinded comparative study between uses of GnRH- Agonist versus hCG as an ovulation trigger in 100 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome in antagonist protocol, done in private ART setting. In the study, 100 patients randomly allotted in two groups (A and B, each 50 patients, given ovulation trigger (When leading three follicles were >18 mm as group A-GnRH-Agonist (Inj. Triptoreline 0.1 mg, 12 hours apart two doses subcutaneously and group B hCG as (Inj. Recombinant hCG, 250 mcg single dose subcutaneously. Results: In our study, In 50 patients of group A, total 31 patients were pregnant. In group B of 50 cases, 29 patients were pregnant. There was no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05. Incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is significantly less in PCOS patients, when GnRH agonist is used as ovulation trigger in Antagonist protocol, as compared to hCG (P 0.05. None patient of two groups developed severe OHSS. Conclusions: Incidence of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is significantly less in patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome when GnRH agonist is used as an ovulation trigger, as compared to hCG, in Antagonist protocol. In our study, there was no significant difference in pregnancy rates between two groups. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1161-1164

  11. Retrospective comparison of GnRH agonist trigger with HCG trigger in GnRH antagonist cycles in anticipated high-responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Adrija Kumar; Eapen, Abey; Birch, Heidi; Kurinchi-Selvan, Anitha; Lockwood, Gillian

    2014-11-01

    All IVF-ICSI cycles carried out between October 2009 and October 2012 using GnRH agonist (GnRHa) ovulation trigger (n = 62) followed by a single dose of HCG plus progesterone and oestradiol in the luteal phase because of anticipated ovarian hypertsimulation were retrospectively compared with historic control cycles using HCG trigger (n = 29) and standard luteal phase support. Women's mean age, body mass index, anti-Müllerian hormone, FSH, LH, starting and total stimulation dose, number of follicles, oocytes, embryos, fertilization, implantation, polycystic ovary syndrome, ICSI, live birth and ongoing pregnancy rates per embryo transfer were similar (GnRHa 40.7% versus HCG 35.0%). For each started cycle, GnRHa resulted in 11.4% higher (statistically non-significant) live birth and ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 1.73, CI 0.64 to 4.69), with a similar difference for double-embryo transfers (OR 1.62, CI 0.44 to 6.38) and less need for freezing all embryos (9.7% versus 27.6%; P = 0.04). Incidence of mild-to-moderate OHSS was 16.2% with GnRHa trigger and 31.0% with HCG trigger) and no severe OHSS in the former. The addition of single low-dose HCG in the luteal phase after GnRHa trigger for suspected high-responders reduced the incidence of OHSS with good clinical outcomes, compared with HCG trigger. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The histopathological effects of superovulatory drugs GnRHα/PMSG/HCG on the endometrial tissues of rat

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    Parviz Bazzi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using of stimulatory drugs such as: GnRHα/ PMSG/ HCG for induction of superovulation and harvesting more oocytes is very common during Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART. Studies and experiences have recently shown that the rate of successful implantation in stimulatory cycles is less than natural cycles. Methods: The possible effects of above mentioned drugs on ultrastructures of endometrial tissues (Luminal epithelium was done by endometrial biopsies from female rats (N=30 which were under superovulaion treatment and from control rats with normal menstrual cycles (N=30. The specimens were processed for electronmicroscopic studies. Qualitative and quantitative (morphologic and morphometric studies were carried out on electronmicrographs. Morphological findings based on three structures namely: nuclear channel system (NCS, giant mitochondria (GM and glycogen vacuoles in addition to pinopode system and nuclear euchromatin were evaluated. Results: In morphology, luminal epithelium was more active and had more secretions in rats under superovulation compared with control group. Morphometric findings showed that in case group, volume fraction of nucleus RER, mitochondrium, glycogen to cell and euchromatin to nucleus had statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Superovulatory drugs GnRHα/PMSG/HCG have a negative effect on endometrial tissues at the time of implantation which may lead to low implantation rate.

  13. Anticuerpos monoclonales contra la Gonadotropina Corionica Humana (HCG y su empleo en el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la obtención y caracterización de anticuerpos monoclonales contra la hormona gonadotropina cariónica humana (HCG, seleccionados de la inmunización subcutánea en ratones BALB/c. Se reporta también el desarrollo del sistema rápido HeberFast Line® Embarazo, para la detección de la hormona en muestras de orina, basado en los anticuerpos obtenidos y la tecnología del flujo lateral desarrollada en membranas de nitrocelulosa como soporte sólido. El nivel de sensibilidad alcanzado con este sistema diagnóstico es de 20 UI/L de HCG en muestra de orina, y no se observó reactividad cruzada en analitos similares conteniendo concentraciones de las glicohormonas relacionadas; 1000 IU de LH, 5000 IU de FSH, y 1000 µIU de TSH respectivamente. Los estudios de estabilidad arrojaron, que el diagnosticador mantine las características de funcionalidad por un tiempo de 15 meses a temperaturas entre 2 y 30 ºC, conformando este el tiempo de vigencia del sistema. De poseer en Farmacias, Consultorios Médicos de la Familia y Hospital Gineco-Obstétricos, un sistema rápido y sencillo como el establecido en este trabajo, se pueden evitar todos los riesgos e inconvenientes que acarrean los procesos de interrupción del embarazo en la mujer.

  14. Improvement of in vitro stability and pharmacokinetics of hIFN-α by fusing the carboxyl-terminal peptide of hCG β-subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceaglio, Natalia; Gugliotta, Agustina; Tardivo, María Belén; Cravero, Dianela; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Kratje, Ricardo; Oggero, Marcos

    2016-03-10

    Improving in vivo half-life and in vitro stability of protein-based therapeutics is a current challenge for the biopharmaceutical industry. In particular, recombinant human interferon alpha-2b (rhIFN-α2b), which belongs to a group of cytokines extensively used for the treatment of viral diseases and cancers, shows a poor stability in solution and an extremely short plasma half-life which determines a strict therapeutic regimen comprising high and repeated doses. In this work, we have used a strategy based on the fusion of the carboxyl-terminal peptide (CTP) of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) β-subunit, bearing four O-linked oligosaccharide recognition sites, to each or both N- and C-terminal ends of rhIFN-α2b. Molecules containing from 5 (CTP-IFN and IFN-CTP) to 9 (CTP-IFN-CTP) O-glycosylation sites were efficiently expressed and secreted to CHO cells supernatants, and exhibited antiviral and antiproliferative bioactivities in vitro. Significant improvements in pharmacokinetics in rats were achieved through this approach, since the doubly CTP-modified IFN variant showed a 10-fold longer elimination half-life and a 19-fold decreased plasma apparent clearance compared to the wild-type cytokine. Moreover, CTP-IFN-CTP demonstrated a significant increase in in vitro thermal resistance and a higher stability against plasma protease inactivation, both features attributed to the stabilizing effects of the O-glycans provided by the CTP moiety. These results constitute the first report that postulates CTP as a tag for improving both the in vitro and in vivo stability of rhIFN-α2b which, in turn, would positively influence its in vivo bioactivity.

  15. Androgen priming using aromatase inhibitor and hCG during early-follicular-phase GnRH antagonist down-regulation in modified antagonist protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Andersen, A N; Loft, A;

    2006-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may enhance their sensitivity to FSH. The aim of this study was to increase the intraovarian androgen level using aromatase inhibitors and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) and to test this concept clinically.......Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may enhance their sensitivity to FSH. The aim of this study was to increase the intraovarian androgen level using aromatase inhibitors and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) and to test this concept clinically....

  16. Mid-trimester maternal serum AFP and hCG as markers of preterm and term adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancrède, Sabrina; Bujold, Emmanuel; Giguère, Yves; Renald, Marie-Hélène; Girouard, Joel; Forest, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    Objectif : Évaluer les coefficients de prévision propres aux taux sériques d’alphafœtoprotéine (AFP) et de gonadotrophine chorionique (hCG) constatés au deuxième trimestre pour ce qui est des issues de grossesse indésirables à médiation placentaire (IGIMP) obtenues avant le terme et à terme. Méthodes : Nous avons tiré, d’une étude de cohorte prospective, des données concernant des femmes nullipares ayant connu une grossesse monofœtale exempte d’aneuploïdie ou d’anomalies fœtales mortelles. Nous avons comparé les taux sériques maternels d’AFP et de hCG (mesurés entre 13 et 17 semaines de gestation et exprimés sous forme de multiples de la médiane [MoM] en fonction de l’âge gestationnel) des femmes ayant connu une IGIMP (prééclampsie, retard de croissance intra-utérin, décès fœtal) avant le terme ou à terme à ceux des femmes qui n’en sont pas venues à connaître de telles complications. Résultats : Au sein d’un groupe de 3 466 femmes nullipares, les taux sériques maternels d’AFP et de hCG étaient connus dans 2 110 cas et 2 125 cas, respectivement. Les femmes qui ont connu une IGIMP avant le terme présentaient des valeurs de MoM pour ce qui est des taux sériques d’AFP (1,4 vs 1,1 MoM; P  2,0 MoM ait été associée à un risque accru d’IGIMP avant le terme (RR, 4,6; IC à 95 %, 2,3 - 9,1), elle n’exerçait aucun effet sur le risque d’IGIMP à terme (RR, 1,1; IC à 95 %, 0,7 - 1,7). La constatation d’un taux sérique maternel d’AFP > 2,0 MoM a également été associée à une hausse considérable du risque d’IGIMP avant le terme (RR, 3,9; IC à 95 %, 1,6 - 9,8); le risque d’IGIMP à terme (RR, 1,2; IC à 95 %, 0,6 - 2,3) n’en était toutefois pas affecté. Conclusion : Au sein de la population à l’étude, les taux sériques maternels d’AFP ou de hCG > 2,0 MoM ont entraîné une hausse du risque d’IGIMP avant le terme, mais n’ont pas exercé une influence sur le

  17. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  18. Rapid Determination of 3-human Choriogonadotropin in Serum With Access Immunoassay System%ACCess免疫分析仪快速检测血清β-人绒毛膜促性腺激素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏寿扬; 梁瑞生; 吴辉

    2001-01-01

    目的寻找一种快速、准确、灵敏的人血清β-人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-hCG)测定方法.方法利用Access全自动微粒子化学发光免疫分析系统(Access发光仪)及其配套试剂测定β-hCG.结果Access发光仪常规测定β-hCG线性范围0~1 000 mIU/ml;批内CV=1.01%,批间CV=4.61%;平均回收率100.37%;与RIA的比较试验,y=1.037XRIA一3.044,r=0.992 9;88名非妊娠妇女参考值范围0~2.14mIU/ml.结论Access发光仪测定β-hCG快速、准确、灵敏,线性范围广,特别适合急诊检验.

  19. False-negative urine human chorionic gonadotropin in molar pregnancy: " The high-dose hook effect" !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Narendra Datti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency situations can have important consequences. These include missing of ectopic pregnancy (the leading cause of first-trimester pregnancy-related maternal death, administration of medications contraindicated in pregnancy, fetal radiation exposure, and medico legal problems. This in turn has led to the dictum to check for pregnancy in all women of child-bearing age group. Urine pregnancy (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] test is the commonly used test to rule out pregnancy and has been reported by Griffey et al. in their study to achieve 100% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity in a clinical setting, resulting in a positive predictive value of 98.3% and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. However, the sensitivity is influenced not only by the quantity of β hCG but on its variants that vary with different weeks of pregnancy. β hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. In spite of its high sensitivity, in the presence of molar pregnancy that is associated with very high levels of β hCG it fails to detect the antigen (β hCG. This is explained by the phenomenon known as "high-dose hook effect" which further leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This can be overcome by dilution of the sample. In such cases, diagnosis will be made by serum β hCG and ultrasound (USG. Here, we present a case of gravida 2 para 1 living 1 with 2΍ months amenorrhea with bleeding p/v and pain abdomen of 20 days duration whose urine β hCG was repeatedly negative and diagnosis was made by serum β hCG and USG.

  20. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prevention strategies: reducing the human chorionic gonadotropin trigger dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sonya; Parker, Kasey; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews the biological plausibility and evidence for the use of a low triggering dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). A systematic search of the literature revealed very little published data for or against the use of low-dose hCG in the prevention of OHSS after assisted reproductive technology. We have had success at avoiding OHSS as a result of gentle stimulation and low-dose sliding scale hCG trigger based on estradiol (E₂) levels. We therefore present the biological plausibility for such an approach by reviewing the relationship between OHSS, vascular endothelial growth factor, and hCG; the physiology of hCG; the relationship between risk of OHSS and E₂ at trigger; and the physiology of alternative methods of triggering such as recombinant luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. We also present the results of a quasi-experimental before and after study of the sliding scale protocol for hCG trigger dose in in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

  1. Profil Gonad Kodok Lembu Betina yang Diberi Human Chorionic Gonadotropin dan Ekstrak Hipofisis Kodok Lokal

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    I Ketut Mudite Adnyane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulllfrog (Rana catesbeiana are naturally reach sexual maturity at the age of 3 years aftermetamorphosis. This research aims to study the gonad growth of female bullfrog. given human chorionicgonadotropin (hCG and hipofise extract of local frog in order to accelerate the maturity. There were 40female bullfrog used in this study and divided into four treatment groups and one control. The treatmentswere injections of 150 IU hCG, 200 IU hCG, 8 hipofise, 16 extract of hipofise and controls. The injectionswere conducted once a month for four months. Every month after the first injection, two of bullfrogs fromeach group were measured their body and gonad weight, in addition, the stage of ovary was also observedeither in macroscopically and microscopically. The results showed that hCG treatment group gave betterresults compared with the treatment of hipofise extract of local frog. The injection of 200 IU hCG gave thebest result of gonad maturity index (IKG 4.9%, compared with other treatment groups. Giving a dose of200 IU hCG and 16 hipofise exctract of local frog can be used to accelerate the maturity of female bullfrog

  2. Persistent Human Chorionic Gonadotropin After Methotrexate Treatment and an Emergency Surgical Procedure for Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt-Mangold, Michelle; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    The case study is a 33-year-old white female with persistently elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels following methotrexate treatment and emergency surgery for ectopic pregnancy. At the time of the first methotrexate dose, the serum hCG concentration was 27,995 IU/L. The laboratory was consulted 3.5 months after the surgery, because serum hCG levels had stopped declining and had leveled off to around 80 to 90 IU/L but with negative urine pregnancy tests. Laboratory studies ruled out heterophile antibody interference and hook effect by multiple methods including analysis by different serum hCG assays, treatment with heterophile antibody blocking agents, and dilution studies. Three additional doses of methotrexate over six months were required for serum hCG concentrations to decline to undetectable levels. This case illustrates challenges that may arise with serum hCG measurements in management of ectopic pregnancies. Close collaboration between the laboratory and clinical service is key for optimal patient care.

  3. Stability of human chorionic gonadotropin and its alpha subunit in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Hussa, R O; Carman, F R; Rinke, M L; Cook, C L; Yussman, M A

    1983-05-01

    The stability of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its alpha-subunit in whole blood, plasma, and serum under a variety of sample handling conditions commonly encountered in clinics, hospital wards, physician's offices, and clinical service laboratories was investigated with the use of radioreceptor assay, radioimmunoassays, as well as hormone integrity determinations. The results clearly demonstrate that hCG and its alpha-subunit are stable in unfrozen whole blood, plasma, and serum for at least 6 days and in frozen plasma and serum samples for at least 6 months. Repeated freezing and thawing of the samples during this period had no effect. Separation of plasma or serum from erythrocytes is not needed for at least 12 hours. Hemolysis in samples resulted in a 20% to 30% decrease in hCG and its alpha-subunit levels, which may be attributable to sample dilution.

  4. The effect of treatment with flunixin meglumine at different times relative to hCG administration on ovulation failure and luteal function in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo-Arango, J

    2011-08-01

    Flunixin meglumine (FM), a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, causes ovulatory failure in the mare. However, the effect of the FM treatment relative to the time of hCG administration on the ovulation failure has not been determined nor has its effect on the luteal function of treated mares. Estrous mares with a follicle ≥32 mm (range of 32-38 mm) were treated with 1.7 mg/kg b.w. of FM iv at zero, 12, 24 and 36 h (n=6), at 24 and 36 h (n=6), at 28 and 36 h (n=6), at 24h (n=6) or at 30 h (n=6) after treatment with 1500 IU hCG. One group received no FM (control, n=6). Progesterone concentrations were determined using RIA. Mares treated with FM 0-36 h and 24-36 h had higher (P2 ng/ml). The progesterone concentration was lower in mares treated with FM at zero to 36 h and at 24-36 h after hCG than in the other groups. In conclusion, the FM administration was effective in blocking ovulation only when the treatment began ≤24 h after hCG and was continued every 12 h until ≥36 h. In addition, the FM-induced anovulatory follicles underwent luteinization of follicular cells with active production of progesterone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Androgen priming using aromatase inhibitor and hCG during early-follicular-phase GnRH antagonist down-regulation in modified antagonist protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Andersen, A N; Loft, A;

    2006-01-01

    Temporary exposure of follicles to increased levels of androgens may enhance their sensitivity to FSH. The aim of this study was to increase the intraovarian androgen level using aromatase inhibitors and hCG before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) and to test this concept clinically....

  6. Biologic effect of a hybrid preparation of human chorionic gonadotropin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, E

    1982-01-01

    Alpha and beta-hCG subunits were recombined generating a hybrid hCG preparation (AB1ER-CR-2XY) which met the required specifications of a pharmaceutical product. The biologic activity contained in each vial of AB1ER-CR-2XY was equivalent to 10 000IU of hCG-IS. This preparation was given as a single dose of 10 000IU by the i.m. route to four female subjects presenting unexplained infertility. The hCG hybrid was demonstrated to effect gonadal stimulation in humans.

  7. A randomized controlled dose-response pilot study of addition of hCG to recombinant FSH during controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, L L; Loft, A; Egeberg, A N; Smitz, J; Petersen, J H; Andersen, A Nyboe

    2012-10-01

    Is it possible to define an optimal dose of hCG in combination with rFSH from the first day of stimulation in the GnRH agonist protocol applied to IVF? Supplementation with hCG from the first day of stimulation may increase the number of top-quality embryos per patient. Daily doses of hCG up to 150 IU are compatible with good live birth rates. A ceiling level of estradiol (E(2)) was reached with hCG doses above 100 IU/day. A positive dose-response was seen for pre-ovulatory progesterone, but concentrations remained below values for which an impairment of endometrial receptivity has been previously reported. We suggest a large clinical trial to be proceeded with a group given 100 IU hCG daily versus a control group. Prospective multicentre studies have indicated increased live birth rates and increased number of top-quality embryos when low doses of hCG were associated with FSH. We analysed the clinical, embryological and endocrine aspects of adding increasing doses of hCG to rFSH from the first day of stimulation for IVF. A prospective randomized, controlled, open-label dose-response pilot study was conducted between February 2009 and June 2010 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Adequate allocation concealment was assured from sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes prepared from a computer-generated list. Scoring of the embryos was done in an assessor-blinded way. Endocrinologically normal IVF patients aged 25-37 years, BMI 18-30 kg/m(2), regular cycles and FSH D100; n= 16) and Dose 150 (D150; n= 15). Two patients in D150 were withdrawn after randomization because of major (10- to 30-fold) hCG dosing errors, leaving 13 patients in this group. Thus, the results are based on the per protocol population. The mean numbers of top-quality embryos per patient were D0: 0.8 ± 1.2, D50: 0.5 ± 0.7, D100: 1.2 ± 1.7 and D150: 1.5 ± 1.7 (P= 0.04). All pregnancies were singleton gestations, and the live birth rates per started cycle were D0

  8. Association between serum estradiol level on the hCG administration day and IVF-ICSI outcome

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    Tayfun Kutlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estradiol (E2 is required for follicular development and play an important role in embryo implantation. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of serum E2 levels on the day of hCG administration in IVF-ICSI patients who are performed controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH.Materials and Methods: A total of 203 women who were undergone one time IVF cyclus were evaluated in this cross sectional study. All the patients were treated either with long protocol or with microdose flare protocol. The patients were categorized into five groups according to the serum E2 levels on the day of hCG administration.Results: The mean number of the retrieved oocytes was (NRO 10.6±6.7, mean fertilization rate was 55.7±24.8, and implantation rate was 9.0±19.2. Of 203 patients, 43 (21% patients were pregnant. When the overall results are examined, the number of the retrieved oocytes and the number of transferred embryos were better in patients with serum E2 levels >4000 pg/ml and these values were statistically significant. There were no statistical difference in patients 37 years or older. In women ≤36 years old, the IVF-ICSI outcomes were better in patients with serum E2 levels >4000 pg/ml.Conclusion: In spite of the lack of high quality evidence to support a positive association between serum E2 levels and IVF-ICSI outcomes, this study shows that high E2 levels during COH might be associated with an increased potential of pregnancy depending on better ovarian response. When the overall results are examined, the best scores were in patients with serum E2 levels >4000 pg/ml.

  9. Evidence for azimuthal variations of the oxygen-abundance gradient tracing the spiral structure of the galaxy HCG 91c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, F. P. A.; Pérez, E.; Dopita, M. A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Borthakur, S.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The distribution of elements in galaxies forms an important diagnostic tool to characterize these systems' formation and evolution. This tool is, however, complex to use in practice, as galaxies are subject to a range of simultaneous physical processes active from pc to kpc scales. This renders observations of the full optical extent of galaxies down to sub-kpc scales essential. Aims: Using the WiFeS integral field spectrograph, we previously detected abrupt and localized variations in the gas-phase oxygen abundance of the spiral galaxy HCG 91c. Here, we follow-up on these observations to map HCG 91c's disk out to 2 Re at a resolution of 600 pc, and characterize the non-radial variations of the gas-phase oxygen abundance in the system. Methods: We obtained deep MUSE observations of the target under 0.6 arcsec seeing conditions. We perform both a spaxel-based and aperture-based analysis of the data to map the spatial variations of 12 +log (O/H) across the disk of the galaxy. Results: We confirm the presence of rapid variations of the oxygen abundance across the entire extent of the galaxy previously detected with WiFeS, for all azimuths and radii. The variations can be separated in two categories: a) localized and associated with individual H ii regions; and b) extended over kpc scales, and occurring at the boundaries of the spiral structures in the galaxy. Conclusions: Our MUSE observations suggest that the enrichment of the interstellar medium in HGC 91c has proceeded preferentially along spiral structures, and less efficiently across them. Our dataset highlights the importance of distinguishing individual star-forming regions down to scales of a few 100 pc when using integral field spectrographs to spatially resolve the distribution of oxygen abundances in a given system, and accurately characterize azimuthal variations and intrinsic scatter. The movie associated to Fig. 8 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Indução da ovulação em vacas com gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG purificada por cromatografia de afinidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Bertan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to purify hCG contained in commercial preparation (Pregnyl® - Organon by affinity chromatography and to evaluate ovulation rates in cows injected with the purified hormone. A chromatography column containing concanavalin-A sepharose (Con-A matrix was equilibrated and one hundred thousand international units (UI of Pregnyl® were applied to the column. Fractions of 3,8µL were collected (4°C every 5 minutes for 12,5h, to yield a total of 150 fractions. After fraction 76, a column buffer containing 0,3M ±-methylglicoside was added to the column. Protein concentrations were estimated by espectrophotometry (280nm. Two peaks of absorbance were observed, between fractions 14 and 19, and fractions 90 and 100. Fractions 14-19 and 90-150 were sequentially grouped in pairs concentrated by ultrafiltration and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The first peak of absorbance resulted from proteins contained in the commercial product, eluted from the column and not adsorbed by the Con-A matrix. The second peak represented proteins adsorbed by the column, especially hCG. The fractions containing hCG were grouped in a single sample and protein concentration was measured by the Lowry method. Cows in day 5 of the estral cycle, which had a dominant follicle larger than 8mm, were injected with 0,1, 0,2 or 0,3mg protein of the purificated sample. The ovulation rate 48 hours after treatment was 0%, 50% and 75%, respectively. It was demonstrated that relative concentration of hCG can be increased by affinity chromatography and biological activity of purified hCG was satisfactory preserved.

  11. CLINICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECSYS® FREE-ΒHCG AND PAPP-A FOR FIRST TRIMESTER TRISOMY 21 RISK ASSESSMENT IN GESTATIONAL WEEKS 8+0 TO 14+0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Aulesa, C; Eiben, Bernd;

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening for fetal trisomy 21 (T21) in the first trimester includes analysis of the serological markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta choriogonadotropin (free βhCG). With the launch of these assays on the cobas e and Elecsys platforms, we investigated...... their clinical and analytical performance. Patients and Methods We conducted a multicenter study in 5397 pregnancies including 108 cases with verified fetal T21 at 8 to 14 weeks of gestation. A technical validation of the Roche Elecsys® free βhCG and PAPP-A assays were performed, including method comparisons...

  12. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from Oxidative Stress by Apoptosis Inhibition, Cell Survival Signalling Activation and Mitochondrial Function Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Surico

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Previous reports have made it hypothetically possible that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG could protect against the onset of pregnancy-related pathological conditions by acting as an antioxidant. In the present study we planned to examine the effects of hCG against oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Methods: HUVEC were subjected to peroxidation by hydrogen peroxide. The modulation of nitric oxide (NO release by hCG and its effects on cell viability, glutathione (GSH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial transition pore opening (MPTP were examined by specific dyes. Endothelial and inducible NO synthase (eNOS and iNOS, Akt and extracellular -signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 activation and markers of apoptosis were analyzed by Western Blot. Results: In HUVEC, hCG reduced NO release by modulating eNOS and iNOS. Moreover, hCG protected HUVEC against oxidative stress by preventing GSH reduction and apoptosis, by maintaining Akt and ERK1/2 activation and by keeping mitochondrial function. Conclusion: The present results have for the first time shown protective effects exerted by hCG on vascular endothelial function, which would be achieved by modulation of NO release, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions and activation of cell survival signalling. These findings could have clinical implications in the management of pregnancy-related disorders.

  13. A randomized double-blinded controlled trial of hCG as luteal phase support in natural cycle frozen embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Li, Raymond Hang Wun; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Pak Chung, H O; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2017-05-01

    Does the use of hCG as luteal phase support in natural cycle frozen embryo transfer (FET) increase the ongoing pregnancy rate? The use of hCG in natural cycle FET did not improve the ongoing pregnancy rate. The use of luteal phase support in stimulated cycles has been associated with higher live-birth rates and the results are similar when using hCG or progesterone. This is a randomized double-blinded controlled trial of 450 women recruited between August 2013 and October 2015. Women with regular cycles undergoing natural cycle FET were recruited. Serial serum hormonal concentrations were used to time natural ovulation and at least Day 2 cleavage embryos were replaced. Patients were randomized into either: (i) the treatment group, receiving 1500 IU hCG on the day of FET and 6 days after FET, or (ii) the control group, receiving normal saline on these 2 days. The ongoing pregnancy rate [60/225 (26.7%) in the treatment group vs 70/225 (31.3%) in the control group, odds ratio 1.242 (95% CI 0.825-1.869)], implantation rate and miscarriage rate were comparable between the two groups. In the treatment group, there were significantly more cycles with top quality embryos transferred and a significantly higher serum oestradiol level, but a comparable serum progesterone level, 6 days after FET. However, no significant differences were observed in serum oestradiol and progesterone levels 6 days after FET between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. In the multivariate logistic regression, the number of embryos transferred was the only significant factor predictive of the ongoing pregnancy rate after natural cycle FET. This study only included FET with cleavage stage embryos and only hCG, not vaginal progesterone, was used as luteal phase support. The findings in this study do not support the use of hCG for luteal phase support in natural cycle FET. No external funding was used and there were no competing interests. clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT01931384. 23/8/2013. 30/8/2013.

  14. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-10-03

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prion proteins. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a different role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant gonadotropins (r-hFSH and r-hLH) have become available for ART therapies. Recombinant LH contains only LH molecules. In the field of reproduction there has been controversy in recent years over whether r-hLH or hCG should be used for ART. This review examines the existing evidence for molecular and functional differences between LH and hCG and assesses the clinical implications of hCG-supplemented urinary therapy compared with recombinant therapies used for ART.

  15. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPERATION AND PURIFICATION OF HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHaifeng; XuYutai; 等

    1995-01-01

    Separation and purification of human chorionic gonadotropion(HCG) in the urine sample of early pregnant women by D3520 resin adsorption chromatography is reported.The crude product obtained by DEAE-Cellulose 23 and DEAE-Sephadex A50 column chromatography showed a high activity of HCG. Further purification of the sample by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G75 column gives a final preparation of 6000-6500 IU/mg.The preparation meets the requirements of the pyrogn test in Chinese Law of Pharmacopeia.

  16. Epitope mapping from real time kinetic studies – Role of cross-linked disulphides and incidental interacting regions in affinity measurements: Study with human chorionic gonadotropin and monoclonal antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonavinakere Seetharam Srilatha; P Tamil Selvi; Gundlupet Satyanarayana Murthy

    2005-06-01

    Real time kinetic studies were used to map conformational epitopes in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The epitopes were identified in the regions (5–14 and 55–62). The association rate constant (+1) was found to be altered by chemical modification of hCG, and the ionic strength of the reaction medium. Based on these changes, we propose the presence of additional interactions away from the epitope-paratope region in the hCG-MAb reaction. We have identified such incidental interacting regions (IIRs) in hCG to be the loop region 35–47 and 60–84. The IIRs contribute significantly towards the of the interaction. Therefore, in a macromolecular interaction of hCG and its MAb, is determined not only by epitopeparatope interaction but also by the interaction of the nonepitopic-nonparatopic IIRs. However, the specificity of the interaction resides exclusively with the epitope-paratope pair.

  17. -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Russell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated liposarcomas may display a variety of “heterologous” lines of differentiation, including osseous, vascular, skeletal, and/or smooth muscular. There have been six previously reported examples of leiomyosarcomas associated with high levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG production, comprised of cases originating from the retroperitoneum, spermatic cord, small intestine, and uterus. This report describes the first example of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma that combined both of the aforementioned features: extensive heterologous (leiomyosarcomatous differentiation and -hCG production (maximum serum levels 1046 mIU/ml, reference <5 mIU/ml. The tumor, which originated in the retroperitoneum in the region of the right kidney, was rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal within three months of its diagnosis. In addition to characteristic morphologic features, lipogenic and smooth muscle differentiation were confirmed with immunohistochemical stains for MDM2 and smooth muscle actin, respectively. The tumor also displayed diffuse immunoreactivity for -hCG in both primary and metastatic sites. This case further expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of lipogenic tumors.

