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Sample records for human cervicovaginal mucus

  1. The microstructure and bulk rheology of human cervicovaginal mucus are remarkably resistant to changes in pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K; Ensign, Laura M; Zhong, Weixi; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-12-09

    The protective barrier, lubricant, and clearance functions of mucus are intimately coupled to its microstructure and bulk rheology. Mucus gels consist of a network of mucin biopolymers along with lipids, salts, and other proteins and exhibit similar biochemical and physical properties across diverse mucosal surfaces. Nevertheless, mucus is exposed to a broad range of pH values throughout the human body. Protein functions are typically sensitive to small changes in pH, and prior investigations using reconstituted, purified mucin gels suggested mucus undergoes a transition from a low-viscosity liquid at neutral pH to a highly viscoelastic solid at low pH. We sought to determine whether those observations hold for fresh, minimally perturbed human mucus ex vivo by using different-sized muco-inert nanoparticles to probe microstructure and cone-and-plate rheometry to measure bulk rheology. We demonstrate that both the microstructure and bulk rheology of fresh, undiluted, and minimally perturbed cervicovaginal mucus exhibit relatively minor changes from pH 1-2 to 8-9, in marked contrast with the pH sensitivity of purified mucin gels. Our work also suggests additional components in mucus secretions, typically eliminated during mucin purification and reconstitution, may play an important role in maintaining the protective properties of mucus.

  2. The Microstructure and Bulk Rheology of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus are Remarkably Resistant to Changes in pH

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K.; Ensign, Laura; Zhong, Weixi; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The protective barrier, lubricant and clearance functions of mucus are intimately coupled to its microstructure and bulk rheology. Mucus gels consist of a network of mucin biopolymers along with lipids, salts and other proteins, and exhibit similar biochemical and physical properties across diverse mucosal surfaces. Nevertheless, mucus is exposed to a broad range of pH throughout the human body. Protein functions are typically sensitive to small changes in pH, and prior investigations using r...

  3. Oestrus synchronisation and superovulation alter the production and biochemical constituents of ovine cervicovaginal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Jessie W; Rickard, Jessica P; Mooney, Ethan; Bernecic, Naomi C; Soleilhavoup, Clement; Tsikis, Guillaume; Druart, Xavier; Leahy, Tamara; de Graaf, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Controlled breeding programmes utilising exogenous hormones are common in the Australian sheep industry, however the effects of such programmes on cervicovaginal mucus properties are lacking. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate cervicovaginal (CV) mucus from naturally cycling (NAT), progesterone synchronised (P4), prostaglandin synchronised (PGF2α), and superovulated (SOV) Merino ewes. Experiment 1; volume, colour, spinnbarkeit, chemical profile and protein concentration of mucus (NAT, P4, PGF2α and SOV; n=5 ewes/treatment) during the follicular (5 d) and luteal phases (8 d) was investigated. Experiment 2; in vivo mucus pH and in vitro mucus penetration by frozen-thawed spermatozoa (NAT, P4 and SOV; n=11 ewes/treatment) was investigated over oestrus (2 d) and the mid-luteal phase (pH only, 2 d). Oestrus mucus was more abundant, clearer in colour and less proteinaceous than luteal phase mucus (p0.05). Results indicate that exogenous hormones used for controlled breeding affect cervicovaginal mucus production, but few other tested characteristics. Further research is required to explain fertility differences between synchronised and naturally cycling animals following cervical AI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling of Virion Collisions in Cervicovaginal Mucus Reveals Limits on Agglutination as the Protective Mechanism of Secretory Immunoglobulin A.

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    Chen, Alex; McKinley, Scott A; Shi, Feng; Wang, Simi; Mucha, Peter J; Harit, Dimple; Forest, M Gregory; Lai, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), a dimeric antibody found in high quantities in the gastrointestinal mucosa, is broadly associated with mucosal immune protection. A distinguishing feature of sIgA is its ability to crosslink pathogens, thereby creating pathogen/sIgA aggregates that are too large to traverse the dense matrix of mucin fibers in mucus layers overlying epithelial cells and consequently reducing infectivity. Here, we use modeling to investigate this mechanism of "immune exclusion" based on sIgA-mediated agglutination, in particular the potential use of sIgA to agglutinate HIV in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and prevent HIV transmission. Utilizing reported data on HIV diffusion in CVM and semen, we simulate HIV collision kinetics in physiologically-thick mucus layers-a necessary first step for sIgA-induced aggregation. We find that even at the median HIV load in semen of acutely infected individuals possessing high viral titers, over 99% of HIV virions will penetrate CVM and reach the vaginal epithelium without colliding with another virion. These findings imply that agglutination is unlikely to be the dominant mechanism of sIgA-mediated protection against HIV or other sexually transmitted pathogens. Rather, we surmise that agglutination is most effective against pathogens either present at exceedingly high concentrations or that possess motility mechanisms other than Brownian diffusion that significantly enhance encounter rates.

  5. Endometritis Increases Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Follicular Fluid and Cervico-vaginal Mucus in the Buffalo Cow.

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    Boby, Jones; Kumar, Harendra; Gupta, Harihar Prasad; Jan, Mustapha Hussain; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Patra, Manas Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb; Abraham, Asha; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2016-11-17

    Emerging evidence shows that some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated not only in the endometrium but also in the follicular fluid of cows with endometritis. Developing a cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) based test has the potential for becoming a pen-side test because of the ease of sample collection. The present study describes the results of two different experiments. The first experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of endometritis on the proinflammatory cytokines of follicular fluid based on the reproductive tracts of buffalo collected at a slaughter house Buffalo genitalia were categorized into purulent endometritis (PE), cytological endometritis (CE), and non-endometritis (NE) based on the white-side test and endometrial cytology, respectively (n = 14/group). Each group was subdivided into follicular and mid-luteal stage (n = 7/stage) and the follicular fluid was collected from the largest follicle. Second experiment was done to study the difference in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the CVM of repeat breeders with subclinical endometritis presented to the clinic. CVM was collected from the repeaters (n = 10) and non-repeaters (n = 10) through aseptic trans-vaginal aspiration. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were quantitated through bovine specific ELISA kits. Significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα) along with low intra-follicular estradiol in buffaloes of PE and CE groups suggest that endometritis impedes the follicular steroidogenesis. Significantly higher concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in the CVM of repeaters indicate their potential as a pen-side diagnostic test for CE.

  6. Antibacterial activity of human cervical mucus.

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    Zuckerman, H; Kahana, A; Carmel, S

    1975-01-01

    The antimicrobial property of human uterine cervical mucus was tested in three groups of women. Healthy women, using no contraception, women using an intrauterine device and women receiving hormonal treatment for contraception. Cervical mucus was taken on the 10th, 14th, 18th and 22nd day of the menstrual cycle. Cervical mucus had a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Micrococcus lysodeicticus in all three groups. The strength of the inhibitory effect on the other microorganisms were in the following order: Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus faecalis. Use of an intrauterine device did not affect the antimicrobial effect of cervical mucus. The use of hormonal contraceptive canceled the antimicrobial effect on the series of microorganisms, with the exception of M. lysodeicticus. The maximum inhibitory effect occurred on the 14th day and declined toward the end of the menstrual cycle.

  7. Human cervicovaginal fluid biomarkers to predict term and preterm labor

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    Heng, Yujing J.; Liong, Stella; Permezel, Michael; Rice, Gregory E.; Di Quinzio, Megan K. W.; Georgiou, Harry M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB; birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The current generation of biomarkers predictive of PTB have limited utility. In pregnancy, the human cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) proteome is a reflection of the local biochemical milieu and is influenced by the physical changes occurring in the vagina, cervix and adjacent overlying fetal membranes. Term and preterm labor (PTL) share common pathways of cervical ripening, myometrial activation and fetal membranes rupture leading to birth. We therefore hypothesize that CVF biomarkers predictive of labor may be similar in both the term and preterm labor setting. In this review, we summarize some of the existing published literature as well as our team's breadth of work utilizing the CVF for the discovery and validation of putative CVF biomarkers predictive of human labor. Our team established an efficient method for collecting serial CVF samples for optimal 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis resolution and analysis. We first embarked on CVF biomarker discovery for the prediction of spontaneous onset of term labor using 2D-electrophoresis and solution array multiple analyte profiling. 2D-electrophoretic analyses were subsequently performed on CVF samples associated with PTB. Several proteins have been successfully validated and demonstrate that these biomarkers are associated with term and PTL and may be predictive of both term and PTL. In addition, the measurement of these putative biomarkers was found to be robust to the influences of vaginal microflora and/or semen. The future development of a multiple biomarker bed-side test would help improve the prediction of PTB and the clinical management of patients. PMID:26029118

  8. Papillomavirus in cervicovaginal smears of women infected with human immunodefficiency virus

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    Edenilson Eduardo Galore

    Full Text Available It has been described that women infected with the human immunodeffciency virus (HIV present more frequent cytological abnormalities in cervicovaginal smears, generally related to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV. The present work is a study of cervicovaginal smears of 147 HIV-seropositive women submitted to routine gynecological examinations. The smears were stained by the Papanicolaou method. Cytopathic effects of HPV were found in 38 (25.8% cases. Nuclear atypias of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were evident in 36 (24.5% of these cases: 27 (18.4%, CIN I; 6 (4.0%, CIN II and 3 (2.0% CIN III. Also 2 (1.4% invasive carcinomas and one (0.7% endocervical dysplasia were found. Other agents observed were: Candida sp, 19 (12.9% cases, Gardnerella vaginalis, 19 (12.9%, Trichomonas vaginalis, 13 (8.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis 5 (3.4%, Mobiluncus sp 2 (1.4% and Herpes simplex virus 1 (0.7%. This study emphasizes the high frequency of HPV/CIN cervicovaginal abnormalities in HIV-seropositive in our population. It is possible that immunological factors and sexual promiscuity are involved in this phenomenon.

