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Sample records for human chimpanzee gorilla

  1. Morphological integration in the gorilla, chimpanzee, and human neck.

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    Arlegi, Mikel; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2018-06-01

    Although integration studies are important to understand the evolution of organisms' traits across phylogenies, vertebral integration in primates is still largely unexplored. Here we describe and quantify patterns of morphological integration and modularity in the subaxial cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) in extant hominines incorporating the potential influence of size. Three-dimensional landmarks were digitized on 546 subaxial cervical vertebrae from 141 adult individuals of Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens. Integration and modularity, and the influence of size effects, were quantified using geometric morphometric approaches. All subaxial cervical vertebrae from the three species show a strong degree of integration. Gorillas show the highest degree of integration; conversely, humans have the lowest degree of integration. Analyses of allometric regression residuals show that size is an important factor promoting integration in gorillas, with lesser influence in chimpanzees and almost no effect in humans. Results point to a likely ancestral pattern of integration in non-human hominines, whereby the degree of integration decreases from cranial to caudal positions. Humans deviate from this pattern in the cranialmost (C3) and, to a lesser extent, in the caudalmost (C7) vertebrae, which are less integrated. These differences can be tentatively related to the emergence of bipedalism due to the presence of modern human-like C3 in australopiths, which still preserve a more chimpanzee-like C7. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.

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    Sinéad Lyons

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee, Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan, Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey. To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3% and two from 11 gorillas (18% were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency, while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

  3. New Insights into the Evolution of the Human Diet from Faecal Biomarker Analysis in Wild Chimpanzee and Gorilla Faeces.

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    Ainara Sistiaga

    Full Text Available Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeological data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the application of the faecal biomarker approach is the striking absence of data related to the occurrence of faecal biomarkers in non-human primate faeces. In this study we explored the nature and proportions of sterols and stanols excreted by our closest living relatives. This investigation reports the first faecal biomarker data for wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei. Our results suggest that the chemometric analysis of faecal biomarkers is a useful tool for distinguishing between NHP and human faecal matter, and hence, it could provide information for palaeodietary research and early human diets.

  4. New Insights into the Evolution of the Human Diet from Faecal Biomarker Analysis in Wild Chimpanzee and Gorilla Faeces.

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    Sistiaga, Ainara; Wrangham, Richard; Rothman, Jessica M; Summons, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeological data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the application of the faecal biomarker approach is the striking absence of data related to the occurrence of faecal biomarkers in non-human primate faeces. In this study we explored the nature and proportions of sterols and stanols excreted by our closest living relatives. This investigation reports the first faecal biomarker data for wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei). Our results suggest that the chemometric analysis of faecal biomarkers is a useful tool for distinguishing between NHP and human faecal matter, and hence, it could provide information for palaeodietary research and early human diets.

  5. Np9, a cellular protein of retroviral ancestry restricted to human, chimpanzee and gorilla, binds and regulates ubiquitin ligase MDM2

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    Heyne, Kristina; Kölsch, Kathrin; Bruand, Marine; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Grässer, Friedrich A; Mayer, Jens; Roemer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Humans and primates are long-lived animals with long reproductive phases. One factor that appears to contribute to longevity and fertility in humans, as well as to cancer-free survival, is the transcription factor and tumor suppressor p53, controlled by its main negative regulator MDM2. However, p53 and MDM2 homologs are found throughout the metazoan kingdom from Trichoplacidae to Hominidae. Therefore the question arises, if p53/MDM2 contributes to the shaping of primate features, then through which mechanisms. Previous findings have indicated that the appearances of novel p53-regulated genes and wild-type p53 variants during primate evolution are important in this context. Here, we report on another mechanism of potential relevance. Human endogenous retrovirus K subgroup HML-2 (HERV-K(HML-2)) type 1 proviral sequences were formed in the genomes of the predecessors of contemporary Hominoidea and can be identified in the genomes of Nomascus leucogenys (gibbon) up to Homo sapiens. We previously reported on an alternative splicing event in HERV-K(HML-2) type 1 proviruses that can give rise to nuclear protein of 9 kDa (Np9). We document here the evolution of Np9-coding capacity in human, chimpanzee and gorilla, and show that the C-terminal half of Np9 binds directly to MDM2, through a domain of MDM2 that is known to be contacted by various cellular proteins in response to stress. Np9 can inhibit the MDM2 ubiquitin ligase activity toward p53 in the cell nucleus, and can support the transactivation of genes by p53. Our findings point to the possibility that endogenous retrovirus protein Np9 contributes to the regulation of the p53-MDM2 pathway specifically in humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. PMID:26103464

  6. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas.

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    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Robertson, Joel D; Keele, Brandon F; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Shaw, George M; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M; Rayner, Julian C; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2010-09-23

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here we develop a single-genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in faecal samples from wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed and almost always made up of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas comprised parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla origin and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin.

  7. Intraspecific gestural laterality in chimpanzees and gorillas and the impact of social propensities.

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    Prieur, Jacques; Pika, Simone; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    A relevant approach to address the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the right-handedness/left-hemisphere language specialization of humans is to investigate both proximal and distal causes of language lateralization through the study of non-human primates' gestural laterality. We carried out the first systematic, quantitative comparison of within-subjects' and between-species' laterality by focusing on the laterality of intraspecific gestures of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) living in six different captive groups. We addressed the following two questions: (1) Do chimpanzees and gorillas exhibit stable direction of laterality when producing different types of gestures at the individual level? If yes, is it related to the strength of laterality? (2) Is there a species difference in gestural laterality at the population level? If yes, which factors could explain this difference? During 1356 observation hours, we recorded 42335 cases of dyadic gesture use in the six groups totalling 39 chimpanzees and 35 gorillas. Results showed that both species could exhibit either stability or flexibility in their direction of gestural laterality. These results suggest that both stability and flexibility may have differently modulated the strength of laterality depending on the species social structure and dynamics. Furthermore, a multifactorial analysis indicates that these particular social components may have specifically impacted gestural laterality through the influence of gesture sensory modality and the position of the recipient in the signaller's visual field during interaction. Our findings provide further support to the social theory of laterality origins proposing that social pressures may have shaped laterality through natural selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diet and seasonal changes in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees at Kahuzi-Biega National Park.

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    Yamagiwa, Juichi; Basabose, Augustin Kanyunyi

    2006-01-01

    Based on 8 years of observations of a group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri) and a unit-group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living sympatrically in the montane forest at Kahuzi-Biega National Park, we compared their diet and analyzed dietary overlap between them in relation to fruit phenology. Data on fruit consumption were collected mainly from fecal samples, and phenology of preferred ape fruits was estimated by monitoring. Totals of 231 plant foods (116 species) and 137 plant foods (104 species) were recorded for gorillas and chimpanzees, respectively. Among these, 38% of gorilla foods and 64% of chimpanzee foods were eaten by both apes. Fruits accounted for the largest overlap between them (77% for gorillas and 59% for chimpanzees). Gorillas consumed more species of vegetative foods (especially bark) exclusively whereas chimpanzees consumed more species of fruits and animal foods exclusively. Although the number of fruit species available in the montane forest of Kahuzi is much lower than that in lowland forest, the number of fruit species per chimpanzee fecal sample (average 2.7 species) was similar to that for chimpanzees in the lowland habitats. By contrast, the number of fruit species per gorilla fecal sample (average 0.8 species) was much lower than that for gorillas in the lowland habitats. Fruit consumption by both apes tended to increase during the dry season when ripe fruits were more abundant in their habitat. However, the number of fruit species consumed by chimpanzees did not change according to ripe fruit abundance. The species differences in fruit consumption may be attributed to the wide ranging of gorillas and repeated usage of a small range by chimpanzees and/or to avoidance of inter-specific contact by chimpanzees. The different staple foods (leaves and bark for gorillas and fig fruits for chimpanzees) characterize the dietary divergence between them in the montane forest of Kahuzi, where fruit is

  9. Fecal microbial diversity and putative function in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong).

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    McKenney, Erin A; Ashwell, Melissa; Lambert, Joanna E; Fellner, Vivek

    2014-11-01

    Microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract contribute to host health and nutrition. Although gut microbial ecology is well studied in livestock and domestic animals, little is known of the endogenous populations inhabiting primates or carnivora. We characterized microbial populations in fecal cultures from gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and binturongs (Arctictis binturong) to compare the microbiomes associated with different gastrointestinal morphologies and different omnivorous feeding strategies. Each species was fed a distinct standardized diet for 2 weeks prior to fecal collection. All diets were formulated to reflect the species' feeding strategies in situ. Fresh fecal samples were pooled within species and used to inoculate in vitro batch cultures. Acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate were measured after 24 h of incubation. Eubacterial DNA was extracted from individual fecal samples, pooled, and the cpn60 gene region was amplified and then sequenced to identify the major eubacterial constituents associated with each host species. Short chain fatty acids (P < 0.001) and methane (P < 0.001) were significantly different across species. Eubacterial profiles were consistent with fermentation data and suggest an increase in diversity with dietary fiber. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. New Insights into the Evolution of the Human Diet from Faecal Biomarker Analysis in Wild Chimpanzee and Gorilla Faeces

    OpenAIRE

    Sistiaga, Ainara; Wrangham, Richard; Rothman, Jessica M.; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeological data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the applicat...

  11. Seasonal effects on great ape health: a case study of wild chimpanzees and Western gorillas.

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    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available Among factors affecting animal health, environmental influences may directly or indirectly impact host nutritional condition, fecundity, and their degree of parasitism. Our closest relatives, the great apes, are all endangered and particularly sensitive to infectious diseases. Both chimpanzees and western gorillas experience large seasonal variations in fruit availability but only western gorillas accordingly show large changes in their degree of frugivory. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare factors affecting health (through records of clinical signs, urine, and faecal samples of habituated wild ape populations: a community (N = 46 individuals of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes in Kanyawara, Kibale National Park (Uganda, and a western gorilla (G. gorilla group (N = 13 in Bai Hokou in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic. Ape health monitoring was carried out in the wet and dry seasons (chimpanzees: July-December 2006; gorillas: April-July 2008 and December 2008-February 2009. Compared to chimpanzees, western gorillas were shown to have marginally greater parasite diversity, higher prevalence and intensity of both parasite and urine infections, and lower occurrence of diarrhea and wounds. Parasite infections (prevalence and load, but not abnormal urine parameters, were significantly higher during the dry season of the study period for western gorillas, who thus appeared more affected by the large temporal changes in the environment in comparison to chimpanzees. Infant gorillas were the most susceptible among all the age/sex classes (of both apes having much more intense infections and urine blood concentrations, again during the dry season. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors on health and parasitism of these great apes. However, this study suggest climate change and forest fragmentation leading to potentially larger seasonal fluctuations of the environment may affect

  12. A novel adenovirus of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla

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    Ludwig Carsten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adenoviruses (AdV broadly infect vertebrate hosts including a variety of primates. We identified a novel AdV in the feces of captive gorillas by isolation in cell culture, electron microscopy and PCR. From the supernatants of infected cultures we amplified DNA polymerase (DPOL, preterminal protein (pTP and hexon gene sequences with generic pan primate AdV PCR assays. The sequences in-between were amplified by long-distance PCRs of 2 - 10 kb length, resulting in a final sequence of 15.6 kb. Phylogenetic analysis placed the novel gorilla AdV into a cluster of primate AdVs belonging to the species Human adenovirus B (HAdV-B. Depending on the analyzed gene, its position within the cluster was variable. To further elucidate its origin, feces samples of wild gorillas were analyzed. AdV hexon sequences were detected which are indicative for three distinct and novel gorilla HAdV-B viruses, among them a virus nearly identical to the novel AdV isolated from captive gorillas. This shows that the discovered virus is a member of a group of HAdV-B viruses that naturally infect gorillas. The mixed phylogenetic clusters of gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo and human AdVs within the HAdV-B species indicate that host switches may have been a component of the evolution of human and non-human primate HAdV-B viruses.

  13. Lumbar diskectomy in a human-habituated mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei).

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    Aryan, Henry E; Jandial, Rahul; Nakaji, Peter; Greenberg, Mark S; Janssen, Don L; Huang, Johnson; Taylor, William R

    2006-02-01

    The authors report a case of a human-habituated mountain gorilla, Alvila, resident at the San Diego Zoo, who was found to have a herniated intervertebral lumbar disc after being attacked by the gorilla troop's silverback male gorilla. Ultimately, the gorilla required surgical intervention for her disease and made a full recovery. To our knowledge, this is the only known case of spine surgery. A 36-year-old female human-habituated mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei), resident at the San Diego Zoo, was noticed by caregivers to walk with a substantial limp after being attacked by the gorilla troop's silverback male gorilla. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of her lumbar spine revealed a large herniated disk at the L1-2 level on the right. This finding appeared to correlate well with the gorilla's symptoms. The gorilla underwent a lumbar diskectomy under loupe. Post-operatively the gorilla did very well. The right leg weakness was immediately improved post-operatively. The gorilla continued to "crutch walk" initially, swinging on the upper extremities and not bearing weight on the lowers. However, by 2 weeks the limp was no longer noticeable to the zoo caregivers. The wound healed well and there was no evidence of wound infection or CSF leak. The gorilla was reunited with her troop and has reintegrated well socially. With 10 months of follow-up, the gorilla continues to do well. This is the only known case of spine surgery in a gorilla. For best surgical results, one needs to consider the similarities and differences between the gorilla and human vertebral anatomy. We believe that careful pre-operative planning contributed to the good early post-operative result. Ultimate assessment of the long-term outcome will require additional follow-up.

  14. Spatial representation of magnitude in humans (Homo sapiens), Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

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    Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe; Vonk, Jennifer

    2018-05-04

    The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect is the tendency for humans to respond faster to relatively larger numbers on the left or right (or with the left or right hand) and faster to relatively smaller numbers on the other side. This effect seems to occur due to a spatial representation of magnitude either in occurrence with a number line (wherein participants respond to relatively larger numbers faster on the right), other representations such as clock faces (responses are reversed from number lines), or culturally specific reading directions, begging the question as to whether the effect may be limited to humans. Given that a SNARC effect has emerged via a quantity judgement task in Western lowland gorillas and orangutans (Gazes et al., Cog 168:312-319, 2017), we examined patterns of response on a quantity discrimination task in American black bears, Western lowland gorillas, and humans for evidence of a SNARC effect. We found limited evidence for SNARC effect in American black bears and Western lowland gorillas. Furthermore, humans were inconsistent in direction and strength of effects, emphasizing the importance of standardizing methodology and analyses when comparing SNARC effects between species. These data reveal the importance of collecting data with humans in analogous procedures when testing nonhumans for effects assumed to bepresent in humans.

  15. New insights in insect prey choice by chimpanzees and gorillas in southeast Cameroon: the role of nutritional value.

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    Deblauwe, Isra; Janssens, Geert P J

    2008-01-01

    The insect diet of chimpanzees and gorillas living at the northern periphery of the Dja Biosphere Reserve in southeast Cameroon and its nutritional contribution is described. We analyzed fecal samples and recorded additional evidence of insectivory. A detailed prey species list is presented for both apes. We carried out nutritional analyses (macronutrients, macro- and micro-minerals) on 11 important and eight nonimportant, but accessible, ant and termite prey species, and estimated the average nutrient intake/day through insects. Although gorillas ate insects more frequently, the average prey biomass intake/day by chimpanzees was twice that by gorillas. The lack of tool-use by gorillas cannot be the main reason for the small overlap of important prey species. Both apes did not seem to consume ant prey for one or more specific nutrients. Also other factors, such as medicinal use, should be considered. Termites, on the other hand, seemed to be selected for particular nutrients. Gorilla intake of the important termite prey, Cubitermes and Thoracotermes, met with estimated iron requirements. Their potential role as antidiarrheal treatment is as yet unclear. Chimpanzee intake of the important termite prey, Macrotermes spp., met with estimated manganese requirements and the protein intake/day (mean: 2 g/d) reached significant values (>20 g/d). To fully understand the importance of nutritional contributions of insects to ape diets in Cameroon, the chemical composition and nutrient intake of fruit and foliage in their diets should be investigated. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Pafčo, B.; Burgunder, J.; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Qablan, M. A.; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 26 (2017), č. článku 175. ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : co-infection * faeces * Strongylid * Necator spp. * Plasmodium spp. * malaria * Western lowland gorilla * Eastern chimpanzee Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  17. New species of Torque Teno miniviruses infecting gorillas and chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrazdilová, K.; Slaninková, E.; Brožová, K.; Modrý, David; Vodička, R.; Celer, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 487, JAN (2016), s. 207-214 ISSN 0042-6822 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anellovirus * Torque Teno mini virus * Great apes * Non-human primates * Genome sequence Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.353, year: 2016

  18. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.

  19. Brief Communication: Skeletal and dental development in a sub-adult western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

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    Joganic, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primate growth trajectories are often used to estimate the age and life history traits of fossil taxa. The exclusive use of chimpanzee growth patterns to estimate developmental stages for the earliest hominins is problematic because incomplete lineage sorting in the hominoid clade has produced a mosaic human genome that contains different regions shared with any one of the great apes. The accidental death of a sub-adult male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) provides not only an opportunity to compare the degree of dentoskeletal maturation in this individual with published data from conspecifics, but also insight into gorilla growth and development as it applies to modeling that of early hominins. Dental stage was assessed for a sub-adult male western lowland gorilla by comparing dental eruption and calcification to established relative age categories. Ectocranial suture fusion, epiphyseal union, and long bone dimensions were compared to growth standards for wild male gorillas of a similar dental stage to determine developmental timing variability. Results suggest that greater variability exists in developmental rates and patterns and in morphological parameters than is often acknowledged. These results have implications for selecting appropriate models for studying extinct taxa. Ecological and physical characteristics shared between humans and gorillas may make gorilla life history equally valid in a comparative framework and encourage non-exclusive use of chimpanzee life history for paleoanthropological models. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees.

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    Mapua, Mwanahamisi I; Pafčo, Barbora; Burgunder, Jade; Profousová-Pšenková, Ilona; Todd, Angelique; Hashimoto, Chie; Qablan, Moneeb A; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára J

    2017-04-26

    Although a high genetic diversity of Plasmodium spp. circulating in great apes has been revealed recently due to non-invasive methods enabling detection in faecal samples, little is known about the actual mechanisms underlying the presence of Plasmodium DNA in faeces. Great apes are commonly infected by strongylid nematodes, including hookworms, which cause intestinal bleeding. The impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium DNA in faeces was assessed in wild, western, lowland gorillas from Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and eastern chimpanzees from Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda. Fifty-one faecal samples from 22 habituated gorillas and 74 samples from 15 habituated chimpanzees were analysed using Cytochrome-b PCR assay and coprological methods. Overall, 26.4% of the analysed samples were positive for both Plasmodium spp. and strongylids. However, the results showed no significant impact of intensity of infections of strongylids on detection of Plasmodium DNA in gorilla and chimpanzee faeces. Bleeding caused by strongylid nematode Necator spp. cannot explain the presence of Plasmodium DNA in ape faeces.

  1. A legacy of low-impact logging does not elevate prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa in free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo: logging and parasitism in African apes.

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    Gillespie, Thomas R; Morgan, David; Deutsch, J Charlie; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Salzer, Johanna S; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Trish; Sanz, Crickette

    2009-12-01

    Many studies have examined the long-term effects of selective logging on the abundance and diversity of free-ranging primates. Logging is known to reduce the abundance of some primate species through associated hunting and the loss of food trees for frugivores; however, the potential role of pathogens in such primate population declines is largely unexplored. Selective logging results in a suite of alterations in host ecology and forest structure that may alter pathogen dynamics in resident wildlife populations. In addition, environmental pollution with human fecal material may present a risk for wildlife infections with zoonotic protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. To better understand this interplay, we compared patterns of infection with these potentially pathogenic protozoa in sympatric western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in the undisturbed Goualougo Triangle of Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park and the adjacent previously logged Kabo Concession in northern Republic of Congo. No Cryptosporidium infections were detected in any of the apes examined and prevalence of infection with Giardia was low (3.73% overall) and did not differ between logged and undisturbed forest for chimpanzees or gorillas. These results provide a baseline for prevalence of these protozoa in forest-dwelling African apes and suggest that low-intensity logging may not result in long-term elevated prevalence of potentially pathogenic protozoa.

  2. Gorilla-like anatomy on Australopithecus afarensis mandibles suggests Au. afarensis link to robust australopiths

    OpenAIRE

    Rak, Yoel; Ginzburg, Avishag; Geffen, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Mandibular ramus morphology on a recently discovered specimen of Australopithecus afarensis closely matches that of gorillas. This finding was unexpected given that chimpanzees are the closest living relatives of humans. Because modern humans, chimpanzees, orangutans, and many other primates share a ramal morphology that differs from that of gorillas, the gorilla anatomy must represent a unique condition, and its appearance in fossil hominins must represent an independently derived morphology...

  3. Cocirculation of Two env Molecular Variants, of Possible Recombinant Origin, in Gorilla and Chimpanzee Simian Foamy Virus Strains from Central Africa.

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    Richard, Léa; Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric; Njouom, Richard; Buseyne, Florence; Afonso, Philippe V; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-12-01

    Simian foamy virus (SFV) is a ubiquitous retrovirus in nonhuman primates (NHPs) that can be transmitted to humans, mostly through severe bites. In the past few years, our laboratory has identified more than 50 hunters from central Africa infected with zoonotic SFVs. Analysis of the complete sequences of five SFVs obtained from these individuals revealed that env was the most variable gene. Furthermore, recombinant SFV strains, some of which involve sequences in the env gene, were recently identified. Here, we investigated the variability of the env genes of zoonotic SFV strains and searched for possible recombinants. We sequenced the complete env gene or its surface glycoprotein region (SU) from DNA amplified from the blood of (i) a series of 40 individuals from Cameroon or Gabon infected with a gorilla or chimpanzee foamy virus (FV) strain and (ii) 1 gorilla and 3 infected chimpanzees living in the same areas as these hunters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of two env variants among both the gorilla and chimpanzee FV strains that were present in zoonotic and NHP strains. These variants differ greatly (>30% variability) in a 753-bp-long region located in the receptor-binding domain of SU, whereas the rest of the gene is very conserved. Although the organizations of the Env protein sequences are similar, the potential glycosylation patterns differ between variants. Analysis of recombination suggests that the variants emerged through recombination between different strains, although all parental strains could not be identified. SFV infection in humans is a great example of a zoonotic retroviral infection that has not spread among human populations, in contrast to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). Recombination was a major mechanism leading to the emergence of HIV. Here, we show that two SFV molecular envelope gene variants circulate among ape populations in Central Africa and that both can be transmitted to

  4. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  5. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus and human children (Homo sapiens in the floating peanut task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hanus

    Full Text Available Recently, Mendes et al. [1] described the use of a liquid tool (water in captive orangutans. Here, we tested chimpanzees and gorillas for the first time with the same "floating peanut task." None of the subjects solved the task. In order to better understand the cognitive demands of the task, we further tested other populations of chimpanzees and orangutans with the variation of the peanut initially floating or not. Twenty percent of the chimpanzees but none of the orangutans were successful. Additional controls revealed that successful subjects added water only if it was necessary to obtain the nut. Another experiment was conducted to investigate the reason for the differences in performance between the unsuccessful (Experiment 1 and the successful (Experiment 2 chimpanzee populations. We found suggestive evidence for the view that functional fixedness might have impaired the chimpanzees' strategies in the first experiment. Finally, we tested how human children of different age classes perform in an analogous experimental setting. Within the oldest group (8 years, 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years, only 8 percent were able to find the solution.

  6. Diversity of zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species and detection of a putative novel gastric Helicobacter species in wild and wild-born captive chimpanzees and western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flahou, B.; Modrý, David; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Smet, A.; Ducatelle, R.; Pasmans, F.; Sá, R. M.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Mulama, M.; Kiang, J.; Rossi, M.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 174, 1-2 (2014), s. 186-194 ISSN 0378-1135 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Enterohepatic Helicobacter species * Gastric Helicobacter species * Helicobacter cinaedi * 'Candidatus Helicobacter homininae' * Chimpanzee * Gorilla Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  7. Diversity of zoonotic enterohepatic Helicobacter species and detection of a putative novel gastric Helicobacter species in wild and wild-born captive chimpanzees and western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flahou, B.; Modrý, D.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Smet, A.; Ducatelle, R.; Pasmans, F.; Sá, R. M.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Mulama, M.; Kiang, J.; Rossi, M.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 174, 1-2 (2014), s. 186-194 ISSN 0378-1135 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Enterohepatic Helicobacter species * Gastric Helicobacter species * Helicobacter cinaedi * Candidatus Helicobacter homininae * Chimpanzee * Gorilla Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  8. Functional analysis of human and chimpanzee promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heissig, Florian; Krause, Johannes; Bryk, Jaroslaw; Khaitovich, Philipp; Enard, Wolfgang; Pääbo, Svante

    2005-01-01

    It has long been argued that changes in gene expression may provide an additional and crucial perspective on the evolutionary differences between humans and chimpanzees. To investigate how often expression differences seen in tissues are caused by sequence differences in the proximal promoters, we tested the expression activity in cultured cells of human and chimpanzee promoters from genes that differ in mRNA expression between human and chimpanzee tissues. Twelve promoters for which the corresponding gene had been shown to be differentially expressed between humans and chimpanzees in liver or brain were tested. Seven showed a significant difference in activity between the human promoter and the orthologous chimpanzee promoter in at least one of the two cell lines used. However, only three of them showed a difference in the same direction as in the tissues. Differences in proximal promoter activity are likely to be common between humans and chimpanzees, but are not linked in a simple fashion to gene-expression levels in tissues. This suggests that several genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees might be responsible for a single expression difference and thus that relevant expression differences between humans and chimpanzees will be difficult to predict from cell culture experiments or DNA sequences.

  9. Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scally, Aylwyn; Dutheil, Julien Y.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Jordan, Greg E.; Goodhead, Ian; Herrero, Javier; Hobolth, Asger; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Mailund, Thomas; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; McCarthy, Shane; Montgomery, Stephen H.; Schwalie, Petra C.; Tang, Y. Amy; Ward, Michelle C.; Xue, Yali; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Alkan, Can; Andersen, Lars N.; Ayub, Qasim; Ball, Edward V.; Beal, Kathryn; Bradley, Brenda J.; Chen, Yuan; Clee, Chris M.; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Graves, Tina A.; Gu, Yong; Heath, Paul; Heger, Andreas; Karakoc, Emre; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Laird, Gavin K.; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Mort, Matthew; Mullikin, James C.; Munch, Kasper; O’Connor, Timothy D.; Phillips, Andrew D.; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Rogers, Anthony S.; Sajjadian, Saba; Schmidt, Dominic; Shaw, Katy; Simpson, Jared T.; Stenson, Peter D.; Turner, Daniel J.; Vigilant, Linda; Vilella, Albert J.; Whitener, Weldon; Zhu, Baoli; Cooper, David N.; de Jong, Pieter; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Eichler, Evan E.; Flicek, Paul; Goldman, Nick; Mundy, Nicholas I.; Ning, Zemin; Odom, Duncan T.; Ponting, Chris P.; Quail, Michael A.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Searle, Stephen M.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Rogers, Jane; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Gorillas are humans’ closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago (Mya). In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution. PMID:22398555

  10. Translating chimpanzee personality to humans: Investigating the transportability of chimpanzee-derived personality scales to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Sauvigné, Katheryn C; Hopkins, William D

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of personality in chimpanzees with repeated findings of a similar structure of personality in apes to that found in humans. To date, however, the direct translational value of instruments used to assess chimpanzee personality to humans has yet to be explicitly tested. As such, in the current study we sought to determine the transportability of factor analytically-derived chimpanzee personality scales to humans in a large human sample (N = 301). Human informants reporting on target individuals they knew well completed chimpanzee-derived and human-derived measures of personality from the two most widely studied models of human personality: Big Five and Big Three. The correspondence between informant-reported chimpanzee- and human-derived personality scales was then investigated. Results indicated high convergence for corresponding scales across most chimpanzee- and human-derived personality scales. Findings from the current study provide evidence that chimpanzee-derived scales translate well to humans and operate quite similarly to the established human-derived personality scales in a human sample. This evidence of transportability lends support to the translational nature of chimpanzee personality research suggesting clear relevance of this growing literature to humans. Am. J. Primatol. 78:601-609, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Shape of the orbital opening: individual characterization and analysis of variability in modern humans, Gorilla gorilla, and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittbuhl, M; Le Minor, J M; Allenbach, B; Schaaf, A

    1999-05-01

    The description of the human orbital shape is principally qualitative in the classical literature, and characterised by adjectives such as circular, rectangular or quadrangular. In order to provide a precise quantification and interpretation of this shape, a study based on automatic image analysis and Fourier analysis was carried out on 45 human skulls (30 males, 15 females), and for comparison on 61 skulls of Gorilla gorilla (40 males, 21 females), and 34 skulls of Pan troglodytes (20 males, 14 females). Sexual dimorphism in the shape of the orbital opening was not demonstrated. Its dominant morphological features could be characterized by Fourier analysis; elliptical elongation and quadrangularity were dominant morphological features of the shape of the orbital opening in the three species. Elliptical elongation was more marked in humans and Pan, whereas quadrangularity was particularly emphasized in Gorilla. An intraspecific variability of the shape of the orbital opening existed in humans, Gorilla and Pan, and seemed close in the three species. Interspecific partition between humans, Gorilla and Pan was demonstrated despite the variability observed in the three species studied. Interspecific differences between Gorilla and the Pan-humans group were principally explained by the differences in quadrangularity, and by differences in orientation of triangularity and pentagonality. Differences in the shape of the orbital opening between humans and Pan were principally explained by differences in hexagonality, and by differences in orientation of quadrangularity. A closeness of shape between some humans and some individuals in Pan and, to a lesser degree, with some individuals in Gorilla was observed, demonstrating the existence of a morphological continuum of the shape of the orbital opening in hominoids.

  12. Characterization of a chromosome-specific chimpanzee alpha satellite subset: Evolutionary relationship to subsets on human chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, P.E.; Gosden, J.; Lawson, D. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Alpha satellite DNA is a tandemly repeated DNA family found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes examined. The fundamental repeat units of alpha satellite DNA are diverged 169- to 172-bp monomers, often found to be organized in chromosome-specific higher-order repeat units. The chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens (HSA)), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes (PTR) and Pan paniscus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) share a remarkable similarity and synteny. It is of interest to ask if alpha satellite arrays at centromeres of homologous chromosomes between these species are closely related (evolving in an orthologous manner) or if the evolutionary processes that homogenize and spread these arrays within and between chromosomes result in nonorthologous evolution of arrays. By using PCR primers specific for human chromosome 17-specific alpha satellite DNA, we have amplified, cloned, and characterized a chromosome-specific subset from the PTR chimpanzee genome. Hybridization both on Southern blots and in situ as well as sequence analysis show that this subset is most closely related, as expected, to sequences on HSA 17. However, in situ hybridization reveals that this subset is not found on the homologous chromosome in chimpanzee (PTR 19), but instead on PTR 12, which is homologous to HSA 2p. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Behavioral responses of silverback gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Margaret A; Leighty, Katherine A; Kuhar, Christopher W; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video presentations on the behavior of 4 silverback, western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). On each of 5 occasions, gorillas viewed 6 types of videos (blue screen, humans, an all-male or mixed-sex group engaged in low activity, and an all-male or mixed-sex group engaged in agonistic behavior). The study recorded behavioral responses and watching rates. All gorillas preferred dynamic over static videos; 3 watched videos depicting gorillas significantly more than those depicting humans. Among the gorilla videos, the gorillas clearly preferred watching the mixed-sex group engaged in agonistic behavior; yet, this did not lead to an increase in aggression or behavior indicating agitation. Further, habituation to videos depicting gorillas did not occur. This supports the effectiveness of this form of enrichment, particularly for a nonhuman animal needing to be separated temporarily due to illness, shipment quarantine, social restructuring, or exhibit modification. Copyright © The Walt Disney Company®

  14. Discovery of human inversion polymorphisms by comparative analysis of human and chimpanzee DNA sequence assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available With a draft genome-sequence assembly for the chimpanzee available, it is now possible to perform genome-wide analyses to identify, at a submicroscopic level, structural rearrangements that have occurred between chimpanzees and humans. The goal of this study was to investigate chromosomal regions that are inverted between the chimpanzee and human genomes. Using the net alignments for the builds of the human and chimpanzee genome assemblies, we identified a total of 1,576 putative regions of inverted orientation, covering more than 154 mega-bases of DNA. The DNA segments are distributed throughout the genome and range from 23 base pairs to 62 mega-bases in length. For the 66 inversions more than 25 kilobases (kb in length, 75% were flanked on one or both sides by (often unrelated segmental duplications. Using PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization we experimentally validated 23 of 27 (85% semi-randomly chosen regions; the largest novel inversion confirmed was 4.3 mega-bases at human Chromosome 7p14. Gorilla was used as an out-group to assign ancestral status to the variants. All experimentally validated inversion regions were then assayed against a panel of human samples and three of the 23 (13% regions were found to be polymorphic in the human genome. These polymorphic inversions include 730 kb (at 7p22, 13 kb (at 7q11, and 1 kb (at 16q24 fragments with a 5%, 30%, and 48% minor allele frequency, respectively. Our results suggest that inversions are an important source of variation in primate genome evolution. The finding of at least three novel inversion polymorphisms in humans indicates this type of structural variation may be a more common feature of our genome than previously realized.

  15. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech?Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers.These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle

  16. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Duval

    Full Text Available Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes.

  17. Gorilla-like anatomy on Australopithecus afarensis mandibles suggests Au. afarensis link to robust australopiths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Yoel; Ginzburg, Avishag; Geffen, Eli

    2007-04-17

    Mandibular ramus morphology on a recently discovered specimen of Australopithecus afarensis closely matches that of gorillas. This finding was unexpected given that chimpanzees are the closest living relatives of humans. Because modern humans, chimpanzees, orangutans, and many other primates share a ramal morphology that differs from that of gorillas, the gorilla anatomy must represent a unique condition, and its appearance in fossil hominins must represent an independently derived morphology. This particular morphology appears also in Australopithecus robustus. The presence of the morphology in both the latter and Au. afarensis and its absence in modern humans cast doubt on the role of Au. afarensis as a modern human ancestor. The ramal anatomy of the earlier Ardipithecus ramidus is virtually that of a chimpanzee, corroborating the proposed phylogenetic scenario.

  18. Functional anatomy and adaptation of male gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with comparison to male orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; McFarland, Robin K; Underwood, Carol E

    2011-11-01

    Great apes diversified during the Miocene in Old World forests. Two lineages, gorillas in Africa and orangutans in Asia, have sexual dimorphisms of super-sized males, though they presumably diverged from a smaller common ancestor. We test the hypothesis that they increased in body mass independently and convergently, and that their many postcranial differences reflect locomotor differences. Whole body dissections of five adult male gorillas and four adult male orangutans allowed quantification of body mass distribution to limb segments, of body composition (muscle, bone, skin, and fat relative to total body mass), and of muscle distribution and proportions. Results demonstrate that gorilla forelimb anatomy accommodates shoulder joint mobility for vertical climbing and reaching while maintaining joint stability during quadrupedal locomotion. The heavily muscled hind limbs are equipped for propulsion and weight-bearing over relatively stable substrates on the forest floor. In contrast, orangutan forelimb length, muscle mass, and joint construction are modified for strength and mobility in climbing, bridging, and traveling over flexible supports through the forest canopy. Muscles of hip, knee, and ankle joints provide rotational and prehensile strength essential for moving on unstable and discontinuous branches. We conclude that anatomical similarities are due to common ancestry and that differences in postcranial anatomy reflect powerful selection for divergent locomotor adaptations. These data further support the evolutionary conclusion that gorillas fall with chimpanzees and humans as part of the African hominoid radiation; orangutans are a specialized outlier. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Pafčo, B.; Burgunder, J.; Profousová‑Pšenková, I.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Qablan, M. A.; Modrý, D.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 175. ISSN 1475-2875 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Co-infection * Faeces * Strongylid * Necator spp. * Plasmodium spp. * Malaria * Western lowland gorilla * Eastern chimpanzee Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  20. Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Bombjaková, Daša; Boyette, Adam; Meier, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis. Aka and Mbendjele hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, respectively, and Taï chimpanzees in the rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire were observed cracking hard Panda oleosa nuts with different tools, as well as the soft Coula edulis and Elaeis guinensis nuts. The nut-cracking techniques, hammer material selection and two efficiency measures were compared. As predicted, the Aka and the Mbendjele were able to exploit more species of hard nuts in the forest than chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees were sometimes more efficient than the humans. Social roles differed between the two species, with the Aka and especially the Mbendjele exhibiting cooperation between nut-crackers whereas the chimpanzees were mainly individualistic. Observations of nut-cracking by humans and chimpanzees only partially supported the technical intelligence hypothesis as higher degrees of flexibility in tool selection seen in chimpanzees compensated for use of less efficient tool material than in humans. Nut cracking was a stronger social undertaking in humans than in chimpanzees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüfer, Kay; Munch, Kasper; Hellmann, Ines; Akagi, Keiko; Miller, Jason R.; Walenz, Brian; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger; Kodira, Chinnappa; Winer, Roger; Knight, James R.; Mullikin, James C.; Meader, Stephen J.; Ponting, Chris P.; Lunter, Gerton; Higashino, Saneyuki; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Karakoç, Emre; Alkan, Can; Sajjadian, Saba; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Ventura, Mario; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E.; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Junhold, Jörg; Patterson, Nick; Siebauer, Michael; Good, Jeffrey M.; Fischer, Anne; Ptak, Susan E.; Lachmann, Michael; Symer, David E.; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Andrés, Aida M.; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours1–4, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other. PMID:22722832

  2. Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Carvajal Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Christophe Boesch. 2012. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 276, 68 b & w illustrations, 11 tables. £60 (hardback. ISBN 9781109025370.

  3. Shared human-chimpanzee pattern of perinatal femoral shaft morphology and its implications for the evolution of hominin locomotor adaptations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Morimoto

    Full Text Available Acquisition of bipedality is a hallmark of human evolution. How bipedality evolved from great ape-like locomotor behaviors, however, is still highly debated. This is mainly because it is difficult to infer locomotor function, and even more so locomotor kinematics, from fossil hominin long bones. Structure-function relationships are complex, as long bone morphology reflects phyletic history, developmental programs, and loading history during an individual's lifetime. Here we discriminate between these factors by investigating the morphology of long bones in fetal and neonate great apes and humans, before the onset of locomotion.Comparative morphometric analysis of the femoral diaphysis indicates that its morphology reflects phyletic relationships between hominoid taxa to a greater extent than taxon-specific locomotor adaptations. Diaphyseal morphology in humans and chimpanzees exhibits several shared-derived features, despite substantial differences in locomotor adaptations. Orangutan and gorilla morphologies are largely similar, and likely represent the primitive hominoid state.These findings are compatible with two possible evolutionary scenarios. Diaphyseal morphology may reflect retained adaptive traits of ancestral taxa, hence human-chimpanzee shared-derived features may be indicative of the locomotor behavior of our last common ancestor. Alternatively, diaphyseal morphology might reflect evolution by genetic drift (neutral evolution rather than selection, and might thus be more informative about phyletic relationships between taxa than about locomotor adaptations. Both scenarios are consistent with the hypothesis that knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and gorillas resulted from convergent evolution, and that the evolution of human bipedality is unrelated to extant great ape locomotor specializations.

  4. Gorilla endoscopic sinus surgery: a life-saving collaboration between human and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Greg E; Baik, Fred M; Liddell, Robert M; Ayars, Andrew G; Branch, Kelley R; Pottinger, Paul S; Hillel, Allen D; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin

    2018-03-23

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common disease process in humans; however, in the primate population of gorillas, it has rarely been described. This case describes lifesaving sinus surgery on a critically ill gorilla performed by a human otolaryngology team in collaboration with the gorilla's veterinary medicine team. The 35-year-old western silverback gorilla was treated for 3 months with aggressive medical therapy for a worsening sinus infection. When his condition became severe, a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed showing advanced chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps vs other masses and some bone erosion. As his condition deteriorated further, a tertiary otolaryngology team performed sinus surgery using the latest technology available, including image guidance, steroid-eluting sinus stents, and balloon sinus dilation. The postoperative course was complicated by subcutaneous infection and eventual fistulization. Fortunately, with culture-directed antibiotic therapy his condition gradually improved. One year later he required revision sinus surgery. At that point allergy testing was performed followed by appropriate allergy medical therapy. Now, 3 years out from his initial surgery, he continues to do well and has fathered a young female gorilla. This case represents a unique collaboration between human physicians and veterinarians. The combined medical approach was critical to heal this ailing gorilla. This case discusses many of the challenges and offers recommendations for physicians who may be involved with similar care of animals in the future. The success of the surgical and medical treatment of this gorilla's life-threatening sinus infection required many experts, careful planning, and corporate generosity. The interaction between human and animal medicine would not have been successful without the close and trusting collaborations between human and veterinary health providers. We encourage human healthcare providers to seek volunteer

  5. Stability of the Gorilla Microbiome Despite SIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H.; Peeters, Martine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Esteban, Amadine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ochman, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIVs) have been discovered in over 45 primate species; however, the pathogenic potential of most SIV strains remains unknown due to difficulties inherent in observing wild populations. Because those SIV infections that are pathogenic have been shown to induce changes in the host's gut microbiome, monitoring the microbiota present in fecal samples can provide a noninvasive means for studying the effects of SIV infection on the health of wild-living primates. Here, we examine the effects of SIVgor, a close relative of SIVcpz of chimpanzees and HIV-1 of humans, on the gut bacterial communities residing within wild gorillas, revealing that gorilla gut microbiomes are exceptionally robust to SIV infection. In contrast to the microbiomes of HIV-1 infected humans and SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees, SIVgor-infected gorilla microbiomes exhibit neither rises in the frequencies of opportunistic pathogens nor elevated rates of microbial turnover within individual hosts. Regardless of SIV infection status, gorilla microbiomes assort into enterotypes, one of which is compositionally analogous to those identified in humans and chimpanzees. The other gorilla enterotype appears specialized for a leaf-based diet and is enriched in environmentally derived bacterial genera. We hypothesize that the acquisition of this gorilla-specific enterotype was enabled by lowered immune-system control over the composition of the microbiome. Our results indicate differences between the pathology of SIVgor and SIVcpz/HIV-1 infections, demonstrating the utility of investigating host microbial ecology as a means for studying disease in wild primates of high conservation priority. PMID:25545295

  6. Stability of the gorilla microbiome despite simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H; Peeters, Martine; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Ngole, Eitel Mpoudi; Esteban, Amadine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2015-02-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have been discovered in over 45 primate species; however, the pathogenic potential of most SIV strains remains unknown due to difficulties inherent in observing wild populations. Because those SIV infections that are pathogenic have been shown to induce changes in the host's gut microbiome, monitoring the microbiota present in faecal samples can provide a noninvasive means for studying the effects of SIV infection on the health of wild-living primates. Here, we examine the effects of SIVgor, a close relative of SIVcpz of chimpanzees and HIV-1 of humans, on the gut bacterial communities residing within wild gorillas, revealing that gorilla gut microbiomes are exceptionally robust to SIV infection. In contrast to the microbiomes of HIV-1-infected humans and SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees, SIVgor-infected gorilla microbiomes exhibit neither rises in the frequencies of opportunistic pathogens nor elevated rates of microbial turnover within individual hosts. Regardless of SIV infection status, gorilla microbiomes assort into enterotypes, one of which is compositionally analogous to those identified in humans and chimpanzees. The other gorilla enterotype appears specialized for a leaf-based diet and is enriched in environmentally derived bacterial genera. We hypothesize that the acquisition of this gorilla-specific enterotype was enabled by lowered immune system control over the composition of the microbiome. Our results indicate differences between the pathology of SIVgor and SIVcpz/HIV-1 infections, demonstrating the utility of investigating host microbial ecology as a means for studying disease in wild primates of high conservation priority. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparative rates of violence in chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L; Muller, Martin N

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the proposal that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans have similar rates of death from intraspecific aggression, whereas chimpanzees have higher rates of non-lethal physical attack (Boehm 1999, Hierarchy in the forest: the evolution of egalitarian behavior. Harvard University Press). First, we assembled data on lethal aggression from long-term studies of nine communities of chimpanzees living in five populations. We calculated rates of death from intraspecific aggression both within and between communities. Variation among communities in mortality rates from aggression was high, and rates of death from intercommunity and intracommunity aggression were not correlated. Estimates for average rates of lethal violence for chimpanzees proved to be similar to average rates for subsistence societies of hunter-gatherers and farmers. Second, we compared rates of non-lethal physical aggression for two populations of chimpanzees and one population of recently settled hunter-gatherers. Chimpanzees had rates of aggression between two and three orders of magnitude higher than humans. These preliminary data support Boehm's hypothesis.

  8. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) as seasonal frugivores: use of variable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, M J

    1997-01-01

    The gorillas studied at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, between August 1990 and October 1992 consumed 239 kinds of foods from 138 species of plants and invertebrates, including the fruits of 77 species. Seeds were present in 99% of all fecal samples (n = 859). Although gorillas ate fleshy fruit whenever it was available, herbaceous plants and fibrous fruits were consumed year-round and were important during times of fleshy fruit scarcity. At Bai Hokou and across their range, resources are temporally discontinuous, and western gorilla diet exhibits marked seasonal and interannual variation. Although their large body size lends them dietary flexibility relative to chimpanzees, seasonal fruit-eating shapes the foraging and ranging patterns of western lowland gorillas.

  9. Molecular characterisation of protist parasites in human-habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), humans and livestock, from Bwindi impenetrable National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Matthew J; Unger, Melisa; Yeap, Yuen-Ting; Rogers, Emma; Millet, Ilary; Harman, Kimberley; Fox, Mark; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Blake, Damer P

    2017-07-18

    Over 60 % of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, and there is growing evidence of the zooanthroponotic transmission of diseases from humans to livestock and wildlife species, with major implications for public health, economics, and conservation. Zooanthroponoses are of relevance to critically endangered species; amongst these is the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Uganda. Here, we assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia, and Entamoeba infecting mountain gorillas in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda, using molecular methods. We also assess the occurrence of these parasites in humans and livestock species living in overlapping/adjacent geographical regions. Diagnostic PCR detected Cryptosporidium parvum in one sample from a mountain gorilla (IIdA23G2) and one from a goat (based on SSU). Cryptosporidium was not detected in humans or cattle. Cyclospora was not detected in any of the samples analysed. Giardia was identified in three human and two cattle samples, which were linked to assemblage A, B and E of G. duodenalis. Sequences defined as belonging to the genus Entamoeba were identified in all host groups. Of the 86 sequence types characterised, one, seven and two have been recorded previously to represent genotypes of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Entamoeba, respectively, from humans, other mammals, and water sources globally. This study provides a snapshot of the occurrence and genetic make-up of selected protists in mammals in and around BINP. The genetic analyses indicated that 54.6% of the 203 samples analysed contained parasites that matched species, genotypes, or genetic assemblages found globally. Seventy-six new sequence records were identified here for the first time. As nothing is known about the zoonotic/zooanthroponotic potential of the corresponding parasites, future work should focus on wider epidemiological investigations together with continued surveillance of all parasites in

  10. Individually identifiable body odors are produced by the gorilla and discriminated by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepper, Peter G; Wells, Deborah L

    2010-05-01

    Many species produce odor cues that enable them to be identified individually, as well as providing other socially relevant information. Study of the role of odor cues in the social behavior of great apes is noticeable by its absence. Olfaction has been viewed as having little role in guiding behavior in these species. This study examined whether Western lowland gorillas produce an individually identifiable odor. Odor samples were obtained by placing cloths in the gorilla's den. A delayed matching to sample task was used with human participants (n = 100) to see if they were able to correctly match a target odor sample to a choice of either: 2 odors (the target sample and another, Experiment 1) and 6 odors (the target sample and 5 others, Experiment 2). Participants were correctly able to identify the target odor when given either 2 or 6 matches. Subjects made fewest errors when matching the odor of the silverback, whereas matching the odors of the young gorillas produced most errors. The results indicate that gorillas do produce individually identifiable body odors and introduce the possibility that odor cues may play a role in gorilla social behavior.

  11. The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, D G; Jenkins, D J; Kendall, C W; Dierenfeld, E S; Carroll, R W; Tariq, N; Vidgen, E

    1997-10-01

    We studied the western lowland gorilla diet as a possible model for human nutrient requirements with implications for colonic function. Gorillas in the Central African Republic were identified as consuming over 200 species and varieties of plants and 100 species and varieties of fruit. Thirty-one of the most commonly consumed foods were collected and dried locally before shipping for macronutrient and fiber analysis. The mean macronutrient concentrations were (mean +/- SD, g/100 g dry basis) fat 0.5 +/- 0.4, protein 11.8 +/- 8.2, available carbohydrate 7.7 +/- 6.3 and dietary fiber 74.0 +/- 12.9. Assuming that the macronutrient profile of these foods was reflective of the whole gorilla diet and that dietary fiber contributed 6.28 kJ/g (1.5 kcal/g), then the gorilla diet would provide 810 kJ (194 kcal) metabolizable energy per 100 g dry weight. The macronutrient profile of this diet would be as follows: 2.5% energy as fat, 24.3% protein, 15.8% available carbohydrate, with potentially 57.3% of metabolizable energy from short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) derived from colonic fermentation of fiber. Gorillas would therefore obtain considerable energy through fiber fermentation. We suggest that humans also evolved consuming similar high foliage, high fiber diets, which were low in fat and dietary cholesterol. The macronutrient and fiber profile of the gorilla diet is one in which the colon is likely to play a major role in overall nutrition. Both the nutrient and fiber components of such a diet and the functional capacity of the hominoid colon may have important dietary implications for contemporary human health.