  18. Ovulation and conception rates according intravaginal progesterone device and hCG or GnRH to induce ovulation in buffalo during the off breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Baruselli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progesterone device (P4; first or second use of different ovulatory inductors on ovulation and conception rates in buffaloes during the off breeding season. Two hundred and forty two buffaloes were allocated in four groups and received P4 device of first or second use plus estradiol benzoate on Day 0 (D0. The P4 device was removed and a dose of PGF2α and eCG was administered on D9. On D11, buffaloes received hCG or GnRH and 16hs after the animals were inseminated. The ultrasound examination was performed on D0 to verify the ovarian status, from D9 to D14 to establish the moment of ovulation and on D40 for pregnancy diagnosis. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Chi-square test. There was no effect of interaction. The ovulation and conception rate were similar for P4 device of first and second use, for hCG and GnRH. Results indicate that the use of P4 device for two times and the use of GnRH instead of hCG provide satisfactory ovulation and conception rate in buffalo during the off breeding season and might reduce the cost of the protocol for artificial insemination.

  19. [Diagnosis of pregnancy before the menstrual period is delayed. Interest of the determination of plasma chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in fertility disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, M; Barrat, J; Michelon, B; Soldat, M C

    1975-01-01

    Estimating plasma HCG levels in the last days of the menstrual cycle have very early diagnosis of pregnancy. In 86 cycles occurring in 65 women being treated for sterility the levels were estimated between the 10th and the 15th day following the low point in the temperature curve for the purpose of trying to estimate the practical use of this method. In 30 cycles studied one case of fertilisation took place and was confirmed by the evolution of a pregnancy. From the 11th day onwards with the exception of one solitary case the concentrations of HCG ranged between 15 and 405 mUl-2 degrees-IS-hCC/ml. These levels, therefore are higher than the apparent concentrations found in a group of women used as controls who were not pregnant (0 to 4.5 mUl/ml.). In 56 other cycles apparently normal periods followed on the expected date. All the same, the apparent concentration of HCG (2 to 32 mUl/ml) is far higher often than in the control group. The interference of LH in the level makes it impossible to decide between two hypotheses: whether raised levels of LH are associated with irregular menstrual function or with fertilisation, followed by premature expulsion of the oocyte.

  20. Triaging pregnancies of unknown location: the performance of protocols based on single serum progesterone or repeated serum hCG levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, S; Ayim, F; Ludlow, J; Sayasneh, A; Condous, G; Kirk, E; Stalder, C; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T; Van Calster, B

    2014-05-01

    How does a protocol based on a single serum progesterone measurement perform as a triage tool in women with pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) in comparison to protocols based on serial hCG measurement? Triage based on the logistic regression model M4 (using initial hCG and hCG ratio (48 h/0 h)) classifies the majority of PUL into low and high risk groups, in contrast to a progesterone protocol based on a serum level threshold of 10 nmol/l. Low progesterone has been shown to identify failing pregnancies and those at low risk of complications. A prediction model (M4) based on the initial hCG and the hCG ratio at 0 and 48 h can successfully classify PUL into low and high risk groups. A multi-centre diagnostic accuracy study of 1271 women was performed retrospectively on data from women at St. George's Hospital (SGH, London, UK) between February 2005 and 2006, Queen Charlottes & Chelsea Hospital (QCCH, London, UK) between April 2009 and August 2012, and the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH, Sydney, Australia) between February 2008 and October 2011. The end-points were the final observed outcome for each pregnancy as a failed PUL (low risk), intrauterine pregnancy (IUP, low risk), or ectopic pregnancy (EP, high risk), and any interventions or complications for EP during the follow-up period. Complete data were available for initial progesterone, 0/48 h hCG and final outcome in 431 of 534 women (81%) at SGH, 396/585 (68%) at QCCH and 96/152 (63%) at RPAH. Missing values were handled using multiple imputation. Three diagnostic approaches were used to classify PUL as high risk: a range of serum progesterone levels were evaluated (>10, 16 and 20 nmol/l) for the progesterone protocol, risk of EP given by the M4 model ≥5% for the M4-based protocol, and hCG ratio was between 0.87 and 1.66 for hCG cut-offs as previously published. Results were analysed using random intercept models or stratified analysis to account for variability between centres. The progesterone

  1. HCG对不育症精子超微结构的影响%DThe effect of HCG to sperm's ultrastructure in male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞建军; 王培乐; 吴章穆; 陈昭典

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanisam of using HCG to treat male infertility. Methods 30 male infertility cases were selected randomly and their spermatozoa were fetched by masturbation. In every case, five sperms were observed under SEM (scan electronic microscope). After HCG had been given for 12 weeks, sperms were observed again. Results Sperms' ringed rips, acrosome membranes, plasmalemma, plasminic droplet changed significantly. Conclusion HCG had positive effect to sperms of male infertility patients.%目的探索 HCG治疗男性不育症的机理。方法随机选择男性不育症 30例,手淫法取精液每例扫描电镜观察精子五个,共 150个, HCG治疗 12周后,再作电镜观察。结果治疗前后的精子环状沟、顶体膜、质膜、胞浆小滴均有明显变化。结论 HCG治疗不育症疗效肯定。

  2. The value of ratio of hCG, progesterone in local blood of pregnancy location versus venous blood in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Li, Yuhong; Shi, Hong; Lang, Xiao; Wang, Yudong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to combine the ratios of venous serum/colporrhagia and hemoperitoneum/venous serum of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and Progesterone (P) to generate and evaluate a new method to improve the prognosis of Ectopic pregnancy (EP). For patients with curettage procedure, curettage material and venous blood were obtained at the same time. For patients receiving culdocentesis and laparoscopic exploration, abdominal fluid and venous blood samples were obtained synchronously during surgery. The sensitivity and specificity of Rp/v-hCG>1.0 and Rp/v-P>1.0 for diagnosis of EP was 88.2% and 80.71%, 93.8% and 87.53%, respectively. The sensitivity of parallel test (Rp/v-hCG>1.0 or Rp/v-P>1.0) was 92.23%. The specificity of serial test (Rp/v-hCG>1.0 and Rp/v-P>1.0) was 100%. For the area under the ROC curve of Rp/v-hCG and Rp/v-P, the parallel test and serial test were 0.91 and 0.82,0.90 and 0.87, respectively. At the determining threshold point of 1.0, the sensitivity of Rv/c-hCG and Rv/c-P for the diagnosis of EP was 56.73% and 60.01%. The specificity was 100% and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of parallel test (Rv/c-hCG>1.0 or Rv/c-P>1.0) was 73.33%. For the area under the ROC curve of Rv/c-hCG, Rv/c-P and the parallel test was 0.78,0.80 and 0.87, respectively. It is proposed that EP can more rapidly and accurately be diagnosed by multiple biomarkers' test of Rp/v-hCG>1.0 and/or Rp/v-P>1.0, as well as Rv/c-hCG>1.0 and/or Rv/c-P>1.0 via culdocentesis or curettage.

  3. Intrauterine administration of human chorionic gonadotropin does not improve pregnancy and life birth rates independently of blastocyst quality: a randomised prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirleitner, Barbara; Schuff, Maximilian; Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Stecher, Astrid; Okhowat, Jasmin; Hradecký, Libor; Kohoutek, Tomáš; Králícková, Milena; Spitzer, Dietmar; Zech, Nicolas H

    2015-07-04

    Successful embryo implantation depends on a well-timed maternal-embryonic crosstalk. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by the embryo is known to play a key role in this process and to trigger a complex signal transduction cascade allowing the apposition, attachment, and invasion of the embryo into the decidualized uterus. Production of hCG was reported to be dependent on blastocyst quality and several articles suggested that intrauterine hCG injection increases pregnancy and implantation rates in IVF patients. However, no study has as yet analysed birth rates as final outcome. Our objective was to determine whether clinical outcome after blastocyst transfer can be improved by intrauterine injection of hCG and whether this is dependent on blastocyst quality. A prospective randomised study was conducted in two settings. In cohort A, hCG application was performed two days before blastocyst transfer. In cohort B, the administration of hCG occurred just prior to embryo transfer on day 5. For both cohorts, patients were randomised to either intrauterine hCG application or to the control group that received culture medium. Clinical outcome was analysed according to blastocyst quality of transferred embryos. The outcome of 182 IVF-cycles (cohort A) and 1004 IVF-cycles (cohort B) was analysed. All patients received a fresh autologous blastocyst transfer on day five. Primary outcomes were pregnancy rates (PR), clinical pregnancy rates (cPR), miscarriage rates (MR), and live birth rates (LBR). No improvement of clinical outcome after intrauterine hCG administration on day 3 (cohort A) or day 5 (cohort B) was found, independently of blastocyst quality transferred. The final outcome in cohort A: LBR after transfer of top blastocysts was 50.0 % with hCG and 53.3 % in the control group. With non-top blastocysts, LBR of 17.1 % (hCG) and 18.2 % (control) were observed (n.s.). In cohort B, LBR with top blastocysts was 53.3 % (hCG) and 48.4 % (control), with non

  4. Layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanoparticles and cysteamine on gold electrode for immunosensing of human chorionic gonadotropin at picogram levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Ilam University, P.O. Box, 69315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valipour, Akram [Department of Chemistry, Ilam University, P.O. Box, 69315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valipour, Mehdi [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box, 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described with a limit of detection as low as 0.3 pg mL{sup −1} in phosphate buffer. In this immunosensor, cysteamine (Cys) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to immobilize an anti-hCG monoclonal antibody onto a gold electrode (GE). The structure of AuNPs has been confirmed by EDS, SEM, and TEM analysis. Due to the large specific surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of AuNPs, electron transfer was promoted and the amount of hCG antibody was enhanced significantly. A systematic study on the effects of experimental parameters such as pH, incubation time in the hCG solution and urea solution used for experiments on the binding between the immobilized antibody and hCG has been carried out. Under optimal experimental parameters, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signal changes of the [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} are used to detect hCG with two broad linear ranges: 0.001 to 0.2 and 0.2 to 60.7 ng mL{sup −1}. The LOD value proves more sensitive in comparison with previously reported methods. The prepared immunosensor showed high sensitivity and stability. In addition, the immunosensor was successfully used for the determination of hCG in human serum. - Highlights: • AuNPs were used for covalent attachment of anti-body onto GE. • AuNPs joint to GE via Cys, which were similar to electron-transfer tunnel. • A simple method and a sensitive immunosensing for hCG were reported.

  5. LACK OF INHIBITORY ACTION OF OXYTOCIN,VASOTOCIN AND VASOPRESSIN ON PROGESTERONE PRODUCTION BY HUMAN LUTEAL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHan-Zheng; HANXiang-Jun; LUShu-Hua; SUNZhi-Da; SHENWei-Xiong; ZHOUWei

    1989-01-01

    The direct effects of oxytocin and relatcd peptides on human luteal cells were attudied Suslxmsions of luteal cells were prepared enzymatically from human corpora htae, obtained during cycle days 19-25. Afar incubation with hCG (liu / ml) for 3 h, the

  6. Results of a pilot study in the U.S. and Vietnam to assess the utility and acceptability of a multi-level pregnancy test (MLPT) for home monitoring of hCG trends after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shochet, Tara; Comstock, Ioanna A; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Westphal, Lynn M; Sheldon, Wendy R; Loc, Ly Thai; Blum, Jennifer; Winikoff, Beverly; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2017-08-22

    To evaluate the utility and acceptability of using multi-level pregnancy tests (MLPTs) at home to monitor hCG trends following assisted reproductive technology (ART). One hundred and four women presenting for ART at either Stanford Medicine Fertility and Reproductive Health Clinic (Stanford, CA) or Hung Vuong Hospital (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) participated in this pilot study. Women were asked to perform the MLPT at home, primarily on days when they were also scheduled to receive standard clinic-based serum hCG testing. These tests were administered up to 6 times over the 6-week period following embryo transfer or intrauterine insemination (IUI). Concordance of serial hCG readings for each time point was assessed by comparing trends in urine MLPT results with trends in serum hCG. Stable or increasing hCG level was interpreted as an indication of a progressing pregnancy, while a declining hCG was interpreted as a lack of established or progressing pregnancy. At study end, all participants were asked about the acceptability and convenience of using the MLPT at home for monitoring hCG trends following ART. Data from both urine and serum testing are available for 156 of 179 clinic visits (87.2%). There was high concordance of serial trend results between the two types of tests: among the 156 sets of serum and urine hCG data points, 150 (96.2%) showed a matching trend in hCG pattern and 6 (3.8%) resulted in a discordant trend. Seventy-three percent of women reported being satisfied or very satisfied with using the MLPTs at home. Almost all (96.6%) said that the MLPT was easy or very easy to use. The MLPT offers women and health care providers a client-friendly diagnostic tool to detect very early pregnancy and monitor its progress. This study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01846403 (May 1, 2013), and NCT01919502 (August 5, 2013).

  7. Expression and localization of the progesterone receptor in mouse and human reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Clement, Christian Alexandro; Thorup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    were unstained or faintly stained. Pubertal female mice were further studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy and western blotting before and after injection with FSH and LH followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection after a 48-h period. PR immunolocalization to the oviduct cilia...... examined, primary granulosa cell cilia lacked PR staining. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of tissues from oviduct, uterus, and ovary confirmed antibody specificity, and identified two bands corresponding to the PR isoforms PR-A and PR-B. Upon hCG stimulation, a new band cross-reacting with anti...

  8. Gastric Cancer in the Setting of Persistently Elevated Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaToya R. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman presented to the emergency room for the evaluation of failed surgical and medical management of a suspected ectopic pregnancy. When imaging studies were performed, she had lymphadenopathy and diffuse sclerosis of the osseous framework. Multiple biopsies were performed and revealed poorly differentiated metastatic carcinoma with signet ring features. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy confirmed the findings of a Stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. Signs and symptoms of gastric carcinoma are vague. However, to our knowledge, an elevation in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is not an associated finding. Persistence of hCG has many causes from abnormal pregnancy to menopause and other forms of cancer.

  9. Gastric cancer in the setting of persistently elevated human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Latoya R; Erler, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman presented to the emergency room for the evaluation of failed surgical and medical management of a suspected ectopic pregnancy. When imaging studies were performed, she had lymphadenopathy and diffuse sclerosis of the osseous framework. Multiple biopsies were performed and revealed poorly differentiated metastatic carcinoma with signet ring features. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy confirmed the findings of a Stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. Signs and symptoms of gastric carcinoma are vague. However, to our knowledge, an elevation in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is not an associated finding. Persistence of hCG has many causes from abnormal pregnancy to menopause and other forms of cancer.

  10. The luteotrophic effect of homoplastic pituitary pars distalis homogenate, PMSG, and HCG on the corpora lutea of the hypophysectomized frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (SCHN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancharatna, M; Saidapur, S K

    1984-03-01

    The effect of homoplastic pituitary pars distalis homogenate (PDH), PMSG, and HCG on the postovulatory follicles/corpora lutea (CL) of the frog Rana cyanophlyctis was studied to elucidate the factors regulating the life span of the luteal cells. Ovulation and spawning was induced in hypophysectomized frogs using PDH. Starting from Day 1 of spawning 1/2 PDH, 50 IU PMSG, or 50 IU HCG was injected daily for 3 days. In the saline-injected control frogs, the granulosa lutein cells regressed markedly on Day 2 with a steady progressive increase in the pycnosis of their nuclei. The sudanophilic lipid droplets of the luteal cells were fine on Day 1 but became coarser and reduced in number on subsequent days. Histochemically, the luteal cell 3 beta-HSDH and G-6-PDH also decreased drastically by Day 2. In PDH-treated frogs the granulosa lutein cells were healthy on all 4 days of the experiment. The nuclear diameter of the luteal cells increased progressively due to PDH. The pycnosis of the luteal cells was limited to 7.6% on Day 4 due to PDH as opposed to 68% seen in the controls. Histochemically, 3 beta-HSDH and G-6-PDH activities remained much higher than in the controls with abundant sudanophilic lipids (both fine and coarse) in the luteal cells of PDH treated frogs even on Day 4. PMSG treatment also maintained the granulosa lutein cells beyond their normal life span but the luteotrophic effect was less than that of PDH. HCG was least effective. The present studies suggest that the structural integrity of CL in the frog can be extended beyond the normal life span by injecting PDH or PMSG.

  11. Development of a hot intergalactic medium in spiral-rich galaxy groups: the example of HCG 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtilek, Jan M.; O'Sullivan, Ewan; David, Laurence P.; Giacintucci, Simona; Zezas, Andreas; Mamon, Gary; Ponman, Trevor J; Raychaudhury, Somak

    2014-08-01

    Galaxy groups provide the environment in which the majority of galaxies evolve, with low velocity dispersions and small galaxy separations that are conducive to tidal interactions and mergers between group members. X-ray observations reveal the frequent presence of hot gas in groups, with larger quantities linked to early-type galaxies, whereas cold gas is common in spiral-dominated groups. Clarification of the origin and role of the hot medium is central to the understanding of the evolution of the galaxy population and of all phases of the IGM.We here report on the nuclear activity, star formation and the high luminosity X-ray binary populations of the spiral-dominated, likely not yet virialized, group HCG 16, as well as on its intra-group medium, based principally on deep (150 ks) Chandra X-ray observations of the group, as well as new Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 610 MHz radio data. We confirm the presence of obscured active nuclei in NGC 833 and NGC 835, and identify what may be a previously unrecognized nuclear source in NGC 838; all are variable. NGC 838 and NGC 839 are both starburst-dominated systems, with galactic superwinds that show X-ray and radio evidence of IGM interaction, but only weak nuclear activity; NGC 848 is also dominated by emission from its starburst.We confirm the existence of a faint, extended low-temperature (0.3 keV) intra-group medium, a subject of some uncertainty in earlier studies. The diffuse emission is strongest in a ridge linking the four principal galaxies, and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale HI tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We conclude that starburst winds and shock-heating of stripped HI may play an important role in the early stages of IGM formation, with galactic winds contributing 20-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  12. Induction of ovulation in Xenopus without hCG injection: the effect of adding steroids into the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is widely used in studies of oogenesis, meiotic cell cycle and early embryonic development. However, in order to perform such studies, eggs are normally collected after the injection of hCG into the dorsal lymph sac of fully-grown female frogs following pre-injection of PMSF. Although this protocol is established and used as standard laboratory approach, there are some concerns over whether the injections could cause the transmission of deleterious microorganisms. Moreover, these injection protocols require a competent skilled worker to carry out the procedure efficiently. Methods Recently, we established a novel method to induce fish ovulation by simply adding the natural maturation-inducing hormone of teleosts, 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-DHP), into the surrounding water. In the present study, we demonstrate how we can induce ovulation in frogs using the same methodology. Results In frogs, progesterone was effective in the induction of oocyte maturation in vitro. We then examined the ability of progesterone to induce ovulation in frogs. However treatment of frogs with progesterone alone only occasionally induced ovulation in vivo. The number of oocytes and the frequency of ovulation were significantly lower than that induced by hCG-injection. Thus, conditions were improved by using a combination of progesterone with estradiol and by pre-treating frogs with low concentrations of progesterone or estradiol. Finally, we established an efficient means of inducing ovulation in frogs which involved pre-treatment of frogs with salt solution followed by a mixture of estradiol and progesterone at high concentration. The frequency and numbers of oocytes obtained were identical to those resulting from PMSG-hCG induction. Fertilization rate of eggs ovulated by the new treatment method was comparable to eggs obtained by hCG-injection and juveniles developed normally. Conclusions To conclude, we

  13. Chorionic gonadotropin and its receptor are both expressed in human retina, possible implications in normal and pathological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Dukic-Stefanovic

    Full Text Available Extra-gonadal role of gonadotropins has been re-evaluated over the last 20 years. In addition to pituitary secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, the CNS has been clearly identified as a source of hCG acting locally to influence behaviour. Here we demonstrated that human retina is producing this gonadotropin that acts as a neuroactive molecule. Müller glial and retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells are producing hCG that may affects neighbour cells expressing its receptor, namely cone photoreceptors. It was previously described that amacrine and retinal ganglion (RGC cells are targets of the gonadotropin releasing hormone that control the secretion of all gonadotropins. Therefore our findings suggest that a complex neuroendocrine circuit exists in the retina, involving hCG secreting cells (glial and RPE, hCG targets (photoreceptors and hCG-release controlling cells (amacrine and RGC. The exact physiological functions of this circuit have still to be identified, but the proliferation of photoreceptor-derived tumor induced by hCG demonstrated the need to control this neuroendocrine loop.

  14. Final Oocyte Maturation in Assisted Reproduction with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone agonist (Dual Trigger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sofia Andrade de; Calsavara, Vinícius Fernando; Cortés, Gemma Castillón

    2016-12-01

    Final oocyte maturation with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and ovarian stimulation with Follicle Stimulation Hormone (FSH) combined with Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) antagonist to block Luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is a standard procedure of in vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). However, GnRH agonist has been replacing the use of hCG in certain situations, especially in patients at risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS). Some studies have also shown advantages in the combined use of GnRH agonist concurrently with hCG in inducing final oocyte maturation, a treatment known as "Dual Trigger". In theory, this method combines the advantages of both induction regimens, and it has brought promising results. The objective of this study is to compare Dual Trigger with the use of hCG alone or the use of GnRH agonist alone. A systematic review of articles on Dual Trigger and a retrospective cohort study comparing the three methods of induction of final oocyte maturation have been conducted. It has been found that Dual Triggering for poor responder patients had a statistically significant increase in the number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, and fertilized embryos in the positive beta hCG rate, implantation rate, and newborn/transferred embryo (TE) rate.

  15. Predictive value of early serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin for the successful outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization (IVF are at increased risk of adverse outcome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG and age of the patient for the successful outcome in IVF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done in 139 pregnancies after IVF at single IVF center from June 2007 to July 2012. The age of the patient and initial serum values of β-HCG on day 14 of embryo transfer were correlated with ongoing pregnancy (>12 weeks gestation. Results: The β-HCG level on day 14 of more than 347 mIU/ml has a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 73.6% in prediction of pregnancy beyond 12 weeks period of gestation. Positive likelihood ratio (LR is 2.74 and negative LR is 0.37, (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.79. Discussion: In IVF cycles, there is a lot of stress on the couples while the cycle is going on. There was a positive correlation between the higher values of early serum β-HCG levels and ongoing pregnancy. Hence, it can be used as an independent predictor of a successful outcome of IVF cycle. Conclusion: We concluded from our study that early serum β-HCG can be used as a predictor of a successful outcome in IVF.

  16. A curva de regressão da gonadotrofina coriônica humana é útil no diagnóstico precoce da neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional pós-molar? Are curves of human chorionic gonadotropin useful in the early diagnosis of post-molar trophoblastic neoplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Regina Marques Gomes Delmanto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilidade da curva de regressão normal da gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG no diagnóstico precoce de neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional pós-molar (NTG. MÉTODOS: estudo longitudinal, incluindo 105 pacientes com mola hidatiforme completa (MHC acompanhadas no Centro de Doenças Trofoblásticas de Botucatu, entre 1998 e 2005. Os títulos da hCG sérica foram mensurados quinzenalmente em todas as pacientes. Curvas individuais de regressão da hCG das 105 pacientes foram estabelecidas. A comparação entre a curva de regressão normal estabelecida em nosso serviço com as curvas individuais da hCG foi usada no rastreamento e diagnóstico (platô/ascensão de NTG. O número de semanas pós-esvaziamento quando a hCG excedeu o limite normal foi comparado com o número semanas em que a hCG apresentou platô/ascensão. RESULTADOS: das 105 pacientes com MHC, 80 apresentaram remissão espontânea (RE e 25 desenvolveram NTG. Das 80 pacientes com RE, 7 (8,7% apresentaram, inicialmente, dosagem da hCG acima do normal, mas, no devido tempo, alcançaram a remissão. Todas as 25 pacientes com NTG apresentaram desvio da curva normal da hCG em 3,8±2,5 semanas e mostraram platô ou ascensão em 8,4±2,9 semanas (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the usefulness of the normal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG regression curve in the early diagnosis of post-molar trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN. METHODS: a longitudinal study including 105 patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM followed up at the Botucatu Center of Trophoblastic Diseases from 1998 to 2005. Serial serum hCG titers were measured fortnightly in all patients. Individual curves of the 105 patients were built. Comparison between the normal regression curve established at our center with individual hCG curves was used to screen and diagnose (plateau/rise GTN. The number of weeks postevacuation when hCG levels exceeded the normal limits was compared with the number of weeks when hCG

  17. EFFECT OF TAMOXIFEN ON THE SECRETORY FUNCTION OF HUMAN TROPHOBLASTIC CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANGui-Zhen; CHUYun-Hong; ZHOUYu-Fen

    1989-01-01

    Gu et al observed the morphological damages and the suppressed secretion of HCG in vitro cultured human placental chorionic tissues caused by tamoxifen (20ug/ml).TarnoxiFeu blood concentrations, during oral administration. 20rag, b.i.d, in early pregnant

  18. Effect of recombinant-LH and hCG in the absence of FSH on in vitro maturation (IVM) fertilization and early embryonic development of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Drakakis, Peter; Kefala, Stella; Kiapekou, Erasmia; Bletsa, Ritsa; Anagnostou, Elli; Kallianidis, Konstantinos; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    During in vitro maturation (IVM), intrinsic and extrinsic factors must co-operate properly in order to ensure cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. We examined the possible effect of LH/hCG in the process of oocyte maturation in mice with the addition of recombinant LH (r-LH) and hCG in our IVM cultures of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Moreover, the effects of these hormones on fertilization, early embryonic development and the expression of LH/hCG receptor were examined. Nuclear maturation of GV-stage oocytes was evaluated after culture in the presence of r-LH or hCG. Fertilization rates and embryonic development were assessed after 24h. Total RNA was isolated from oocytes of different stages of maturation and from zygotes and embryos of different stages of development in order to examine the expression of LH/hCG receptor, using RT-PCR. The in vitro nuclear maturation rate of GV-stage oocytes that received hCG was significantly higher compared to the control group. Early embryonic development was increased in the hCG and LH cultures of GV oocytes when LH was further added. The LH/hCG receptor was expressed in all stages of in vitro matured mouse oocytes and in every stage of early embryonic development. Addition of hCG in IVM cultures of mouse GV oocytes increased maturation rates significantly. LH, however, was more beneficial to early embryonic development than hCG. This suggests a promising new technique in basic science research or in clinical reproductive medicine. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Ovarian Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinases: Induction of MMP14 and MMP16 During the Periovulatory Period in the Rat, Macaque, and Human1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Jacot, Terry A.; Al-Alem, Linah F.; Rosewell, Katherine L.; Duffy, Diane M.; Brännström, Mats; Curry, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An intrafollicular increase in proteolytic activity drives ovulatory events. Surprisingly, the periovulatory expression profile of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs), unique proteases anchored to the cell surface, has not been extensively examined. Expression profiles of the MT-MMPs were investigated in ovarian tissue from well-characterized rat and macaque periovulatory models and naturally cycling women across the periovulatory period. Among the six known MT-MMPs, mRNA expression of Mmp14, Mmp16, and Mmp25 was increased after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration in rats. In human granulosa cells, mRNA expression of MMP14 and MMP16 increased following hCG treatment. In contrast, mRNA levels of MMP16 and MMP25 in human theca cells were unchanged before ovulation but declined by the postovulatory stage. In macaque granulosa cells, hCG increased mRNA for MMP16 but not MMP14. Immunoblotting showed that protein levels of MMP14 and MMP16 in rats increased, similar to their mRNA expression. In macaque granulosa cells, only the active form of the MMP14 protein increased after hCG, unlike its mRNA or the proprotein. By immunohistochemistry, both MMP14 and MMP16 localized to the different ovarian cell types in rats and humans. Treatment with hCG resulted in intense immunoreactivity of MMP14 and MMP16 proteins in the granulosa and theca cells. The present study shows that MMP14 and MMP16 are increased by hCG administration in the ovulating follicle, demonstrating that these MMPs are conserved among rats, macaques, and humans. These findings suggest that MT-MMPs could have an important role in promoting ovulation and remodeling of the ovulated follicle into the corpus luteum. PMID:24920038

  20. Potential Therapy for Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V

    2015-12-01

    The scientific evidence suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infects human fallopian tubes by molecular mimicry in which pathogens act like a ligand to bind to epithelial cell surface human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)/luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors. The hCG-like molecule has been identified as ribosomal protein L12 in NG coat surface. Human fallopian tube epithelial cells have been shown to contain functional hCG/LH receptors. As previously shown in human fallopian tube organ and cell culture studies, cellular invasion and infection can be prevented by exposing the cells to excess hCG, which would outnumber and outcompete NG for receptor binding. Based on these data, we suggest testing hCG in clinical trials on infected women.