  9. Thermosensitive and mucoadhesive pluronic-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose hydrogel containing the mini-CD4 M48U1 is a promising efficient barrier against HIV diffusion through macaque cervicovaginal mucus.

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    Bouchemal, Kawthar; Aka-Any-Grah, Armelle; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Martin, Loïc; Lievin-Le-Moal, Vanessa; Le Grand, Roger; Nicolas, Valérie; Gibellini, Davide; Lembo, David; Poüs, Christian; Koffi, Armand; Ponchel, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    To be efficient, vaginal microbicide hydrogels should form a barrier against viral infections and prevent virus spreading through mucus. Multiple particle tracking was used to quantify the mobility of 170-nm fluorescently labeled COOH-modified polystyrene particles (COOH-PS) into thermosensitive hydrogels composed of amphiphilic triblock copolymers with block compositions EOn-POm-EOn (where EO refers to ethylene oxide and PO to propylene oxide) containing mucoadhesive hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). COOH-PS were used to mimic the size and the surface charge of HIV-1. Analysis of COOH-PS trajectories showed that particle mobility was decreased by Pluronic hydrogels in comparison with cynomolgus macaque cervicovaginal mucus and hydroxyethylcellulose hydrogel (HEC; 1.5% by weight [wt%]) used as negative controls. Formulation of the peptide mini-CD4 M48U1 used as an anti-HIV-1 molecule into a mixture of Pluronic F127 (20 wt%) and HPMC (1 wt%) did not affect its anti-HIV-1 activity in comparison with HEC hydrogel. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.53 μg/ml (0.17 μM) for M48U1-HEC and 0.58 μg/ml (0.19 μM) for M48U1-F127-HPMC. The present work suggests that hydrogels composed of F127-HPMC (20/1 wt%, respectively) can be used to create an efficient barrier against particle diffusion in comparison to conventional HEC hydrogels.

  10. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting for the detection of Campylobacter fetus immunoglobulins in the cervico-vaginal mucus of female cattle

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    A.O. Pellegrin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect antigen-specific secretory IgA antibodies to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in bovine vaginal mucus with a protein extract of the Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis by the acid glycine extraction method. Mean optical density measurement (λ=450 nm was 0.143±0.9. The most immunoreactive protein bands of the Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis or Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus recognized by IgA in immunoblotting, using bovine vaginal mucus samples, migrate at 42.6 kDa. The protein that migrates at 93 kDa was recognized exclusively for C. fetus subsp. venerealis. A positive vaginal mucus sample of a cow from negative herd recognized antigens of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni e C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  11. Human intestinal mucus proteins isolated by transanal irrigation and proctosigmoidoscopy

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    Paola Andrea Gómez Buitrago

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal mucus essentially consistsof a network of Mucin2 glycoproteinsembedded in many lower molecularweight proteins. This paper contributes tothe proteomic study of human intestinalmucus by comparing two sample collectionmethods (transanal irrigation and brushcytology during proctosigmoidoscopy andanalysis techniques (electrophoresis anddigestion in solution. The entire samplecollection and treatment process is explained,including protein extraction, digestion anddesalination and peptide characterisationusing a nanoAcquity UPLC chromatographcoupled to an HDMS spectrometer equippedwith a nanoESI source. Collecting mucus viatransanal irrigation provided a larger samplevolume and protein concentration from asingle patient. The proctosigmoidoscopysample could be analysed via digestion insolution after depleting albumin. The analysisindicates that a simple mucus lysis methodcan evaluate the electrophoresis and digestionin solution techniques. Studying humanintestinal mucus complexes is importantbecause they perform two essential survivalfunctions for humans as the first biochemicaland physical defences for the gastrointestinaltract and a habitat for intestinal microbiota,which are primarily hosted in the colon andexceeds the human genetic information andcell number 100- and 10-fold (1.

  12. Imaging and tracking HIV viruses in human cervical mucus

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    Boukari, Fatima; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Nossal, Ralph; Boukari, Hacène

    2016-09-01

    We describe a systematic approach to image, track, and quantify the movements of HIV viruses embedded in human cervical mucus. The underlying motivation for this study is that, in HIV-infected adults, women account for more than half of all new cases and most of these women acquire the infection through heterosexual contact. The endocervix is believed to be a susceptible site for HIV entry. Cervical mucus, which coats the endocervix, should play a protective role against the viruses. Thus, we developed a methodology to apply time-resolved confocal microscopy to examine the motion of HIV viruses that were added to samples of untreated cervical mucus. From the images, we identified the viruses, tracked them over time, and calculated changes of the statistical mean-squared displacement (MSD) of each virus. Approximately half of tracked viruses appear constrained while the others show mobility with MSDs that are proportional to τα+ν2τ2, over time range τ, depicting a combination of anomalous diffusion (0<α<0.4) and flow-like behavior. The MSD data also reveal plateaus attributable to possible stalling of the viruses. Although a more extensive study is warranted, these results support the assumption of mucus being a barrier against the motion of these viruses.

  13. Tracing molecular and structural changes upon mucolysis with N-acetyl cysteine in human airway mucus.

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    Vukosavljevic, Branko; Murgia, Xabier; Schwarzkopf, Konrad; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Windbergs, Maike

    2017-07-11

    The conducting airways of the human lungs are lined by mucus, which lubricates the lung epithelium and provides a first-line protection against airborne threats. As a novel approach for visualization of the human mucus microstructure, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a label-free and chemically selective technique. We were successfully able to chemically resolve the pulmonary surfactant from the mucus matrix and show its spatial distribution, as well as to visualize the structural changes within the freeze-dried mucus mesh upon chemical mucolysis. Subsequently, we performed rheological measurements before and after mucolysis and correlated morphology and chemical structure of the mucus with its rheological characteristics. These results do not only enrich the knowledge about the mucus microstructure, but can also, significantly contribute to rational development of future lung therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analyses of human colonic mucus obtained by an in vivo sampling technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, H.M.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Loof, A.; Houtvin, S.A.L.W. van; Troost, F.J.; Venema, K.; Kodde, A.; Koek, G.H.; Schipper, R.G.; Heerde, W.L. van; Brummer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The mucus layer is an important dynamic component of the epithelial barrier. It contains mucin glycoproteins and other compounds secreted by the intestinal epithelium, such as secretory IgA. However, a standardized in vivo sampling technique of mucus in humans is not yet available. Aim:

  15. Identification of protein biomarkers for cervical cancer using human cervicovaginal fluid.

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    Geert A A Van Raemdonck

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cervicovaginal fluid (CVF can be considered as a potential source of biomarkers for diseases of the lower female reproductive tract. The fluid can easily be collected, thereby offering new opportunities such as the development of self tests. Our objective was to identify a CVF protein biomarker for cervical cancer or its precancerous state. METHODS: A differential proteomics study was set up using CVF samples from healthy and precancerous women. Label-free spectral counting was applied to quantify protein abundances. RESULTS: The proteome analysis revealed 16 candidate biomarkers of which alpha-actinin-4 (p = 0.001 and pyruvate kinase isozyme M1/M2 (p = 0.014 were most promising. Verification of alpha-actinin-4 by ELISA (n = 28 showed that this candidate biomarker discriminated between samples from healthy and both low-risk and high-risk HPV-infected women (p = 0.009. Additional analysis of longitudinal samples (n = 29 showed that alpha-actinin-4 levels correlated with virus persistence and clearing, with a discrimination of approximately 18 pg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that CVF is an excellent source of protein biomarkers for detection of lower female genital tract pathologies and that alpha-actinin-4 derived from CVF is a promising candidate biomarker for the precancerous state of cervical cancer. Further studies regarding sensitivity and specificity of this biomarker will demonstrate its utility for improving current screening programs and/or its use for a cervical cancer self-diagnosis test.

  16. Interaction of Campylobacter spp. and human probiotics in chicken intestinal mucus.

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    Ganan, M; Martinez-Rodriguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V; Vesterlund, S; Salminen, S; Satokari, R

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. The principal risk of human contamination is handling and consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To colonize poultry, Campylobacter adheres to and persists in the mucus layer that covers the intestinal epithelium. Inhibiting adhesion to the mucus could prevent colonization of the intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the protective effect of defined commercial human probiotic strains on the adhesion of Campylobacter spp. to chicken intestinal mucus, in a search for alternatives to antibiotics to control this food-borne pathogen. The probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and a starter culture strain Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis adhered well to chicken intestinal mucus and were able to reduce the binding of Campylobacter spp. when the mucus was colonized with the probiotic strain before contacting the pathogen. Human-intended probiotics could be useful as prophylactics in poultry feeding for controlling Campylobacter spp. colonization. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effects of mucokinetic drugs on rheological properties of reconstituted human nasal mucus.