  12. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Roffman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins.

  13. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  14. Ontogenetic trajectories of chimpanzee social play: similarities with humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Cordoni

    Full Text Available Social play, a widespread phenomenon in mammals, is a multifunctional behavior, which can have many different roles according to species, sex, age, relationship quality between playmates, group membership, context, and habitat. Play joins and cuts across a variety of disciplines leading directly to inquiries relating to individual developmental changes and species adaptation, thus the importance of comparative studies appears evident. Here, we aim at proposing a possible ontogenetic pathway of chimpanzee play (Pan troglodytes and contrast our data with those of human play. Chimpanzee play shows a number of changes from infancy to juvenility. Particularly, solitary and social play follows different developmental trajectories. While solitary play peaks in infancy, social play does not show any quantitative variation between infancy and juvenility but shows a strong qualitative variation in complexity, asymmetry, and playmate choice. Like laughter in humans, the playful expressions in chimpanzees (at the different age phases seem to have a role in advertising cooperative dispositions and intentions thus increasing the likelihood of engaging in solid social relationships. In conclusion, in chimpanzees, as in humans, both play behavior and the signals that accompany play serve multiple functions according to the different age phases.

  15. Human children rely more on social information than chimpanzees do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel B M

    2014-11-01

    Human societies are characterized by more cultural diversity than chimpanzee communities. However, it is currently unclear what mechanism might be driving this difference. Because reliance on social information is a pivotal characteristic of culture, we investigated individual and social information reliance in children and chimpanzees. We repeatedly presented subjects with a reward-retrieval task on which they had collected conflicting individual and social information of equal accuracy in counterbalanced order. While both species relied mostly on their individual information, children but not chimpanzees searched for the reward at the socially demonstrated location more than at a random location. Moreover, only children used social information adaptively when individual knowledge on the location of the reward had not yet been obtained. Social information usage determines information transmission and in conjunction with mechanisms that create cultural variants, such as innovation, it facilitates diversity. Our results may help explain why humans are more culturally diversified than chimpanzees. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Bayesian inference of shared recombination hotspots between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations, which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary timescales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the data sets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP data sets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs) were identified. Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the β-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Chimpanzees and humans mimic pupil-size of conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska E Kret

    Full Text Available Group-living typically provides benefits to individual group members but also confers costs. To avoid incredulity and betrayal and allow trust and cooperation, individuals must understand the intentions and emotions of their group members. Humans attend to other's eyes and from gaze and pupil-size cues, infer information about the state of mind of the observed. In humans, pupil-size tends to mimic that of the observed. Here we tested whether pupil-mimicry exists in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes. We conjectured that if pupil-mimicry has adaptive value, e.g. to promote swift communication of inner states and facilitate shared understanding and coordination, pupil-mimicry should emerge within but not across species. Pupillometry data was collected from human and chimpanzee subjects while they observed images of the eyes of both species with dilating/constricting pupils. Both species showed enhanced pupil-mimicry with members of their own species, with effects being strongest in humans and chimpanzee mothers. Pupil-mimicry may be deeply-rooted, but probably gained importance from the point in human evolution where the morphology of our eyes became more prominent. Humans' white sclera surrounding the iris, and the fine muscles around their eyes facilitate non-verbal communication via eye signals.

  18. Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin P; Allen, Julie M; Olds, Brett P; Mugisha, Lawrence; Reed, David L; Paige, Ken N; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2014-02-22

    The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their hosts when comparing single genes. However, the variation in this relative rate of molecular evolution across different genes in the genome is unknown. We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees. In addition, these rates were positively correlated across genes. Because this correlation only occurred for substitutions that changed the amino acid, this pattern is probably produced by similar functional constraints across the same genes in humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasites.

  19. Comprehension of iconic gestures by chimpanzees and human children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Iconic gestures-communicative acts using hand or body movements that resemble their referent-figure prominently in theories of language evolution and development. This study contrasted the abilities of chimpanzees (N=11) and 4-year-old human children (N=24) to comprehend novel iconic gestures. Participants learned to retrieve rewards from apparatuses in two distinct locations, each requiring a different action. In the test, a human adult informed the participant where to go by miming the action needed to obtain the reward. Children used the iconic gestures (more than arbitrary gestures) to locate the reward, whereas chimpanzees did not. Some children also used arbitrary gestures in the same way, but only after they had previously shown comprehension for iconic gestures. Over time, chimpanzees learned to associate iconic gestures with the appropriate location faster than arbitrary gestures, suggesting at least some recognition of the iconicity involved. These results demonstrate the importance of iconicity in referential communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diversity of Entamoeba spp. in African great apes and humans: an insight from Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková, Klára; Kreisinger, J.; Pafčo, B.; Čížková, Dagmar; Tagg, N.; Hehl, A. B.; Modrý, David

    (2018) ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Entamoeba * Western lowland gorilla * Central chimpanzee * Humans * Metabarcoding * Diversity * Mixed infections * Entamoeba histolytica Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016

  1. Different Social Motives in the Gestural Communication of Chimpanzees and Human Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Anke F.; Zimmermann, Felizitas; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both chimpanzees and human infants use the pointing gesture with human adults, but it is not clear if they are doing so for the same social motives. In two studies, we presented chimpanzees and human 25-month-olds with the opportunity to point for a hidden tool (in the presence of a non-functional distractor). In one condition it was clear that…

  2. Genome and gene alterations by insertions and deletions in the evolution of human and chimpanzee chromosome 22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volfovsky Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding structure and function of human genome requires knowledge of genomes of our closest living relatives, the primates. Nucleotide insertions and deletions (indels play a significant role in differentiation that underlies phenotypic differences between humans and chimpanzees. In this study, we evaluated distribution, evolutionary history, and function of indels found by comparing syntenic regions of the human and chimpanzee genomes. Results Specifically, we identified 6,279 indels of 10 bp or greater in a ~33 Mb alignment between human and chimpanzee chromosome 22. After the exclusion of those in repetitive DNA, 1,429 or 23% of indels still remained. This group was characterized according to the local or genome-wide repetitive nature, size, location relative to genes, and other genomic features. We defined three major classes of these indels, using local structure analysis: (i those indels found uniquely without additional copies of indel sequence in the surrounding (10 Kb region, (ii those with at least one exact copy found nearby, and (iii those with similar but not identical copies found locally. Among these classes, we encountered a high number of exactly repeated indel sequences, most likely due to recent duplications. Many of these indels (683 of 1,429 were in proximity of known human genes. Coding sequences and splice sites contained significantly fewer of these indels than expected from random expectations, suggesting that selection is a factor in limiting their persistence. A subset of indels from coding regions was experimentally validated and their impacts were predicted based on direct sequencing in several human populations as well as chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and two subspecies of orangutans. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates that while indels are distributed essentially randomly in intergenic and intronic genomic regions, they are significantly under-represented in coding sequences. There are

  3. Incomplete lineage sorting patterns among human, chimpanzee and orangutan suggest recent orangutan speciation and widespread selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Hawks, John

    2011-01-01

    We search the complete orangutan genome for regions where humans are more closely related to orangutans than to chimpanzees due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) in the ancestor of human and chimpanzees. The search uses our recently developed coalescent HMM framework. We find ILS present in ~1%...

  4. Humans with chimpanzee-like major histocompatibility complex-specificities control HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoof, Ilka; Kesmir, Can; Lund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    and the progression rate to AIDS. Chimpanzees control HIV-1 viral replication and develop a chronic infection without progressing to AIDS. A similar course of disease is observed in human long-term non-progressors. Objective: To investigate if long-term non-progressors and chimpanzees have functional similarities...... in their MHC class I repertoire. Methods: We compared the specificity of groups of human MHC molecules associated with different levels of viremia in HIV-1 infected individuals with those of chimpanzee. Results and conclusion: We demonstrate that human MHC with control of HIV-1 viral load share binding motifs...... with chimpanzee MHC. Moreover, we find that chimpanzee and human MHC associated with low viral load are predicted to elicit broader Gag-specific immune responses than human MHC associated with high viral load, thus supporting earlier findings that Gag-specific immune responses are essential for HIV-1 control....

  5. Occlusal relief changes with molar wear in Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'kirera, Francis; Ungar, Peter S

    2003-06-01

    Most research on primate tooth form-function relationships has focused on unworn teeth. This study presents a morphological comparison of variably worn lower second molars (M(2)s) of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla; n=47) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes; n=54) using dental topographic analysis. High-resolution replicas of occlusal surfaces were prepared and scanned in 3D by laser scanning. The resulting elevation data were used to create a geographic information system (GIS) for each tooth. Occlusal relief, defined as the ratio of 3D surface area to 2D planometric area of the occlusal table, was calculated and compared between wear stages, taxa, and sexes. The results failed to show a difference in occlusal relief between males and females of a given taxon, but did evince differences between wear stages and between taxa. A lack of significant interaction between wear stage and taxon factors suggests that differences in occlusal relief between chimpanzees and gorillas are maintained throughout the wear sequence. These results add to a growing body of information on how molar teeth change with wear, and how differences between primate species are maintained at comparable points throughout the wear sequence. Such studies provide new insights into form-function relationships, which will allow us to infer certain aspects of diet in fossils with worn teeth.

  6. Wild western lowland gorillas signal selectively using odor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Klailova

    Full Text Available Mammals communicate socially through visual, auditory and chemical signals. The chemical sense is the oldest sense and is shared by all organisms including bacteria. Despite mounting evidence for social chemo-signaling in humans, the extent to which it modulates behavior is debated and can benefit from comparative models of closely related hominoids. The use of odor cues in wild ape social communication has been only rarely explored. Apart from one study on wild chimpanzee sniffing, our understanding is limited to anecdotes. We present the first study of wild gorilla chemo-communication and the first analysis of olfactory signaling in relation to arousal levels and odor strength in wild apes. If gorilla scent is used as a signaling mechanism instead of only a sign of arousal or stress, odor emission should be context specific and capable of variation as a function of the relationships between the emitter and perceiver(s. Measured through a human pungency scale, we determined the factors that predicted extreme levels of silverback odor for one wild western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla group silverback. Extreme silverback odor was predicted by the presence and intensity of inter-unit interactions, silverback anger, distress and long-calling auditory rates, and the absence of close proximity between the silverback and mother of the youngest infant. Odor strength also varied according to the focal silverback's strategic responses during high intensity inter-unit interactions. Silverbacks appear to use odor as a modifiable form of communication; where odor acts as a highly flexible, context dependent signaling mechanism to group members and extra-group units. The importance of olfaction to ape social communication may be especially pertinent in Central African forests where limited visibility may necessitate increased reliance on other senses.

  7. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES IN THE DIET OF GORILLAS: AN ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    COUSINS, Don; HUFFMAN, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    A growing body of literature in the behavioral, ecological and pharmacological sciences suggests that animals use certain plants for the control of parasite infection and related illnesses. It has also become increasingly apparent that chimpanzees in Africa and their human counterparts share strong similarities in the plants they use for the treatment of similar diseases. Little is yet known, however, of the other closest living ape relative in Africa, the gorilla. Here we review the ethnopha...

  8. Probable transmission of coxsackie B3 virus from human to chimpanzee, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Mourier, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, a chimpanzee died at Copenhagen Zoo following an outbreak of respiratory disease among chimpanzees in the zoo. Identification of coxsackie B3 virus, a common human pathogen, as the causative agent, and its severe manifestation, raise questions about pathogenicity and transmissibility among...

  9. Phytochemical investigation and TLC screening for antioxidant activity of 24 plant species consumed by the Eastern Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla beringei ssp. graueri: Hominidae, Primates) endemic to Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua

    2014-01-01

    Humans and great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) share a common gut anatomy. Although, some diseases that cause countless deaths in humans are ineffective or have minor non disturbing effects in apes. Because of their phylogenetic closeness and common neural pathways of chemosensory perception, humans and great apes, when displaying symptoms of illness could alter their foraging to ingest non-nutritive chemical as diet (pharmacophagy). The aim of the present study was to...

  10. Origins of De Novo Genes in Human and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Orera, Jorge; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Chiva, Cristina; Sabidó, Eduard; Kondova, Ivanela; Bontrop, Ronald; Marqués-Bonet, Tomàs; Albà, M Mar

    2015-12-01

    The birth of new genes is an important motor of evolutionary innovation. Whereas many new genes arise by gene duplication, others originate at genomic regions that did not contain any genes or gene copies. Some of these newly expressed genes may acquire coding or non-coding functions and be preserved by natural selection. However, it is yet unclear which is the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of de novo gene emergence. In order to obtain a comprehensive view of this process, we have performed in-depth sequencing of the transcriptomes of four mammalian species--human, chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse--and subsequently compared the assembled transcripts and the corresponding syntenic genomic regions. This has resulted in the identification of over five thousand new multiexonic transcriptional events in human and/or chimpanzee that are not observed in the rest of species. Using comparative genomics, we show that the expression of these transcripts is associated with the gain of regulatory motifs upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) and of U1 snRNP sites downstream of the TSS. In general, these transcripts show little evidence of purifying selection, suggesting that many of them are not functional. However, we find signatures of selection in a subset of de novo genes which have evidence of protein translation. Taken together, the data support a model in which frequently-occurring new transcriptional events in the genome provide the raw material for the evolution of new proteins.

  11. The nucleus pararaphales in the human, chimpanzee, and macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S; Weinstock, Nadav; Witelson, Sandra F; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2013-03-01

    The human cerebral cortex and cerebellum are greatly expanded compared to those of other mammals, including the great apes. This expansion is reflected in differences in the size and organization of precerebellar brainstem structures, such as the inferior olive. In addition, there are cell groups unique to the human brainstem. One such group may be the nucleus pararaphales (PRa); however, there is disagreement among authors about the size and location of this nucleus in the human brainstem. The name "pararaphales" has also been used for neurons in the medulla shown to project to the flocculus in the macaque monkey. We have re-examined the existence and status of the PRa in eight humans, three chimpanzees, and four macaque monkeys using Nissl-stained sections as well as immunohistochemistry. In the human we found a cell group along the midline of the medulla in all cases; it had the form of interrupted cell columns and was variable among cases in rostrocaudal and dorsoventral extent. Cells and processes were highly immunoreactive for non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP); somata were immunoreactive to the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, and for calretinin. In macaque monkey, there was a much smaller oval cell group with NPNFP immunoreactivity. In the chimpanzee, we found a region of NPNFP-immunoreactive cells and fibers similar to what was observed in macaques. These results suggest that the "PRa" in the human may not be the same structure as the flocculus-projecting cell group described in the macaque. The PRa, like the arcuate nucleus, therefore may be unique to humans.

  12. Fallback foods and dietary partitioning among Pan and Gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Juichi; Basabose, Augustin Kanyunyi

    2009-12-01

    Recent findings on the strong preference of gorillas for fruits and the large dietary overlap between sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees has led to a debate over the folivorous/frugivorous dichotomy and resource partitioning. To add insight to these arguments, we analyze the diets of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees inhabiting the montane forest of Kahuzi-Biega National Park (DRC) using a new definition of fallback foods (Marshall and Wrangham: Int J Primatol 28 [2007] 1219-1235). We determined the preferred fruits of Kahuzi chimpanzees and gorillas from direct feeding observations and fecal analyses conducted over an 8-year period. Although there was extensive overlap in the preferred fruits of these two species, gorillas tended to consume fewer fruits with prolonged availability while chimpanzees consumed fruits with large seasonal fluctuations. Fig fruit was defined as a preferred food of chimpanzees, although it may also play a role as the staple fallback food. Animal foods, such as honey bees and ants, appear to constitute filler fallback foods of chimpanzees. Tool use allows chimpanzees to obtain such high-quality fallback foods during periods of fruit scarcity. Among filler fallback foods, terrestrial herbs may enable chimpanzees to live in small home ranges in the montane forest, whereas the availability of animal foods may permit them to expand their home range in arid areas. Staple fallback foods including barks enable gorillas to form cohesive groups with similar home range across habitats irrespective of fruit abundance. These differences in fallback strategies seem to have shaped different social features between sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees.

  13. Human fibroblasts display a differential focal adhesion phenotype relative to chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Alexander S; Chen, Annie Y; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of documented differences between humans and our closest relatives in responses to wound healing and in disease susceptibilities, suggesting a differential cellular response to certain environmental factors. In this study, we sought to look at a specific cell type, fibroblasts, to examine differences in cellular adhesion between humans and chimpanzees in visualized cells and in gene expression. We have found significant differences in the number of focal adhesions between primary human and chimpanzee fibroblasts. Additionally, we see that adhesion related gene ontology categories are some of the most differentially expressed between human and chimpanzee in normal fibroblast cells. These results suggest that human and chimpanzee fibroblasts may have somewhat different adhesive properties, which could play a role in differential disease phenotypes and responses to external factors. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  14. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Keupp, Stefanie; Hare, Brian; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Humans make decisions about when and with whom to cooperate based on their reputations. People either learn about others by direct interaction or by observing third-party interactions or gossip. An important question is whether other animal species, especially our closest living relatives, the nonhuman great apes, also form reputations of others. In Study 1, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human children experienced a nice experimenter who tried to give food/toys to the subject and a mean experimenter who interrupted the food/toy giving. In studies 2 and 3, nonhuman great apes and human children could only passively observe a similar interaction, in which a nice experimenter and a mean experimenter interacted with a third party. Orangutans and 2.5-year-old human children preferred to approach the nice experimenter rather than the mean one after having directly experienced their respective behaviors. Orangutans, chimpanzees, and 2.5-year-old human children also took into account experimenter actions toward third parties in forming reputations. These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Favorable ecological circumstances promote life expectancy in chimpanzees similar to that of human hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian M; Watts, David P; Mitani, John C; Langergraber, Kevin E

    2017-04-01

    Demographic data on wild chimpanzees are crucial for understanding the evolution of chimpanzee and hominin life histories, but most data come from populations affected by disease outbreaks and anthropogenic disturbance. We present survivorship data from a relatively undisturbed and exceptionally large community of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We monitored births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations in the community between 1995 and 2016. Using known and estimated ages, we calculated survivorship curves for the whole community, for males and females separately, and for individuals ≤2 years old when identified. We used a novel method to address age estimation error by calculating stochastic survivorship curves. We compared Ngogo life expectancy, survivorship, and mortality rates to those from other chimpanzee communities and human hunter-gatherers. Life expectancy at birth for both sexes combined was 32.8 years, far exceeding estimates of chimpanzee life expectancy in other communities, and falling within the range of human hunter-gatherers (i.e., 27-37 years). Overall, the pattern of survivorship at Ngogo was more similar to that of human hunter-gatherers than to other chimpanzee communities. Maximum lifespan for the Ngogo chimpanzees, however, was similar to that reported at other chimpanzee research sites and was less than that of human-hunter gatherers. The absence of predation by large carnivores may contribute to some of the higher survivorship at Ngogo, but this cannot explain the much higher survivorship at Ngogo than at Kanyawara, another chimpanzee community in the same forest, which also lacks large carnivores. Higher survivorship at Ngogo appears to be an adaptive response to a food supply that is more abundant and varies less than that of Kanyawara. Future analyses of hominin life history evolution should take these results into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Using reporter gene assays to identify cis regulatory differences between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Adrien; Shrit, Ralla A; Blekhman, Ran; Gilad, Yoav

    2007-08-01

    Most phenotypic differences between human and chimpanzee are likely to result from differences in gene regulation, rather than changes to protein-coding regions. To date, however, only a handful of human-chimpanzee nucleotide differences leading to changes in gene regulation have been identified. To hone in on differences in regulatory elements between human and chimpanzee, we focused on 10 genes that were previously found to be differentially expressed between the two species. We then designed reporter gene assays for the putative human and chimpanzee promoters of the 10 genes. Of seven promoters that we found to be active in human liver cell lines, human and chimpanzee promoters had significantly different activity in four cases, three of which recapitulated the gene expression difference seen in the microarray experiment. For these three genes, we were therefore able to demonstrate that a change in cis influences expression differences between humans and chimpanzees. Moreover, using site-directed mutagenesis on one construct, the promoter for the DDA3 gene, we were able to identify three nucleotides that together lead to a cis regulatory difference between the species. High-throughput application of this approach can provide a map of regulatory element differences between humans and our close evolutionary relatives.

  17. Triadic and collaborative play by gorillas in social games with objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joanne E; Byrne, Richard W

    2010-07-01

    Interaction with others over objects has until recently been thought lacking in the social play of non-human great apes, in contrast to that of children; even now, only bonobos have been observed to engage in social play involving objects. Human children's triadic interactions with objects involve joint attention, showing and giving, communication that maintains interaction, and sharing of emotions and experiences. We question assertions that chimpanzees, and non-human great apes in general, lack the key characteristics of children's collaborative play. Here, we show that zoo gorillas play games that are both triadic and collaborative. These games were videotaped at the San Francisco Zoo in five different years and involved five different pairings of gorillas. The context was in most cases playfully competitive, involving objects such as balls, bags and leather pieces as foci of joint attention; the ostensible goal in most games was to gain or keep possession of a particular object. In some episodes, roles as possessor or pursuer of an object were exchanged many times; in others, one gorilla retained possession of an object but encouraged pursuit from a partner. Through gaze and gesture, gorillas invited others to: share interest in and attention to objects; share patterns of play; and re-engage after breaks in play. Sometimes, gorillas would assist others in their efforts to engage in collaborative play: older gorillas encouraged younger partners by 'self-handicapping' their own actions. Collaborative games may occur later in the ontogeny of gorillas than in humans, and depend on the challenges and artifacts available in a particular group's habitat.

  18. Innate Immune Responses to TLR2 and TLR4 Agonists Differ between Baboons, Chimpanzees and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Jessica F.; Pechenkina, Ekaterina A.; Silver, Jack; Goyert, Sanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background African catarrhine primates differ in bacterial disease susceptibility. Methods Human, chimpanzee, and baboon blood was stimulated with TLR-detected bacterial agonists and cytokine/chemokine induction assessed by real-time pcr. Results Humans and chimpanzees shared similar cytokine/chemokine responses, while baboon cytokine/chemokine induction differed. Generally, responses were agonist-independent. Conclusions These primates tend to generate species rather than agonist–specific responses to bacterial agonists. PMID:22978822

  19. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a ‘framed’ option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive ‘gain’ event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative ‘loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive ‘gain’ frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  20. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. The Human Semicircular Canals Orientation Is More Similar to the Bonobos than to the Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Marwan; Braga, José; Dumoncel, Jean; Nancy, Javotte; Esclassan, Remi; Vaysse, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    For some traits, the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than they are to each other. Therefore, it becomes crucial to understand whether and how morphostructural differences between humans, chimpanzees and bonobos reflect the well known phylogeny. Here we comparatively investigated intra and extra labyrinthine semicircular canals orientation using 260 computed tomography scans of extant humans (Homo sapiens), bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Humans and bonobos proved more similarities between themselves than with chimpanzees. This finding did not fit with the well established chimpanzee – bonobo monophyly. One hypothesis was convergent evolution in which bonobos and humans produce independently similar phenotypes possibly in response to similar selective pressures that may be associated with postural adaptations. Another possibility was convergence following a “random walk” (Brownian motion) evolutionary model. A more parsimonious explanation was that the bonobo-human labyrinthine shared morphology more closely retained the ancestral condition with chimpanzees being subsequently derived. Finally, these results might be a consequence of genetic diversity and incomplete lineage sorting. The remarkable symmetry of the Semicircular Canals was the second major finding of this article with possible applications in taphonomy. It has the potential to investigate altered fossils, inferring the probability of post-mortem deformation which can lead to difficulties in understanding taxonomic variation, phylogenetic relationships, and functional morphology. PMID:24710502

  2. The human semicircular canals orientation is more similar to the bonobos than to the chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Khoury

    Full Text Available For some traits, the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than they are to each other. Therefore, it becomes crucial to understand whether and how morphostructural differences between humans, chimpanzees and bonobos reflect the well known phylogeny. Here we comparatively investigated intra and extra labyrinthine semicircular canals orientation using 260 computed tomography scans of extant humans (Homo sapiens, bonobos (Pan paniscus and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Humans and bonobos proved more similarities between themselves than with chimpanzees. This finding did not fit with the well established chimpanzee - bonobo monophyly. One hypothesis was convergent evolution in which bonobos and humans produce independently similar phenotypes possibly in response to similar selective pressures that may be associated with postural adaptations. Another possibility was convergence following a "random walk" (Brownian motion evolutionary model. A more parsimonious explanation was that the bonobo-human labyrinthine shared morphology more closely retained the ancestral condition with chimpanzees being subsequently derived. Finally, these results might be a consequence of genetic diversity and incomplete lineage sorting. The remarkable symmetry of the Semicircular Canals was the second major finding of this article with possible applications in taphonomy. It has the potential to investigate altered fossils, inferring the probability of post-mortem deformation which can lead to difficulties in understanding taxonomic variation, phylogenetic relationships, and functional morphology.

  3. Ranging and grouping patterns of a western lowland gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, M J

    1997-01-01

    The ranging and grouping patterns of a gorilla group were studied during 27 months from 1990-1992 at the Bai Hokou study site, Central African Republic. The study group ranged far daily (average = 2.3 km/day) and had a large home range (22.9 km2), relative to mountain gorillas, and ranging patterns differed between years. During 1990-1992, the bimale study group foraged less cohesively and had more flexible grouping patterns than mountain gorillas. The study group sometimes split into two distinct foraging subgroups, each led by a silverback, and these subgroups occasionally slept apart (mean = 950 m apart). Lowland gorillas rely on many of the same fruit resources as sympatric chimpanzees, and under certain demographic situations gorillas, like sympatric chimpanzees, may adapt their foraging group size to reduce intragroup feeding competition. However, the fiber content of the lowland gorilla diet likely relaxes constraints on foraging party size and facilitates group cohesion relative to chimpanzees.

  4. Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Marewski, Julian N; Schooler, Lael J; Gilby, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour. Using chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) as a case study, we modelled 19 years of observational data on their social contact patterns. Much like humans, the frequency of past encounters in chimpanzees linearly predicted future encounters, and the recency of past encounters predicted future encounters with a power function. Consistent with the rational analyses carried out for human memory, these findings suggest that chimpanzee memory performance should reflect those environmental regularities. In re-analysing existing chimpanzee memory data, we found that chimpanzee memory patterns mirrored their social contact patterns. Our findings hint that human and chimpanzee memory systems may have evolved to solve similar information-processing problems. Overall, rational analysis offers novel theoretical and methodological avenues for the comparative study of cognition.

  5. Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Julian N.; Schooler, Lael J.; Gilby, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour. Using chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as a case study, we modelled 19 years of observational data on their social contact patterns. Much like humans, the frequency of past encounters in chimpanzees linearly predicted future encounters, and the recency of past encounters predicted future encounters with a power function. Consistent with the rational analyses carried out for human memory, these findings suggest that chimpanzee memory performance should reflect those environmental regularities. In re-analysing existing chimpanzee memory data, we found that chimpanzee memory patterns mirrored their social contact patterns. Our findings hint that human and chimpanzee memory systems may have evolved to solve similar information-processing problems. Overall, rational analysis offers novel theoretical and methodological avenues for the comparative study of cognition. PMID:27853606

  6. Chimpanzee autarky.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Brosnan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Economists believe that barter is the ultimate cause of social wealth--and even much of our human culture--yet little is known about the evolution and development of such behavior. It is useful to examine the circumstances under which other species will or will not barter to more fully understand the phenomenon. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are an interesting test case as they are an intelligent species, closely related to humans, and known to participate in reciprocal interactions and token economies with humans, yet they have not spontaneously developed costly barter.Although chimpanzees do engage in noncostly barter, in which otherwise value-less tokens are exchanged for food, this lack of risk is not typical of human barter. Thus, we systematically examined barter in chimpanzees to ascertain under what circumstances chimpanzees will engage in costly barter of commodities, that is, trading food items for other food items with a human experimenter. We found that chimpanzees do barter, relinquishing lower value items to obtain higher value items (and not the reverse. However, they do not trade in all beneficial situations, maintaining possession of less preferred items when the relative gains they stand to make are small.Two potential explanations for this puzzling behavior are that chimpanzees lack ownership norms, and thus have limited opportunity to benefit from the gains of trade, and that chimpanzees' risk of defection is sufficiently high that large gains must be imminent to justify the risk. Understanding the conditions that support barter in chimpanzees may increase understanding of situations in which humans, too, do not maximize their gains.

  7. Chimpanzee autarky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Grady, Mark F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Beran, Michael J

    2008-01-30

    Economists believe that barter is the ultimate cause of social wealth--and even much of our human culture--yet little is known about the evolution and development of such behavior. It is useful to examine the circumstances under which other species will or will not barter to more fully understand the phenomenon. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are an interesting test case as they are an intelligent species, closely related to humans, and known to participate in reciprocal interactions and token economies with humans, yet they have not spontaneously developed costly barter. Although chimpanzees do engage in noncostly barter, in which otherwise value-less tokens are exchanged for food, this lack of risk is not typical of human barter. Thus, we systematically examined barter in chimpanzees to ascertain under what circumstances chimpanzees will engage in costly barter of commodities, that is, trading food items for other food items with a human experimenter. We found that chimpanzees do barter, relinquishing lower value items to obtain higher value items (and not the reverse). However, they do not trade in all beneficial situations, maintaining possession of less preferred items when the relative gains they stand to make are small. Two potential explanations for this puzzling behavior are that chimpanzees lack ownership norms, and thus have limited opportunity to benefit from the gains of trade, and that chimpanzees' risk of defection is sufficiently high that large gains must be imminent to justify the risk. Understanding the conditions that support barter in chimpanzees may increase understanding of situations in which humans, too, do not maximize their gains.

  8. Evolution of the NANOG pseudogene family in the human and chimpanzee genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maughan Peter J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NANOG gene is expressed in mammalian embryonic stem cells where it maintains cellular pluripotency. An unusually large family of pseudogenes arose from it with one unprocessed and ten processed pseudogenes in the human genome. This article compares the NANOG gene and its pseudogenes in the human and chimpanzee genomes and derives an evolutionary history of this pseudogene family. Results The NANOG gene and all pseudogenes except NANOGP8 are present at their expected orthologous chromosomal positions in the chimpanzee genome when compared to the human genome, indicating that their origins predate the human-chimpanzee divergence. Analysis of flanking DNA sequences demonstrates that NANOGP8 is absent from the chimpanzee genome. Conclusion Based on the most parsimonious ordering of inferred source-gene mutations, the deduced evolutionary origins for the NANOG pseudogene family in the human and chimpanzee genomes, in order of most ancient to most recent, are NANOGP6, NANOGP5, NANOGP3, NANOGP10, NANOGP2, NANOGP9, NANOGP7, NANOGP1, and NANOGP4. All of these pseudogenes were fixed in the genome of the human-chimpanzee common ancestor. NANOGP8 is the most recent pseudogene and it originated exclusively in the human lineage after the human-chimpanzee divergence. NANOGP1 is apparently an unprocessed pseudogene. Comparison of its sequence to the functional NANOG gene's reading frame suggests that this apparent pseudogene remained functional after duplication and, therefore, was subject to selection-driven conservation of its reading frame, and that it may retain some functionality or that its loss of function may be evolutionarily recent.

  9. Cardiovascular evaluation of lowland gorillas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, R.E.; Mezei, L.E.; Muhlbauer, M.C.; Weber, M.

    1998-01-01

    To design a diagnostic protocol that uses appropriate techniques, including ultrasonography, to assess cardiovascular health and detect primary cardiac diseases in gorillas and to establish a database of reference values for cardiac measurements in clinically normal gorillas. Prospective study. 5 adult male lowland gorillas from 11 to 18 years old. A complete cardiac evaluation was performed on anesthetized gorillas, including physical examination, thoracic radiography, electrocardiography, echocardiography, blood pressure determination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and serologic assay for viral diseases. Standard cardiac measurements were made from images collected during ultrasonography. Cardiac measurements derived from ultrasonographic images were consistent with those considered normal in human beings. Results of other diagnostic tests were also considered normal. Cardiac disease is the primary cause of mortality in old captive gorillas. The technique used here provided excellent evaluation of cardiac function. Use of these techniques will allow early detection of cardiac disease, making treatment or medical management possible

  10. An experimental study of nettle feeding in captive gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Hedwig, Daniela; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Karisoke, Rwanda, feed on the stinging nettle Laportea alatipes by means of elaborate processing skills. Byrne [e.g. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 358:529-536, 2003] has claimed that individuals acquire these skills by means of the so-called program-level imitation, in which the overall sequence of problem-solving steps (not the precise actions) is reproduced. In this study we present western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with highly similar nettles. Twelve gorillas in three different groups (including also one nettle-naïve gorilla) used the same program-level technique as wild mountain gorillas (with differences mainly on the action level). Chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos did not show these program-level patterns, nor did the gorillas when presented with a plant similar in structural design but lacking stinging defenses. We conclude that although certain aspects (i.e. single actions) of this complex skill may be owing to social learning, at the program level gorilla nettle feeding derives mostly from genetic predispositions and individual learning of plant affordances. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Comparative Serum Challenges Show Divergent Patterns of Gene Expression and Open Chromatin in Human and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzollo, Jason; Nielsen, William J; Shibata, Yoichiro; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2018-03-01

    Humans experience higher rates of age-associated diseases than our closest living evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees. Environmental factors can explain many of these increases in disease risk, but species-specific genetic changes can also play a role. Alleles that confer increased disease susceptibility later in life can persist in a population in the absence of selective pressure if those changes confer positive adaptation early in life. One age-associated disease that disproportionately affects humans compared with chimpanzees is epithelial cancer. Here, we explored genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees in a well-defined experimental assay that mimics gene expression changes that happen during cancer progression: A fibroblast serum challenge. We used this assay with fibroblasts isolated from humans and chimpanzees to explore species-specific differences in gene expression and chromatin state with RNA-Seq and DNase-Seq. Our data reveal that human fibroblasts increase expression of genes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways; in contrast, chimpanzee gene expression changes are not concentrated around particular functional categories. Chromatin accessibility dramatically increases in human fibroblasts, yet decreases in chimpanzee cells during the serum response. Many regions of opening and closing chromatin are in close proximity to genes encoding transcription factors or genes involved in wound healing processes, further supporting the link between changes in activity of regulatory elements and changes in gene expression. Together, these expression and open chromatin data show that humans and chimpanzees have dramatically different responses to the same physiological stressor, and how a core physiological process can evolve quickly over relatively short evolutionary time scales.

  12. Identification and molecular characterization of novel primate bocaparvoviruses from wild western lowland gorillas of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nze-Nkogue, Chimene; Horie, Masayuki; Fujita, Shiho; Inoue, Eiji; Akomo-Okoue, Etienne-François; Ozawa, Makoto; Ngomanda, Alfred; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2017-09-01

    Bocaparvoviruses have been studied extensively owing to their ability to cause respiratory illness or gastroenteritis in humans. Some bocaparvoviruses have been detected in non-human primates (gorillas and chimpanzees), but the diversity and evolution of these viruses are not fully understood. In this study, we collected 107 fecal samples from wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park in Gabon to investigate the presence of bocaparvoviruses. Using a combination of pan-bocaparvovirus PCR and individual identification by microsatellite genotyping, we found that two samples from two apparently healthy infant gorillas were positive for bocaparvovirus. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the two gorilla bocaparvovirus strains are nearly identical and are closely related to viruses in the species Primate bocaparvovirus 2 (with 86.0% nucleotide identity to a human bocavirus 2 isolate). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the presence of a non-human primate bocaparovirus within Primate bocaparvovirus 2. Our findings provide novel insights into the diversity and evolution of bocaparvoviruses and highlight the importance of surveying these viruses for the safe management of gorilla-based ecotourism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization and potential functional significance of human-chimpanzee large INDEL variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polavarapu Nalini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although humans and chimpanzees have accumulated significant differences in a number of phenotypic traits since diverging from a common ancestor about six million years ago, their genomes are more than 98.5% identical at protein-coding loci. This modest degree of nucleotide divergence is not sufficient to explain the extensive phenotypic differences between the two species. It has been hypothesized that the genetic basis of the phenotypic differences lies at the level of gene regulation and is associated with the extensive insertion and deletion (INDEL variation between the two species. To test the hypothesis that large INDELs (80 to 12,000 bp may have contributed significantly to differences in gene regulation between the two species, we categorized human-chimpanzee INDEL variation mapping in or around genes and determined whether this variation is significantly correlated with previously determined differences in gene expression. Results Extensive, large INDEL variation exists between the human and chimpanzee genomes. This variation is primarily attributable to retrotransposon insertions within the human lineage. There is a significant correlation between differences in gene expression and large human-chimpanzee INDEL variation mapping in genes or in proximity to them. Conclusions The results presented herein are consistent with the hypothesis that large INDELs, particularly those associated with retrotransposons, have played a significant role in human-chimpanzee regulatory evolution.

  14. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xin; He, Mingze; Ferguson, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    -human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab...

  15. Gut microbiome composition is associated with cardiac disease in zoo-housed western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynak, Katherine L; Burke, David J; Martin, Ryan A; Dennis, Patricia M

    2017-08-15

    Cardiac disease is a leading cause of mortality in zoo-housed western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). The gut microbiome is associated with cardiac disease in humans and similarly the gut microbiome may be associated with cardiac diseases in close relatives of humans, such as gorillas. We assessed the relationship between cardiac disease and gut bacterial composition in eight zoo-housed male western lowland gorillas (N = 4 with and N = 4 without cardiac disease) utilizing 16S rRNA gene analysis on the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. We found bacterial composition differences between gorillas with and without cardiac disease. Bacterial operational taxonomic units from phyla Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were significant indicators of cardiac disease. Our results suggest that further investigations between diet and cardiac disease could improve the management and health of zoo-housed populations of this endangered species. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization epitope with conserved architecture elicits early type-specific antibodies in experimentally infected chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Debouck, C.; Meloen, R. H.; Smit, L.; Bakker, M.; Asher, D. M.; Wolff, A. V.; Gibbs, C. J.; Gajdusek, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    Chimpanzees are susceptible to infection by divergent strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), none of which cause clinical or immunological abnormalities. Chimpanzees were inoculated with one of four strains of HIV-1: human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type IIIB, lymphadenopathy virus

  17. Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) subunit vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, L.O.; Pyle, S.W.; Nara, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    The major envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been purified and was utilized as a prototype vaccine in chimpanzees. The 120,000-dalton glycoprotein (gp120) was purified from membranes of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-IIIB-infected cells and the final preparation contained low levels to no detectable HTLV-IIIB core antigen (p24) and low levels of endotoxin. Chimpanzees inoculated with gp120 responded by developing antibodies that precipitated radiolabeled gp120 and neutralized in vitro infection of HTLV-IIIB. Antibodies to HTLV-IIIB p24 were not detected in the gp120-immunized chimpanzees. Peripheral blood leukocytes from the vaccinated animals were examined for T4 + and T8 + cells, and no decrease in the T4/T8 ratio was found, indicating that immunization with a ligand (gp120) that binds to T4 has not detectable adverse effect on the population of T4 + cells. The only current animal model that can be reproducibly infected with HIV is the chimpanzee. Immunization of chimpanzees with HIV proteins will provide an experimental system for testing the effectiveness of prototype vaccines for preventing HIV infection in vivo

  18. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Martha M; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A; Grueter, Cyril C; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the 'method of exclusion' to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture.

  19. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Martha M.; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A.; Grueter, Cyril C.; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L.; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S.; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the ‘method of exclusion’ to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture. PMID:27603668

  20. A Scan for Positively Selected Genes in the Genomes of Humans and Chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Bustamente, Carlos; Clark, Andrew G.

    2005-01-01

    Since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees about 5 million years ago, these species have undergone a remarkable evolution with drastic divergence in anatomy and cognitive abilities. At the molecular level, despite the small overall magnitude of DNA sequence divergence, we might expect...... such evolutionary changes to leave a noticeable signature throughout the genome. We here compare 13,731 annotated genes from humans to their chimpanzee orthologs to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection. Many of the genes that present a signature of positive selection tend to be involved...

  1. Matching based on biological categories in Orangutans (Pongo abelii and a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vonk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Following a series of experiments in which six orangutans and one gorilla discriminated photographs of different animal species in a two-choice touch screen procedure, Vonk & MacDonald (2002 and Vonk & MacDonald (2004 concluded that orangutans, but not the gorilla, seemed to learn intermediate level category discriminations, such as primates versus non-primates, more rapidly than they learned concrete level discriminations, such as orangutans versus humans. In the current experiments, four of the same orangutans and the gorilla were presented with delayed matching-to-sample tasks in which they were rewarded for matching photos of different members of the same primate species; golden lion tamarins, Japanese macaques, and proboscis monkeys, or family; gibbons, lemurs (Experiment 1, and subsequently for matching photos of different species within the following classes: birds, reptiles, insects, mammals, and fish (Experiment 2. Members of both Great Ape species were rapidly able to match the photos at levels above chance. Orangutans matched images from both category levels spontaneously whereas the gorilla showed effects of learning to match intermediate level categories. The results show that biological knowledge is not necessary to form natural categories at both concrete and intermediate levels.

  2. Gimme Gimme Gimme. The recent signing behaviour of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in interactions with longterm human companions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, E.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation starts with a critical analysis of the scientific projects with signing chimpanzees, which were set up to see if chimpanzees could learn a human language. These projects consist of the research by the Gardners, the Fouts and the Terrace group. After the results of these projects

  3. Cultural assemblages show nested structure in humans and chimpanzees but not orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-01-07

    The evolution of hominin culture is well-documented in the archeological and fossil record, but such a record is largely absent for nonhuman primates. An alternative approach to studying cultural evolution is to examine patterns of modern cultural variation. In this article we measure nestedness across human and great ape "cultural repertoires" to gain insight into the accumulation and maintenance of putative cultural diversity in these species. Cultural assemblages are nested if cultures with a small repertoire of traits tend to comprise a proper subset of those traits present in more complex cultures. This nesting will occur if some traits are sequentially gained or lost, which may be because of the differential dispersal or extinction of traits. Here we apply statistical tools from ecology to examine the degree of nestedness in four datasets documenting the presence or absence of specific cultural traits across indigenous human populations in North America and New Guinea. We then compare the human data to patterns observed for putative cultural traits in chimpanzee and orangutan populations. In both humans and chimpanzees, cultural diversity is highly nonrandom, showing significant nested structure for all of the datasets examined. We find no evidence for nestedness in the orangutan cultural data. These findings are consistent with a sequential "layering" of cultural diversity in humans and chimpanzees, but not orangutans. Such an interpretation implies that the traits required for sequential cultural evolution first appeared in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  4. A review of the diets of captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, D

    1976-12-01

    It is clear that most zoos feed their gorillas a principally frugivorous diet, while the diets of wild gorilla populations are undoubtedly basically herbivorous. The primary food plant of western and eastern lowland gorillas is Aframomum, and Blancou (1955) even maintains that these plants possess active parasiticidal qualities, but this subscription is not borne out by recent research. However, it is possible that another plant food, combretum, could have some propensities as a deparasitant. Many captive gorillas accept cooked or raw meat in their diets and there is some evidence that feral gorillas may also occasionally consume matter of animal origin.

  5. Using the NCBI Genome Databases to Compare the Genes for Human & Chimpanzee Beta Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The beta hemoglobin protein is identical in humans and chimpanzees. In this tutorial, students see that even though the proteins are identical, the genes that code for them are not. There are many more differences in the introns than in the exons, which indicates that coding regions of DNA are more highly conserved than non-coding regions.

  6. Relative position and extent of the nasal and orbital openings in Gorilla, Pan and the human species from the study of their areas and centres of area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittbuhl, M; Le Minor, J M; Schaaf, A

    1996-01-01

    In order to quantify the relative position and extent of the nasal and orbital openings in hominoid primates, a new methodology based on image analysis was developed and applied to a series of 134 hominoid skulls (52 Gorilla gorilla; 30 Pan troglodytes; 44 Homo sapiens, and, as comparison material, 8 Pongo pygmaeus). The areas and the centres of area of the orbital and nasal openings were determined automatically. The orbitonasal triangle connecting these three centres of area was then constructed. This triangle was used to quantify the elongation of the face. It was most elongated in gorilla, shortest in the human species and intermediate in Pan; the elongation in Pongo was close to that in Gorilla. The proportions of the areas of the orbital and nasal openings in the face were related to the extent of the bony structures of the midface and were thus used to quantify the facial robustness. A robust face was demonstrated in Gorilla, but a gracile face in the human species. Robusticity in Pan was intermediate.

  7. Protein deficiency in a colony of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, N I; Ancrenaz, M; Wickings, E J; Lunn, P G

    1998-09-01

    A syndrome of alopecia and weight loss in a colony of 10 western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Gabon during a 3-yr period was apparently due to a dietary protein deficiency, with nine individuals affected to some extent. The most severely afflicted was a 4-yr-old female who eventually died as a result of acute gastroenteritis caused by Shigella flexneri. Clinical signs included chronic alopecia, hair discoloration, failure to thrive, and weight loss, and their severity was directly correlated with the degree of hypoalbuminemia (12 g/L in the most extreme case) and normocytic normochromic anemia. Preliminary clinical tests and autopsy results suggested a dietary protein or amino acid deficiency as the cause of the hypoalbuminemia, and further analyses of serum amino acid and protein levels were consistent with a diagnosis of dietary protein deficiency. Supplementation of the colony diet with a protein preparation for humans produced a rapid amelioration of signs and improvement in body and coat condition, a normalization of serum albumin and total protein levels, and disappearance of the anemia in all affected animals except a 12-yr-old male, who responded well to treatment with anabolic steroids. The natural diet of western lowland gorillas is surprisingly high in protein, and the dietary protein requirement of captive gorillas may be increased as a result of the absence of commensal gastrointestinal ciliates.

  8. Gorilla gorilla gorilla gut: a potential reservoir of pathogenic bacteria as revealed using culturomics and molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Fadi; Keita, Mamadou B; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier

    2014-11-24

    Wild apes are considered to be the most serious reservoir and source of zoonoses. However, little data are available about the gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in gorillas. For this propose, a total of 48 fecal samples obtained from 21 Gorilla gorilla gorilla individuals (as revealed via microsatellite analysis) were screened for human bacterial pathogens using culturomics and molecular techniques. By applying culturomics to one index gorilla and using specific media supplemented by plants, we tested 12,800 colonies and identified 147 different bacterial species, including 5 new species. Many opportunistic pathogens were isolated, including 8 frequently associated with human diseases; Mycobacterium bolletii, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum. The genus Treponema accounted for 27.4% of the total reads identified at the genus level via 454 pyrosequencing. Using specific real-time PCR on 48 gorilla fecal samples, in addition to classical human pathogens, we also observed the fastidious bacteria Bartonella spp. Borrelia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Tropheryma whipplei in the gorilla population. We estimated that the prevalence of these pathogens vary between 4.76% and 85.7%. Therefore, gorillas share many bacterial pathogens with humans suggesting that they could be a reservoir for their emergence.

  9. Comparative kinomics of human and chimpanzee reveal unique kinship and functional diversity generated by new domain combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Juliette

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation by protein kinases is a common event in many cellular processes. Further, many kinases perform specialized roles and are regulated by non-kinase domains tethered to kinase domain. Perturbation in the regulation of kinases leads to malignancy. We have identified and analysed putative protein kinases encoded in the genome of chimpanzee which is a close evolutionary relative of human. Result The shared core biology between chimpanzee and human is characterized by many orthologous protein kinases which are involved in conserved pathways. Domain architectures specific to chimp/human kinases have been observed. Chimp kinases with unique domain architectures are characterized by deletion of one or more non-kinase domains in the human kinases. Interestingly, counterparts of some of the multi-domain human kinases in chimp are characterized by identical domain architectures but with kinase-like non-kinase domain. Remarkably, out of 587 chimpanzee kinases no human orthologue with greater than 95% sequence identity could be identified for 160 kinases. Variations in chimpanzee kinases compared to human kinases are brought about also by differences in functions of domains tethered to the catalytic kinase domain. For example, the heterodimer forming PB1 domain related to the fold of ubiquitin/Ras-binding domain is seen uniquely tethered to PKC-like chimpanzee kinase. Conclusion Though the chimpanzee and human are evolutionary very close, there are chimpanzee kinases with no close counterpart in the human suggesting differences in their functions. This analysis provides a direction for experimental analysis of human and chimpanzee protein kinases in order to enhance our understanding on their specific biological roles.