  1. GnRH Agonist Trigger and LH Activity Luteal Phase Support versus hCG Trigger and Conventional Luteal Phase Support in Fresh Embryo Transfer IVF/ICSI Cycles-A Systematic PRISMA Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, Thor; Roque, Matheus; Esteves, Sandro C; Humaidan, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) for final oocyte maturation trigger in oocyte donation and elective frozen embryo transfer cycles is well established due to lower ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rates as compared to hCG trigger. A recent Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that GnRHa trigger was associated with reduced live birth rates (LBRs) in fresh autologous IVF cycles compared to hCG trigger. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and recent trials have found encouraging reproductive outcomes among couples undergoing GnRHa trigger and individualized luteal LH activity support. Thus, the aim was to compare GnRHa trigger followed by luteal LH activity support with hCG trigger in IVF patients undergoing fresh embryo transfer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials published until December 14, 2016. The population was infertile patients submitted to IVF/ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonist cotreatment who underwent fresh embryo transfer. The intervention was GnRHa trigger followed by LH activity luteal phase support (LPS). The comparator was hCG trigger followed by a standard LPS. The critical outcome measures were LBR and OHSS rate. The secondary outcome measures were number of oocytes retrieved, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates. A total of five studies met the selection criteria comprising a total of 859 patients. The LBR was not significantly different between the GnRHa and hCG trigger groups (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.62, 1.14). OHSS was reported in a total of 4/413 cases in the GnRHa group compared to 7/413 in the hCG group (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.15, 1.60). We observed a slight, but non-significant increase in miscarriage rate in the GnRHa triggered group compared to the hCG group (OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.97, 3.54). GnRHa trigger with LH activity LPS resulted in comparable LBRs compared to hCG trigger. The most recent trials reported LBRs close to unity indicating that individualization of the LH activity LPS

  2. GnRH Agonist Trigger and LH Activity Luteal Phase Support versus hCG Trigger and Conventional Luteal Phase Support in Fresh Embryo Transfer IVF/ICSI Cycles—A Systematic PRISMA Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Haahr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa for final oocyte maturation trigger in oocyte donation and elective frozen embryo transfer cycles is well established due to lower ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS rates as compared to hCG trigger. A recent Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that GnRHa trigger was associated with reduced live birth rates (LBRs in fresh autologous IVF cycles compared to hCG trigger. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and recent trials have found encouraging reproductive outcomes among couples undergoing GnRHa trigger and individualized luteal LH activity support. Thus, the aim was to compare GnRHa trigger followed by luteal LH activity support with hCG trigger in IVF patients undergoing fresh embryo transfer.Material and methodsWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials published until December 14, 2016. The population was infertile patients submitted to IVF/ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonist cotreatment who underwent fresh embryo transfer. The intervention was GnRHa trigger followed by LH activity luteal phase support (LPS. The comparator was hCG trigger followed by a standard LPS. The critical outcome measures were LBR and OHSS rate. The secondary outcome measures were number of oocytes retrieved, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates.ResultsA total of five studies met the selection criteria comprising a total of 859 patients. The LBR was not significantly different between the GnRHa and hCG trigger groups (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.62, 1.14. OHSS was reported in a total of 4/413 cases in the GnRHa group compared to 7/413 in the hCG group (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.15, 1.60. We observed a slight, but non-significant increase in miscarriage rate in the GnRHa triggered group compared to the hCG group (OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.97, 3.54.ConclusionGnRHa trigger with LH activity LPS resulted in comparable LBRs compared to hCG trigger. The most recent trials reported LBRs close to unity

  3. Effect of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin on day 5 after timed artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A B; Bender, R W; Souza, A H; Ayres, H; Araujo, R R; Guenther, J N; Sartori, R; Wiltbank, M C

    2013-05-01

    Reproductive management programs that synchronize ovulation can ovulate a smaller than normal follicle, potentially resulting in inadequate progesterone (P4) concentrations after artificial insemination (AI). Ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment can produce an accessory corpus luteum and increase circulating P4 concentrations. This manuscript reports the results of 2 separate analyses that evaluated the effect of hCG treatment post-AI on fertility in lactating dairy cows. The first study used meta-analysis to combine the results from 10 different published studies that used hCG treatment on d 4 to 9 post-AI in lactating dairy cows. Overall, pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) were increased 3.0% by hCG treatment post-AI [34% (752/2,213) vs. 37% (808/2,184); Control vs. hCG-treated, respectively]. The second study was a field research trial in which lactating Holstein cows (n=2,979) from 6 commercial dairy herds were stratified by parity and breeding number and then randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: control (no further treatment, n=1,519) or hCG [Chorulon i.m.: 2,000 IU (in 3 of the herds) or 3,300 IU (in 3 herds); n=1,460] on d 5 after a timed AI (ovulation synchronized with Ovsynch, Presynch-Ovsynch, or Double-Ovsynch). In a subset of cows, the hCG profile and P4 changes were determined. Treatment with hCG increased P4 (4.3 vs. 5.3 ng/mL on d 12). Pregnancies per AI were greater in cows treated with hCG (40.8%; 596/1,460) than control (37.3%; 566/1,519) cows. Interestingly, an interaction among treatment and parity was observed; primiparous cows had greater P/AI after hCG (49.7%; 266/535) than controls (39.5%; 215/544). In contrast, older cows receiving hCG (35.7%; 330/925) had similar P/AI to controls (36.0%; 351/975).Thus, targeted use of hCG on d 5 after TAI enhances fertility about 3.0% (based on meta-analysis) to 3.5% (based on our field trial). Surprisingly, this

  4. Pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin after i.m. administration in goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M; Shahin, M; Wuttke, W; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2012-07-01

    The present investigation addresses the pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), intramuscularly (i.m.) administered to goats. Nine pluriparous does of the Boer goat breed, 2-6 years of age and weighing 45-60 kg, were administered 500 IU hCG (2 ml Chorulon) deep into the thigh musculature 18 h after superovulatory FSH treatment. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein at 2  h intervals for the first 24h, at 6 h intervals until 42 h, and at 12 h intervals until 114 h after administration. After centrifugation, plasma hCG concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Pharmacokinetical parameters were as follows: lag time, 0.4 (s.e.m. 0.1) h; absorption rate constant, 0.34 (s.e.m. 0.002) h; absorption half-life, 2.7 (s.e.m. 0.5) h; elimination rate constant, 0.02 (s.e.m. 0.002) h; biological half-life, 39.4 (s.e.m. 5.1) h; and apparent volume of distribution, 16.9 (s.e.m. 4.3) l. The plasma hCG profile was characterized by an absorption phase of 11.6 (s.e.m. 1.8) h and an elimination phase of 70.0 (s.e.m. 9.8) h, with considerable individual variation in bioavailability and pharmacokinetical parameters. Biological half-life was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with peak concentration (r=-0.76), absorption rate constant (r=-0.78), and elimination rate constant (r=-0.87). The results indicate that after rapid absorption, hCG remains in the circulation for an extended period. This has to be taken into account when assessing the stimulatory response to hCG treatment on an ovarian level.

  5. Dual trigger with combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin significantly improves the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Huei; Wu, Frank Shao-Ying; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwu, Yuh-Ming

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether dual triggering of final oocyte maturation with a combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can improve the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Infertility unit of a university-affiliated medical center. Normal responders to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation who were undergoing IVF-ICSI with a GnRH antagonist protocol. Standard dosage of hCG trigger (6,500 IU of recombinant hCG) versus dual trigger (0.2 mg of triptorelin and 6,500 IU of recombinant hCG). Live-birth, clinical pregnancy, and implantation rates per cycle. A total of 376 patients with 378 completed cycles with embryo transfer were enrolled (hCG trigger/control group: n = 187; dual trigger/study group: n = 191). The dual trigger group demonstrated statistically significantly higher implantation (29.6% vs. 18.4%), clinical pregnancy (50.7% vs. 40.1%), and live-birth (41.3% vs. 30.4%) rates as compared with the hCG trigger group. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of patient demographics, cycle parameters, or embryo quality. Dual trigger of final oocyte maturation with a GnRH-agonist and a standard dosage of hCG in normal responders statistically significantly improves implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live-birth rates in GnRH-antagonist IVF cycles. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of leptin and neuropeptide Y on function of human ovarian granulosa cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Qing; Chen Xiao-yan; Cao Zuan-sun; Mao Wen-jun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of leptin and neuropeptide Y on steroidogenesis of human ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. Methods: Human ovarian granulosa cells were isolated from follicular fluid obtained during oocyte retrieval of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program and cultured for 2 days with various concentration of leptin(1,10,100 ng/ml) or neuropeptide Y (1×10-6, 1×10-7, 1×10-8 mol/L) alone or both,or with the combination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 0, 20 IU/L). The medium was collected for estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) measurements. Results: (1)Whether hCG existed or not, the adding of leptin did not alter estradiol and progesterone production by human granulosa cells (P>0.05).(2) Only when the concentration of neuropeptide Y was at 1×10-7mol/L,estradiol level was lower than that in the control (P<0.05).(3) The levels of estradiol in neuropeptide Y (1×10-7mol/L) plus hCG group were significantly higher than those with neuropeptide Y alone(P<0.05). (4) In the absence of hCG, the levels of estradiol in neuropeptide Y (1×10-7mol/L)plus leptin (10 ng/ml) group were significantly higher than those with neuropeptide Y(1×10-7mol/L)alone(P<0.05).Conclusions: (1)Leptin alone produced no direct effect on secretion of E2 and P from granulosa cells in vitro.(2)Neuropeptide Y alone may inhibit the secretion of E2, but the inhibition would probably be blocked with the presentation of hCG.(3)Leptin probably blocked the inhibition of neuropeptide Y on E2 secretion, and this may indicate that there were some coordination between leptin and neuropeptid Y on the level of ovarian function.

  7. Efeito da aplicação de hCG ou GnRH sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e eficiência reprodutiva em porcas Effect of injection of hCG or GnRH on progesterone serum concentration and reproductive efficiency of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.R. Carvalho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação de diferentes hormônios no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona e sobre as características reprodutivas, em 103 porcas entre o terceirro e sexto parto. As matrizes foram divididas em: grupo-controle (n=35, não tratado, grupo GnRH (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação intramuscular (IM de 50mcg de um análogo-GnRH no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação, e grupo hCG (n=34, animais submetidos à aplicação IM de 500UI de hCG no quinto dia após a primeira inseminação. A aplicação dos hormônios não influenciou as características reprodutivas taxa de parto, número total de nascidos, número de nascidos vivos e peso da leitegada (P>0,05. Cinco animais de cada grupo foram submetidos a coletas de sangue da veia cava nos dias 3, 5, 8, 12, 21 e 28 após a primeira inseminação para avaliação da concentração sérica de progesterona (ng/ml, utilizando a técnica de radioimunoensaio. Não houve diferença significativa quanto à concentração sérica de progesterona entre os grupos.Two different hormones were administered on the fifth day after the first insemination to evaluate their influence on serum progesterone concentrations and on reproductive efficiency, in multiparous sows between the third and the sixth parturition. The reproductive performance was evaluated in 103 sows distributed into three groups: 1-Control (n=35; 2-GnRH, 50m g of GnRH-analogue, administered IM on the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34; and 3-hCG, 500 IU of hCG administered IM in the fifth day after the first insemination (n=34. No effect (P>0.05 of hormone treatments on farrowing rate, litter size, live born and litter weight was observed. Five sows of each group were blood sampled on days 3, 5, 8, 12, 21, 28, after the first insemination, to evaluate serum progesterone concentrations (ng/ml. Serum progesterone concentrations were not affected (P>0.05 by

  8. Clinical significance of serum AFP, beta-HCG and Ue3 detection for Down`s syndrome screening%血清AFP、beta-HCG及Ue3检测对唐氏综合征筛查的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍华颖; 彭淑莹; 刘健

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨分析孕中血清中甲胎蛋白(AFP)、人绒毛膜促性腺激素(beta-HCG)及游离雌三醇(uE3)的检测对唐氏综合征筛查的临床意义。方法:从2009年10月到2013年1月期间来我院检查的980例孕中期妇女进行AFP、beta-HCG及uE3三项指标检测,结合孕妇的年龄、体重、孕周等因素,对于高风险的孕妇再进一步行B超或羊水细胞染色体进行确诊,观察不同年龄孕妇所产婴儿唐氏综合征的发生情况。结果:980例孕中期孕妇通过血清AFP、beta-HCG及uE3的检测,筛查唐氏综合征高风险52例(5.3%),经B超或羊水细胞染色体进行确诊唐氏综合征12例;35岁以上的孕妇唐氏综合征阳性风险率显著高于35岁以下的孕妇,差异具有统计学(P<0.05)。结论:孕中期检测血清中AFP、beta-HCG和uE3能够有效筛查出唐氏综合征阳性高风险孕妇,降低了唐氏综合征患儿的出生率,对于优生工作起到极大的辅助作用。%Objective:To explore the clinical significance of detecting serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) , human chorionic gonadotropin (beta HCG) and free estriol (uE3) in second trimester to screening Down’s syndrome. Methods:We detected the three indicators, serum AFP, beta - HCG and uE3, for the 980 pregnant women who had their check-ups in our hospital from October 2009 to January 2013. Combined with factors such as age, weight and gestational age, high-risk cases were further confirmed by ultrasonography or amniotic fluid cells chromosome. The purpose was to observe the occurrence of Down's syndrome in babies delivered by pregnant women at different ages.Results:Among the 980 pregnant women who went through the serum AFP, beta - HCG and uE3 detection in second trimester, 52 cases (5.3%) were at high risk of Down's syndrome and 12 cases were confirmed by ultrasonography or amniotic fluid cells chromosome. It is apparent that pregnant women over 35 years old suffer higher

  9. A randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of two HMG preparations gaining their LH bioactivity from different HCG sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockwood, Gillian; Cometti, Barbara; Bogstad, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    In this prospective, controlled, randomized, multicentre, non-inferiority study, efficacy and safety of two HMG preparations (Menopur(®)- Ferring and Meriofert®- IBSA Institut Biochimique SA) for ovarian stimulation were compared (270 women undergoing IVF aged between 18 and 39 years; BMI 30 kg/m(2......) or less; less than three prior completed assisted reproduction technique cycles). A standard long down-regulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol, with HCG triggering was used; primary end-point was total number of oocytes retrieved; attention was paid toovarian hyperstimulation...... syndrome (OHSS). No statistically significant differences between the treatment groups were reported for most of the clinically significant end-points, including embryo quality, fertilization rate, implantation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Total number of oocytes retrieved was higher...

  10. Medical abortion follow-up with serum human chorionic gonadotropin compared with ultrasonography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Ila; Maurer, Rie; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2013-03-01

    To estimate whether follow-up with serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) results in fewer unplanned visits and interventions than follow-up with ultrasonography. Women were randomized to either in-clinic serum hCG or ultrasound follow-up after medical abortion. The primary outcome, unplanned interventions and visits, was measured as a composite binary outcome including: additional clinic or emergency room visits, repeat dosing of misoprostol, and surgical evacuation of the uterus. Surveys were administered at initial follow-up and again 1 month after abortion to inquire about unscheduled visits, interventions, and patient satisfaction. Medical records were reviewed for evidence of additional interventions and visits. A total of 376 patients was randomized. Most participants were white (56%), single (83%), nulliparous (63%), and had completed high school (96%). Average participant age was 26±6 years and average gestational age was 46±6 days. Within 2 weeks of abortion, there was no significant difference in the rate of unplanned interventions and visits between arms, 8.2% (13/159) in the serum hCG arm compared with 6.6% (10/151) in the ultrasound arm (relative risk 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-2.73, P=.60). By 4 weeks postabortion, 4.4% (6/135) in the ultrasound arm and 1.4% (2/142) in the hCG arm had undergone surgical evacuation (relative risk 0.32, 95% CI 0.07-1.54, P=.16). The majority in both the serum hCG (88%) and ultrasound (95%) arms was satisfied with their assigned follow-up method. Medical abortion follow-up with serum hCG does not reduce the rate of unplanned interventions and visits compared with ultrasonography. Overall, the number of unplanned interventions is low and both methods of follow-up are acceptable to women.

  11. 人绒毛膜促性腺激素对青春期前低促性腺激素性腺发育不良型小阴茎皮肤组织表皮生长因子及其受体的影响%Effect of HCG on epidermal growth factor and its receptor in foreskin tissues of prepubertal children with micropenis in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海涛; 郑新民; 杨星海

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)对青春期前低促性腺激素性腺发育不良型小阴茎皮肤组织表皮生长因子(EGF)及其受体(EGFR)的影响.方法 10例经临床确诊的青春期前低促性腺激素性腺发育不良型小阴茎患儿予以HCG治疗;10例正常儿童为正常组.分别于治疗前、治疗后3个月进行阴茎长度测量;用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)定量检测阴茎皮肤组织EGF的含量;用免疫组织化学染色(SP法)检测阴茎皮肤组织EGFR的表达.结果所有患儿治疗前阴茎长度(2.44±0.24)cm较正常组(4.29±0.26)cm短(P0.05).经HCG治疗后其阴茎长度(3.97±0.27)cm较治疗前(2.44±0.24)cm明显增长(P0.05).结论 青春期前低促性腺激素性腺发育不良型小阴茎组织内EGF的含量低于正常同龄期儿童;HCG治疗可促进青春期前低促性腺激素性腺发育不良型小阴茎组织EGF的含量升高,从而促进阴茎生长发育.%Objective To investigate the effect of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) on the contents of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and expression of its receptor (EGFR) in foreskin tissues of prepubertal children with micropenis in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.Methods Ten patients were treated with HCG,and 10 normal prepubertal children served as control group.Their penis sizes were measured before and at the 3rd month after treatment of HCG.The contents of EGF in foreskin tissues were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The expression of EGFR in foreskin tissues was detected by using immunohistochemistry.Results Penis mean length of all patients was (2.44 ±0.24) cm,shorted than that of the control group (4.29 ±0.26) cm (P<0.01).Mean contents of EGF in foreskin tissues of all patients was ( 43.788 ± 15.375 ) ng/L,lower than those of the control group (87.106 ± 14.483) ng/L (P <0.01 ).There was no significant difference in mean AD of EGFR in foreskin tissues between patients and controls (0.224 ± 0.047 vs 0

  12. Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clulow John

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protocols for the hormonal induction of ovulation and oviposition are essential tools for managing threatened amphibians with assisted reproduction, but responses vary greatly between species and even broad taxon groups. Consequently, it is necessary to assess effectiveness of such protocols in representative species when new taxa become targets for induction. The threatened genus Mixophyes (family Myobatrachidae has amongst the highest proportion of endangered species of all the Australian amphibians. This study developed and optimised the induction of oviposition in a non-threatened member of this taxon, the great barred frog (Mixophyes fasciolatus. Methods Gravid female M. fasciolatus were induced to oviposit on one or more occasions by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG with or without priming with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG. Treatments involved variations in hormone doses and combinations (administered via injection into the dorsal lymph sacs, and timing of administration. Pituitary homogenates from an unrelated bufonid species (Rhinella marina were also examined with hCG. Results When injected alone, hCG (900 to 1400 IU induced oviposition. However, priming with two time dependent doses of PMSG (50 IU, 25 IU increased responses, with lower doses of hCG (200 IU. Priming increased response rates in females from around 30% (hCG alone to more than 50% (p = 0.035, and up to 67%. Increasing the interval between the first PMSG dose and first hCG dose from 3 to 6 days also produced significant improvement (p Conclusions This study found that M. fasciolatus is amongst the few amphibian species (including Xenopus (Silurana and some bufonids that respond well to the induction of ovulation utilising mammalian gonadotropins (hCG. The optimal protocol for M. fasciolatus involved two priming doses of PMSG (50 IU and 25 IU administered at 6 and 4 days respectively, prior to two doses of hCG (100 IU, 24

  13. The Use of rLH, HMG and hCG in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    gene mutations. Case reports of these male and female patients have demonstrated hypogonadism, infertility , pseudohermaphroditism, and amenorrhea...898-904. [59] Regan L, Owen EJ, Jacobs HS. Hypersecretion of luteinizing- hormone , infertility , and miscarriage. Lancet. 1990 Nov;336(8724):1141-4...human luteinizing hormone : Part I. Pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration to healthy female volunteers and comparison with urinary human

  14. Sensitive immunoassay of human chorionic gonadotrophin based on multi-walled carbon nanotube-chitosan matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Chen, Shihong; An, Haizhen

    2008-10-01

    A novel amperometric immunosensor for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) assay has been fabricated through incorporating toluidine blue (TB) and hemoglobin (Hb) on the multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT)-chitosan (CS) modified glassy carbon electrode, followed by electrostatic adsorption of a conducting gold nanoparticles (nanogold) film as sensing interface. The MWNT-CS matrix provided a congenial microenvironment for the immobilization of biomolecules and promoted the electron transfer to enhance the sensitivity of the immunosensor. Due to the strong electrocatalytic properties of Hb and MWNT toward H(2)O(2), the Hb and MWNT significantly amplified the current signal of the antigen-antibody reaction. The immobilized toluidine blue as an electron transfer mediator exhibited excellent electrochemical redox property. After the immunosensor was incubated with HCG solution, the access of activity center of the Hb to toluidine blue was partly inhibited, which leaded to a linear decrease in the catalytic efficiency of the Hb to the oxidation of immobilized toluidine blue by H(2)O(2) over HCG concentration ranges from 0.8 to 500 mIU/mL. Under optimal condition, the detection limit for the HCG immunoassay was 0.3 mIU/mL estimated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Moreover, the proposed immunosensor displayed a satisfactory stability and reproducibility.

  15. Pretreatment serum human chorionic gonadotropin cutoff value for medical treatment success with single-dose and multi-dose regimen of methotrexate in tubal ectopic pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhwan; Jung, Young Mi; Lee, Da Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate individual pretreatment serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cutoff value for medical treatment success with single-dose and multi-dose regimen of methotrexate in tubal ectopic pregnancy. Methods Eighty-five women who received methotrexate for the treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy during 2003 to 2015 were selected. Fifty-three women received a single-dose regimen and 32 women received a multi-dose regimen. Medical treatment failure was defined as necessity of surgical treatment. The medical treatment success rate was estimated in both regimens and the pretreatment serum hCG titer to predict the success was assessed by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Results Pretreatment clinical and laboratory parameters were similar between group of single-dose regimen and multi-dose regimen. Treatment success rate was 64.2% in the single-dose regimen group and 71.9% in the multi-dose regimen group (P>0.05). Pretreatment serum hCG titer was an independent prognostic factor for treatment success in each regimen. Serum hCG cutoff value to predict the treatment success was 3,026 IU/L in single-dose regimen group and 3,711 IU/L in multi-dose regimen group. Conclusion We recommend use of single-dose regimen when pretreatment serum hCG <3,026 IU/L but multi-dose regimen may be favored when initial serum hCG level between 3,026 and 3,711 IU/L. PMID:28217676

  16. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts, File name = ENTERZONES County Enterprise Zone Call HCG Department of Economic Development for details. http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts dataset current as of 2009. File name = ENTERZONES County Enterprise Zone Call HCG Department of Economic Development for...

  17. Influence of FSH and hCG on the resumption of meiosis of bovine oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells connected to membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, H T; van Eijk, M J; Mummery, C L; van den Hurk, R; Bevers, M M

    1996-10-01

    Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and cumulus oocyte complexes connected to a piece of the membrane granulosa (COCGs) were isolated from bovine antral follicles with a diameter of 2 to 8 mm. After culture of COCGs without gonadotrophic hormones for 22 hr approximately 50% of the oocytes were still in the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Histology of the COCGs showed that the pieces of the membrana granulosa were free of thecal cells and parts of the basal membrane. This indicates that the membrana granulosa solely inhibits the progression of meiosis. To investigate the effect of gonadotropins on the resumption of meiosis of oocytes from small and medium sized antral follicles, COCs and COCGs were cultured with or without rec-hFSH or hCG. Addition of 0.05 IU rec-hFSH to the culture medium of COCGs resulted in germinal vesicle breakdown in 97.8% of the oocytes compared to 46% in the control group, and an increase of the diameter of the COCs (479 microns vs. 240 microns in the control group). Addition of 0.05 IU hCG to the culture medium had no effect on nuclear maturation (47.2% GV vs. 48.5% GV in the control group) nor on cumulus expansion (246 microns vs. 240 microns in the control group). RT-PCR on cDNA of the follicular wall, cumulus cells, granulosa cells, COCs, and oocytes revealed that mRNA for FSH receptor was present in all cell types except oocytes. mRNA of the LH receptor was detected exclusively in thecal cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis and alignment of the cloned PCR products showed the presence of two isoforms of the FSH receptor mRNA and two isoforms of the LH receptor mRNA. It is concluded that, in vitro, resumption of meiosis of oocytes, originating from small and medium sized antral follicles and meiotically arrested by the membrana granulosa, is triggered by FSH and not by LH. This is supported by the fact that receptors for FSH, but not for LH, are transcribed in the cumulus and granulosa cells of these follicles.

  18. HCG与外用睾酮霜治疗小阴茎的临床疗效观察%HCG and transdermal testosterone therapy for the patients with micropenis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓常开; 李旭良

    2010-01-01

    目的 探寻临床治疗小阴茎的有效治疗办法及其选择用药的依据.方法 按照小阴茎诊断标准选择病例,分为HCG组(肌注HCG,每次1000IU,每周2次,连用6周)和T组(每日外用睾酮霜2次),并于治疗前后测定阴茎长度、睾丸大小及性激素水平等以观察其疗效及影响.结果 阴茎长度测量:用药前两组阴茎长度比较无显著差异(P>0.05),而用药后两组均有显著增长(P0.05).睾丸体积测量:用药前两组睾丸体积比较无显著差异(P>0.05),但HCG组用药后有显著增长(P0.05).激素水平测定:除HCG组用药前后睾酮水平比较有显著性差异(P0.05).结论 肌注HCG和外用睾酮霜治疗儿童小阴茎均可使阴茎明显的增长,且对性激素水平无明显干扰,并与患儿年龄大小无关.但外用睾酮霜更为方便实用,在为使睾丸得到同步增长时也可首选HCG治疗.西药治疗无效时应想到雄激素抵抗综合症可能.%Objective To investigate the efficacy of HCG and transdermal testosterone therapy for the patients with micropenis.Methods Pediatric patients, who were diagnosed with micropenis,were divided into HCG and testosterone(T) group according to the treatments they received.In group HCG, 1000IU HCG was administered to patients by intramuscular injection twice a week for six weeks.In group T, testosterone cream was applied transdermally twice a day for 2 months.Penile length, testicular size, and sex hormone levels were measured during follow-up.Results No significant differences of penile length and testicular volume was noted between these 2 groups before medication initiation (P>0.05).After treatment, penile length increased in both groups (P0.05).After treatment, testicular volume markedly increased in HCG group (P0.05).Conclusions HCG and trandermal testosterone therapy can promote the growth of micropenis in different age without interfering sex hormone levels.Transdermal testosterone therapy is convenient and practical.HCG

  19. Analysis of recombinant and native human lutropin/luteotrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography; Analise de luteotrofina humana e de gonadotrofina corionica humana, recombinante e natural, por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia em fase reversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Beatriz Elane de

    2009-07-01

    Specific RP-HPLC conditions for the analysis of recombinant and native hLH and hCG preparations and of their subunits were set up. Heterodimeric hLH and hCG and their alpha and beta subunits all migrated with significantly different retention times (t{sub R}) in the following order of increasing hydrophobicity: alpha-hCG < alpha-hLH < hCG < hLH < -beta-hCG < beta-hLH. With basis on these conditions, a total of eleven preparations were studied: the International Standard of recombinant hLH-WHO 96/602, a commercial recombinant and two highly purified pituitary hLH, a recombinant and two urinary hCG preparations and four heterogeneous urinary products containing hLH + hFSH. All hLH preparations showed very similar retention times for the main peak (t{sub R} = 38.35 +- 0.42 min; RSD = 1.1 %; n = 4 preparations), while the hCG main peak ran about 4 % faster when compared to this average value. Human LH, hFSH and hCG peaks could also be identified in the heterogeneous urinary preparations. Quantitative analysis could be validated for the seven homogeneous preparations and accuracy, precision and sensitivity were calculated on the basis of a highly linear dose-response curve (r=0.99998; p<0.0001; n=20). Quantification of the different gonadotropins in the heterogeneous urinary preparations was also carried out, though with clear accuracy limitations. (author)

  20. Dried blood spot measurement of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) from a low-resource setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, J. L.; Schielen, P. C. J. I.; Belmouden, I.; Pennings, J. L. A.; Klipstein-Grobusch, K.

    ObjectivesThe objectives of the article is to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free -subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (-hCG) concentrations in dried blood spots (DBSs) with serum of samples obtained from a public hospital in a low-resource setting and to evaluate

  1. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Can the luteal phase support be improved in terms of efficacy, hormonal profiles and convenience as compared with today's standard care? SUMMARY ANSWER: Daily low-dose rhCG supplementation in GnRHa triggered IVF cycles can replace the traditional used luteal phase support with exo......STUDY QUESTION: Can the luteal phase support be improved in terms of efficacy, hormonal profiles and convenience as compared with today's standard care? SUMMARY ANSWER: Daily low-dose rhCG supplementation in GnRHa triggered IVF cycles can replace the traditional used luteal phase support...... on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples. Mid...... were seen between groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of patients included is limited and conclusions need to be verified in a larger RCT. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Endogenous production of progesterone may become more attractive as the luteal phase support with levels of LH...

  2. Deep Chandra observations of HCG 16. II. The development of the intra-group medium in a spiral-rich group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P.; Zezas, A.; Nulsen, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Ponman, T. J.; Raychaudhury, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mamon, G. A. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris (UMR 7095 CNRS and UMPC), 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-10-01

    We use a combination of deep Chandra X-ray observations and radio continuum imaging to investigate the origin and current state of the intra-group medium (IGM) in the spiral-rich compact group HCG 16. We confirm the presence of a faint (L {sub X,} {sub bolo} = 1.87{sub −0.66}{sup +1.03}×10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}), low-temperature (0.30{sub −0.05}{sup +0.07} keV) IGM extending throughout the ACIS-S3 field of view, with a ridge linking the four original group members and extending to the southeast, as suggested by previous ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations. This ridge contains 6.6{sub −3.3}{sup +3.9}× 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} of hot gas and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale H I tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We present evidence that the group is not yet virialized, and show that gas has probably been transported from the starburst winds of NGC 838 and NGC 839 into the surrounding IGM. Considering the possible origin of the IGM, we argue that material ejected by galactic winds may have played a significant role, contributing 20%-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  3. Deep Chandra Observations of HCG 16. II. The Development of the Intra-group Medium in a Spiral-rich Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P.; Giacintucci, S.; Zezas, A.; Ponman, T. J.; Mamon, G. A.; Nulsen, P.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2014-10-01

    We use a combination of deep Chandra X-ray observations and radio continuum imaging to investigate the origin and current state of the intra-group medium (IGM) in the spiral-rich compact group HCG 16. We confirm the presence of a faint (L X, bolo = 1.87+1.03-0.66×1041 erg s-1), low-temperature (0.30+0.07-0.05 keV) IGM extending throughout the ACIS-S3 field of view, with a ridge linking the four original group members and extending to the southeast, as suggested by previous ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations. This ridge contains 6.6+3.9-3.3× 109 M ⊙ of hot gas and is at least partly coincident with a large-scale {H} {I} tidal filament, indicating that the IGM in the inner part of the group is highly multi-phase. We present evidence that the group is not yet virialized, and show that gas has probably been transported from the starburst winds of NGC 838 and NGC 839 into the surrounding IGM. Considering the possible origin of the IGM, we argue that material ejected by galactic winds may have played a significant role, contributing 20%-40% of the observed hot gas in the system.

  4. Treatment of cryptorchidism with human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin releasing hormone. A double-blind controlled study of 243 boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Müller, J; Buhl, S;

    1988-01-01

    We have conducted a modified double-blind study on the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and placebo on bilateral and unilateral maldescended testes. One hundred and fifty-five boys with bilateral and 88 boys with unilateral cryptorchidism fulfilled...... the inclusion criteria and completed the treatment protocol. The boys were between 1 and 13 years of age. hCG was administered as intramuscular injections twice weekly for 3 weeks. GnRH and placebo were given intranasally. hCG was superior to GnRH and placebo in the treatment of bilateral maldescended testes (p......% after placebo and GnRH, respectively (p = 0.07). The testis had moved to a more distal position in 46% of the boys treated with hCG. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups with regard to age or initial position of the testes. We conclude that a success rate of 25% justifies...