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    Rhee, C S; Majima, Y; Cho, J S; Arima, S; Min, Y G; Sakakura, Y

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the effects of mucokinetic drugs on the rheological properties of human nasal mucus in patients with chronic sinusitis. We reconstituted human nasal mucus obtained from 74 patients with chronic sinusitis and determined the effects of 4 mucokinetic drugs, including acetylcysteine, deoxynuclease I, 2% sodium bicarbonate, and a combination product containing tyloxapol (Alevaire), on rheological properties of reconstituted human nasal mucus (RHNM). We used 5% RHNM dissolved in phosphate-buffered solution as the optimal buffer and concentration of RHNM for the study because it showed a viscoelastic response similar to that of freshly collected nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis. Four experiments were performed to determine the influence of each drug on dynamic viscosity and elasticity of 5% RHNM. Distilled water was used as a control. Acetylcysteine and deoxynuclease I significantly decreased both dynamic viscosity and elastic modulus, while distilled water had no effect on rheological properties of 5% RHNM in vitro. Alevaire significantly reduced both dynamic viscosity and elastic modulus. Sodium bicarbonate significantly reduced elastic modulus but not dynamic viscosity. Reduction of elastic modulus by Alevaire was significantly greater than that by sodium bicarbonate, while there was no difference in reduction of dynamic viscosity between them. Our results indicate that RHNM may be useful for studying the topical effects of various drugs on nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis.

  18. Dexamethasone and N-acetyl-cysteine attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced mucus expression in human airways.

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    Sprenger, Lisa; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Steffen, Armin; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter; Hauber, Hans-Peter

    2011-04-01

    Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) induces mucus hypersecretion in airways. Therapeutic options to attenuate excessive mucus expression are sparse. To investigate the effect of steroids and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) on PA-induced mucus expression. Calu-3 cells and explanted human mucosa from the upper airways were stimulated with either PA, lipopolysaccharide from alginate producing PA (smooth, sPA-LPS) or non-alginate producing PA (rough, rPA-LPS). Dexamethasone (DEX) and NAC were added in different concentrations. Expression of mucin (MUC5AC) gene and mucin protein expression was quantified using PAS (periodic acids Schiff) staining and real time PCR. PA, sPA-LPS or rPA-LPS significantly induced mucin protein and MUC5AC gene expression in Calu-3 cells and explanted mucosal tissue (P NAC significantly decreased PA-, sPA-LPS- and rPA-LPS-induced mucin protein expression both in vitro and ex vivo (P 0.05). Our data show that both an anti-inflammatory drug (DEX) and an anti-oxidative agent (NAC) can attenuate PA-induced mucus expression in human airways. These results support the use of steroids and NAC in clinical practice to treat PA-induced mucus hypersecretion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree

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    Mauroy, Benjamin; Fausser, Christian; Pelca, Dominique; Merckx, Jacques; Flaud, Patrice

    2011-10-01

    Mucociliary clearance and cough are the two main natural mucus draining methods in the bronchial tree. If they are affected by a pathology, they can become insufficient or even ineffective, then therapeutic draining of mucus plays a critical role to keep mucus levels in the lungs acceptable. The manipulations of physical therapists are known to be very efficient clinically but they are mostly empirical since the biophysical mechanisms involved in these manipulations have never been studied. We develop in this work a model of mucus clearance in idealized rigid human bronchial trees and focus our study on the interaction between (1) tree geometry, (2) mucus physical properties and (3) amplitude of flow rate in the tree. The mucus is considered as a Bingham fluid (gel-like) which is moved upward in the tree thanks to its viscous interaction with air flow. Our studies point out the important roles played both by the geometry and by the physical properties of mucus (yield stress and viscosity). More particularly, the yield stress has to be overcome to make mucus flow. Air flow rate and yield stress determine the maximal possible mucus thickness in each branch of the tree at equilibrium. This forms a specific distribution of mucus in the tree whose characteristics are strongly related to the multi-scaled structure of the tree. The behavior of any mucus distribution is then dependent on this distribution. Finally, our results indicate that increasing air flow rates ought to be more efficient to drain mucus out of the bronchial tree while minimizing patient discomfort.

  20. Proteomic analysis of pure human airway gland mucus reveals a large component of protective proteins.

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    Nam Soo Joo

    Full Text Available Airway submucosal glands contribute to innate immunity and protect the lungs by secreting mucus, which is required for mucociliary clearance and which also contains antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proteolytic and anti-oxidant proteins. We stimulated glands in tracheal trimmings from three lung donors and collected droplets of uncontaminated mucus as they formed at the gland orifices under an oil layer. We analyzed the mucus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Analysis identified 5486 peptides and 441 proteins from across the 3 samples (269-319 proteins per subject. We focused on 269 proteins common to at least 2 0f 3 subjects, of which 102 (38% had protective or innate immunity functions. While many of these have long been known to play such roles, for many others their cellular protective functions have only recently been appreciated in addition to their well-studied biologic functions (e.g. annexins, apolipoproteins, gelsolin, hemoglobin, histones, keratins, and lumican. A minority of the identified proteins are known to be secreted via conventional exocytosis, suggesting that glandular secretion occurs via multiple mechanisms. Two of the observed protective proteins, major vault protein and prohibitin, have not been observed in fluid from human epithelial cultures or in fluid from nasal or bronchoalveolar lavage. Further proteomic analysis of pure gland mucus may help clarify how healthy airways maintain a sterile environment.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein.

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    Kankainen, Matti; Paulin, Lars; Tynkkynen, Soile; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Partanen, Pasi; Satokari, Reetta; Vesterlund, Satu; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; Hämäläinen, Tuula; Laukkanen, Suvi; Salovuori, Noora; Ritari, Jarmo; Alatalo, Edward; Korpela, Riitta; Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina; Lassig, Anna; Hatakka, Katja; Kinnunen, Katri T; Karjalainen, Heli; Saxelin, Maija; Laakso, Kati; Surakka, Anu; Palva, Airi; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Auvinen, Petri; de Vos, Willem M

    2009-10-06

    To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence identity and synteny. However, for both strains, genomic islands, 5 in GG and 4 in LC705, punctuated the colinearity. A significant number of strain-specific genes were predicted in these islands (80 in GG and 72 in LC705). The GG-specific islands included genes coding for bacteriophage components, sugar metabolism and transport, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. One island only found in L. rhamnosus GG contained genes for 3 secreted LPXTG-like pilins (spaCBA) and a pilin-dedicated sortase. Using anti-SpaC antibodies, the physical presence of cell wall-bound pili was confirmed by immunoblotting. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the SpaC pilin is located at the pilus tip but also sporadically throughout the structure. Moreover, the adherence of strain GG to human intestinal mucus was blocked by SpaC antiserum and abolished in a mutant carrying an inactivated spaC gene. Similarly, binding to mucus was demonstrated for the purified SpaC protein. We conclude that the presence of SpaC is essential for the mucus interaction of L. rhamnosus GG and likely explains its ability to persist in the human intestinal tract longer than LC705 during an intervention trial. The presence of mucus-binding pili on the surface of a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterial strain reveals a previously undescribed mechanism for the interaction of selected probiotic lactobacilli with host tissues.

  2. Correlation between levels of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Tino F; Kocken, Mariëlle; Petäjä, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    This pooled analysis of data from four Phase III clinical trials was undertaken to assess the correlation between levels of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Serum...

  3. A poly(ethylene glycol)-based surfactant for formulation of drug-loaded mucus penetrating particles.

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    Mert, Olcay; Lai, Samuel K; Ensign, Laura; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ying-Ying; Wood, Joseph; Hanes, Justin

    2012-02-10

    Mucosal surfaces are protected by a highly viscoelastic and adhesive mucus layer that traps most foreign particles, including conventional drug and gene carriers. Trapped particles are eliminated on the order of seconds to hours by mucus clearance mechanisms, precluding sustained and targeted drug and nucleic acid delivery to mucosal tissues. We have previously shown that polymeric coatings that minimize adhesive interactions with mucus constituents lead to particles that rapidly penetrate human mucus secretions. Nevertheless, a particular challenge in formulating drug-loaded mucus penetrating particles (MPP) is that many commonly used surfactants are either mucoadhesive, or do not facilitate efficient drug encapsulation. We tested a novel surfactant molecule for particle formulation composed of Vitamin E conjugated to 5 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (VP5k). We show that VP5k-coated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus, whereas PLGA nanoparticles coated with polyvinyl alcohol or Vitamin E conjugated to 1 kDa PEG were trapped. Importantly, VP5k facilitated high loading of paclitaxel, a frontline chemo drug, into PLGA MPP, with controlled release for at least 4 days and negligible burst release. Our results offer a promising new method for engineering biodegradable, drug-loaded MPP for sustained and targeted delivery of therapeutics at mucosal surfaces.