  10. Comparative ocular anatomy of the western lowland gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Stefanie; McCulley, James P; Alvarado, Thomas P; Hogan, R Nick

    2007-01-01

    To examine the lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) eye and determine similarities to and differences between the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) and the human eye. In addition, we compare our findings of G. g. gorilla to previous reports on the eye of this subspecies. A 13-year-old deceased male lowland gorilla and a 34-year-old deceased female lowland gorilla were included in the study. Gross and microscopic examinations of the formalin-fixed right eyeball of each gorilla were carried out. Globe dimensions of G. g. gorilla were similar to G. g. beringei and to humans. The limbal conjunctival epithelium and the choroid were densely pigmented. However, the distribution of the conjunctival pigment ring was different to that of G. g. beringei and the melanocytes of the choroid were unusually round. There were deep crypts in the anterior border layer of the iris, and the epithelium of the pars plana was uniquely irregular. Vertical corneal diameter was observed to be equal or greater than horizontal diameter in G. g. gorilla, which is in contrast to humans and to previous findings for G. g. beringei. Corneal thickness was closer to that of humans than to G. g. beringei. Posterior lens capsule thickness was noticeably greater than that of humans. Although some variation between the ocular anatomy of G. g. gorilla and G. g. beringei does exist, the gross and microscopic findings closely resemble each other in these two subspecies. In addition, the eye of Gorilla appears remarkably similar to the human eye. However, comparison of measurements with those in humans is somewhat limited because formalin-fixation can introduce tissue shrinkage and artifact.

  11. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  12. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement. PMID:26132703

  13. Extensive changes in the expression of the opioid genes between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Gordillo, Peter; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2010-01-01

    The various means by which the body perceives, transmits, and resolves the experiences of pain and nociception are mediated by a host of molecules, including neuropeptides within the opioid gene signaling pathway. The peptide ligands and receptors encoded by this group of genes have been linked to behavioral disorders as well as a number of psychiatric affective disorders. Our aim was to explore the recent evolutionary history of these two gene families by taking a comparative genomics approach, specifically through a comparison between humans and chimpanzees. Our analyses indicate differential expression of these genes between the two species, more than expected based on genome-wide comparisons, indicating that differential expression is pervasive among the opioid genes. Of the 8 family members, three genes showed significant expression differences (PENK, PNOC, and OPRL1), with two others marginally significant (OPRM1 and OPRD1). Accelerated substitution rates along human and chimpanzee lineages within the putative regulatory regions of OPRM1, POMC, and PDYN between the human and chimpanzee branches are consistent with positive selection. Collectively, these results suggest that there may have been a selective advantage to modulating the expression of the opioid genes in humans compared with our closest living relatives. Information about the cognitive roles mediated by these genes in humans may help to elucidate the trait consequences of these putatively adaptive expression changes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hattori

    Full Text Available Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking. Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse, suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  15. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  16. Detailed comparative anatomy of the extrinsic cardiac nerve plexus and postnatal reorganization of the cardiac position and innervation in the great apes: orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sato, Fumi

    2012-03-01

    To speculate how the extrinsic cardiac nerve plexus (ECNP) evolves phyletically and ontogenetically within the primate lineage, we conducted a comparative anatomical study of the ECNP, including an imaging examination in the great apes using 20 sides from 11 bodies from three species and a range of postnatal stages from newborns to mature adults. Although the position of the middle cervical ganglion (MG) in the great apes tended to be relatively lower than that in humans, the morphology of the ECNP in adult great apes was almost consistent with that in adult humans but essentially different from that in the lesser apes or gibbons. Therefore, the well-argued anatomical question of when did the MG acquire communicating branches with the spinal cervical nerves and appear constantly in all sympathetic cardiac nerves during primate evolution is clearly considered to be after the great apes and gibbons split. Moreover, a horizontal four-chambered heart and a lifted cardiac apex with a relatively large volume in newborn great apes rapidly changed its position downward, as seen in humans during postnatal growth and was associated with a reduction in the hepatic volume by imaging diagnosis and gross anatomy. In addition, our observation using a range of postnatal stages exhibits that two sympathetic ganglia, the middle cervical and cervicothoracic ganglia, differed between the early and later postnatal stages. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. In vivo neutralization of hepatitis B virus infection by an anti-preS1 humanized antibody in chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyo Jeong; Ryu, Chun Jeih; Hur, Hyangsuk; Kim, Seho; Oh, Han Kyu; Oh, Mee Sook; Park, Song Yong

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we generated a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb), KR127, that recognizes amino acids (aa) 37-45 of the preS1 of hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this study, we have constructed a humanized version of KR127 and evaluated its HBV-neutralizing activity in chimpanzees. A study chimpanzee was given a single intravenous dose of the humanized antibody, followed by intravenous challenge with adr subtype of wild type HBV, while a control chimpanzee was only challenged with the virus. The result showed that the study chimpanzee did not develop HBV infection during 1 year, while the control chimpanzee was infected, indicating that the humanized antibody exhibited in vivo virus-neutralizing activity and thus protected the chimpanzee from HBV infection. In addition, the humanized antibody bound to the preS1 of all subtypes of HBV. We first demonstrate that an anti-preS1 mAb can neutralize HBV infection in vivo. This humanized antibody will be useful for the immunoprophylaxis of HBV infection

  18. Neuromandibular integration in humans and chimpanzees: Implications for dental and mandibular reduction in Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Alessio; Meloro, Carlo; Irish, Joel D; Stringer, Chris; Profico, Antonio; De Groote, Isabelle

    2018-05-08

    Although the evolution of the hominin masticatory apparatus has been linked to diet and food processing, the physical connection between neurocranium and lower jaw suggests a role of encephalization in the trend of dental and mandibular reduction. Here, the hypothesis that tooth size and mandibular robusticity are influenced by morphological changes in the neurocranium was tested. Three-dimensional landmarks, alveolar lengths, and mandibular robusticity data were recorded on a sample of chimpanzee and human skulls. The morphological integration between the neurocranium and the lower jaw was analyzed by means of Singular Warps Analysis. Redundancy Analysis was performed to understand if the pattern of neuromandibular integration affects tooth size and mandibular robusticity. There is significant morphological covariation between neurocranium and lower jaw in both chimpanzees and humans. In humans, changes in the temporal fossa seem to produce alterations of the relative orientation of jaw parts, while the influence of similar neurocranial changes in chimpanzees are more localized. In both species, postcanine alveolar lengths and mandibular robusticity are associated with shape changes of the temporal fossa. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the neurocranium is able to affect the evolution and development of the lower jaw, although most likely through functional integration of mandible, teeth, and muscles within the masticatory apparatus. This study highlights the relative influence of structural constraints and adaptive factors in the evolution of the human skull. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Form and function of the human and chimpanzee forefoot: implications for early hominin bipedalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Peter J.; Holowka, Nicholas B.; Demes, Brigitte; Jungers, William L.

    2016-01-01

    During bipedal walking, modern humans dorsiflex their forefoot at the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) prior to push off, which tightens the plantar soft tissues to convert the foot into a stiff propulsive lever. Particular features of metatarsal head morphology such as “dorsal doming” are thought to facilitate this stiffening mechanism. In contrast, chimpanzees are believed to possess MTPJ morphology that precludes high dorsiflexion excursions during terrestrial locomotion. The morphological affinity of the metatarsal heads has been used to reconstruct locomotor behavior in fossil hominins, but few studies have provided detailed empirical data to validate the assumed link between morphology and function at the MTPJs. Using three-dimensional kinematic and morphometric analyses, we show that humans push off with greater peak dorsiflexion angles at all MTPJs than do chimpanzees during bipedal and quadrupedal walking, with the greatest disparity occurring at MTPJ 1. Among MTPJs 2–5, both species exhibit decreasing peak angles from medial to lateral. This kinematic pattern is mirrored in the morphometric analyses of metatarsal head shape. Analyses of Australopithecus afarensis metatarsals reveal morphology intermediate between humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that this species used different bipedal push-off kinematics than modern humans, perhaps resulting in a less efficient form of bipedalism. PMID:27464580

  20. Genome sequencing of chimpanzee malaria parasites reveals possible pathways of adaptation to human hosts

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Thomas D.

    2014-09-09

    Plasmodium falciparum causes most human malaria deaths, having prehistorically evolved from parasites of African Great Apes. Here we explore the genomic basis of P. falciparum adaptation to human hosts by fully sequencing the genome of the closely related chimpanzee parasite species P. reichenowi, and obtaining partial sequence data from a more distantly related chimpanzee parasite (P. gaboni). The close relationship between P. reichenowi and P. falciparum is emphasized by almost complete conservation of genomic synteny, but against this strikingly conserved background we observe major differences at loci involved in erythrocyte invasion. The organization of most virulence-associated multigene families, including the hypervariable var genes, is broadly conserved, but P. falciparum has a smaller subset of rif and stevor genes whose products are expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface. Genome-wide analysis identifies other loci under recent positive selection, but a limited number of changes at the host–parasite interface may have mediated host switching.

  1. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. All great ape species (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo abelii) and two-and-a-half-year-old children (Homo sapiens) discriminate appearance from reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Katja; Schmelz, Martin; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Nonhuman great apes and human children were tested for an understanding that appearance does not always correspond to reality. Subjects were 29 great apes (bonobos [Pan paniscus], chimpanzees [Pan troglodytes], gorillas [Gorilla gorilla], and orangutans [Pongo abelii]) and 24 2½-year-old children. In our task, we occluded portions of 1 large and 1 small food stick such that the size relations seemed reversed. Subjects could then choose which one they wanted. There was 1 control condition and 2 experimental conditions (administered within subjects). In the control condition subjects saw only the apparent stick sizes, whereas in the 2 experimental conditions they saw the true stick sizes as well (the difference between them being what the subjects saw first: the apparent or the real stick sizes). All great ape species and children successfully identified the bigger stick, despite its smaller appearance, in the experimental conditions, but not in the control. We discuss these results in relation to the understanding of object permanence and conservation, and exclude reversed reward contingency learning as an explanation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and high pitch are shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Vera U.; Adachi, Ikuma; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Humans share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia, people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds). So far, no study has addressed the question whether nonhuman animals share cross-modal correspondences as well. To establish the evolutionary origins of cross-modal mappings, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also associate higher pitch with higher luminance. Thirty-three humans and six chimpanzees were required to classify black and white squares according to their color while hearing irrelevant background sounds that were either high-pitched or low-pitched. Both species performed better when the background sound was congruent (high-pitched for white, low-pitched for black) than when it was incongruent (low-pitched for white, high-pitched for black). An inherent tendency to pair high pitch with high luminance hence evolved before the human lineage split from that of chimpanzees. Rather than being a culturally learned or a linguistic phenomenon, this mapping constitutes a basic feature of the primate sensory system. PMID:22143791

  4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LESIONS IN PERIPHERAL GANGLIA IN CHIMPANZEE AND IN HUMAN POLIOMYELITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodian, David; Howe, Howard A.

    1947-01-01

    1. The peripheral ganglia of eighteen inoculated chimpanzees and thirteen uninoculated controls, and of eighteen fatal human poliomyelitis cases, were studied for histopathological evidence of the route of transmission of virus from the alimentary tract to the CNS. 2. Lesions thought to be characteristic of poliomyelitis in inoculated chimpanzees could not be sharply differentiated from lesions of unknown origin in uninoculated control animals. Moreover, although the inoculated animals as a group, in comparison with the control animals, had a greater number of infiltrative lesions in sympathetic as well as in sensory ganglia, it was not possible to make satisfactory correlations between the distribution of these lesions and the routes of inoculation. 3. In sharp contrast with chimpanzees, the celiac and stellate ganglia of the human poliomyelitis cases were free of any but insignificant infiltrative lesions. Lesions in human trigeminal and spinal sensory ganglia included neuronal damage as well as focal and perivascular inflitrative lesions, as is well known. In most ganglia, as in monkey and chimpanzee sensory ganglia, these were correlated in intensify with the degree of severity of lesions in the region of the CNS receiving their axons. This suggested that lesions in sensory ganglia probably resulted from spread of virus centrifugally from the CNS, in accord with considerable experimental evidence. 4. Two principal difficulties in the interpretation of histopathological findings in peripheral ganglia were revealed by this study. The first is that the specificity of lesions in sympathetic ganglia has not been established beyond doubt as being due to poliomyelitis. The second is that the presence of characteristic lesions in sensory ganglia does not, and cannot, reveal whether the virus reached the ganglia from the periphery or from the central nervous system, except in very early preparalytic stages or in exceptional cases of early arrest of virus spread and of

  5. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E Langergraber

    Full Text Available A large body of theoretical work suggests that analyses of variation at the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA and the paternally inherited non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY are a potentially powerful way to reveal the differing migratory histories of men and women across human societies. However, the few empirical studies comparing mtDNA and NRY variation and known patterns of sex-biased migration have produced conflicting results. Here we review some methodological reasons for these inconsistencies, and take them into account to provide an unbiased characterization of mtDNA and NRY variation in chimpanzees, one of the few mammalian taxa where males routinely remain in and females typically disperse from their natal groups. We show that patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation are more strongly contrasting in patrilocal chimpanzees compared with patrilocal human societies. The chimpanzee data we present here thus provide a valuable comparative benchmark of the patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation to be expected in a society with extremely female-biased dispersal.

  6. Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the lowland gorilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to baboon or rhesus macaque, trophoblast invasion in the human placental bed occurs by the interstitial as well as the endovascular route and reaches as deep as the inner myometrium. We here describe two rare specimens of gorilla placenta. In the light of recent findings in the chimpa......In contrast to baboon or rhesus macaque, trophoblast invasion in the human placental bed occurs by the interstitial as well as the endovascular route and reaches as deep as the inner myometrium. We here describe two rare specimens of gorilla placenta. In the light of recent findings...... in the chimpanzee, we postulated the occurrence of deep invasion in gorilla pregnancy. Tissues were processed for histology (PAS, orcein), lectin staining (Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1) and immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 7/17, α-actin). A specimen of young but undetermined gestational age included deep placental...... no definite conclusions about the origin of the intramural trophoblast and the time-course of spiral artery invasion. A different late second trimester placenta specimen showed scattered extravillous trophoblast in the basal plate and underlying decidua, as well as a remodelled spiral artery containing...

  7. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. 2010 Wiley

  8. Muscle-specific integrins in masseter muscle fibers of chimpanzees: an immunohistochemical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Vaccarino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most notably, recent comparative genomic analyses strongly indicate that the marked differences between modern human and chimpanzees are likely due more to changes in gene regulation than to modifications of the genes. The most peculiar aspect of hominoid karyotypes is that human have 46 chromosomes whereas gorillas and chimpanzees have 48. Interestingly, human and chimpanzees do share identical inversions on chromosome 7 and 9 that are not evident in the gorilla karyotype. Thus, the general phylogeny suggests that humans and chimpanzees are sister taxa; based on this, it seems that human-chimpanzee sequence similarity is an astonishing 99%. At this purpose, of particular interest is the inactivation of the myosin heavy chain 16 (MYH16 gene, most prominently expressed in the masticatory muscle of mammals. It has been showed that the loss of this gene in humans may have resulted in smaller masticatory muscle and consequential changes to cranio-facial morphology and expansion of the human brain case. Powerful masticatory muscles are found in most primates; contrarily, in both modern and fossil member Homo, these muscles are considerably smaller. The evolving hominid masticatory apparatus shifted towards a pattern of gracilization nearly simultaneously with accelerated encephalization in early Homo. To better comprehend the real role of the MYH16 gene, we studied the primary proteins present in the muscle fibers of humans and non-humans, in order to understand if they really can be influenced by MYH16 gene. At this aim we examined the muscle-specific integrins, alpha 7B and beta 1D-integrins, and their relative fetal isoforms, alpha 7A and beta 1A-integrins, analyzing, by immunohistochemistry, muscle biopsies of two components of a chimpanzee's group in captivity, an alpha male and a non-alpha male subjects; all these integrins participate in vital biological processes such as maintenance of tissue integrity, embryonic development, cell

  9. Brief Communication: Quantitative- and molecular-genetic differentiation in humans and chimpanzees: implications for the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Estimates of the amount of genetic differentiation in humans among major geographic regions (e.g., Eastern Asia vs. Europe) from quantitative-genetic analyses of cranial measurements closely match those from classical- and molecular-genetic markers. Typically, among-region differences account for ∼10% of the total variation. This correspondence is generally interpreted as evidence for the importance of neutral evolutionary processes (e.g., genetic drift) in generating among-region differences in human cranial form, but it was initially surprising because human cranial diversity was frequently assumed to show a strong signature of natural selection. Is the human degree of similarity of cranial and DNA-sequence estimates of among-region genetic differentiation unusual? How do comparisons with other taxa illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? Chimpanzees provide a useful starting point for placing the human results in a broader comparative context, because common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the extant species most closely related to humans. To address these questions, I used 27 cranial measurements collected on a sample of 861 humans and 263 chimpanzees to estimate the amount of genetic differentiation between pairs of groups (between regions for humans and between species or subspecies for chimpanzees). Consistent with previous results, the human cranial estimates are quite similar to published DNA-sequence estimates. In contrast, the chimpanzee cranial estimates are much smaller than published DNA-sequence estimates. It appears that cranial differentiation has been limited in chimpanzees relative to humans. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fracture toughness of mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) food plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart-Berry, Alison

    2004-04-01

    Mountain gorillas, the largest extant primates, subsist almost entirely on plant matter. Moreover, their diet includes a substantial amount of structural material, such as bark and stems, which other primates tend to avoid. Accordingly, the robust masticatory apparatus of gorillas may be adaptive to this presumably tough diet; however, quantitative information on this subject is lacking. In this study the fracture toughness of mountain gorilla foods was examined for the first time. Samples of 44 food plants from Bwindi-Impenetrable National Park (BINP) and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park (MGNP) were tested. These parks are inhabited by two gorilla populations that regarded by some as being distinct at the subspecific taxonomic level. Although food toughness did not differ between the two populations, both diets contained tough items. Tree barks were the toughest food items (varying from 0.23 to 8.2 kJ/m2), followed by shrub barks, pith, and stems. The toughness of leaves and fruit was negligible compared to that of bark. The toughness of bamboo was low in comparison to the toughest food items. Accordingly, the prominent toughness of bark, pith, and stems may be key factors in the evolution of orofacial robusticity in mountain gorillas. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Genome sequencing of chimpanzee malaria parasites reveals possible pathways of adaptation to human hosts

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Thomas D.; Rayner, Julian C.; Bö hme, Ulrike; Pain, Arnab; Spottiswoode, Natasha; Sanders, Mandy; Quail, Michael; Ollomo, Benjamin; Renaud, Franç ois; Thomas, Alan W.; Prugnolle, Franck; Conway, David J.; Newbold, Chris; Berriman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    related chimpanzee parasite species P. reichenowi, and obtaining partial sequence data from a more distantly related chimpanzee parasite (P. gaboni). The close relationship between P. reichenowi and P. falciparum is emphasized by almost complete

  12. Evolutionary Divergence of Gene and Protein Expression in the Brains of Humans and Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Soderblom, Erik J; Turner, Meredith E; Moseley, M Arthur; Ely, John J; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2015-07-10

    Although transcriptomic profiling has become the standard approach for exploring molecular differences in the primate brain, very little is known about how the expression levels of gene transcripts relate to downstream protein abundance. Moreover, it is unknown whether the relationship changes depending on the brain region or species under investigation. We performed high-throughput transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and proteomic (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) analyses on two regions of the human and chimpanzee brain: The anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In both brain regions, we found a lower correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels in humans and chimpanzees than has been reported for other tissues and cell types, suggesting that the brain may engage extensive tissue-specific regulation affecting protein abundance. In both species, only a few categories of biological function exhibited strong correlations between mRNA and protein expression levels. These categories included oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis and modification, indicating that the expression levels of mRNA transcripts supporting these biological functions are more predictive of protein expression compared with other functional categories. More generally, however, the two measures of molecular expression provided strikingly divergent perspectives into differential expression between human and chimpanzee brains: mRNA comparisons revealed significant differences in neuronal communication, ion transport, and regulatory processes, whereas protein comparisons indicated differences in perception and cognition, metabolic processes, and organization of the cytoskeleton. Our results highlight the importance of examining protein expression in evolutionary analyses and call for a more thorough understanding of tissue-specific protein expression levels. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular

  13. Gorilla mothers also matter! New insights on social transmission in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luef, Eva Maria; Pika, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes two distinct behaviors relating to food processing and communication that were observed in a community of five separately housed groups of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in captivity during two study periods one decade apart: (1) a food processing technique to separate wheat from chaff, the so-called puff-blowing technique; and (2) a male display used to attract the attention of visitors, the so-called throw-kiss-display. We investigated (a) whether the behaviors were transmitted within the respective groups; and if yes, (b) their possible mode of transmission. Our results showed that only the food processing technique spread from three to twenty-one individuals during the ten-year period, whereas the communicative display died out completely. The main transmission mode of the puff-blowing technique was the mother-offspring dyad: offspring of puff-blowing mothers showed the behavior, while the offspring of non- puff-blowing mothers did not. These results strongly support the role mothers play in the acquisition of novel skills and vertical social transmission. Furthermore, they suggest that behaviors, which provide a direct benefit to individuals, have a high chance of social transmission while the loss of benefits can result in the extinction of behaviors.

  14. Gorilla mothers also matter! New insights on social transmission in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Luef

    Full Text Available The present paper describes two distinct behaviors relating to food processing and communication that were observed in a community of five separately housed groups of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla in captivity during two study periods one decade apart: (1 a food processing technique to separate wheat from chaff, the so-called puff-blowing technique; and (2 a male display used to attract the attention of visitors, the so-called throw-kiss-display. We investigated (a whether the behaviors were transmitted within the respective groups; and if yes, (b their possible mode of transmission. Our results showed that only the food processing technique spread from three to twenty-one individuals during the ten-year period, whereas the communicative display died out completely. The main transmission mode of the puff-blowing technique was the mother-offspring dyad: offspring of puff-blowing mothers showed the behavior, while the offspring of non- puff-blowing mothers did not. These results strongly support the role mothers play in the acquisition of novel skills and vertical social transmission. Furthermore, they suggest that behaviors, which provide a direct benefit to individuals, have a high chance of social transmission while the loss of benefits can result in the extinction of behaviors.

  15. Campylobacter troglodytis sp. nov., Isolated from Feces of Human-Habituated Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Tanzania ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Huffman, Michael A.; Petrželková, Klára J.; Taylor, Nancy S.; Xu, Shilu; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Paster, Bruce J.; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fox, James G.

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of simian immunodeficiency and Ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. In this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. Campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for research and tourism purposes at Mahale Mountains National Park) and 0/15 (0%) group 2 (not human habituated but propagated from an introduced population released from captivity over 30 years ago at Rubondo Island National Park) chimpanzees, respectively. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all isolates were virtually identical (at most a single base difference), and the chimpanzee isolates were most closely related to Campylobacter helveticus and Campylobacter upsaliensis (94.7% and 95.9% similarity, respectively). Whole-cell protein profiling, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA, hsp60 sequence analysis, and determination of the mol% G+C content revealed two subgroups among the chimpanzee isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both subgroups represented distinct genomic species. In the absence of differential biochemical characteristics and morphology and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose to classify all isolates into a single novel nomenspecies, Campylobacter troglodytis, with strain MIT 05-9149 as the type strain; strain MIT 05-9157 is suggested as the reference strain for the second C. troglodytis genomovar. Further studies are required to determine whether the organism is pathogenic to chimpanzees and whether this novel Campylobacter colonizes humans and causes enteric disease. PMID:21278267

  16. Campylobacter troglodytis sp. nov., isolated from feces of human-habituated wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelková, Klára J; Taylor, Nancy S; Xu, Shilu; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Paster, Bruce J; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fox, James G

    2011-04-01

    The transmission of simian immunodeficiency and Ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. In this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. Campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for research and tourism purposes at Mahale Mountains National Park) and 0/15 (0%) group 2 (not human habituated but propagated from an introduced population released from captivity over 30 years ago at Rubondo Island National Park) chimpanzees, respectively. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all isolates were virtually identical (at most a single base difference), and the chimpanzee isolates were most closely related to Campylobacter helveticus and Campylobacter upsaliensis (94.7% and 95.9% similarity, respectively). Whole-cell protein profiling, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA, hsp60 sequence analysis, and determination of the mol% G+C content revealed two subgroups among the chimpanzee isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both subgroups represented distinct genomic species. In the absence of differential biochemical characteristics and morphology and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose to classify all isolates into a single novel nomenspecies, Campylobacter troglodytis, with strain MIT 05-9149 as the type strain; strain MIT 05-9157 is suggested as the reference strain for the second C. troglodytis genomovar. Further studies are required to determine whether the organism is pathogenic to chimpanzees and whether this novel Campylobacter colonizes humans and causes enteric disease.

  17. The Conditions Favoring Between-Community Raiding in Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Human Foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Sagar A; Pradhan, Gauri R; Balashov, Hennadii; Van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-06-01

    Chimpanzees, bonobos, and human foragers share a fission-fusion social system and a mating system of joint male resource defense polygyny. Within-community skew in male strength varies among and within species. In this study, we extend a mathematical model of within-group male coalition formation among primates to derive the conditions for between-community conflicts in the form of raids. We show that the main factor affecting the presence of successful raiding is the likelihood of major discrepancies in party strength, which are set by party size distributions (and thus community size) and the skew in strength. This study confirms the functional similarities between the raiding of chimpanzees and human foragers, and it supports the "imbalance of power" hypothesis for raiding. However, it also proposes two amendments to this model. First, the absence of raiding in bonobos may be attributable more to potential female involvement in defense against raids, which increases the size of defensive coalitions. Second, the model attributes some of the raiding in humans to major contrasts in instantaneous fighting ability created by surprise raids on unarmed victims; it also draws attention to the distinction between minor raids and major raids that involve multiple bands of the same community.

  18. Nutrition of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B K; Remis, M J; Dierenfeld, E S

    2014-01-01

    The successful management of captive animals requires attention to multiple interconnected factors. One critical aspect of the daily life of a captive animal is the recommended and/or provisioned diet. This study focuses on the diets of zoo-housed gorillas. A national survey of diets among zoo-housed gorillas was conducted to examine diets being offered to captive gorillas in the United States and Canada. This survey serves as a follow-up to a 1995 dietary survey of zoo-housed gorillas and goes further to quantify nutritional profiles at responding institutions. Results are encouraging, as zoos have made clear improvements in dietary nutrient profiles offered over the past 15 years. However, we suggest that zoological and sanctuary institutions follow Gorilla Species Survival Plan (SSP) recommendations and work to continuously improve diets provided, which could improve gorillas' health and well-being. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and domestic cattle in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Woutrina A; Cranfield, Michael R; Ramer, Jan; Hassell, James; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K

    2014-01-01

    Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are critically endangered primates surviving in two isolated populations in protected areas within the Virunga Massif of Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. Mountain gorillas face intense ecologic pressures due to their proximity to humans. Human communities outside the national parks, and numerous human activities within the national parks (including research, tourism, illegal hunting, and anti-poaching patrols), lead to a high degree of contact between mountain gorillas and wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. To assess the pathogen transmission potential between wildlife and livestock, feces of mountain gorillas, forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in Rwanda were examined for the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia was found in 9% of mountain gorillas, 6% of cattle, and 2% of forest buffalo. Our study represents the first report of Giardia prevalence in forest buffalo. Cryptosporidium-like particles were also observed in all three species. Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates identified zoonotic genotype assemblage B in the gorilla samples and assemblage E in the cattle samples. Significant spatial clustering of Giardia-positive samples was observed in one sector of the park. Although we did not find evidence for transmission of protozoa from forest buffalo to mountain gorillas, the genotypes of Giardia samples isolated from gorillas have been reported in humans, suggesting that the importance of humans in this ecosystem should be more closely evaluated.

  20. A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Nielsen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees about 5 million years ago, these species have undergone a remarkable evolution with drastic divergence in anatomy and cognitive abilities. At the molecular level, despite the small overall magnitude of DNA sequence divergence, we might expect such evolutionary changes to leave a noticeable signature throughout the genome. We here compare 13,731 annotated genes from humans to their chimpanzee orthologs to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection. Many of the genes that present a signature of positive selection tend to be involved in sensory perception or immune defenses. However, the group of genes that show the strongest evidence for positive selection also includes a surprising number of genes involved in tumor suppression and apoptosis, and of genes involved in spermatogenesis. We hypothesize that positive selection in some of these genes may be driven by genomic conflict due to apoptosis during spermatogenesis. Genes with maximal expression in the brain show little or no evidence for positive selection, while genes with maximal expression in the testis tend to be enriched with positively selected genes. Genes on the X chromosome also tend to show an elevated tendency for positive selection. We also present polymorphism data from 20 Caucasian Americans and 19 African Americans for the 50 annotated genes showing the strongest evidence for positive selection. The polymorphism analysis further supports the presence of positive selection in these genes by showing an excess of high-frequency derived nonsynonymous mutations.

  1. Genomic rearrangements by LINE-1 insertion-mediated deletion in the human and chimpanzee lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyudong; Sen, Shurjo K; Wang, Jianxin; Callinan, Pauline A; Lee, Jungnam; Cordaux, Richard; Liang, Ping; Batzer, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Long INterspersed Elements (LINE-1s or L1s) are abundant non-LTR retrotransposons in mammalian genomes that are capable of insertional mutagenesis. They have been associated with target site deletions upon insertion in cell culture studies of retrotransposition. Here, we report 50 deletion events in the human and chimpanzee genomes directly linked to the insertion of L1 elements, resulting in the loss of approximately 18 kb of sequence from the human genome and approximately 15 kb from the chimpanzee genome. Our data suggest that during the primate radiation, L1 insertions may have deleted up to 7.5 Mb of target genomic sequences. While the results of our in vivo analysis differ from those of previous cell culture assays of L1 insertion-mediated deletions in terms of the size and rate of sequence deletion, evolutionary factors can reconcile the differences. We report a pattern of genomic deletion sizes similar to those created during the retrotransposition of Alu elements. Our study provides support for the existence of different mechanisms for small and large L1-mediated deletions, and we present a model for the correlation of L1 element size and the corresponding deletion size. In addition, we show that internal rearrangements can modify L1 structure during retrotransposition events associated with large deletions.

  2. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Kalousová, B.; McLennan, M. R.; Modrý, David; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Shutt-Phillips, K. A.; Todd, A.; Huffman, M. A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2016), s. 367-370 ISSN 1383-5769 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : chimpanzee * Gorilla * Human * Strongyloides * transmission * HVR-IV * cox1 Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016

  3. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Kalousová, B.; McLennan, M. R.; Modrý, D.; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Shutt-Phillips, K. A.; Todd, A.; Huffman, M. A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2016), s. 367-370 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chimpanzee * Cox1 * Gorilla * Human * HVR-IV * Strongyloides * Transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016

  4. Human-specific protein isoforms produced by novel splice sites in the human genome after the human-chimpanzee divergence

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    Kim Dong Seon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of splice sites is a well-known phenomenon that results in transcript diversity during human evolution. Many novel splice sites are derived from repetitive elements and may not contribute to protein products. Here, we analyzed annotated human protein-coding exons and identified human-specific splice sites that arose after the human-chimpanzee divergence. Results We analyzed multiple alignments of the annotated human protein-coding exons and their respective orthologous mammalian genome sequences to identify 85 novel splice sites (50 splice acceptors and 35 donors in the human genome. The novel protein-coding exons, which are expressed either constitutively or alternatively, produce novel protein isoforms by insertion, deletion, or frameshift. We found three cases in which the human-specific isoform conferred novel molecular function in the human cells: the human-specific IMUP protein isoform induces apoptosis of the trophoblast and is implicated in pre-eclampsia; the intronization of a part of SMOX gene exon produces inactive spermine oxidase; the human-specific NUB1 isoform shows reduced interaction with ubiquitin-like proteins, possibly affecting ubiquitin pathways. Conclusions Although the generation of novel protein isoforms does not equate to adaptive evolution, we propose that these cases are useful candidates for a molecular functional study to identify proteomic changes that might bring about novel phenotypes during human evolution.

  5. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes.

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    Xin Jin

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger-based resequencing validated 85.4% of 41 randomly selected SNPs. Among the short indels identified, a majority (54.6%-77.3% of the variants resulted in a change of 3 base pairs, consistent with expectations for a selection against frame shift mutations. Taken together, these findings indicate that use of a human design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery.

  6. Gastrointestinal parasites of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, J M; Meader, L L; Mudakikwa, A B; Foster, J W; Patton, S

    2000-09-01

    Ninety-eight fecal samples were collected from 74 free-living mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) from the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, between July 1995 and January 1997 and examined for parasites by Sheather's sugar and zinc sulfate flotation methods, trichrome staining, and larval cultures. All samples contained at least one parasite. Seventeen endoparasites were identified, including eight protozoa, seven nematodes, one cestode, and one trematode. Two species of arthropod mite were also recovered from the fecal samples. Parasites observed on fecal examinations included strongyle/trichostrongyle-type eggs (72/74) (representing Oesphagostomum sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Hyostrongylus spp., and possibly Murshidia sp.), Strongyloides sp. (1/74), Trichuris trichiura (2/74), Probstmayria sp. (7/74), Anoplocephala sp. (63/74), Entamoeba hartmanni cysts and trophozoites (19/70), Endolimax nana cysts (31/70), Iodamoeba buetschlii cysts (11/70), Endolimax nana or Iodamoeba buetschlii trophozoites (63/70). Entamoeba coli cysts and trophozoites (14/70), Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite (1/70), Chilomastix sp. cysts and trophozoites (31/70), and Giardia sp. cysts (2/70). In addition, one ascarid and one trematode egg were seen. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites between males and females and between age groups: however, infants and juveniles appeared to have a lower prevalence of Anoplocephala gorillae, and the silverbacked males appeared to have a higher prevalence of Probstmayria sp. Parasite prevalence was consistent among the five social groups studied except Susa group had a significantly lower prevalence of Anoplocephala gorillae. Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides sp., Chilomastix sp., and Endolimax nana were identified for the first time in this population, and it is possible that these parasites were of human origin. Although there were no obvious clinical effects due to the presence of these parasites, six parasites

  7. Characteristics of primary infection of a European human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B isolate in chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, W. M.; Koornstra, W. H.; Dubbes, R. H.; ten Haaft, P. J.; Verstrepen, B. E.; Jhagjhoorsingh, S. S.; Haaksma, A. G.; Niphuis, H.; Laman, J. D.; Norley, S.; Schuitemaker, H.; Goudsmit, J.; Hunsmann, G.; Heeney, J. L.; Wigzell, H.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to select, from a panel of candidate European human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade B primary virus isolates, one isolate based on replication properties in chimpanzee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Secondly, to evaluate the in vivo kinetics of

  8. Evaluating the relationship between spermatogenic silencing of the X chromosome and evolution of the Y chromosome in chimpanzee and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mulugeta (Eskeatnaf); W.M. Baarends (Willy); J.H. Gribnau (Joost); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChimpanzees and humans are genetically very similar, with the striking exception of their Y chromosomes, which have diverged tremendously. The male-specific region (MSY), representing the greater part of the Y chromosome, is inherited from father to son in a clonal fashion, with natural

  9. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  10. An Exon-Based Comparative Variant Analysis Pipeline to Study the Scale and Role of Frameshift and Nonsense Mutation in the Human-Chimpanzee Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GongXin Yu

    2009-01-01

    important biological processes such as T cell lineage development, the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, and antigen induced cell death. A “less-is-more” model was previously established to illustrate the role of the gene inactivation and disruptions during human evolution. Here this analysis suggested a different model where the chimpanzee-specific exon-disrupting mutations may act as additional evolutionary force that drove the human-chimpanzee divergence. Finally, the analysis revealed a number of sequencing errors in the chimpanzee and human genome sequences and further illustrated that they could be corrected without resequencing.

  11. Development and evaluation of new mask protocols for gene expression profiling in humans and chimpanzees

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    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species gene expression analyses using oligonucleotide microarrays designed to evaluate a single species can provide spurious results due to mismatches between the interrogated transcriptome and arrayed probes. Based on the most recent human and chimpanzee genome assemblies, we developed updated and accessible probe masking methods that allow human Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to be used for robust genome-wide expression analyses in both species. In this process, only data from oligonucleotide probes predicted to have robust hybridization sensitivity and specificity for both transcriptomes are retained for analysis. Results To characterize the utility of this resource, we applied our mask protocols to existing expression data from brains, livers, hearts, testes, and kidneys derived from both species and determined the effects probe numbers have on expression scores of specific transcripts. In all five tissues, probe sets with decreasing numbers of probes showed non-linear trends towards increased variation in expression scores. The relationships between expression variation and probe number in brain data closely matched those observed in simulated expression data sets subjected to random probe masking. However, there is evidence that additional factors affect the observed relationships between gene expression scores and probe number in tissues such as liver and kidney. In parallel, we observed that decreasing the number of probes within probe sets lead to linear increases in both gained and lost inferences of differential cross-species expression in all five tissues, which will affect the interpretation of expression data subject to masking. Conclusion We introduce a readily implemented and updated resource for human and chimpanzee transcriptome analysis through a commonly used microarray platform. Based on empirical observations derived from the analysis of five distinct data sets, we provide novel guidelines

  12. Autonomy in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Literature on the mental capacities and cognitive mechanisms of the great apes has been silent about whether they can act autonomously. This paper provides a philosophical theory of autonomy supported by psychological studies of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie chimpanzee behavior to argue that chimpanzees can act autonomously even though their psychological mechanisms differ from those of humans. Chimpanzees satisfy the two basic conditions of autonomy: (1) liberty (the absence of controlling influences) and (2) agency (self-initiated intentional action), each of which is specified here in terms of conditions of understanding, intention, and self-control. In this account, chimpanzees make knowledge-based choices reflecting a richly information-based and socially sophisticated understanding of the world. Finally, two major theories of autonomy (Kantian theory and two-level theory) are rejected as too narrow to adequately address these issues, necessitating the modifications made in the present approach.

  13. Food transfers in immature wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Angela A; Fletcher, Alison W

    2006-10-01

    The transfer of food items between individuals has been described in primates as serving an informative purpose in addition to supplementing the diet of immature individuals. This behaviour has yet to be described in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and results are presented here of observations of food transfers in immature gorillas at Mbeli Bai, Republic of Congo. The frequency of food transfers decreased with increasing immature age, while the frequency of independent feeding and processing of food increased. Transfers between mothers and infants were the most frequent, with infants attempting to take items from the mother. These attempts were not always successful and the item was relinquished on less than 50% of attempts. Mothers also took items from their offspring. The results point to the functional significance of food transfers in western lowland gorillas being informational. In a bai environment, where one species forms the majority of a visiting gorilla's diet despite other species being available, the initiation of food transfers by immatures is proposed to serve the purpose of familiarising them with which species, and which parts of those species, may be eaten.

  14. Do Gorillas ("Gorilla gorilla") and Orangutans ("Pongo pygmaeus") Fail to Represent Objects in the Context of Cohesion Violations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacchione, Trix; Call, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that witnessing events of fission (e.g., the splitting of a solid object) impairs human infants', human adults', and non-human primates' object representations. The present studies investigated the reactions of gorillas and orangutans to cohesion violation across different types of fission events implementing a behavioral…

  15. Codetection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Habituated Wild Western Lowland Gorillas and Humans During a Respiratory Disease Outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  16. Codetection of respiratory syncytial virus in habituated wild western lowland gorillas and humans during a respiratory disease outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grützmacher, K. S.; Köndgen, S.; Keil, V.; Todd, A.; Feistner, A.; Herbinger, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Fuh, T.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 499-510 ISSN 1612-9202 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : respiratory disease * respiratory syncytial virus * enterovirus * western lowland gorillas * great apes * noninvasive detection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2016

  17. Zoonotic Transmission of Two New Strains of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 4 in Hunters Bitten by a Gorilla in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Léa; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Betsem, Edouard; Filippone, Claudia; Nerrienet, Eric; Kazanji, Mirdad; Gessain, Antoine

    2016-09-15

    Molecular screening of 300 at-risk people from Central Africa identified 2 human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-4-infected individuals. A zoonotic origin of infection was suggested, as both individuals reported being severely bitten by a gorilla during hunting activities. One strain was highly divergent and was designated as the HTLV-4 subtype-b prototype. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

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    Kimberley J Hockings

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events. Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  19. Intergenic and repeat transcription in human, chimpanzee and macaque brains measured by RNA-Seq.

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    Augix Guohua Xu

    Full Text Available Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism's phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes' boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 20-28% of non-ribosomal transcripts correspond to annotated exons and 20-23% to introns. By contrast, transcripts originating within intronic and intergenic repetitive sequences constitute 40-48% of the total brain transcriptome. Notably, some repeat families show elevated transcription. In non-repetitive intergenic regions, we identify and characterize 1,093 distinct regions highly expressed in the human brain. These regions are conserved at the RNA expression level across primates studied and at the DNA sequence level across mammals. A large proportion of these transcripts (20% represents 3'UTR extensions of known genes and may play roles in alternative microRNA-directed regulation. Finally, we show that while transcriptome divergence between species increases with evolutionary time, intergenic transcripts show more expression differences among species and exons show less. Our results show that many yet uncharacterized evolutionary conserved transcripts exist in the human brain. Some of these transcripts may play roles in transcriptional regulation and contribute to evolution of human-specific phenotypic traits.

  20. Y-Chromosome variation in hominids: intraspecific variation is limited to the polygamous chimpanzee.

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    Gabriele Greve

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia and CDY (chromodomain protein Y varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus, the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, and examine the resulting patterns in the light of the species' markedly different social and mating behaviors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH of DAZ and CDY in 12 Y-chromosomal lineages of western lowland gorilla (G. gorilla gorilla and a single lineage of the eastern lowland gorilla (G. beringei graueri showed no variation among lineages. Similar findings were noted for the 10 Y-chromosomal lineages examined in the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, and 11 Y-chromosomal lineages of the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii. We validated the contrasting DAZ and CDY patterns using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in chimpanzee and bonobo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High intraspecific variation in copy number and position of the DAZ and CDY genes is seen only in the chimpanzee. We hypothesize that this is best explained by sperm competition that results in the variant DAZ and CDY haplotypes detected in this species. In contrast, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans-species that are not subject to sperm competition-showed no intraspecific variation in DAZ and CDY suggesting that monoandry in gorillas, and preferential female mate choice in bonobos and orangutans, probably permitted the fixation of a single Y variant in each taxon. These data support the notion that the evolutionary history of a primate Y chromosome is not simply encrypted in its DNA

  1. Cross-comparison of the genome sequences from human, chimpanzee, Neanderthal and a Denisovan hominin identifies novel potentially compensated mutations

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    Zhang Guojie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent publication of the draft genome sequences of the Neanderthal and a ~50,000-year-old archaic hominin from Denisova Cave in southern Siberia has ushered in a new age in molecular archaeology. We previously cross-compared the human, chimpanzee and Neanderthal genome sequences with respect to a set of disease-causing/disease-associated missense and regulatory mutations (Human Gene Mutation Database and succeeded in identifying genetic variants which, although apparently pathogenic in humans, may represent a 'compensated' wild-type state in at least one of the other two species. Here, in an attempt to identify further 'potentially compensated mutations' (PCMs of interest, we have compared our dataset of disease-causing/disease-associated mutations with their corresponding nucleotide positions in the Denisovan hominin, Neanderthal and chimpanzee genomes. Of the 15 human putatively disease-causing mutations that were found to be compensated in chimpanzee, Denisovan or Neanderthal, only a solitary F5 variant (Val1736Met was specific to the Denisovan. In humans, this missense mutation is associated with activated protein C resistance and an increased risk of thromboembolism and recurrent miscarriage. It is unclear at this juncture whether this variant was indeed a PCM in the Denisovan or whether it could instead have been associated with disease in this ancient hominin.

  2. African Non-Human Primates Host Diverse Enteroviruses.

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    Illich Manfred Mombo

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EVs belong to the family Picornaviridae and are responsible for mild to severe diseases in mammals including humans and non-human primates (NHP. Simian EVs were first discovered in the 1950s in the Old World Monkeys and recently in wild chimpanzee, gorilla and mandrill in Cameroon. In the present study, we screened by PCR EVs in 600 fecal samples of wild apes and monkeys that were collected at four sites in Gabon. A total of 32 samples were positive for EVs (25 from mandrills, 7 from chimpanzees, none from gorillas. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 and VP2 genes showed that EVs identified in chimpanzees were members of two human EV species, EV-A and EV-B, and those identified in mandrills were members of the human species EV-B and the simian species EV-J. The identification of two novel enterovirus types, EV-B112 in a chimpanzee and EV-B113 in a mandrill, suggests these NHPs could be potential sources of new EV types. The identification of EV-B107 and EV90 that were previously found in humans indicates cross-species transfers. Also the identification of chimpanzee-derived EV110 in a mandrill demonstrated a wide host range of this EV. Further research of EVs in NHPs would help understanding emergence of new types or variants, and evaluating the real risk of cross-species transmission for humans as well for NHPs populations.

  3. Unusual Turner syndrome mosaic with a triple x cell line (47,X/49,XXX) in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Carol M; Tupa, Lynn; Wiese, Debbie; Hurley, Timothy J; Zimmerman, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    A 29-yr-old female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was evaluated for low fertility and a midterm abortion. Laboratory testing included karyotyping, which revealed an unusual mosaicism for Turner syndrome with Triple X (47,X/49,XXX). This appears to be the first report of Turner syndrome in a great ape. In humans, Turner syndrome occurs in approximately 1 in 3,000 females, with half of those monosomic for the X chromosome. A small proportion is mosaic for a triple X cell line (3-4%). In humans, Turner syndrome is associated with characteristic phenotype including short stature, obesity, a broad chest with widely spaced nipples, webbing of the neck, and anteverted ears. This individual gorilla is significantly shorter in stature than conspecifics and is obese despite normal caloric intake. Individuals with Turner syndrome should also be screened for common health issues, including congenital heart defects, obesity, kidney abnormalities, hypertension, hypothyroidism, and diabetes mellitus. Animals with decreased fertility, multiple miscarriages, fetal losses, unusual phenotypes, or a combination of these symptoms should be evaluated for genetic abnormalities.

  4. Phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes from DNA sequences in the Psi eta-globin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M.M.; Slightom, J.L.; Goodman, M.

    1987-10-16

    Sequences from the upstream and downstream flanking DNA regions of the Psi eta-globin locus in Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee), Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), and Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan, the closest living relative to Homo, Pan, and Gorilla) provided further data for evaluating the phylogenetic relations of humans and African apes. These newly sequenced orthologs (an additional 4.9 kilobase pairs (kbp) for each species) were combined with published Psi eta-gene sequences and then compared to the same orthologous stretch (a continuous 7.1-kbp region) available for humans. Phylogenetic analysis of these nucleotide sequences by the parsimony method indicated (i) that human and chimpanzee are more closely related to each other than either is to gorilla and (ii) that the slowdown in the rate of sequence evolution evident in higher primates is especially pronounced in humans. These results indicate that features unique to African apes (but not to humans) are primitive and that even local molecular clocks should be applied with caution.

  5. A genome-wide study of DNA methylation patterns and gene expression levels in multiple human and chimpanzee tissues.

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    Athma A Pai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The modification of DNA by methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that affects the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. Methylation patterns have been described in many contexts within and across a range of species. However, the extent to which changes in methylation might underlie inter-species differences in gene regulation, in particular between humans and other primates, has not yet been studied. To this end, we studied DNA methylation patterns in livers, hearts, and kidneys from multiple humans and chimpanzees, using tissue samples for which genome-wide gene expression data were also available. Using the multi-species gene expression and methylation data for 7,723 genes, we were able to study the role of promoter DNA methylation in the evolution of gene regulation across tissues and species. We found that inter-tissue methylation patterns are often conserved between humans and chimpanzees. However, we also found a large number of gene expression differences between species that might be explained, at least in part, by corresponding differences in methylation levels. In particular, we estimate that, in the tissues we studied, inter-species differences in promoter methylation might underlie as much as 12%-18% of differences in gene expression levels between humans and chimpanzees.

  6. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    OpenAIRE

    Potau, J. M.; Arias-Martorell, J.; Bello-Hellegouarch, G.; Casado, A.; Pastor, J. F.; de Paz, F.; Diogo, R.

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan\\ud troglodytes) and bonobos(Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans(Homo sapiens). We\\ud have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and\\ud five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we...

  8. Convergence and divergence of tumor-suppressor and proto-oncogenes in chimpanzee from human chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, R.S.; Ramesh, K.H. [Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Due to the emergence of molecular technology, the phylogenetic evolution of the human genome via apes has become a saltatory even. In the present investigation, cosmid probes for P53, Charcot-Marie-Tooth [CMTIA], HER-2/NEU and myeloperoxidase [MPO] were used. Probes mapping to these genetic loci are well-defined on human chromosome 17 [HSA 17]. We localized these genes on chimpanzee [Pan troglodyte] chromosomes by FISH technique employing two different cell lines. Our results indicate that chimpanzee chromosome 19 [PTR 19] differs from HSA 17 by a pericentric inversion. The P53 gene assigned to HSA 17p13.1 is localized on PTR 19p15 and the MPO sequence of HSA 17q21.3-23 hybridized to PTR 19q23. Perplexing enough, HER-2/NEU assigned to HSA 17q11.2 localized to PTR 19p12. Obviously, there is convergence of P53 and MPO regions and distinctive divergence of HER-2/NEU and CMT1A regions of human and chimpanzee. This investigation has demonstrated the pronounced genetic shuffling which occurred during the origin of HSA 17. Molecular markers should serve as evolutionary punctuations in defining the precise sequence of genetic events that led to the evolution of other chromosomes whose genomic synteny, although similar, have surprisingly evolved through different mechanisms.