  5. A 15-year-old female with amenorrhea, abdominal distention, and elevated human chorionic gonadotropin: pregnancy, right? Not so fast….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arun; Ocon, Anthony J; Nibhanipudi, Kumara

    2012-10-01

    Nongestational choriocarcinoma, a rare ovarian tumor, may present in young women with amenorrhea, abdominal distention, and elevated urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), all of which may be mistaken for pregnancy. A 15-year-old Hispanic female, who reported no sexual activity, presented with 6 months of amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and progressive abdominal distension. Initially, suspicion of pregnancy was considered. Physical examination was significant for abdominal distension, but no uterine fundus or fetal anatomy could be palpated, and auscultation did not reveal any fetal heart sounds or bruits. Laboratory values showed elevated urine hCG, cancer antigen 125, and cancer antigen 19.9 levels but normal serum hCG level and was inconsistent with pregnancy. Computed tomographic scans revealed a large abdominal heterogeneous mass and pleural effusions. Salpingo-oophorectomy with total omentectomy and inversion appendectomy removed a 21 × 20.5 × 16.5-cm tumor. Pathological testing determined it to be a nongestational choriocarcinoma. This rare tumor is more common in the pediatric adolescent population than in adults. Surgical resection and chemotherapy often result in a positive prognosis. In female adolescent patients presenting with elevated hCG level, amenorrhea, and abdominal distention, choriocarcinoma should be considered, especially in those with no history of sexual activity or before menarche.

  6. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with high pregnancy rates during ovarian stimulation and timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razeq Sonya

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are different factors that influence treatment outcome after ovarian stimulation and timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI. After patient age, it has been suggested that timing of insemination in relation to ovulation is probably the most important variable affecting the success of treatment. The objective of this study is to study the value of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration and occurrence of luteinizing hormone (LH surge in timing insemination on the treatment outcome after follicular monitoring with timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination, with or without ovarian stimulation. Methods Retrospective analysis of 2000 consecutive completed treatment cycles (637 timed-intercourse and 1363 intrauterine insemination cycles. Stimulation protocols included clomiphene alone or with FSH injection, letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor alone or with FSH, and FSH alone. LH-surge was defined as an increase in LH level ≥200% over mean of preceding two days. When given, hCG was administered at a dose of 10,000 IU. The main outcome was clinical pregnancy rate per cycle. Results Higher pregnancy rates occurred in cycles in which hCG was given. Occurrence of an LH-surge was associated with a higher pregnancy rate with clomiphene treatment, but a lower pregnancy rate with FSH treatment. Conclusions hCG administration is associated with a favorable outcome during ovarian stimulation. Awaiting occurrence of LH-surge is associated with a better outcome with CC but not with FSH treatment.

  7. Human chorionic gonadotrophin priming for fertility treatment with in vitro maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavey, Jane; Vincent, Katy; Child, Timothy; Granne, Ingrid E

    2016-11-16

    In vitro maturation (IVM) is a fertility treatment that involves the transvaginal retrieval of immature oocytes, and their subsequent maturation and fertilisation. Although the live birth rate is lower than conventional in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with ovarian stimulation, it is a useful treatment, as it avoids the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Women with polycystic ovaries (PCO) or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are at an increased risk of OHSS. Thus, IVM may be a more useful treatment in this patient group.Strategies to maximise the maturation rates of the immature oocytes are important. This review focuses on the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) prior to immature oocyte retrieval. To determine the effectiveness and safety of hCG priming in subfertile women who are undergoing IVM treatment in the context of assisted reproduction. We searched the following electronic databases up to 29 August 2016: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. We also searched the trial registries ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTPR to identify ongoing and registered trials. We sought recently published papers not yet indexed in the major databases, and reviewed the reference lists of reviews and retrieved studies as sources of potentially relevant studies. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared hCG priming with placebo or no priming in women undergoing IVM. We also included RCTs that compared different doses of hCG, or the timing of oocyte retrieval. The primary outcomes were live birth rate and miscarriage rate per woman randomised. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, and with a third author, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the original authors where data were missing. For dichotomous outcomes, we used the Mantel-Haenszel method to calculate

  8. Elevated serum progesterone/ MII oocyte ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration can predict impaired endometrial receptivity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration may affect in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with poor IVF outcome. Materials and Methods: To determine the relationship between serum progesterone on the day of HCG and the outcome of IVF-embryo transfer treatment, 378 infertile patients und...

  9. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM. Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P≤0.001. Free testosterone (T and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL (P=0.0001 and 0.001, respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r=0.78; P≤0.001, r=0.74;  P≤0.001, and r=0.71;  P≤0.001, respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P=0.001 and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P=0.0002 and 0.009. Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction.

  10. Medical abortion in the first trimester: the use of serum hCG and endometrial thickness as markers of completeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Pooja; Iversen, Ole Erik; Midbøe, Grete; Myking, Ole; Bjørge, Line

    2007-12-01

    The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is an established method for induction of early first trimester abortion, but there is no consensus about the best evaluation of treatment outcome. We assessed endometrial thickness, determined by ultrasound and serum-human chorionic gonadotropin (s-hCG) as markers of successful management. Prospective trial involving 255 women, with a gestation of 62 days or less, who were to undergo medical abortion. In addition to our established routines of performing clinical and ultrasound examinations, we also determined the s-hCG level prior to treatment and at follow-up. Of the 255 subjects treated during the study, 20 (7.8%) were lost to follow-up. The overall complete abortion rate was 94.0%. Fourteen subjects required vacuum aspiration, nine of them prior to the scheduled follow-up and five thereafter. None of the pregnancies were ongoing. A decrease of 99% in s-hCG levels was noted in 99% of the women, when levels determined prior to mifepristone intake and those measured 15-71 days post-abortion were compared. This study confirms that s-hCG levels drop sharply after medical abortion. To assess the completeness of medical abortion, we recommend that clinical examination to be combined with determination of s-hCG. Ultrasonography should be carried out only when indicated.

  11. Human chorionic gonadotrophin in early gestation induces growth of estrogenic ovarian follicles and improves primiparous sow fertility during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Jemma; Langendijk, P; Chen, T Y; Bouwman, E; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-09-01

    Reduced summer farrowing rates may be due to inadequate corpora luteal (CL) support. Porcine CL become dependent on LH from 12 d of pregnancy and the embryonic estrogen signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) is initiated at about 11-12 d after insemination. We hypothesised that injection of the LH analogue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) would induce growth of estrogenic follicles and, by mimicking the signal for MRP and stimulating progesterone secretion, increase primiparous sow fertility. In Experiment 1, during a 28 d lactation 53 mixed parity sows were full-fed either throughout lactation (n=16) or until 18 d and then feed restricted during the last 10 d of lactation (n=36). At 12 d after mating restrict-fed sows were injected with 1000IU hCG (n=17) or were not injected (n=19); the full-fed sows acted as non-treated positive controls. Transrectal ovarian ultrasound exams were performed on days 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28; blood samples were obtained on days 12, 14, and 15 for estradiol and progesterone assay. For Experiment 2, during the summer months primiparous sows received 1000IU hCG 12 d after mating (n=28) or were non-injected controls (n=27). Pregnancy status was determined at 28 d and sows allowed to go to term to determine farrowing rates and litter sizes. In Experiment 1, injection of hCG increased (Pfeeding level on wean-estrus interval, farrowing rate or subsequent litter size. In Experiment 2, hCG injection was associated with a higher pregnancy rate (Psow fertility during the summer months.

  12. Chemokine Ligand 20: A Signal for Leukocyte Recruitment During Human Ovulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alem, Linah; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Rosewell, Kathy; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James; Boldt, Jeffrey; Muse, Ken; Curry, Thomas E

    2015-09-01

    Ovulation is one of the cornerstones of female fertility. Disruption of the ovulatory process results in infertility, which affects approximately 10% of couples. Using a unique model in which the dominant follicle is collected across the periovulatory period in women, we have identified a leukocyte chemoattractant, chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), in the human ovary. CCL20 mRNA is massively induced after an in vivo human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulus in granulosa (>10 000-fold) and theca (>4000-fold) cells collected during the early ovulatory (12-18 h) and late ovulatory (18-34 h) periods after hCG administration. Because the LH surge sets in motion an inflammatory reaction characterized by an influx of leukocytes and CCL20 is known to recruit leukocytes in other systems, the composition of ovarian leukocytes (CD45+) containing the CCL20 receptor CCR6 was determined immediately prior to ovulation. CD45+/CCR6+ cells were primarily natural killer cells (41%) along with B cells (12%), T cells (11%), neutrophils (10%), and monocytes (9%). Importantly, exogenous CCL20 stimulated ovarian leukocyte migration 59% within 90 minutes. Due to the difficulties in obtaining human follicles, an in vitro model was developed using granulosa-lutein cells to explore CCL20 regulation. CCL20 expression increased 40-fold within 6 hours after hCG, was regulated partially by the epithelial growth factor pathway, and was positively correlated with progesterone production. These results demonstrate that hCG dramatically increases CCL20 expression in the human ovary, that ovarian leukocytes contain the CCL20 receptor, and that CCL20 stimulates leukocyte migration. Our findings raise the prospect that CCL20 may aid in the final ovulatory events and contribute to fertility in women.

  13. Human chorionic gonadotropin potentially affects pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent implantation failure by regulating the homing preference of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Liang-Hui; Li, Guan-Gui; Zhu, Yuan-Chang; Tu, Wen-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yu; Lian, Ruo-Chun; Chen, Xian; Li, Yu-Ye; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Yong; Zeng, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been suggested to play important roles during the initial stage of pregnancy. However, the clinical relevance and mechanism of the effects of hCG on Treg functions in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) remain to be elucidated. Thirty-four RIF and twenty-three control women were included in the study. Endometrial and peripheral Tregs were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. Tregs were generated from naïve CD4(+) T cells by stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of hCG, and the subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and qPCR. The percentages of endometrial FOXP3(+) Tregs and peripheral CCR4(+) FOXP3(+) Tregs were significantly lower in the women with RIF than in the healthy controls. In addition, the percentages of CCR4(+) FOXP3(+) Tregs and TGF-β-expressing FOXP3(+) Tregs were increased following the stimulation of naïve CD4(+) T cells with anti-CD3/CD28, and these increases were concomitant with AKT and ERK dephosphorylation. The results of this study provide novel evidence supporting a role of hCG in regulating the differentiation of peripheral FOXP3(+) Tregs. The alterations of circulating Tregs may positively affect the pregnancy outcomes of patients with a history of RIF. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. CORRIGENDUM to Four Thrombotic Events Over 5 Years, Two Pulmonary Emboli and Two Deep Venous Thrombosis, When Testosterone-HCG Therapy Was Continued Despite Concurrent Anticoagulation in a 55-Year-Old Man With Lupus Anticoagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Owing to errors made by the authors, Charles J. Glueck, Kevin Lee, Marloe Prince, Vybhav Jetty, Parth Shah, and Ping Wang, the following article contains errors. Glueck CJ, Lee K, Prince M, et al. Four Thrombotic Events Over 5 Years, Two Pulmonary Emboli and Two Deep Venous Thrombosis, When Testosterone-HCG Therapy Was Continued Despite Concurrent Anticoagulation in a 55-Year-Old Man With Lupus Anticoagulant. J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep. 2016;4(3):1-6. doi: 10.1177/2324709616661833 PMID:28321420

  15. Evaluation of Detection of Serum HCG with BioMérieux VIDAS mini Immunoassay Analyzer%梅里埃VIDAS mini免疫分析仪检测血清HCG实验方法评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宗忠; 龚娅; 林林东; 朱来凤; 史秋霞; 沈雪曼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of detection for serum HCG with bioMérieux VIDAS mini automated immunoassay analyzer.Methods Precision evaluation was carried out with BIO-RAD control materials.Interference test and recovery test were performed under CLIA88 rules.The β-HCG levels in 26 serum samples were detected by Diasorin LIAISON chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer,and HCG levels were detected by bioMérieux VIDAS mini automatic immunoassay,and the results were compared and analyzed.Results The detection of serum HCG with VIDAS mini analyzer had qualified precision,the CV of the high and the middle control materials were 5.209% and 5.457%,respectively.The linearity of serum HCG standard was 2 ~ 1500 m IU/mL,and the average recovery rate was 99.50%.The maximum deviation of HCG to hemoglobin,total bilirubin,and chyle blood were 4.41%,5.07%,8.64%,respectively.The serum β-HCG levels detected by Diasorin LIAISON was positively correlated with the serum HCG levels detected by VIDAS mini (Y =1.3484X-132.08,r =0.998,P <0.001).Conclusion Detection of serum HCG level with BioMérieux VIDAS mini automated immunoassay analyzer are sensitive and accurate,and it could be used in the emergency or small hospitals.%目的 对梅里埃VIDAS mini全自动免疫分析仪检测血清HCG进行实验方法评价.方法 应用BIO-RAD质控品评价精密度,并依据CLIA88文件作干扰试验、回收试验,并收集Diasorin LIAISON化学发光免疫分析仪检测血清β-HCG的血清标本26例立即采用梅里埃VIDAS mini全自动免疫分析仪检测HCG作对比性试验.结果 VIDAS mini检测血清HCG的精密度试验表明,重复性好(高、中质控品的CV值分别为5.209%、5.457%),无一失控点;线性范围为2~1500 mlU/mL,灵敏度较高;实测结果与预期值比较,平均回收率达99.50%,在干扰试验中,HCG对血红蛋白、总胆红素、乳糜血的最大偏离分别为4.41%、5.07%、8.64

  16. 胚胎移植术后14 d血清β-HCG对妊娠结局的预测%The prediction of serum β-HCG on pregnancy outcome after 14 days in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 罗海娇; 邵小光

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prediction of serumβ-HCG on pregnancy outcome after 14 days in vitro fertiliza-tion-embryo transfer. Methods 275 patients who received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer treatment from June to December 2013 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed,including 192 cases of in vitro fertilization-embryo trans-fer,83 cases of intracytoplasmic sperm injection.Serum β-HCG was detected after 14 days mbryo transfer.Pregnancy was divided into single pregnancy,twin pregnancy and three pregnancy.Pregnancy outcome was divided into ectopic pregnancy,abortion,premature delivery,full-term delivery. Results The serum β-HCG value between single pregnancy group and twin pregnancy group,three pregnancy group had significant difference (P=0.000).The serumβ-HCG value of premature delivery between ectopic pregnancy,abortion,full-term delivery had significant difference (P=0.014, 0.000,0.002).In three pregnancy group,the serum β-HCG value between premature delivery and full-term had signifi-cant difference (t=3.552,P=0.005);In premature delivery group,the serum β-HCG value between single pregnancy and twin pregnancy had significant difference (P=0.004);In full-term delivery,the serumβ-HCG value between single preg-nancy group and twin pregnancy group,three pregnancy group had significant difference (P=0.000). Conclusion The serum β-HCG value after 14 days embryo transfer may some kind of forecast of embryo number,but can not forecast the pregnancy result effectively.%目的:探讨试管婴儿胚胎移植术后14 d血清人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)值对妊娠结局的预测作用。方法回顾性分析本中心2013年6~12月新鲜胚胎移植的275例临床妊娠患者,其中常规体外受精-胚胎移植192例,卵胞质内单精子注射83例。检测胚胎移植后14 d血清β-HCG值。妊娠分为单胎妊娠、双胎妊娠和三胎妊娠。妊娠结局分为异位妊娠、流产、早产、足月。结果单胎妊娠与双胎妊娠

  17. Efficacy of hCG and hMG on testicular morphology and function in male patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency%促性腺激素治疗对多种垂体激素缺乏症男性患者睾丸形态和功能影响的时效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐琳; 李桂梅; 王倩

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究人绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)和人绝经期促性腺激素(hMG)起始治疗年龄对多种垂体激素缺乏症男性患者的睾丸形态和功能改善情况的影响。方法以多种垂体激素缺乏症男性患者为研究对象,给予hCG和hMG治疗,同时维持其他激素正常,观察睾丸、阴茎形态,促性激素水平,身高,骨龄等变化值与开始治疗年龄的相关性。结果入组的54例患者经hCG和hMG治疗6个月后,阴茎长度由治疗前的(2.58±0.69)cm增长至(4.19±0.77)cm,阴茎周长由治疗前的(3.71±1.36)cm增长至(5.95±1.26)cm,睾丸容积从治疗前的(1.76±1.49)ml增加至(5.20±2.30)ml,身高从治疗前的(147.01±12.29)cm增加至(151.98±11.52)cm,骨龄从治疗前的(11.22±2.71)岁增长至(11.64±2.72)岁,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01)。睾丸容积及睾酮水平在治疗前、后的增长值随年龄增长均呈降低趋势,在各年龄组间的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。用药前后睾丸容积增长值、血清促卵泡激素(FSH)和黄体生成素(LH)水平增加值以及用药前后身高增长值均与开始治疗年龄呈负相关(r=-0.517~-0.334,P<0.05)。结论在正常青春期时期适当早期给予多种垂体激素缺乏症男性患者hCG和hMG治疗可更好改善其第二性征和睾丸功能。%Objectives To study the impact of initial age of treatment on testicular morphology and function in male pa-tients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotro-pin (hMG). Methods Patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency were treated with hCG and hMG while keeping other hormone levels normal. Correlations among their testicular volume, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and height, bone age were analyzed. Results After 6-month hCG and hMG treatment, the penis

  18. Gonadotrofina coriônica humana e hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina como indutores da reprodução do jundiá = Human chorionic gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone as breeding inducers of jundiá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Falanghe Carneiro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros reprodutivos de machos e fêmeas de jundiá adultos após a aplicação do HCG (gonadotrofina coriônica humana e do GnRHa (hormônio liberador do hormônio gonadotrópico e compará-los àqueles obtidos quando usado o extrato hipofisário da carpa comum. Etapa 1 (Machos - quatro grupos, com oito machos cada, receberam os seguintes tratamentos: M1: sem hormônio; M2: extrato hipofisário 0,5 mg kg-1; M3: HCG 200 UI kg-1; M4: GnRHa+inibidor dopaminergético 0,1 glóbulo(Ovopel® kg-1. Etapa 2 (fêmeas – 36 fêmeas foram divididas em cinco grupos: F1: extrato hipofisário em duas aplicações, 0,5 e 5,0 mg kg-1; F2: HCG em duas aplicações, 200 e 400 UI kg-1; F3: HCG 400 UI kg-1 em doseúnica; F4: HCG 1000 UI kg-1 em dose única; F5: GnRHa+inibidor dopaminergético 1 glóbulo(Ovopel® kg-1. O uso do extrato hipofisário da carpa comum aumentou significativamente o volume de sêmen liberado e estimulou maior quantidade de fêmeas à liberar óvulos. O HCG e o GnRHa não apresentaram resultados positivos no tocante à reprodução induzida do jundiá, nas doses utilizadas neste estudo.In this study we analyzed reproductive parameters of males and females of jundiá induced by HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin and GnRHa (gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and compared the results tothose using carp pituitary extract. Stage 1 (Males - four groups with eight males each received one of the following treatments: M1: without hormone; M2: pituitary extract 0.5 mg kg-1; M3: HCG 200 UI kg-1; M4: GnRHa+dopamine receptor antagonist 0.1 pellet (Ovopel® kg-1. Stage 2 (Females – thirty-six females were separated in 5 groups: F1: pituitary extract in two applications, 0.5 and 5.0 mg kg-1; F2: HCG in two applications, 200 and 400 UI kg-1; F3: HCG 400 UI kg-1 in a single dose; F4: HCG 1000 UI kg-1 in a singledose; F5: GnRHa+dopamine receptor antagonist 1 pellet (Ovopel® kg-1. The pituitary extract

  19. Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study

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    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH 4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816, the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588, fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390, and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991. CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation.

  20. A proposed unified mechanism for the reduction of human breast cancer risk by the hormones of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Herbert I; Lemanski, Nicole; Agarwal, Anu; Narendran, Amithi; Turner, Kelvin E; Bennett, James A; Andersen, Thomas T

    2010-02-01

    Parity in women is associated with reduced lifetime risk of breast cancer, and hormones of pregnancy [estrogen (E), progesterone (P), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)] are implicated. Parity also reduces mammary cancer risk in carcinogen-exposed rats, and administering pregnancy hormones to these animals is similarly effective. Because pregnancy hormones are also able to stimulate cancer growth, we proposed to resolve this dichotomy by determining whether administered pregnancy hormones elicit the cancer-inhibiting agent alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) from the liver, which would implicate AFP as a proximal effector of hormonal anticancer activity. Accordingly, we treated groups of nitrosomethylurea-exposed rats with saline, E(3), E(2) + P, E(3) + P, hCG, or allowed them to experience pregnancy, and then monitored mammary cancer incidence and serum levels of AFP over time. Each hormone treatment reduced mammary cancer incidence and elevated serum AFP levels. To challenge human tissues, human HepG2 liver cells in culture were treated with the same hormonal agents. Each hormone regimen increased the levels of AFP in the culture medium. Medium containing AFP elicited by hCG inhibited the E(2)-stimulated proliferation of cultured human MCF7 breast cancer cells, whereas hCG alone did not inhibit their growth. Furthermore, antibodies to AFP neutralized the growth-inhibiting effect of AFP-containing HepG2 medium. We conclude that in the treatment of carcinogen-exposed rats with the hormones of pregnancy, and by inference in women who have experienced pregnancy, that AFP is a proximal agent that inhibits mammary gland cancer.

  1. 米索前列醇与HCG促排卵效果的临床比较研究%The clinical contrast of ovulation induction effect between misoprostol and HCG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳; 王桂香

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the ovulation induction and pregnancy endings of misoprostol and HCG. Methods; 90 cases were selected as infertility from Women and Children's hospital of Inner Mongolia, who used letrozole from the third day of menstruation for 5 days with the dose of 5 milligram per day. The cases decreased to 85. Then 70 patients without high ovarian reaction were chosen as group A, who were given HCG 6000U though muscular injection. The patients with high ovarian reaction or ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) tendency were group B, 15 cases, given misoprostol 0. 2 milligram by peoral method. Then trans - vaginal ultrasound diagnosis was used to screen the follicle growth until their diameter grew to 18 millimeter. Early pregnancies were confirmed by follicle ovulation indication, basic temperature examination and tans - vaginal ultrasound diagnosis. Results; there is no significant difference in clinical ovulation induction rate ( P > 0. 05 ) and pregnancy rate (P > 0. 05) between misoprostol and HCG. The effect of misoprostol is gentle and can be used in those with high ovarian reaction or OHSS tendency. Therefore, misoprostol is a better substitute to induce follicle ovulation.%目的 比较米索前列醇和人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)这两种药物在临床的促排卵效果及妊娠结局.方法 选取2009年4月-2011年4月在内蒙古妇幼保健医院生殖内分泌门诊就诊的Ⅱ型生殖内分泌异常的不育妇女90例,在月经周期第3日起开始口服来曲唑促排卵,连服5日,剂量为5mg/日.于月经周期的10日开始阴道B超监测卵泡,直至优势卵泡直径≥18mm,共85例.无卵巢高反应性者为A组,共70例,给予肌注HCG 6000U;出现卵巢高反应性或预测可能出现卵巢过度刺激综合征(OHSS)者为B组,共15例,给予口服米索前列醇0.2 mg.通过阴道B超监测排卵征象,测定基础体温及超声最终明确早孕.结果 HCG组与米索前列醇组排卵成

  2. 孕妇血清人绒毛膜促性腺激素与妊娠期高血压疾病相关性的研究%Maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin and gestational hypertension disease correlation studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云波; 吴梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin ( HCG ) and pregnancy induced hypertension (HDCP) correlation. Methods Using a prospective comparison analytic method, the study of outpatient regular production seized in 600 pregnant women, according to the clinical manifestations were divided into the normal pregnancy group and the gestational hypertensive group, in different gestational age determination of bloodβ -HCG changes and analysis. Results ①8~12 weeks of gestation in normal pregnant women blood β-HCG increased significantly, during the second trimester of pregnancy is maintained at low levels ( P<0.01);② HDCP patients in late pregnancy serum p-HCG was significantly higher than in normal pregnancy ( P<0.01), pre-eclampsia group blood β -HCG value was higher than that of gestational high blood pressure group ( P<0.05);③gravid 28~36 week is HDCP high gestational week, and easy development of preeclampsia. Conclusion The blood β -HCG can be used as a clinical predictors of HDCP to effectively detect index.%目的:探讨孕妇血清人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)与妊娠期高血压疾病(HDCP)的相关性.方法:采用前瞻性对照分析的方法,研究门诊定期产检的600名孕妇,根据临床表现分为正常妊娠组和妊娠期高血压组,于不同妊娠时期测定血β-HCG的变化并加以分析.结果:①正常妊娠孕妇妊娠8~12周血β-HCG明显升高,孕中晚期则维持在较低水平(P<0.01);②HDCP患者妊娠中晚期血β-HCG较正常妊娠孕妇明显升高(P<0.01),子痫前期组血β-HCG值又高于妊娠期高血压组(P<0.05);③妊娠28 ~ 36周是HDCP的高发孕周,且易发展为子痫.结论:血β-HCG可以作为临床预测HDCP发生的有效检测指标.

  3. IMMUNE MODULATORY EFFECTS of HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN on DENDRITIC CELLS SUPPORTING FETAL SURVIVAL in MURINE PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Dauven

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are critically involved in the determination of immunity versus tolerance. Hence, DCs are key regulators of immune responses either favoring or disfavoring fetal survival. Several factors were proposed to modulate DC phenotype and function during preg-nancy. Here, we studied whether the pregnancy hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG is involved in DC regulation.In vitro, bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs were stimulated in the presence or absence of urine-purified (uhCG or recombinant hCG (rhCG preparations. Subsequently, BMDC matu-ration was assessed. Cytokine secretion of activated BMDCs and their capability to enforce TH1, TH2, TH17 or Treg cell differentiation was determined after rhCG treatment. Moreover, the in vivo potential of hCG-modulated BMDCs to influence pregnancy outcome, Treg cell number and local cytokine expression was evaluated after adoptive transfer in a murine abor-tion-prone model before and after conception. Both hCG preparations impaired the maturation process of BMDCs. rhCG treatment did nei-ther alter cytokine secretion by BMDCs nor their ability to drive TH1, TH2 or TH17 differen-tiation. rhCG-treated BMDCs augmented the number of Treg cells within the T cell popula-tion. Adoptive transfer of rhCG-treated BMDCs after conception did not influence pregnancy outcome. However, transfer of hCG-treated BMDCs prior to mating had a protective effect on pregnancy. This positive effect was accompanied by increased Treg cell numbers and decidual IL-10 and TGF-β expression. Our results unveil the importance of hCG in retaining DCs in a tolerogenic state, thereby promoting Treg cell increment and supporting fetal survival.

  4. Immune Modulatory Effects of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on Dendritic Cells Supporting Fetal Survival in Murine Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauven, Dominique; Ehrentraut, Stefanie; Langwisch, Stefanie; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Schumacher, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critically involved in the determination of immunity vs. tolerance. Hence, DCs are key regulators of immune responses either favoring or disfavoring fetal survival. Several factors were proposed to modulate DC phenotype and function during pregnancy. Here, we studied whether the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is involved in DC regulation. In vitro, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were stimulated in the presence or absence of urine-purified or recombinant hCG (rhCG) preparations. Subsequently, BMDC maturation was assessed. Cytokine secretion of activated BMDCs and their capability to enforce TH1, TH2, TH17, or Treg cell differentiation was determined after rhCG treatment. Moreover, the in vivo potential of hCG-modulated BMDCs to influence pregnancy outcome, Treg cell number, and local cytokine expression was evaluated after adoptive transfer in a murine abortion-prone model before and after conception. Both hCG preparations impaired the maturation process of BMDCs. rhCG treatment did neither alter cytokine secretion by BMDCs nor their ability to drive TH1, TH2, or TH17 differentiation. rhCG-treated BMDCs augmented the number of Treg cells within the T cell population. Adoptive transfer of rhCG-treated BMDCs after conception did not influence pregnancy outcome. However, transfer of hCG-treated BMDCs prior to mating had a protective effect on pregnancy. This positive effect was accompanied by increased Treg cell numbers and decidual IL-10 and TGF-β expression. Our results unveil the importance of hCG in retaining DCs in a tolerogenic state, thereby promoting Treg cell increment and supporting fetal survival. PMID:27895621

  5. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on gold-silicon carbide nanocomposites for sensitive detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Shuangmei; Deng, Shuangsheng; Lv, Qi; Lin, Jie; Li, Can-Peng

    2014-07-15

    Uniform and highly dispersed gold-silicon carbide (Au@SiC) nanocomposites were prepared via simple way and used for fabrication of label-free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Using Au@SiC as electrode material and using ferricyanide as mediator, the proposed immunosensor provides a simple and economic method with higher sensitivity and a wider concentration range for detection of hCG. Under the optimal condition, the approach provided a good linear response range from 0.1 to 5 IU/L and 5 to 1000 IU/L with a low detection limit of 0.042 IU/L. The immunosensor showed good selectivity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of hCG in human serum samples. The proposed method provides a promising platform of clinical immunoassay for other biomolecules. In addition, the bio-functionalization of SiC combined with other nanomaterials will provide promising approach for electrochemical sensing and biosensing platform.

  6. Immunoregulation of mononuclear phagocytic cells by human chorionic gonadotropin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wan (Hui)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe pregnancy hormone hCG is secreted by trophoblasts in the placenta and peaks in the first trimester of pregnancy. hCG is a member of the pituitary glycoprotein family, and is consists of an α-subunit and a β-subunit. The primary function of hCG is to induce the production of progester

  7. ?-human chorionic gonadotropin-secreting intracranial germ-cell tumor associated with high testosterone in an adult man: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wen-Ping; Chien, Hung-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chun

    2017-01-01

    A 38-year-old male patient presented with general weakness, polydipsia and a body weight loss of 10 kg in two years. Hypopituitarism with central hypothyroidism and central adrenal insufficiency were noted at Taipei City Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). However, hypogonadotropic hypergonadism was also observed. The patient was diagnosed with an intracranial ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) secreting germ-cell tumor, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor involved the pin...

  8. The effect of hCG on micropenis of prepubertal children with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism%HCG对青春期前低促性腺激素性腺发育不良型小阴茎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何联; 陈海涛; 杨星海; 郑新民

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)治疗青春期前低促性腺激素性性腺发育不良型小阴茎的疗效并探讨其药理作用机制.方法:36例经临床确诊的青春期前低促性腺激素性性腺发育不良型小阴茎患儿,年龄9~12岁,平均10.2岁.给予肌内注射HCG治疗,每个疗程总量为10 000U.所有患儿均接受随访,随访期限为3个月.随访资料包括阴茎长度,治疗前及治疗后3个月时血清睾酮(T)、黄体生成素(LH)和卵泡刺激素(FSH)水平.结果:所有患儿治疗后阴茎长度均较治疗前明显增长(P<0.01),同时血清T水平上升(P<0.01).治疗前后LH、FSH水平比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.01).结论:HCG对青春期前低促性腺激素性性腺发育不良型小阴茎的疗效肯定.%Objective: To investigate the effect and pharmacological mechanisms of hCG on micropenis of prepubertal children with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Methods: 36 patients were treated with hCG. Their serum T, LH and FSH were measured respectively by radioimmunoassay and their penis size were measured before treatment and at 3 months after treatment of hCG. Results: The penis size of all patients were longer than that before the treatment with hCG and the level of serum T raised after the treatment (P <0.01 ) . No significant changes were seen in the level of LH and FSH between before and after hCG therapy. Conclusion: The effect of hCG on micropenis of prepubertal children with hypogoadotropic hypogonadism are satisfied. lts effect is achieved by increasing serum T level of the patient.