  4. Use of cervicovaginal fluid for the identification of biomarkers for pathologies of the female genital tract

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    Tjalma Wiebren AA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervicovaginal fluid has an important function in the homeostasis and immunity of the lower female genital tract. Analysis of the cervicovaginal fluid proteome may therefore yield important information about the pathogenesis of numerous gynecological pathologies. Additionally, cervicovaginal fluid has great potential as a source of biomarkers for these conditions. This review provides a detailed discussion about the human cervicovaginal proteome and the proteomics studies performed to characterize this biological fluid. Furthermore, infection-correlated pathological conditions of the female genital tract are discussed for which cervicovaginal fluid has been used in order to identify potential biomarkers. Recent years, numerous studies have analyzed cervicovaginal fluid samples utilizing antibody-based technologies, such as ELISA or Western blotting, to identify biomarkers for preterm birth, premature preterm rupture of membranes, bacterial vaginosis and cervical cancer. The present article will discuss the importance of proteomic technologies as alternative techniques to gain additional meaningful information about these conditions. In addition, the review focuses on recent proteomic studies on cervicovaginal fluid samples for the identification of potential biomarkers. We conclude that the use of proteomic technology for analysis of human cervicovaginal fluid samples is promising and may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers which can improve disease prevention and therapy development.

  5. The use of hens' egg white as a substitute for human cervical mucus in assessing human infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert-Kruse, W; Gerhard, I; Tilgen, W; Runnebaum, B

    1990-08-01

    Semen samples from 179 patients with longstanding infertility were allowed to penetrate capillaries filled with a fraction of fresh hens' egg white (HEW) as a substitute for cervical mucus (CM) for the in-vitro sperm-cervical mucus penetration test (SCPMT). Results were correlated with those obtained from human CM (HCM) used in parallel on the same semen sample, compared to results of sperm analysis and post-coital testing (PCT) and analysed for their prognostic value for a subsequent pregnancy in a prospective study. The overall pregnancy rate after 6 months was 26.3% (47/179). Whereas routine semen analysis (semen volume, pH, sperm count, progressive motility, morphology and fructose concentration) did not differentiate between patients who achieved pregnancy and those who did not, significant differences were found for the penetration distance (P less than 0.02) and the motility grade of sperm in HEW (P less than 0.02). Although the mean sperm velocity in HEW was reduced compared to HCM, a close positive correlation was found between the sperm density and the penetration distance (P less than 0.001). The percentage of samples with good HEW penetration increased significantly in parallel with better results of post-coital testing (P less than 0.001). The results indicate that, when fresh human CM is not available, HEW can be used as a medium for the SCPMT as a valuable adjunct to semen analysis which provides information about sperm functional capacity.

  6. In Vitro Exposure to PC-1005 and Cervicovaginal Lavage Fluid from Women Vaginally Administered PC-1005 Inhibits HIV-1 and HSV-2 Infection in Human Cervical Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Guillermo; Calenda, Giulia; Zhang, Shimin; Mizenina, Olga; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Cooney, Michael L; Hoesley, Craig J; Creasy, George W; Friedland, Barbara; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia

    2016-09-01

    Our recent phase 1 trial demonstrated that PC-1005 gel containing 50 μM MIV-150, 14 mM zinc acetate dihydrate, and carrageenan (CG) applied daily vaginally for 14 days is safe and well tolerated. Importantly, cervicovaginal lavage fluid samples (CVLs) collected 4 or 24 h after the last gel application inhibited HIV-1 and human papillomavirus (HPV) in cell-based assays in a dose-dependent manner (MIV-150 for HIV-1 and CG for HPV). Herein we aimed to determine the anti-HIV and anti-herpes simplex virus 2 (anti-HSV-2) activity of PC-1005 in human cervical explants after in vitro exposure to the gel and to CVLs from participants in the phase 1 trial. Single HIV-1BaL infection and HIV-1BaL-HSV-2 coinfection explant models were utilized. Coinfection with HSV-2 enhanced tissue HIV-1BaL infection. In vitro exposure to PC-1005 protected cervical mucosa against HIV-1BaL (up to a 1:300 dilution) in single-challenge and cochallenge models. CG gel (PC-525) provided some barrier effect against HIV-1BaL at the 1:100 dilution in a single-challenge model but not in the cochallenge model. Both PC-1005 and PC-525 at the 1:100 dilution inhibited HSV-2 infection, pointing to a CG-mediated protection. MIV-150 and CG in CVLs inhibited HIV (single-challenge or cochallenge models) and HSV-2 infections in explants in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Stronger inhibition of HIV-1 infection by CVLs collected 4 h after the last gel administration was observed compared to infection detected in the presence of baseline CVLs. The anti-HIV and anti-HSV-2 activity of PC-1005 gel in vitro and CVLs in human ectocervical explants supports the further development of PC-1005 gel as a broad-spectrum on-demand microbicide.

  7. The inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 activity by crude and purified human pregnancy plug mucus and mucins in an inhibition assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeman Leann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female reproductive tract is amongst the main routes for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission. Cervical mucus however is known to protect the female reproductive tract from bacterial invasion and fluid loss and regulates and facilitates sperm transport to the upper reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize pregnancy plug mucins and determine their anti-HIV-1 activity in an HIV inhibition assay. Methods Pregnancy plug mucins were purified by caesium chloride density-gradient ultra-centrifugation and characterized by Western blotting analysis. The anti-HIV-1 activities of the crude pregnancy plug mucus and purified pregnancy plug mucins was determined by incubating them with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells. Results The pregnancy plug mucus had MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that while the purified pregnancy plug mucins inhibit HIV-1 activity by approximately 97.5%, the crude pregnancy plug mucus failed to inhibit HIV-1 activity. Conclusion Although it is not clear why the crude sample did not inhibit HIV-1 activity, it may be that the amount of mucins in the crude pregnancy plug mucus (which contains water, mucins, lipids, nucleic acids, lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins and ions, is insufficient to cause viral inhibition or aggregation.

  8. Mechanism of Human Influenza Virus RNA Persistence and Virion Survival in Feces: Mucus Protects Virions From Acid and Digestive Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Ryohei; Nakaya, Takaaki; Naito, Yuji; Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-07-01

    Although viral RNA or infectious virions have been detected in the feces of individuals infected with human influenza A and B viruses (IAV/IBV), the mechanism of viral survival in the gastrointestinal tract remains unclear. We developed a model that attempts to recapitulate the conditions encountered by a swallowed virus. While IAV/IBV are vulnerable to simulated digestive juices (gastric acid and bile/pancreatic juice), highly viscous mucus protects viral RNA and virions, allowing the virus to retain its infectivity. Our results suggest that virions and RNA present in swallowed mucus are not inactivated or degraded by the gastrointestinal environment, allowing their detection in feces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  10. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Paulin, L.; Tynkkynen, S.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Partanen, P.; Satokari, A.; Vesterlund, S.; Hendrickx, A.P.; Lebeer, S.; Keersmaecker, de S.C.; Vanderleyden, J.; Hämäläinen, T.; Laukkanen, S.; Salovuori, N.; Ritari, J.; Alatalo, E.; Korpela, R.; Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Lassig, A.; Hatakka, K.; Kinnunen, K.T.; Karjalainen, H.; Saxelin, M.; Laakso, K.; Surakka, A.; Palva, A.; Salusjärvi, T.; Auvinen, P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2009-01-01

    To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence

  11. Human sperm quality and lipid content after migration into normal ovulatory human cervical mucus containing low numbers of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nozha Chakroun-Feki; Patrice Therond; Martine Couturier; Florence Eustache; Gerard Limea; Alain Legrand; Pierre Jouannet; Jacques Auger

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between the presence of low number of leukocytes in normal ovulatory cervical mucus and sperm quality and lipid content after migration. The percentages of live, motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa, movement parameters assessed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), and ionophore-induced acrosome reaction measured by flow cytometry were determined before and after migration. High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was used to measure the sperm lipid content, including the various diacyl subspecies. The number of leukocytes found in solubilized mucus samples was counted using a haemocytometric method. Overall, the presence of leukocytes in the cervical mucus samples did not significantly influence sperm motility and morphology, sperm kinematic parameters, or the sperm content in sphingomyelin or cholesterol. In contrast, after migration, the decrease in various sperm diacyls and the level of induced acrosome reaction was significantly less pronounced in mucus samples containing ≥ 104 leukocytes than in mucus samples with no or rare leukocytes whereas the level of induced acrosome reaction was higher. The present data suggest that the low level of leukocytes found in normal ovulatory cervical mucus could influence the process of sperm lipid remodelling/capacitation.

  12. [Variation of the sialic acid-protein ratio in the human cervical mucus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesserü, E; Westphal, N

    1975-01-01

    Serial determinations of total protein and sialic acid concentrations were carried out in individual cervical mucus samples of normal women, throughout the menstrual cycle as well as under the influence of estrogen and progestagen steroids. Total protein was titrated by a modified micro-biuret method and sialic acid was determined using the "Direct Ehrlich" method. Both parameters diminished gradually during the follicular phase of the cycle with lowest values around the time of ovulation, and showed a strong increase during the luteal phase. Administration of ethinylestradiol yielded values significantly lower than those of normal ovulatory phase and under d-Nosgestrel treatment the values were significantly higher than in normal luteal phase. However the proportion of sialic acid as related to total protein showed an inverse behavior, i.e. increased under estrogenic and decreased under progestogenic influence. The cyclic and hormone-induced variations of this ratio were more specific than those of both separate components. Thus, estrogens produce an increase of the sialic acid containing fraction of cervical mucus proteins, while progestagens have an opposite effect. The role of these actions in reproductive physiology is discussed.