  9. Can chimpanzee infants (Pan troglodytes) form categorical representations in the same manner as human infants (Homo sapiens)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-05-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object while touching it as a measure. During the familiarization phase, participants were presented with four familiarization objects from one of three categories (e.g. mammals). Then, they were tested with a pair of novel objects, one was a familiar-category object and another was a novel-category object (e.g. vehicle) in the test phase. The chimpanzee infants did not show significant habituation, whereas human infants did. However, most important, both species showed significant novelty-preference in the test phase. This indicates that not only human infants, but also chimpanzee infants formed categorical representations of a global-like level. Implications for the shared origins and species-specificity of categorization abilities, and the cognitive operations underlying categorization, are discussed.

  10. Expression of calcium-binding proteins and selected neuropeptides in the human, chimpanzee, and crab-eating macaque claustrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ePirone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The claustrum is present in all mammalian species examined so far and its morphology, chemoarchitecture, physiology, phylogenesis and ontogenesis are still a matter of debate. Several morphologically distinct types of immunostained cells were described in different mammalian species. To date, a comparative study on the neurochemical organization of the human and non-human primates claustrum has not been fully described yet, partially due to technical reasons linked to the postmortem sampling interval. The present study analyzes the localization and morphology of neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV, calretinin (CR, NPY, and somatostatin (SOM in the claustrum of man (# 5, chimpanzee (# 1 and crab-eating monkey (#3. Immunoreactivity for the used markers was observed in neuronal cell bodies and processes distributed throughout the anterior-posterior extent of human, chimpanzee and macaque claustrum. Both CR- and PV-immunoreactive (ir neurons were mostly localized in the central and ventral region of the claustrum of the three species while SOM- and NPY-ir neurons seemed to be equally distributed throughout the ventral-dorsal extent. In the chimpanzee claustrum SOM-ir elements were not observed. No co-localization of PV with CR was found, thus suggesting the existence of two non-overlapping populations of PV and CR-ir interneurons. The expression of most proteins (CR, PV, NPY, was similar in all species. The only exception was the absence of SOM-ir elements in the claustrum of the chimpanzee, likely due to species specific variability. Our data suggest a possible common structural organization shared with the adjacent insular region, a further element that emphasizes a possible common ontogeny of the claustrum and the neocortex.

  11. Impacts of logging and hunting on western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations and consequences for forest regeneration. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Haurez, B.; Petre, CA.; Doucet, JL.

    2013-01-01

    Timber exploitation is rapidly expanding throughout the Congo Basin. Forest areas assigned to timber harvesting have sharply expanded over the decades and logging concessions now largely overlap with the range of western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla Savage & Wyman, 1847). However this species, which is considered as critically endangered by IUCN, could play an essential role in maintaining the structure and composition of tropical rainforest notably through seed dispersal services...

  12. Impacts of logging and hunting on western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla populations and consequences for forest regeneration. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haurez, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber exploitation is rapidly expanding throughout the Congo Basin. Forest areas assigned to timber harvesting have sharply expanded over the decades and logging concessions now largely overlap with the range of western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla Savage & Wyman, 1847. However this species, which is considered as critically endangered by IUCN, could play an essential role in maintaining the structure and composition of tropical rainforest notably through seed dispersal services. This is likely due to its frugivorous diet, high stomach capacity and ability to swallow seeds of variable sizes. Moreover gorillas have a long gut retention time of ingested food, travel long daily distances and deposit most ingested seeds in suitable habitats for plant development (such as logging gaps. Consequently, the preservation of the role of gorilla in forest regeneration is essential in the context of logged forest ecosystems. Timber harvesting has two major opposing impacts on gorilla populations: on the one hand, gorillas benefit from growth of herbaceous vegetation (e.g. Marantaceae and Zingiberaceae following forest canopy opening, as such herbs provide both staple food and nest-building materials; on the other hand, gorilla populations suffer with the rise in hunting associated with logging activity, especially with road network installation. Considering the potential negative knock-on effects of logging concessions on the ecological function of western lowland gorilla, the implementation of timber harvesting methods that preserve gorilla populations is a considerable challenge for forest sustainability, as well as for gorilla's conservation.

  13. How comparative psychology can shed light on human evolution: Response to Beran et al.'s discussion of "Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Warneken, Felix

    2016-06-01

    We recently reported a study (Warneken & Rosati Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20150229, 2015) examining whether chimpanzees possess several cognitive capacities that are critical to engage in cooking. In a subsequent commentary, Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, and Brosnan Learning & Behavior (2015) asserted that our paper has several flaws. Their commentary (1) critiques some aspects of our methodology and argues that our work does not constitute evidence that chimpanzees can actually cook; (2) claims that these results are old news, as previous work had already demonstrated that chimpanzees possess most or all of these capacities; and, finally, (3) argues that comparative psychological studies of chimpanzees cannot adequately address questions about human evolution, anyway. However, their critique of the premise of our study simply reiterates several points we made in the original paper. To quote ourselves: "As chimpanzees neither control fire nor cook food in their natural behavior, these experiments therefore focus not on whether chimpanzees can actually cook food, but rather whether they can apply their cognitive skills to novel problems that emulate cooking" (Warneken & Rosati Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20150229, 2015, p. 2). Furthermore, the methodological issues they raise are standard points about psychological research with animals-many of which were addressed synthetically across our 9 experiments, or else are orthogonal to our claims. Finally, we argue that comparative studies of extant apes (and other nonhuman species) are a powerful and indispensable method for understanding human cognitive evolution.

  14. Expression of Siglec-11 by human and chimpanzee ovarian stromal cells, with uniquely human ligands: implications for human ovarian physiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Chow, Renee; Deng, Liwen; Anderson, Dan; Weidner, Noel; Godwin, Andrew K; Bewtra, Chanda; Zlotnik, Albert; Bui, Jack; Varki, Ajit; Varki, Nissi

    2011-01-01

    Siglecs (Sialic acid-binding Immunoglobulin Superfamily Lectins) are cell surface signaling receptors of the I-type lectin group that recognize sialic acid-bearing glycans. CD33-related-Siglecs are a subset with expression primarily in cells of hematopoietic origin and functional relevance to immune reactions. Earlier we reported a human-specific gene conversion event that markedly changed the coding region for the extracellular domain of Siglec-11, associated with human-specific expression in microglia (Hayakawa T, Angata T, Lewis AL, Mikkelsen TS, Varki NM, Varki A. 2005. A human-specific gene in microglia. Science. 309:1693). Analyzing human gene microarrays to define new patterns of expression, we observed high levels of SIGLEC11 transcript in the ovary and adrenal cortex. Thus, we examined human and chimpanzee tissues using a well-characterized anti-Siglec-11 mouse monoclonal antibody. Although adrenal expression was variable and confined to infiltrating macrophages in capillaries, ovarian expression of Siglec-11 in both humans and chimpanzees was on fibroblasts, the first example of Siglec expression on mesenchyme-derived stromal cells. Cytokines from such ovarian stromal fibroblasts play important roles in follicle development and ovulation. Stable transfection of SIGLEC11 into a primary human ovarian stromal fibroblast cell line altered the secretion of growth-regulated oncogene α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-7, transforming growth factor β1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, cytokines involved in ovarian physiology. Probing for Siglec-11 ligands revealed distinct and strong mast cell expression in human ovaries, contrasting to diffuse stromal ligands in chimpanzee ovaries. Interestingly, there was a trend of increased Siglec-11 expression in post-menopausal ovaries compared with pre-menopausal ones. Siglec-11 expression was also found on human ovarian stromal tumors and in polycystic ovarian syndrome, a human-specific disease. These results indicate potential

  15. Personality in sanctuary-housed chimpanzees: A comparative approach of psychobiological and penta-factorial human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Yulán; Llorente, Miquel

    2015-02-18

    We evaluate a sanctuary chimpanzee sample (N = 11) using two adapted human assessment instruments: the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and Eysenck's Psychoticism-Extraversion-Neuroticism (PEN) model. The former has been widely used in studies of animal personality, whereas the latter has never been used to assess chimpanzees. We asked familiar keepers and scientists (N = 28) to rate 38 (FFM) and 12 (PEN) personality items. The personality surveys showed reliability in all of the items for both instruments. These were then analyzed in a principal component analysis and a regularized exploratory factor analysis, which revealed four and three components, respectively. The results indicate that both questionnaires show a clear factor structure, with characteristic factors not just for the species, but also for the sample type. However, due to its brevity, the PEN may be more suitable for assessing personality in a sanctuary, where employees do not have much time to devote to the evaluation process. In summary, both models are sensitive enough to evaluate the personality of a group of chimpanzees housed in a sanctuary.

  16. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Kvetonova, Dana; Mynarova, Anna; Shutt, Kathryn A; Pomajbikova, Katerina; Kalousova, Barbora; Modry, David; Benavides, Julio; Todd, Angelique; Kvac, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%), Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3) (4.0%), Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0%) and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5%) in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%). In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%), G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5%) and C. muris TS03 (0.5%). Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best practice guidelines for all sites where increased human-gorilla

  17. Ontogenetic study of the skull in modern humans and the common chimpanzees: neotenic hypothesis reconsidered with a tridimensional Procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, Xavier; Berge, Christine; Baylac, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Heterochronic studies compare ontogenetic trajectories of an organ in different species: here, the skulls of common chimpanzees and modern humans. A growth trajectory requires three parameters: size, shape, and ontogenetic age. One of the great advantages of the Procrustes method is the precise definition of size and shape for whole organs such as the skull. The estimated ontogenetic age (dental stages) is added to the plot to give a graphical representation to compare growth trajectories. We used the skulls of 41 Homo sapiens and 50 Pan troglodytes at various stages of growth. The Procrustes superimposition of all specimens was completed by statistical procedures (principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and discriminant function) to calculate separately size-related shape changes (allometry common to chimpanzees and humans), and interspecific shape differences (discriminant function). The results confirm the neotenic theory of the human skull (sensu Gould [1977] Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; Alberch et al. [1979] Paleobiology 5:296-317), but modify it slightly. Human growth is clearly retarded in terms of both the magnitude of changes (size-shape covariation) and shape alone (size-shape dissociation) with respect to the chimpanzees. At the end of growth, the adult skull in humans reaches an allometric shape (size-related shape) which is equivalent to that of juvenile chimpanzees with no permanent teeth, and a size which is equivalent to that of adult chimpanzees. Our results show that human neoteny involves not only shape retardation (paedomorphosis), but also changes in relative growth velocity. Before the eruption of the first molar, human growth is accelerated, and then strongly decelerated, relative to the growth of the chimpanzee as a reference. This entails a complex process, which explains why these species reach the same overall (i.e., brain + face) size in adult stage. The neotenic traits seem to concern

  18. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of life history and behavior in Hominidae: towards phylogenetic reconstruction of the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Pavel; Zrzavý, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The origin of the fundamental behavioral differences between humans and our closest living relatives is one of the central issues of evolutionary anthropology. The prominent, chimpanzee-based referential model of early hominin behavior has recently been challenged on the basis of broad multispecies comparisons and newly discovered fossil evidence. Here, we argue that while behavioral data on extant great apes are extremely relevant for reconstruction of ancestral behaviors, these behaviors should be reconstructed trait by trait using formal phylogenetic methods. Using the widely accepted hominoid phylogenetic tree, we perform a series of character optimization analyses using 65 selected life-history and behavioral characters for all extant hominid species. This analysis allows us to reconstruct the character states of the last common ancestors of Hominoidea, Hominidae, and the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor. Our analyses demonstrate that many fundamental behavioral and life-history attributes of hominids (including humans) are evidently ancient and likely inherited from the common ancestor of all hominids. However, numerous behaviors present in extant great apes represent their own terminal autapomorphies (both uniquely derived and homoplastic). Any evolutionary model that uses a single extant species to explain behavioral evolution of early hominins is therefore of limited use. In contrast, phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral states is able to provide a detailed suite of behavioral, ecological and life-history characters for each hypothetical ancestor. The living great apes therefore play an important role for the confident identification of the traits found in the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor, some of which are likely to represent behaviors of the fossil hominins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the gastrointestinal bacterial communities of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Yeoman, C. J.; White, B. A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Todd, A.; Stumpf, R. M.; Nelson, K. E.; Torralba, M.; Gillis, M.; Wilson, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 150, S56 (2013), s. 132-133 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American-Association of Physical Anthropologists /82./. 09.04.2013-13.04.2013, Knoxville] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bacteria * western lowland gorillas Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22247/pdf

  1. Gastrointestinal symbionts of free-ranging western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Pomajbíková, K.; Modrý, David; Shutt, K. A.; Hasegawa, H.; Benavides, J. A.; Todd, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 75, S1 (2013), s. 85 ISSN 0275-2565. [Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists /36./. 19.06.2013-22.06.2013, San Juan] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gorilla * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajp.22188/pdf

  2. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  3. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  4. A comparative analysis of viral peptides presented by contemporary human and chimpanzee MHC class I molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W. M.; Hoof, Ilka; Bontrop, Ronald E.; Keşmir, Can

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors such as the MHC influence the immunocompetence of an individual. MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes in primates, which is often interpreted as an adaptation to establish good T cell responses to a wide range of (evolving) pathogens. Chimpanzee MHC (Patr) genes are less

  5. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  6. Initial Description of a Quantitative, Cross-Species (Chimpanzee-Human) Social Responsiveness Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Faughn, Carley; Shuman, Jeremy; Petersen, Steve E.; Constantino, John N.; Povinelli, Daniel J.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Comparative studies of social responsiveness, an ability that is impaired in autism spectrum disorders, can inform our understanding of both autism and the cognitive architecture of social behavior. Because there is no existing quantitative measure of social responsiveness in chimpanzees, we generated a quantitative, cross-species…

  7. Minerals in the Foods Eaten by Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei)

    OpenAIRE

    Cancelliere, Emma C.; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in s...

  8. Lineage-specific expansions of retroviral insertions within the genomes of African great apes but not humans and orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Yohn

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral infections of the germline have the potential to episodically alter gene function and genome structure during the course of evolution. Horizontal transmissions between species have been proposed, but little evidence exists for such events in the human/great ape lineage of evolution. Based on analysis of finished BAC chimpanzee genome sequence, we characterize a retroviral element (Pan troglodytes endogenous retrovirus 1 [PTERV1] that has become integrated in the germline of African great ape and Old World monkey species but is absent from humans and Asian ape genomes. We unambiguously map 287 retroviral integration sites and determine that approximately 95.8% of the insertions occur at non-orthologous regions between closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis of the endogenous retrovirus reveals that the gorilla and chimpanzee elements share a monophyletic origin with a subset of the Old World monkey retroviral elements, but that the average sequence divergence exceeds neutral expectation for a strictly nuclear inherited DNA molecule. Within the chimpanzee, there is a significant integration bias against genes, with only 14 of these insertions mapping within intronic regions. Six out of ten of these genes, for which there are expression data, show significant differences in transcript expression between human and chimpanzee. Our data are consistent with a retroviral infection that bombarded the genomes of chimpanzees and gorillas independently and concurrently, 3-4 million years ago. We speculate on the potential impact of such recent events on the evolution of humans and great apes.

  9. Perceived differences between chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human (Homo sapiens) facial expressions are related to emotional interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Bridget M; Bard, Kim A; Vick, Sarah-Jane; Smith Pasqualini, Marcia C

    2007-11-01

    Human face perception is a finely tuned, specialized process. When comparing faces between species, therefore, it is essential to consider how people make these observational judgments. Comparing facial expressions may be particularly problematic, given that people tend to consider them categorically as emotional signals, which may affect how accurately specific details are processed. The bared-teeth display (BT), observed in most primates, has been proposed as a homologue of the human smile (J. A. R. A. M. van Hooff, 1972). In this study, judgments of similarity between BT displays of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and human smiles varied in relation to perceived emotional valence. When a chimpanzee BT was interpreted as fearful, observers tended to underestimate the magnitude of the relationship between certain features (the extent of lip corner raise) and human smiles. These judgments may reflect the combined effects of categorical emotional perception, configural face processing, and perceptual organization in mental imagery and may demonstrate the advantages of using standardized observational methods in comparative facial expression research. Copyright 2007 APA.

  10. Niche partitioning in sympatric Gorilla and Pan from Cameroon: implications for life history strategies and for reconstructing the evolution of hominin life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Gabriele A; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain size in a 20th century museum collection of sympatric Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes from Central Cameroon. Using δ13C and δ15N of individuals' hair, we assessed whether and how differences in diet and habitat use may have impacted on ape development. The results show that, overall, gorilla hair δ13C and δ15N values are more variable than those of chimpanzees, and that gorillas are consistently lower in δ13C and δ15N compared to chimpanzees. Within a restricted, isotopically-constrained area, gorilla brain development appears delayed relative to dental mineralization/eruption [or dental development is accelerated relative to brains]: only about 87.8% of adult brain size is attained by the time first permanent molars come into occlusion, whereas it is 92.3% in chimpanzees. Even when M1s are already in full functional occlusion, gorilla brains lag behind those of chimpanzee (91% versus 96.4%), relative to tooth development. Both bootstrap analyses and stable isotope results confirm that these results are unlikely due to sampling error. Rather, δ15N values imply that gorillas are not fully weaned (physiologically mature) until well after M1 are in full functional occlusion. In chimpanzees the transition from infant to adult feeding appears (a) more gradual and (b) earlier relative to somatic development. Taken together, the findings are consistent with life history theory that predicts delayed development when non-density dependent mortality is low, i.e. in closed habitats, and with the "risk aversion" hypothesis for frugivorous species as a means to avert starvation. Furthermore, the results highlight

  11. Chimpanzees help each other upon request.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which the experimenter is trying to reach. In the present study, we investigated the importance of communicative interactions between chimpanzees themselves and the influence of conspecific partner's request on chimpanzees' targeted helping.We presented two tool-use situations (a stick-use situation and a straw-use situation in two adjacent booths, and supplied non-corresponding tools to paired chimpanzees in the two booths. For example, a chimpanzee in the stick-use situation was supplied with a straw, and the partner in the straw-use situation possessed a stick. Spontaneous tool transfer was observed between paired chimpanzees. The tool transfer events occurred predominantly following recipients' request. Even without any hope of reciprocation from the partner, the chimpanzees continued to help the partner as long as the partner required help.These results provide further evidence for altruistic helping in chimpanzees in the absence of direct personal gain or even immediate reciprocation. Our findings additionally highlight the importance of request as a proximate mechanism motivating prosocial behavior in chimpanzees whether between kin or non-kin individuals and the possible confounding effect of dominance on the symmetry of such interactions. Finally, in contrast to humans, our study suggests that chimpanzees rarely perform acts of voluntary altruism. Voluntary altruism in chimpanzees is not necessarily prompted by simple observation of another's struggle to attain a goal

  12. Chimpanzee-Human Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment of Chronic Poliovirus Excretors and Emergency Postexposure Prophylaxis▿‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaochun; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Makiya, Michelle; Neverov, Alexander; Rezapkin, Gennady; Sebrell, Andrew; Purcell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Six poliovirus-neutralizing Fabs were recovered from a combinatorial Fab phage display library constructed from bone marrow-derived lymphocytes of immunized chimpanzees. The chimeric chimpanzee-human full-length IgGs (hereinafter called monoclonal antibodies [MAbs]) were generated by combining a chimpanzee IgG light chain and a variable domain of heavy chain with a human constant Fc region. The six MAbs neutralized vaccine strains and virulent strains of poliovirus. Five MAbs were serotype specific, while one MAb cross-neutralized serotypes 1 and 2. Epitope mapping performed by selecting and sequencing antibody-resistant viral variants indicated that the cross-neutralizing MAb bound between antigenic sites 1 and 2, thereby covering the canyon region containing the receptor-binding site. Another serotype 1-specific MAb recognized a region located between antigenic sites 2 and 3 that included parts of capsid proteins VP1 and VP3. Both serotype 2-specific antibodies recognized antigenic site 1. No escape mutants to serotype 3-specific MAbs could be generated. The administration of a serotype 1-specific MAb to transgenic mice susceptible to poliovirus at a dose of 5 μg/mouse completely protected them from paralysis after challenge with a lethal dose of wild-type poliovirus. Moreover, MAb injection 6 or 12 h after virus infection provided significant protection. The MAbs described here could be tested in clinical trials to determine whether they might be useful for treatment of immunocompromised chronic virus excretors and for emergency protection of contacts of a paralytic poliomyelitis case. PMID:21345966

  13. Quantifying temporal bone morphology of great apes and humans: an approach using geometric morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles A; Lynch, John M; Kimbel, William H

    2002-01-01

    The hominid temporal bone offers a complex array of morphology that is linked to several different functional systems. Its frequent preservation in the fossil record gives the temporal bone added significance in the study of human evolution, but its morphology has proven difficult to quantify. In this study we use techniques of 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify differences among humans and great apes and discuss the results in a phylogenetic context. Twenty-three landmarks on the ectocranial surface of the temporal bone provide a high level of anatomical detail. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to register (adjust for position, orientation and scale) landmark data from 405 adults representing Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo. Principal components analysis of residuals from the GPA shows that the major source of variation is between humans and apes. Human characteristics such as a coronally orientated petrous axis, a deep mandibular fossa, a projecting mastoid process, and reduced lateral extension of the tympanic element strongly impact the analysis. In phenetic cluster analyses, gorillas and orangutans group together with respect to chimpanzees, and all apes group together with respect to humans. Thus, the analysis contradicts depictions of African apes as a single morphotype. Gorillas and orangutans lack the extensive preglenoid surface of chimpanzees, and their mastoid processes are less medially inflected. These and other characters shared by gorillas and orangutans are probably primitive for the African hominid clade. PMID:12489757

  14. Cloning and comparative mapping of a human chromosome 4-specific alpha satellite DNA sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aiuto, L.; Marzella, R.; Archidiacono, N.; Rocchi, M. (Universita di Bari (Italy)); Antonacci, R. (Instituto Anatomia Umana Normale, Modena (Italy))

    1993-11-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized two human alphoid DNA clones: p4n1/4 and pZ4.1. Clone p4n1/4 identifies specifically the centromeric region of chromosome 4; pZ4.1 recognizes a subset of alphoid DNA shared by chromosomes 4 and 9. The specificity was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on metaphase spreads and Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. The genomic organization of both subsets was also investigated. Comparative mapping on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes was performed. p4n1/4 hybridizes to chimpanzee chromosomes 11 and 13, homologs of human chromosomes 9 and 2q, respectively. On gorilla metaphase spreads, p4n1/4 hybridizes exclusively to the centromeric region of chromosome 19, partially homologous to human chromosome 17. No hybridization signal was detected on chromosome 3 of both chimpanzee and gorilla, in both species homolog of human chromosome 4. Identical comparative mapping results were obtained using pZ4.1 probe, although the latter recognizes an alphoid subset distinct from the one recognized by p4n1/4. The implications of these results in the evolution of centromeric regions of primate chromosomes are discussed. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L

    2016-06-01

    Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of

  16. The genomic distribution of intraspecific and interspecific sequence divergence of human segmental duplications relative to human/chimpanzee chromosomal rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Evan E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that chromosomal rearrangements harbor the molecular footprint of the biological phenomena which they induce, in the form, for instance, of changes in the sequence divergence rates of linked genes. So far, all the studies of these potential associations have focused on the relationship between structural changes and the rates of evolution of single-copy DNA and have tried to exclude segmental duplications (SDs. This is paradoxical, since SDs are one of the primary forces driving the evolution of structure and function in our genomes and have been linked not only with novel genes acquiring new functions, but also with overall higher DNA sequence divergence and major chromosomal rearrangements. Results Here we take the opposite view and focus on SDs. We analyze several of the features of SDs, including the rates of intraspecific divergence between paralogous copies of human SDs and of interspecific divergence between human SDs and chimpanzee DNA. We study how divergence measures relate to chromosomal rearrangements, while considering other factors that affect evolutionary rates in single copy DNA. Conclusion We find that interspecific SD divergence behaves similarly to divergence of single-copy DNA. In contrast, old and recent paralogous copies of SDs do present different patterns of intraspecific divergence. Also, we show that some relatively recent SDs accumulate in regions that carry inversions in sister lineages.

  17. Behavioral and hormonal responses to the availability of forage material in Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Grace; Murray, Anna; Thueme, Melissa; McGuire, Molly; Vonk, Jennifer; Allard, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    We investigated how forage material affects indicators of welfare in three male Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at the Detroit Zoo. In addition to their maintenance diet and enrichment foods, the gorillas generally received forage material four times a week. From this baseline, we systematically manipulated how much forage material the group received on a weekly basis, with either daily or bi (twice)-weekly presentation of browse (mulberry, Morus sp.) or alfalfa hay. We collected behavioral data (60 hr per gorilla) and measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM). Mixed models indicated that the presence of forage material significantly increased time feeding (F 2,351  = 9.58, p gorillas, compared to a disproportionately greater amount of time spent feeding by the dominant individual when forage material was absent. Providing forage material in addition to the regular diet likely created more opportunities for equitable feeding for the subordinate gorillas. FGM concentrations did not vary based on the presence or type of forage material available and, instead, likely reflected group social dynamics. In general, alfalfa and mulberry had similar impacts on behavior, indicating that alfalfa can be an adequate behavioral substitute during times when browse is less readily available for gorillas housed in seasonally variable climates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, Bonobos (Pan paniscus, and Humans (Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Potau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens. We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes; none of the Pan paniscus, however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus. In all six Pan troglodytes, the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens, it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  19. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potau, J M; Arias-Martorell, J; Bello-Hellegouarch, G; Casado, A; Pastor, J F; de Paz, F; Diogo, R

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens) . We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes , five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens . Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes ; none of the Pan paniscus , however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus . In all six Pan troglodytes , the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens , it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  20. Lactobacillus gorillae sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of captive and wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Sayaka; Kitahara, Maki; Nguema, Pierre Philippe Mbehang; Norimitsu, Saeko; Fujita, Shiho; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Ngomanda, Alfred; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ushida, Kazunari

    2014-12-01

    Four strains of Gram-staining-positive, anaerobic rods were isolated from the faeces of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three strains, KZ01(T), KZ02 and KZ03, were isolated at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan, and one strain, GG02, was isolated in the Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. These strains were investigated taxonomically. These strains belonged to the Lactobacillus reuteri phylogenetic group according to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and specific phenotypic characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains KZ01(T), KZ02, KZ03 and GG02 formed a single monophyletic cluster and had a distinct line of descent. Based on sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene, Lactobacillus fermentum JCM 1173(T) (96.6 %) was the closest neighbour to these novel strains, although it was clear that these strains belonged to a different species. Partial pheS sequences also supported these relationships. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain KZ01(T) and L. fermentum JCM 1173(T) was less than 22 % and the DNA G+C content of strain KZ01(T) was 50.7 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A4β (l-Orn-d-Asp) and the major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C19 : 1 cyclo 9,10. Therefore, based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and physiological evidence, these strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus gorillae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KZ01(T) ( = JCM 19575(T) = DSM 28356(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  1. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Diversity of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Sak

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases represent the greatest threats to endangered species, and transmission from humans to wildlife under increased anthropogenic pressure has been always stated as a major risk of habituation.To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, one hundred mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei from seven groups habituated either for tourism or for research in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda were screened for the presence of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. using molecular diagnostics.The most frequently detected parasites were Enterocytozoon bieneusi found in 18 samples (including genotype EbpA, D, C, gorilla 2 and five novel genotypes gorilla 4-8 and Encephalitozoon cuniculi with genotype II being more prevalent (10 cases compared to genotype I (1 case. Cryptosporidium muris (2 cases and C. meleagridis (2 cases were documented in great apes for the first time. Cryptosporidium sp. infections were identified only in research groups and occurrence of E. cuniculi in research groups was significantly higher in comparison to tourist groups. No difference in prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed between research and tourist groups.Although our data showed the presence and diversity of important opportunistic protists in Volcanoes gorillas, the source and the routes of the circulation remain unknown. Repeated individual sampling, broad sampling of other hosts sharing the habitat with gorillas and quantification of studied protists would be necessary to acquire more complex data.

  3. Diversity of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrželková, Klára J; Květoňová, Dana; Mynářová, Anna; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Modrý, David; Cranfield, Michael R; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Kváč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases represent the greatest threats to endangered species, and transmission from humans to wildlife under increased anthropogenic pressure has been always stated as a major risk of habituation. To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, one hundred mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) from seven groups habituated either for tourism or for research in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda were screened for the presence of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. using molecular diagnostics. The most frequently detected parasites were Enterocytozoon bieneusi found in 18 samples (including genotype EbpA, D, C, gorilla 2 and five novel genotypes gorilla 4-8) and Encephalitozoon cuniculi with genotype II being more prevalent (10 cases) compared to genotype I (1 case). Cryptosporidium muris (2 cases) and C. meleagridis (2 cases) were documented in great apes for the first time. Cryptosporidium sp. infections were identified only in research groups and occurrence of E. cuniculi in research groups was significantly higher in comparison to tourist groups. No difference in prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed between research and tourist groups. Although our data showed the presence and diversity of important opportunistic protists in Volcanoes gorillas, the source and the routes of the circulation remain unknown. Repeated individual sampling, broad sampling of other hosts sharing the habitat with gorillas and quantification of studied protists would be necessary to acquire more complex data.

  4. Diversity of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrželková, Klára J.; Květoňová, Dana; Mynářová, Anna; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Modrý, David; Cranfield, Michael R.; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Kváč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases represent the greatest threats to endangered species, and transmission from humans to wildlife under increased anthropogenic pressure has been always stated as a major risk of habituation. Aims To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, one hundred mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) from seven groups habituated either for tourism or for research in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda were screened for the presence of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. using molecular diagnostics. Results The most frequently detected parasites were Enterocytozoon bieneusi found in 18 samples (including genotype EbpA, D, C, gorilla 2 and five novel genotypes gorilla 4–8) and Encephalitozoon cuniculi with genotype II being more prevalent (10 cases) compared to genotype I (1 case). Cryptosporidium muris (2 cases) and C. meleagridis (2 cases) were documented in great apes for the first time. Cryptosporidium sp. infections were identified only in research groups and occurrence of E. cuniculi in research groups was significantly higher in comparison to tourist groups. No difference in prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed between research and tourist groups. Conclusion Although our data showed the presence and diversity of important opportunistic protists in Volcanoes gorillas, the source and the routes of the circulation remain unknown. Repeated individual sampling, broad sampling of other hosts sharing the habitat with gorillas and quantification of studied protists would be necessary to acquire more complex data. PMID:25386754

  5. In vivo activity of a mixture of two human monoclonal antibodies (anti-HBs) in a chronic hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Heijtink; W. Paulij; P.A.C. van Bergen (Patrick); M.H. van Roosmalen (Mark); D. Rohm; B. Eichentopf (Bertram); E. Muchmore; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A. de Man (Robert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractA 35-year-old female hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzee was infused with one dose of a mixture of human monoclonal antibodies 9H9 and 4-7B (antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen; HBsAg). Blood samples were taken before and up to 3 weeks

  6. Increased neutralization sensitivity and reduced replicative capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 after short-term in vivo or in vitro passage through chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, T.; Broersen, S.; van Nuenen, A.; Huisman, H. G.; de Roda Husman, A. M.; Heeney, J. L.; Schuitemaker, H.

    2000-01-01

    Development of disease is extremely rare in chimpanzees when inoculated with either T-cell-line-adapted neutralization-sensitive or primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), at first excluding a role for HIV-1 neutralization sensitivity in the clinical course of infection. Interestingly,

  7. Gorilla diet in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon: : A nutritional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Rogers, M; Maisels, Fiona; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Fernandez, Michel; Tutin, Caroline E G

    1990-10-01

    The results of an analysis of gorilla diet in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon are presented. Samples were assayed for nutrients and plant secondary compounds (total phenols, condensed tannins and alkaloids) in an attempt to explain gorilla food choice. The diet is the most diverse so far analysed for gorillas; it seems to be a balance between sugary fruit, proteinaceous leaves, and relatively fibrous stems. Most fruits and herbaceous stems are succulent, but some drier, fibrous fruit and bark is also consumed. Seeds are another component of the diet, including unripe ones. Fruit, seeds, leaves and bark may all contain very high levels of total phenols and condensed tannins; but all herbaceous stems assayed contain low levels of these compounds. Alkaloids are not apparently a significant component of gorilla foods, and may be avoided. Gorillas at Lopé tend to avoid fatty fruit, and select leaves which are high in protein and low in fibre compared to the general vegetation. When fruit and preferred young leaves are scarce, proteinaceous barks and mature leaves, and sugary pith, are important sources of nutrients. We conclude that gorillas exploit the broad frugivore niche in West African lowland forests, and are part of the frugivore community there. What distinguishes them is their ability to eat large fibrous fruit, mature leaves and stems, and to overcome high levels of phenolics (we use "phenolics" as an umbrella term for both total phenols and condensed tannins). Gorilla diet at Lopé overlaps greatly with that of sympatric, frugivorous, primates, and resembles more closely that of chimpanzees than it does gorilla diet studied elsewhere in Africa.

  8. Chimpanzee Food Preferences, Associative Learning, and the Origins of Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Hopper, Lydia M.; de Waal, Frans B.M.; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution. PMID:26659967

  9. Chimpanzee Food Preferences, Associative Learning, and the Origins of Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J.; Hopper, Lydia M.; de Waal, Frans B.M.; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2016-01-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution.

  10. Chimpanzee food preferences, associative learning, and the origins of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution.

  11. Extensive X-linked adaptive evolution in central chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Qian, Yu; Bataillon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    on the dominance of beneficial (adaptive) and deleterious mutations. Here we capture and sequence the complete exomes of 12 chimpanzees and present the largest set of protein-coding polymorphism to date. We report extensive adaptive evolution specifically targeting the X chromosome of chimpanzees with as much...... to humans, we find that purifying selection is stronger on the X chromosome than on the autosomes in chimpanzees. We therefore conclude that most adaptive mutations are recessive. We also document dramatically reduced synonymous diversity in the chimpanzee X chromosome relative to autosomes and stronger...... purifying selection than for the human X chromosome. If similar processes were operating in the human-chimpanzee ancestor as in central chimpanzees today, our results therefore provide an explanation for the much-discussed reduction in the human-chimpanzee divergence at the X chromosome....

  12. Effects of group dynamics and diet on the ranging patterns of a western gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolletta, Chloé

    2004-10-01

    This study describes how group dynamics and diet have influenced the ranging patterns of a western gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. The results are compared with those from an earlier study [Cipolletta, International Journal of Primatology, 2003], when the same group was larger and undergoing the process of habituation to humans. Data were obtained from maps of the gorillas' travel routes, direct observations, and analysis of fecal samples. Through the years, the group has experienced a decrease in size, from eight to three individuals, with periods of membership fluctuation. The male's search for new mates resulted in a larger home range than was recorded when the group consisted of more individuals. Moreover, despite an average group size of three throughout this study, the monthly range and mean daily path length (DPL) were also larger when the group was acquiring/losing members in new areas, than when no new members joined or left the group. Fruit was consumed year-round, although more heavily so during wet months. The influence of fruit consumption on the ranging patterns was concealed initially by the effect of habituation [Cipolletta, International Journal of Primatology, 2003], and later (at least partially) by the male's search for new mates. In the last 14 months of the study, when the group numbered only three individuals and was ranging in a restricted area, the average DPL, but not the monthly range, increased when the gorillas were consuming more fruit.

  13. Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS) Detects Individual Variation in Social Responsiveness for Captive Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faughn, Carley; Marrus, Natasha; Pruett, John R.; Shuman, Jeremy; Ross, Stephen R.; Constantino, John N.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative studies of social responsiveness, a core impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), will enhance our understanding of typical and atypical social behavior. We previously reported a quantitative, cross-species (human–chimpanzee) social responsiveness measure, which included the development of the Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS). Here, we augment our prior CSRS sample with 25 zoo chimpanzees at three sites: combined N = 54. The CSRS demonstrated strong interrater reliability, and low-ranked chimpanzees, on average, displayed higher CSRS scores. The CSRS continues to discriminate variation in chimpanzee social responsiveness, and the association of higher scores with lower chimpanzee social standing has implications for the relationship between autistic traits and human social status. Continued comparative investigations of social responsiveness will enhance our understanding of underlying impairments in ASD, improve early diagnosis, and inform future therapies. PMID:25312279

  14. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

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    Bohumil Sak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. RESULTS: We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3 (4.0%, Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0% and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5% in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%. In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%, G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5% and C. muris TS03 (0.5%. CONCLUSION: Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best

  15. Initial studies on the contributions of body size and gastrointestinal passage rates to dietary flexibility among gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, M J

    2000-06-01

    Large body size has been traditionally seen as the primary dietary adaptation of gorillas, facilitating their consumption of fibrous foods (Schaller ¿1963 The Mountain Gorilla; Watts ¿1990 Int. J. Primatol. 11:21-45). Nevertheless, recent research has emphasized frugivory among western lowland gorillas, as well as the influence of habitat and seasonality on gorilla diet and behavior across subspecies (Watts ¿1990 Int. J. Primatol. 11:21-45; Tutin et al. ¿1991 Philos. R. Soc. Trans. Lond. Biol. 334:179-186; Remis ¿1994 Ph.D. Thesis, ¿1997a Am. J. Primatol. 43:87-109, ¿1997b Am. J. Primatol. 43:111-133, ¿1998 Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, p 95-(1)108, ¿1999 Primates 40:383-396; Nishihara ¿1995 Primates 36:151-168; Goldsmith ¿1999a Int. J. Primatol. 20:1-23, Goldsmith [1999b] Nonhuman Primates, p 58-63). This study provides preliminary data to address the physiological underpinnings of dietary flexibility among gorillas, and their consumption of a broad range of fibrous and tannin-rich foods. To date, little is known about the digestive physiology of the African apes (but see Milton ¿1984 Adaptations for Foraging in Nonhuman Primates, p 249-279, Milton [1984] ¿1999Evol. Anthropol. 8:11-20; Milton and Demment ¿1988 J. Nutr. 118:1082-1088; Lambert ¿1997 Ph.D. Dissertation), although gastrointestinal morphology and proportions are roughly similar among species ( Chivers and Hladik ¿1980 J. Morphol. 166:337-386). This study provides additional experimental data on the gastrointestinal passage times of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) fed a captive diet in a zoological park setting and discusses results in relation to field research on gorilla feeding ecology. In this study, 480 small plastic markers were fed to six captive gorillas. The mean gut retention time (MRT) of the adult gorillas in this study was 50 hr, longer than the 31 hr reported for chimpanzees fed a similar diet (Lambert ¿1997 Ph.D. Dissertation). These data suggest that gorillas

  16. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouar, Pascaline J; Vallet, Dominique; David, Laetitia; Bermejo, Magdalena; Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Petit, Eric J; Ménard, Nelly

    2009-12-18

    Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed. We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected). Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population. Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  17. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline J Le Gouar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed.We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected. Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population.Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  18. Captive gorillas' manual laterality: The impact of gestures, manipulators and interaction specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Jacques; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Pika, Simone

    2017-12-01

    Relationships between humans' manual laterality in non-communicative and communicative functions are still poorly understood. Recently, studies showed that chimpanzees' manual laterality is influenced by functional, interactional and individual factors and their mutual intertwinement. However, what about manual laterality in species living in stable social groups? We tackled this question by studying three groups of captive gorillas (N=35) and analysed their most frequent manual signals: three manipulators and 16 gesture types. Our multifactorial investigation showed that conspecific-directed gestures were overall more right-lateralized than conspecific-directed manipulators. Furthermore, it revealed a difference between conspecific- and human-directed gestural laterality for signallers living in one of the study groups. Our results support the hypothesis that gestural laterality is a relevant marker of language left-brain specialisation. We suggest that components of communication and of manipulation (not only of an object but also of a conspecific) do not share the same lateralised cerebral system in some primate species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gestion participative du sanctuaire de gorilles de plaine de l'ouest (Gorilla gorilla gorilla de Lossi en République du Congo- Brazzaville: première analyse de résultats et des contraintes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbété, RA.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Participative Management of the Sanctuary of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla of Lossi in Republic of Congo-Brazzaville: Preliminary Results and Constraints Analysis. The gorilla sanctuary of Lossi experiments the synergy between scientific research and nature conservation. Three partners are involved in a management participative process. These partners include the Republic of Congo, the local community of Lossi and the European programme on the forest ecosystems in Central Africa. An investigation was carried out on the sanctuary of Lossi in 2003, in order to study in situ the effects generated by the participative management and to identify the constraints linked to the participative approach. The work of primatologists allowed the habituation of the gorillas to the human presence and opened eyesight tourism of western lowland gorillas. A camp for tourists and the access road to the sanctuary have been constructed. The tourism generated jobs in favour of the local population which is also a take-partner of contracts on road repairing. The income from the tourism allowed the construction of a health centre. However, the works of researchers and tourism activities failed during the outbreaks of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever and during the three civil war episodes. The consolidation and the long term of this process of co-management of natural resources of Lossi remains the establishment of a management that should include conservation, rural development and scientific research, with equitably in the distribution of gain between the partnerses.

  20. First observation of tool use in wild gorillas.

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    Thomas Breuer

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of novel tool use by great apes in response to different circumstances aids us in understanding the factors favoring the evolution of tool use in humans. This paper documents what we believe to be the first two observations of tool use in wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla. We first observed an adult female gorilla using a branch as a walking stick to test water deepness and to aid in her attempt to cross a pool of water at Mbeli Bai, a swampy forest clearing in northern Congo. In the second case we saw another adult female using a detached trunk from a small shrub as a stabilizer during food processing. She then used the trunk as a self-made bridge to cross a deep patch of swamp. In contrast to information from other great apes, which mostly show tool use in the context of food extraction, our observations show that in gorillas other factors such as habitat type can stimulate the use of tools.

  1. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer...

  2. Brief Report: Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS) Detects Individual Variation in Social Responsiveness for Captive Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faughn, Carley; Marrus, Natasha; Shuman, Jeremy; Ross, Stephen R.; Constantino, John N.; Pruett, John R., Jr.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative studies of social responsiveness, a core impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), will enhance our understanding of typical and atypical social behavior. We previously reported a quantitative, cross-species (human-chimpanzee) social responsiveness measure, which included the development of the Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness…

  3. DETECTION OF ENTEROHEPATIC AND GASTRIC HELICOBACTER SPP. IN WILD CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) AND WESTERN LOWLAND GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flahou, B.; Modrý, David; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Smet, J.; Ducatelle, R.; Pasmans, F.; Sa, R.; Haesebrouck, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, S1 (2011), s. 141 ISSN 1083-4389. [24th International Workshop on Helicobacter and Related Bacteria in Chronic Digestive Inflammation and Gastric Cancer. 11.09.2011-13.09.2011, Dublin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : wild primates * gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters * Africa Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  4. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Votýpka, J.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků-Pomajbíková, K.; Kriegová, E.; Vodička, R.; Lankester, F.; Leendertz, S. A. J.; Wittig, R. M.; Boesch, C.; Modrý, D.; Ayala, F. J.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2015), s. 277-282 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Trypanosomes * Chimpanzee * Non-human primates * Transmission * Diagnostics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.242, year: 2015

  5. Novel polyomaviruses of nonhuman primates: genetic and serological predictors for the existence of multiple unknown polyomaviruses within the human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Scuda

    Full Text Available Polyomaviruses are a family of small non-enveloped DNA viruses that encode oncogenes and have been associated, to greater or lesser extent, with human disease and cancer. Currently, twelve polyomaviruses are known to circulate within the human population. To further examine the diversity of human polyomaviruses, we have utilized a combinatorial approach comprised of initial degenerate primer-based PCR identification and phylogenetic analysis of nonhuman primate (NHP polyomavirus species, followed by polyomavirus-specific serological analysis of human sera. Using this approach we identified twenty novel NHP polyomaviruses: nine in great apes (six in chimpanzees, two in gorillas and one in orangutan, five in Old World monkeys and six in New World monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that only four of the nine chimpanzee polyomaviruses (six novel and three previously identified had known close human counterparts. To determine whether the remaining chimpanzee polyomaviruses had potential human counterparts, the major viral capsid proteins (VP1 of four chimpanzee polyomaviruses were expressed in E. coli for use as antigens in enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA. Human serum/plasma samples from both Côte d'Ivoire and Germany showed frequent seropositivity for the four viruses. Antibody pre-adsorption-based ELISA excluded the possibility that reactivities resulted from binding to known human polyomaviruses. Together, these results support the existence of additional polyomaviruses circulating within the human population that are genetically and serologically related to existing chimpanzee polyomaviruses.

  6. Novel Polyomaviruses of Nonhuman Primates: Genetic and Serological Predictors for the Existence of Multiple Unknown Polyomaviruses within the Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuda, Nelly; Madinda, Nadege Freda; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Adjogoua, Edgard Valerie; Wevers, Diana; Hofmann, Jörg; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Leendertz, Siv Aina J.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Robbins, Martha; Boesch, Christophe; Jarvis, Michael A.; Moens, Ugo; Mugisha, Lawrence; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Polyomaviruses are a family of small non-enveloped DNA viruses that encode oncogenes and have been associated, to greater or lesser extent, with human disease and cancer. Currently, twelve polyomaviruses are known to circulate within the human population. To further examine the diversity of human polyomaviruses, we have utilized a combinatorial approach comprised of initial degenerate primer-based PCR identification and phylogenetic analysis of nonhuman primate (NHP) polyomavirus species, followed by polyomavirus-specific serological analysis of human sera. Using this approach we identified twenty novel NHP polyomaviruses: nine in great apes (six in chimpanzees, two in gorillas and one in orangutan), five in Old World monkeys and six in New World monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that only four of the nine chimpanzee polyomaviruses (six novel and three previously identified) had known close human counterparts. To determine whether the remaining chimpanzee polyomaviruses had potential human counterparts, the major viral capsid proteins (VP1) of four chimpanzee polyomaviruses were expressed in E. coli for use as antigens in enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Human serum/plasma samples from both Côte d'Ivoire and Germany showed frequent seropositivity for the four viruses. Antibody pre-adsorption-based ELISA excluded the possibility that reactivities resulted from binding to known human polyomaviruses. Together, these results support the existence of additional polyomaviruses circulating within the human population that are genetically and serologically related to existing chimpanzee polyomaviruses. PMID:23818846

  7. Male and female western gorilla diet: preferred foods, use of fallback resources, and implications for ape versus old world monkey foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran-Sheehy, D; Mongo, P; Lodwick, J; Conklin-Brittain, N L

    2009-12-01

    Most of what is currently known about western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) diet is based on indirect studies using fecal samples and trail signs rather than measures based on direct observations. Here we report results on adult male and female western gorilla foraging behavior, based on systematic focal observations and nutritional analyses of foods. We found that western gorillas, like other apes, are highly selective ripe fruit specialists, seeking fruit high in energy, low in antifeedants, and rare in the environment. During seasonal fruiting peaks, fruit accounted for up to 70% of feeding time. When ripe fruit was scarce, gorillas increased time spent feeding on leaves and nonpreferred fruits and herbs. Leaves were the major fallback food, accounting for up to 70% of feeding time in males and 50% in females during periods of fruit scarcity. In spite of large differences in body size, the sexes were remarkably similar in their overall diet, not differing in time spent feeding on fruit or preferred herbs. However, the male consistently fed more often and on a greater variety of leaves than did females, whereas females fed more often on fallback herbs and termites. Our findings, when considered in light of previous findings on sympatric mangabeys, indicate that the foraging strategy of western gorillas is broadly similar to that of chimpanzees and orangutans, and distinct from that of old world monkeys.

  8. Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and young children.

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    Felix Warneken

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available People often act on behalf of others. They do so without immediate personal gain, at cost to themselves, and even toward unfamiliar individuals. Many researchers have claimed that such altruism emanates from a species-unique psychology not found in humans' closest living evolutionary relatives, such as the chimpanzee. In favor of this view, the few experimental studies on altruism in chimpanzees have produced mostly negative results. In contrast, we report experimental evidence that chimpanzees perform basic forms of helping in the absence of rewards spontaneously and repeatedly toward humans and conspecifics. In two comparative studies, semi-free ranging chimpanzees helped an unfamiliar human to the same degree as did human infants, irrespective of being rewarded (experiment 1 or whether the helping was costly (experiment 2. In a third study, chimpanzees helped an unrelated conspecific gain access to food in a novel situation that required subjects to use a newly acquired skill on behalf of another individual. These results indicate that chimpanzees share crucial aspects of altruism with humans, suggesting that the roots of human altruism may go deeper than previous experimental evidence suggested.

  9. Specificity of chimpanzee antibodies binding a strain-specific HIV-1 neutralization epitope of the external envelope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Bakker, M.; Smit, L.; Meloen, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Sera from three chimpanzees infected with a primary lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV-1) or human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-IIIB) passage, from two chimpanzees infected with blood from the primary infected chimpanzees, and from one chimpanzee infected with blood from a secondary

  10. Do wild chimpanzee populations develop diverse cultures? [Latest Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Humans pride themselves on having extensive and diverse cultures. However, cultures can also be observed in animals. The research presented in this video aims at understanding the cultures of wild chimpanzee populations in several African countries and how they differ from each other. As chimpanzees avoid human contact, CHRISTOPHE BOESCH explains, the research team conducted the study by setting up camera traps to catch chimpanzee behavior on video. Forty locations were carefully selected to ...