  9. [Attempts at biotechnical induction of puberty in young female pigs. 2. Effects of various time intervals between one puberty induction with PMS and HCG to the following estrus synchronization on estrus and ovulation in animals about 190 days old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, J

    1977-01-01

    A biological engineering approach to induce puberty in 125 young female fattening pigs aged 190 days was undertaken on the basis of a mixture of 500 IU PMS (Prolosanserum, Dessau) with 250 IU HCG (Gonabion, Dresden). The injections were made subcutaneously. Pronounced oestrus symptoms were recorded from the external genital organs of 80% of the probands up to ten days after injection, associated with toleration in 52.8% of them. Toleration usually started on the fourth to sixth days after injection. Cycles began to develop in 57.1% up to the next oestrus period. Animals with -/x weight increase per die of 400 g exhibited lower responses. Results in terms of heat and ovulation were lower along with shorter intervals, when oestric synchronisation was undertaken 53, 32, and 17 days after the induction of puberty (20 days Suisynchron, Bernburg; 750 IU PMS).

  10. A 3D co-culture microtissue model of the human placenta for nanotoxicity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muoth, Carina; Wichser, Adrian; Monopoli, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    and functionality of the placental tissue. The effects of NPs on the human placenta are not well studied or understood, and predictive in vitro placenta models to achieve mechanistic insights on NP-placenta interactions are essentially lacking. Using the scaffold-free hanging drop technology, we developed a well-organized...... and highly reproducible 3D co-culture microtissue (MT) model consisting of a core of placental fibroblasts surrounded by a trophoblast cell layer, which resembles the structure of the in vivo placental tissue. We could show that secretion levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were significantly higher...

  11. Impact of gene polymorphisms of gonadotropins and their receptors on human reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary.

  12. IGF-II Y LA GONADOTROPINA CORIÓNICA REGULAN LA PROLIFERACIÓN, MIGRACIÓN E INVASIÓN DE CÉLULAS DE TROFOBLASTO HUMANO IGF-II and Chorionic Gonadotropin Regulate Proliferation, Migration and Invasion of Human Trophoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CABEZAS-PEREZ

    Full Text Available Son conocidas las propiedades del factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina tipo II (IGF-II y de la hormona gonadotropina coriónica (hCG en implantación y migración trofoblástica; sin embargo, los mecanismos moleculares a través de los cuales ejercen sus efectos no están completamente caracterizados. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la interacción potencial entre los efectos funcionales de hCG e IGF-II en la regulación de la proliferación, migración e invasión trofoblástica. Utilizando la línea celular HTR-8/SVneo de trofoblasto extravelloso se estableció que IGF-II promueve la proliferación celular y de manera novedosa se demostró que hCG, a concentraciones elevadas, es capaz de estimular la proliferación trofoblástica, a través de un mecanismo independiente al empleado por IGF-II. En contraste, la capacidad invasiva del trofoblasto fue regulada por IGF-II y hCG, planteando la existencia de un efecto aditivo en sus acciones. En conclusión, nuestros resultados demuestran el papel de hCG e IGF-II en la regulación de la proliferación e invasión del trofoblasto y plantean la existencia de interacciones a nivel de sus acciones biológicas, contribuyendo a un mejor entendimiento de la biología del trofoblasto y sus patologías.Both IGF-II and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG are important regulators of human trophoblast migration and implantation; however the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential cross-talk between functional effects of hCG and IGF-II in the regulation of trophoblast proliferation, migration and invasion. Using the HTR-8/SVneo trophobast cell line we found that IGF-II stimulates cell proliferation and, for the first time we demonstrate that hCG at high doses is able to promote trophoblast proliferation through a mechanism independent of IGF-II. In contrast, trophoblast invasiveness was regulated by both IGF-II and hCG and an additive

  13. Testosterona e gonadotrofina coriônica humana estimulam a esteroidogênese em células da granulosa de folículo pré-ovulatório de égua? Do testosterone and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulate steroidogenesis in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle in mare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Caldas-Bussiere

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o papel da gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG e da testosterona na produção de progesterona (P4 e 17beta -estradiol (E2 pelas células da granulosa cultivadas in vitro de folículo antral de égua. Os tratamentos usados foram: 1- controle (nenhum hormônio adicionado, 2- 1UI hCG (0,3mig/ml e 3- 10UI hCG (3,0mig/ml. O tratamento com hCG foi realizado na presença ou não de testosterona (144ng/ml. O meio foi coletado e substituído com 0,25, 3, 6, 12, 24 e 144h de cultivo. As concentrações de P4 e E2 foram mensuradas por radioimunoensaio. Não se observou diferença entre os tratamentos 1 e 3 quanto à produção de P4 e E2; o tratamento 1 resultou em aumento da concentração de progesterona após 24h de cultura (PThe role of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and testosterone was evaluated in the progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17beta (E2 production by granulosa cells of antral follicles from mare cultivated in vitro. The treatment (groups with gonadotropin consisted of: 1- control (no added hormone; 2- 1 IU hCG (0.3mg/ml and 3- 10 IU hCG (3.0mg/ml. The treatment with hCG was carried out in the presence or not of testosterone (144ng/ml. The culture medium was collected and replaced at 0.25, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 144h of culture. The concentrations of P4 and E2 were measured by radioimunoassay. Analyses of variance were used for P4 and E2, and mean of the factors were compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. No difference was observed between 1 and 2 groups. Treatment with 1 IU of hCG increased progesterone concentration after 24h of culture (P<0.01, only in the presence of testosterone. The concentration of estradiol increased in the presence of testosterone, reaching maximum concentration with 6h of culture (P<0.01, and reduced gradually until the observed concentration at 0.25h of culture. The addition of hCG had no effect in the synthesis of this steroid. The testosterone modulates the action of the luteinizing hormone

  14. Oocyte maturation in humans: the role of gonadotropins and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, E; Tarín, J J; Pellicer, A

    1993-07-01

    To determine the effect of FSH/LH in vivo and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in vitro on human oocyte maturation. Oocyte-cumulus complexes were harvested from three different groups of patients: [1] unstimulated ovaries from women undergoing surgery; [2] multifollicular development achieved with a combination of FSH and LH in the absence of an ovulatory dose of hCG; and [3] oocyte-cumulus complexes retrieved after appropriate ovarian stimulation with FSH/LH and hCG for IVF purposes. In vitro fertilization program and patients undergoing surgery for benign disorders at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Spain. Oocyte-cumulus complexes from unstimulated ovaries collected at surgery by follicular puncture and washing. Oocyte-cumulus complexes from stimulated cycles obtained by ultrasound-guided transvaginal aspiration. Oocyte-cumulus complexes cultured in vitro in the absence or presence of different concentrations of EGF and IGF-I. Germinal vesicle breakdown and metaphase-II stage after 24 and 48 hours. Comparison of the spontaneous resumption of meiosis and metaphase II oocytes among groups showed significant differences between unstimulated and stimulated ovaries after 24 and 48 hours in culture. Administration of hCG accelerated the percentage of maturation by 24 hours. Further incubation of unstimulated oocyte-cumulus complexes with EGF and IGF-I significantly increased the percentage of metaphase-II oocytes after 24 and 48 hours in culture. Epidermal growth factor and IGF-I are able to augment spontaneous maturaion in immature human oocytes. Because spontaneous maturation is mainly observed when follicles have been exposed to pharmacological doses of hMG, it is suggested that increasing FSH levels within the follicle is coincident with the generation of a positive signal necessary to complete oocyte maturation in humans. This signal may be linked to the dynamics of growth factors within the follicle itself.

  15. HCG日血清高雌二醇患者体外受精-胚胎移植妊娠结局的影响因素分析%Impact factors on the outcome of in vitro fertilization for women with high serum estradiol level on HCG day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宇; 梁晓燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the main impact factors which affect the outcome of in-vitro fertilization (IVF)for women with high serum estradiol(E2)level on HCG day. Methods: A total of 404 infertile women were divided into 4 groups according to the age, and the general parameters and clinical outcomes were compared in the different groups. Among them,the embryo transfer in 4 patients was cancelled due to no embryo available,and 124 patients' embryos were frozen due to the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome(OHSS)or for the other reasons. According to the serum progesterone(P) levels, 276 fresh embryo transfer cycles were divided into two groups(P0.05). The clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate of women with high serum P level(P≥4. 77 nmol/L) were significantly lower than those with low serum P level ( P <4. 77 nmol/L) ( P = 0.004 and 0.048, respectively). The serum P level and the proportion of women with high serum P level(P≥4. 77 nmol/L) on the HCG day in non-pregnancy group were significantly higher than those in pregnancy group (P = 0.003 and 0.004,respectively) , while the number of embryos available for transfer was significantly lower(P = 0.013). Conclusions:For the women undergoing IVF with high serum E2 level on HCG day, the early rise of progesterone appeared more frequently in aged patients. High serum progesterone levels on HCG day may play a negative role in the receptivity of endometrium.

  16. Diagnostic sensitivity of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in esophageal carcinoma (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Bagaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal carcinomas are very lethal disease relatively unresponsive to therapy. The continued development of new and more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens offers hope that in the future, this carcinoma may be amenable to either more effective palliative treatment or possibly increased cure. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the marker with best diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG levels were assessed in healthy subjects (n = 50 and patients (n = 50 initially diagnosed of esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic examination and biopsy before receiving any therapy. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 10.0 (SPSS Inc. USA and MedCalc to estimate mean ± standard deviation, the significance of the observed differences (P value, for calculating sensitivity and for plotting receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, AFP, and β-HCG detected in esophagus cancer was 38%, 18%, 10%, and 26% respectively. Conclusion: From the above studied markers, CEA has the highest sensitivity followed by β-HCG, CA19-9 and AFP. Although the sensitivity of tumor markers in esophagus cancer is low, they may be useful additional parameter in the prediction of neoplasms involved at the early stage of tumor growth.

  17. Involvement of Ovarian Estradiol Biosynthesis and Pituitary FSH Expression in the Mechanism of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation of Uterine Growth in Immature Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Rafert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work, we showed that human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG alone is able to stimulate uterine ponderal growth in immature female rats. In the present paper, we provide new information indicating that a single 100 ng hCG injection increased ovarian androgen availability and aromatase activity. These changes are consistent with an increase in ovarian estradiol secretion. Ovarian activin βA and activin βB subunit RNAs expression were also increased following hCG injection. Most interestingly, this treatment also led to an increase in FSHβ subunit mRNA expression in the pituitary, which might be due to hCG-stimulated ovarian activin secretion. We have not been able so far to follow the kinetics of the plasma concentrations of activin and FSH in hCG-treated animals compared to control animals. This has to be explored in the future to provide a more complete assessment of our model.

  18. Differences in testosterone, androstenone, and skatole levels in plasma and fat between pubertal purebred Duroc and Landrace boars in response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskam, I C; Lervik, S; Tajet, H; Dahl, E; Ropstad, E; Andresen, Ø

    2010-10-01

    The concentrations of the boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole in plasma and fat, together with those of testosterone in plasma, were investigated in pubertal purebred Duroc and Landrace boars following stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Higher initial levels of androstenone and testosterone were found in Duroc than Landrace boars. Duroc boars, which were approximately ten days older than the Landrace boars, also showed a more advanced stage of spermatogenesis than Landrace boars. While Landrace boars had the highest skatole levels. Following stimulation with hCG the relative increases in testosterone, androstenone, and skatole concentrations were highest in Landrace boars. The level of androstenone in fat three days after hCG stimulation exceeded 1 microg/g fat in all stimulated boars. The decreases in plasma levels of androstenone and testosterone on Days 2 and 3 after hCG stimulation were more pronounced in Landrace than Duroc boars. However, unlike the plasma androstenone and testosterone levels, the plasma concentrations of skatole did not decrease on Days 2 and 3 following stimulation, but remained elevated on Day 3. These results indicate that the lower levels of testicular steroids in Landrace boars compared with Duroc boars was not due to a lower production capacity, but more likely to a faster disappearance of steroids in Landrace boars. In the present study, age, live weight, and testicular development did not significantly contribute to the variation in fat androstenone. The present data and previous reports on candidate genes related to androstenone biosynthesis and metabolism suggests that future selection against factors associated with boar taint remains a possible solution for the problem of boar taint in the swine industry.

  19. Concentração plasmática de progesterona em novilhas receptoras submetidas à administração de rbST, GnRH ou hCG no quinto dia do ciclo estral Plasma progesterone concentration in recipient heifers submitted to administration of rbST, GnRH or hCG on day five of the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Fonseca

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a habilidade de diferentes hormônios administrados no quinto dia do ciclo estral em induzir a ovulação do folículo dominante da primeira onda folicular (FDPO e formar um corpo lúteo acessório (CLa e seus efeitos sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 em novilhas receptoras. Cinqüenta e duas novilhas mestiças Holandês-Zebu foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em quatro tratamentos: T1-controle, T2-administração subcutânea de 500mg de rbST, T3-administração intramuscular (IM de 100mig de GnRH e T4-administração IM de 2000UI e endovenosa de 1000UI de hCG. Realizou-se palpação transretal nos dias 5, 13 e 60 para detecção de corpo lúteo original (CLo, de CLa e de gestação, respectivamente. A formação de CLa foi de: T1-0/12 (0,0%, T2-0/13 (0,0%, T3-5/12 (41,7% e T4-10/15 (66,7%(P0,05. As taxas de gestação, T1=37,5% (3/8, T2=62,5% (5/8, T3=28,6% (2/7 e T4=33,3% (3/9, não diferiram entre tratamentos (P>0,05. Estes resultados mostraram que o FDPO no quinto dia do ciclo estral foi capaz de responder ao GnRH e à hCG, ovular e formar um CLa, o que elevou a concentração plasmática de P4 de novilhas no 13º dia do ciclo estral, período crítico para o estabelecimento da gestação em bovinos.The ability of different hormones administered on day five of the estrous cycle to induce the ovulation of the first wave dominant follicle (FWDF and to form an accessory corpus luteum (CLa, and the respective effects on plasma progesterone concentrations were studied in recipient heifers. Fifty-two crossbred Holstein-Zebu heifers were randomly assigned to four treatments: T1-control, T2-subcutaneous administration of 500mg of rbST, T3-intramuscular administration of 100mug of GnRH and T4-administration of 3000IU of hCG (1000IU endovenous and 2000IU intramuscular. Transrectal palpation was performed on days 5, 13 and 60 to check original corpus luteum, CLa and pregnancy, respectively. CLa formation was as follow

  20. Modeling the human intestinal mucin (MUC2) C-terminal cystine knot dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, Vatsala D; Narpala, Sandeep R; Budil, David E; Sacco, Albert; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal mucus, a viscous secretion that lines the mucosa, is believed to be a barrier to absorption of many therapeutic compounds and carriers, and is known to play an important physiological role in controlling pathogen invasion. Nevertheless, there is as yet no clear understanding of the barrier properties of mucus, such as the nature of the molecular interactions between drug molecules and mucus components as well as those that govern gel formation. Secretory mucins, large and complex glycoprotein molecules, are the principal determinants of the viscoelastic properties of intestinal mucus. Despite the important role that mucins play in controlling transport and in diseases such as cystic fibrosis, their structures remain poorly characterized. The major intestinal secretory mucin gene, MUC2, has been identified and fully sequenced. The present study was undertaken to determine a detailed structure of the cysteine-rich region within the C-terminal end of human intestinal mucin (MUC2) via homology modeling, and explore possible configurations of a dimer of this cysteine-rich region, which may play an important role in governing mucus gel formation. Based on sequence-structure alignments and three-dimensional modeling, a cystine knot tertiary structure homologous to that of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is predicted at the C-terminus of MUC2. Dimers of this C-terminal cystine knot (CTCK) were modeled using sequence alignment based on HCG and TGF-beta, followed by molecular dynamics and simulated annealing. Results support the formation of a cystine knot dimer with a structure analogous to that of HCG.

  1. Modification of the Farr assay using ethanol-ammonium acetate precipitation and its application to the measurement of affinity of anti-HCG produced in several species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanavala, Y M; Hay, F C

    1978-01-01

    A double isotope modified Farr assay was used to determine the total binding sites and affinity of antibodies to human chorionic gonadotrophin. Precipitation of the antigen--antibody complex at equilibrium with ammonium sulphate gave very high levels of nonspecific binding. Good discrimination over background was observed using a specific anti-immunoglobulin serum. However since we were interested in measuring the affinity of antibodies raised in several animal species it was more appropriate to use a single nonspecies precipitating reagent. We found that the use of a mixture of ethanol-ammonium acetate gave very low levels of non-specific binding in baboons, marmosets, rabbits and mice.

  2. MiR-125b regulates endometrial receptivity by targeting MMP26 in women undergoing IVF-ET with elevated progesterone on HCG priming day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Yue; Yu, Yang; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    On the women undergoing IVF-ET with elevated progesterone on human chorionic gonadotrophin priming, the assisted reproductive technology outcome is poor. But, due to the unknown mechanism of this process, no effective method has been found to overcome this difficulty. Here, we investigated the roles of miR-125b and its target gene, MMP26, in endometrial receptivity (ER) in these women. The expression of miR-125b was significantly up-regulated in EECs in women with elevated progesterone during the window of implantation, and it showed a progesterone-dependent effect in vitro. Similarly, the expression of miR-125b was significantly up-regulated in the preimplantation period, and was down-regulated in the implantation period and the post-implantation period in mouse EECs. In addition, miR-125b showed a greater decrease at implantation sites than it did at interimplantation sites. The luciferase report assay demonstrated that MMP26 is a target gene of miR-125b. And the expression profile of MMP26 showed an inverse relationship with miR-125b in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of miR-125b in human EECs inhibited cell migration and invasion. Gain-of-function of miR-125b induced a significant decrease in the number of implantation sites. In conclusion, these data shed new light on how miR-125b triggers ER decline through the regulation of MMP26 function. PMID:27143441

  3. Trisomy 21- affected placentas highlight prerequisite factors for human trophoblast fusion and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassiné, André; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Trophoblastic cell fusion is one essential step of the human trophoblast differentiation pathway and is a multifactorial and dynamic process finely regulated and still poorly known. Disturbances of syncytiotrophoblast formation are observed in numerous pathological clinical conditions such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and trisomy 21. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the different membrane proteins directly involved in trophoblastic cell fusion, which we identified by using the physiological model of primary culture of villous trophoblastic cells. Connexin 43 and gap junctional intercellular communication point to the role of molecular exchanges through connexin channels preceding membrane fusion. Zona occludens-1, which can interact with connexin 43, is also directly involved in trophoblast fusion. The recently identified fusogenic membrane retroviral envelop glycoproteins syncytin 1 (encoded by the HERV-W gene) and syncytin 2 (encoded by the FRD gene) and their receptors are major factors involved in human placental development . We describe the increasing number of factors promoting or inhibiting trophoblast fusion and differentiation and emphasize the role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its receptor. Indeed, in trisomy 21 the dynamic process leading to membrane fusion is impaired due to an abnormal hCG signaling. This abnormal trophoblast fusion and differentiation in trisomy 21-affected placenta is reversible in vitro. Trisomy 21 trophoblastic cell culture may therefore be useful to identify the possible large number of prerequisite factors involved in trophoblast fusion, the limiting step of trophoblast differentiation.

  4. Dynamic expression of 11β-hydroxylase during testicular development, recrudescence and after hCG induction, in vivo and in vitro in catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Anbazhagan; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-01-15

    Cytochrome P450 11β-hydroxylase (11β-h), is involved in the production of 11-hydroxytestosterone, an immediate precursor for 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), a potent androgen in teleosts. To understand the role of 11β-h in gonadal development, maturation, function and recrudescence in an annually reproducing teleost, the present study was conducted using Clarias batrachus. Four forms of 11β-h cDNA, regular type (2.253 kb), variant 1 (1.290 kb), variant 2 (1.223 kb) and variant 3 (1.978 kb) were identified from the testis of catfish which expressed ubiquitously with high levels in testis. 11β-h transcripts were detected as early as 0 days post hatch further, stage- and sex-dependent increase in the 11β-h transcripts were seen during gonadal differentiation/development. In addition, high expression of 11β-h (regular type) in pre-spawning phase was detected. Corroboratively, levels of 11-KT in serum and testicular tissue was high during pre-spawning and spawning phases, which might facilitate initiation and normal progression of spermatogenesis. The expression of 11β-h was high after human chorionic gonadotropin induction in vivo (all forms), and in vitro (regular type). Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence localization showed the presence of 11β-h in Sertoli and interstitial/Leydig cells of the testis. These results suggest that 11β-h is involved in late stages of testicular development, together with the regulation of seasonal reproductive cycle in catfish.

  5. Interventional study to find out effect of human chorionic gonadotropin and antioxidants on idiopathic male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata V. Padvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male contributes about 50% for cases with combined male and female infertility. When the cause is not known, it is term as idiopathic infertility. It affects 25% of men. Many advances have been made in reproductive medicine which provides great opportunities, couples which were considered untreatable now have got chance to have their own babies. Various ART procedures like ICSI have been proven as an efficient therapy in severe male factor infertility. However, the cost per cycle and complications such as multiple gestations cannot be ignored. Medical management of infertility can be specific or empirical depending on etiology. Specific medical management is use when certain etiology is identified. However, in absence of specific etiology use of empirical medical treatment can be attempted in order to improve treatment results. In this study our aim is to evaluate the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and antioxidants on semen parameters in men with idiopathic male infertility. Methods: Thirty men with abnormal semen parameters were included in study. Patients were treated with injection hCG-2000 IU three times a week for three months along with the antioxidants. After 3 months of treatment repeat semen analysis were performed and results were compared with pre-treated seminal parameters. Results: Results showed significant increase in sperm count (p value ≤ 0.001, total motility (p value=<0.001, and progressive forward motility (p value = <0.001, while no significant difference is seen in rest of the parameters. Conclusions: Use of hCG and antioxidants in idiopathic male infertility can significantly improve seminal parameters in idiopathic male infertility.

  6. Acquired uterine vascular abnormalities associated with persistent human chorionic gonadotropin: Experience at a Korean teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Da Hye; Yi, Sang Wook; Sohn, Woo Seok; Lee, Sang Soo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our experience with the diagnosis and management of acquired uterine vascular abnormalities associated with persistent human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Through this case series, we sought to establish our protocol for the treatment and follow-up of uterine vascular lesions associated with persistent hCG. We examined the clinical presentations of 28 Korean women with acquired vascular uterine abnormalities associated with persistent hCG who were seen in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Gangneung Asan Teaching Hospital, Gangneung-si, Korea between October 2006 and July 2012 and retrospectively reviewed their medical records. The mean patient age was 32.5 ± 6.4 years, and the mean parity was 1.4 ± 1.2. The mean size of the vascular lesions in color Doppler sonography and multidetector computed tomography with angiography was 3.1 ± 1.6 cm and 3.9 ± 1.6 cm, respectively. Multidetector computed tomography revealed arteriovenous malformation-like vascular lesions (n = 15) and pseudoaneurysms (n = 3). Treatments included clinical observation (n = 11), uterine artery embolization (n = 11), hysterectomy (n = 4), and chemotherapy, including single methotrexate (MTX) treatment and combination chemotherapy (n = 9). When the uterine vascular lesion is not decreased, or if weekly clinical follow-up reveals that the serum β-hCG level is persistently elevated or sustained in conjunction with vaginal hemorrhage, a proper management strategy is required. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Induction of ovulation and ovarian characteristics of prepubertal gilts treated with human chorionicgonadotropin or kisspeptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of its similar structure and function to luteinizing hormone (LH, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG has conventionally been used as the main hormone to induce estrus and ovulation in sows. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the neuropeptide kisspeptin is associated with pituitary LH release in different mammalian species, including swine. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether kisspeptin-10 combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG could be an efficient method to induce ovulation in prepubertal gilts. Thirty 5-month-old gilts weighing 78.0 ± 8.4 kg were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received 750 IU eCG, while groups 4 and 5 received saline solution. After 72 hours, the animals received 380 nmol kisspeptin-10 (group 2, 500 IU hCG (groups 3 and 4, or saline (groups 1 and 5. The treatments were applied by a single intramuscular injection. The animals were slaughtered 7 days later and ovulation was confirmed by the presence of corpora lutea in the recovered ovaries. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests. The number of gilts that ovulated was similar in groups 2 and 3. This number was higher in group 5 (P<0.01 and in groups 1 and 4 (P=0.08. The weight or size of the ovaries was not influenced by the treatments, although the number of ovulations was higher in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.01. These results suggest that kisspeptin-10 and hCG have similar biological activity to induce ovulation in prepubertal gilts.

  8. Effects of human chorionic somatomammotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin on skin homografts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisantes, A; Fraga, A; Galimidi, S; Mendez-Tula, A; Brovetto-Cruz, J

    1976-01-01

    The action of HCS and HCG on cell-mediated immunity has been investigated. Full-thickness skin homografts were performed in 40 whole adult female Wistar rats. Brown rats of the A X C strain were selected as donors. The animals were divided into four groups injected with HCS, HCG, HCS + HCG, and saline. The graft rejection time and the wet and dry weight of thymus and spleen were evaluated. No hormonal treatment showed any effect on skin graft survival. Thymus weight, both wet and dry, decreased significantly by treatment with HCP or HCS + HCG. No modification was observed in spleen weight. These results do not agree with the theory that HCS and HCG modify immunological competence of maternal lymphocytes and thus may contribute to prevent rejection of the fetus.

  9. Paper-based microfluidic devices for electrochemical immunofiltration analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangli; Fang, Cheng; Zeng, Ruosheng; Zhao, Xiongjie; Jiang, Yuren; Chen, Zhencheng

    2017-02-02

    An electrochemical immunofiltration analysis was introduced into microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for the first time, which was based on photolithography and screen-printing technology. The hydrophilic test zones of the aldehyde-functionalized screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) were biofunctionalized with capture antibodies (Ab1). A sensitive immune detection method was developed by using primary signal antibody functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs/Ab2) and alkaline phosphatase conjugated secondary antibody (ALP-IgG). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to detect the electrochemical response. The microfluidic paper-based electrochemical immunosensor (μ-PEI) was optimized and characterized for the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a model analyte, in a linear range from 1.0mIUmL(-1) to 100.0 IU mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.36mIUmL(-1). Additionally, the proposed μ-PEI was used to test HCG in real human serum and obtained satisfactory results. The disposable, efficient, sensitive and low-cost μ-PEI has exhibited great potential for the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) devices that can be applicated in healthcare monitoring.

  10. Maternal and fetal mechanisms of B cell regulation during pregnancy: human Chorionic Gonadotropin stimulates B cells to produce IL-10 while alpha-fetoprotein drives them into apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Fettke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus is an essential requisite for pregnancy. While T cell functions are well documented, little is known about the participation of B cells. We have previously suggested that IL-10 producing B cells are involved in pregnancy tolerance in mice and humans. By employing murine and human systems, we report now that fetal trophoblasts positively regulate the generation of IL-10 producing B cells. We next studied the participation of hormones produced by the placenta as well as the fetal protein alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in B cell modulation. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG, but not progesterone, estrogen or a combination of both, was able to promote changes in B cell phenotype and boost their IL-10 production, which was abolished after blocking hCG. The hCG-induced B cell phenotype was not associated with augmented galactosylation, sialylation or fucosylation of IgG subclasses in their Fc. In vitro, hCG induced the synthesis of asymmetrically glycosylated antibodies in their Fab region. Interestingly, AFP had dual effects depending on the concentration. At concentrations corresponding to maternal serum levels, it did not modify the phenotype or IL-10 secretion of B cells. At fetal concentrations, however, AFP was able to drive B cells into apoptosis, which may indicate a protective mechanism to avoid maternal B cells to reach the fetus.Our data suggests that the fetus secrete factors that promote a pregnancy-friendly B cell phenotype, unraveling interesting aspects of B cell function and modulation by pregnancy hormones and fetal proteins.

  11. Properties of Immobilized Papain on Thermally Sensitive Carrier and Its Application for HCG Antibody Digestion%温敏载体固定化木瓜蛋白酶的特性及其消化HCG抗体的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅建凤; 黄婷婷; 陈建澍; 易喻; 朱克寅; 应国清

    2013-01-01

    以温敏性材料N-羟基琥珀酰亚胺活化的聚(N-异丙基丙烯酰胺)为载体制备固定化木瓜蛋白酶,对其酶学性质进行了研究.结果表明:固定化酶的最适pH值为7.5,最适温度为65 ℃,米氏常数为2.72 mg/mL;经过24次温敏循环操作,剩余相对活力86.6%;在4℃条件下放置60d,剩余相对活力为71.5%.与游离酶相比,固定化酶pH值稳定性、热稳定性、操作稳定性和储存稳定性都有显著提高.将此固定化酶应用于HCG单克隆抗体消化,与纤维素固定化酶相比,水解能力更强,更适合于大分子的酶解,特别是抗体片段的制备.%Traditional solid phase immobilized enzyme shows low catalytic efficiency,especially when acting on macromolecular substrate.Here the thermally sensitive material poly (N-isopropylacrylamide),which was esterified by N-hydroxysuccinimide,was employed as a carrier for the immobilization of papain,and some properties of the immobilized papain were investigated.From the study it was found that the optimal pH value and temperature for immobilized papain activity were 7.5 and 65 ℃ respectively,and the Michaelis constant was 2.72 mg/mL.The immobilized papain left was 86.6% of the activity after 24 thermal cycles.After stored at 4 ℃ for 60 d,the immobilized papain activity retained 71.5%.Compared with free enzyme,the pH value,thermal,operational and storage stabilities of immobilized papain were obviously improved.The immobilized papain was applied to the digestion of HCG monoclonal antibody.Compared with the papain immobilized on cellulose,the hydrolysis capacity of the thermally sensitive immobilized papain was higher and the operation was more convenient.It was more suitable for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the macromolecules,especially the preparation of antibody fragments.

  12. hCG Test (Pregnancy Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as diuretics and promethazine (an antihistamine ) may cause false-negative urine results. Other drugs such as anti-convulsants, anti-parkinson drugs, hypnotics, and tranquilizers may cause false-positive ...