  13. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    2007-01-01

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of t

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures - Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Paula A; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M Gregory

    2016-08-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number.

  15. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  16. Correlation between levels of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and 18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Tino F; Kocken, Mariëlle; Petäjä, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    and CVS samples were collected from a subset of women aged 10-65 years (N=350) at pre-specified time-points from 7 to 36 months post-vaccination. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation coefficients between serum and CVS...... in serum were substantially higher at all time-points than those in a control group of women who had cleared a natural HPV infection in another trial. In women with detectable antibodies in both serum and CVS, good correlation was seen between HPV-16/18 antibody levels at all time-points (Pearson......This pooled analysis of data from four Phase III clinical trials was undertaken to assess the correlation between levels of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 antibodies in serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) in girls and women vaccinated with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Serum...

  17. A mucus adhesion promoting protein, MapA, mediates the adhesion of Lactobacillus reuteri to Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; Uchimura, Tai; Satoh, Eiichi

    2006-07-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is one of the dominant lactobacilli found in the gastrointestinal tract of various animals. A surface protein of L. reuteri 104R, mucus adhesion promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor of this strain. We investigated the relation between MapA and adhesion of L. reuteri to human intestinal (Caco-2) cells. Quantitative analysis of the adhesion of L. reuteri strains to Caco-2 cells showed that various L. reuteri strains bind not only to mucus but also to intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, purified MapA bound to Caco-2 cells, and this binding inhibited the adhesion of L. reuteri in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on these observations, the adhesion of L. reuteri appears due to the binding of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. Further, far-western analysis indicated the existence of multiple receptor-like molecules in Caco-2 cells.

  18. The StcE metalloprotease of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli reduces the inner mucus layer and promotes adherence to human colonic epithelium ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hews, Claire L; Tran, Seav-Ly; Wegmann, Udo; Brett, Bernard; Walsham, Alistair D S; Kavanaugh, Devon; Ward, Nicole J; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2017-01-05

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a major foodborne pathogen and tightly adheres to human colonic epithelium by forming attaching/effacing lesions. To reach the epithelial surface, EHEC must penetrate the thick mucus layer protecting the colonic epithelium. In this study, we investigated how EHEC interacts with the intestinal mucus layer using mucin-producing LS174T colon carcinoma cells and human colonic mucosal biopsies. The level of EHEC binding and attaching/effacing lesion formation in LS174T cells was higher compared to mucin-deficient colon carcinoma cell lines, and initial adherence was independent of the presence of flagellin, Escherichia coli common pilus, or long polar fimbriae. Although EHEC infection did not affect gene expression of secreted mucins, it resulted in reduced MUC2 glycoprotein levels. This effect was dependent on the catalytic activity of the secreted metalloprotease StcE, which reduced the inner mucus layer and thereby promoted EHEC access and binding to the epithelium in vitro and ex vivo. Given the lack of efficient therapies against EHEC infection, StcE may represent a suitable target for future treatment and prevention strategies.

  19. Comparison of Washing and Swabbing Procedures for Collecting Genital Fluids To Assess Cervicovaginal Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Ozouaki, Francis; Legoff, Jérôme; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Avoune, Evelyne; Bélec, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Asymptomatic genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA was evidenced by real-time PCR in 25 (13.2%) of 188 cervicovaginal lavage samples and in only 13 (6.9%) paired cervicovaginal samples from 188 HSV-2-seropositive, nonpregnant childbearing-aged human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative women living in Gabon. These observations demonstrate that cervicovaginal washing is more suitable than endocervicovaginal swabbing for detecting and quantifying HSV-2 DNA by PCR in female genital secretions. PMID:12791898

  20. Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus (HPV)-infection before and after hysterectomy: evidence of different tissue tropism for oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types in a cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Burk, Robert D; Zhong, Ye; Minkoff, Howard; Massad, L Stewart; Xue, Xiaonan; Watts, D Heather; Anastos, Kathryn; Palefsky, Joel M; Levine, Alexandra M; Colie, Christine; Castle, Philip E; Strickler, Howard D

    2012-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is detected in nearly all cervical cancers and approximately half of vaginal cancers. However, vaginal cancer is an order of magnitude less common than cervical cancer, not only in the general population but also among women with HIV/AIDS. It is interesting therefore that recent studies found that HPV was common in both normal vaginal and cervical tissue, with higher prevalence of nononcogenic HPV types in the vagina. In our investigation, we prospectively examined HPV infection in 86 HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative women who underwent hysterectomy during follow-up in a longitudinal cohort. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were obtained semi-annually and tested for HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. To address possible selection biases associated with having a hysterectomy, subjects acted as their own comparison group--before versus after hysterectomy. The average HPV prevalence was higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women both before (59% vs. 12%; p < 0.001) and after hysterectomy (56% vs. 6%; p < 0.001). Multivariate random effects models (within-individual comparisons) demonstrated significantly lower HPV prevalence [odds ratio (OR) = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59-0.85) after hysterectomy. The association of HPV prevalence with hysterectomy was similar among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. However, hysterectomy had greater effects on oncogenic (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.35-0.66) than nononcogenic HPV types (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.71-1.11; P(interaction) = 0.002). Overall, we observed greater reductions in oncogenic than nononcogenic HPV prevalence after hysterectomy. If correct, these data could suggest that oncogenic HPV have greater tropism for cervical compared to vaginal epithelium, consistent with the lower incidence of vaginal than cervical cancer.

  1. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  2. Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell L. Van Tassell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host.

  3. Techniques to Bring Up Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD: Lifestyle Management Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Make an Appointment Refer ... breathing may become difficult, and infection may occur. Techniques to remove mucus are often done after using ...

  4. Active microrheology of Chaetopterus mucus determines three intrinsic lengthscales that govern material properties

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, W J; Deheyn, D D; Morales-Sanz, A; Blair, D L; Urbach, J S; Robertson-Anderson, R M

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the scale-dependent rheological properties of mucus from the Chaetopterus marine worm and determine the intrinsic lengthscales controlling distinct rheological and structural regimes. Mucus produced by this ubiquitous filter feeder serves a host of roles including filtration, protection and trapping nutrients. The ease of clean mucus extraction coupled with similarities to human mucus rheology also make Chaetopterus mucus a potential model system for elucidating human mucus mechanics. We use optically trapped microsphere probes of 2-10 microns, to induce oscillatory strains and measure mucus stress response. We show that viscoelastic properties are highly dependent on the strain scale (l) with three distinct regimes emerging: microscale: l_110 microns. While mucus response is similar to water for l_1 indicating that probes rarely contact the mucus mesh, for l_2 the response is distinctly more viscous and independent of probe size, demonstrating that the mucus behaves as a continuum. However, t...

  5. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in self-obtained cervicovaginal samples by using the FTA cartridge: new possibilities for cervical cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenselink, C.H.; Bie, R.P. de; Hamont, D. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping in self-sampled genital smears applied to an indicating FTA elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The study group consisted of 96 women, divided into two sample sets. All samples were analyzed by the HPV SPF(10)-Line Blot 25. Set 1

  6. A simple method for measuring thickness of the mucus gel layer adherent to rat, frog and human gastric mucosa: influence of feeding, prostaglandin, N-acetylcysteine and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerss, S; Allen, A; Garner, A

    1982-08-01

    1. A technique has been developed for measuring thickness of the gastric surface mucus gel layer. Mucosal sections (1.6 mm) were cut from frog and rat stomach and human antrum, mounted transversely and viewed by an inverse microscope (x 200 magnification) under dark field illumination or phase contrast. The mucus layer was readily distinguishable and its dimensions could be recorded by means of an eyepiece graticule. 2. Mean mucus gel thickness in rat, frog was 73, 76, 55 and 192 micrometer respectively. However, there was variation in the average thickness of the gel layer between individual mucosae from the same species (up to twofold). Mucus thickness between adjacent regions of the same mucosal section also varied markedly (up to tenfold). 3. Topical administration of 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2 by oral intubation caused a significant increase in thickness in both rat and frog at doses of 5 microgram/ml and 0.5 microgram/ml respectively. Feeding and exposure of the mucosa to N-acetylcysteine (10-20%, w/v) produced variable effects whereas pepsin (1 mg/ml) caused a marked reduction in thickness of the surface gel layer in both rat and frog. 4. The technique provides a rapid and simple method for determining gastrointestinal mucus thickness in relation to mucosal morphology. It is ideally suited for studying the control of mucus secretion and effect of drugs.