  11. Challenge Pools of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes 1–6 Prototype Strains: Replication Fitness and Pathogenicity in Chimpanzees and Human Liver–Chimeric Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip; Tellier, Raymond; Engle, Ronald E.; Feinstone, Stephen M.; Eder, Gerald; Satterfield, William C.; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Krawczynski, Krzysztof; Miller, Roger H.; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Purcell, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees represent the only animal model for studies of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To generate virus stocks of important HCV variants, we infected chimpanzees with HCV strains of genotypes 1–6 and determined the infectivity titer of acute-phase plasma pools in additional animals. The courses of first- and second-passage infections were similar, with early appearance of viremia, HCV RNA titers of >104.7 IU/mL, and development of acute hepatitis; the chronicity rate was 56%. The challenge pools had titers of 103–105 chimpanzee infectious doses/mL. Human liver–chimeric mice developed high-titer infections after inoculation with the challenge viruses of genotypes 1–6. Inoculation studies with different doses of the genotype 1b pool suggested that a relatively high virus dose is required to consistently infect chimeric mice. The challenge pools represent a unique resource for studies of HCV molecular virology and for studies of pathogenesis, protective immunity, and vaccine efficacy in vivo. PMID:20353362

  12. Signs of mood and anxiety disorders in chimpanzees.

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    Hope R Ferdowsian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety disorders? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In phase 1 of this study, we accessed case reports of chimpanzees who had been reportedly subjected to traumatic events, such as maternal separation, social isolation, experimentation, or similar experiences. We applied and tested DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and major depression to published case reports of 20 chimpanzees identified through PrimateLit. Additionally, using the DSM-IV criteria and ethograms as guides, we developed behaviorally anchored alternative criteria that were applied to the case reports. A small number of chimpanzees in the case studies met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and depression. Measures of inter-rater reliability, including Fleiss' kappa and percentage agreement, were higher with use of the alternative criteria for PTSD and depression. In phase 2, the alternative criteria were applied to chimpanzees living in wild sites in Africa (n = 196 and chimpanzees living in sanctuaries with prior histories of experimentation, orphanage, illegal seizure, or violent human conflict (n = 168. In phase 2, 58% of chimpanzees living in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for depression, compared with 3% of chimpanzees in the wild (p = 0.04, and 44% of chimpanzees in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for PTSD, compared with 0.5% of chimpanzees in the wild (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chimpanzees display behavioral clusters similar to PTSD and depression in their key

  13. Distal microbiome composition of habituated western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Dzanga Sangha, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; White, B. A.; Stumpf, R. M.; Nelson, K. E.; Gillis, M.; Torralba, M.; Wilson, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 75, S1 (2013), s. 72 ISSN 0275-2565. [Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists /36./. 19.06.2013-22.06.2013, San Juan] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gorilla * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajp.22188/pdf

  14. Gut microbiome composition and metabolomic profiles of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) reflect host ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Petrzelkova, Klara; Yeoman, Carl J; Vlckova, Klara; Mrázek, Jakub; Koppova, Ingrid; Carbonero, Franck; Ulanov, Alexander; Modry, David; Todd, Angelique; Torralba, Manolito; Nelson, Karen E; Gaskins, H Rex; Wilson, Brenda; Stumpf, Rebecca M; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    The metabolic activities of gut microbes significantly influence host physiology; thus, characterizing the forces that modulate this micro-ecosystem is key to understanding mammalian biology and fitness. To investigate the gut microbiome of wild primates and determine how these microbial communities respond to the host's external environment, we characterized faecal bacterial communities and, for the first time, gut metabolomes of four wild lowland gorilla groups in the Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. Results show that geographical range may be an important modulator of the gut microbiomes and metabolomes of these gorilla groups. Distinctions seemed to relate to feeding behaviour, implying energy harvest through increased fruit consumption or fermentation of highly fibrous foods. These observations were supported by differential abundance of metabolites and bacterial taxa associated with the metabolism of cellulose, phenolics, organic acids, simple sugars, lipids and sterols between gorillas occupying different geographical ranges. Additionally, the gut microbiomes of a gorilla group under increased anthropogenic pressure could always be distinguished from that of all other groups. By characterizing the interplay between environment, behaviour, diet and symbiotic gut microbes, we present an alternative perspective on primate ecology and on the forces that shape the gut microbiomes of wild primates from an evolutionary context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gut microbiome composition and metabolomic profiles of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) reflect host ecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; Vlčková, K.; Mrázek, Jakub; Koppová, Ingrid; Carbonero, F.; Ulanov, A.; Modrý, D.; Todd, A.; Torralba, M.; Nelson, K.; Gaskins, H. R.; Wilson, B.; Stumpf, R. M.; White, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2015), s. 2551-2565 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : western lowland gorillas * microbiome * metabolomics * foraging ecology * anthropogenic interactions Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 5.947, year: 2015

  16. Gut microbiome composition and metabolomic profiles/nof wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)/nreflect host ecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; Vlčková, K.; Mrázek, J.; Koppova, I.; Carbonero, F.; Ulanov, A.; Modrý, David; Todd, A.; Torralba, M.; Nelson, K. E.; Gaskins, H. R.; Wilson, B.; Stumpf, R. M.; White, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2015), s. 2551-2565 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anthropogenic interactions * foraging ecology * metabolomics * microbiome * western lowland gorillas Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.947, year: 2015

  17. Identification and characterization of a new bocavirus species in gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kapoor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel parvovirus, provisionally named Gorilla Bocavirus species 1 (GBoV1, was identified in four stool samples from Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla with acute enteritis. The complete genomic sequence of the new parvovirus revealed three open reading frames (ORFs with an organization similar to that of known bocaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis using complete capsid and non structural (NS gene sequence suggested that the new parvovirus is most closely related to human bocaviruses (HBoV. However, the NS ORF is more similar in length to the NS ORF found in canine minute virus and bovine parvovirus than in HBoV. Comparative genetic analysis using GBoV and HBoV genomes enabled characterization of unique splice donor and acceptor sites that appear to be highly conserved among all four HBoV species, and provided evidence for expression of two different NS proteins in all primate bocaviruses. GBoV is the first non-human primate bocavirus identified and provides new insights into the genetic diversity and evolution of this highly prevalent and recently discovered group of parvoviruses.

  18. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Lukas, K E; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Dennis, P M

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, many gorillas in zoos consume a diet that is high-calorie and low in fiber. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are minimal in the natural diet of gorillas. There is a growing concern that captive gorillas may qualify as obese. Furthermore, the leading cause of death for adult male gorillas in zoos is heart disease. In humans, a diet that is high in simple carbohydrates is associated with both obesity and the incidence of heart disease. In response to these issues, we implemented a biscuit-free diet (free of biscuits and low in fruit) and measured serum biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance pre- and post-diet change at three institutions: North Carolina Zoological Garden, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, and Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. We also added a resistant starch supplement to gorilla diets at two of the above institutions. We anticipated that these diet changes would positively affect biomarkers of obesity and insulin resistance. Both diet manipulations led to a reduction in insulin. Resistant starch also decreased overall serum cholesterol levels. Future research will examine these health changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Patterns of milk macronutrients and bioactive molecules across lactation in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay; Drought, Heather; Milligan, Lauren A; Murtough, Katie L; Bernstein, Robin M

    2017-03-01

    In addition to nutrients, milk contains signaling molecules that influence offspring development. Human milk is similar in nutrient composition to that of apes, but appears to differ in other aspects such as immune function. We examine the longitudinal patterns across lactation of macronutrients, the metabolic hormone adiponectin, the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), and two receptors for these growth factors (EGF-R and TGF-β2-RIII) in milk samples collected between days 175 and 313 postpartum from a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and between days 3 and 1,276 from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and compare the results with human data from the literature. Milk macronutrients and hormones were measured using standard nutritional assays and commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits. Ape milk fat content was lower than human milk values, but protein and sugar were similar. Concentrations of all bioactive molecules were consistently detectable except for TGF-β2 in orangutan milk. Concentrations of adiponectin, EGF, and TGF-β2 in both ape milks were lower than found in human breast milk. Concentrations declined with infant age in orangutan milk; in gorilla milk concentrations were high in the first months, and then declined to stable levels until 2-3 years after birth when they increased. However, when expressed on a per energy basis milk constituent values did not differ with age for orangutan and the variation was reduced at all ages in gorilla. In orangutan milk, the ratio of EGF-R to EGF was constant, with EGF-R at 7.7% of EGF; in gorilla milk the EGF-R concentration was 4.4 ± 0.2% of the EGF concentration through 3 years and then increased. These data indicate that potent signaling molecules such as EGF and adiponectin are present in ape milk at physiological concentrations. However, human breast milk on average contains higher concentrations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Niche partitioning in sympatric Gorilla and Pan from Cameroon: implications for life history strategies and for reconstructing the evolution of hominin life history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A Macho

    Full Text Available Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain size in a 20th century museum collection of sympatric Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes from Central Cameroon. Using δ13C and δ15N of individuals' hair, we assessed whether and how differences in diet and habitat use may have impacted on ape development. The results show that, overall, gorilla hair δ13C and δ15N values are more variable than those of chimpanzees, and that gorillas are consistently lower in δ13C and δ15N compared to chimpanzees. Within a restricted, isotopically-constrained area, gorilla brain development appears delayed relative to dental mineralization/eruption [or dental development is accelerated relative to brains]: only about 87.8% of adult brain size is attained by the time first permanent molars come into occlusion, whereas it is 92.3% in chimpanzees. Even when M1s are already in full functional occlusion, gorilla brains lag behind those of chimpanzee (91% versus 96.4%, relative to tooth development. Both bootstrap analyses and stable isotope results confirm that these results are unlikely due to sampling error. Rather, δ15N values imply that gorillas are not fully weaned (physiologically mature until well after M1 are in full functional occlusion. In chimpanzees the transition from infant to adult feeding appears (a more gradual and (b earlier relative to somatic development. Taken together, the findings are consistent with life history theory that predicts delayed development when non-density dependent mortality is low, i.e. in closed habitats, and with the "risk aversion" hypothesis for frugivorous species as a means to avert starvation. Furthermore, the

  1. Tool-use in excavation of underground food by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implication for wild chimpanzee behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Majlesi, Parandis

    2014-01-01

    Extractive foraging of underground storage organs (USOs) is believed to have played an important role in human evolution. This behavior is also present in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), who sometimes use tools in the task. Despite the importance of studying this behavior in chimpanzees to model how early hominins may have used tools in the context of USO excavation, it remains to be directly observed due to the chimpanzees lack of habituation in the two study sites that yielded evidence...

  2. Chimpanzee drumming : a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valerie; Poulin, Nicolas; Cure, Charlotte; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species,

  3. Characterization of interleukin-8 receptors in non-human primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, V.; Coto, E.; Gonzalez-Roces, S.; Lopez-Larrea, C. [Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Interleukin-8 is a chemokine with a potent neutrophil chemoatractant activity. In humans, two different cDNAs encoding human IL8 receptors designated IL8RA and IL8RB have been cloned. IL8RA binds IL8, while IL8RB binds IL8 as well as other {alpha}-chemokines. Both human IL8Rs are encoded by two genes physically linked on chromosome 2. The IL8RA and IL8RB genes have open reading frames (ORF) lacking introns. By direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products, we sequenced the IL8R genes of cell lines from four non-human primates: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and macaca. The IL8RB encodes an ORF in the four non-human primates, showing 95%-99% similarity to the human IL8RB sequence. The IL8RA homologue in gorilla and chimpanzee consisted of two ORF 98%-99% identical to the human sequence. The macaca and orangutan IL8RA homologues are pseudogenes: a 2 base pair insertion generated a sequence with several stop codons. In addition, we describe the physical linkage of these genes in the four non-human primates and discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. A unique genomic sequence in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome [WHS] region of humans is conserved in the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzami, S T; Kringstein, A M; Conte, R A; Verma, R S

    1996-10-01

    The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by a partial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4 band 16.3 (4p 16.3). A unique-sequence human DNA probe (39 kb) localized within this region has been used to search for sequence homology in the apes' equivalent chromosome 3 by FISH-technique. The WHS loci are conserved in higher primates at the expected position. Nevertheless, a control probe, which detects alphoid sequences of the pericentromeric region of humans, is diverged in chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. The conservation of WHS loci and divergence of DNA alphoid sequences have further added to the controversy concerning human descent.

  5. Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblom, J.J. [California State University-Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

  6. Alu Sb2 subfamily is present in all higher primates but was most succesfully amplified in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, C.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. [Universite de Montreal, Que (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Alu repeats can be classified into subfamilies which amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. A young Alu subfamily, Sb2, with a characteristic 7-nucleotide duplication at position 256, has been described in seven human loci. An Sb2 insertion found near the HD gene was unique to two HD families, indicating that Sb2 was still retropositionally active. Here, we have shown that the Sb2 insertion in the CHOL locus was similarly rare, being absent in 120 individuals of Caucasian, Oriental and Black origin. In contrast, Sb2 inserts in five other loci were found fixed (non-polymorphic), based on measurements in the same population sample, but absent from orthologous positions in higher apes. This suggest that Sb2 repeats spread relatively early in the human lineage following divergence from other primates and that these elements may be human-specific. By quantitative PCR, we investigated the presence of Sb2 sequences in different primate DNA, using one PCR primer anchored at the 5{prime} Alu-end and the other complementary to the duplicated Sb2-specific segment. With an Sb2-containing plasmid as a standard, we estimated the number of Sb2 repeats at 1500-1800 copies per human haploid equivalent; corresponding numbers in chimpanzee and gorilla were almost two orders of magnitude lower, while the signal observed in orangutan and gibbon DNAs was consistent with the presence of a single copy. The analysis of 22 human, 11 chimpanzee and 10 gorilla sequences indicates that the Alu Sb2 dispersed independently in these three primate lineages; gorilla consensus differs from the human Sb2 sequence by one position, while all chimpanzee repeats have their linker expanded by up to eight A-residues. Should they be thus considered as separate subfamilies? It is possible that sequence modifications with respect to the human consensus are responsible for poor retroposition of Sb2 in apes.

  7. Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, Jennifer F.; Skaletsky, Helen; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Graves, Tina A.; van Daalen, Saskia K. M.; Minx, Patrick J.; Fulton, Robert S.; McGrath, Sean D.; Locke, Devin P.; Friedman, Cynthia; Trask, Barbara J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Warren, Wesley C.; Repping, Sjoerd; Rozen, Steve; Wilson, Richard K.; Page, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The human Y chromosome began to evolve from an autosome hundreds of millions of years ago, acquiring a sex-determining function and undergoing a series of inversions that suppressed crossing over with the X chromosome(1,2). Little is known about the recent evolution of the Y chromosome because only

  8. Impact of Different Forms of Environmental Enrichment on Foraging and Activity Levels in Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie Charmoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of species-specific behaviors for animals in zoological institutions is of top priority, as this can help ensure high levels of animal welfare. Strict feeding schedules within institutions can often impact natural foraging behaviors of animals, as they are no longer required to seek out or manipulate food items. In the wild, western lowland gorillas would spend a majority of their time foraging. The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of different forms of environmental enrichment on activity and foraging levels in gorillas at the Brookfield Zoo. Results suggest that automatic belt feeders that can feed at randomized times, will have the largest impact on behavior of all enrichment tested. However, there were individual differences observed between animals and the level of impact on their behavior. Using enrichment to increase the amount of time that zoo-housed gorillas spend searching for, acquiring, and consuming food can increase their overall activity levels and shift their behavior towards a more naturalistic direction.

  9. What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Beran, Michael J; Thompson, Roger K R; Kleider, Heather M; Washburn, David A

    2008-05-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Bed and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yuji; Ando, Chieko

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe bed (nest) and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, south-eastern Gabon. During an eight-month study 44 bed sites and 506 beds were found. Among these, 38.6% of bed sites and 4.1% of beds were reused. We analyzed the monthly frequency of bed-site reuse in relation to rainfall, fruit abundance, and fruit consumption by the gorillas. The different frequency of bed-site reuse in the rainy and dry seasons was not significant. More bed-site reuse was observed during the fruiting season than during the non-fruiting season. Results from fecal analysis suggested that gorillas ate more fruit in the fruiting season than in the non-fruiting season. The frugivorous diet of western gorillas may possibly cause gorillas to stay in some areas and, consequently, reuse their bed sites. Reuse of bed sites by gorillas suggests their frequent return to an area where preferred fruit is readily available. A higher percentage of arboreal beds may also affect bed-site reuse, because of the shortage of bed material.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Salmonella enterica Serotype Infantis Strains Isolated from a Captive Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and a Cohabitant Black and White Tegu (Tupinambis merianae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Coura, Fernanda M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Tinoco, Herlandes P; Pessanha, Angela T; Pereira, Felipe L; Leal, Carlos A G; Heinemann, Marcos B; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Santos, Renato L

    2016-01-21

    The draft genome sequences of two Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis isolates are reported here. One of the strains was isolated from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with colitis. The second strain was isolated from a reptile that inhabited the same premises. Whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that these isolates were not clonal. Copyright © 2016 Paixão et al.

  12. Evaluation of lung immunity in chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, D.E.; Harris, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Bowen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defenses in the lung can be studied in several animal species. To assure that the data obtained can be extrapolated to man, it is essential that the development of lung immunity is similar in the experimental animal selected and in humans. Because of the similarity of immune responses in chimpanzees and in humans, the development of immunity in the chimpanzee after lung immunization was evaluated. The results from the chimpanzees were qualitatively the same as those from previous studies in which single lung lobes of dogs were immunized. It was concluded that immunotoxicology data obtained in dogs can be used to estimate the effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defense mechanism in the human lung

  13. A SINGLE GENOTYPE OF ENCEPHALITOZOON INTESTIINALIS INFECTS FREE-RANGING GORILLAS AND PEOPLE SHARING THEIR HABITATS, UGANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    For conservation purposes and due to ecotourism free-ranging gorillas of Uganda have been habituated to humans, and molecular epidemiology evidence indicates that this habituation might have enhanced transmission of anthropozoonotic pathogens. Microsporidian spores have been det...

  14. Monomorphism in humans and sequence differences among higher primates for a sequence tagged site (STS) in homeo box cluster 2 as assayed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano, G.; Ruddle, F.H.; Kidd, K.K. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); Gray, M.R. (Tufts Univ., Boston, MA (United States)); Miki, Tetsuro (Osaka Univ. (Japan)); Ferguson-Smith, A.C. (Inst. of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1990-03-11

    The human homeo box cluster 2 (HOX2) contains genes coding for DNA binding proteins involved in developmental control and is highly conserved between mouse and man. The authors have applied in concert the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Denaturing Gradient Electrophoresis (DGE) to amplify defined primate HOX2 segments and to detect sequence differences among them. They have sequenced a PstI fragment 4 kb upstream from HOX 2.2 and synthesized primers delimiting both halves of 630 bp segment within it PCR on various unrelated humans and SC-PCR on chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan and gibbon yielded products of the same length for each primer pair.

  15. Geographic and species association of hepatitis B virus genotypes in non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkman, S.E.; MacDonald, D.M.; Lewis, J.C.M.; Holmes, E.C.; Simmonds, P.

    2003-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been detected in human populations throughout the world, as well as in a number of ape species (Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, gibbons [Nomascus and Hylobates species] and Pongo pygmaeus). To investigate the distribution of naturally occurring HBV infection in these species and other African Old World monkey species (Cercopithecidae), we screened 137 plasma samples from mainly wild caught animals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using several of highly conserved primers from the HB surface (HBs) gene, and for HBs antigen (HBsAg) by ELISA. None of the 93 Cercopithecidae screened (6 species) showed PCR or serology evidence for HBV infection; in contrast 2 from 8 chimpanzees and 5 from 22 gibbons were PCR-positive with each set of primers. Complete genome sequences from each of the positive apes were obtained and compared with all previously published complete and surface gene sequences. This extended phylogenetic analysis indicated that HBV variants from orangutans were interspersed by with HBV variants from southerly distributed gibbon species (H. agilis and H. moloch) occupying overlapping or adjacent habitat ranges with orangutans; in contrast, HBV variants from gibbon species in mainland Asia were phylogenetically distinct. A geographical rather than (sub)species association of HBV would account for the distribution of HBV variants in different subspecies of chimpanzees in Africa, and explain the inlier position of the previously described lowland gorilla sequence in the chimpanzee clade. These new findings have a number of implication for understanding the origins and epidemiology of HBV infection in non-human primates

  16. Age-related effects in the neocortical organization of chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrey, Michelle M; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine

    2014-01-01

    chimpanzees. We used the BrainVisa software to measure total brain volume, gray and white matter volumes, gray matter thickness, and gyrification index in a cross-sectional sample of 219 captive chimpanzees (8-53 years old), with 38 subjects being 40 or more years of age. Mean depth and cortical fold opening...... of 11 major sulci of the chimpanzee brains were also measured. We found that chimpanzees showed increased gyrification with age and a cubic relationship between age and white matter volume. For the association between age and sulcus depth and width, the results were mostly non......Among primates, humans exhibit the most profound degree of age-related brain volumetric decline in particular regions, such as the hippocampus and the frontal lobe. Recent studies have shown that our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, experience little to no volumetric decline in gray...

  17. Toughness of the Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) diet across an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Halszka; McFarlin, Shannon C; Vogel, Erin R; Stoinski, Tara S; Ndagijimana, Felix; Tuyisingize, Deo; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Schwartz, Gary T

    2017-08-01

    The robust masticatory system of mountain gorillas is thought to have evolved for the comminution of tough vegetation, yet, compared to other primates, the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet is unremarkable. This may be a result of low plant toughness in the mountain gorilla environment or of mountain gorillas feeding selectively on low-toughness foods. The goal of this paper is to determine how the toughness of the mountain gorilla diet varies across their habitat, which spans a large altitudinal range, and whether there is a relationship between toughness and food selection by mountain gorillas. We collected data on the following variables to determine whether, and if so how, they change with altitude: leaf toughness of two plant species consumed by mountain gorillas, at every 100 m increase in altitude (2,600-3,700 m); toughness of consumed foods comprising over 85% of the gorilla diet across five vegetation zones; and toughness of unconsumed/infrequently consumed plant parts of those foods. Although leaf toughness increased with altitude, the toughness of the gorilla diet remained similar. There was a negative relationship between toughness and consumption frequency, and toughness was a better predictor of consumption frequency than plant frequency, biomass, and density. Consumed plant parts were less tough than unconsumed/infrequently consumed parts and toughness of the latter increased with altitude. Although it is unclear whether gorillas select food based on toughness or use toughness as a sensory cue to impart other plant properties (e.g., macronutrients, chemicals), our results that gorillas maintain a consistent low-toughness dietary profile across altitude, despite toughness increasing with altitude, suggest that the robust gorilla masticatory apparatus evolved for repetitive mastication of foods that are not high in toughness. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nutritional geometry: gorillas prioritize non-protein energy while consuming surplus protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Chapman, Colin A

    2011-12-23

    It is widely assumed that terrestrial food webs are built on a nitrogen-limited base and consequently herbivores must compensate through selection of high-protein foods and efficient nitrogen retention. Like many folivorous primates, gorillas' diet selection supports this assumption, as they apparently prefer protein-rich foods. Our study of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Uganda revealed that, in some periods, carbohydrate-rich fruits displace a large portion of protein-rich leaves in their diet. We show that non-protein energy (NPE) intake was invariant throughout the year, whereas protein intake was substantially higher when leaves were the major portion of the diet. This pattern of macronutrient intake suggests that gorillas prioritize NPE and, to achieve this when leaves are the major dietary item, they over-eat protein. The concentrations of protein consumed in relation to energy when leaves were the major portion of the diet were close to the maximum recommended for humans and similar to high-protein human weight-loss diets. By contrast, the concentrations of protein in relation to energy when gorillas ate fruit-dominated diets were similar to those recommended for humans. Our results question the generality of nitrogen limitation in terrestrial herbivores and provide a fascinating contrast with human macronutrient intake.

  19. Nutritional geometry: gorillas prioritize non-protein energy while consuming surplus protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M.; Raubenheimer, David; Chapman, Colin A.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely assumed that terrestrial food webs are built on a nitrogen-limited base and consequently herbivores must compensate through selection of high-protein foods and efficient nitrogen retention. Like many folivorous primates, gorillas' diet selection supports this assumption, as they apparently prefer protein-rich foods. Our study of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Uganda revealed that, in some periods, carbohydrate-rich fruits displace a large portion of protein-rich leaves in their diet. We show that non-protein energy (NPE) intake was invariant throughout the year, whereas protein intake was substantially higher when leaves were the major portion of the diet. This pattern of macronutrient intake suggests that gorillas prioritize NPE and, to achieve this when leaves are the major dietary item, they over-eat protein. The concentrations of protein consumed in relation to energy when leaves were the major portion of the diet were close to the maximum recommended for humans and similar to high-protein human weight-loss diets. By contrast, the concentrations of protein in relation to energy when gorillas ate fruit-dominated diets were similar to those recommended for humans. Our results question the generality of nitrogen limitation in terrestrial herbivores and provide a fascinating contrast with human macronutrient intake. PMID:21632622

  20. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of eastern lowland gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri, and comparative mitochondrial genomics of Gorilla species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of eastern lowland gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri for the first time. The total genome was 16,416 bp in length. It contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The base composition was A (30.88%), G (13.10%), C (30.89%) and T (25.13%), indicating that the percentage of A+T (56.01%) was higher than G+C (43.99%). Comparisons with the other publicly available Gorilla mitogenome showed the conservation of gene order and base compositions but a bunch of nucleotide diversity. This complete mitochondrial genome sequence will provide valuable genetic information for further studies on conservation genetics of eastern lowland gorilla.

  2. The first chimpanzee sanctuary in Japan: an attempt to care for the "surplus" of biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Idani, Gen'ichi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-03-01

    This article specifically examines several aspects of the human-captive chimpanzee bond and the effort to create the first chimpanzee sanctuary in Japan. We discuss our ethical responsibility for captive chimpanzees that have been used in biomedical research. On April 1, 2007, the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto (CSU) was established as the first sanctuary for retired laboratory chimpanzees in Japan. This initiative was the result of the continuous efforts by members of Support for African/Asian Great Apes (SAGA), and the Great Ape Information Network to provide a solution to the large chimpanzee colony held in biomedical facilities. However, the cessation of invasive biomedical studies using chimpanzees has created a new set of challenges because Japan lacks registration and laws banning invasive ape experiments and lacks a national policy for the life-long care of retired laboratory chimpanzees. Therefore, CSU has initiated a relocation program in which 79 retired laboratory chimpanzees will be sent to domestic zoos and receive life-long care. By the end of 2009, the number of chimpanzees living at CSU had decreased from 79 to 59 individuals. A nationwide network of care facilities and CSU to provide life-long care of retired laboratory chimpanzees is growing across Japan. This will result in humane treatment of these research animals. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Glowacki, Luke

    2012-03-01

    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species-selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result from cultural systems of reward, punishment, and coercion rather than evolved adaptations to greater risk-taking. To test this "chimpanzee model," we review intergroup fighting in chimpanzees and nomadic hunter-gatherers living with other nomadic hunter-gatherers as neighbors. Whether humans have evolved specific psychological adaptations for war is unknown, but current evidence suggests that the chimpanzee model is an appropriate starting point for analyzing the biological and cultural evolution of warfare.

  4. Challenge pools of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1-6 prototype strains: replication fitness and pathogenicity in chimpanzees and human liver-chimeric mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip; Tellier, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees represent the only animal model for studies of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To generate virus stocks of important HCV variants, we infected chimpanzees with HCV strains of genotypes 1-6 and determined the infectivity titer of acute-phase plasma pools in additional a...

  5. 'Adoption' by maternal siblings in wild chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Schel, Anne Marijke; Langergraber, Kevin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of unrelated orphaned infants is something chimpanzees and humans have in common. Providing parental care has fitness implications for both the adopter and orphan, and cases of adoption have thus been cited as evidence for a shared origin of an altruistic behaviour. We provide new data

  6. Bipedal tool use strengthens chimpanzee hand preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braccini, Stephanie; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which non-human primate behavior is lateralized, at either individual or population levels, remains controversial. We investigated the relationship between hand preference and posture during tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) during bipedal tool use. We experimentally induced...

  7. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Milan; Votýpka, Jan; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků-Pomajbíková, K.; Kriegová, Eva; Vodička, R.; Lankester, F.; Leendertz, S. A. J.; Wittig, R. M.; Boesch, C.; Modrý, David; Ayala, F. J.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2015), s. 277-282 ISSN 2213-2244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosomes * Chimpanzee * Non-human primates * Transmission * Diagnostics Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  8. Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Less, E H; Bergl, R; Ball, R; Dennis, P M; Kuhar, C W; Lavin, S R; Raghanti, M A; Wensvoort, J; Willis, M A; Lukas, K E

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, western lowland gorillas travel long distances while foraging and consume a diet high in fiber and low in caloric density. In contrast, gorillas in zoos typically consume a diet that is low in fiber and calorically dense. Some items commonly used in captive gorilla diets contain high levels of starch and sugars, which are present at low levels in the natural diet of gorillas. Diet items high in simple carbohydrates are associated with obesity and heart disease in humans. Typical captive gorilla diets may also encourage undesirable behaviors. In response to these issues, we tested the behavioral impact of a diet that was biscuit-free, had low caloric density, and which was higher in volume at five institutions. We hypothesized that this diet change would reduce abnormal behaviors such as regurgitation and reingestion (R/R), decrease time spent inactive, and increase time spent feeding. The biscuit-free diet significantly reduced (and in the case of one zoo eliminated) R/R and may have reduced hair-plucking behavior. However, an increase in coprophagy was observed in many individuals following the diet change. The experimental diet caused a general increase in time the gorillas spent feeding, but this increase did not occur across all institutions and varied by individual. Interestingly, the overall time gorillas spent inactive actually increased with this diet change. Future research will examine these behavioral changes in a greater number of individuals to determine if the results remain consistent with these preliminary findings. Additionally, future research will examine the physiological impact of this diet change. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Role of the Antiviral APOBEC3 Gene Family in Protecting Chimpanzees against Lentiviruses from Monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Etienne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-species transmissions of viruses from animals to humans are at the origin of major human pathogenic viruses. While the role of ecological and epidemiological factors in the emergence of new pathogens is well documented, the importance of host factors is often unknown. Chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans and the animal reservoir at the origin of the human AIDS pandemic. However, despite being regularly exposed to monkey lentiviruses through hunting, chimpanzees are naturally infected by only a single simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVcpz. Here, we asked why chimpanzees appear to be protected against the successful emergence of other SIVs. In particular, we investigated the role of the chimpanzee APOBEC3 genes in providing a barrier to infection by most monkey lentiviruses. We found that most SIV Vifs, including Vif from SIVwrc infecting western-red colobus, the chimpanzee's main monkey prey in West Africa, could not antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3G. Moreover, chimpanzee APOBEC3D, as well as APOBEC3F and APOBEC3H, provided additional protection against SIV Vif antagonism. Consequently, lentiviral replication in primary chimpanzee CD4(+ T cells was dependent on the presence of a lentiviral vif gene that could antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3s. Finally, by identifying and functionally characterizing several APOBEC3 gene polymorphisms in both common chimpanzees and bonobos, we found that these ape populations encode APOBEC3 proteins that are uniformly resistant to antagonism by monkey lentiviruses.

  10. Controlled studies of chimpanzee cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-01-01

    Following the first long-term field studies of chimpanzees in the 1960s, researchers began to suspect that chimpanzees from different African populations varied in their behavior, and that some of these variations were transmitted through social learning, thus suggesting culture. Additional reports of chimpanzee culture have since accumulated, which involve an increasing amount of behavioral variation that has no obvious ecological or genetic explanation. To date, close to 50 cultural variants have been reported, including subsistence behavior, tool-use, communication signals, and grooming patterns. Nevertheless, field studies lack the experimental controls and manipulations necessary to conclusively demonstrate that the observed variation results from differential invention and social transmission of behavior. This would require that behavioral variants have been learned from others, a question best addressed in a controlled experimental setting. The following chapter details a series of experimental studies at Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University. In each case, the behavior of two captive groups (each N=12 individuals) was compared before and after the introduction of a novel foraging behavior by a trained conspecific "inventor." The studies were designed to investigate (i) the conditions under which chimpanzees learn from one another, (ii) how behaviors are transmitted, (iii) how cultures are maintained over generations. The results emphasize the importance of integrating both fieldwork and experimental approaches. Previous studies have reported deficits in chimpanzees' cultural capacities, but did so after testing them with human models, which are largely irrelevant to the problem at hand. A representative understanding of culture can only be gained when efforts are made to create a naturalistic learning environment in which chimpanzees have opportunities to learn spontaneously from conspecifics in a familiar social setting.

  11. Chimpanzees, cooking, and a more comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Sayers, Ken

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offered alternative explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, and questioned the manner in which the data were used to examine human evolution (Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, & Brosnan, 2015). Two commentaries suggested either that we were overly critical of the original report's claims and methodology (Rosati & Warneken, 2016), or that, contrary to our statements, early biological thinkers contributed little to questions concerning the evolutionary importance of cooking (Wrangham, 2016). In addition, both commentaries took issue with our treatment of chimpanzee referential models in human evolutionary studies. Our response offers points of continued disagreement as well as points of conciliation. We view Warneken and Rosati's general conclusions as a case of affirming the consequent-a logical conundrum in which, in this case, a demonstration of a partial list of the underlying abilities required for a cognitive trait/suite (understanding of cooking) are suggested as evidence for that ability. And although we strongly concur with both Warneken and Rosati (2015) and Wrangham (2016) that chimpanzee research is invaluable and essential to understanding humanness, it can only achieve its potential via the holistic inclusion of all available evidence-including that from other animals, evolutionary theory, and the fossil and archaeological records.

  12. Ecological divergence and medial cuneiform morphology in gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocheri, Matthew W; Solhan, Christyna R; Orr, Caley M; Femiani, John; Frohlich, Bruno; Groves, Colin P; Harcourt-Smith, William E; Richmond, Brian G; Shoelson, Brett; Jungers, William L

    2011-02-01

    Gorillas are more closely related to each other than to any other extant primate and are all terrestrial knuckle-walkers, but taxa differ along a gradient of dietary strategies and the frequency of arboreality in their behavioral repertoire. In this study, we test the hypothesis that medial cuneiform morphology falls on a morphocline in gorillas that tracks function related to hallucial abduction ability and relative frequency of arboreality. This morphocline predicts that western gorillas, being the most arboreal, should display a medial cuneiform anatomy that reflects the greatest hallucial abduction ability, followed by grauer gorillas, and then by mountain gorillas. Using a three-dimensional methodology to measure angles between articular surfaces, relative articular and nonarticular areas, and the curvatures of the hallucial articular surface, the functional predictions are partially confirmed in separating western gorillas from both eastern gorillas. Western gorillas are characterized by a more medially oriented, proportionately larger, and more mediolaterally curved hallucial facet than are eastern gorillas. These characteristics follow the predictions for a more prehensile hallux in western gorillas relative to a more stable, plantigrade hallux in eastern gorillas. The characteristics that distinguish eastern gorilla taxa from one another appear unrelated to hallucial abduction ability or frequency of arboreality. In total, this reexamination of medial cuneiform morphology suggests differentiation between eastern and western gorillas due to a longstanding ecological divergence and more recent and possibly non-adaptive differences between eastern taxa. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. From cheetahs to chimpanzees: a comparative review of the drivers of human-carnivore conflict and human-primate conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Amy J

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a growing conservation threat, and is increasingly of importance to primate conservationists. Despite this, relatively little work has been done to date on the drivers of human-primate conflict, especially compared to other conflict-causing taxa such as large carnivores. However, the drivers of conflict are often very similar across species, so conflict researchers can learn important lessons from work conducted on other taxa. This paper discusses 8 key factors which are likely to affect how hostile people are towards wildlife and any damage they cause--6 of these are common to both carnivores and primates, while one is much more applicable to carnivores and the other is specific to primates. These conflict drivers involve numerous social and cultural factors, and highlight the importance of truly understanding the local drivers of conflict in order to develop effective mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Chimpanzees return favors at a personal cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Martin; Grueneisen, Sebastian; Kabalak, Alihan; Jost, Jürgen; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-07-11

    Humans regularly provide others with resources at a personal cost to themselves. Chimpanzees engage in some cooperative behaviors in the wild as well, but their motivational underpinnings are unclear. In three experiments, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) always chose between an option delivering food both to themselves and a partner and one delivering food only to themselves. In one condition, a conspecific partner had just previously taken a personal risk to make this choice available. In another condition, no assistance from the partner preceded the subject's decision. Chimpanzees made significantly more prosocial choices after receiving their partner's assistance than when no assistance was given (experiment 1) and, crucially, this was the case even when choosing the prosocial option was materially costly for the subject (experiment 2). Moreover, subjects appeared sensitive to the risk of their partner's assistance and chose prosocially more often when their partner risked losing food by helping (experiment 3). These findings demonstrate experimentally that chimpanzees are willing to incur a material cost to deliver rewards to a conspecific, but only if that conspecific previously assisted them, and particularly when this assistance was risky. Some key motivations involved in human cooperation thus may have deeper phylogenetic roots than previously suspected.

  15. Using photogrammetry and color scoring to assess sexual dimorphism in wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Thomas; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Investigating sexual dimorphism is important for our understanding of its influence on reproductive strategies including male-male competition, mate choice, and sexual conflict. Measuring physical traits in wild animals can be logistically challenging and disruptive for the animals. Therefore body size and ornament variation in wild primates have rarely been quantified. Gorillas are amongst the most sexually dimorphic and dichromatic primates. Adult males (silverbacks) possess a prominent sagittal crest, a pad of fibrous and fatty tissue on top of the head, have red crest coloration, their saddle appears silver, and they possess a silverline along their stomach. Here we measure levels of sexual dimorphism and within-male variation of body length, head size, and sexual dichromatism in a population of wild western gorillas using photogrammetry. Digital photogrammetry is a useful and precise method to measure sexual dimorphism in physical traits yielding sexual dimorphism indices (ISD), similar to those derived from traditional measurements of skeletal remains. Silverbacks were on an average 1.23 times longer in body length than adult females. Sexual dimorphism of head size was highest in measures of crest size (max ISD: 60.4) compared with measures of facial height (max ISD: 24.7). The most sexually dimorphic head size measures also showed the highest within-sex variation. We found no clear sex differences in crest coloration but there was large sexual dichromatism with high within-male variation in saddle coloration and silverline size. Further studies should examine if these sexually dimorphic traits are honest signals of competitive ability and confer an advantage in reproductive success.

  16. Cues to Personality and Health in the Facial Appearance of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin S. S. Kramer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans (Homo sapiens and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes can extract socially-relevant information from the static, non-expressive faces of conspecifics. In humans, the face is a valid signal of both personality and health. Recent evidence shows that, like humans, chimpanzee faces also contain personality information, and that humans can accurately judge aspects of chimpanzee personality relating to extraversion from the face alone (Kramer, King, and Ward, 2011. These findings suggest the hypothesis that humans and chimpanzees share a system of personality and facial morphology for signaling socially-relevant traits from the face. We sought to test this hypothesis using a new group of chimpanzees. In two studies, we found that chimpanzee faces contained health information, as well as information of characteristics relating to extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness, using average judgments from pairs of individual photographs. In a third study, information relating to extraversion and health was also present in composite images of individual chimpanzees. We therefore replicate and extend previous findings using a new group of chimpanzees and demonstrate two methods for minimizing the variability associated with individual photographs. Our findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans share a personality signaling system.

  17. The effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three gorillas (one adult male, two adult females) were observed at the Buffalo Zoo for a total of 24 hr per music trial. A control observation period, during which no sounds were presented, was also included. Each music trial consisted of a total of three weeks with a 1-week control period in between each music type. The results reveal a decrease in stereotypic behaviors from the control period to naturalistic sounds. The naturalistic sounds also affected patterns of several other behaviors including locomotion. In contrast, stereotypy increased in the presence of classical and rock music. These results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 'Adoption' by maternal siblings in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    Full Text Available The adoption of unrelated orphaned infants is something chimpanzees and humans have in common. Providing parental care has fitness implications for both the adopter and orphan, and cases of adoption have thus been cited as evidence for a shared origin of an altruistic behaviour. We provide new data on adoptions in the free-living Sonso chimpanzee community in Uganda, together with an analysis of published data from other long-term field sites. As a default pattern, we find that orphan chimpanzees do not become adopted by adult group members but wherever possible associate with each other, usually as maternal sibling pairs. This occurs even if both partners are still immature, with older individuals effectively becoming 'child household heads'. Adoption of orphans by unrelated individuals does occur but usually only if no maternal siblings or other relatives are present and only after significant delays. In conclusion, following the loss of their mother, orphaned chimpanzees preferentially associate along pre-existing social bonds, which are typically strongest amongst maternal siblings.

  19. A Guttman-Based Approach to Identifying Cumulativeness Applied to Chimpanzee Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Graber, RB; de Cock, DR; Burton, ML

    2012-01-01

    Human culture appears to build on itself-that is, to be to some extent cumulative. Whether this property is shared by culture in the common chimpanzee is controversial. The question previously has been approached, qualitatively (and inconclusively), by debating whether any chimpanzee culture traits have resulted from individuals building on one another's work ("ratcheting"). The fact that the chimpanzees at different sites have distinctive repertoires of traits affords a different avenue of a...

  20. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2014-11-18

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversification, but human microbiomes have deviated from the ancestral state at an accelerated rate. Relative to the microbiomes of wild apes, human microbiomes have lost ancestral microbial diversity while becoming specialized for animal-based diets. Individual wild apes cultivate more phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of bacteria than do individual humans across a range of societies. These results indicate that humanity has experienced a depletion of the gut flora since diverging from Pan.

  1. High diversity at PRDM9 in chimpanzees and bonobos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Fenna Groeneveld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The PRDM9 locus in mammals has increasingly attracted research attention due to its role in mediating chromosomal recombination and possible involvement in hybrid sterility and hence speciation processes. The aim of this study was to characterize sequence variation at the PRDM9 locus in a sample of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PRDM9 contains a highly variable and repetitive zinc finger array. We amplified this domain using long-range PCR and determined the DNA sequences using conventional Sanger sequencing. From 17 chimpanzees representing three subspecies and five bonobos we obtained a total of 12 alleles differing at the nucleotide level. Based on a data set consisting of our data and recently published Pan PRDM9 sequences, we found that at the subspecies level, diversity levels did not differ among chimpanzee subspecies or between chimpanzee subspecies and bonobos. In contrast, the sample of chimpanzees harbors significantly more diversity at PRDM9 than samples of humans. Pan PRDM9 shows signs of rapid evolution including no alleles or ZnFs in common with humans as well as signals of positive selection in the residues responsible for DNA binding. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The high number of alleles specific to the genus Pan, signs of positive selection in the DNA binding residues, and reported lack of conservation of recombination hotspots between chimpanzees and humans suggest that PRDM9 could be active in hotspot recruitment in the genus Pan. Chimpanzees and bonobos are considered separate species and do not have overlapping ranges in the wild, making the presence of shared alleles at the amino acid level between the chimpanzee and bonobo species interesting in view of the hypothesis that PRDM9 plays a universal role in interspecific hybrid sterility.

  2. Adult hookworms (Necator spp.) collected from researchers working with wild western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalousová, B.; Hasegawa, H.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Sakamaki, T.; Kooriyma, T.; Modrý, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 75 (2016), č. článku 75. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Necator spp * Hookworm * Morphology * Human infection * Necator gorillae * Necator americanus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  3. Adult hookworms (Necator spp.) collected from researchers working with wild western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalousová, B.; Hasegawa, H.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Sakamaki, T.; Kooriyma, T.; Modrý, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 9 (2016), č. článku 75. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Necator spp * Necator gorillae * Necator americanus * hookworm * morphology * human infection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  4. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees in commercials distorts public perception regarding their conservation status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K Schroepfer

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165 watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1 a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2 commercials containing "entertainment" chimpanzees or 3 control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts.

  5. Social disappointment explains chimpanzees' behaviour in the inequity aversion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan M; Clift, Jeremy B; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-08-30

    Chimpanzees' refusal of less-preferred food when an experimenter has previously provided preferred food to a conspecific has been taken as evidence for a sense of fairness. Here, we present a novel hypothesis-the social disappointment hypothesis-according to which food refusals express chimpanzees' disappointment in the human experimenter for not rewarding them as well as they could have. We tested this hypothesis using a two-by-two design in which food was either distributed by an experimenter or a machine and with a partner present or absent. We found that chimpanzees were more likely to reject food when it was distributed by an experimenter rather than by a machine and that they were not more likely to do so when a partner was present. These results suggest that chimpanzees' refusal of less-preferred food stems from social disappointment in the experimenter and not from a sense of fairness. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Temporal variation selects for diet-microbe co-metabolic traits in the gut of Gorilla spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Rothman, Jessica M; Petrzelkova, Klara; Yeoman, Carl J; Vlckova, Klara; Umaña, Juan D; Carr, Monica; Modry, David; Todd, Angelique; Torralba, Manolito; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Blekhman, Ran; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-02-01

    Although the critical role that our gastrointestinal microbes play in host physiology is now well established, we know little about the factors that influenced the evolution of primate gut microbiomes. To further understand current gut microbiome configurations and diet-microbe co-metabolic fingerprints in primates, from an evolutionary perspective, we characterized fecal bacterial communities and metabolomic profiles in 228 fecal samples of lowland and mountain gorillas (G. g. gorilla and G. b. beringei, respectively), our closest evolutionary relatives after chimpanzees. Our results demonstrate that the gut microbiomes and metabolomes of these two species exhibit significantly different patterns. This is supported by increased abundance of metabolites and bacterial taxa associated with fiber metabolism in mountain gorillas, and enrichment of markers associated with simple sugar, lipid and sterol turnover in the lowland species. However, longitudinal sampling shows that both species' microbiomes and metabolomes converge when hosts face similar dietary constraints, associated with low fruit availability in their habitats. By showing differences and convergence of diet-microbe co-metabolic fingerprints in two geographically isolated primate species, under specific dietary stimuli, we suggest that dietary constraints triggered during their adaptive radiation were potential factors behind the species-specific microbiome patterns observed in primates today.

  7. Temporal variation selects for diet–microbe co-metabolic traits in the gut of Gorilla spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Rothman, Jessica M; Petrzelkova, Klara; Yeoman, Carl J; Vlckova, Klara; Umaña, Juan D; Carr, Monica; Modry, David; Todd, Angelique; Torralba, Manolito; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Blekhman, Ran; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Although the critical role that our gastrointestinal microbes play in host physiology is now well established, we know little about the factors that influenced the evolution of primate gut microbiomes. To further understand current gut microbiome configurations and diet–microbe co-metabolic fingerprints in primates, from an evolutionary perspective, we characterized fecal bacterial communities and metabolomic profiles in 228 fecal samples of lowland and mountain gorillas (G. g. gorilla and G. b. beringei, respectively), our closest evolutionary relatives after chimpanzees. Our results demonstrate that the gut microbiomes and metabolomes of these two species exhibit significantly different patterns. This is supported by increased abundance of metabolites and bacterial taxa associated with fiber metabolism in mountain gorillas, and enrichment of markers associated with simple sugar, lipid and sterol turnover in the lowland species. However, longitudinal sampling shows that both species' microbiomes and metabolomes converge when hosts face similar dietary constraints, associated with low fruit availability in their habitats. By showing differences and convergence of diet–microbe co-metabolic fingerprints in two geographically isolated primate species, under specific dietary stimuli, we suggest that dietary constraints triggered during their adaptive radiation were potential factors behind the species-specific microbiome patterns observed in primates today. PMID:26315972

  8. Neural representation of face familiarity in an awake chimpanzee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokata Fukushima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1 and human faces (Experiment 2. The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subject’s own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subject’s brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural representations are more sensitive to the familiarity of conspecific than allospecific faces.