  13. Precocious puberty due to human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane J Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report a rare case of precocious puberty (PP due to a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-producing germinoma located in the suprasellar region. A 10-year-old male patient presented with sexual precocity, headache, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and papilledema. Significant acceleration of bone age in relation to chronological age, high serum total testosterone levels, and hypopituitarism (unresponsiveness to stimulation test were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed a large suprasellar tumor and triventricular dilatation. High hCG levels were found in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Hormone replacement therapy and transcranial surgery associated with radiotherapy were performed, with complete regression of sexual characteristics and normal laboratory tests post-operatively. Clinical and laboratory findings, in addition to MRI scans, led to the diagnosis of an hCG-producing tumor and PP, which represents a rare report in the literature.

  14. Heterogeneity of human chorionic gonadotropin in various biological fluids as revealed by chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S C; Hsieh, C Y; Ouyang, P C; Chen, H C

    1989-01-01

    This study demonstrates that chromatofocusing is powerful in analyzing multiple forms of hCG from biological fluids. For analyzing hCG from biological fluids, it is necessary to perform chromatofocusing, in the range of pH 6.2-3.0 and pH 9.0-6.0. By chromatofocusing, highly purified hCG (CR121) was found to be acidic, in the range of pI 4.22-3.8, and hCG beta was more acidic, in the range of pI 4.0-3.2. Moreover, hCG from the first trimester pregnancy, hydatidiform mole or choriocarcinoma was also mainly acidic. Therefore, chromatofocusing in the range of 6.2-3.0 was suitable for analyzing purified hCG, hCG beta, and urinary hCG from the first trimester pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. On the other hand, because hCG in the third trimester pregnancy and the toxemia of pregnancy were mainly alkaline, the chromatofocusing system in the range of pH 9.0-6.0 was suitable for analyzing hCG from the third trimester pregnancy and the toxemia of pregnancy.

  15. Human trophoblast in trisomy 21: a model for cell-cell fusion dynamic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassiné, André; Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Frendo, Jean Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    Trophoblastic cell fusion is one essential step of the human trophoblast differentiation leading to formation of the syncytiotrophoblast, site of the numerous placental functions. This process is multifactorial and finely regulated. Using the physiological model of primary culture of trophoblastic cells isolated from human placenta, we have identified different membrane proteins directly involved in trophoblastic cell fusion: connexin 43, ZO-1 and recently syncytins. These fusogenic membrane retroviral envelop glycoproteins: syncytin-1 (encoded by the HERV-W gene) and syncytin-2 (encoded by the FRD gene) and their receptors are major factors involved in human placental development. Disturbances of syncytiotrophoblast formation are observed in trisomy 21-affected placentas. Overexpression of the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), encoded by chromosome 21 as well as an abnormal hCG signaling are implicated in the defect of syncytiotrophoblast formation. This abnormal trophoblast fusion and differentiation in trisomy 21-affected placenta is reversible in vitro by different ways.

  16. Analysis of pregnancy Outcome of Women With Increased HCG Level in Down′s Screening%唐氏筛查单项指标人绒毛膜促性腺激素水平增高孕妇妊娠结局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 肖建平; 杨岚; 郭彩琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠中期唐氏筛查低风险但单项指标人绒毛膜促性腺激素( HCG)水平异常增高妊娠妇女的妊娠结局,为唐氏筛查单项指标HCG水平异常进行临床咨询提供理论依据。方法选择2012年10月—2013年12月南京医科大学附属无锡妇幼保健院妊娠中期唐氏筛查低风险的单胎妊娠妇女212例为研究对象,其中单项指标HCG水平增高的妊娠妇女112例为试验组,HCG水平正常的妊娠妇女100例为对照组,随访其妊娠结局,观察两组异常妊娠情况(包括胎膜早破、巨大儿、胎儿畸形、胎盘异常)。结果试验组巨大儿、胎儿畸形、胎盘异常发生率均高于对照组(P0.05)。试验组5例胎儿畸形中3例为胎儿心脏畸形、1例为胎儿肺囊腺瘤、1例经无创基因筛查提示唐氏综合征经羊水穿刺证实后引产;9例胎盘异常中6例为胎盘粘连、2例胎盘形态异常、1例胎盘早剥。结论妊娠中期唐氏筛查HCG水平增高与巨大儿、胎儿异常及胎盘异常等不良妊娠结局相关。%Objective To investigate pregnancy outcome of women with abnormal increased HCG level and low risk of Down's syndrome in the mid trimester of pregnancy,to provide theoretical basis for clinical consultation about abnormal HCG in Down's screening. Methods 212 pregnant women with low risk of Down's syndrome through Down's screening in the mid trimester of pregnancy in Wuxi hospital for maternal and child health care affiliated to Nanjing medical university during October 2012 to December 2013,were selected as study subjects,among whom 112 cases with abnormal increased HCG level were included in test group,the other 100 cases with normal HCG level were included in control group. Their pregnancy outcome was followed up, and the abnormal pregnancy ( premature rupture of membranes, macrosomia, fetal anomaly and anomaly of placenta)of two groups of cases was analyzed. Results Prevalence of

  17. A Point-of-Care Immunosensor for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Clinical Urine Samples Using a Cuneated Polysilicon Nanogap Lab-on-Chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, a glycoprotein hormone secreted from the placenta, is a key molecule that indicates pregnancy. Here, we have designed a cost-effective, label-free, in situ point-of-care (POC immunosensor to estimate hCG using a cuneated 25 nm polysilicon nanogap electrode. A tiny chip with the dimensions of 20.5 × 12.5 mm was fabricated using conventional lithography and size expansion techniques. Furthermore, the sensing surface was functionalized by (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and quantitatively measured the variations in hCG levels from clinically obtained human urine samples. The dielectric properties of the present sensor are shown with a capacitance above 40 nF for samples from pregnant women; it was lower with samples from non-pregnant women. Furthermore, it has been proven that our sensor has a wide linear range of detection, as a sensitivity of 835.88 μA mIU(-1 ml(-2 cm(-2 was attained, and the detection limit was 0.28 mIU/ml (27.78 pg/ml. The dissociation constant Kd of the specific antigen binding to the anti-hCG was calculated as 2.23 ± 0.66 mIU, and the maximum number of binding sites per antigen was Bmax = 22.54 ± 1.46 mIU. The sensing system shown here, with a narrow nanogap, is suitable for high-throughput POC diagnosis, and a single injection can obtain triplicate data or parallel analyses of different targets.

  18. A Point-of-Care Immunosensor for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Clinical Urine Samples Using a Cuneated Polysilicon Nanogap Lab-on-Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S R; Hashim, U; Gopinath, Subash C B; Poopalan, P; Ramayya, H R; Iqbal Omar, M; Haarindraprasad, R; Veeradasan, P

    2015-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a glycoprotein hormone secreted from the placenta, is a key molecule that indicates pregnancy. Here, we have designed a cost-effective, label-free, in situ point-of-care (POC) immunosensor to estimate hCG using a cuneated 25 nm polysilicon nanogap electrode. A tiny chip with the dimensions of 20.5 × 12.5 mm was fabricated using conventional lithography and size expansion techniques. Furthermore, the sensing surface was functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and quantitatively measured the variations in hCG levels from clinically obtained human urine samples. The dielectric properties of the present sensor are shown with a capacitance above 40 nF for samples from pregnant women; it was lower with samples from non-pregnant women. Furthermore, it has been proven that our sensor has a wide linear range of detection, as a sensitivity of 835.88 μA mIU(-1) ml(-2) cm(-2) was attained, and the detection limit was 0.28 mIU/ml (27.78 pg/ml). The dissociation constant Kd of the specific antigen binding to the anti-hCG was calculated as 2.23 ± 0.66 mIU, and the maximum number of binding sites per antigen was Bmax = 22.54 ± 1.46 mIU. The sensing system shown here, with a narrow nanogap, is suitable for high-throughput POC diagnosis, and a single injection can obtain triplicate data or parallel analyses of different targets.

  19. 血清瘦素、胱抑素C和人绒毛膜促性腺激素在妊娠高血压综合征检测中的意义%Study on clinical significance of serum leptin,cystatin C and human chorionic gonadotropin in patients with pregnancy - induced hyper- tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炳刚; 李虹; 刘大庆

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察血清瘦素、胱抑素 C(CysC)和人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β- HCG)在妊娠高血压综合征检测中的意义。方法选取2011年1月至2014年6月收治的妊娠高血压患者150例为妊高症组;同期正常妊娠的患者60例为正常妊娠组;另选同期健康非妊娠妇女30例为健康对照组。观察健康对照组,正常妊娠组和妊高症组的瘦素、CysC 和β- HCG 水平,与妊高症严重程度的关系,各指标之间的相互关系。结果正常妊娠组和妊高症组的瘦素、CysC 和β-HCG 水平明显高于健康对照组( P ﹤0.01),而妊高症组明显高于正常妊娠组( P ﹤0.01)。随着妊高症病情严重程度的增加,瘦素,CysC 和β- HCG 水平出现明显的增高( P ﹤0.01)。妊高症患者瘦素水平与 CysC( r =0.673,P ﹤0.01)和β- HCG( r =0.838,P ﹤0.01)水平呈正相关,CysC 与β- HCG( r =0.792,P ﹤0.01)水平呈正相关。结论检测瘦素、CysC 和β- HCG 水平有助于对妊娠高血压患者的诊断和分级,其异常升高应引起临床的高度重视。%Objective To observe the clinical significance of serum leptin,cystatin C(CysC)and human chorionic gonadotropin(β -HCG)in patients with pregnancy - induced hypertension. Methods A total of 150 patients with pregnancy - induced hypertension during January 2011 to June 2014 were selected as pregnancy - induced hypertension group;60 patients with normal pregnancy at the same period were allocated in normal pregnancy group,and 30 healthy women without pregnancy were selected as healthy control group. Levels of leptin,CysC and β - HCG were examined among pregnancy - induced hypertension group,normal pregnancy group and healthy control group,the relationship among levels of leptin,CysC and β - HCG and the severity of patients with pregnancy - induced hypertension were observed,the correlation between each marker had been evaluated. Results Levels of leptin

  20. Combined detection of α-fetoprotein and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin in screening for trisomy 21 and management of cases in the moderate risk value range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yahong; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Sun, Yun; Hong, Dongyang; Wang, Yanyun; Xu, Zhengfeng; Jiang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Down syndrome is the most common cause of prenatal chromosomal abnormalities, and prenatal serum screening is an effective method for decreasing the birth prevalence of children with Down syndrome. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of duplex screening and investigate the treatment of cases under specific conditions. The medians of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were calculated and compared with those embedded in the 2T software. The detection and false-positive rates were analyzed under different conditions, and the distribution of Down syndrome cases was investigated in different risk ranges. Finally, suitable recommendations for further diagnostic investigation were provided according to the status of each individual. The medians of free β-HCG and AFP were found to differ from the corresponding medians embedded in the 2T software (P<0.01), and on the basis of a 5% false-positive rate, the detection rate would increase from 63.6 to 67.8% when compared with medians embedded in the 2T software, indicating we should establish our own medians of free β-HCG and AFP. In addition, residual cases (risk value <1/300) with relevant Down syndrome indications mainly concentrated at risk values between 1/1,000 and 1/300, and partial residual screening cases were verified through diverse methods. These findings indicated that different laboratories should establish their own medians; furthermore, what is classed as moderate risk is extremely important in screening for Down syndrome and reasonable recommendations may be offered under different conditions.

  1. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  2. 实时荧光定量PCR检测乙肝病毒DNA方法在绒促性素和尿促性素生产中的应用%Application of Real -time fluorescence PCR detecting HBV DNA during the production flow of HCG and HMG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴利红; 王灿; 邵泓; 陈钢

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To verify the method of Real -time fluorescence PCR to detect HBV DNA during the production flow of HCG and HMG. Methods: HCG or HMG was added into positive blood containing different concentration HBV, and the Real - time fluorescence PCR was used to detect the concentration of HBV DNA. The recovery was calculated, and the linear range, repetition and sensitivity of the method were verified. The positive results detected by Real - time PCR would be detected by ELISA again, and the results of two methods would be compared. Results:The coefficient of linear relation was 0. 9969 (the range of 104 - 107IU · mL-1) ,and the recovery of HBV was 94. 9% - 103. 8%. Besides,the minimum value was 500 IU · mL-1 ,RSD <5%. The positive samples detected by Real - time PCR showed negative HBsAg by ELISA. Conclusion: Real - time PCR can be used to detect HBV DNA during the production flow of HCG and HMG,and also can be used as the complement method of ELISA.%目的:验证实时荧光定量PCR( Real - time PCR)检测绒促性素(HCG)和尿促性素(HMG)生产工艺中尿液、粗品和原料药中乙肝病毒DNA(HBV DNA)的方法,并用该方法对HCG和HMG生产工艺中关键点进行控制.方法:在不同浓度的乙肝阳性血中添加HCG或HMG的尿液、粗品和原料药,用Real - time PCR方法检测添加前后不同浓度乙肝阳性血中HBV DNA的浓度,计算出HBV DNA回收率,同时验证该方法的线性、重复性和灵敏度;用Real - time PCR方法对尿液、粗品和原料药样品进行HBV DNA检测,将检测出阳性的样品用ELISA方法检测,比较2种方法的检测结果差异.结果:Real - time PCR检测HBV DNA在104~ 107IU·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,r2=0.9969;HCG或HMG尿液、粗品和原料药中添加不同浓度乙肝阳性血,HBV DNA回收率为94.9%~103.8%;3次重复实验相对标准偏差(RSD)均小于5%;最低检出限为500 IU·mL-1.Real - time PCR检测出阳性的样品用ELISA方法检测乙肝表面抗

  3. 血清CysC、Hcy、及β-HCG检测与妊娠期高血压疾病的相关性研究%The correlation study of serum cystatin C, Hcy, and beta - HCG testing and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙延生; 王莉平; 马芬; 栗俊杰; 贺松; 蒋春萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨孕妇血清半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂C(Cystatin C)、同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、及β- HCG联合检测与妊娠期高血压疾病的相关性.方法 选择健康晚孕妇女60例及妊娠期高血压疾病(hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy,HDCP)患者肾病组18例和妊娠期高血压疾病患者无肾病组35例,对其血清分别进行Cys C、Hcy、β- HCG的检测.结果 妊娠期高血压疾病肾病组血清Cys C、Hey水平明显高于无肾病组(P<0.01),两组均明显高于健康晚孕组(P<0.01);妊娠期高血压疾病肾病组及无肾病组β - HCG水平无明显差别(P>0.05),与健康晚孕组比较结果有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 血清Cys C、Hcy与β- HCG联合检测对了解妊娠期高血压疾病的病情具有重要意义.Cys C及Hey与β - HCG比较在反映HDCP患者的肾损害及肾功能恢复方面更敏感,是反映HDCP病情及预后的良好指标.联合检测可作为了解HDCP的发生、发展及预后判断的指标.%Objective: Investigate the correlation of maternal serum Cystatin C, homocysteine (Hcy) , β - HCG Joint detection and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP). Methods; Choose 60 cases of healthy late pregnant women, 18 cases of HDCP with kidney disease, and 35 cases of HDCP without kidney disease. Test the serum Cys C, Hcy, β - HCG. Results; The levels of serum Cys C and Hcy in group of HDCP with kidney disease are significantly higher than the group of HDCP without kidney disease (P 0. 05). The results are statistically significant that the two groups compare with the healthy late pregnant group ( P > 0. 05). Conclusion ; Joint detection of serum Cys C, Hcy, and β - HCG has great significance to understand the condition of HDCP. Comparison of Cys C, Hcy and β - HCG is sensitive in the respect of renal injury and renal function recovery, that is a good index to reflect the condition and prognosis of HDCP. The joint detection can be used as the indicator of

  4. Estimating limits for natural human embryo mortality [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural human embryonic mortality is generally considered to be high. Values of 70% and higher are widely cited. However, it is difficult to determine accurately owing to an absence of direct data quantifying embryo loss between fertilisation and implantation. The best available data for quantifying pregnancy loss come from three published prospective studies (Wilcox, Zinaman and Wang with daily cycle by cycle monitoring of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG in women attempting to conceive. Declining conception rates cycle by cycle in these studies indicate that a proportion of the study participants were sub-fertile. Hence, estimates of fecundability and pre-implantation embryo mortality obtained from the whole study cohort will inevitably be biased. This new re-analysis of aggregate data from these studies confirms the impression that discrete fertile and sub-fertile sub-cohorts were present. The proportion of sub-fertile women in the three studies was estimated as 28.1% (Wilcox, 22.8% (Zinaman and 6.0% (Wang. The probability of conceiving an hCG pregnancy (indicating embryo implantation was, respectively, 43.2%, 38.1% and 46.2% among normally fertile women, and 7.6%, 2.5% and 4.7% among sub-fertile women. Pre-implantation loss is impossible to calculate directly from available data although plausible limits can be estimated. Based on this new analysis and a model for evaluating reproductive success and failure it is proposed that a plausible range for normal human embryo and fetal mortality from fertilisation to birth is 40-60%.

  5. Star formation in H I tails: HCG 92, HCG 100 and six interacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, D. F.; Urrutia-Viscarra, F.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Torres-Flores, S.; Carrasco, E. R.; Cypriano, E.

    2012-11-01

    We present new Gemini spectra of 14 new objects found within the H I tails of Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) 92 and 100. Nine of them are Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) sources. The spectra confirm that these objects are members of the compact groups and have metallicities close to solar, with an average value of 12+log(O/H) ˜ 8.5. They have average FUV luminosities 7 × 1040 erg s-1 and very young ages (Innovacion Productiva (Argentina) - Observing run ID: GN-2003A-Q-53 and GN-2007B-Q-87.

  6. 血清β人绒毛膜促性腺激素与孕早期血脂对预测妊娠高血压疾病的价值%Value of Serum β Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Blood Lipid in Early Pregnancy in Predicting Pregnancy-induced Hypertension Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝清梅; 张文慧; 陈文英; 李银芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血清β人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)与孕早期血脂对预测妊娠高血压疾病的价值。方法选取2011年1月至2014年1月入住我院的妊娠高血压产妇150例,设为妊娠高血压组,另选取同期入住我院的正常健康产妇150例为正常对照组。比较两组孕妇一般性资料、孕早期(37~60天)血脂水平以及妊娠中期血清β-HCG水平,分析孕妇并发妊娠高血压的危险因素。结果妊高组患者的β-HCG、甘油三酯、胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白、低密度脂蛋白水平均明显高于正常组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 Logistic回归分析显示,甘油三酯(OR =2.561)、高密度脂蛋白(OR =2.023)、β-HCG (OR =1.347)和低密度脂蛋白(OR =1.248)均是导致妊娠高血压的危险因素。结论血清β人绒毛膜促性腺激素与孕早期血脂均是导致妊娠高血压的危险因素,可以作为妊高症诊断的临床参考。%Objective To explore the value of serumβhuman chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) and blood lipid in early pregnancy in predicting pregnancy-induced hypertension disease. Methods 150 cases of pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension disease admitted to our hospital from January 2011 to January 2014 were selected as gestational hypertension group, 150 cases of healthy pregnant women admitted to our hospital in same period were set as normal group. The general information, levels of blood lipid in early pregnancy (37 ~ 60 d) and serum β-HCG level in second trimester of pregnancy were compared between two groups, the risk factors of pregnancy-induced hypertension was analyzed. Results The levels ofβ-HCG, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein in gestational hypertension group were significantly higher than those in control group, with statistical difference (P<0.05). The analysis of Logistic regression showed that triglyceride (OR =2.561), high-density lipoprotein (OR =2

  7. Early embryo mortality in natural human reproduction: What the data say [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How many human embryos die between fertilisation and birth under natural conditions? It is widely accepted that natural human embryo mortality is high, particularly during the first weeks after fertilisation, with total prenatal losses of 70% and higher frequently claimed. However, the first external sign of pregnancy occurs two weeks after fertilisation with a missed menstrual period, and establishing the fate of embryos before this is challenging. Calculations are additionally hampered by a lack of data on the efficiency of fertilisation under natural conditions. Four distinct sources are used to justify quantitative claims regarding embryo loss: (i a hypothesis published by Roberts & Lowe in The Lancet  is widely cited but has no practical quantitative value; (ii life table analyses give consistent assessments of clinical pregnancy loss, but cannot illuminate losses at earlier stages of development; (iii studies that measure human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG reveal losses in the second week of development and beyond, but not before; and (iv the classic studies of Hertig and Rock offer the only direct insight into the fate of human embryos from fertilisation under natural conditions. Re-examination of Hertig’s data demonstrates that his estimates for fertilisation rate and early embryo loss are highly imprecise and casts doubt on the validity of his numerical analysis. A recent re-analysis of hCG study data concluded that approximately 40-60% of embryos may be lost between fertilisation and birth, although this will vary substantially between individual women. In conclusion, natural human embryo mortality is lower than often claimed and widely accepted. Estimates for total prenatal mortality of 70% or higher are exaggerated and not supported by the available data.

  8. Transport of ova transferred to rabbit oviducts at varying intervals after human chorionic gonadotropin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, L; Pauerstein, C J

    1980-01-01

    Ova obtained from donors were transfered to the oviducts of New Zealand White rabbits at various times after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin. The rabbits were killed at varying intervals after transfer. The genital tracts were removed, divided into segments (ampulla, isthmus, uterus, and vagina), and flushed to recover the ova. The experiments demonstrated the following: (1) A mechanism is present that retains some of the transferred ova above the ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ). This mechanism is most efficient 60 hours after hCG injection. (2) Transferred ova that succeed in negotiating the AIJ are found in locations appropriate to the time elapsed from ovulation, rather than from transfer; i.e., they "catch up" to the endogenous ova.

  9. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals New Insights into the Modulation of Endometrial Stromal Cell Receptive Phenotype by Embryo-Derived Signals Interleukin-1 and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: Possible Involvement in Early Embryo Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiec, Amélie; Calvo, Ezequiel; Rao, C. V.; Akoum, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the conceptus in uterine cavity necessitates an elaborate network of interactions between the implanting embryo and a receptive endometrial tissue. We believe that embryo-derived signals play an important role in the remodeling and the extension of endometrial receptivity period. Our previous studies provided original evidence that human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) modulates and potentiates endometrial epithelial as well as stromal cell responsiveness to interleukin 1 (IL1), one of the earliest embryonic signals, which may represent a novel pathway by which the embryo favors its own implantation and growth within the maternal endometrial host. The present study was designed to gain a broader understanding of hCG impact on the modulation of endometrial cell receptivity, and in particular, cell responsiveness to IL1 and the acquisition of growth-promoting phenotype capable of receiving, sustaining, and promoting early and crucial steps of embryonic development. Our results showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, immune modulation, tissue remodeling, apoptotic and angiogenic processes. This points to a relevant impact of these embryonic signals on the receptivity of the maternal endometrium, its adaptation to the implanting embryo and the creation of an environment that is favorable for the implantation and the growth of this latter within a new and likely hostile host tissue. Interestingly our data further identified a complex interaction between IL1 and hCG, which, despite a synergistic action on several significant endometrial target genes, may encompass a tight control of endogenous IL1 and extends to other IL1 family members. PMID:23717664

  10. Early embryo mortality in natural human reproduction: What the data say [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin E. Jarvis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that natural human embryo mortality during pregnancy is high – losses of 70% and higher from fertilisation to birth are frequently claimed. The first external sign of pregnancy occurs two weeks after fertilisation with a missed menstrual period. Establishing the fate of embryos before this is challenging, and hampered by a lack of data on the efficiency of fertilisation under natural conditions. Four distinct sources are cited to justify quantitative claims regarding embryo loss: (i a hypothesis published by Roberts & Lowe in The Lancet  is widely cited but has no quantitative value; (ii life table analyses give consistent assessments of clinical pregnancy loss, but cannot illuminate losses at earlier stages of development; (iii studies that measure human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG reveal losses in the second week of development and beyond, but not before; and (iv the classic studies of Hertig and Rock offer the only direct insight into the fate of human embryos from fertilisation under natural conditions. Re-examination of Hertig’s data demonstrates that his estimates for fertilisation rate and early embryo loss are highly imprecise and casts doubt on the validity of his numerical analysis. A recent re-analysis of hCG study data suggests that approximately 40-60% of embryos may be lost between fertilisation and birth, although this will vary substantially between individual women. In conclusion, it is clear that some published estimates of natural embryo mortality are exaggerated. Although available data do not provide a precise estimate, natural human embryo mortality is lower than is often claimed.

  11. [Development of the human adrenal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folligan, K; Bouvier, R; Targe, F; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2005-09-01

    The human adrenal is an endocrine gland located at the superior part of the kidney. Composed of the adrenal cortex of mesoblastic origin and the adrenal medulla of neuroectoblastic origin, the human fetal adrenal grows considerably during the first three months of development. From 12 to 18 weeks of development (WD), the weight of the adrenals increases seven-fold. The gland's weight doubles from 18 to 28 WD and from 28 to 36 WD. At birth, the two adrenals weigh on average 10 g. At the 8th week, two zones are individualized in the adrenal cortex: the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. At the second trimester, according to ultrastructural and biochemical studies, a third zone, called the transition zone, is individualized between the definitive zone and the fetal inner zone. The definitive zone persists, but the origin of the three zones (glomerular, fascicular and reticular) of adult adrenal cortex is not known. The fetal inner zone regresses from the 5th month of gestation and disappears totally one year after birth. At the 8th week, the immature neuroblasts migrate to the definitive zone, then to the fetal inner zone to compose the adrenal medulla, which develops essentially after birth and during the first year. Before the 10th week, the human fetal adrenal is able to produce steroid hormones, in particular dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S); the secretion of cortisol remains discussed. The development of the human fetal adrenal is complex and is under the control of hormones (ACTH, LH and betaHCG), growth factors (ACTH essentially) and transcription factors (essentially SF1 and DAX-1). Knowledge of morphological and molecular phenomena of this development permits to understand the pathophisiology of congenital adrenal deficiencies.

  12. Down-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding an importer of sulfoconjugated steroids during human chorionic gonadotropin-induced follicular luteinization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristy A; Bouchard, Nadine; Lussier, Jacques G; Sirois, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (SLCO/OATP) superfamily are capable of importing anionic compounds across the lipid bilayer in a sodium-independent manner. Member 2B1 has been shown to transport few substrates, two of which are dihydroepiandrosterone-3-sulfate (DHEA-S) and estrone-3-sulfate. Steroid sulfatase (STS) catalyses the hydrolysis of these steroids into their unconjugated counterparts. The objective of this study was to investigate the regulation of SLCO2B1 and STS mRNAs during human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced ovulation/luteinization. The equine SLCO2B1 cDNA was cloned and shown to encode a 709-amino acid protein (OATP2B1) that is highly conserved when compared to mammalian orthologs. RT-PCR/Southern blot analyses were performed to study the regulation of SLCO2B1 and STS transcripts in equine preovulatory follicles isolated between 0 and 39h after hCG treatment. Results showed high levels of SLCO2B1 mRNA expression before hCG, with a marked decrease observed in follicles obtained 24-39h post-hCG (Pimport sulfoconjugated DHEA and estrogens, and that STS can remove the sulfonate moiety from these steroids, their down-regulation in luteinizing preovulatory follicles may provide an additional biochemical basis for the decrease in ovarian 17beta-estradiol biosynthesis after the LH surge.

  13. Mobilities of the inner three core residues and the Man(alpha 1--6) branch of the glycan at Asn78 of the alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin are restricted by the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuylen, C W; de Beer, T; Leeflang, B R; Boelens, R; Kaptein, R; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F

    1998-02-17

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone involved in the maintenance of the corpus luteum in early pregnancy. The free alpha-subunit of hCG has a biological activity of its own, namely, stimulation of prolactin secretion from term pregnancy decidual cells [Blithe, D. L., et al. (1991) Endocrinology 129, 2257-2259]. Glycosylation at Asn78 of the alpha-subunit is required for the stability of the protein, but the exact nature of the stabilizing effect is not known. In our previous study, it was indicated that GlcNAc-1 at Asn78 has a reduced mobility, whereas the glycan at Asn52 is highly mobile [De Beer, T., et al. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 241, 229-242]. In the present investigation, it is shown that the PNGase F susceptibility of the Asn52-linked glycan in the free alpha-subunit is absent in the heterodimer. Thus, the high mobility of the glycan at Asn52 may be characteristic for the free alpha-subunit. For accurate modeling of alpha hCG, knowledge of the behavior of each of the glycans is essential. In this context, the mobility of the glycans and their interactions with the protein are explored by NMR spectroscopy using desialylated, partially deglycosylated free alpha-subunit (as-pd alpha) carrying glycans at Asn78 only. NOEs between GlcNAc-2 and several amino acid residues indicate that GlcNAc-2 is involved in stabilizing alpha hCG. From the values of 13C relaxation parameters T2 and T1 rho of the constituting monosaccharide residues, it was concluded that the inner three residues have a severely restricted mobility. The Man-4 and Man-4' residues of the diantennary oligosaccharide exhibit a similar relaxation behavior, suggesting that the Man-4' branch occurs in a single conformation of the C5-C6 linkage of Man-3 instead of in rapidly interconverting conformations that are known to exist for this linkage for the free oligosaccharide.

  14. Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Human Trophoblast Cell Functions In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblast cell dysfunction is involved in many disorders during pregnancy such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Few treatments exist, however, that target improving trophoblast cell function. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs are capable of self-renewing, can undergo multilineage differentiation, and have homing abilities; in addition, they have immunomodulatory effects and paracrine properties and thus are a prospective source for cell therapy. To identify whether hUCMSCs can regulate trophoblast cell functions, we treated trophoblast cells with hUCMSC supernatant or cocultured them with hUCMSCs. Both treatments remarkably enhanced the migration and invasion abilities of trophoblast cells and upregulated their proliferation ability. At a certain concentration, hUCMSCs also modulated hCG, PIGF, and sEndoglin levels in the trophoblast culture medium. Thus, hUCMSCs have a positive effect on trophoblast cellular functions, which may provide a new avenue for treatment of placenta-related diseases during pregnancy.

  15. INDUKSI MATURASI BELUT SAWAH (Monopterus albus DENGAN HORMON HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN DAN ANTIDOPAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Kusuma Atmaja Putra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian maturasi belut sawah (Monopterus albus dengan Hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin dan antidopamin dilakukan di Kolam Percobaan Babakan, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh hormon hCG dan kombinasinya terhadap maturasi belut sawah. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode ekperimental secara Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan kontrol (NaCl, hCG (dosis 20 IU/kg, antidopamin (AD (dosis 0,01 mg/kg, dan hCG+AD (dosis 20 IU+0,01 mg/kg dengan tujuh ulangan individu. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan ANOVA. Parameter uji pada penelitian ini di antaranya adalah konsentrasi estradiol-17β, gonado somatik index (GSI, hepatosomatik index (HSI, histologi gonad, tingkat kematangan gonad, diameter telur, tingkat kebuntingan, dan kualitas air (oksigen terlarut (DO, pH, amoniak, dan suhu. Hasil terbaik pada akhir penelitian ini adalah perlakuan hCG+AD dengan nilai konsentrasi estradiol-17β (13,63-95,49 pg/mL, GSI (1,25%, HSI (1,53%, TKG (IV, diameter telur (0,88 mm, dan tingkat kebuntingan (85,71%. Perlakuan kontrol dan antidopamin tidak berpengaruh dan hanya mampu mencapai tingkat kematangan gonad I. Hasil analisis parameter kualitas air adalah berkisar DO (5,32-5,58 mg/L, amoniak (0,558-0,978 mg/L, pH (6,06-6,36, dan suhu (27,80oC-27,94oC. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa hCG dapat menginduksi pematangan gonad belut sawah.