  7. Corneal mucus plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, F T; Wright, P; Tripathi, R C

    1977-02-01

    Corneal mucus plaques adhered to the anterior corneal surface in 17 of 67 advanced cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The plaques were translucent to opaque and varied in size and shape, from multiple isolated islands to bizarre patterns involving more than half the corneal surface. Ultrastructurally, they consisted of mucus mixed with desquamated degenerating epithelial cells and proteinaceous and lipoidal material. The condition may be symptomatic but can be controlled and prevented in most cases by topical ocular application of 10% acetylcysteine.

  8. Detection of mucus glycoconjugates in human conjunctiva by using the lectin colloidal gold technique in TEM. I. A quantitative study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, P; Maltarello, M C; Bonvicini, F; Caramazza, R; Laschi, R

    1986-08-01

    We applied a specific cytochemical reaction to characterize the glycoconjugates produced by goblet and non-goblet epithelial cells of normal human conjunctiva. For this purpose we utilized the lectins, proteins of vegetal origin, which are extremely sensitive in binding glycosidic residues. In particular, we used WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA conjugated with colloidal gold as ultrastructural marker for Transmission Electron Microscopy. This technique allowed us also to perform a quantitative analysis, by counting colloidal gold particles present on mucus granules. In this way we analyzed the content both of goblet and non-goblet epithelial cells. In the former, WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA receptors, here reported in decreasing density, were present. In the latter WGA was always positive, SBA and PNA sometimes were negative, ConA was always negative. We speculate the different contribution to mucus production by these two sources may be important in evaluating tear film stability alterations occurring in those diseases in which non-goblet epithelial cell vesicles increase.

  9. Inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology is associated with disease activity in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febronio, M V; Pereira, R M R; Bonfa, E; Takiuti, A D; Pereyra, E A G; Silva, C A A

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate cervicovaginal cytology in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and to compare them to controls. Fifty-two female adolescents with JSLE (ACR criteria) were compared to 52 age-matched healthy controls. All Pap smears were evaluated by the same cytopathologist blinded to gynecology examination (Bethesda 2001). The mean age of JSLE patients and controls were similar (16.17 +/- 1.94 versus 16.13 +/- 2.16 years, P = 0.92). The cervicovaginal cytology was found to be similar in both groups, although sexual intercourses in the last month were less frequent in JSLE than controls (23% versus 59.6%, P = 0.0003). Only one patient (2%) with JSLE versus two controls (4%) had cervical dysplasia (LGSIL) and human papilomavirus (P = 1.0). Candida spp vaginitis was observed in seven JSLE (14%) versus none in controls (P = 0.012) and was associated with immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.01) and high dose of prednisone (P = 0.002). Of interest, inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology was observed in 21 (60%) of patients with SLEDAI > or = 4 and only four (23%) of those with SLEDAI < 4 (P = 0.001). Likewise, a higher frequency of inflammatory changes was also observed in virgin JSLE (57% versus 8%, P = 0.005). Our findings supports the notion that female genital tract may be a potential target organ in SLE since cervical inflammation is associated to disease activity independently of sexual activity.

  10. IL-13–induced airway mucus production is attenuated by MAPK13 inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevy, Yael G.; Patel, Anand C.; Romero, Arthur G.; Patel, Dhara A.; Tucker, Jennifer; Roswit, William T.; Miller, Chantel A.; Heier, Richard F.; Byers, Derek E.; Brett, Tom J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased mucus production is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms for pathogenic mucus production are largely undetermined. Accordingly, there are no specific and effective anti-mucus therapeutics. Here, we define a signaling pathway from chloride channel calcium-activated 1 (CLCA1) to MAPK13 that is responsible for IL-13–driven mucus production in human airway epithelial cells. The same pathway was also highly activated in the lungs of humans with excess mucus production due to COPD. We further validated the pathway by using structure-based drug design to develop a series of novel MAPK13 inhibitors with nanomolar potency that effectively reduced mucus production in human airway epithelial cells. These results uncover and validate a new pathway for regulating mucus production as well as a corresponding therapeutic approach to mucus overproduction in inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:23187130

  11. Mucus hypersecretion in the airway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; WEN Fu-qiang; XU Dan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mucus hypersecretion is a distinguishing feature of Chronic intlammation diseases,such as asthma,1chronic bronchitis.2 bronchiectasis3 and cystic fibrosis.4Mucus hypersecretion leads to impairment of mucociliary clearance,abnormal bacterial plantation,mucus plug in the airway,and dysfunction of gas exchange.5

  12. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions

  13. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    1999-01-01

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions ca

  14. Transport of particles in intestinal mucus under simulated infant and adult physiological conditions: impact of mucus structure and extracellular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macierzanka, Adam; Mackie, Alan R; Bajka, Balazs H; Rigby, Neil M; Nau, Françoise; Dupont, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The final boundary between digested food and the cells that take up nutrients in the small intestine is a protective layer of mucus. In this work, the microstructural organization and permeability of the intestinal mucus have been determined under conditions simulating those of infant and adult human small intestines. As a model, we used the mucus from the proximal (jejunal) small intestines of piglets and adult pigs. Confocal microscopy of both unfixed and fixed mucosal tissue showed mucus lining the entire jejunal epithelium. The mucus contained DNA from shed epithelial cells at different stages of degradation, with higher amounts of DNA found in the adult pig. The pig mucus comprised a coherent network of mucin and DNA with higher viscosity than the more heterogeneous piglet mucus, which resulted in increased permeability of the latter to 500-nm and 1-µm latex beads. Multiple-particle tracking experiments revealed that diffusion of the probe particles was considerably enhanced after treating mucus with DNase. The fraction of diffusive 500-nm probe particles increased in the pig mucus from 0.6% to 64% and in the piglet mucus from ca. 30% to 77% after the treatment. This suggests that extracellular DNA can significantly contribute to the microrheology and barrier properties of the intestinal mucus layer. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the structure and permeability of the small intestinal mucus have been compared between different age groups and the contribution of extracellular DNA highlighted. The results help to define rules governing colloidal transport in the developing small intestine. These are required for engineering orally administered pharmaceutical preparations with improved delivery, as well as for fabricating novel foods with enhanced nutritional quality or for controlled calorie uptake.

  15. Transport of particles in intestinal mucus under simulated infant and adult physiological conditions: impact of mucus structure and extracellular DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Macierzanka

    Full Text Available The final boundary between digested food and the cells that take up nutrients in the small intestine is a protective layer of mucus. In this work, the microstructural organization and permeability of the intestinal mucus have been determined under conditions simulating those of infant and adult human small intestines. As a model, we used the mucus from the proximal (jejunal small intestines of piglets and adult pigs. Confocal microscopy of both unfixed and fixed mucosal tissue showed mucus lining the entire jejunal epithelium. The mucus contained DNA from shed epithelial cells at different stages of degradation, with higher amounts of DNA found in the adult pig. The pig mucus comprised a coherent network of mucin and DNA with higher viscosity than the more heterogeneous piglet mucus, which resulted in increased permeability of the latter to 500-nm and 1-µm latex beads. Multiple-particle tracking experiments revealed that diffusion of the probe particles was considerably enhanced after treating mucus with DNase. The fraction of diffusive 500-nm probe particles increased in the pig mucus from 0.6% to 64% and in the piglet mucus from ca. 30% to 77% after the treatment. This suggests that extracellular DNA can significantly contribute to the microrheology and barrier properties of the intestinal mucus layer. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the structure and permeability of the small intestinal mucus have been compared between different age groups and the contribution of extracellular DNA highlighted. The results help to define rules governing colloidal transport in the developing small intestine. These are required for engineering orally administered pharmaceutical preparations with improved delivery, as well as for fabricating novel foods with enhanced nutritional quality or for controlled calorie uptake.

  16. Immunoperoxidase staining of cervicovaginal smears after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, M S; Thaler, H T; Gangi, M D; Hajdu, S I

    1992-01-01

    Cervicovaginal smears from 2 women with postirradiation dysplasia, 4 women with postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 30 women with irradiation atypia and 5 healthy, nonirradiated women were stained immunohistochemically with six keratin antibodies. For four of the antibodies--CK19 (BA17), EMA, PKK-1 and CAM 5.2--squamous cells showing irradiation atypia, postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma were more likely to stain positively than were nonirradiated squamous cells. For three of the antibodies in which multiple squamous cells stained positively, the proportion of squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma staining strongly was equal to or greater than the corresponding overall proportion for squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. This was statistically significant with only one antibody, PKK-1. No statistically significant differences were seen in staining of irradiated and nonirradiated squamous cells by MAK-6 and AE1:AE3. The data show that some keratin antigens are more often expressed in the irradiated groups and that there may be differences in the degree of antigen expression between squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cells showing irradiation atypia.