  9. Social basis of vocal interactions in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Alban; Pereira, Hugo; Levréro, Florence

    2018-03-12

    Authors have raised the possibility of identifying primitive forms of conversational rules in monkeys: temporally ruled vocal interactions, call overlap avoidance, and socially based calling partner preferences. The question as to how these abilities have evolved in the primate lineage remains open to debate, particularly because studies based on apes are scarce and controversial. We studied a captive group of western lowland gorillas and tested the influence of caller characteristics and the type of bond between calling partners on vocal behavior based on the following: age, dominance, spatial proximity, sociopositive contact, and gaze. Four calling patterns that are call type dependent were identified: vocal interaction with and (more frequently) without call overlap, isolated calling, and repeated calling. Adult calls and grunts (contact calls) were predominant during vocal interactions, and the "response" delay was most often around half a second. The frequency of grunt dyadic exchanges was found to be linked to spatial proximity, gaze exchanges, and age proximity between calling partners. The dominance rank of callers determined the rate of contribution to these exchanges. These results show that some apes use rule-governed call exchanges and that these socially guided vocal interactions are more widespread than previously believed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Effect of Antibiotic Treatment on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome of Free-Ranging Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková, K.; Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Whittier, C. A.; Todd, A. F.; Yeoman, C. J.; Nelson, K. E.; Wilson, B. A.; Stumpf, R. M.; Modrý, D.; White, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 4 (2016), s. 943-954 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gorilla * Antibiotics * Medical treatment * Gastrointestinal microbiome * Illumina MiSeq * Bacteria Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  11. Histological features of layers and sublayers in cortical visual areas V1 and V2 of chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaram P

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Balaram, Nicole A Young, Jon H Kaas Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: The layers and sublayers of primary visual cortex, or V1, in primates are easily distinguishable compared to those in other cortical areas, and are especially distinct in anthropoid primates – monkeys, apes, and humans – where they also vary in histological appearance. This variation in primate-specific specialization has led to a longstanding confusion over the identity of layer 4 and its proposed sublayers in V1. As the application of different histological markers relate to the issue of defining and identifying layers and sublayers, we applied four traditional and four more recent histological markers to brain sections of V1 and adjoining secondary visual cortex (V2 in macaque monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans in order to compare identifiable layers and sublayers in both cortical areas across these species. The use of Nissl, neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN, Gallyas myelin, cytochrome oxidase (CO, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, nonphosphorylated neurofilament H (SMI-32, parvalbumin (PV, and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2 preparations support the conclusion that the most popular scheme of V1 lamination, that of Brodmann, misidentifies sublayers of layer 3 (3Bβ and 3C as sublayers of layer 4 (4A and 4B, and that the specialized sublayer of layer 3 in monkeys, 3Bβ, is not present in humans. These differences in interpretation are important as they relate to the proposed functions of layer 4 in primate species, where layer 4 of V1 is a layer that receives and processes information from the visual thalamus, and layer 3 is a layer that transforms and distributes information to other cortical areas. Keywords: area 17, area 18, cortical layers, histology, immunohistochemistry

  12. Histological features of layers and sublayers in cortical visual areas V1 and V2 of chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, Pooja; Young, Nicole A; Kaas, Jon H

    2014-09-01

    The layers and sublayers of primary visual cortex, or V1, in primates are easily distinguishable compared to those in other cortical areas, and are especially distinct in anthropoid primates - monkeys, apes, and humans - where they also vary in histological appearance. This variation in primate-specific specialization has led to a longstanding confusion over the identity of layer 4 and its proposed sublayers in V1. As the application of different histological markers relate to the issue of defining and identifying layers and sublayers, we applied four traditional and four more recent histological markers to brain sections of V1 and adjoining secondary visual cortex (V2) in macaque monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans in order to compare identifiable layers and sublayers in both cortical areas across these species. The use of Nissl, neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), Gallyas myelin, cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), nonphosphorylated neurofilament H (SMI-32), parvalbumin (PV), and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) preparations support the conclusion that the most popular scheme of V1 lamination, that of Brodmann, misidentifies sublayers of layer 3 (3Bβ and 3C) as sublayers of layer 4 (4A and 4B), and that the specialized sublayer of layer 3 in monkeys, 3Bβ, is not present in humans. These differences in interpretation are important as they relate to the proposed functions of layer 4 in primate species, where layer 4 of V1 is a layer that receives and processes information from the visual thalamus, and layer 3 is a layer that transforms and distributes information to other cortical areas.

  13. Timing of ectocranial suture activity in Gorilla gorilla as related to cranial volume and dental eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Cooper, Gregory M; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-05-01

    Research has shown that Pan and Homo have similar ectocranial suture synostosis patterns and a similar suture ontogeny (relative timing of suture fusion during the species ontogeny). This ontogeny includes patency during and after neurocranial expansion with a delayed bony response associated with adaptation to biomechanical forces generated by mastication. Here we investigate these relationships for Gorilla by examining the association among ectocranial suture morphology, cranial volume (as a proxy for neurocranial expansion) and dental development (as a proxy for the length of time that it has been masticating hard foods and exerting such strains on the cranial vault) in a large sample of Gorilla gorilla skulls. Two-hundred and fifty-five Gorilla gorilla skulls were examined for ectocranial suture closure status, cranial volume and dental eruption. Regression models were calculated for cranial volumes by suture activity, and Kendall's tau (a non-parametric measure of association) was calculated for dental eruption status by suture activity. Results suggest that, as reported for Pan and Homo, neurocranial expansion precedes suture synostosis activity. Here, Gorilla was shown to have a strong relationship between dental development and suture activity (synostosis). These data are suggestive of suture fusion extending further into ontogeny than brain expansion, similar to Homo and Pan. This finding allows for the possibility that masticatory forces influence ectocranial suture morphology. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Cheryl D; Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hof, Patrick R; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-03-01

    Humans' closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. Bonobos are more tolerant of conspecifics in competitive contexts and often use sexual behavior to mediate social interactions. Chimpanzees more frequently employ aggression during conflicts and actively patrol territories between communities. Regulation of emotional responses is facilitated by the amygdala, which also modulates social decision-making, memory and attention. Amygdala responsiveness is further regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. We hypothesized that the amygdala of bonobos and chimpanzees would differ in its neuroanatomical organization and serotonergic innervation. We measured volumes of regions and the length density of serotonin transporter-containing axons in the whole amygdala and its lateral, basal, accessory basal and central nuclei. Results showed that accessory basal nucleus volume was larger in chimpanzees than in bonobos. Of particular note, the amygdala of bonobos had more than twice the density of serotonergic axons than chimpanzees, with the most pronounced differences in the basal and central nuclei. These findings suggest that variation in serotonergic innervation of the amygdala may contribute to mediating the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Object-based attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Imura, Tomoko; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2010-03-17

    We conducted three experiments to investigate how object-based components contribute to the attentional processes of chimpanzees and to examine how such processes operate with regard to perceptually structured objects. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees responded to a spatial cueing task that required them to touch a target appearing at either end of two parallel rectangles. We compared the time involved in shifting attention (cost of attentional shift) when the locations of targets were cued and non cued. Results showed that the cost of the attentional shift within one rectangle was smaller than that beyond the object's boundary, demonstrating object-based attention in chimpanzees. The results of Experiment 2, conducted with different stimulus configurations, replicated the results of Experiment 1, supporting that object-based attention operates in chimpanzees. In Experiment 3, the cost of attentional shift within a cued but partly occluded rectangle was shorter than that within a rectangle that was cued but divided in the middle. The results suggest that the attention of chimpanzees is activated not only by an explicit object but also by fragmented patches represented as an object at a higher-order perceptual level. Chimpanzees' object-based attention may be similar to that of humans. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Variability in the developmental life history of the genus Gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoinski, Tara S; Perdue, Bonnie; Breuer, Thomas; Hoff, Michael P

    2013-10-01

    Life history is influenced by factors both intrinsic (e.g., body and relative brain size) and extrinsic (e.g., diet, environmental instability) to organisms. In this study, we examine the prediction that energetic risk influences the life history of gorillas. Recent comparisons suggest that the more frugivorous western lowland gorilla shows increased infant dependence, and thus a slower life history, than the primarily folivorous mountain gorilla to buffer against the risk of starvation during periods of food unpredictability. We further tested this hypothesis by incorporating additional life history data from wild western lowland gorillas and captive western lowland gorillas with the assumption that the latter live under ecological conditions of energetic risk that more closely resemble those of mountain gorillas and thus should show faster life histories than wild members of the species. Overall, we found captive western lowland and wild mountain gorillas to have faster developmental life histories than wild western lowland gorillas, weaning their infants approximately a year earlier and thus reducing interbirth intervals by a year. These results provide support that energetic risk plays an important role in determining gorilla life history. Unlike previous assertions, gorillas do not have substantially faster life histories, at least at the genus level, than other great apes. This calls for a re-evaluation of theories concerning comparative ape life history and evolution and highlights the need for data from additional populations that vary in energetic risk. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A neuroanatomical predictor of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, E E; Mahovetz, L M; Preuss, T M; Hopkins, W D

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recognize one's own reflection is shared by humans and only a few other species, including chimpanzees. However, this ability is highly variable across individual chimpanzees. In humans, self-recognition involves a distributed, right-lateralized network including frontal and parietal regions involved in the production and perception of action. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is a system of white matter tracts linking these frontal and parietal regions. The current study measured mirror self-recognition (MSR) and SLF anatomy in 60 chimpanzees using diffusion tensor imaging. Successful self-recognition was associated with greater rightward asymmetry in the white matter of SLFII and SLFIII, and in SLFIII's gray matter terminations in Broca's area. We observed a visible progression of SLFIII's prefrontal extension in apes that show negative, ambiguous, and compelling evidence of MSR. Notably, SLFIII's terminations in Broca's area are not right-lateralized or particularly pronounced at the population level in chimpanzees, as they are in humans. Thus, chimpanzees with more human-like behavior show more human-like SLFIII connectivity. These results suggest that self-recognition may have co-emerged with adaptations to frontoparietal circuitry. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cars kill chimpanzees: case report of a wild chimpanzee killed on a road at Bulindi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan

  20. Head-mounted eye tracking of a chimpanzee under naturalistic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiro Kano

    Full Text Available This study offers a new method for examining the bodily, manual, and eye movements of a chimpanzee at the micro-level. A female chimpanzee wore a lightweight head-mounted eye tracker (60 Hz on her head while engaging in daily interactions with the human experimenter. The eye tracker recorded her eye movements accurately while the chimpanzee freely moved her head, hands, and body. Three video cameras recorded the bodily and manual movements of the chimpanzee from multiple angles. We examined how the chimpanzee viewed the experimenter in this interactive setting and how the eye movements were related to the ongoing interactive contexts and actions. We prepared two experimentally defined contexts in each session: a face-to-face greeting phase upon the appearance of the experimenter in the experimental room, and a subsequent face-to-face task phase that included manual gestures and fruit rewards. Overall, the general viewing pattern of the chimpanzee, measured in terms of duration of individual fixations, length of individual saccades, and total viewing duration of the experimenter's face/body, was very similar to that observed in previous eye-tracking studies that used non-interactive situations, despite the differences in the experimental settings. However, the chimpanzee viewed the experimenter and the scene objects differently depending on the ongoing context and actions. The chimpanzee viewed the experimenter's face and body during the greeting phase, but viewed the experimenter's face and hands as well as the fruit reward during the task phase. These differences can be explained by the differential bodily/manual actions produced by the chimpanzee and the experimenter during each experimental phase (i.e., greeting gestures, task cueing. Additionally, the chimpanzee's viewing pattern varied depending on the identity of the experimenter (i.e., the chimpanzee's prior experience with the experimenter. These methods and results offer new

  1. Social Attention in the Two Species of Pan: Bonobos Make More Eye Contact than Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiro Kano

    Full Text Available Humans' two closest primate living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally in several ways despite their general similarities. While bonobos show more affiliative behaviors towards conspecifics, chimpanzees display more overt and severe aggression against conspecifics. From a cognitive standpoint, bonobos perform better in social coordination, gaze-following and food-related cooperation, while chimpanzees excel in tasks requiring extractive foraging skills. We hypothesized that attention and motivation play an important role in shaping the species differences in behavior, cognition, and emotion. Thus, we predicted that bonobos would pay more attention to the other individuals' face and eyes, as those are related to social affiliation and social coordination, while chimpanzees would pay more attention to the action target objects, as they are related to foraging. Using eye-tracking we examined the bonobos' and chimpanzees' spontaneous scanning of pictures that included eyes, mouth, face, genitals, and action target objects of conspecifics. Although bonobos and chimpanzees viewed those elements overall similarly, bonobos viewed the face and eyes longer than chimpanzees, whereas chimpanzees viewed the other elements, the mouth, action target objects and genitals, longer than bonobos. In a discriminant analysis, the individual variation in viewing patterns robustly predicted the species of individuals, thus clearly demonstrating species-specific viewing patterns. We suggest that such attentional and motivational differences between bonobos and chimpanzees could have partly contributed to shaping the species-specific behaviors, cognition, and emotion of these species, even in a relatively short period of evolutionary time.

  2. The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2005-01-01

    We report a series of 10 studies on the social-cognitive abilities of three young chimpanzees. The studies were all ones previously conducted with human infants. The chimpanzees were 1-5 years of age, had been raised mostly by humans, and were tested mostly directly by a familiar human experimenter. First, in a longitudinal investigation with repeated measurements from a social-cognitive test battery, the three young chimpanzees were similar in many ways to human infants; the major difference was a total lack of attempts to share attention with others either in joint attentional interactions or through declarative gestures. Second, in imitation-based tests of the understanding of intentional action, the chimpanzees, like human infants, showed an understanding of failed attempts and accidents; but they did not pay attention to the behavioral style of the actor or the actor's reasons for choosing a particular behavioral means. Third, in tests of their understanding of visual perception, the chimpanzees followed the gaze direction of a human to an out-of-sight location behind a barrier and gestured more to a human who could see them than to one who could not; but they showed no understanding that perceivers can focus their attention on one thing, or one aspect of a thing, within their perceptual fields for a reason. Finally, in tests of joint intentions and joint attention, the chimpanzees showed no ability to either reverse roles with a partner in a collaborative interaction or to set up a joint attentional framework for understanding the communicative intentions behind a pointing gesture. Taken together, these findings support the idea that the early ontogeny of human social cognition comprises two distinct trajectories, each with its own evolutionary history: one for understanding the basics of goal-directed action and perception, common to all apes, and another for sharing psychological states with others in collaborative acts involving joint intentions and

  3. Identification of chimpanzee leukocyte antigens (ChL-A) and their relation to HL-A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balner, H.

    1971-01-01

    The identification of a number of leukocyte antigens of chimpanzees is described. Suggestive evidence was obtained that some of the isoantisera recognize specificities of a hypothetical genetic system of chimpanzee antigens which, in analogy with the human HL-A system, is tentatively called ChL-A.

  4. Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Ross

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species.

  5. Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen R; Vreeman, Vivian M; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space) were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species.

  6. How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchak, Malini; Eppley, Timothy M.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Feldman, Rebecca A.; Quarles, Luke F.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Our species is routinely depicted as unique in its ability to achieve cooperation, whereas our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is often characterized as overly competitive. Human cooperation is assisted by the cost attached to competitive tendencies through enforcement mechanisms, such as punishment and partner choice. To examine if chimpanzees possess the same ability to mitigate competition, we set up a cooperative task in the presence of the entire group of 11 adults, which required two or three individuals to pull jointly to receive rewards. This open-group set-up provided ample opportunity for competition (e.g., freeloading, displacements) and aggression. Despite this unique set-up and initial competitiveness, cooperation prevailed in the end, being at least five times as common as competition. The chimpanzees performed 3,565 cooperative acts while using a variety of enforcement mechanisms to overcome competition and freeloading, as measured by (attempted) thefts of rewards. These mechanisms included direct protest by the target, third-party punishment in which dominant individuals intervened against freeloaders, and partner choice. There was a marked difference between freeloading and displacement; freeloading tended to elicit withdrawal and third-party interventions, whereas displacements were met with a higher rate of direct retaliation. Humans have shown similar responses in controlled experiments, suggesting shared mechanisms across the primates to mitigate competition for the sake of cooperation. PMID:27551075

  7. Estrogenic plant foods of red colobus monkeys and mountain gorillas in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael D; Taylor-Gutt, Alexandra; Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Milton, Katharine; Leitman, Dale C

    2012-05-01

    Phytoestrogens, or naturally occurring estrogen-mimicking compounds, are found in many human plant foods, such as soybeans (Glycine max) and other legumes. Because the consumption of phytoestrogens may result in both health benefits of protecting against estrogen-dependent cancers and reproductive costs of disrupting the developing endocrine system, considerable biomedical research has been focused on the physiological and behavioral effects of these compounds. Despite this interest, little is known about the occurrence of phytoestrogens in the diets of wild primates, nor their likely evolutionary importance. We investigated the prevalence of estrogenic plant foods in the diets of two folivorous primate species, the red colobus monkey (Procolobus rufomitratus) of Kibale National Park and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, both in Uganda. To examine plant foods for estrogenic activity, we screened 44 plant items (species and part) comprising 78.4% of the diet of red colobus monkeys and 53 plant items comprising 85.2% of the diet of mountain gorillas using transient transfection assays. At least 10.6% of the red colobus diet and 8.8% of the gorilla diet had estrogenic activity. This was mainly the result of the red colobus eating three estrogenic staple foods and the gorillas eating one estrogenic staple food. All estrogenic plants exhibited estrogen receptor (ER) subtype selectivity, as their phytoestrogens activated ERβ, but not ERα. These results demonstrate that estrogenic plant foods are routinely consumed by two folivorous primate species. Phytoestrogens in the wild plant foods of these two species and many other wild primates may have important implications for understanding primate reproductive ecology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dialium seed coprophagy in wild western gorillas: Multiple nutritional benefits and toxicity reduction hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly; Breuer, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Unraveling the relationship between the unusual feeding behaviors and the nutritional intake of endangered species may provide crucial information for understanding species response to habitat unpredictable changes. Primates occasionally re-ingest fruit seeds alongside ingestion of feces, a behavior called coprophagy. The nutritional benefit is one of the several non-mutual exclusive hypotheses proposed to explain this behavior. We investigated the ecological correlates of coprophagy in wild western gorillas. We tested whether coprophagy occurred during periods of lower fruit availability and whether it led to higher nutrient intake in comparison to the other food. Data integrated phenological, fecal and nutritional analyses of gorilla food with behavioral observations collected at two sites in Central Africa (Mbeli Bai: ad libitum observations on 15 groups/solitary males, October 2002-November 2005; Bai Hokou: 5-min scan on a habituated group, December 2004-December 2005). Coprophagy occurred at the end of the high-fruiting season in association of two Dialium species. Coprophagy correlated positively with the occurrence of Dialium spp. fruit in gorilla feces and in the feeding scans, and showed a positive trend with Dialium availability but not with total fruit availability. Nutritional comparison of Dialium seeds with other important gorilla food showed higher fat and mineral content, particularly of Mg, but also of phenols and tannins in Dialium seeds. We discuss how the effect of gut processing and gut heat via coprophagy may act as cooking-like effect: increasing the ability to maximize nutrient intake by concurrently softening fibers and decreasing the toxic effect of antifeedants, like in human traditional cooking. Our results support both the multiple nutritional benefit hypothesis and the toxicity reduction hypothesis. Since Dialium is precious timber, the importance of this tree for the critically endangered western gorillas should be taken with high

  9. Hypothesis for the causes and periodicity of repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia in large, wild African (Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla) and Asian (Pongo pygmaeus) apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark F; Hopwood, David

    2004-03-01

    Repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is often observed in recent large-bodied apes from Africa and Asia as well as Mid- to Late Miocene sites from Spain to China. The ubiquity and periodicity of rLEH are not understood. Its potential as an ontogenetic marker of developmental stress in threatened species (as well as their ancient relatives) makes rLEH an important if enigmatic problem. We report research designed to show the periodicity of rLEH among West African Pan troglodytes (12 male, 32 female), Gorilla gorilla (10 male, 10 female), and Bornean and Sumatran Pongo pygmaeus (11 male, 9 female, 9 unknown) from collections in Europe. Two methods were employed. In the common chimpanzees and gorillas, the space between adjacent, macroscopically visible LEH grooves on teeth with two or more episodes was expressed as an absolute measure and as a ratio of complete unworn crown height. In the orangutans, the number of perikymata between episode onsets, as well as duration of rLEH, was determined from scanning electron micrographs of casts of incisors and canines. We conclude that stress in the form of LEH commences as early as 2.5 years of age in all taxa and lasts for several years, and even longer in orangutans; the stress is not chronic but episodic; the stressor has a strong tendency to occur in pulses of two occurrences each; and large apes from both land masses exhibit rLEH with an average periodicity of 6 months (or multiples thereof; Sumatran orangutans seem to show only annual stress), but this needs further research. This is supported by evidence of spacing between rLEH as well as perikymata counts. Duration of stress in orangutans averages about 6 weeks. Finally, the semiannual stressor transcends geographic and temporal boundaries, and is attributed to regular moisture cycles associated with the intertropical convergence zone modified by the monsoon. While seasonal cycles can influence both disease and nutritional stress, it is likely the combination of

  10. Social Learning and Culture in Child and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew

    2017-01-03

    A few decades ago, we knew next to nothing about the behavior of our closest animal relative, the chimpanzee, but long-term field studies have since revealed an undreamed-of richness in the diversity of their cultural traditions across Africa. These discoveries have been complemented by a substantial suite of experimental studies, now bridging to the wild through field experiments. These field and experimental studies, particularly those in which direct chimpanzee-child comparisons have been made, delineate a growing set of commonalities between the phenomena of social learning and culture in the lives of chimpanzees and humans. These commonalities in social learning inform our understanding of the evolutionary roots of the cultural propensities the species share. At the same time, such comparisons throw into clearer relief the unique features of the distinctive human capacity for cumulative cultural evolution, and new research has begun to probe the key psychological attributes that may explain it.

  11. Virus load in chimpanzees infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: effect of pre-exposure vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Haaft, P.; Cornelissen, M.; Goudsmit, J.; Koornstra, W.; Dubbes, R.; Niphuis, H.; Peeters, M.; Thiriart, C.; Bruck, C.; Heeney, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Many reports indicate that a long-term asymptomatic state following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with a low amount of circulating virus. To evaluate the possible effect of stabilizing a low virus load by non-sterilizing pre-exposure vaccination, a quantitative

  12. The Number of Cultural Traits Is Correlated with Female Group Size but Not with Male Group Size in Chimpanzee Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Johan; Lindenfors, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants’ potential for social learning towards their ...

  13. Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Bernasco, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Post-aggression consolation is assumed to occur in humans as well as in chimpanzees. While consolation following peer aggression has been observed in children, systematic evidence of consolation in human adults is rare. We used surveillance camera footage of the immediate aftermath of nonfatal...... to be consoled. Furthermore, we show that high levels of threat during the robbery increased the likelihood of receiving consolation afterwards. These patterns resemble post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees and suggest that emotions of empathic concern are involved in consolation across humans...... and chimpanzees....

  14. Informing conservation management about structural versus functional connectivity: a case-study of Cross River gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imong, Inaoyom; Robbins, Martha M; Mundry, Roger; Bergl, Richard; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2014-10-01

    Connectivity among subpopulations is vital for the persistence of small and fragmented populations. For management interventions to be effective conservation planners have to make the critical distinction between structural connectivity (based on landscape structure) and functional connectivity (which considers both landscape structure and organism-specific behavioral attributes) which can differ considerably within a given context. We assessed spatial and temporal changes in structural and functional connectivity of the Cross River gorilla Gorilla gorilla diehli (CRG) population in a 12,000 km(2) landscape in the Nigeria-Cameroon border region over a 23-year period, comparing two periods: 1987-2000 and 2000-2010. Despite substantial forest connections between occupied areas, genetic evidence shows that only limited dispersal occurs among CRG subpopulations. We used remotely sensed land-cover data and simulated human pressure (using a spatially explicit agent-based model) to assess human impact on connectivity of the CRG population. We calculated cost-weighted distances between areas occupied by gorillas as measures of connectivity (structural based on land-cover only, functional based on both land-cover and simulated human pressure). Whereas structural connectivity decreased by 5% over the 23-year period, functional connectivity decreased by 11%, with both decreasing more during the latter compared to the earlier period. Our results highlight the increasing threat of isolation of CRG subpopulations due to human disturbance, and provide insight into how increasing human influence may lead to functional isolation of wildlife populations despite habitat continuity, a pressing and common issue in tropical Africa often not accounted for when deciding management interventions. In addition to quantifying threats to connectivity, our study provides crucial evidence for management authorities to identify actions that are more likely to be effective for conservation of

  15. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina

    2015-01-01

    of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked vs. autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection (DoS) statistic exhibits a strong non......-monotonic relationship with the strength of purifying selection S, making it inappropriate for estimating S. We instead use counts in synonymous vs. non-synonymous frequency classes to infer the distribution of S coefficients acting on non-synonymous mutations in each subspecies. The strength of purifying selection we...... infer is congruent with the differences in effective sizes of each subspecies: Central chimpanzees are undergoing the strongest purifying selection followed by Eastern and Western chimpanzees. Coding indels show stronger selection against indels changing the reading frame than observed in human...

  16. A critical role for the chimpanzee model in the study of hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens

    2004-06-01

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees. Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate the infectivity of infectious clones of HCV without chimpanzees. Chimpanzees became infected when RNA transcripts from molecular clones were inoculated directly into the liver. The infection generated by such transfection did not differ significantly from that observed in animals infected intravenously with wild-type HCV. The RNA inoculated into chimpanzees originated from a single sequence, and the animals therefore had a monoclonal HCV infection. Monoclonal infection simplifies studies of HCV, because virus interaction with the host is not confounded by the quasispecies invariably present in a natural infection. It furthermore permits true homologous challenge in studies of protective immunity and in testing the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Finally, this in vivo transfection system has made it possible to test for the first time the importance of genetic elements for HCV infectivity.

  17. Gingival hyperplasia induced by diphenylhydantoin in a gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, D; Oosterhuis, J

    1979-11-01

    An adult male lowland gorilla had been treated with diphenylhydantoin for 6 months following several acute convulsive episodes. The gorilla remained clinically normal during that period. Then, for no apparent reason, it refused its usual diet. Physical examination revealed acute inflammatory gingival hyperplasia. Full mouth gingivectomy and antibiotic and analgesic therapy resolved the oral inflammation and the anorexia.

  18. Surgical extractions for periodontal disease in a Western Lowland gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, John F

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes surgical exraction of multiple premolar and molar teeth in a Western Lowland gorilla. Postoperative photographs and radiographs indicated complete healing of the extraction sites. This case report includes a review of gorilla dental anatomy, oral disease in primates, pathogenesis of periodontal disease, predisposing factors to periodontal disease, and principles of surgical tooth extraction.

  19. A longitudinal assessment of vocabulary retention in symbol-competent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Heimbauer, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition.

  20. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Andrew

    2008-06-01

    chimpanzees, and other research fields presently deprived of funding, but would also increase the compliance of US animal researchers with internationally-accepted animal welfare and bioethical standards. It could even result in the first global moratorium on invasive research, for any non-human species, unless conducted in the best interests of the individual or species.

  1. Comprehension of functional support by enculturated chimpanzees Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. YOCOM, Sarah T. BOYSEN

    2011-08-01

    conditions of enculturation, rich social interactions with humans and conspecifics, as well as active exploration of artifacts, materials, and other aspects of their physical environment had a significant impact on the animals’ ability to recognize the support relationships among the stimulus choices. Overall, the present findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that our chimpanzee subjects based their responses on an understanding of functional support which represented one facet of their folk physics repertoire [Current Zoology 57 (4: 429–440, 2011].

  2. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild – as many older research chimpanzees once were – and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has made toward medical advancements. However, a recent large-scale systematic review indicates that invasive chimpanzee experiments rarely provide benefits in excess of their profound animal welfare, bioethical and financial costs. The approval of large numbers of these experiments – particularly within the US – therefore indicates a failure of the ethics committee system. By 2008, legislative or policy bans or restrictions on invasive great ape experimentation existed in seven European countries, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In continuing to conduct such experiments on chimpanzees and other great apes, the US was almost completely isolated internationally. In 2007, however, the US National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources implemented a permanent funding moratorium on chimpanzee breeding, which is expected to result in a major decline in laboratory chimpanzee numbers over the next 30 years, as most are retired or die. Additionally, in 2008, The Great Ape Protection Act was introduced to Congress. The bill proposed to end invasive research and testing on an estimated 1,200 chimpanzees confined within US laboratories, and, for approximately 600 federally-owned, to ensure their permanent retirement to sanctuaries. These events have created an unprecedented opportunity for US legislators, researchers, and others, to consider a global ban on invasive chimpanzee research. Such a ban would not only uphold the best interests of chimpanzees, and other research

  3. Genetic influences on receptive joint attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Reamer, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanzees...... cognition task was significantly heritable. Furthermore, males with one DupB(+) allele performed significantly better and were more responsive to socio-communicative cues than males homozygous for the DupB- deletion. Performance on a non-social cognition task was not associated with the AVPR1A genotype....... The collective findings show that AVPR1A polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in performance on a receptive joint attention task in chimpanzees....

  4. Distal Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for Common Ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, David A; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Russell, Jamie L; Wilson, Daniel; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, "Do chimpanzees display distal communication?" Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Chimpanzee subspecies and ‘robust’ australopithecine holotypes, in the context of comments by Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comparative anatomy (including chimpanzees, gorillas and other primates, Darwin1 suggested that Africa was the continent from which ‘progenitors’ of humankind evolved. Hominin fossils from this continent proved him correct. We present the results of morphometric analyses based on cranial data obtained from chimpanzee taxa currently recognised as distinct subspecies, namely Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, as well as Pan paniscus (bonobo. Our objective was to use a morphometric technique2 to quantify the degree of similarity between pairs of specimens, in the context of a statistical (probabilistic definition of a species.3–5 Results obtained from great apes, including two subspecies of chimpanzee, were assessed in relation to same-scale comparisons between the holotypes of ‘robust’ australopithecine (Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa which have traditionally been distinguished at a species level, notably Paranthropus robustus from South Africa, and Paranthropus (Australopithecus/ Zinjanthropus boisei from East Africa. The question arises as to whether the holotypes of these two taxa, TM 1517 from Kromdraai6 and OH 5 from Olduvai,7 respectively, are different at the subspecies rather than at the species level.

  6. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-07-16

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces--but not monkey faces--efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model.

  7. Occurrence and molecular analysis of Balantidium coli in mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, James M; Blake, Damer P; Cranfield, Michael R; Ramer, Jan; Hogan, Jennifer N; Noheli, Jean Bosco; Waters, Michael; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    Cysts morphologically resembling Balantidium coli were identified in the feces of a mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). Confirmatory PCR and sequencing revealed two distinct B. coli-specific sequences (ITS-1, sub-types A0 and B1). This represents the first report of B. coli in this species, raising the possibility of infection from a reservoir host.

  8. Structural and molecular study of the supraspinatus muscle of modern humans (Homo sapiens) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potau, J M; Casado, A; de Diego, M; Ciurana, N; Arias-Martorell, J; Bello-Hellegouarch, G; Barbosa, M; de Paz, F J; Pastor, J F; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2018-04-21

    To analyze the muscle architecture and the expression pattern of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus of Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens in order to identify differences related to their different types of locomotion. We have analyzed nine supraspinatus muscles of Pan troglodytes and ten of Homo sapiens. For each sample, we have recorded the muscle fascicle length (MFL), the pennation angle, and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA). In the same samples, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we have assessed the percentages of expression of the MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, and MyHC-IIx isoforms. The mean MFL of the supraspinatus was longer (p = 0.001) and the PCSA was lower (p sapiens than in Pan troglodytes. Although the percentage of expression of MyHC-IIa was lower in Homo sapiens than in Pan troglodytes (p = 0.035), the combination of MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx was expressed at a similar percentage in the two species. The longer MFL in the human supraspinatus is associated with a faster contractile velocity, which reflects the primary function of the upper limbs in Homo sapiens-the precise manipulation of objects-an adaptation to bipedal locomotion. In contrast, the larger PCSA in Pan troglodytes is related to the important role of the supraspinatus in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint during the support phase of knuckle-walking. These functional differences of the supraspinatus in the two species are not reflected in differences in the expression of the MyHC isoforms. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Do habituation, host traits and seasonality have an impact on protist and helminth infections of wild western lowland gorillas?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pafčo, B.; Benavides, J. A.; Pšenková-Profousová, I.; Modrý, D.; Červená, B.; Shutt, K. A.; Hasegawa, H.; Fuh, T.; Todd, A. F.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 12 (2017), s. 3401-3410 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Western lowland gorilla * Parasite * Habituation * Human impact Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Parasitology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  10. Potential arms race in the coevolution of primates and angiosperms: brazzein sweet proteins and gorilla taste receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Elaine E; Veilleux, Carrie C; Saltonstall, Kristin; Caccone, Adalgisa; Mundy, Nicholas I; Bradley, Brenda J

    2016-09-01

    We explored whether variation in the sweet taste receptor protein T1R3 in primates could contribute to differences in sweet taste repertoire among species, potentially reflecting coevolution with local plants. Specifically, we examined which primates are likely to be sweet "tasters" of brazzein, a protein found in the fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana that tastes intensely sweet to humans, but provides little energy. Sweet proteins like brazzein are thought to mimic the taste of sugars to entice seed dispersers. We examined the evolution of T1R3 and assessed whether primates are likely "deceived" by such biochemical mimicry. Using published and new sequence data for TAS1R3, we characterized 57 primates and other mammals at the two amino acid sites necessary to taste brazzein to determine which species are tasters. We further used dN/dS-based methods to look for statistical evidence of accelerated evolution in this protein across primate lineages. The taster genotype is shared across most catarrhines, suggesting that most African primates can be "tricked" into eating and dispersing P. brazzeana's seeds for little caloric gain. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), however, exhibit derived mutations at the two brazzein-critical positions, and although fruit is a substantial portion of the western gorilla diet, they have not been observed to eat P. brazzeana. Our analyses of protein evolution found no signature of positive selection on TAS1R3 along the gorilla lineage. We propose that the gorilla-specific mutations at the TAS1R3 locus encoding T1R3 could be a counter-adaptation to the false sweet signal of brazzein. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G

    2015-06-22

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee ("Pan Troglodytes")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate…

  13. Can Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") Discriminate Appearance from Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A milestone in human development is coming to recognize that how something looks is not necessarily how it is. We tested appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with a task requiring them to choose between a small grape and a big grape. The apparent relative size of the grapes was reversed using magnifying and…

  14. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces amon...

  15. Do habituation, host traits and seasonality have an impact on protist and helminth infections of wild western lowland gorillas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafčo, Barbora; Benavides, Julio A; Pšenková-Profousová, Ilona; Modrý, David; Červená, Barbora; Shutt, Kathryn A; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fuh, Terence; Todd, Angelique F; Petrželková, Klára J

    2017-12-01

    Increased anthropogenic activity can result in parasite exchanges and/or general changes in parasite communities, imposing a health risk to great apes. We studied protist and helminth parasites of wild western lowland gorilla groups in different levels of habituation, alongside humans inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. Faeces were collected yearly during November and December from 2007 to 2010 and monthly from November 2010 to October 2011. Protist and helminth infections were compared among gorilla groups habituated, under habituation and unhabituated, and the effect of host traits and seasonality was evaluated. Zoonotic potential of parasites found in humans was assessed. No significant differences in clinically important parasites among the groups in different stages of habituation were found, except for Entamoeba spp. However, humans were infected with four taxa which may overlap with taxa found in gorillas. Females were less infected with spirurids, and adults had higher intensities of infection of Mammomonogamus sp. We found seasonal differences in the prevalence of several parasite taxa, but most importantly, the intensity of infection of unidentified strongylids was higher in the dry season. This study highlights that habituation may not necessarily pose a greater risk of protist and helminth infections in gorilla groups.

  16. Obesity Related Alterations in Plasma Cytokines and Metabolic Hormones in Chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Nehete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and serves as a major risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type-2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in metabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines, and immune function, in lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees in a controlled environment. We observed increased plasma circulating levels of proinflammatory TH-1 cytokines, Interferon gamma, interleukin-6, interleukin-12p40, tumor necrosis factor, soluble CD40 ligand, and Interleukin-1β and anti-inflammatory TH-2 cytokines, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-RA, Interleukin-10, and Interleukin-13 in overweight and obese chimpanzees. We also observed increased levels of metabolic hormones glucagon-like-peptide-1, glucagon, connecting peptide, insulin, pancreatic peptide YY3–36, and leptin in the plasma of overweight and obese chimpanzees. Chemokine, eotaxin, fractalkine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were higher in lean compared to obese chimpanzees, while chemokine ligand 8 increased in plasma of obese chimpanzees. We also observed an obesity-related effect on immune function as demonstrated by lower mitogen induced proliferation, and natural killer activity and higher production of IFN-γ by PBMC in Elispot assay, These findings suggest that lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees share circulating inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormone levels with humans and that chimpanzees can serve as a useful animal model for human studies.

  17. Western gorilla diet: a synthesis from six sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Elizabeth; Abernethy, Kate; Bermejo, Magdalena; Cipolletta, Chloe; Doran, Diane; McFarland, Kelley; Nishihara, Tomoaki; Remis, Melissa; Tutin, Caroline E G

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to collate information on western gorilla diet from six study sites throughout much of their current range, including preliminary information from two sites (Afi and Lossi), where studies of diet have begun only recently. Food lists were available from each site, derived from indirect signs of gorilla feeding (such as feces), with some observational data. Important staple, seasonal, and fallback foods have been identified, and a number of striking similarities across sites have been revealed based on a much larger data set than was previously available. It was confirmed that the western gorilla diet is always eclectic, including up to 230 items and 180 species. The greatest diversity is found among the fruit species eaten, fruit being included in western gorilla diets from all sites and throughout most or all of the year. Eight plant families provide important foods at five, or all six, sites, suggesting that it may be possible in the future to predict which habitats are the most suitable for gorillas. Gorillas exploit both rare and common forest species. Similarities and differences among sites can be explained superficially on the basis of geography and the past history of the forest. Gorilla density across sites appears to be most affected by the density of monocotyledonous bulk food plants, but its relationship to the density of important tree food species has yet to be tested.

  18. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Fatty acids in mountain gorilla diets: implications for primate nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Whitney B; Petzinger, Christina; Power, Michael L; Hyeroba, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the fatty acid composition of foods eaten by wild primates. A total of 18 staple foods that comprise 97% of the annual dietary intake of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) were analyzed for fatty acid concentrations. Fruits and herbaceous leaves comprise the majority of the diet, with fruits generally having a higher mean percentage of fat (of dry matter; DM), as measured by ether extract (EE), than herbaceous leaves (13.0% ± SD 13.0% vs. 2.3 ± SD 0.8%). The mean daily EE intake by gorillas was 3.1% (DM). Fat provided ≈14% of the total dietary energy intake, and ≈22% of the dietary non-protein energy intake. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 32.4% of the total fatty acids in the diet, while monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 12.5% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) accounted for 54.6%. Both of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA, n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3), were found in all of the 17 staple foods containing crude fat and were among the three most predominant fatty acids in the diet: LA (C18:2n-6) (30.3%), palmitic acid (C16:0) (23.9%), and ALA (C18:3n-3) (21.2%). Herbaceous leaves had higher concentrations of ALA, while fruit was higher in LA. Fruits provided high amounts of fatty acids, especially LA, in proportion to their intake due to the higher fat concentrations; despite being low in fat, herbaceous leaves provided sufficient ALA due to the high intake of these foods. As expected, we found that wild mountain gorillas consume a diet lower in EE, than modern humans. The ratio of LA:ALA was 1.44, closer to agricultural paleolithic diets than to modern human diets. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chimpanzee choice rates in competitive games match equilibrium game theory predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher Flynn; Bhui, Rahul; Bossaerts, Peter; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Camerer, Colin

    2014-06-05

    The capacity for strategic thinking about the payoff-relevant actions of conspecifics is not well understood across species. We use game theory to make predictions about choices and temporal dynamics in three abstract competitive situations with chimpanzee participants. Frequencies of chimpanzee choices are extremely close to equilibrium (accurate-guessing) predictions, and shift as payoffs change, just as equilibrium theory predicts. The chimpanzee choices are also closer to the equilibrium prediction, and more responsive to past history and payoff changes, than two samples of human choices from experiments in which humans were also initially uninformed about opponent payoffs and could not communicate verbally. The results are consistent with a tentative interpretation of game theory as explaining evolved behavior, with the additional hypothesis that chimpanzees may retain or practice a specialized capacity to adjust strategy choice during competition to perform at least as well as, or better than, humans have.

  1. Non-invasive body temperature measurement of wild chimpanzees using fecal temperature decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Siv Aina; Mundry, Roger; Nunn, Charles L; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2009-04-01

    New methods are required to increase our understanding of pathologic processes in wild mammals. We developed a noninvasive field method to estimate the body temperature of wild living chimpanzees habituated to humans, based on statistically fitting temperature decline of feces after defecation. The method was established with the use of control measures of human rectal temperature and subsequent changes in fecal temperature over time. The method was then applied to temperature data collected from wild chimpanzee feces. In humans, we found good correspondence between the temperature estimated by the method and the actual rectal temperature that was measured (maximum deviation 0.22 C). The method was successfully applied and the average estimated temperature of the chimpanzees was 37.2 C. This simple-to-use field method reliably estimates the body temperature of wild chimpanzees and probably also other large mammals.

  2. Milk composition of captive vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with observations on gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and white handed gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M; Nguyen, T P M; Seier, J

    2009-04-01

    The nutrient content and fatty acid composition of vervet monkey milk has been determined and is compared with rhesus macaque, and two hominoid apes, the white handed gibbon and gorilla. With 15.7+/-4.1 g protein, 33.1+/-9.4 g fat, and 85.1+/-7.5 g lactose per kg milk, vervet monkey milk does not differ from that of rhesus macaque, and is within the range of other primates. Small amounts (>1 g kg(-1)) of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. In comparison, gorilla milk has a low fat content of 13.8 g kg(-1), but contains high levels of oligosaccharides at 7.0 g kg(-1) milk. The hominoid partner, the white handed gibbon, contains no oligosaccharides and a milk fat content similar to other hominoid species. Differences between vervet monkey and rhesus macaque milks were observed in the electrophoretic pattern of the milk proteins, mainly amongst the kappa- and gamma-caseins, which also differ from that of the hominids. The fatty acid contents of these milks differ from studies where a natural diet of leafy material was available in that a low content of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was noted. A phylogenetic effect is observed for the content of 8:0, 10:0 fatty acids between the Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea, and a further phylogenetic effect suggested between the Hylobatidae and Hominidae.

  3. Etologie gorily (Gorilla gorilla) v přírodě a v lidské péči

    OpenAIRE

    GALLISTLOVÁ, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Results of ethological studies on gorillas are mainly based on the observation of the behavioural traits of mountain gorillas in the wild. Gorillas living in zoos have adapted to small spaces and being exposed to quite a few visitors. Long-term stress, nutritionally unbalanced diet and other factors create risks associated with abnormal behaviour such as covering their ears which had never been seen before in the wilderness. Zoos try to provide the most suitable environment to gorillas to eli...

  4. Auditory ERPs to stimulus deviance in an awake chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes: towards hominid cognitive neurosciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Ueno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For decades, the chimpanzee, phylogenetically closest to humans, has been analyzed intensively in comparative cognitive studies. Other than the accumulation of behavioral data, the neural basis for cognitive processing in the chimpanzee remains to be clarified. To increase our knowledge on the evolutionary and neural basis of human cognition, comparative neurophysiological studies exploring endogenous neural activities in the awake state are needed. However, to date, such studies have rarely been reported in non-human hominid species, due to the practical difficulties in conducting non-invasive measurements on awake individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs of a fully awake chimpanzee, with reference to a well-documented component of human studies, namely mismatch negativity (MMN. In response to infrequent, deviant tones that were delivered in a uniform sound stream, a comparable ERP component could be detected as negative deflections in early latencies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study reports the MMN-like component in a chimpanzee for the first time. In human studies, various ERP components, including MMN, are well-documented indicators of cognitive and neural processing. The results of the present study validate the use of non-invasive ERP measurements for studies on cognitive and neural processing in chimpanzees, and open the way for future studies comparing endogenous neural activities between humans and chimpanzees. This signifies an essential step in hominid cognitive neurosciences.

  5. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Ann B; Steinberg, Steven J; Watkins, Paul A; Moser, Hugo W; Ramaswamy, Krishna; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Ryder, Oliver A; Hacia, Joseph G

    2011-06-17

    Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC) levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and rodents with plasmalogen disorders, we propose that cross

  6. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  7. Applying clinically proven human techniques for contraception and fertility to endangered species and zoo animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Sherman J; Barbey, Natalie; Lenahan, Kathy; Silber, David Z

    2013-12-01

    Reversible contraception that does not alter natural behavior is a critical need for managing zoo populations. In addition to reversible contraception, other fertility techniques perfected in humans may be useful, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or oocyte and embryo banking for endangered species like amphibians and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi). Furthermore, the genetics of human fertility can give a better understanding of fertility in more exotic species. Collaborations were established to apply human fertility techniques to the captive population. Reversible vasectomy might be one solution for reversible contraception that does not alter behavior. Reversible approaches to vasectomy, avoiding secondary epididymal disruption, were attempted in South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalski poliakov), and Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in a variety of zoos around the world. These techniques were first perfected in > 4,000 humans before attempting them in zoo animals. In vitro fertilization with gestational surrogacy was used to attempt to break the vicious cycle of hand rearing of purebred orangutans, and egg and ovary vitrification in humans have led to successful gamete banking for Mexican wolves and disappearing amphibians. The study of the human Y chromosome has even explained a mechanism of extinction related to global climate change. The best results with vasectomy reversal (normal sperm counts, pregnancy, and live offspring) were obtained when the original vasectomy was performed "open-ended," so as to avoid pressure-induced epididymal disruption. The attempt at gestational surrogacy for orangutans failed because of severe male infertility and the lack of success with human ovarian hyperstimulation protocols. Vitrification of oocytes is already being employed for the Amphibian Ark Project and for Mexican wolves. Vasectomy can be a reversible contraception

  8. The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees show cultural differences among populations across Africa but also between neighboring communities. The extent of these differences among neighbors, however, remains largely unknown. Comparing three neighboring chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we found 27 putative cultural traits, including tool use, foraging, social interaction, communication and hunting behavior, exceeding by far previously known diversity. As foraging behavior is predominantly influenced by the environment, we further compared in detail ecological circumstances underlying insectivore feeding behavior to analyze whether foraging differences on Dorylus ants and Thoracotermes termites seen between neighboring chimpanzee communities were caused by environmental factors. Differences in the prey characteristics of Dorylus ants (aggression level, running speed, and nest structure) that could influence the behavior of chimpanzees were excluded, suggesting that the observed group-specific variation is not ecologically driven. Only one community preyed on Thoracotermes termites despite a similar abundance of termite mounds in all three territories, supporting the idea that this difference is also not shaped by the environment. Therefore, our study suggests that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior. This behavioral plasticity, independent of ecological conditions, can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the cultural abilities of chimpanzees in the wild but also open up possible future comparisons of the origin of cultural diversification among humans and chimpanzees. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Human cognitive ecology: an instructive framework for comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Janet Dixon

    2004-03-01

    In this review, research on human cognitive ecology is compared with studies of the cognitive ecologies of apes-especially the common chimpanzee. The objective was to assess the feasibility of extending an activity-theory framework developed in studies of humans to an integrated approach for studying the cognitive accomplishments and skills of other primates living in the wild. Six generalizations were abstracted from studies of humans: 1) Social and material environments are arranged to facilitate production. 2) Human activity is shaped by conceptual and cultural principles that provide underlying logic for working knowledge and practice. 3) Schemata (multimodal, mental representations of procedures, strategies, and techniques) govern performance in a domain. 4) Working knowledge, skills, and social identities are co-constructed in communities of practice. 5) Rehearsal improves skilled performances, from which reputations as well as material products are derived. 6) Planning and emergence are in productive tension in human practices. These generalizations are applied to findings in the literature regarding the behavior of chimpanzees and other apes in the wild to assess the potential utility of a situated-activity approach for comparative studies of primate cognition. It is argued in the Discussion that schemata constitute a common core of higher primate intelligence. Planning, emergence, and alterations of the environment to facilitate production further characterize human and chimpanzee or gorilla behaviors to varying degrees. Less apparent in the nonhuman-primate literature is evidence of governing principles, rehearsal, and skill-based reputations or identities entailing theories of mind. Nonetheless, recent observations in the wild suggest that further research is warranted to explore the rudiments of each of these components to enhance our understanding of the ecology of primate cognition and its evolutionary history. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Dynamics of DNA methylation in recent human and great ape evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Hernando-Herraez

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in regulatory processes such as cell differentiation during development, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and susceptibility to complex disease. However, the dynamics of DNA methylation changes between humans and their closest relatives are still poorly understood. We performed a comparative analysis of CpG methylation patterns between 9 humans and 23 primate samples including all species of great apes (chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla and orangutan using Illumina Methylation450 bead arrays. Our analysis identified ∼800 genes with significantly altered methylation patterns among the great apes, including ∼170 genes with a methylation pattern unique to human. Some of these are known to be involved in developmental and neurological features, suggesting that epigenetic changes have been frequent during recent human and primate evolution. We identified a significant positive relationship between the rate of coding variation and alterations of methylation at the promoter level, indicative of co-occurrence between evolution of protein sequence and gene regulation. In contrast, and supporting the idea that many phenotypic differences between humans and great apes are not due to amino acid differences, our analysis also identified 184 genes that are perfectly conserved at protein level between human and chimpanzee, yet show significant epigenetic differences between these two species. We conclude that epigenetic alterations are an important force during primate evolution and have been under-explored in evolutionary comparative genomics.

  11. Comparative studies of placentation and immunology in non-human primates suggest a scenario for the evolution of deep trophoblast invasion and an explanation for human pregnancy disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2011-04-01

    Deep trophoblast invasion in the placental bed has been considered the hallmark of human pregnancy. It occurs by two routes, interstitial and endovascular, and results in transformation of the walls of the spiral arteries as they traverse the decidua and the inner third of the myometrium. Disturbances in this process are associated with reproductive disorders such preeclampsia. In contrast, trophoblast invasion in Old World monkeys occurs only by the endovascular route and seldom reaches the myometrium. Recently, it was shown that this pattern is maintained in gibbons, but that the human arrangement also occurs in chimpanzee and gorilla. There is an interesting parallel with results from placental immunology regarding the evolution of the major histocompatability complex class I antigen HLA-C and its cognate receptors. HLA-C is not present in Old World monkeys or gibbons. It emerged in the orangutan and became polymorphic in the lineage leading to gorilla, bonobo, chimpanzee, and human. Interaction between HLA-C1 and HLA-C2 on the surface of trophoblast and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed by uterine natural killer cells are important regulators of trophoblast invasion. Evolution of this system in great apes may have been one prerequisite for deep trophoblast invasion but seems to have come at a price. The evidence now suggests that certain combinations of maternal genotype for KIRs and fetal genotype for HLA-C imply an increased risk of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and recurrent abortion. The fetal genotype is in part derived from the father providing an explanation for the paternal contribution to reproductive disorders.