  16. Follicle-stimulating hormone administered at the time of human chorionic gonadotropin trigger improves oocyte developmental competence in in vitro fertilization cycles: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Julie D; Shen, Shehua; McCulloch, Charles; Jalalian, Liza; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether an additional follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) bolus administered at the time of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger can improve the developmental competence of the oocyte. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Academic medical center. Women undergoing a long agonist suppression in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol for treatment of infertility. FSH bolus at time of hCG trigger versus placebo. Primary outcome; fertilization; secondary outcomes: oocyte recovery, implantation rate, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates. A total of 188 women (mean age: 36.2 years; range: 25 to 40 years) were randomized. Fertilization (2PN/#oocyte) was statistically significantly improved in the treatment arm (63% vs. 55%) as was the likelihood of oocyte recovery (70% vs. 57%). There was no statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate (56.8% vs. 46.2%) or ongoing/live birth rate (51.6% vs. 43.0%). Improvements in IVF success rates have largely been due to optimization of embryo culture and stimulation protocols; less attention has been directed toward methods to improve induction of final oocyte maturation. This was the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to modify the ovulation trigger to improve oocyte competence, as demonstrated by the statistically significant improvement in fertilization. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reconstructing the demographic history of the human lineage using whole-genome sequences from human and three great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuichiro; Imanishi, Tadashi; Satta, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The demographic history of human would provide helpful information for identifying the evolutionary events that shaped the humanity but remains controversial even in the genomic era. To settle the controversies, we inferred the speciation times (T) and ancestral population sizes (N) in the lineage leading to human and great apes based on whole-genome alignment. A coalescence simulation determined the sizes of alignment blocks and intervals between them required to obtain recombination-free blocks with a high frequency. This simulation revealed that the size of the block strongly affects the parameter inference, indicating that recombination is an important factor for achieving optimum parameter inference. From the whole genome alignments (1.9 giga-bases) of human (H), chimpanzee (C), gorilla (G), and orangutan, 100-bp alignment blocks separated by ≥5-kb intervals were sampled and subjected to estimate τ = μT and θ = 4μgN using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, where μ is the mutation rate and g is the generation time. Although the estimated τ(HC) differed across chromosomes, τ(HC) and τ(HCG) were strongly correlated across chromosomes, indicating that variation in τ is subject to variation in μ, rather than T, and thus, all chromosomes share a single speciation time. Subsequently, we estimated Ts of the human lineage from chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to be 6.0-7.6, 7.6-9.7, and 15-19 Ma, respectively, assuming variable μ across lineages and chromosomes. These speciation times were consistent with the fossil records. We conclude that the speciation times in our recombination-free analysis would be conclusive and the speciation between human and chimpanzee was a single event.

  18. 药物流产后异常子宫出血患者血清雌激素、孕激素和人绒毛促性腺激素水平%Estrogen, Progesterone, and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Levels in Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding after Drug Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永红; 王素平

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of estrogen (E2) , progesterone (P) , and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels with abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with drug abortion. Methods: A total of 59 patients taking mifepristone plus misoprostol for abortion were divided into two groups. In the control group (29 cases, group C) , the time of uterine bleeding was less than 14 days; in the abnormal uterine bleeding (30 cases, group A) , the time of uterine bleeding was more than 14 days. The levels of E2, P and hCG of the 2 groups in 14, 18 and 22 days after initiation of bleeding were compared. Results: There was no significant difference of E2 levels between the 2 groups (P >0.05); On the 14th day, P level of group A was higher than that of group C (P < 0.05); On the 14th , 18th , and 22nd days, the hCG levels in group A were significantly higher than those in group C (P <0. 05). Conclusion: The abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with medical abortion is related with P and hCG levels.%目的:研究药物流产后患者体内雌激素(E2)、孕激素(P)及人绒毛促性腺激素(hCG)水平与异常子宫出血的关系.方法:59例患者口服米非司酮配伍米索前列醇药物终止早期妊娠,将子宫出血时间超过14 d的30例患者作为异常子宫出血组,子宫出血时间少于14 d的29例患者作为对照组,比较2组外周静脉血清中E2、P及hCG水平.结果:两组患者体内E2差异无显著性(P>0.05),在出血第14天时,异常子宫出血组患者体内P明显高于对照组(P<0.05),在第14、18和22天hCG均高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:药物流产后异常子宫出血与患者体内P和hCG水平有关.

  19. The human leukocyte antigen G promotes trophoblast fusion and β-hCG production through the Erk1/2 pathway in human choriocarcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ji-meng [School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhao, Hong-xi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Gao, Zhi-ying, E-mail: gaozy301@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); Yao, Yuan-qing, E-mail: yqyao@126.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HLA-G expression promotes BeWo cells fusion and fusogenic gene expression. •HLA-G is capable of inducing β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. •Up-regulation of β-hCG production by HLA-G is mediated via the Erk1/2 pathway. -- Abstract: The human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is expressed on the fetal–maternal interface and plays a role in protecting fetal-derived trophoblasts from the maternal immune response, allowing trophoblasts to invade the uterus. However, HLA-G also possesses immune suppressing-independent functions. We found that HLA-G expressing BeWo choriocarcinoma cells increased cell–cell fusion compared to control BeWo cells under forskolin treatment. Regardless of forskolin treatment, the expression of fusogenic gene mRNAs, including syncytin-1, the transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (Gcm1), and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were elevated. HLA-G up-regulates β-hCG production in human choriocarcinoma cells because HLA-G knockdown in JEG-3 cells induces a dramatic decrease in β-hCG compared with control cells. The defect in β-hCG production in HLA-G knocked-down cells could not be completely overcome by stimulating hCG production through increasing intracellular cAMP levels. HLA-G expressing cells have increased phosphorylation levels for extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (Erk1/2) in BeWo cells. The Erk1/2 pathway is inactivated after the inhibition of HLA-G expression in JEG-3 cells. Finally, Erk1/2 inhibition was able to suppress the increased hCG production induced by HLA-G expression. Together, these data suggest novel roles for HLA-G in regulating β-hCG production via the modulation of the Erk1/2 pathway and by inducing trophoblast cell fusion.

  20. Characterization of gonadotropin binding sites in the intracellular organelles of bovine corpora lutea and comparison with plasma membrane sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Mitra, S; Carman, F R

    1981-03-25

    The specific binding of 125I-human choriogonadotropin (hCG) to plasma membranes, nuclear membranes, lysosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, heavy golgi, and medium and light golgi of bovine corpora lutea was dependent on the amount of protein, 125I-hCG concentration and incubation time. The bound hormone in all the organelles was able to rebind to fresh corresponding organelles. Scatchard analysis revealed a homogenous population of gonadotropin binding sites in plasma membrane, rough endoplasmic reticulum, heavy golgi, and medium and light golgi, whose binding affinities (Kd = 8.6-11.0 X 10(-11) M) were similar but whose number of available gonadotropin binding sites varied. Scatchard analyses of nuclear membranes and lysosome binding, on the other hand, were heterogenous (Nuclear membranes, 11 and 23 X 10(-11) M lysosomes, 3.4 and 130 X 10(-11) M). The rate constants for association (5.9 to 12.1 X 10(6) M-1 S-1) and dissociation (7.4 to 9.0 X 10(-4) S-1) were similar among different subcellular organelles except for nuclear membranes and lysosomes, where rate constants for association were significantly lower. The ligand binding specificity, lower effectiveness of human luteinizing hormone as compared to hCG in competition, the optimal pH, the lack of ionic requirements for binding, and the molecular size of 125I-hCG-gonadotropin binding site complexes solubilized from various intracellular organelles were similar to those observed for plasma membranes. Numerous differences were also observed between intracellular organelles and plasma membranes as well as among intracellular organelles themselves with respect to binding losses due to exposure to low and high pH values, di- and monovalent cations, increasing preincubation temperatures, and a variety of enzymes and protein reagents. The possible reasons for these similarities as well as differences observed are discussed. The differences are viewed as an additional indication that contamination cannot solely

  1. Pregnancy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of ... A pregnancy test is done using blood or urine. There are 2 types of ... how much HCG is present The blood test is done by drawing ...

  2. Estimated 2nd Trimester Maternal Serum Markers AFP & HCG Moms for Down'S Syndrome Screening in Macao%第二妊娠期母血清甲胎球蛋白及人類絨毛膜促性腺激素篩選唐氏綜合症標記

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王強; 梁敏慧; 林勇行

    2001-01-01

    目的進行第二妊娠期母血清甲胎球蛋白及人類絨毛膜促性腺激素篩選唐氏綜合症標記的測定.方法從1998年8月起,對澳門35歲以下,懷孕期在14至20孕週,單胎懷孕並且無明顯家族及染色體遺傳史的孕婦,通過産前診斷咨詢門診,利用電子計算機軟件程式,分別對孕婦的年齡、身高、體重、以及甲胎球蛋白及人類絨毛膜促性腺激素進行運算,得出有關的數值.所有數值如大於1/250者將被視爲陽性.其後,有關孕婦將被轉介作羊水檢驗以確診之.結果其中有三例羊水檢驗證實爲唐氏綜合症胎兒.該項檢驗的假陽性率爲1/17.但其中一例出現假陰性(高齡孕婦,同時接受了羊水檢驗並確診).該母血篩選檢查的準確性約60%.結論該項35歲以下,懷孕期在14至20週唐氏綜合症檢驗在澳門中國婦女人口中是可行的及可接受的.%Objective Offered second-trimester serum AFP and hCG screening study to pregnant women younger than 3 5 years should be offered maternal serum screening at 16 to 18 weeks of gestation and without other risk factors for chromosomal abnormalities. Materials Between August 1998 and January 2001, we Each woman was assigned a risk of having a Downis syndrome term pregnancy by using a computer software program that took into account her age, weight, AFP and hCG MoMs. All those with a risk of one in 250 or greater were designated screen-positive, subject to the revision of gestation by ultrasound examination. Results After revision of the gestation by ultrasound examination, 89 of them (97 per cent) accepted the offer of amniocentesis. Downis syndrome and all the women elected pregnancy termination affected two of these pregnancies. The odds of being affected, given a positive screening result, were one in 17. The screening programmed missed one Downis syndrome pregnancy. The detection rate was 60 per cent. Conclusion The study showed that second-trimester serum screening for

  3. Effects of Angelica on Abortion Rate,Serum Level of β-HCG and Plasma Level of TXB2 in Rats with Threatened Abortion%当归对先兆流产大鼠模型流产率及血清β-HCG、血浆TXB2含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore effects and mechanism of common gynecological medicine Angelica in model rats with threatened abortion.Method:50 rats (6 to 8 days pregnant)were randomly divided into five groups: normal group, model control group,Angelica high,medium and low-dose group, each group of each lO.The rats were fed to mifepristone tablets for the establishment of rat model with threatened abortion in addition to the normal group. After rats model were successfully made,Chinese medicine groups were fed Angelica decoction.The abortion rate,the serum level of β-HCG and the plasma level of TXB2 in rats with threatened abortion were observed.Result:The rat model with threatened abortion were given decoction of angelica, the abortion rate in the medium and low dose groups were lower than in the control group, there was statistically significant(P<0.01).The rat model with threatened abortion were given decoction of angelica, the levels of serum β-HCG in the medium and low dose groups were greater than in the control group,1there was statistically significant (P<0.05).The rat model with threatened abortion were given 1 of angelica,the levels of plasma TXB2 in the medium and low dose groups were lower than in the control group,there was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion: ①After rats model with threatened abortion received decoction of angelica, the abortion rate significantly decreased in the low and medium dose groups.②Angelica can increase the serum β-HCG levels and reduce the plasma TXB2 levels for model rats with threatened abortion.③Angelica has no adverse effects for pregnancy outcome in rats with threatened abortion. It can be used for the treatment of threatened abortion.%目的:探讨妇科常用药"当归"对先兆流产大鼠模型的作用机制及影响.方法:选取50只大鼠(孕6~8天),运用随机数字表随机分为5组:正常组,模型对照组,当归高、中、低剂量组,每组各10只.按照3.75 mg/kg对除正常组之外其

  4. Comparison of gene expression profiles in granulosa and cumulus cells after ovulation induction with either human chorionic gonadotropin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, Tanni; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa.......To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa....

  5. Comparison of second-trimester maternal serum free-β-human chorionic gonadotropin and α-fetoprotein between normal singleton and twin pregnancies: a population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ming-ming; ZHONG Xiao-ling; HU Ya-li; ZHANG Chun-yan; RU Tong; LIU Qi-lan; XU Bi-yun; CHEN Qi-guang; XU Zheng-feng; ZHANG Yin

    2010-01-01

    Background The second-trimester maternal serum screening in twin pregnancy is still controversial, as the serum marker levels in twins are not as clear as those in singletons. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the levels of the second-trimester maternal serum free p-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-HCG) and a-fetoprotein (AFP) in normal twin and singleton pregnancies and to estimate feasible analysis methods for utilizing these markers in second trimester screening for twin pregnancy. Methods On the basis of a prospective population-based study of second-trimester maternal serum screening, the concentrations of maternal serum AFP and free β-HCG of 195 normal twin pregnancy and 26 512 singleton controls at gestational weeks 15 to 20 were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in one laboratory. The levels of markers were compared between the twins and singletons using weight-correction and gestational age-specific model. Results According to the research protocol, 95 communities were randomly sampled, which covered the whole Jiangsu province, the east of China. A total of 26 803 pregnant women (98%), from the target population accepted prenatal screening for maternal serum AFP, β-HCG detection, and all babies were followed up for at least six months. There were 197 (0.73%) twin pregnancies, of which one case had fetal trisomy 18, and one case with fetal anencephaly. The others were normal twin pregnancy. From a total enrollment of 26 803 women participants, 26 512 women with normal singleton pregnancies were selected as the model controls. The other 291 pregnancies, including trisomy 21, neural tube defect (NTD), trisomy 18, and other fetal abnormalities, were excluded. No significant differences were found in the medians of gestational age-specific maternal serum free β-hCG and AFP in normal twin pregnancy comparing with twice those in model controls with the exception of the medians for free β-hCG during the 16th gestational week

  6. Human See, Human Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A human demonstrator showed human children and captive chimpanzees how to drag food or toys closer using a rakelike tool. One side of the rake was less efficient than the other for dragging. Chimps tried to reproduce results rather than methods while children imitated and used the more efficient rake side. Concludes that imitation leads to…

  7. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  8. THE EFFECT OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR (rhLIF ON IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT OF MOUSE 2-CELL EMBRYOS AND THEIR ISOLATED BLASTOMERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD AKBARI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study effect of recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor on invitro development of 2 cells embryos and isolated blastomeres derived from mouse 2 cell embryos were investigated. Female ICR mice that were between 8 to 10 weeks old received intraperitoneal injection of 7.5 IU of PMSG for super ovulation followed by intraperitoneal administration of 7.5 IU of HCG 48 hours later. The mice were then mated to mature ICR male mice and were checked for vaginal plugs after 13-14 hours. Mice were killed 46-48 hours after HCG injection by cervical dislocation, their oviducts were removed and flushing 2 cell embryos were collected. The zona pellucida of 2 cell embryos were removed by Acid Tyrod solution and blastomeres separated with oocyte preparation pipette and then all embryos and blastomeres were cultured in Potassium Simplex Optimized Medium (KSOM +Aminoacid (AA different amounts of rhLIF (500IU/ml, 1000IU/ml and 1500IU/ml. Some embryos and individual blastomere also were cultured without rhLIF as control group. All samples were cultured in an incubator at 370C with 0.05 CO2 for 120 hours. The rate of embryo and individual blastomeres which reached to 2 cell, 4 cell, 8 cell and 9-16 cell were the same in all groups. However in further developmental stages, morula and blastocyst between experimental and control groups were significantly different. Therefore it may be concluded that: cultivation of isolated blastomers up to the blastocyst stage with rhLIF has stimulatory effect on the preimplantation stage (morula and blastocyst but it has no stimulatory and inhibitory effects when was added to culture media at the early cleavage stage.

  9. Hourly human chorionic gonadotropin secretion profiles during the peri-implantation period of successful pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohstroh, Pete N; Overstreet, James W; Stewart, Dennis R; Nakajima, Steven T; Cragun, Jeffrey R; Boyers, Stephen P; Lasley, Bill L

    2007-06-01

    To characterize the hourly profiles of hCG secretion in blood during conceptive cycles that ended in successful pregnancy. Prospective study. University fertility clinic and research laboratories. Healthy spontaneously ovulating women with regular menses, no history of infertility, and either no male partner or an azospermic partner. Frequent blood samples were collected daily from 11 spontaneously ovulating women during 11 cycles of artifical insemination with donor semen. The concentrations of hCG, LH, and FSH were measured in the blood by immunoassay. The concentration of hCG in the frequent blood samples and the rate that the concentration of hCG changed during the period of frequent sampling. For the conceptive cycles resulting in successful pregnancies analyzed, hourly hCG concentrations were observed to increase in a consistent nonpulsatile manner. These data provide the first characterization of the hourly secretion profile of hCG in early pregnancy as well as provide further evidence that individual daily blood samples are sufficient for the accurate assessment of pregnancy.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A mediate angiogenesis of human ovarian follicular endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trau, Heidi A.; Brännström, Mats; Curry, Thomas E.; Duffy, Diane M.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Which receptors for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mediate angiogenesis in the human follicle around the time of ovulation? SUMMARY ANSWER PGE2 and VEGFA act via multiple PGE2 receptors (PTGERs) and VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) to play complementary roles in follicular angiogenesis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Production of PGE2 and VEGFA by the follicle are prerequisites for ovulation. PGE2 is an emerging regulator of angiogenesis and has not been examined in the context of the human ovulatory follicle. VEGFA is an established regulator of follicular angiogenesis. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Ovarian biopsies containing the ovulatory follicle were obtained from 11 women of reproductive age (30–45 years) undergoing surgery for laparoscopic sterilization. In some cases, women received hCG to substitute for the ovulatory LH surge before ovarian biopsy. In addition, aspirates from four women of reproductive age (18–31 years) undergoing gonadotrophin stimulation for oocyte donation were obtained for isolation of human ovarian microvascular endothelial cells (hOMECs). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Ovarian biopsies were utilized for immunocytochemical detection of von Willebrand factor to identify endothelial cells. hOMECs were cultured with PGE2, PTGER receptor selective agonists, VEGFA, or VEGFR selective agonists. hOMECs were assessed for proliferation by Ki67 immunocytochemistry. hOMEC migration was determined by counting cells which migrated through a porous membrane in vitro. Sprout formation was quantified by determining sprout number and length from photographs take after culture of hOMECs in a 3-dimensional matrix. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Endothelial cells were not observed within the granulosa cell layer of human ovulatory follicles prior to an ovulatory dose of hCG and were first seen amongst granulosa cells 18–34 h after hCG. In vitro, PGE2 enhanced migration and sprout formation but

  11. Establishment and validation of a model for non-luteinized human mural granulosa cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, L; Yung, Y; Maman, E; Rubinstein, N; Yerushalmi, G M; Haas, J; Barzilay, E; Hourvitz, A

    2014-03-25

    Cell culture techniques of human mural granulosa cells (MGCs) serve as a major in vitro tool. However, the use of luteinized MGCs has major limitations due to their luteinized state. Our aim was to establish a standardized protocol for the culture of MGCs as a model for different stages of folliculogenesis. We showed that early-non-luteinized, preovulatory-non-luteinized and luteal-MGCs have distinct gene expression pattern. After 4 days of incubation of luteinized-MGCs, ovulatory genes mRNA's achieve expression levels similar to the early non-luteinized follicles. FSH stimulation for 48 h of these 4 days cultured MGCs showed ovulatory genes mRNA's expression similar to the pre-ovulatory non-luteinized follicles. These FSH-stimulated cells responded to hCG stimulation in a pattern similar to the response of pre-ovulatory follicles. This novel model may provide a standardized research tool for delineation of the molecular processes occurring during the latter stages of follicular development in the human ovary.

  12. Microdevice for plasma separation from whole human blood using bio-physical and geometrical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Kumar, Y. V. BalaVarun; Agrawal, Amit; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this research work, we present a simple and efficient passive microfluidic device for plasma separation from pure blood. The microdevice has been fabricated using conventional photolithography technique on a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane, and has been extensively tested on whole blood and enhanced (upto 62%) hematocrit levels of human blood. The microdevice employs elevated dimensions of about 100 μm; such elevated dimensions ensure clog-free operation of the microdevice and is relatively easy to fabricate. We show that our microdevice achieves almost 100% separation efficiency on undiluted blood in the flow rate range of 0.3 to 0.5 ml/min. Detailed biological characterization of the plasma obtained from the microdevice is carried out by testing: proteins by ultra-violet spectrophotometric method, hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) hormone, and conducting random blood glucose test. Additionally, flow cytometry study has also been carried on the separated plasma. These tests attest to the high quality of plasma recovered. The microdevice developed in this work is an outcome of extensive experimental research on understanding the flow behavior and separation phenomenon of blood in microchannels. The microdevice is compact, economical and effective, and is particularly suited in continuous flow operations. PMID:27279146

  13. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol dysregulates the synthesis of proteins by the human syncytiotrophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M A; Fonseca, B M; Mendes, A; Braga, J; Teixeira, N A; Correia-da-Silva, G

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, endocannabinoids emerged as new players in various reproductive events. Recently, we demonstrated the involvement of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in human cytotrophoblast apoptosis and syncytialization. However, 2-AG impact in hormone production by the syncytiotrophoblast (hST) was never studied. In this work, we demonstrate that 2-AG activates cannabinoid (CB) receptors, exerting an inhibitory action on cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 pathways, and enhancing ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, 2-AG affects the synthesis of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), leptin, aromatase, 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-β-HSD), and placental protein 13 (PP13). These 2-AG effects are mediated by the activation of CB receptors, in a mechanism that may involve p38, ERK 1/2 and cAMP/PKA pathways, which participate in the regulation of placental proteins expression. To our knowledge, this is the first study that associates the endocannabinoid signalling and endocrine placental function, shedding light on a role for 2-AG in the complex network of molecules that orchestrate the production of placental proteins essential for the gestational success.

  14. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  15. Amphiregulin mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lanlan; Yu, Yiping; Zhang, Ruizhe; He, Jingyan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone plays critical roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy at the early embryonic stage. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rapidly induces amphiregulin (AREG) expression. However, it remains unknown whether AREG mediates hCG-induced progesterone production. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of AREG in hCG-induced progesterone production and the underlying molecular mechanism in human granulosa cells; primary cells were used as the experimental model. We demonstrated that the inhibition of EGFR and the knockdown of AREG abolished hCG-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production. Importantly, follicular fluid AREG levels were positively correlated with progesterone levels in the follicular fluid and serum. Treatment with AREG increased StAR expression and progesterone production, and these stimulatory effects were abolished by EGFR inhibition. Moreover, activation of ERK1/2, but not PI3K/Akt, signaling was required for the AREG-induced up-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. Our results demonstrate that AREG mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells, providing novel evidence for the role of AREG in the regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID:27113901

  16. Pregnancy testing with hCG--future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Peter; Sturgeon, Catharine

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy tests for human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) are used widely in hospital and home settings. Assays measuring hCG also have uses in prenatal screening and oncology. The output from three recent international workshops provides a framework for reliable measurement of hCG. Requirements for future hCG assays include use of clear descriptive nomenclature, informed selection of antibodies of well-defined epitope specificities, and design of robust methods. Tests will be precisely characterized and calibrated in SI units using six International Reference Reagents (IRR) for hCG and variants, and the Fifth International Standard for hCG 07/364, making it possible to report clinical results in molar units. These measures will help to increase patient safety by reducing the risk of erroneous or misleading hCG results.

  17. 电压门控钾离子通道对卵巢黄素化颗粒细胞增殖、分泌及凋亡的影响%Influence of 4-aminopyridine on human ovarian luteinized granulosa cell proliferation, production, and apoptosis through inhibiting voltage-gated K+ channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志明; 崔娜; 徐素欣; 高福禄; 郝桂敏; 曹金凤

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of 4-aminopyridine(4-AP)on proliferation,production,and apoptosis through inhibiting voltage-gated K+channel(Kv)in ovarian luteinized granulosa cells.nethods Ovarian luteinized granulosa cells were recovered from 25 women with regular menses who underwent in vitro fertilization programme.The cultured granulosa cells were divided into 4 groups:blank group,4-AP treated group,human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG)-induced group and hCG+4-AP cotreated group.The final concentrations of hCG and 4-AP were 1250 U/L and 5 nmol/L respectively.The progesterone production WaS detected by the chemoluminescence method.The expression of Kv mRNA on human ovarian luteinized granulosa cell was detected by RT.PCR The influence on the early apoptosis of gTanulosa cells bv 4-AP was observed by flow eytometry.Cellular caSpage-3 activities were observed with colorimetric method and the inhibition of the cell proliferation was studied using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT)method.Results(1)Kv mRNA wag expressed in granulosa cell.(2)The progesterone production64),(206±32),(1991±172)and(763±79)nmol/L,respectively after24 hours culture.Exposure of the(3)The flow cytometry analysis and the cellular caapase-3 A405 showed that 4-AP increased the percentage ofearly phase apoptosis(P0.05).(3)培养24 h后颗粒细胞的凋亡率及半胱氨酸天冬氨酸蛋白酶(caspase-3)活性,4-AP组分别为(40±5)%和0.049 ±0.009,均高于空白组[(17±4)%和0.029±0.008],hCG+4-AP组[(25±4)%和0.039±0.008]也均高于hCG组[(15 ±3)%和0.022 ±0.007],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 4-AP能够抑制卵巢黄素化颗粒细胞和经hCG诱导的颗粒细胞的孕酮分泌,町能与其抑制增殖、促进凋亡有关.Kv在卵巢黄素化颗粒细胞分泌、增殖及凋亡过程中起重要的作用.

  18. Gossypol inhibits human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by cultured canine testicular interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, M; Kulp, S; Chang, W; Lin, Y C

    1996-03-01

    Gossypol (GP) is a natural polyphenolic compound that possesses antifertility and antisteroidogenic activities in both males and females. The dog is highly sensitive to GP toxicity, yet GP's effect on canine testicular steroidogenesis has never been reported. Thus, the present study examines GP's effects on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced testosterone (T) production by primary cultured canine testicular interstitial cells. After decapsulation and enzymatic dissociation of canine testes in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with Ham's Nutrient Mixture F-12 (1:1; DME/F-12) containing 0.1% collagenase, 0.1% BSA, and 10 micrograms/ml DNase 1 (37 degrees C, 20 min), interstitial cells were isolated by sedimentation and filtration (140 microns) and then cultured in supplemented DME/F-12 medium (5 micrograms/ml insulin, 5 micrograms/ml transferrin, 5 ng/ml sodium selenite; DME/F-12/S) containing 0.1% fetal bovine serum (FBS). FBS was used to enhance cell attachment during the first 24 hours of culture. After 24 hours, the medium was replaced with serum-free DME/F-12/S and the cells were cultured for an additional 24 hours. Thereafter, cells were treated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) alone and in combination with GP (0.05, 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 microM). Media were collected for T radioimmunoassay and cells for protein estimation after 8, 16 and 24 hours of treatment. Treatment with hCG significantly (p production over that of controls at all treatment times examined. At 8, 16 and 24 hours, T secretion was elevated from 0.91 +/- 0.25, 1.32 +/- 0.42, and 1.41 +/- 0.40 pg/microgram protein to 2.36 +/- 0.50, 2.84 +/- 0.60, and 2.82 +/- 0.43 pg/microgram protein, respectively. At 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 microM, GP significantly (p production was reduced by 2.5 and 5.0 microM GP to 1.08 +/- 0.55 and 0.93 +/- 0.61 pg/microgram protein, respectively. GP, however, did not reduce T production to below basal levels. These results demonstrate the inhibition of hCG-induced T production by GP in

  19. Initial maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels in pregnancies achieved after assisted reproductive technology are higher after preimplantation genetic screening and after frozen embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Singh, Sonali; Malik, Shaveta; Knochenhauer, Eric S; Traub, Michael L

    2017-06-21

    Few published articles have compared initial hCG values across all different types of ART cycles, including cycles with fresh or frozen embryo transfer. No articles have compared initial hCG values in cycles utilizing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). The purpose of this study is to compare initial hCG values after fresh embryo transfer, frozen embryo transfer, and after PGS. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study at an academically affiliated private IVF center. All fresh and frozen embryo transfers between January 2013 and December 31, 2015 were included. We compared mean initial serum hCG values 14 days after oocyte retrieval for fresh cycles and 9 days after frozen embryo transfer. We examined cycles of single embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET). Two hundred elven IVF (fresh embryo transfer), 128 FET (frozen embryo transfer cycles, no PGS), and 111 PGS cycles (ovarian stimulation with embryo cryopreservation, PGS, and frozen transfer in a subsequent estrogen-primed cycle) with initial positive hCG values were analyzed. In patients achieving a positive hCG after SET, initial hCG values were higher after PGS compared to FET (182.4 versus 124.0 mIU/mL, p = 0.02) and IVF (182.4 versus 87.1 mIU/mL, p transfer of a frozen embryo compared to a fresh embryo. This suggests that initial hCG values relate to the chromosomal status of embryos. Initial hCG values may help determine intervention and monitoring later in pregnancy.