  17. The impact of pregnancy on anti-HIV activity of cervicovaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brenna L; Dutt, Riana; Raker, Christina; Barthelemy, Melody; Rossoll, Richard M; Ramratnam, Bharat; Wira, Charles R; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2016-12-01

    trimesters, pregnant women experienced suppression of several cervicovaginal immune mediators that included human beta defensin-2; lactoferrin; macrophage inflammatory protein-3α; regulated on activation, normally T-cell expressed and secreted; and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (all P≤.05). The antimicrobial peptide elafin was significantly correlated with HIV infectivity in both groups across all visits, except at the postpartum visit in the pregnant group (n=16). Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor also was correlated significantly with infectivity across all visits, but in nonpregnant women only (P≤.03). Cervicovaginal secretions from both pregnant and nonpregnant women contain immune mediators that are associated with HIV infectivity in an in vitro assay; however, infectivity was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant groups. If pregnant women are at increased risk for HIV infection, it is unlikely to be mediated by alterations in the effectiveness of these protective secretions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of mucus glycoconjugates in human conjunctiva by using the lectin-colloidal gold technique in TEM. III. A quantitative study in asymptomatic contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, P; Maltarello, M C; Cellini, M; Marinelli, F; Caramazza, R; Laschi, R

    1987-12-01

    We characterized the mucus glycoconjugates produced by goblet and non-goblet epithelial cells in asymptomatic contact lens (CL) wearers. We employed four lectins (proteins of vegetal origin which specifically recognize glycosidic residues: WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA) conjugated with colloidal gold as ultrastructural marker, at Transmission Electron Microscopy. A computerized quantitative analysis was carried out in order to compare the results from the CL wearers to those from the control patients. Goblet cells produce different amount of glycosidic residues, in particular, a significant decrease in the distribution of sialic acid, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and mannose was observed. The content of glycosidic residues in the mucus vesicles of the non-goblet epithelial cells appeared unchanged as to the normal situation. We speculate that the CL could possibly contribute to the failure of the tear film stability by altering the production of mucus.

  19. Detection of mucus glycoconjugates in human conjunctiva by using the lectin-colloidal gold technique in TEM. II. A quantitative study in dry-eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, P; Maltarello, M C; Cellini, M; Caramazza, R; Laschi, R

    1986-08-01

    The mucus glycoconjugates produced by conjunctival goblet cells in dry-eye patients were studied by a specific cytochemical reaction in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Four lectins, proteins of vegetal origin which specifically bind glycosidic residues, (WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA) were used conjugated with colloidal gold as ultrastructural marker. We performed a quantitative analysis by counting the colloidal gold particles present on mucus granules. The results were compared with normal conditions. We found a decrease in sialic acid, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine and galactose-N-acetyl-galactosamine and an increase in mannose. The different content of glycoconjugates in goblet cells may reflect in the change of physical and functional properties of mucus. We think these data may be useful in the search for a therapeutic mucomimetic drug.

  20. Mucus as a Barrier to Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic mucus lines all mucosal surfaces of the body and forms a potential barrier to mucosal drug delivery. Mucus is mainly composed of water and mucins; high-molecular weight glycoproteins forming an entangled network. Consequently, mucus forms a steric barrier and due to its negative charge...... and hydrophobic domains, the overall hydrophilic mucus also presents an interactive barrier limiting the free diffusion of components within and through the mucus. Furthermore, mucus is a dynamic barrier due to its continuous secretion and shedding from the mucosal surfaces. Mucus is thus a highly complex gel......, studies of peptide and protein drug diffusion in and through mucus and studies of mucus-penetrating nanoparticles are included to illustrate the mucus as a potentially important barrier to obtain sufficient bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and thus an important parameter to address...

  1. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERVICOVAGINAL PEROXIDASES AS INDICATORS FOR OVULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANGHong-Fa; HANZi-Yan; LIANGZang-Guang; XIESu-Xiang

    1989-01-01

    There were many studies using cervicovaginal peroxidases to predict ovulation. Some resuits suggested that cervieovaginal peroxidases are reliable indicators for ovulation; but others did not. The present study was designed to determine whether the change patterns of ccrvicovaginal guaiacul peroxidase activity in fertile period of Chinese women can also be served as a basis for development of a technique to predict ovulation time in natural family planning.

  2. Mucus Rupture in A Collapsed airway: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingying; Bian, Shiyao; Grotberg, James B.

    2011-11-01

    Mucus plugs can completely obstruct an airway. Difficulty in mucus clearance results in lost gas exchange and inflammation. Non-Newtonian properties of mucus, yielding stress and shear-thinning, play significant roles in mucus clearance. We use aqueous carbopol 940 as a mucus stimulant to study clearance of a mucus plug with properties of yielding stress and shear-thinning in a bench-top experiment. A collapsed airway of the 12th generation in a human lung is simulated in a two-dimensional PDMS channel. A stable pressure drop is set along the plug to drive rupture. A micro-PIV technique is used to acquire velocity fields during the rupture process. A yielding pressure drop (initiating plug yielding) is nearly independent of initial plug length. Plug rupture can occur by focused deformation along the centerline or by total plug propagation where the trailing film is thicker than the precursor film. Maximum velocity appears at the rupture moment, and increases at higher pressure drop or smaller plug length. The wall shear gradient can undergo a rapid reversal when rupture occurs, possibly an injurious event to underlying airway epithelial cells. This work is supported by NIH: HL84370 and HL85156.

  3. Defense and adaptation: The complex inter-relationship between Campylobacter jejuni and mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abofu eAlemka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucus colonization is the first step towards the establishment of infection and disease by mucosal pathogens. There is an emerging literature implicating specific mucin subtypes and mucin modifications in protecting the host from Campylobacter jejuni infection. However, mucosal pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to breach the mucus layer and C. jejuni in particular appears to harbor specific adaptations to better colonize intestinal mucus. For example, components of mucus are chemotactic for C. jejuni and the rheological properties of mucus promote motility of the organism. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrate that mucins modulate the pathogenicity of C. jejuni in a species-specific manner and likely help determine whether these bacteria become pathogenic (as in humans, or adopt a commensal mode of existence (as in chickens and other animals. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the complex interplay between C. jejuni and components of the mucus layer.

  4. Biochemical characterization, antimicrobial and hemolytic studies on skin mucus of fresh water spiny eel Mastacembelus armatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkatachalam Uthayakumar; Venkatachalam Ramasubramanian; Dhanabalan Senthilkumar; Ramasamy Harikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the biochemical, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of Mastacembalus armatus skin mucus. Methods: Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of mucus extractions against human and fish pathogens were tested along with ampicillin as control. Hemolytic activity of the extraction was evaluated against sheep and cow blood cells. Amino acid and fatty acid profiles were analyzed by HPLC and gas chromatography in the mucus of fish. SDS-PAGE analysis of mucus and muscle tissue was done. Oneway-ANOVA was performed against all extraction and pathogens, amino acids and fatty acids. Result: All the mucus extracts exhibited higher inhibitory activity than antibiotic ampicillin against bacterial and fungal pathogens. The hemolytic activity was increased with higher mucus concentrations in both sheep and cow blood cells. The protein content soluble and insoluble fractions of mucus were 63.22 μg/g and 55.79μg/g, respectively. Out of 17 amino acids leucine was higher (8.54 mole %) in soluble gel, and glutamic acid was higher (6.92 mole %) in the insoluble gel, Histidine was very low (i.e. 0.20 mole%) both in soluble and (0.30 mole %) insoluble gel. In SDS-PAGE analysis, 6 bands of mucus and 9 bands of muscle were observed. Conclusions: The soluble and insoluble proteins are responsible for antimicrobial and hemolytic activity, these results indicate that mucus gel was prospective applications in fish and human therapeutics.

  5. A biophysical basis for mucus solids concentration as a candidate biomarker for airways disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Hill

    Full Text Available In human airways diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, host defense is compromised and airways inflammation and infection often result. Mucus clearance and trapping of inhaled pathogens constitute key elements of host defense. Clearance rates are governed by mucus viscous and elastic moduli at physiological driving frequencies, whereas transport of trapped pathogens in mucus layers is governed by diffusivity. There is a clear need for simple and effective clinical biomarkers of airways disease that correlate with these properties. We tested the hypothesis that mucus solids concentration, indexed as weight percent solids (wt%, is such a biomarker. Passive microbead rheology was employed to determine both diffusive and viscoelastic properties of mucus harvested from human bronchial epithelial (HBE cultures. Guided by sputum from healthy (1.5-2.5 wt% and diseased (COPD, CF; 5 wt% subjects, mucus samples were generated in vitro to mimic in vivo physiology, including intermediate range wt% to represent disease progression. Analyses of microbead datasets showed mucus diffusive properties and viscoelastic moduli scale robustly with wt%. Importantly, prominent changes in both biophysical properties arose at ∼4 wt%, consistent with a gel transition (from a more viscous-dominated solution to a more elastic-dominated gel. These findings have significant implications for: (1 penetration of cilia into the mucus layer and effectiveness of mucus transport; and (2 diffusion vs. immobilization of micro-scale particles relevant to mucus barrier properties. These data provide compelling evidence for mucus solids concentration as a baseline clinical biomarker of mucus barrier and clearance functions.

  6. Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: report of four cases and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-feng; WU Yu-yu; WANG Jian

    2010-01-01

    @@ In 2001, Laskin et al~1 firstly described a series of 14 seemly distinctive mesenchymal tumors that occurred exclusively in the superficial lamina propria of the vagina and cervix of middle to old-aged women. They proposed the term "superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma (SCVM)" to highlight the unique features of this tumor: the superficial subepithelial location and myofibroblastic differentiation of the tumor cells. SCVM appears less well recognized with only three additional reports have been documented in the English literatures.~(2-4) In this study, we described four new cases of SCVM to further characterize the clinical and pathological features of this rare entity.