  12. Accelerated evolution of the ASPM gene controlling brain size begins prior to human brain expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalay Kouprina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary microcephaly (MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. The microcephalic brain has a volume comparable to that of early hominids, raising the possibility that some MCPH genes may have been evolutionary targets in the expansion of the cerebral cortex in mammals and especially primates. Mutations in ASPM, which encodes the human homologue of a fly protein essential for spindle function, are the most common known cause of MCPH. Here we have isolated large genomic clones containing the complete ASPM gene, including promoter regions and introns, from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and rhesus macaque by transformation-associated recombination cloning in yeast. We have sequenced these clones and show that whereas much of the sequence of ASPM is substantially conserved among primates, specific segments are subject to high Ka/Ks ratios (nonsynonymous/synonymous DNA changes consistent with strong positive selection for evolutionary change. The ASPM gene sequence shows accelerated evolution in the African hominoid clade, and this precedes hominid brain expansion by several million years. Gorilla and human lineages show particularly accelerated evolution in the IQ domain of ASPM. Moreover, ASPM regions under positive selection in primates are also the most highly diverged regions between primates and nonprimate mammals. We report the first direct application of TAR cloning technology to the study of human evolution. Our data suggest that evolutionary selection of specific segments of the ASPM sequence strongly relates to differences in cerebral cortical size.

  13. Comparative studies of placentation and immunology in non-human primates suggest a scenario for the evolution of deep trophoblast invasion and an explanation for human pregnancy disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    in the orangutan and became polymorphic in the lineage leading to gorilla, bonobo, chimpanzee, and human. Interaction between HLA-C1 and HLA-C2 on the surface of trophoblast and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed by uterine natural killer cells are important regulators of trophoblast invasion....... Evolution of this system in great apes may have been one prerequisite for deep trophoblast invasion but seems to have come at a price. The evidence now suggests that certain combinations of maternal genotype for KIRs and fetal genotype for HLA-C imply an increased risk of preeclampsia, fetal growth...... restriction, and recurrent abortion. The fetal genotype is in part derived from the father providing an explanation for the paternal contribution to reproductive disorders....

  14. Genetic subspecies diversity of the chimpanzee CD4 virus-receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    six among the subspecies of chimpanzees. We found the CD4 receptor to be conserved in individuals belonging to the P. t. verus subspecies and divergent from the other three subspecies, which harbored highly variable CD4 receptors. The CD4 receptor of chimpanzees differed from that of humans. We...... question whether the observed diversity can explain the species-specific differences in susceptibility to and pathogenicity of SIV/HIV....

  15. Impact of ecological and social factors on ranging in western gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Greer, David; Mongo, Patrice; Schwindt, Dylan

    2004-10-01

    We examined the influence of ecological (diet, swamp use, and rainfall) and social (intergroup interaction rate) factors on ranging behavior in one group of western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) during a 16-month study. Relative to mountain gorillas, western gorillas live in habitats with reduced herb densities, more readily available fruit (from seasonal and rare fruit trees), and, at some sites, localized large open clearings (swamps and "bais"). Ranging behavior reflects these ecological differences. The daily path length (DPL) of western gorillas was longer (mean=2,014 m) than that of mountain gorillas, and was largely related to fruit acquisition. Swamp use occurred frequently (27% of days) and incurred a 50% increase in DPL, and 77% of the variation in monthly frequency of swamp use was explained by ripe fruit availability within the swamp, and not by the absence of resources outside the swamp. The annual home-range size was 15.4 km2. The western gorilla group foraged in larger areas each month, and reused them more frequently and consistently through time compared to mountain gorillas. In contrast to mountain gorillas, intergroup encounters occurred at least four times more frequently, were usually calm rather than aggressive, and had no consistent effect on DPL or monthly range size for one group of western gorillas. High genetic relatedness among at least some neighboring males [Bradley et al., Current Biology, in press] may help to explain these results, and raises intriguing questions about western gorilla social relationships.

  16. Patterns of dental development in Homo, Australopithecus, Pan, and Gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B H

    1994-07-01

    Smith ([1986] Nature 323:327-330) distinguished patterns of development of teeth of juvenile fossil hominids as being "more like humans" or "more like apes" based on statistical similarity to group standards. Here, this central tendency discrimination (CTD) is tested for its ability to recognize ape and human patterns of dental development in 789 subadult hominoids. Tooth development of a modern human sample (665 black southern Africans) was scored entirely by an outside investigator; pongid and fossil hominid samples (59 Pan, 50 Gorilla, and 14 fossil hominids) were scored by the author. The claim of Lampl et al. ([1993] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 90:113-127) that Smith's 1986 method succeeds in only 8% of human cases was not sustained. Figures for overall success of classification (87% humans, 68% apes) mask important effects of teeth sampled and age class. For humans, the power of CTD varied between 53% and 92% depending on the number and kind of teeth available--nearly that of a coin toss when data described only two nearby teeth, but quite successful with more teeth or distant teeth. For apes, only age class affected accuracy: "Infant" apes (M1 development or = root 1/4), however, were correctly discriminated in 87% of cases. Overall, CTD can be considered reliable (accuracy of 92% for humans and 88% for apes) when data contrast development of distant dental fields and subjects are juveniles (not infants). Restricting analysis of fossils to specimens satisfying these criteria, patterns of dental development of gracile australopithecines and Homo habilis remain classified with African apes. Those of Homo erectus and Neanderthals are classified with humans, suggesting that patterns of growth evolved substantially in the Hominidae. To standardize future research, the computer program that operationalizes CTD is now available.

  17. Evolution of the auditory ossicles in extant hominids: metric variation in African apes and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf M; Coleman, Mark N; Martínez, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The auditory ossicles in primates have proven to be a reliable source of phylogenetic information. Nevertheless, to date, very little data have been published on the metric dimensions of the ear ossicles in African apes and humans. The present study relies on the largest samples of African ape ear ossicles studied to date to address questions of taxonomic differences and the evolutionary transformation of the ossicles in gorillas, chimpanzees and humans. Both African ape taxa show a malleus that is characterized by a long and slender manubrium and relatively short corpus, whereas humans show the opposite constellation of a short and thick manubrium and relatively long corpus. These changes in the manubrium are plausibly linked with changes in the size of the tympanic membrane. The main difference between the incus in African apes and humans seems to be related to changes in the functional length. Compared with chimpanzees, human incudes are larger in nearly all dimensions, except articular facet height, and show a more open angle between the axes. The gorilla incus resembles humans more closely in its metric dimensions, including functional length, perhaps as a result of the dramatically larger body size compared with chimpanzees. The differences between the stapedes of humans and African apes are primarily size-related, with humans being larger in nearly all dimensions. Nevertheless, some distinctions between the African apes were found in the obturator foramen and head height. Although correlations between metric variables in different ossicles were generally lower than those between variables in the same bone, variables of the malleus/incus complex appear to be more strongly correlated than those of the incus/stapes complex, perhaps reflecting the different embryological and evolutionary origins of the ossicles. The middle ear lever ratio for the African apes is similar to other haplorhines, but humans show the lowest lever ratio within primates. Very low levels

  18. Serological cross-reactivity between Merkel cell polyomavirus and two closely related chimpanzee polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme T J Nicol

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses based on the major capsid protein sequence indicate that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV and chimpanzee polyomaviruses (PtvPyV1, PtvPyV2, and similarly Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV and the orangutan polyomavirus (OraPyV1 are closely related. The existence of cross-reactivity between these polyomaviruses was therefore investigated. The findings indicated serological identity between the two chimpanzee polyomaviruses investigated and a high level of cross-reactivity with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In contrast, cross-reactivity was not observed between TSPyV and OraPyV1. Furthermore, specific antibodies to chimpanzee polyomaviruses were detected in chimpanzee sera by pre-incubation of sera with the different antigens, but not in human sera.

  19. The knowns and unknowns of chimpanzee culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Thibaud; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Claims of culture in chimpanzees appeared soon after the launch of the first field studies in africa.1 The notion of chimpanzee ‘material cultures’ was coined,2 and this was followed by a first formal comparison, which revealed an astonishing degree of behavioural diversity between the different study communities, mainly in terms of tool use.3 Although this behavioural diversity is still undisputed, the question of chimpanzee cultures has remained controversial.4–6 The debate has less to do w...

  20. Brief communication: Hand preference for bimanual and unimanual feeding in captive gorillas: extension in a second colony of apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Megan

    2012-08-01

    Right-hand dominance is widely considered to be a uniquely human trait. Whether nonhuman primates exhibit similar population-level hand preferences remains a topic of considerable debate. Despite extensive research focusing on laterality in nonhuman primates, our interpretation of these studies is limited due to methodological issues including the lack of a common measure of hand preference and the use of tasks that may not be reliable indicators of handedness. The use of consistent methods between studies is necessary to enable comparisons within and between species and allow for more general conclusions to be drawn from these results. The present study replicates methods used in recent research reporting population-level right-handedness in captive gorillas (Meguerditchian et al.,2010). Observational data were collected on hand preference for unimanual and bimanual feeding in 14 captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Individual-level preferences were found, primarily for bimanual feeding; however, the data reveal no group-level directional bias (contra Meguerditchian et al.). Like the study by Meguerditchian et al. (2010), though, bimanual feeding revealed significantly stronger hand preferences than unimanual reaching, and age, sex, group membership, or rearing history had no effect on hand preference. Finally, variations in diet and corresponding grip type between studies suggest that hand preferences may vary across bimanual tasks depending on grip morphology. This study aims to contribute to our existing knowledge of primate laterality by increasing the number of individuals investigated using methods that allow for comparisons with similar research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Humans and great apes cohabiting the forest ecosystem in central african republic harbour the same hookworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, M.; Shutt, K. A.; Todd, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2715 ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Necator spp. * mountain gorillas * infection * chimpanzees * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  2. Humans and great apes cohabiting the forest ecosystem in Central African Republic harbour the same hookworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Modrý, D.; Kitagawa, M.; Shutt, K. A.; Todd, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2715 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Necator spp. * mountain gorillas * infection * chimpanzees * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  3. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

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    Jorg J M Massen

    Full Text Available Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour.

  4. Interactional synchrony in chimpanzees: Examination through a finger-tapping experiment.

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    Yu, Lira; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2015-05-11

    Humans often unconsciously coordinate behaviour with that of others in daily life. This interpersonal coordination, including mimicry and interactional synchrony, has been suggested to play a fundamental role in social interaction. If this coordinative behavior is socially adaptive, it may be shared with other highly social animal species. The current study targeted chimpanzees, which phylogenetically are the closest living relatives of humans and live in complex social groups, and examined whether interactional synchrony would emerge in pairs of chimpanzees when auditory information about a partner's movement was provided. A finger-tapping task was introduced via touch panels to elicit repetitive and rhythmic movement from each chimpanzee. We found that one of four chimpanzees produced significant changes in both tapping tempo and timing of the tapping relative to its partner's tap when auditory sounds were provided. Although the current results may have limitations in generalizing to chimpanzees as a species, we suggest that a finger-tapping task is one potential method to investigate interactional synchrony in chimpanzees under a laboratory setup.

  5. Sex differences in wild chimpanzee behavior emerge during infancy.

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    Elizabeth V Lonsdorf

    Full Text Available The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most detailed analyses of wild chimpanzee infant development to date, encompassing data from 40 infants from the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Our goal was to characterize age-related changes, from birth to five years of age, in the percent of observation time spent performing behaviors that represent important benchmarks in nutritional, motor, and social development, and to determine whether and in which behaviors sex differences occur. Sex differences were found for indicators of social behavior, motor development and spatial independence with males being more physically precocious and peaking in play earlier than females. These results demonstrate early sex differentiation that may reflect adult reproductive strategies. Our findings also resemble those found in humans, which suggests that biologically-based sex differences may have been present in the common ancestor and operated independently from the influences of modern sex-biased parental behavior and gender socialization.

  6. Chimpanzees routinely fish for algae with tools during the dry season in Bakoun, Guinea.

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    Boesch, Christophe; Kalan, Ammie K; Agbor, Anthony; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Dieguez, Paula; Lapeyre, Vincent; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2017-03-01

    Wild chimpanzees regularly use tools, made from sticks, leaves, or stone, to find flexible solutions to the ecological challenges of their environment. Nevertheless, some studies suggest strong limitations in the tool-using capabilities of chimpanzees. In this context, we present the discovery of a newly observed tool-use behavior in a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in the Bakoun Classified Forest, Guinea, where a temporary research site was established for 15 months. Bakoun chimpanzees of every age-sex class were observed to fish for freshwater green algae, Spirogrya sp., from rivers, streams, and ponds using long sticks and twigs, ranging from 9 cm up to 4.31 m in length. Using remote camera trap footage from 11 different algae fishing sites within an 85-km 2 study area, we found that algae fishing occurred frequently during the dry season and was non-existent during the rainy season. Chimpanzees were observed algae fishing for as little as 1 min to just over an hour, with an average duration of 9.09 min. We estimate that 364 g of Spirogyra algae could be retrieved in this time, based on human trials in the field. Only one other chimpanzee population living in Bossou, Guinea, has been described to customarily scoop algae from the surface of the water using primarily herbaceous tools. Here, we describe the new behavior found at Bakoun and compare it to the algae scooping observed in Bossou chimpanzees and the occasional variant reported in Odzala, Republic of the Congo. As these algae are reported to be high in protein, carbohydrates, and minerals, we hypothesize that chimpanzees are obtaining a nutritional benefit from this seasonally available resource. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Temporal variation selects for diet-microbe co-metabolic traits in the gut of Gorilla spp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Rothman, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; Vlčková, K.; Umana, J. D.; Carr, M.; Modrý, David; Todd, A.; Torralba, M.; Nelson, K. E.; Stumpf, R. M.; Wilson, B. A.; Blekhman, R.; White, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 514-526 ISSN 1751-7362 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bacteria (microorganisms) * Gorilla gorilla * Gorilla gorilla beringei * Pan * primates Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 9.664, year: 2016

  8. Temporal variation selects for diet–microbe co-metabolic traits in the gut of Gorilla spp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Rothman, J. M.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; Vlčková, K.; Umana, J. D.; Carr, M.; Modrý, D.; Todd, A.; Torralba, M.; Nelson, K. E.; Stumpf, R. M.; Wilson, B. A.; Blekhman, R.; White, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 514-526 ISSN 1751-7362 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bacteria (microorganisms) * Gorilla gorilla * Gorilla gorilla beringei * Pan * Primates Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 9.664, year: 2016

  9. Complex tasks force hand laterality and technological behaviour in naturalistically housed chimpanzees: inferences in hominin evolution.

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    Mosquera, M; Geribàs, N; Bargalló, A; Llorente, M; Riba, D

    2012-01-01

    Clear hand laterality patterns in humans are widely accepted. However, humans only elicit a significant hand laterality pattern when performing complementary role differentiation (CRD) tasks. Meanwhile, hand laterality in chimpanzees is weaker and controversial. Here we have reevaluated our results on hand laterality in chimpanzees housed in naturalistic environments at Fundació Mona (Spain) and Chimfunshi Wild Orphanage (Zambia). Our results show that the difference between hand laterality in humans and chimpanzees is not as great as once thought. Furthermore, we found a link between hand laterality and task complexity and also an even more interesting connection: CRD tasks elicited not only the hand laterality but also the use of tools. This paper aims to turn attention to the importance of this threefold connection in human evolution: the link between CRD tasks, hand laterality, and tool use, which has important evolutionary implications that may explain the development of complex behaviour in early hominins.

  10. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Produce the Same Types of 'Laugh Faces' when They Emit Laughter and when They Are Silent.

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    Davila-Ross, Marina; Jesus, Goncalo; Osborne, Jade; Bard, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly produce facial expressions and vocalizations has a strong impact on the way humans communicate, as it promotes more explicit and versatile forms of communication. Whereas facial expressions and vocalizations are unarguably closely linked in primates, the extent to which these expressions can be produced independently in nonhuman primates is unknown. The present work, thus, examined if chimpanzees produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations, as do humans. Forty-six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were video-recorded during spontaneous play with conspecifics at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. ChimpFACS was applied, a standardized coding system to measure chimpanzee facial movements, based on FACS developed for humans. Data showed that the chimpanzees produced the same 14 configurations of open-mouth faces when laugh sounds were present and when they were absent. Chimpanzees, thus, produce these facial expressions flexibly without being morphologically constrained by the accompanying vocalizations. Furthermore, the data indicated that the facial expression plus vocalization and the facial expression alone were used differently in social play, i.e., when in physical contact with the playmates and when matching the playmates' open-mouth faces. These findings provide empirical evidence that chimpanzees produce distinctive facial expressions independently from a vocalization, and that their multimodal use affects communicative meaning, important traits for a more explicit and versatile way of communication. As it is still uncertain how human laugh faces evolved, the ChimpFACS data were also used to empirically examine the evolutionary relation between open-mouth faces with laugh sounds of chimpanzees and laugh faces of humans. The ChimpFACS results revealed that laugh faces of humans must have gradually emerged from laughing open-mouth faces of ancestral apes. This work examines the main evolutionary

  11. Behavioural, hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behaviour in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Narvaes, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Great ape origins of personality maturation and sex differences: a study of orangutans and chimpanzees.

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    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E

    2015-04-01

    Human personality development evinces increased emotional stability, prosocial tendencies, and responsibility. One hypothesis offered to explain this pattern is Social-Investment Theory, which posits that culturally defined social roles, including marriage and employment, are responsible for the increased maturity. Alternatively, Five-Factor Theory emphasizes the role of biological factors, such as those governing physical development, which may predate the emergence of humans. Five-Factor Theory, unlike Social-Investment Theory, predicts that all or some of the human personality developmental trends should be present in great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. To test this prediction and to better understand the evolutionary origins of sex differences, we examined age and sex differences in the chimpanzee and orangutan personality domains Extraversion, Dominance, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. We also examined the Activity and Gregariousness facets of Extraversion and the orangutan Intellect domain. Extraversion and Neuroticism declined across age groups in both species, in common with humans. A significant interaction indicated that Agreeableness declined in orangutans but increased in chimpanzees, as it does in humans, though this may reflect differences in how Agreeableness was defined in each species. Significant interactions indicated that male chimpanzees, unlike male orangutans, displayed higher Neuroticism scores than females and maintained higher levels of Activity and Dominance into old age than female chimpanzees, male orangutans, and female orangutans. Personality-age correlations were comparable across orangutans and chimpanzees and were similar to those reported in human studies. Sex differences were stronger in chimpanzees than in humans or orangutans. These findings support Five-Factor Theory, suggest the role of gene-culture coevolution in shaping personality development, and suggest that sex differences evolved independently in different

  13. Chimpanzee social intelligence: selfishness, altruism, and the mother-infant bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the human mind from an evolutionary perspective, a great deal of research has focused on the closest living relative of humans, the chimpanzee, using various approaches, including studies of social intelligence. Here, I review recent research related to several aspects of social intelligence, including deception, understanding of perception and intention, social learning, trading, cooperation, and regard for others. Many studies have demonstrated that chimpanzees are proficient in using their social intelligence for selfish motives to benefit from their interactions with others. In contrast, it is not yet clear whether chimpanzees engage in prosocial behaviors that benefit others; however, chimpanzee mother-infant interactions indicate the possibility of such behaviors. Therefore, I propose that chimpanzees possess rudimentary traits of human mental competence not only in terms of theory of mind in a broader sense but also in terms of prosociality involving regard for others. Mother-infant interactions appear to be particularly important to understanding the manifestation of social intelligence from an evolutionary perspective.

  14. Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others.

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    Davila-Ross, Marina; Allcock, Bethan; Thomas, Chris; Bard, Kim A

    2011-10-01

    Humans have the ability to replicate the emotional expressions of others even when they undergo different emotions. Such distinct responses of expressions, especially positive expressions, play a central role in everyday social communication of humans and may give the responding individuals important advantages in cooperation and communication. The present work examined laughter in chimpanzees to test whether nonhuman primates also use their expressions in such distinct ways. The approach was first to examine the form and occurrence of laugh replications (laughter after the laughter of others) and spontaneous laughter of chimpanzees during social play and then to test whether their laugh replications represented laugh-elicited laugh responses (laughter triggered by the laughter of others) by using a quantitative method designed to measure responses in natural social settings. The results of this study indicated that chimpanzees produce laugh-elicited laughter that is distinct in form and occurrence from their spontaneous laughter. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that nonhuman primates have the ability to replicate the expressions of others by producing expressions that differ in their underlying emotions and social implications. The data further showed that the laugh-elicited laugh responses of the subjects were closely linked to play maintenance, suggesting that chimpanzees might gain important cooperative and communicative advantages by responding with laughter to the laughter of their social partners. Notably, some chimpanzee groups of this study responded more with laughter than others, an outcome that provides empirical support of a socialization of expressions in great apes similar to that of humans.

  15. Interspecies hybridization on DNA resequencing microarrays: efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP detection in human, ape, and codfish mitochondrial DNA genomes sequenced on a human-specific MitoChip

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    Carr Steven M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iterative DNA "resequencing" on oligonucleotide microarrays offers a high-throughput method to measure intraspecific biodiversity, one that is especially suited to SNP-dense gene regions such as vertebrate mitochondrial (mtDNA genomes. However, costs of single-species design and microarray fabrication are prohibitive. A cost-effective, multi-species strategy is to hybridize experimental DNAs from diverse species to a common microarray that is tiled with oligonucleotide sets from multiple, homologous reference genomes. Such a strategy requires that cross-hybridization between the experimental DNAs and reference oligos from the different species not interfere with the accurate recovery of species-specific data. To determine the pattern and limits of such interspecific hybridization, we compared the efficiency of sequence recovery and accuracy of SNP identification by a 15,452-base human-specific microarray challenged with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and codfish mtDNA genomes. Results In the human genome, 99.67% of the sequence was recovered with 100.0% accuracy. Accuracy of SNP identification declines log-linearly with sequence divergence from the reference, from 0.067 to 0.247 errors per SNP in the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes, respectively. Efficiency of sequence recovery declines with the increase of the number of interspecific SNPs in the 25b interval tiled by the reference oligonucleotides. In the gorilla genome, which differs from the human reference by 10%, and in which 46% of these 25b regions contain 3 or more SNP differences from the reference, only 88% of the sequence is recoverable. In the codfish genome, which differs from the reference by > 30%, less than 4% of the sequence is recoverable, in short islands ≥ 12b that are conserved between primates and fish. Conclusion Experimental DNAs bind inefficiently to homologous reference oligonucleotide sets on a re-sequencing microarray when their sequences differ by

  16. The number of cultural traits is correlated with female group size but not with male group size in chimpanzee communities.

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    Johan Lind

    Full Text Available What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants' potential for social learning towards their mothers. In Gombe, termite fishing has been shown to be transmitted from mother to offspring. Lastly, it is female chimpanzees that transfer between communities and thus have the possibility of bringing in novel cultural traits from other communities. From these observations we predicted that females are more important cultural carriers than males. Here we show that the reported number of cultural traits in chimpanzee communities correlates with the number of females in chimpanzee communities, but not with the number of males. Hence, our results suggest that females are the carriers of chimpanzee culture.

  17. The number of cultural traits is correlated with female group size but not with male group size in chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Johan; Lindenfors, Patrik

    2010-03-24

    What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants' potential for social learning towards their mothers. In Gombe, termite fishing has been shown to be transmitted from mother to offspring. Lastly, it is female chimpanzees that transfer between communities and thus have the possibility of bringing in novel cultural traits from other communities. From these observations we predicted that females are more important cultural carriers than males. Here we show that the reported number of cultural traits in chimpanzee communities correlates with the number of females in chimpanzee communities, but not with the number of males. Hence, our results suggest that females are the carriers of chimpanzee culture.

  18. The importance of witnessed agency in chimpanzee social learning of tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Whiten, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Social learning refers to individuals learning from others, including information gained through indirect social influences, such as the results of others' actions and changes in the physical environment. One method to determine the relative influence of these varieties of information is the 'ghost display', in which no model is involved, but subjects can watch the results that a model would produce. Previous research has shown mixed success by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) learning from ghost displays, with some studies suggesting learning only in relatively simple tasks. To explore whether the failure of chimpanzees to learn from a ghost display may be due to neophobia when tested singly or a requirement for more detailed information for complex tasks, we presented ghost displays of a tool-use task to chimpanzees in their home social groups. Previous tests have revealed that chimpanzees are unable to easily solve this tool-use task asocially, or learn from ghost displays when tested singly, but can learn after observing conspecifics in a group setting. In the present study, despite being tested in a group situation, chimpanzees still showed no success in solving the task via trial-and-error learning, in a baseline condition, nor in learning the task from the ghost display. Simply being in the presence of their group mates and being shown the affordances of the task was not sufficient to encourage learning. Following this, in an escalating series of tests, we examined the chimpanzees' ability to learn from a demonstration by models with agency: (1) a human; (2) video footage of a chimpanzee; (3) a live chimpanzee model. In the first two of these 'social' conditions, subjects showed limited success. By the end of the final open diffusion phase, which was run to determine whether this new behavior would be transmitted among the group after seeing a successful chimpanzee use the task, 83% of chimpanzees were now successful. This confirmed a marked overall effect of

  19. Transmission of multiple traditions within and between chimpanzee groups.

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    Whiten, Andrew; Spiteri, Antoine; Horner, Victoria; Bonnie, Kristin E; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-06-19

    Field reports provide increasing evidence for local behavioral traditions among fish, birds, and mammals. These findings are significant for evolutionary biology because social learning affords faster adaptation than genetic change and has generated new (cultural) forms of evolution. Orangutan and chimpanzee field studies suggest that like humans, these apes are distinctive among animals in each exhibiting over 30 local traditions. However, direct evidence is lacking in apes and, with the exception of vocal dialects, in animals generally for the intergroup transmission that would allow innovations to spread widely and become evolutionarily significant phenomena. Here, we provide robust experimental evidence that alternative foraging techniques seeded in different groups of chimpanzees spread differentially not only within groups but serially across two further groups with substantial fidelity. Combining these results with those from recent social-diffusion studies in two larger groups offers the first experimental evidence that a nonhuman species can sustain unique local cultures, each constituted by multiple traditions. The convergence of these results with those from the wild implies a richness in chimpanzees' capacity for culture, a richness that parsimony suggests was shared with our common ancestor.

  20. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Květoňová, Dana; Mynářová, A.; Shutt, K. A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Kalousová, B.; Modrý, David; Benavides, J.; Todd, A.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2013), e71840 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : impenetrable national-park * free-ranging gorillas * Enterocytozoon bieneusi * zoonotic transmission * disease risks * Uganda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  1. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is

  2. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii and Bonobos (Pan paniscus: Preparation for Tool Use?

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    Kathelijne Koops

    Full Text Available Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo. We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry. Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early object manipulation (i.e., object play in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays. In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed

  3. The price of play: self-organized infant mortality cycles in chimpanzees.

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    Hjalmar S Kuehl

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees have been used extensively as a model system for laboratory research on infectious diseases. Ironically, we know next to nothing about disease dynamics in wild chimpanzee populations. Here, we analyze long-term demographic and behavioral data from two habituated chimpanzee communities in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, where previous work has shown respiratory pathogens to be an important source of infant mortality. In this paper we trace the effect of social connectivity on infant mortality dynamics. We focus on social play which, as the primary context of contact between young chimpanzees, may serve as a key venue for pathogen transmission. Infant abundance and mortality rates at Taï cycled regularly and in a way that was not well explained in terms of environmental forcing. Rather, infant mortality cycles appeared to self-organize in response to the ontogeny of social play. Each cycle started when the death of multiple infants in an outbreak synchronized the reproductive cycles of their mothers. A pulse of births predictably arrived about twelve months later, with social connectivity increasing over the following two years as the large birth cohort approached the peak of social play. The high social connectivity at this play peak then appeared to facilitate further outbreaks. Our results provide the first evidence that social play has a strong role in determining chimpanzee disease transmission risk and the first record of chimpanzee disease cycles similar to those seen in human children. They also lend more support to the view that infectious diseases are a major threat to the survival of remaining chimpanzee populations.

  4. Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens).

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    Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This study explored whether the tendency of chimpanzees and children to use emulation or imitation to solve a tool-using task was a response to the availability of causal information. Young wild-born chimpanzees from an African sanctuary and 3- to 4-year-old children observed a human demonstrator use a tool to retrieve a reward from a puzzle-box. The demonstration involved both causally relevant and irrelevant actions, and the box was presented in each of two conditions: opaque and clear. In the opaque condition, causal information about the effect of the tool inside the box was not available, and hence it was impossible to differentiate between the relevant and irrelevant parts of the demonstration. However, in the clear condition causal information was available, and subjects could potentially determine which actions were necessary. When chimpanzees were presented with the opaque box, they reproduced both the relevant and irrelevant actions, thus imitating the overall structure of the task. When the box was presented in the clear condition they instead ignored the irrelevant actions in favour of a more efficient, emulative technique. These results suggest that emulation is the favoured strategy of chimpanzees when sufficient causal information is available. However, if such information is not available, chimpanzees are prone to employ a more comprehensive copy of an observed action. In contrast to the chimpanzees, children employed imitation to solve the task in both conditions, at the expense of efficiency. We suggest that the difference in performance of chimpanzees and children may be due to a greater susceptibility of children to cultural conventions, perhaps combined with a differential focus on the results, actions and goals of the demonstrator.

  5. Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Bernasco, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Post-aggression consolation is assumed to occur in humans as well as in chimpanzees. While consolation following peer aggression has been observed in children, systematic evidence of consolation in human adults is rare. We used surveillance camera footage of the immediate aftermath of nonfatal...

  6. Diversity of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Květoňová, Dana; Mynářová, A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Modrý, David; Cranfield, M. R.; Mudakikwa, A.; Kváč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2014), e109751 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : infection diseases * gorilla * genotypes Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  7. Diversity of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Květoňová, D.; Mynářová, A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Modrý, D.; Cranfield, M. R.; Mudakikwa, A.; Kváč, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2014), e109751 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Infectious diseases * gorilla * genotypes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  8. Prototapirella ciliates from wild habituated Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda with the descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Eckardt, Winnie; Stoinski, Tara S; Gillespie, Thomas R; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of Prototapirella fosseyi n. sp., P. rwanda n. sp. and P. gorillaeImai, Ikeda, Collet, and Bonhomme, 1991 in the Entodiniomorphida were described from the mountain gorillas, Gorilla beringei beringei, in Rwanda. The ciliates have a retractable adoral ciliary zone, four non-retractable ciliary tufts in four caudalia, and one broad skeletal plate beneath the body surface. P. rwanda has a dorsal lobe and ventral lobes in two rows whereas P. fosseyi has no lobes. These two new species have an elongated body, a flat tail flap leaning to the ventral, a macronucleus with a tapering anterior end, a round posterior end and a shallow depression on the dorsal side, a micronucleus lying near the anterior end of macronucleus, a thin left region of the skeletal plate, a distinct skeletal rod plate, and four contractile vacuoles. P. gorillae has some variations in the nuclei and the skeletal plate. The infraciliary bands of three Prototapirella species were the same as some Triplumaria species; a C-shaped adoral polybrachykinety, a slender perivestibular polybrachykinety, and paralabial kineties in their retractable adoral ciliary zone and short lateral polybrachykineties in their four caudalia. The perivestibular polybrachykinety is joined only to the right end of adoral polybrachykinety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Deadly Respiratory Disease in Wild Chimpanzees

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Tony Goldberg, Professor of Epidemiology at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Associate Director for Research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Global Health Institute, discusses an outbreak of rhinovirus C in chimpanzees in Uganda.

  10. Chimpanzee culture extends beyond matrilineal family units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mundry, Roger; Cronin, Katherine A; Bodamer, Mark; Haun, Daniel B M

    2017-06-19

    The 'grooming handclasp' is one of the most well-established cultural traditions in chimpanzees. A recent study by Wrangham et al.[1] reduced the cultural scope of grooming-handclasp behavior by showing that grooming-handclasp style convergence is "explained by matrilineal relationship rather than conformity" [1]. Given that we previously reported cultural differences in grooming-handclasp style preferences in captive chimpanzees [2], we tested the alternative view posed by Wrangham et al.[1] in the chimpanzee populations that our original results were based on. Using the same outcome variable as Wrangham et al.[1] - the proportion of high-arm grooming featuring palm-to-palm clasping - we found that matrilineal relationships explained neither within-group homogeneity nor between-group heterogeneity, thereby corroborating our original conclusion that grooming-handclasp behavior can represent a group-level cultural tradition in chimpanzees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toshisada Nishida (1941–2011: Chimpanzee Rapport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans B. M. de Waal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Frans de Waal pays tribute to pioneering primatologist Toshisada Nishida, who transformed our understanding of chimpanzee behavior and culture and galvanized efforts to ensure their conservation.

  12. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis of dentine serial sections elucidate sex differences in weaning patterns of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Geraldine E; Richards, Michael P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Deschner, Tobias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Offspring provisioning is one of the most energetically demanding aspects of reproduction for female mammals. Variation in lactation length and weaning strategies between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), our closest living relative, and modern human societies have been reported. When and why these changes occurred is frequently debated. Our study used stable nitrogen isotope data of tooth root dentine from wild Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to quantify weaning in these chimpanzees and explore if infant sex plays a role in maternal investment. We analyzed serial sections of deciduous lateral incisor root dentine from four Taï chimpanzees to establish the δ(15) N signal of nursing infants; we then analyzed serial sections of first permanent mandibular molar root dentine from 12 Taï chimpanzees to provide quantitative δ(15) N data on weaning in this population. Up to 2 years of age both sexes exhibited dentine δ(15) N values ≈2-3‰ higher than adult female Taï chimpanzees, consistent with a nursing signal. Thereafter a steady decrease in δ(15) N values consistent with the onset, and progression, of weaning, was visible. Sex differences were also evident, where male δ(15) N values decreased at a significantly slower rate compared to females. Confirmation of sex differences in maternal investment among Taï chimpanzees, demonstrates the viability of using isotope analysis to investigate weaning in non-human primates. Additionally, assuming that behaviors observed in the Taï chimpanzees are illustrative of the ancestral pattern, our results provide a platform to enable the trajectory of weaning in human evolution to be further explored. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Stereotypical Behaviors in Chimpanzees Rescued from the African Bushmeat and Pet Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlynn Dube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studies of Poco and Safari, two chimpanzees who were rescued by sanctuaries after living alone on display for humans at businesses for the first 7 to 8 years of their lives. Decades after their rescue, they still engage in stereotypical behaviors as a result of the psychological and physical trauma they endured early on. This paper combines data from in depth interviews with caregivers and direct observations of abnormal behaviors to assess psychological distress in captive-living chimpanzees. Our results highlight some lesser known harms of the bushmeat trade and the detrimental life-long consequences that keeping chimpanzees as “pets” can have on their mental health.

  14. Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Geraldine E.; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

  15. Phylogenetic analyses of behavior support existence of culture among wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2007-11-06

    Culture has long been considered to be not only unique to humans, but also responsible for making us qualitatively different from all other forms of life. In recent years, however, researchers studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have challenged this idea. Natural populations of chimpanzees have been found to vary greatly in their behavior. Because many of these interpopulation differences cannot be readily explained by ecological factors, it has been argued that they result from social learning and, therefore, can be regarded as cultural variations. Recent studies showing social transmission in captive chimpanzee populations suggest that this hypothesis is plausible. However, the culture hypothesis has been questioned on the grounds that the behavioral variation may be explained at a proximate level by genetic differences between subspecies. Here we use cladistic analyses of the major cross-site behavioral data set to test the hypothesis that the behavioral differences among the best-documented chimpanzee populations are genetically determined. If behavioral diversity is primarily the product of genetic differences between subspecies, then population data should show less phylogenetic structure when data from a single subspecies (P. t. schweinfurthii) are compared with data from two subspecies (P. t. verus and P. t. schweinfurthii) analyzed together. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the observed behavioral patterns of wild chimpanzee populations can be explained primarily by genetic differences between subspecies. Instead, our results support the suggestion that the behavioral patterns are the product of social learning and, therefore, can be considered cultural.

  16. Evolutionary Conservation in Genes Underlying Human Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Michelle Ogawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago and thirty one non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in primates supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia and autism are a cost of higher brain function. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained.

  17. 4,300-year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Barton, Huw; Gillespie, Jason; Harris, Jack; Kuhn, Steven; Tyler, Robert; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-02-27

    Archaeological research in the African rainforest reveals unexpected results in the search for the origins of hominoid technology. The ancient Panin sites from Côte d'Ivoire constitute the only evidence of prehistoric ape behavior known to date anywhere in the world. Recent archaeological work has yielded behaviorally modified stones, dated by chronometric means to 4,300 years of age, lodging starch residue suggestive of prehistoric dietary practices by ancient chimpanzees. The "Chimpanzee Stone Age" pre-dates the advent of settled farming villages in this part of the African rainforest and suggests that percussive material culture could have been inherited from an common human-chimpanzee clade, rather than invented by hominins, or have arisen by imitation, or resulted from independent technological convergence.

  18. Chimpanzees trust conspecifics to engage in low-cost reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-02-22

    Many of humans' most important social interactions rely on trust, including most notably among strangers. But little is known about the evolutionary roots of human trust. We presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with a modified version of the human trust game--trust in reciprocity--in which subjects could opt either to obtain a small but safe reward on their own or else to send a larger reward to a partner and trust her to reciprocate a part of the reward that she could not access herself. In a series of three studies, we found strong evidence that in interacting with a conspecific, chimpanzees show spontaneous trust in a novel context; flexibly adjust their level of trust to the trustworthiness of their partner and develop patterns of trusting reciprocity over time. At least in some contexts then, trust in reciprocity is not unique to humans, but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social interactions of humans' closest primate relatives. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Bonobos fall within the genomic variation of chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fischer

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the patterns of genetic variation and evolutionary relationships within and between bonobos and chimpanzees, we sequenced 150,000 base pairs of nuclear DNA divided among 15 autosomal regions as well as the complete mitochondrial genomes from 20 bonobos and 58 chimpanzees. Except for western chimpanzees, we found poor genetic separation of chimpanzees based on sample locality. In contrast, bonobos consistently cluster together but fall as a group within the variation of chimpanzees for many of the regions. Thus, while chimpanzees retain genomic variation that predates bonobo-chimpanzee speciation, extensive lineage sorting has occurred within bonobos such that much of their genome traces its ancestry back to a single common ancestor that postdates their origin as a group separate from chimpanzees.

  20. Lack of T cell dysfunction and programmed cell death in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected chimpanzees correlates with absence of monocytotropic variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitemaker, H.; Meyaard, L.; Kootstra, N. A.; Dubbes, R.; Otto, S. A.; Tersmette, M.; Heeney, J. L.; Miedema, F.

    1993-01-01

    In asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans, disturbed T cell functions such as anergy and programmed cell death, thought to result from inappropriate signaling by antigen-presenting cells due to HIV infection, precede increase in virus load, decline in CD4+ T cell

  1. Molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 and Ebola virus. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs are ancient retroviruses that infect Old and New World monkeys and apes. Although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic exposure risks. Surprisingly, no information exists concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of SFVs in wild-living monkeys and apes. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of SFVcpz infection in free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes using newly developed, fecal-based assays. Chimpanzee fecal samples (n = 724 were collected at 25 field sites throughout equatorial Africa and tested for SFVcpz-specific antibodies (n = 706 or viral nucleic acids (n = 392. SFVcpz infection was documented at all field sites, with prevalence rates ranging from 44% to 100%. In two habituated communities, adult chimpanzees had significantly higher SFVcpz infection rates than infants and juveniles, indicating predominantly horizontal rather than vertical transmission routes. Some chimpanzees were co-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz; however, there was no evidence that SFVcpz and SIVcpz were epidemiologically linked. SFVcpz nucleic acids were recovered from 177 fecal samples, all of which contained SFVcpz RNA and not DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial gag (616 bp, pol-RT (717 bp, and pol-IN (425 bp sequences identified a diverse group of viruses, which could be subdivided into four distinct SFVcpz lineages according to their chimpanzee subspecies of origin. Within these lineages, there was evidence of frequent superinfection and viral recombination. One chimpanzee was infected by a foamy virus from a Cercopithecus monkey

  2. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Brown, W.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Honeycutt, R.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  3. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W.; Brown, W.M.; Honeycutt, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time

  4. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Rosati

    Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  5. Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stuart K; Townsend, Simon W; Schel, Anne M; Wilke, Claudia; Wallace, Emma K; Cheng, Leveda; West, Victoria; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-02-16

    One standout feature of human language is our ability to reference external objects and events with socially learned symbols, or words. Exploring the phylogenetic origins of this capacity is therefore key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of language. While non-human primates can produce vocalizations that refer to external objects in the environment, it is generally accepted that their acoustic structure is fixed and a product of arousal states. Indeed, it has been argued that the apparent lack of flexible control over the structure of referential vocalizations represents a key discontinuity with language. Here, we demonstrate vocal learning in the acoustic structure of referential food grunts in captive chimpanzees. We found that, following the integration of two groups of adult chimpanzees, the acoustic structure of referential food grunts produced for a specific food converged over 3 years. Acoustic convergence arose independently of preference for the food, and social network analyses indicated this only occurred after strong affiliative relationships were established between the original subgroups. We argue that these data represent the first evidence of non-human animals actively modifying and socially learning the structure of a meaningful referential vocalization from conspecifics. Our findings indicate that primate referential call structure is not simply determined by arousal and that the socially learned nature of referential words in humans likely has ancient evolutionary origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of food availability on the diet and activity budget of two western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) groups of differing size in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Neba, Terence Fuh; Donati, Giuseppe; Todd, Angelique; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    Variation in food availability, body size and group size are known to influence primate diet and activity budgets. Here we report how seasonal food availability shapes the diet and activity patterns of two habituated western lowland gorilla (WLG) groups of differing size. WLGs are ripe fruit opportunists, showing dietary flexibility when preferred foods are scarce. However, as fruit can be rare/ patchily distributed, as intra-group feeding competition increases with group size, access to indi...

  7. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla during rehabilitation in the Batéké Plateaux National Park, Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Flohic

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for

  8. Behavioural ecology and group cohesion of juvenile western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) during rehabilitation in the Batéké Plateaux National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Flohic, Guillaume; Motsch, Peggy; DeNys, Hélène; Childs, Simon; Courage, Amos; King, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of animals followed by reintroduction into the wild can benefit conservation by supplementing depleted wild populations or reintroducing a species in an area where it has been extirpated or become extinct. The western lowland gorilla (WLG, Gorilla g. gorilla) is persistently poached; infants are often illegally traded and used as pets. Some are confiscated and rehabilitated, then kept in sanctuaries or reintroduced into the wild. Prior to reintroduction, the ability of the orphans to survive independently in their environment needs to be assessed. Here, we performed a multivariate analysis, including diet composition, activity-budget, and pattern of strata using of a group of five juvenile WLG in the process of rehabilitation and distinguished three sub-periods of ecological significance: the high furgivory period, the Dialium fruits consumption period, and the high folivory period. The consequences of these variations on their well-being (play behaviour) and the group cohesion (spatial proximity and social interactions) were examined. Like wild WLGs, diets shifted seasonally from frugivorous to folivorous, while the same staple foods were consumed and large amounts of Dialium fruits were seasonally gathered high in trees. When succulent fruit intake was the highest, thus providing high energy from sugar, juveniles spent less time feeding, more time playing and group cohesion was the highest. Conversely, the cohesion decreased with increasing folivory, individuals spent more time feeding and less time playing together. Nonetheless, the group cohesion also decreased after the death of one highly social, wild-born orphan. This may underscore the importance of skilled individuals in the cohesion and well-being of the entire group and, ultimately, to rehabilitation success. This study evaluates the rehabilitation success with regards to the methods used and highlights the need to consider a set of individual and environmental factors for enhancing

  9. Chimpanzee genomic diversity reveals ancient admixture with bonobos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Manuel, Marc; Kuhlwilm, Martin; Frandsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, have a complex demographic history. We analyzed the high-coverage whole genomes of 75 wild-born chimpanzees and bonobos from 10 countries in Africa. We found that chimpanzee population substructure makes genetic information a good predictor...

  10. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Extraordinary Nature of Barney's Drumming : A Complementary Study of Ordinary Noise Making in Chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valérie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gayet, Pierre; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    In a previous study (Dufour et al., 2015) we reported the unusual characteristics of the drumming performance of a chimpanzee named Barney. His sound production, several sequences of repeated drumming on an up-turned plastic barrel, shared features typical for human musical drumming: it was

  12. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and the question of cumulative culture: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2008-07-01

    There is increasing evidence for cultural variations in behaviour among non-human species, but human societies additionally display elaborate cumulative cultural evolution, with successive generations building on earlier achievements. Evidence for cumulative culture in non-human species remains minimal and controversial. Relevant experiments are also lacking. Here we present a first experiment designed to examine chimpanzees' capacity for cumulative social learning. Eleven young chimpanzees were presented with a foraging device, which afforded both a relatively simple and a more complex tool-use technique for extracting honey. The more complex 'probing' technique incorporated the core actions of the simpler 'dipping' one and was also much more productive. In a baseline, exploration condition only two subjects discovered the dipping technique and a solitary instance of probing occurred. Demonstrations of dipping by a familiar human were followed by acquisition of this technique by the five subjects aged three years or above, whilst younger subjects showed a significant increase only in the elements of the dipping technique. By contrast, subsequent demonstrations of the probing task were not followed by acquisition of this more productive technique. Subjects stuck to their habitual dipping method despite an escalating series of demonstrations eventually exceeding 200. Supplementary tests showed this technique is within the capability of chimpanzees of this age. We therefore tentatively conclude that young chimpanzees exhibit a tendency to become 'stuck' on a technique they initially learn, inhibiting cumulative social learning and possibly constraining the species' capacity for cumulative cultural evolution.

  13. Dogs (Canis familiaris, but not chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, understand imperative pointing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina C Kirchhofer

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees routinely follow the gaze of humans to outside targets. However, in most studies using object choice they fail to use communicative gestures (e.g. pointing to find hidden food. Chimpanzees' failure to do this may be due to several difficulties with this paradigm. They may, for example, misinterpret the gesture as referring to the opaque cup instead of the hidden food. Or perhaps they do not understand informative communicative intentions. In contrast, dogs seem to be skilful in using human communicative cues in the context of finding food, but as of yet there is not much data showing whether they also use pointing in the context of finding non-food objects. Here we directly compare chimpanzees' (N = 20 and dogs' (N = 32 skills in using a communicative gesture directed at a visible object out of reach of the human but within reach of the subject. Pairs of objects were placed in view of and behind the subjects. The task was to retrieve the object the experimenter wanted. To indicate which one she desired, the experimenter pointed imperatively to it and directly rewarded the subject for handing over the correct one. While dogs performed well on this task, chimpanzees failed to identify the referent. Implications for great apes' and dogs' understanding of human communicative intentions are discussed.

  14. Interleukin-12 induces sustained activation of multiple host inflammatory mediator systems in chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauw, F. N.; Dekkers, P. E.; te Velde, A. A.; Speelman, P.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Kurimoto, M.; Hack, C. E.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    1999-01-01

    To determine in vivo effects of interleukin (IL)-12 on host inflammatory mediator systems, 4 healthy chimpanzees received recombinant human IL-12 (1 microg/kg) by intravenous injection. IL-12 induced increases in plasma concentrations of IL-15, IL-18, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), plus a marked

  15. Spontaneous reoccurrence of “scooping”, a wild tool-use behaviour, in naïve chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bandini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern human technological culture depends on social learning. A widespread assumption for chimpanzee tool-use cultures is that they, too, are dependent on social learning. However, we provide evidence to suggest that individual learning, rather than social learning, is the driver behind determining the form of these behaviours within and across individuals. Low-fidelity social learning instead merely facilitates the reinnovation of these behaviours, and thus helps homogenise the behaviour across chimpanzees, creating the population-wide patterns observed in the wild (what here we call “socially mediated serial reinnovations”. This is the main prediction of the Zone of Latent Solutions (ZLS hypothesis. This study directly tested the ZLS hypothesis on algae scooping, a wild chimpanzee tool-use behaviour. We provided naïve chimpanzees (n = 14, Mage = 31.33, SD = 10.09 with ecologically relevant materials of the wild behaviour but, crucially, without revealing any information on the behavioural form required to accomplish this task. This study found that naïve chimpanzees expressed the same behavioural form as their wild counterparts, suggesting that, as the ZLS theory predicts, individual learning is the driver behind the frequency of this behavioural form. As more behaviours are being found to be within chimpanzee’s ZLS, this hypothesis now provides a parsimonious explanation for chimpanzee tool cultures.