  20. Is the effect of premature elevated progesterone augmented by human chorionic gonadotropin versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Matthew T; Patounakis, George; Healy, Mae Wu; DeCherney, Alan H; Devine, Kate; Widra, Eric; Levy, Michael J; Hill, Micah J

    2016-09-01

    To compare the effect of P on live birth rate between hCG and GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) trigger cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Large private assisted reproductive technology (ART) practice. A total of 3,326 fresh autologous ART cycles. None. Live birth. A total of 647 GnRH-a trigger cycles were compared with 2,679 hCG trigger cycles. Live birth was negatively associated with P in both the hCG trigger (odds ratio [OR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.76) and the agonist trigger cohorts (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.45-0.69). Interaction testing evaluating P and trigger medication was not significant, indicating that P had a similar negative effect on live birth rates in both cohorts. Progesterone ≥2 ng/mL occurred more commonly in GnRH-a trigger cycles compared with hCG trigger cycles (5.5% vs. 3.1%) and was negatively associated with live birth in both the hCG trigger (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.73) and agonist trigger cohorts (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.90). When P ≥2 ng/mL, the live birth rates were poor and similar in the hCG and GnRH-a cohorts (5.9% vs. 14.2%), indicating that P ≥2 ng/mL had a similar negative effect on live birth in both cohorts. Elevated serum P on the day of hCG was negatively associated with live birth rates in both hCG and GnRH-a trigger cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards an

  2. The Effect of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Treatment Before Testicular Sperm Extraction in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate our experience on empirical hCG treatment of patients with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA. Material and Method: hCG group consisted of 34 patients who were empirically treated with hCG despite normal serum FSH and LH levels and normal testicular volumes. hCG was administered as 2500 IU twice weekly subcutaneous injections for 10 to 14 weeks prior to testicular sperm extraction (TESE. Control group consisted of 49 age and spouse age matched patients who underwent TESE in the same time period. Sperm retrieval rate (SRR, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, lutenizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels, volume of testicles, fertilization rate (FR, implantation rate (IR, pregnancy rate (PR, live birth rate (LBR and cancel rate (CR and surgical technique were compared between the two groups. Results: Conventional technique was used in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3% with successful sperm retrieval in the hCG group, and 18 of the 28 patients (64.3% in the control group (p=0.170. There were no differences between groups in terms of SRR (p=0.338. There were no significant differences in patient age, mean infertility period, mean values of FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol levels, and testis volume between the two groups (p>0.05. There were no statistically significant differences for FR, IR, PR, LBR between the two groups (p>0.05. Discussion: Empirical hCG treatment in patients with idiopathic NOA did not result in improved SRR. hCG treatment did not have any effect on the success of ICSI.

  3. Testosterone Secretion in Response to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) in Eugonadal and Hypogonadal Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江源; 郭爱岩

    1994-01-01

    Two injections of hCG in dose of 2000 IU were administered in an interval of 96 hours, and venous blood samples were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr for testosterone determination. A biphasic curve of testosterone release was foand in normal adult men (n=4), patients with Klinefelter syndrome (n=10) and patients with hypogonadism due to pituitary tumor (n=8), respeetively, but not in prepubertal boys (n=4) and patients with IHH(n=9). Only after the second loading of hCG the first peak of testosterone secretion emerged in the latter two groups. The second peak values after the second injection of hCG were signfieantly greater than those after the first injection in all groups. Whereas the maximal increments of the second peak were much lower in normal adult men and patients with Klinefelter syndrome than those in other 3 groups.It was suggested that (1) the first peak of testosterone secretion was depending upon the previous exposure to high concentration of hCG or LH; (2) repeated administration of hCG had a setf-priming effect on testosterone release; and (3) the desensitization of Leydig cells existed after a single injection of hCG and its removal was incomplete after an intermission of 96 hours.

  4. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  5. Pregnancy rates with recombinant versus urinary human chorionic gonadotropin in in vitro fertilization: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeke, József; Kanyó, Katalin; Zeke, Helga; Cseh, Aron; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Szilágyi, András; Konc, János

    2011-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated the equal efficacy of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (uhCG) and recombinant hCG (rhCG) products in in vitro fertilisation (IVF). However, limitations inherent with RCTs necessitate the reinforcement of RCT results in real-life. We retrospectively analyzed pregnancies after treatment with rhCG and uhCG products (n = 391, and 96, resp.). We found that laboratory-verified pregnancy occurred more frequently in rhCG patients than in those on uhCG (43% versus 30%, P = 0.02). The association remains significant (P = 0.002) after its adjustment for clinical characteristics. The prevalence of laboratory-verified pregnancies was higher with GnRH agonist use (P = 0.012) and BMI under 30 kg/m(2) (P = 0.053) while decreased the age (P = 0.014) and the number of previous failed attempts (P = 0.08). Similar (but not significant) trends were observed with rates of pregnancy filled the 24th week. These results reinforce RCTs supporting the notion that rhCG is more efficient as uhCG during IVF.

  6. The Establishment of an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Human Thyrotropin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ELISA for human thyrotropin(hTSH) is established with using two anti-hTSH monoclonal antibody. One of them is coated on the microtiter plate, the other is conjugate of biotin. The label is horseradish peroxidase(HRP) conjugate of streptavidin. TMB-H2O2 solution is used as the substrate of HRP. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.02 mIU/L. The intra-assay CVs and the intre-assay CVs of 3 samples are lower than 7.8% and 9.6%, respectively. The analytical recoveries are in the range from 93.3% to 107.8%. The assay is specific for hTSH and no cross reaction with other glyco-proteins, such as hLH , hHCG, hFSH. TSH concentrations range from 0.3 to 4,1 mlU/L in 142 normal subjects. As a reference IRMA(Multipact) method, the

  7. Analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal antibody interaction in BIAcore

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Banerjee Ashish; Gundlupet Satyanarayana Murthy

    2004-03-01

    Kinetic studies of macromolecular ligand-ligate interaction have generated ample interest since the advent of plasmon resonance based instruments like BIAcore. Most of the studies reported in literature assume a simple 1 : 1 Langmuir binding and complete reversibility of the system. However we observed that in a high affinity antigen-antibody system [human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal antibody (hCG-mAb)] dissociation is insignificant and the sensogram data cannot be used to measure the equilibrium and kinetic parameters. At low concentrations of mAb the complete sensogram could be fitted to a single exponential. Interestingly we found that at higher mAb concentrations, the binding data did not conform to a simple bimolecular model. Instead, the data fitted a two-step model, which may be because of surface heterogeneity of affinity sites. In this paper, we report on the global fit of the sensograms. We have developed a method by which a single two-minute sensogram can be used in high affinity systems to measure the association rate constant of the reaction and the functional capacity of the ligand (hCG) immobilized on the chip. We provide a rational explanation for the discrepancies generally observed in most of the BIAcore sensograms.

  8. Perbandingan Angka Fertilitas dan Hambatan Perkembangan Embrio Mencit yang Dikultur dalam Medium M16 dan Human Tubal Fluid (THE COMPARISON OF MICE FERTILITY RATE AND EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT CELL BLOCK WHEN CULTURED IN M16 AND HUMAN TUBAL FLUID MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjiati .

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare the fertility rate and embryonic development cell block ofmice when cultured in M16 and Human Tubal Fluid (HTF media, respectively. Two months old femaleBalbC mice were super ovulated using Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG and Human ChorionicGonadotrophin (HCG prior to mating with vasectomies mice. At 17 hours post mating the mice wassacrificed for the collections of egg cells and spermatozoa. Egg cells were collected by tearing the fertilizationsac, while the sperm were collected from caudal epididymis. After the collection, both the egg cells andsperm were put in Petri dish containing M16 and HTF media and kept in 5% CO2 incubator at 370C for onehour prior to the in vitro fertilization (IVF was performed. In vitro fertilization was performed in 5% CO2 incubator at 370C and kept for 24 hours in M16 and in HTF culture media. The results showed thatfertilization rate was 98.09% and 99.57%; cell block embryonic development was 85.09% and 83.36%when cultured in M16 and HTF media, respectively. In conclusion, HTF media can be used for culturingmouse embryo.

  9. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation ...... often mentioned post-human condition....

  10. Dopamine receptor repertoire of human granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunz Lars

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of dopamine (DA were described in human ovary and recently evidence for DA receptors in granulosa and luteal cells has been provided, as well. However, neither the full repertoire of ovarian receptors for DA, nor their specific role, is established. Human granulosa cells (GCs derived from women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF are an adequate model for endocrine cells of the follicle and the corpus luteum and were therefore employed in an attempt to decipher their DA receptor repertoire and functionality. Methods Cells were obtained from patients undergoing IVF and examined using cDNA-array, RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. In addition, calcium measurements (with FLUO-4 were employed. Expression of two DA receptors was also examined by in-situ hybridization in rat ovary. Effects of DA on cell viability and cell volume were studied by using an ATP assay and an electronic cell counter system. Results We found members of the two DA receptor families (D1- and D2 -like associated with different signaling pathways in human GCs, namely D1 (as expected and D5 (both are Gs coupled and linked to cAMP increase and D2, D4 (Gi/Gq coupled and linked to IP3/DAG. D3 was not found. The presence of the trophic hormone hCG (10 IU/ml in the culture medium for several days did not alter mRNA (semiquantitative RT-PCR or protein levels (immunocytochemistry/Western blotting of D1,2,4,5 DA receptors. Expression of prototype receptors for the two families, D1 and D2, was furthermore shown in rat granulosa and luteal cells by in situ hybridization. Among the DA receptors found in human GCs, D2 expression was marked both at mRNA and protein levels and it was therefore further studied. Results of additional RT-PCR and Western blots showed two splice variants (D2L, D2S. Irrespective of these variants, D2 proved to be functional, as DA raised intracellular calcium levels. This calcium mobilizing effect of DA was observed

  11. Effects and Interactions of Prostaglandins and Interferon-γ on Steroidogenesis of Human Luteal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寒正; 沈维维; 孙志达; 张翔; 龚岳亭

    1996-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that T lymphocyte-derived cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) may play a role in human luteal regression by inhibiting luteal progesterone production. Prostaglandin F2a has been known as an important luteolytic factor in a wide range of mammalian species. It was of interest to investigate the effects of IFN-γ on prostaglandin synthesis and their possible interaction with the inhibition on human luteal steroidogenesis. Human luteal cells were cultured for four days in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. Simultaneously, the productions of progesterone, prostaglandin F2a ( PGF2a ), prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ), and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1a(PGF1a) were evaluated. Concomitant with the inhibition of progesterone production induced by IFN-γ, a biphasic pattern of response of. prostaglandin synthesis was observed, i.e. a slight decrease of PGF2a and PGF1a after a 48 h exposure to IFN-γ while an increase of PGE2 after 96 h. In a separate experiment, a luteotropic action of PGE2 and PGF2a on human luteal cells from different stages was observed during 48 and 96 h periods of culture. In addition, while indomethacin (INDO) treatment markedly blocked the prostaglandin synthesis, the basal as well as hCG stimulated progesterone production was still inhibited by IFN-γ as usual. These results suggested that prostaglandins appeared to be not responsible for the observed inhibition of progesterone production since the inhibitory effect was not influenced by concurrent treatment with INDO which suppressed prostaglandin synthesis,

  12. Study on prenatal screening for birth deficiency in the pregnant metaphase by the serum AFP, β-HCG and uE3 with chemiluminescent immunoassay%联合检测孕中期血清甲胎蛋白、β-绒毛膜促性腺激素、游离雌三醇筛查出生缺陷的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱振华; 高艳; 吴玉华; 戚子惠; 黄金波; 舒云华; 陈宇锋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the serum markers of AFP, β-HCG and uE3 on screening of congenital fetal abnormality in the pregnant women at second trimester. Methods The serum markers were measured in 2 149 pregnant women at second trimester of gestation with chemiluminescent immunoassay, and were combined with correlation factors such as the age, gestational weeks and the weight of pregnant women, to estimate the probability of fetus suffering from Down's syndrome, open spina bifida and Trisomy 18 syndrome. Cell chromosomes and ultrasonography were also done in high risk patients. Analysis was carried out based on the results of follow-up survey. Results One hundred and thirty-six (6.33%) cases wind high risk of birth deficiency were found in preliminary screening from 2 149 pregnant women, in which the positive rates of Down's syndrome, open spina bifida and Trisomy 18 syndrome were 4.14%, 1.77% and 0.42%,respectively. The positive rates were 66.67% and 100% and the false positive rates were 3.75% and 1.85% in Down's syndrome and open spina bifida. Conclusion The combined screening of maternal serum markers of AFP, β-HCG and uE3 is reliable and effective, and is the important measure to reduce birth deficiencify combined with prenatal diagnosis.%目的:评价联合检测孕妇孕中期(14~19+6周)血清标志物甲胎蛋白、β-绒毛膜促性腺激素、游离雌三醇在产前筛查先天出生缺陷中的应用价值.方法:应用化学发光免疫分析技术检测2 149例孕妇孕中期血清标志物,并结合孕妇年龄、孕周、体质量等因素,应用仪器配套的产前筛查风险分析软件计算唐氏综合征、18-三体综合征和开放性脊柱裂的风险率,对高风险孕妇采用B超和/或细胞染色体检查进行确认,根据随访及诊断结果进行评估.结果:2 149例孕妇筛查出出生缺陷高风险136例,筛查阳性率为6.33%,其中唐氏综合征、开放性脊柱裂和18-三体综合征

  13. Human microbiomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendhran, J.; P. Gunasekaran

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  14. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  15. Effects of aging on the human ovary: the secretion of immunoreactive alpha-inhibin and progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Marí, M; de los Santos, M J; Simón, C; Remohí, J; Tarín, J J

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the changes induced by age in the function and secretory pattern of the human ovary. Immunoreactive alpha-inhibin, E2, and P secretion in vivo and in vitro have been compared in two different populations. Prospective study. Women undergoing IVF-ET were divided into two groups according to age: group 1 (32.0 +/- 0.7 years; mean +/- SEM) and group 2 (40.3 +/- 0.3 years). In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. A total of 33 infertile women with regular menses, undergoing IVF-ET. Follicle aspiration performed by transvaginal ultrasound. Four follicles per patient were aspirated in individual plastic tubes. Granulosa-luteal cells isolated with Percoll columns and cultured in vitro up to 4 days in the presence of hCG. In vitro fertilization parameters, serum levels of E2, immunoreactive alpha-inhibin, and P, as well as the secretion of immunoreactive alpha-inhibin and P by the cultured granulosa-luteal cells. Serum immunoreactive alpha-inhibin levels the day of ovum pick-up were significantly lower in group 2 compared with group 1. Incubation of cells for 96 hours showed a significantly higher ability to accumulate immunoreactive alpha-inhibin in group 1 than 2. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulated immunoreactive alpha-inhibin production after 96 hours. Cells from younger women displayed a significantly higher ability to secrete P than cells from older women. Human chorionic gonadotropin was able to significantly stimulate P production in group 1. These results confirm previous observations showing a reduced production of immunoreactive alpha-inhibin and steroids of ovaries from older women and suggest that a reduced cellular function, rather than a decrease in the follicular population, is the main mechanism by which these changes are produced.

  16. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  17. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...

  18. Oogenesis, fertilisation and early embryonic development in rats. II: Dose-dependent effects of human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, H H; Yang, X F; Tain, C F; Liew, L P; Ratnam, S S

    1992-07-01

    A total of 950 female Wistar rats in 81 groups were involved in this study. Different groups of rats were stimulated with PMSG (0, 10 & 20 IU) at diestrus followed, 48-52 hr later, by different doses of HCG (0, 10, 20, 30 & 40) for ovulation induction. The dose-dependent effects of HCG, either with or without the use of PMSG for stimulation of multiple follicular development, on the quality of oocytes and their in vitro fertilisability, quality of Day 2-embryos, viability of pregnancy and status of embryos retrieved on Day 2, 3, 4 or 5 of pregnancy in different subgroups of rats were examined. Results showed that more oocytes and embryos fertilised in vivo were retrieved from rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 IU of PMSG. The addition of HCG did not increase the number of ovulated oocytes or Day-2 embryos. In other words, the number of oocytes or embryos produced is dependent on the dose of PMSG administered during diestrus rather than on the dose of HCG given for ovulation induction. Hence, no increase in the amount of HCG is required to effectively ovulate bigger cohort of preovulatory follicles in supraphysiologically stimulated rats. As was shown earlier, in vitro and in vivo fertilisation rates were reduced when higher doses of PMSG were used. Similarly, these rates were reduced when increasing doses of HCG were used in rats not previously stimulated with PMSG. When higher doses of HCG were used in rats stimulated earlier with PMSG (10 and 20 IU), the in vitro but not the in vivo fertilisation rates were further reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  20. A human homologue to the yeast omnipotent suppressor 45 maps 100 kb centromeric to HLA-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvel, B.; Dorval, I.; Fergelot, P. [CNRS, Faculte de Medecine, Rennes (France)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Idipathic hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive inherited disorder of iron metabolism. The molecular defect is unknown. However, the gene responsible for the disease (HFE) has been localized on the short arm of chromosome 6. It is closely linked to the HLA class I genes and possibly within a 350 kilobase (kb) region around the HLA-A locus. In order to identify candidate genes for hemochromatosis, we applied a cDNA selection technique to isolate transcribed sequences encoded on yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC). At first, we screened a cDNA library derived from normal human duodenal mucosa with the YAC B30 H3. This YAC contains a 320 kb DNA insert including the HLA-A gene and spanning 150 kb of the 350 kb zone where the hemochromatosis gene is in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Preparation of the cDNA library of duodenal mucosa in Lambda Zap II phage and library screening with YAC B30 were carried out as previously described. In this way, we isolated seven non-HLA-A cDNAs corresponding to seven new genomic sequences. These potential genes were named hemochromatosis candidate gene (HCG) and numbered I to VII. The survey of all these cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences is in progress. In this work, we are especially interested in one of the seven non-HLA class I cDNA clones, named clone 58. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Exposure of human JEG-3 cell line to TCDD alters progesterone secretion but does not act on their viability and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustowska, K.; Gregoraszczuk, E.L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds are lipophilic and difficult to metabolize. Any environmental exposure of living organisms to these congeners results in their accumulation in fat tissue and bioconcentration in humans via the food chain. TCDD acts as an endocrine disrupter to alter differentiation and function of the reproductive system. Therefore, these compounds represent a serious health risk, especially to the fetus and infants, whose enzymatic and metabolic systems are not yet mature. Our previous data showed high accumulation of TCDD in cultured human placental tissue which caused a decrease in hormone secretion. However, the mechanism of this action is still unclear. JEG-3 cell line from malignant placental tissue has been used as an in vitro model for investigation of the effects of xenobiotics on placenta toxicity. These cells are morphologically similar to their origin, the trophoblast of the normal first trimester placenta, and produce many peptides and steroid hormones found in normal trophoblast cells, such as hCG, GhRH, progesterone. The aim of the present study was firstly, to show dose- and time-dependent effects of TCDD on progesterone production by JEG-3 cells and secondly, to examine mechanism of its action on cell viability and apoptosis.

  2. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  3. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  4. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  5. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  6. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    , and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  7. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  8. Drug: D06459 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06459 Drug Purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (JAN); Human menopausal gonadot...ormones 241 Pituitary hormone preparations 2413 Gonadotropic hormones D06459 Purified human menopausal gonad...OPINS AND OTHER OVULATION STIMULANTS G03GA Gonadotropins G03GA02 Human menopausal gonadotrophin D06459 Purified human menopausa...ne/choriogonadotropin receptor [HSA:3973] [KO:K04248] Human menopausal gonadotrophin [ATC:G03GA02] D06459 Purified human menopausa...or [HSA:2492] [KO:K04247] Human menopausal gonadotrophin [ATC:G03GA02] D06459 Purified human menopausa

  9. Teaching humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David T; Cohen, Jordan J; Bruder, Ann; Packer, Barbara; Sole, Allison

    2008-01-01

    As the "passion that animates authentic professionalism," humanism must be infused into medical education and clinical care as a central feature of medicine's professionalism movement. In this article, we discuss a current definition of humanism in medicine. We will also provide detailed descriptions of educational programs intended to promote humanism at a number of medical schools in the United States (and beyond) and identify the key factors that make these programs effective. Common elements of programs that effectively teach humanism include: (1) opportunities for students to gain perspective in the lives of patients; (2) structured time for reflection on those experiences; and (3) focused mentoring to ensure that these events convert to positive, formative learning experiences. By describing educational experiences that both promote and sustain humanism in doctors, we hope to stimulate the thinking of other medical educators and to disseminate the impact of these innovative educational programs to help the profession meet its obligation to provide the public with humanistic physicians.

  10. Role of LIN28A in mouse and human trophoblast cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Jill L; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Cooney, Austin J; McWhorter, Erin E; Fromme, Brittany A; Bouma, Gerrit J; Anthony, Russell V; Winger, Quinton A

    2013-10-01

    Proper regulation of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, and function are critical for placenta development and function. The RNA-binding protein, LIN28A, has been well characterized as a potent regulator of differentiation in embryonic stem cells; however, little is known about the function of LIN28A in the placenta. We assessed LIN28A in vitro using mouse trophoblast stem (mTS) cells and human trophoblast cells (ACH-3P). We observed that LIN28A decreased and let-7 miRNA increased when mTS cells were induced to differentiate into mouse trophoblast giant cells (mTGCs) upon the removal of FGF4, heparin and conditioned medium. Similarly, we observed that LIN28A decreased in ACH-3P cells induced to syncytialize with forskolin treatment. To assess LIN28A in vivo we examined Embryonic Day 11.5 mouse placenta and observed abundant LIN28A in the chorioallantoic interface and labyrinth layer, with little LIN28A staining in spongiotrophoblast or differentiated mTGCs. Additionally, shRNA-mediated LIN28A knockdown in ACH-3P cells resulted in increased spontaneous syncytialization, and increased levels of syncytiotrophoblast markers hCG, LGALS13, and ERVW-1 mRNA. Additionally, targeted degradation of LIN28A mRNA increased responsiveness to forskolin-induced differentiation. In contrast, targeted degradation of Lin28a mRNA in mTS cells did not alter cell phenotype when maintained under proliferative culture conditions. Together, these data establish that LIN28A has a functional role in regulating trophoblast differentiation and function, and that loss of LIN28A in human trophoblast is sufficient to induce differentiation, but does not induce differentiation in the mouse.

  11. Role of LIN28A in Mouse and Human Trophoblast Cell Differentiation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Jill L.; Cantlon, Jeremy D.; Cooney, Austin J.; McWhorter, Erin E.; Fromme, Brittany A.; Bouma, Gerrit J.; Anthony, Russell V.; Winger, Quinton A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proper regulation of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, and function are critical for placenta development and function. The RNA-binding protein, LIN28A, has been well characterized as a potent regulator of differentiation in embryonic stem cells; however, little is known about the function of LIN28A in the placenta. We assessed LIN28A in vitro using mouse trophoblast stem (mTS) cells and human trophoblast cells (ACH-3P). We observed that LIN28A decreased and let-7 miRNA increased when mTS cells were induced to differentiate into mouse trophoblast giant cells (mTGCs) upon the removal of FGF4, heparin and conditioned medium. Similarly, we observed that LIN28A decreased in ACH-3P cells induced to syncytialize with forskolin treatment. To assess LIN28A in vivo we examined Embryonic Day 11.5 mouse placenta and observed abundant LIN28A in the chorioallantoic interface and labyrinth layer, with little LIN28A staining in spongiotrophoblast or differentiated mTGCs. Additionally, shRNA-mediated LIN28A knockdown in ACH-3P cells resulted in increased spontaneous syncytialization, and increased levels of syncytiotrophoblast markers hCG, LGALS13, and ERVW-1 mRNA. Additionally, targeted degradation of LIN28A mRNA increased responsiveness to forskolin-induced differentiation. In contrast, targeted degradation of Lin28a mRNA in mTS cells did not alter cell phenotype when maintained under proliferative culture conditions. Together, these data establish that LIN28A has a functional role in regulating trophoblast differentiation and function, and that loss of LIN28A in human trophoblast is sufficient to induce differentiation, but does not induce differentiation in the mouse. PMID:24006280

  12. Human Computation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  13. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary societies, the humanities are under constant pressure and have to justify their existence. In the ongoing debates, Humboldt’s ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’ are often used to justify the unique function of the humanities of ensuring free research and contributing to a vital...... philosophy. Contrary to Humboldt’s idea that the non-practical is the most practical in the long run, philosophical pragmatism recommends to the humanities to situate knowledge in practices and apply knowledge to practices....

  14. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  15. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . The first section of this chapter outlines the complete cause-effect pathway, from emissions of toxic substances to intake by the population up to damages in terms of human health effects. Section 2 outlines the framework for assessing human toxicity in LCIA. Section 3 discusses the contributing substances......This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... – demonstrates the importance to account for both outdoor and indoor exposure, including consumer products. Analysing the variations in intake fraction (the fraction of the emitted or applied chemical that is taken in by the consumer and the general population), effect factor and characterisation factor across...

  16. Human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.; Kasparek, L.; Novicky, O.; Querner, E.P.; Fendeková, M.; Kupczyk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Human activities can cause drought, which was not previously reported (man-induced hydrological drought). Groundwater abstractions for domestic and industrial use are a well-known example of such an environmental change

  17. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  18. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  19. Human babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rożej-Bielicka, Wioletta; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Gołąb, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging parasitic, anthropo-zoonotic tick-borne disease, seldom diagnosed in humans. Caused by Protozoa, Babesia (also called Piroplasma) intraerytrocytic piriform microorganism. Infection of vertebrates is transmitted by ticks. Out of more than 100 Babesia species/genotypes described so far, only some were diagnosed in infected humans, mostly B. microti, B. divergens and B. venatorum (Babesia sp. EU1). Infection in humans is often asymptomatic or mild but is of a particular risk for asplenic individuals, those with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and elderly. Infections transmitted with blood and blood products raise concerns in hemotherapy. Epidemiological situation of babesiosis varies around the world. In Europe, no increase in the number of cases was reported, but in the USA its prevalence is increasing and extension of endemic areas is observed. The aim of this publication is to describe the problems connected with the current epidemiological situation, diagnosis and treatment of human babesiosis with regard to clinical status of patients.

  20. Human energy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the midst of big-oil record profits and growing debate on global warming, the Chevron Corporation launched its “Human Energy” public relations campaign. In television commercials and print advertisements, Chevron portrays itself as a compassionate entity striving to solve the planet’s energy crisis. Yet, the first term in this corporate oxymoron misleadingly reframes the significance of the second, suggesting that the corporation has a renewed focus. In depicting Chevron as a green/human o...

  1. Human Echolocation

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Santani

    2013-01-01

    The use of active natural echolocation as a mobility aid for blind humans has received increased scientific and popular attention in recent years (Engber, 2006; Kreiser, 2006; NPR, 2011), in part due to a focus on several blind individuals who have developed remarkable expertise. However, perhaps surprisingly, the history of empirical human echolocation research is not much younger than the era of echolocation research (cf. Griffin, 1958). Nevertheless, compared to its bat and cetacean count...

  2. Human ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. It is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus Erlichia. These are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. Tick Ixodes is the principle vector in Europe, and Amblyomma americanum in the United States. Bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. Human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of diseases caused by different species of Ehrlichia. One of them is the disease named human monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the other is a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilia. Case report. We reported a 23-year-old patient admitted for the clinical treatment with the symptoms of high febrility (above 40 °C, headache, vomiting, general weakness and exhaustion, but without data on a tick bite. The patient was treated with trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a week when Ehrlichia chaffeensis was confirmed by the immunofluoroscence test, and the therapy contimed with doxacyclin. Conclusion. Human ehrlichiosis is also present in our country, so this disease should be considered everyday, especially in infectology practice.

  3. [Human influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2006-10-01

    Human influenza is one of the most common human infectious diseases, contributing to approximately one million deaths every year. In Germany, each year between 5.000 and 20.000 individuals die from severe influenza infections. In several countries, the morbidity and mortality of influenza is greatly underestimated. This is reflected by general low immunization rates. The emergence of avian influenza against the background of the scenario of a human influenza pandemic has revived public interest in the disease. According to the World Health Organisation, it is only the question on the beginning of a new influenza pandemic. The virus type of the new pandemic is still uncertain and it is also unclear, if a pandemic spread of the virus may be prevented by consistent controlling of avian influenza.

  4. [Humanized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2005-06-01

    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  5. Beyond Humanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer to the leading question of this paper, namely: ‘what does it mean to go beyond humanisms?’ The conclusion exposes briefly an ethics of hospitality and care from an angeletic perspective.

  6. The Value of β-human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Progesterone, Endometrial Thickness combined Detection in the Early Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy%三种指标联合检测在早期异位妊娠诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭艳; 曾杰; 谢伟涵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨β-人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)、孕酮、子宫内膜厚度联合检测在早期异位妊娠诊断中的价值。方法选择2005年11月至2012年11月潍坊市妇幼保健医院收治的疑似早期异位妊娠患者164例,根据妊娠结局分为异位妊娠组(异位妊娠组,64例),宫内妊娠流产组(宫内妊娠流产组,38例),正常宫内妊娠组(正常宫内妊娠组,62例),采用经阴道超声测量其子宫内膜厚度,并测定患者的血清孕酮及β-HCG值,比较3组子宫内膜厚度及血β-HCG、孕酮水平。结果异位妊娠组子宫内膜厚度(0.65±0.30) cm、β-HCG(1846±655) U/L及孕酮(20±3) nmol/L水平明显低于宫内妊娠流产组(1.04±0.32) cm、(2580±1216) U/L、(33±4) nmol/L 及正常宫内妊娠组(1.38±0.19) cm、(3211±1405) U/L、(60±14) nmol/L(P<0.05);在三组中子宫内膜厚度及血β-HCG、孕酮联合诊断的准确率(95.3%、92.1%、98.4%)差异均无统计学意义 P>0.05),而单项指标判断早期异位妊娠差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。相关性分析结果显示,在异位妊娠及宫内妊娠中,子宫内膜厚度与孕酮及β-HCG值均呈正相关( P<0.05)。结论血清孕酮及β-HCG值可判定妊娠发生,但对异位妊娠与宫内未形成孕囊的早早孕鉴别较难,配合超声检查子宫内膜厚度,可以判定孕囊的着床部位,对早期鉴别异位妊娠有重要意义。%Objective To investigate the value of β-human chorionic gonadotropin(β-HCG) ,progester-one,endometrial thickness combined detection in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.Methods A total of 164 cases with suspected ectopic pregnancy admitted to Weifang City Maternal and Child Health Hospital from Nov.2005 to Nov.2012 were divided into ectopic pregnancy group(64 cases),intrauterine pregnancy abortion group(38 cases

  7. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  8. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  9. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  10. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  11. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  12. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  13. Chorionic gonadotropin induces dendritic cells to express a tolerogenic phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wan (Hui); M.A. Versnel (Marjan); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; D. Fekkes (Durk); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); N.A. Khan (Nisar Ahmed); R. Benner (Robbert); R.C.M. Kiekens (Rebecca)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been suggested to play an immunoregulatory role in addition to its endocrine function, thus contributing to the prevention of fetal rejection. We hypothesized that hCG is involved in the maternal-fetal immune tolerance by the r

  14. Maternal serum screening for fetal Down syndrome in IVF pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbert, LSM; Kornman, LH; DeWolf, BTHM; Simons, AHM; Jansen, CAM; Beekhuis, [No Value; Mantingh, A

    1996-01-01

    To assess the influence of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), the maternal serum hCG and AFP values were studied in 67 IVF pregnancies and compared with the results of a control group of 4732 spontaneously conceiving patien

  15. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  16. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  17. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH...

  18. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  19. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH...

  20. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...