  16. The effect of canopy closure on chimpanzee nest abundance in Lagoas de Cufada National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Casanova, Catarina; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to gather baseline information about chimpanzee nesting and density in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), in Guinea-Bissau. Old and narrow trails were followed to estimate chimpanzee density through marked-nest counts and to test the effect of canopy closure (woodland savannah, forest with a sparse canopy, and forest with a dense canopy) on nest distribution. Chimpanzee abundance was estimated at 0.79 nest builders/km(2), the lowest among the areas of Guinea-Bissau with currently studied chimpanzee populations. Our data suggest that sub-humid forest with a dense canopy accounts for significantly higher chimpanzee nest abundance (1.50 nests/km of trail) than sub-humid forest with a sparse canopy (0.49 nests/km of trail) or woodland savannah (0.30 nests/km of trail). Dense-canopy forests play an important role in chimpanzee nesting in the patchy and highly humanized landscape of LCNP. The tree species most frequently used for nesting are Dialium guineense (46%) and Elaeis guineensis (28%). E. guineensis contain nests built higher in the canopy, while D. guineense contain nests built at lower heights. Nests observed during baseline sampling and replications suggest seasonal variations in the tree species used for nest building.

  17. Human rather than ape-like orbital morphology allows much greater lateral visual field expansion with eye abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denion, Eric; Hitier, Martin; Levieil, Eric; Mouriaux, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    While convergent, the human orbit differs from that of non-human apes in that its lateral orbital margin is significantly more rearward. This rearward position does not obstruct the additional visual field gained through eye motion. This additional visual field is therefore considered to be wider in humans than in non-human apes. A mathematical model was designed to quantify this difference. The mathematical model is based on published computed tomography data in the human neuro-ocular plane (NOP) and on additional anatomical data from 100 human skulls and 120 non-human ape skulls (30 gibbons; 30 chimpanzees / bonobos; 30 orangutans; 30 gorillas). It is used to calculate temporal visual field eccentricity values in the NOP first in the primary position of gaze then for any eyeball rotation value in abduction up to 45° and any lateral orbital margin position between 85° and 115° relative to the sagittal plane. By varying the lateral orbital margin position, the human orbit can be made “non-human ape-like”. In the Pan-like orbit, the orbital margin position (98.7°) was closest to the human orbit (107.1°). This modest 8.4° difference resulted in a large 21.1° difference in maximum lateral visual field eccentricity with eyeball abduction (Pan-like: 115°; human: 136.1°). PMID:26190625

  18. The influence of body mass index, age and sex on inflammatory disease risk in semi-captive Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Obanda

    Full Text Available Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC, platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of

  19. New gorilla adenovirus vaccine vectors induce potent immune responses and protection in a mouse malaria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbach, Keith; Stefaniak, Maureen; Chen, Ping; Patterson, Noelle B; Liao, Grant; Weng, Shaojie; Krepkiy, Svetlana; Ekberg, Greg; Torano, Holly; Ettyreddy, Damodar; Gowda, Kalpana; Sonawane, Sharvari; Belmonte, Arnel; Abot, Esteban; Sedegah, Martha; Hollingdale, Michael R; Moormann, Ann; Vulule, John; Villasante, Eileen; Richie, Thomas L; Brough, Douglas E; Bruder, Joseph T

    2017-07-03

    A DNA-human Ad5 (HuAd5) prime-boost malaria vaccine has been shown to protect volunteers against a controlled human malaria infection. The potency of this vaccine, however, appeared to be affected by the presence of pre-existing immunity against the HuAd5 vector. Since HuAd5 seroprevalence is very high in malaria-endemic areas of the world, HuAd5 may not be the most appropriate malaria vaccine vector. This report describes the evaluation of the seroprevalence, immunogenicity and efficacy of three newly identified gorilla adenoviruses, GC44, GC45 and GC46, as potential malaria vaccine vectors. The seroprevalence of GC44, GC45 and GC46 is very low, and the three vectors are not efficiently neutralized by human sera from Kenya and Ghana, two countries where malaria is endemic. In mice, a single administration of GC44, GC45 and GC46 vectors expressing a murine malaria gene, Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (PyCSP), induced robust PyCSP-specific T cell and antibody responses that were at least as high as a comparable HuAd5-PyCSP vector. Efficacy studies in a murine malaria model indicated that a prime-boost regimen with DNA-PyCSP and GC-PyCSP vectors can protect mice against a malaria challenge. Moreover, these studies indicated that a DNA-GC46-PyCSP vaccine regimen was significantly more efficacious than a DNA-HuAd5-PyCSP regimen. These data suggest that these gorilla-based adenovectors have key performance characteristics for an effective malaria vaccine. The superior performance of GC46 over HuAd5 highlights its potential for clinical development.

  20. Host specificity and basic ecology of Mammomonogamus (Nematoda, Syngamidae) from lowland gorillas and forest elephants in Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červená, B.; Vallo, P.; Pafčo, B.; Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Jirků, Miloslav; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Todd, A.; Turkalo, A. K.; Modrý, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 8 (2017), s. 1016-1025 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 18S rDNA * cox1 * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas * haplotype * interspecies transmission * Loxodonta cyclotis * Gorilla gorilla gorilla Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  1. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALARIA PLASMODIA INCLUDING PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinello Antinori

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that in humans after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review.

  2. Rhesus macaque and chimpanzee DC-SIGN act as HIV/SIV gp120 trans-receptors, similar to human DC-SIGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, T. B.; Koopman, G.; van Duijnhoven, G. C.; van Vliet, S. J.; van Schijndel, A. C.; Engering, A.; Heeney, J. L.; van Kooyk, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively). The DC-specific HIV-1 trans-receptor DC-SIGN is thought to be essential for viral dissemination by DC. Abundant expression in lymphoid tissues also implies a

  3. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-07-19

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution.

  4. The knowns and unknowns of chimpanzee culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Claims of culture in chimpanzees appeared soon after the launch of the first field studies in africa.1 The notion of chimpanzee 'material cultures' was coined,2 and this was followed by a first formal comparison, which revealed an astonishing degree of behavioural diversity between the different study communities, mainly in terms of tool use.3 Although this behavioural diversity is still undisputed, the question of chimpanzee cultures has remained controversial.4-6 The debate has less to do with the definition of culture (most animal behaviour researchers accept the notion for behaviour that is 'transmitted repeatedly through social or observational learning to become a population-level characteristic' 3), but more with whether some key criteria are met.

  5. An investigation of the auditory perception of western lowland gorillas in an enrichment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Jake S

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has highlighted the varied effects of auditory enrichment on different captive animals. This study investigated how manipulating musical components can influence the behavior of a group of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bristol Zoo. The gorillas were observed during exposure to classical music, rock-and-roll music, and rainforest sounds. The two music conditions were modified to create five further conditions: unmanipulated, decreased pitch, increased pitch, decreased tempo, and increased tempo. We compared the prevalence of activity, anxiety, and social behaviors between the standard conditions. We also compared the prevalence of each of these behaviors across the manipulated conditions of each type of music independently and collectively. Control observations with no sound exposure were regularly scheduled between the observations of the 12 auditory conditions. The results suggest that naturalistic rainforest sounds had no influence on the anxiety of captive gorillas, contrary to past research. The tempo of music appears to be significantly associated with activity levels among this group, and social behavior may be affected by pitch. Low tempo music also may be effective at reducing anxiety behavior in captive gorillas. Regulated auditory enrichment may provide effective means of calming gorillas, or for facilitating active behavior. Zoo Biol. 35:398-408, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mountain gorilla genomes reveal the impact of long-term population decline and inbreeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Yali; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Mountain gorillas are an endangered great ape subspecies and a prominent focus for conservation, yet we know little about their genomic diversity and evolutionary past. We sequenced whole genomes from multiple wild individuals and compared the genomes of all four Gorilla subspecies. We found that...

  7. Behavioral responses of gorillas to habituation in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.; Cipolletta, C.; Brunsting, A.M.H.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2004-01-01

    We monitored the impact of habituation for tourism through changes in gorillas' behavior during the habituation process at Bai Hokou (Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic) from August 1996 to December 1999. From August 1998 onwards we focused on one gorilla group: the Munye. During

  8. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Produce the Same Types of ‘Laugh Faces’ when They Emit Laughter and when They Are Silent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Jesus, Goncalo; Osborne, Jade; Bard, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly produce facial expressions and vocalizations has a strong impact on the way humans communicate, as it promotes more explicit and versatile forms of communication. Whereas facial expressions and vocalizations are unarguably closely linked in primates, the extent to which these expressions can be produced independently in nonhuman primates is unknown. The present work, thus, examined if chimpanzees produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations, as do humans. Forty-six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were video-recorded during spontaneous play with conspecifics at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. ChimpFACS was applied, a standardized coding system to measure chimpanzee facial movements, based on FACS developed for humans. Data showed that the chimpanzees produced the same 14 configurations of open-mouth faces when laugh sounds were present and when they were absent. Chimpanzees, thus, produce these facial expressions flexibly without being morphologically constrained by the accompanying vocalizations. Furthermore, the data indicated that the facial expression plus vocalization and the facial expression alone were used differently in social play, i.e., when in physical contact with the playmates and when matching the playmates’ open-mouth faces. These findings provide empirical evidence that chimpanzees produce distinctive facial expressions independently from a vocalization, and that their multimodal use affects communicative meaning, important traits for a more explicit and versatile way of communication. As it is still uncertain how human laugh faces evolved, the ChimpFACS data were also used to empirically examine the evolutionary relation between open-mouth faces with laugh sounds of chimpanzees and laugh faces of humans. The ChimpFACS results revealed that laugh faces of humans must have gradually emerged from laughing open-mouth faces of ancestral apes. This work examines the main evolutionary

  9. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored Rift Valley fever vaccine in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Warimwe, GM; Lorenzo, G; Lopez-Gil, E; Reyes-Sandoval, A; Cottingham, MG; Spencer, AJ; Collins, KA; Dicks, MD; Milicic, A; Lall, A; Furze, J; Turner, AV; Hill, AV; Brun, A; Gilbert, SC

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that historically affects livestock production and human health in sub-Saharan Africa, though epizootics have also occurred in the Arabian Peninsula. Whilst an effective live-attenuated vaccine is available for livestock, there is currently no licensed human RVF vaccine. Replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd) vectors are an ideal platform for development of a human RVF vaccine, given the low prevalence of neutralizing antibod...

  10. Vocal recruitment for joint travel in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Gruber

    Full Text Available Joint travel is a common social activity of many group-living animals, which requires some degree of coordination, sometimes through communication signals. Here, we studied the use of an acoustically distinct vocalisation in chimpanzees, the 'travel hoo', a signal given specifically in the travel context. We were interested in how this call type was produced to coordinate travel, whether it was aimed at specific individuals and how recipients responded. We found that 'travel hoos' were regularly given prior to impending departures and that silent travel initiations were less successful in recruiting than vocal initiations. Other behaviours associated with departure were unrelated to recruitment, suggesting that 'travel hoos' facilitated joint travel. Crucially, 'travel hoos' were more often produced in the presence of allies than other individuals, with high rates of recruitment success. We discuss these findings as evidence for how motivation to perform a specific social activity can lead to the production of a vocal signal that qualifies as 'intentional' according to most definitions, suggesting that a key psychological component of human language may have already been present in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  11. Vocal recruitment for joint travel in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Joint travel is a common social activity of many group-living animals, which requires some degree of coordination, sometimes through communication signals. Here, we studied the use of an acoustically distinct vocalisation in chimpanzees, the 'travel hoo', a signal given specifically in the travel context. We were interested in how this call type was produced to coordinate travel, whether it was aimed at specific individuals and how recipients responded. We found that 'travel hoos' were regularly given prior to impending departures and that silent travel initiations were less successful in recruiting than vocal initiations. Other behaviours associated with departure were unrelated to recruitment, suggesting that 'travel hoos' facilitated joint travel. Crucially, 'travel hoos' were more often produced in the presence of allies than other individuals, with high rates of recruitment success. We discuss these findings as evidence for how motivation to perform a specific social activity can lead to the production of a vocal signal that qualifies as 'intentional' according to most definitions, suggesting that a key psychological component of human language may have already been present in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  12. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  13. The hypoglossal canal and the origin of human vocal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Richard F.; Cartmill, Matt; Balow, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian hypoglossal canal transmits the nerve that supplies the muscles of the tongue. This canal is absolutely and relatively larger in modern humans than it is in the African apes (Pan and Gorilla). We hypothesize that the human tongue is supplied more richly with motor nerves than are those of living apes and propose that canal size in fossil hominids may provide an indication about the motor coordination of the tongue and reflect the evolution of speech and language. Canals of gracile Australopithecus, and possibly Homo habilis, fall within the range of extant Pan and are significantly smaller than those of modern Homo. The canals of Neanderthals and an early “modern” Homo sapiens (Skhul 5), as well as of African and European middle Pleistocene Homo (Kabwe and Swanscombe), fall within the range of extant Homo and are significantly larger than those of Pan troglodytes. These anatomical findings suggest that the vocal capabilities of Neanderthals were the same as those of humans today. Furthermore, the vocal abilities of Australopithecus were not advanced significantly over those of chimpanzees whereas those of Homo may have been essentially modern by at least 400,000 years ago. Thus, human vocal abilities may have appeared much earlier in time than the first archaeological evidence for symbolic behavior. PMID:9560291

  14. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2015-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group of chimpanzees has shown that they are proficient at gathering materials from within their environment in order to create tools to probe for the liquid food within the artificial mound. Extending beyond this basic question, we first asked whether they only made and modified probe tools when it was appropriate to do so (i.e. when the mound was baited with food). Second, by collecting continuous data on their behavior, we also asked whether the chimpanzees first (intentionally) modified their tools prior to probing for food or whether such modifications occurred after tool use, possibly as a by-product of chewing and eating the food from the tools. Following our predictions, we found that tool modification predicted tool use; the chimpanzees began using their tools within a short delay of creating and modifying them, and the chimpanzees performed more tool modifying behaviors when food was available than when they could not gain food through the use of probe tools. We also discuss our results in terms of the chimpanzees' acquisition of the skills, and their flexibility of tool use and learning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cultura e inteligência: reflexões antropológicas sobre aspectos não físicos da evolução em chimpanzés e humanos Culture and intelligence: anthropological reflections on non-physical aspects of evolution in chimpanzees and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Sebeika Rapchan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata da história recente dos estudos sobre o comportamento de chimpanzés, enfatizando os resultados das pesquisas, as proposições acerca da existência de 'culturas de chimpanzés' e sua validade. O trabalho problematiza a ideia a partir dos mecanismos de transmissão e aprendizado social bem como de concepções antropológicas e paleoantropológicas de cultura que associam tal fenômeno, entre humanos modernos, às suas capacidades simbólicas e cognitivas.The scope of this work is the recent history of studies on the behavior of chimpanzees, emphasizing research results, propositions about the existence of 'chimpanzee cultures' and their validity. The work discusses the idea based on transmission mechanisms and social learning as well as anthropological and paleoanthropological concepts of culture that associate such phenomena, among modern humans, to their symbolic and cognitive abilities.

  16. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Jirků

    2015-12-01

    Finally, we demonstrated that the mandrill serum was able to efficiently lyse T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, and to some extent T. b. gambiense, while the chimpanzee serum failed to lyse any of these subspecies.

  17. Gestation period and twinning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEACOCK, L J; ROGERS, C M

    1959-04-10

    The length of the gestation period in 118 births in a colony of chimpanzees was found to be 226.8 days, with a standard deviation of 13.3 and a range of 196 to 260 days. Six pairs of twins were born in 120 parturitions; thus the apparent twinning rate is higher than that in man.

  18. Deadly Respiratory Disease in Wild Chimpanzees

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-04-19

    Dr. Tony Goldberg, Professor of Epidemiology at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Associate Director for Research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Global Health Institute, discusses an outbreak of rhinovirus C in chimpanzees in Uganda.  Created: 4/19/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/19/2018.

  19. Hierarchy and social status in Budongo chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2004-04-01

    The status hierarchy is fundamental in the lives of male chimpanzees. This study describes the dominance interactions and social status among adult male chimpanzees of the Sonso community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, during the period that they were first studied (1994 and 1995). Social dominance is typically measured using the behaviour of either the subordinate or the dominant individual, but a relationship is dependent on the behaviour of both parties and this study explicitly used both subordinate and dominant behaviours to investigate the status hierarchy. Among adult males of the Sonso community, agonistic interactions occurred at a low rate and pant-grunts were rare, but males could be ranked into separate hierarchies of agonistic dominance and pant-grunting (labelled 'respect') using ratios of behaviour performed/behaviour received. These hierarchies were combined to form a single hierarchy of social status that divided the males among five distinct status levels. The highest status level was held by an alliance between two males who replaced the previous alpha male during the first part of the study. Neither male in this alliance partnership pant-grunted to the other, although the reason for cooperative behaviour was unclear. Although the nominally beta male was treated as such by other adult males, he achieved surprisingly little mating success. Budongo Forest chimpanzees do not warrant the sometimes-expressed view that they are non-aggressive and peaceable and the broad pattern of their status interactions matches with that seen in other chimpanzee populations.

  20. Sexual exchange relationships in captive chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, C.K.; Van Laere, G.J.; Van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    In a group of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we studied whether females received more social benefits from males when they were in oestrus than at other times and whether males distributed their beneficial acts especially to females with whom they mated more frequently. When in oestrus,

  1. Assessing chimpanzee personality and subjective well-being in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hong, Kyung-Won; Inoue, Eiji; Udono, Toshifumi; Ochiai, Tomomi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi; King, James E

    2009-04-01

    We tested whether the cultural background of raters influenced ratings of chimpanzee personality. Our study involved comparing personality and subjective well-being ratings of 146 chimpanzees in Japan that were housed in zoos, research institutes, and a retirement sanctuary to ratings of chimpanzees in US and Australian zoos. Personality ratings were made on a translated and expanded version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. Subjective well-being ratings were made on a translated version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. The mean interrater reliabilities of the 43 original adjectives did not markedly differ between the present sample and the original sample of 100 zoo chimpanzees in the US. Interrater reliabilities of these samples were highly correlated, suggesting that their rank order was preserved. Comparison of the factor structures for the Japanese sample and for the original sample of chimpanzees in US zoos indicated that the overall structure was replicated and that the Dominance, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness domains clearly generalized. Consistent with earlier studies, older chimpanzees had higher Dominance and lower Extraversion and Openness scores. Correlations between the six domain scores and subjective well-being were comparable to those for chimpanzees housed in the US and Australia. These findings suggest that chimpanzee personality ratings are not affected by the culture of the raters.

  2. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color radar image of Central Africa, showing the Virunga Volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. This C-band L-band image was acquired on April 12, 1994, on orbit 58 of space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The area is centered at about 1.75 degrees south latitude and 29.5 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 58 kilometers by 178 kilometers (48 miles by 178 miles). The false-color composite is created by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HH return in blue. The dark area in the bottom of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the left) and Rwanda (to the right). The airport at Goma, Zaire is shown as a dark line just above the lake in the bottom left corner of the image. Volcanic flows from the 1977 eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo are shown just north of the airport. Mt. Nyiragongo is not visible in this image because it is located just to the left of the image swath. Very fluid lava flows from the 1977 eruption killed 70 people. Mt. Nyiragongo is currently erupting (August 1994) and will be a target of observation during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The large volcano in the center of the image is Mt. Karisimbi (4,500 meters or 14,800 feet). This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation and volcanic flows of the region. The faint lines shown in the purple regions are believed to be the result of agriculture terracing by the people who live in the region. The vegetation types are an important factor in the habitat of the endangered mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their study of the remaining 650 gorillas in the region. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet

  3. The role of the placenta in the initiation of spiral artery remodelling in an early pregnant chimpanzee uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercruysse, L; Carter, A. M.; Pijnenborg, R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In this study we evaluated the full extent of placental bed changes (centre to periphery) in a pregnant chimpanzee uterus, kept at the Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium. According to placental size the specimen was equivalent to an 8 weeks pregnant human uterus. Methods...... to be a feature of the placental bed as a whole, being significantly less prominent in the adjacent non-placental bed part of the uterus, indicating an effect of the presence of the placenta. The different time-course of early spiral artery remodelling in the chimpanzee as compared to the human may have had...

  4. DNA recovery from wild chimpanzee tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona A Stewart

    Full Text Available Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals. We used commercially available forensic DNA kits to show that termite-fishing by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii leaves behind detectable chimpanzee DNA evidence on tools. We then quantified the recovered DNA, compared the yield to that from faecal samples, and performed an initial assessment of mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to identify individuals. From 49 termite-fishing tools from the Issa Valley research site in western Tanzania, we recovered an average of 52 pg/μl chimpanzee DNA, compared to 376.2 pg/μl in faecal DNA extracts. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes could be assigned to 41 of 49 tools (84%. Twenty-six tool DNA extracts yielded >25 pg/μl DNA and were selected for microsatellite analyses; genotypes were determined with confidence for 18 tools. These tools were used by a minimum of 11 individuals across the study period and termite mounds. These results demonstrate the utility of bio-molecular techniques and a primate archaeology approach in non-invasive monitoring and behavioural reconstruction of unhabituated primate populations.

  5. Franco-Japanese and other collaborative contributions to understanding chimpanzee culture at Bossou and the Nimba Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humle, Tatyana

    2016-07-01

    The Japanese approach to science has permitted theoretical leaps in our understanding of culture in non-human animals and challenged human uniqueness, as it is not embedded in the Western traditional dualisms of human/animal and nature/culture. This paper highlights the value of an interdisciplinary approach and combining methodological approaches in exploring putative cultural variation among chimpanzees. I focus particularly on driver ants (Dorylus sp.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) consumption among the Bossou and Nimba chimpanzees, in south-eastern Guinea at the border with Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia, and hand use across different tool use tasks commonly witnessed at Bossou, i.e. ant-dipping, nut-cracking, pestle-pounding, and algae-scooping. Observed variation in resource use was addressed across differing scales exploring both within- and between-community differences. Our findings have highlighted a tight interplay between ecology, social dynamics and culture, and between social and individual learning and maternal contribution to tool-use acquisition. Exploration of hand use by chimpanzees revealed no evidence for individual-level hand or community-level task specialisation. However, more complex types of tool use such as nut-cracking showed distinct lateralization, while the equivalent of a haptic manual action revealed a strong right hand bias. The data also suggest an overall population tendency for a right hand preference. As well as describing these sites' key contributions to our understanding of chimpanzees and to challenging our perceptions of human uniqueness, this paper also highlights the critical condition and high levels of threats facing this emblematic chimpanzee population, and several questions that remain to be addressed. In the spirit of the Japanese approach to science, I recommend that an interdisciplinary and collaborative research approach can best help us to challenge perceptions of human uniqueness and to further our

  6. Acupuncture as an Adjunct Therapy for Osteoarthritis in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Buchl, Stephanie J; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient practice that is currently used to treat disorders ranging from osteoarthritis to cardiomyopathy. Acupuncture involves the insertion of thin, sterile needles into defined acupuncture points that stimulate physiologic processes through neural signaling. Numerous scientific studies have proven the benefits of acupuncture, and given this scientific support, we hypothesized that acupuncture could benefit the nonhuman primates at our facility. As our chimpanzee colony ages, we are observing an increase in osteoarthritis and have focused our initial acupuncture treatments on this condition. We successfully trained 3 chimpanzees, by using positive-reinforcement training techniques, to voluntarily participate in acupuncture treatments for stifle osteoarthritis. We used 3 acupuncture points that correlate with alleviation of stifle pain and inflammation in humans. A mobility scoring system was used to assess improvements in mobility as a function of the acupuncture treatments. The 2 chimpanzees with the most severe osteoarthritis showed significant improvement in mobility after acupuncture treatments. Acupuncture therapy not only resulted in improved mobility, but the training sessions also served as enrichment for the animals, as demonstrated by their voluntary participation in the training and treatment sessions. Acupuncture is an innovative treatment technique that our data show to be safe, inexpensive, and, most importantly, effective for chimpanzees. PMID:23849446

  7. Acupuncture as an adjunct therapy for osteoarthritis in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Buchl, Stephanie J; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2013-07-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient practice that is currently used to treat disorders ranging from osteoarthritis to cardiomyopathy. Acupuncture involves the insertion of thin, sterile needles into defined acupuncture points that stimulate physiologic processes through neural signaling. Numerous scientific studies have proven the benefits of acupuncture, and given this scientific support, we hypothesized that acupuncture could benefit the nonhuman primates at our facility. As our chimpanzee colony ages, we are observing an increase in osteoarthritis and have focused our initial acupuncture treatments on this condition. We successfully trained 3 chimpanzees, by using positive-reinforcement training techniques, to voluntarily participate in acupuncture treatments for stifle osteoarthritis. We used 3 acupuncture points that correlate with alleviation of stifle pain and inflammation in humans. A mobility scoring system was used to assess improvements in mobility as a function of the acupuncture treatments. The 2 chimpanzees with the most severe osteoarthritis showed significant improvement in mobility after acupuncture treatments. Acupuncture therapy not only resulted in improved mobility, but the training sessions also served as enrichment for the animals, as demonstrated by their voluntary participation in the training and treatment sessions. Acupuncture is an innovative treatment technique that our data show to be safe, inexpensive, and, most importantly, effective for chimpanzees.

  8. Children, chimpanzees, and bonobos adjust the visibility of their actions for cooperators and competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Duguid, Shona; Saur, Heiko; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-08-17

    Chimpanzees and bonobos are highly capable of tracking other's mental states. It has been proposed, however, that in contrast to humans, chimpanzees are only able to do this in competitive interactions but this has rarely been directly tested. Here, pairs of chimpanzees or bonobos (Study 1) and 4-year-old children (Study 2) were presented with two almost identical tasks differing only regarding the social context. In the cooperation condition, players' interests were matched: they had to make corresponding choices to be mutually rewarded. To facilitate coordination, subjects should thus make their actions visible to their partner whose view was partially occluded. In the competition condition, players' interests were directly opposed: the partner tried to match the subject's choice but subjects were only rewarded if they chose differently, so that they benefited from hiding their actions. The apes successfully adapted their decisions to the social context and their performance was markedly better in the cooperation condition. Children also distinguished between the two contexts, but somewhat surprisingly, performed better in the competitive condition. These findings demonstrate experimentally that chimpanzees and bonobos can take into account what others can see in cooperative interactions. Their social-cognitive skills are thus more flexible than previously assumed.

  9. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Susana; Cunha, Eugénia; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    We apply archaeological methods to extend our knowledge of chimpanzee material culture. The chaîne opératoire conceptual framework, as introduced by ethnography, established technology as a phased process. Prehistoric archaeology adopted this concept to elucidate technological variability in tool-making procedures, based on knowledge of tool functions or subsistence patterns. We focused on the detection of operational sequences by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) when nut cracking with lithic implements at the sites of Bossou and Diecké, Guinea, West Africa. Thus, while it has recently been claimed that chimpanzees leave behind recognizable assemblages of stone hammers that can be morphologically distinguished from Oldowan hammers, this is the first study to focus specifically on the existence of operational sequences during the utilization of stone tools by wild chimpanzees. By combining primatological and archaeological methods and examining ecological areas inhabited by different chimpanzee groups, we sought technological variability and identified variables influencing regional diversity in tool typology and technology. We compared three case studies: (1) Bossou-direct recording of experimental nut-cracking sessions; (2) Bossou- direct and indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild; (3) Diecké-indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild. Results suggest that chimpanzees perform sequences of repeated tool transport and nut cracking. Data show discrimination of tool functions based on tool features. We identified the most technologically complex tool for nut cracking, which was composed of four stones. We found regional diversity in chimpanzee stone assemblages. Raw-material type and tool mobility constrain technological development in human and nonhuman primates. Spatial analysis of tool distribution indicates a pattern of resource-exploitation strategy, revealing affinities with Oldowan.

  10. Spontaneous cross-species imitation in interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tomas; Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina; Madsen, Elainie Alenkær

    2018-01-01

    Imitation is a cornerstone of human development, serving both a cognitive function (e.g. in the acquisition and transmission of skills and knowledge) and a social-communicative function, whereby the imitation of familiar actions serves to maintain social interaction and promote prosociality. In nonhuman primates, this latter function is poorly understood, or even claimed to be absent. In this observational study, we documented interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors and found that the two species imitated each other at a similar rate, corresponding to almost 10% of all produced actions. Imitation appeared to accomplish a social-communicative function, as cross-species interactions that contained imitative actions lasted significantly longer than interactions without imitation. In both species, physical proximity promoted cross-species imitation. Overall, imitative precision was higher among visitors than among chimpanzees, but this difference vanished in proximity contexts, i.e. in the indoor environment. Four of five chimpanzees produced imitations; three of them exhibited comparable imitation rates, despite large individual differences in level of cross-species interactivity. We also found that chimpanzees evidenced imitation recognition, yet only when visitors imitated their actions (as opposed to postures). Imitation recognition was expressed by returned imitation in 36% of the cases, and all four imitating chimpanzees engaged in so-called imitative games. Previously regarded as unique to early human socialization, such games serve to maintain social engagement. The results presented here indicate that nonhuman apes exhibit spontaneous imitation that can accomplish a communicative function. The study raises a number of novel questions for imitation research and highlights the imitation of familiar behaviours as a relevant-yet thus far understudied-research topic.

  11. Postnatal stem/progenitor cells derived from the dental pulp of adult chimpanzee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillos Dimitri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chimpanzee dental pulp stem/stromal cells (ChDPSCs are very similar to human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs as demonstrated by the expression pattern of cell surface markers and their multipotent differentiation capability. Results ChDPSCs were isolated from an incisor and a canine of a forty-seven year old female chimpanzee. A homogenous population of ChDPSCs was established in early culture at a high proliferation rate and verified by the expression pattern of thirteen cell surface markers. The ChDPSCs are multipotent and were capable of differentiating into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. ChDPSCs also express stem cell (Sox-2, Nanog, Rex-1, Oct-4 and osteogenic (Osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin markers, which is comparable to reported results of rhesus monkey BMSCs (rBMSCs, hBMSCs and hDPSCs. Although ChDPSCs vigorously proliferated during the initial phase and gradually decreased in subsequent passages, the telomere length indicated that telomerase activity was not significantly reduced. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ChDPSCs can be efficiently isolated from post-mortem teeth of adult chimpanzees and are multipotent. Due to the almost identical genome composition of humans and chimpanzees, there is an emergent need for defining the new role of chimpanzee modeling in comparative medicine. Teeth are easy to recover at necropsy and easy to preserve prior to the retrieval of dental pulp for stem/stromal cells isolation. Therefore, the establishment of ChDPSCs would preserve and maximize the applications of such a unique and invaluable animal model, and could advance the understanding of cellular functions and differentiation control of adult stem cells in higher primates.

  12. Postnatal stem/progenitor cells derived from the dental pulp of adult chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Hsun; Snyder, Brooke; Fillos, Dimitri; Ibegbu, Chris C; Huang, Anderson Hsien-Cheng; Chan, Anthony W S

    2008-04-22

    Chimpanzee dental pulp stem/stromal cells (ChDPSCs) are very similar to human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs) as demonstrated by the expression pattern of cell surface markers and their multipotent differentiation capability. ChDPSCs were isolated from an incisor and a canine of a forty-seven year old female chimpanzee. A homogenous population of ChDPSCs was established in early culture at a high proliferation rate and verified by the expression pattern of thirteen cell surface markers. The ChDPSCs are multipotent and were capable of differentiating into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. ChDPSCs also express stem cell (Sox-2, Nanog, Rex-1, Oct-4) and osteogenic (Osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin) markers, which is comparable to reported results of rhesus monkey BMSCs (rBMSCs), hBMSCs and hDPSCs. Although ChDPSCs vigorously proliferated during the initial phase and gradually decreased in subsequent passages, the telomere length indicated that telomerase activity was not significantly reduced. These results demonstrate that ChDPSCs can be efficiently isolated from post-mortem teeth of adult chimpanzees and are multipotent. Due to the almost identical genome composition of humans and chimpanzees, there is an emergent need for defining the new role of chimpanzee modeling in comparative medicine. Teeth are easy to recover at necropsy and easy to preserve prior to the retrieval of dental pulp for stem/stromal cells isolation. Therefore, the establishment of ChDPSCs would preserve and maximize the applications of such a unique and invaluable animal model, and could advance the understanding of cellular functions and differentiation control of adult stem cells in higher primates.

  13. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector Ebola Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, Julie E; DeZure, Adam D; Stanley, Daphne A; Coates, Emily E; Novik, Laura; Enama, Mary E; Berkowitz, Nina M; Hu, Zonghui; Joshi, Gyan; Ploquin, Aurélie; Sitar, Sandra; Gordon, Ingelise J; Plummer, Sarah A; Holman, LaSonji A; Hendel, Cynthia S; Yamshchikov, Galina; Roman, Francois; Nicosia, Alfredo; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Bailer, Robert T; Schwartz, Richard M; Roederer, Mario; Mascola, John R; Koup, Richard A; Sullivan, Nancy J; Graham, Barney S

    2017-03-09

    The unprecedented 2014 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) prompted an international response to accelerate the availability of a preventive vaccine. A replication-defective recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored ebolavirus vaccine (cAd3-EBO), encoding the glycoprotein from Zaire and Sudan species, that offers protection in the nonhuman primate model, was rapidly advanced into phase 1 clinical evaluation. We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of cAd3-EBO. Twenty healthy adults, in sequentially enrolled groups of 10 each, received vaccination intramuscularly in doses of 2×10 10 particle units or 2×10 11 particle units. Primary and secondary end points related to safety and immunogenicity were assessed throughout the first 8 weeks after vaccination; in addition, longer-term vaccine durability was assessed at 48 weeks after vaccination. In this small study, no safety concerns were identified; however, transient fever developed within 1 day after vaccination in two participants who had received the 2×10 11 particle-unit dose. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were induced in all 20 participants; the titers were of greater magnitude in the group that received the 2×10 11 particle-unit dose than in the group that received the 2×10 10 particle-unit dose (geometric mean titer against the Zaire antigen at week 4, 2037 vs. 331; P=0.001). Glycoprotein-specific T-cell responses were more frequent among those who received the 2×10 11 particle-unit dose than among those who received the 2×10 10 particle-unit dose, with a CD4 response in 10 of 10 participants versus 3 of 10 participants (P=0.004) and a CD8 response in 7 of 10 participants versus 2 of 10 participants (P=0.07) at week 4. Assessment of the durability of the antibody response showed that titers remained high at week 48, with the highest titers in those who received the 2×10 11 particle-unit dose. Reactogenicity and immune responses to cAd3-EBO vaccine were dose-dependent. At

  14. The AL 333-160 fourth metatarsal from Hadar compared to that of humans, great apes, baboons and proboscis monkeys: non-conclusive evidence for pedal arches or obligate bipedality in Hadar hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P J; Sarmiento, E E; Meldrum, D J

    2012-10-01

    Based on comparisons to non-statistically representative samples of humans and two great ape species (i.e. common chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla), Ward et al. (2011) concluded that a complete hominin fourth metatarsal (4th MT) from Hadar, AL 333-160, belonged to a committed terrestrial biped with fixed transverse and longitudinal pedal arches, which was no longer under selection favoring substantial arboreal behaviors. According to Ward et al., the Hadar 4th MT had (1) a torsion value indicating a transverse arch, (2) sagittal plane angles between the diaphyseal long axis and the planes of the articular surfaces indicating a longitudinal arch, and (3) a narrow mediolateral to dorsoplantar base ratio, an ectocuneiform facet, and tarsal articular surface contours all indicating a rigid foot without an ape-like mid-tarsal break. Comparisons of the Hadar 4th MT characters to those of statistically representative samples of humans, all five great ape species, baboons and proboscis monkeys show that none of the correlations Ward et al. make to localized foot function were supported by this analysis. The Hadar 4th MT characters are common to catarrhines that have a midtarsal break and lack fixed transverse or longitudinal arches. Further comparison of the AL 333-160 4th MT length, and base, midshaft and head circumferences to those of catarrhines with field collected body weights show that this bone is uniquely short with a large base. Its length suggests the AL 333-160 individual was a poor leaper with limited arboreal behaviors and lacked a longitudinal arch, i.e. its 4th MT long axis was usually held perpendicular to gravity. Its large base implies cuboid-4th MT joint mobility. A relatively short 4th MT head circumference indicates AL 333-160 had small proximal phalanges with a restricted range of mobility. Overall, AL 333-160 is most similar to the 4th MT of eastern gorillas, a slow moving quadruped that sacrifices arboreal behaviors

  15. Food cleaning in gorillas: Social learning is a possibility but not a necessity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Neadle

    Full Text Available Food cleaning is widespread in the animal kingdom, and a recent report confirmed that (amongst other behaviours wild western lowland gorillas also show food cleaning. The authors of this report conclude that this behaviour, based on its distribution patterns, constitutes a potential candidate for culture. While different conceptualisations of culture exist, some more and some less reliant on behavioural form copying, all of them assign a special role to social learning processes in explaining potentially cultural behaviours. Here we report the results of an experiment that tested to what extent food cleaning behaviour in a group of captive Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla relies on social learning processes. Subjects were provided with clean and dirty apples. When they were provided with dirty apples, all subjects showed evidence of food cleaning in at least 75% of trials. Preferred cleaning techniques differed between individuals, four out of five of subjects expressed a behaviour analogous to that reported in wild conspecifics. Given this occurrence of food cleaning in a culturally unconnected population of gorillas, we conclude that social learning is unlikely to play a central role in the emergence of the food cleaning behavioural form in Western lowland gorillas; instead, placing a greater emphasis on individual learning of food cleaning's behavioural form.

  16. Mineral content as a basis for food selection by western lowland gorillas in a forest clearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Florence; Gautier-Hion, Annie

    2002-06-01

    The forests in northwest Republic of Congo contain a number of herbaceous swamp clearings that provide foraging sites for lowland gorillas (G.g. gorilla). A 10-month study at the Maya Nord clearing (Parc National d'Odzala) showed that feeding activities occupied 72% of the time visiting gorillas spent on the clearing. They fed on four plant species: Enydra fluctuans (Asteraceae), Cyperus sp., Pycreus mundtii, and Rhynchospora corymbosa (Cyperaceae) among the 45 species recorded on the clearing. These clearing food species have higher mineral contents (especially Na and Ca) than the dominant Marantaceae species (Haumania liebrechtsiana) that constituted a staple food plant for gorillas in this forest. They also have higher potassium contents and contain less lignin than non-eaten clearing items/species. Finally, the most actively searched for clearing food (Enydra fluctuans) was characterized by the highest amount of Na and Ca. These results suggest that the mineral content (especially in Na, Ca, and/or K) could determine the feeding selectivity of gorillas at the clearing. They also tend to confirm that the amount of fiber plays a deterrent role in food selectivity, as has been found by many authors. The high density of gorillas in that region could result from the combination of the large areas of Marantaceae forests that provide abundant though monotonous food, and the number of clearings that provide sufficient mineral supplies. Clearings should thus be considered as key habitats for the conservation of gorillas. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Responding to inequities: gorillas try to maintain their competitive advantage during play fights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Zimmermann, Elke; Ross, Marina Davila

    2011-02-23

    Humans respond to unfair situations in various ways. Experimental research has revealed that non-human species also respond to unequal situations in the form of inequity aversions when they have the disadvantage. The current study focused on play fights in gorillas to explore for the first time, to our knowledge, if/how non-human species respond to inequities in natural social settings. Hitting causes a naturally occurring inequity among individuals and here it was specifically assessed how the hitters and their partners engaged in play chases that followed the hitting. The results of this work showed that the hitters significantly more often moved first to run away immediately after the encounter than their partners. These findings provide evidence that non-human species respond to inequities by trying to maintain their competitive advantages. We conclude that non-human primates, like humans, may show different responses to inequities and that they may modify them depending on if they have the advantage or the disadvantage.

  18. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Rosenbaum

    Full Text Available Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females' social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2-3 years in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers' preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle.

  19. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stacy; Hirwa, Jean Paul; Silk, Joan B.; Vigilant, Linda; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund’s Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females’ social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2–3 years) in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers’ preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle. PMID:26863300

  20. Body growth and life history in wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Jordi; Abavandimwe, Didier; Vakiener, Meagan; Eckardt, Winnie; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Ndagijimana, Felix; Stoinski, Tara S; McFarlin, Shannon C

    2017-07-01

    Great apes show considerable diversity in socioecology and life history, but knowledge of their physical growth in natural settings is scarce. We characterized linear body size growth in wild mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, a population distinguished by its extreme folivory and accelerated life histories. In 131 individuals (0.09-35.26 years), we used non-invasive parallel laser photogrammetry to measure body length, back width, arm length and two head dimensions. Nonparametric LOESS regression was used to characterize cross-sectional distance and velocity growth curves for males and females, and consider links with key life history milestones. Sex differences became evident between 8.5 and 10.0 years of age. Thereafter, female growth velocities declined, while males showed increased growth velocities until 10.0-14.5 years across dimensions. Body dimensions varied in growth; females and males reached 98% of maximum body length at 11.7 and 13.1 years, respectively. Females attained 95.3% of maximum body length by mean age at first birth. Neonates were 31% of maternal size, and doubled in size by mean weaning age. Males reached maximum body and arm length and back width before emigration, but experienced continued growth in head dimensions. While comparable data are scarce, our findings provide preliminary support for the prediction that mountain gorillas reach maximum body size at earlier ages compared to more frugivorous western gorillas. Data from other wild populations are needed to better understand comparative great ape development, and investigate links between trajectories of physical, behavioral, and reproductive maturation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Snakes as hazards: modelling risk by chasing chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, William C

    2015-04-01

    Snakes are presumed to be hazards to primates, including humans, by the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell in J Hum Evol 51:1-35, 2006; Isbell, The fruit, the tree, and the serpent. Why we see so well, 2009). Quantitative, systematic data to test this idea are lacking for the behavioural ecology of living great apes and human foragers. An alternative proxy is snakes encountered by primatologists seeking, tracking, and observing wild chimpanzees. We present 4 years of such data from Mt. Assirik, Senegal. We encountered 14 species of snakes a total of 142 times. Almost two-thirds of encounters were with venomous snakes. Encounters occurred most often in forest and least often in grassland, and more often in the dry season. The hypothesis seems to be supported, if frequency of encounter reflects selective risk of morbidity or mortality.

  2. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Human APOBEC3C Enhances Restriction of Lentiviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina J Wittkopp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans express seven human APOBEC3 proteins, which can inhibit viruses and endogenous retroelements through cytidine deaminase activity. The seven paralogs differ in the potency of their antiviral effects, as well as in their antiviral targets. One APOBEC3, APOBEC3C, is exceptional as it has been found to only weakly block viruses and endogenous retroelements compared to other APOBEC3s. However, our positive selection analyses suggest that APOBEC3C has played a role in pathogen defense during primate evolution. Here, we describe a single nucleotide polymorphism in human APOBEC3C, a change from serine to isoleucine at position 188 (I188 that confers potent antiviral activity against HIV-1. The gain-of-function APOBEC3C SNP results in increased enzymatic activity and hypermutation of target sequences when tested in vitro, and correlates with increased dimerization of the protein. The I188 is widely distributed in human African populations, and is the ancestral primate allele, but is not found in chimpanzees or gorillas. Thus, while other hominids have lost activity of this antiviral gene, it has been maintained, or re-acquired, as a more active antiviral gene in a subset of humans. Taken together, our results suggest that APOBEC3C is in fact involved in protecting hosts from lentiviruses.

  3. Great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo abelii) follow visual trails to locate hidden food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2014-05-01

    Whether nonhuman primates understand causal relations beyond mere associations is still a matter of debate. We presented all four species of nonhuman great apes (N = 36) with a choice between 2 opaque, upside down cups after displacing them out of sight from their starting positions. Crucially, 1 of them had left a yogurt trail behind it. Great apes spontaneously used the trail to select the yogurt baited cup. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that chimpanzees distinguished trails based on the temporal order of cause and effect by ignoring trails that were already present before the reward was hidden. Additionally, chimpanzees did not select cups based on the amount of yogurt near them but instead preferred cups that signaled the endpoint of the trail. We conclude that apes' choices reveal sensitivity to a causal relation between cause (reward) and effect (trail) including their temporal order. ©2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Benito-Calvo

    Full Text Available Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry, and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils, which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  5. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  6. Integration of a hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infant into a social group of conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunström, Maria; Persson, Tomas; Björklund, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Rejections of infants among non-human primates occasionally occur in the wild as well as in captive settings. Controlled adoptions of orphans and introductions of individuals into new groups are therefore sometimes necessary in captivity. Consequently, behavioral research on integration procedures and on the acceptance of infants by adoptive mothers is much needed. In this study, the introduction and subsequent adoption were examined in an 18-month-old hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The infant was introduced into an age/sex-diversified social group of conspecifics at Furuvik Zoo, Gävle, Sweden, and continuous focal data was collected during the final stage of integration, including infant care exhibited by the group members and the infant's secure base behavior. The infant was successfully integrated into the group and engaged in positive social interactions with all group members. An adult primiparous female chimpanzee formed a bond resembling a mother-infant relationship with the infant, which continues to be maintained at publication. However, the female initially showed very limited interest in the infant. It was, in fact, two other younger female group members that exhibited most infant care. The infant's secure base behavior patterns indicate that she adapted well to the new circumstances in the chimpanzee group as the integration progressed. This provides evidence that a final adopter does not necessarily initially show maternal interest and that there can be flexibility in maternal behavior in adult chimpanzee females. Moreover, the methods applied employing gradual familiarization with all the group members and the use of an integration enclosure, may have contributed to a successful result. These findings extend our knowledge of introduction procedures in captivity as well as provide information on foster mother-infant attachment in chimpanzees.

  7. Genomic tools for evolution and conservation in the chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes ellioti is a genetically distinct population.

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    Rory Bowden

    Full Text Available In spite of its evolutionary significance and conservation importance, the population structure of the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, is still poorly understood. An issue of particular controversy is whether the proposed fourth subspecies of chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, from parts of Nigeria and Cameroon, is genetically distinct. Although modern high-throughput SNP genotyping has had a major impact on our understanding of human population structure and demographic history, its application to ecological, demographic, or conservation questions in non-human species has been extremely limited. Here we apply these tools to chimpanzee population structure, using ∼700 autosomal SNPs derived from chimpanzee genomic data and a further ∼100 SNPs from targeted re-sequencing. We demonstrate conclusively the existence of P. t. ellioti as a genetically distinct subgroup. We show that there is clear differentiation between the verus, troglodytes, and ellioti populations at the SNP and haplotype level, on a scale that is greater than that separating continental human populations. Further, we show that only a small set of SNPs (10-20 is needed to successfully assign individuals to these populations. Tellingly, use of only mitochondrial DNA variation to classify individuals is erroneous in 4 of 54 cases, reinforcing the dangers of basing demographic inference on a single locus and implying that the demographic history of the species is more complicated than that suggested analyses based solely on mtDNA. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of developing economical and robust tests of individual chimpanzee origin as well as in-depth studies of population structure. These findings have important implications for conservation strategies and our understanding of the evolution of chimpanzees. They also act as a proof-of-principle for the use of cheap high-throughput genomic methods for ecological questions.

  8. Preliminary Insights into the Impact of Dietary Starch on the Ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in Captive Chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schovancová, K.; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Procházka, Petr; Modrý, David; Bolechová, P.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013), e81374 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0300 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Balantidium coli * nonstrach polysaccharides * lowland gorillas * resistant strach * evolution * infection * parasites * humans Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; EG - Zoology (UBO-W) Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  9. The importance of history in definitions of culture: Implications from phylogenetic approaches to the study of social learning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J

    2010-08-01

    Some have claimed that wild chimpanzees possess multiple socially learned traditions that might constitute cultural patterns. Others, however, have suggested that even fundamental alternative explanations, such as proximate genetic mechanisms, have not been addressed satisfactorily. Multiple analyses using phylogenetic (cladistic) methods, however, have been shown not to support the genetic proposition. Rather, such analyses are more consistent with the growing body of evidence from studies of both wild and captive animals suggesting that behavioral patterns in wild chimpanzees are socially learned. The question remains, however, as to whether, from a scientific viewpoint, it is useful to term such patterns cultural. It is argued here that cultural mosaics of multiple behaviors that differ intercommunally, both in humans and chimpanzees, are an emergent property of a phylogenetic (i.e., historical) process of descent with modification, mediated by mechanisms of social transmission, variation, and sorting through time. This historical perspective is productive when attempting to consider the phenomenon of culture across species.

  10. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steve

    2014-01-01

    -reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain......Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment...... and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46...

  11. A newborn infant chimpanzee snatched and cannibalized immediately after birth: Implications for "maternity leave" in wild chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Hitonaru; Nakamura, Michio

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate "maternity leave" from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery. The subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. The case of cannibalism was observed on December 2, 2014. We used the long-term daily attendance record of the M group chimpanzees between 1990 and 2010 to calculate the lengths of "maternity leave," a perinatal period during which a mother chimpanzee tends to hide herself and gives birth alone. We observed a very rare case of delivery in a wild chimpanzee group. A female chimpanzee gave birth in front of other members, and an adult male snatched and cannibalized the newborn infant immediately after birth. Using the long-term data, we demonstrate that the length of "maternity leave" is longer than that of nonmaternity leave among adult and adolescent female chimpanzees. We argue that this cannibalism event immediately after birth occurred due to the complete lack of "maternity leave" of the mother chimpanzee of the victim, who might lack enough experience of delivery. We suggest that "maternity leave" taken by expecting mothers may function as a possible counterstrategy against infanticide soon after delivery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther H D Carlitz

    Full Text Available Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in c