  7. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, Cornelis Peter van der

    1991-01-01

    The use of physiotherapeutic techniques may increase mucus transport in patients with airways disease including COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. The most effective parts of the treatment are probably forced expirations with open glottis and coughing. However, in patients

  8. An Evaluation of the Cobas4800 HPV Test on Cervico-Vaginal Specimens in Liquid versus Solid Transport Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Luo

    Full Text Available Determine the ability of the Cobas 4800 assay to detect high-risk human papillomavirus (HrHPV and high-grade cervical lesions when using cervico-vaginal samples applied to liquid medium and solid media cards compared to a direct cervical sample.Two cervico-vaginal specimens (pseudo self-collected were obtained from 319 women. One was applied to an iFTA Card (FTA then the brush placed in liquid-based medium (LSELF; the other was applied to a new solid media: POI card (POI. The clinical performance of Cobas4800 assay using the three aforementioned specimens was compared to direct collected endocervical specimens in liquid media (LDOC.The overall agreements of HrHPV detection were 84.2% (LSELF vs. LDOC, 81.0% (FTA vs. LDOC, and 82.3% (POI vs. LDOC. LSELF, FTA and POI identified 98.0%, 79.6%, and 97.5% positive cases of LDOC. Sensitivity to identify CIN2+ were 98.4% (LSELF, 73.8% (FTA, 95.1% (POI, and 93.4% (LDOC respectively. FTA had 78.1% and 90.4% agreement with the LSELF samples for all HrHPV and HPV16/18 detection respectively, while POI had 91.6% for both.Cobas4800 HPV test combined with cervico-vaginal specimens applied to both liquid media and POI solid card are accurate to detect HrHPV infection and high-grade cervical lesions as compared with direct endocervical samples in liquid media.

  9. CERVICO-VAGINAL SWABS TO PREDICT PROM: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boricha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The presence of lower genital tract infections poses a threat to the health of a woman. During pregnancy, these infection s may also have a direct effect on the fetus or may indirectly predispose to fetal damage secondar y to premature labour or premature rupture of membranes. Early detection is thus import ant because maternal physiological alterations and the presence of a fetus may hamper the diagnosis and the management of such infections. Antepartum treatment of lower genital tr act infections or bacterial colonization has been found to reduce the incidence of preterm births . OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of education and socio-economic background, to assess diagnostic efficacy in pregnancy, to study the effect of intervention on the outcome of pregnan cy and finally, to study the appropriate trimester for taking a cervicovaginal swab in pregna nt women. MATERIALS AND METHODS - Our case study was a prospective study involving 100 pregnant women following up in the outpatient department of a community hospital from 200 8-2010 with respect to their cervicovaginal microbial growth in each trimester. Patients were divided into culture positive and negative groups and treated accordingly RESULTS – In our study, we found that streptococcus, candida and staphylococcus were the mo st commonly prevalent among all the microorganisms isolated. Out of 100 women, 27 were swab positive in the 1 st trimester with an increasing trend of 1% in swab positivity in subsequ ent trimesters. Among swab positive cases, 51.85%(1 st , 50%(2 nd and 51.72%(3 rd landed up in preterm labour with or without PROM. CONCLUSION – There was a very high positive correlation between the incidence of a positive swab culture and preterm events. We found that the best time for a cervicovaginal swab was during the 3 rd trimester. Our study had a high negative predictiv e value i.e. absence of growth were best in predicting that cases would not go in t o

  10. Estradiol increases mucus synthesis in bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tam

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial mucus hypersecretion and mucus plugging are prominent pathologic features of chronic inflammatory conditions of the airway (e.g. asthma and cystic fibrosis and in most of these conditions, women have worse prognosis compared with male patients. We thus investigated the effects of estradiol on mucus expression in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells from female donors grown at an air liquid interface (ALI. Treatment with estradiol in physiological ranges for 2 weeks caused a concentration-dependent increase in the number of PAS-positive cells (confirmed to be goblet cells by MUC5AC immunostaining in ALI cultures, and this action was attenuated by estrogen receptor beta (ER-β antagonist. Protein microarray data showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT in the nuclear fraction of NHBE cells was increased with estradiol treatment. Estradiol increased NFATc1 mRNA and protein in ALI cultures. In a human airway epithelial (1HAE0 cell line, NFATc1 was required for the regulation of MUC5AC mRNA and protein. Estradiol also induced post-translational modification of mucins by increasing total fucose residues and fucosyltransferase (FUT-4, -5, -6 mRNA expression. Together, these data indicate a novel mechanism by which estradiol increases mucus synthesis in the human bronchial epithelium.

  11. Evaluation of cervicovaginal smear results at postmenopausal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Kelekci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the statistical analysis of cervicovaginal smear results at postmenopausal period accompanied by literature. Cervicovaginal smear results of 894 postmenopausal women were evaluated retrospectively according to the 2001 Bethesda system (BS in Adana Numune Training and Research Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic from 2007–2010. The study found, normal results on 287 patients (32.1%, benign findings on 556 patients (62.2%, abnormal epithelial cell changes on 48 patients (5.36% and malignant changes on 3 patients (0.33%. The abnormal epithelial changes were observed to be atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US for 22 patients (2.46%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL for 11 patients (1.23%, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(HSIL for 7 patients (0.78%, findings that cannot exclude a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H for 6 patients (0.55% and atypical glandular cells-not otherwise specified (AGC-NOS for 2 patients (0.22%. Malignant results were 2 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC (0.22% and 1 adenocarcinoma (ACC (0.11%. Cervical cancer screening programs should be expanded and Pap smear screening should be applied to all postmenopausal women. The longer time span involved from premalignant lesions to cancer improves our chance for the diagnosis and treatment. As the incidence of invasive cancer increases in menopausal period, gynecological smear examination and regular check-up are crucial. A high rate of abnormalities of epithelial cells was detected in this study.

  12. Functional Characterization of a Mucus-Specific LPXTG Surface Adhesin from Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388

  13. Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic.

  14. Antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of fish epidermal mucus Cynoglossus arel andArius caelatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran; Selvam Priyadharshini; Kolandhasamy Prabhu; Solomon Raj Sophia Rani

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the antimicrobial, hemolytic activity and immunomodulatory activity of fish epidermal mucus and their chemical constituents fromCynoglossus arel (C. arel) and Arius caelatus (A. caelatus). Mucus plays an important role in the prevention of colonization by parasites, bacteria and fungi.Methods: Epidermal mucus was obtained from two marine fishes, lyophilized and the chemical composition of epidermal mucus was analysed byFT-IR analysis. Thein vitro antimicrobial activity against human pathogens (fungi, gram positive and gram-negative bacteria) and also the hemolytic activity and immunomodulatory activity were determined.Results:Totally ten human pathogens were tested against the fish mucus. Out of the ten pathogens, five pathogens have proved to be sensitive to the mucus. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed againstVibrio cholera (V. cholera) (9 mm and2 mm in diameter), followed byStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with a inhibition zone of (6 mm and3 mm),Streptococcus areus (S. areus) (5 mm and4 mm),Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) (4mm and5 mm) respectively.Conclusions: The present investigation has revealed that positive progresses in the fish mucus extracts against human pathogens and hemolytic activity. But further efforts are required for the purification and isolation of the active antimicrobial compounds in order to establish their possible applications.

  15. Discovery of low mucus adhesion surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Minghao; Yildiz, Hasan; Carrier, Rebecca; Belfort, Georges

    2013-02-01

    Mucus secretion from the body is ubiquitous, and finding materials that resist mucus adhesion is a major technological challenge. Here, using a high throughput platform with photo-induced graft polymerization, we first rapidly synthesized, screened and tested a library of 55 different surfaces from six functional monomer classes to discover porcine intestinal low mucus adhesion surfaces using a 1h static mucus adsorption protocol. From this preliminary screen, two chemistries, a zwitterionic ([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride) and a multiple hydroxyl (N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide) surface, exhibited significantly low mucus adhesion from a Langmuir-type isotherm when exposed to increasing concentrations of mucus for 24 h. Apolar or hydrophobic interactions were likely the dominant attractive forces during mucus binding since many polar or hydrophilic monomers reduced mucus adhesion. Hansen solubility parameters were used to illustrate the importance of monomer polarity and hydrogen bonding in reducing mucus adsorption. For a series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) monomers with changing molecular weight from 144 g mol⁻¹ to 1100 g mol⁻¹, we observed an excellent linear correlation (R²=0.998) between relative amount adsorbed and the distance from a water point in a specialized Hansen solubility parameter plot, emphasizing the role of surface-water interactions for PEG modified surfaces.

  16. Azithromycin Inhibits Mucus Hypersecretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Shimizu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the in vivo effects of the 15-member macrolide, azithromycin (AZM, on mucus hypersecretion, we induced hypertrophic and metaplastic changes of goblet cells in rat nasal epithelium by intranasal instillation of ovalbumin (OVA in OVA-sensitized rats, or by intranasal lipopolysaccharides (LPS instillation. Oral administration of AZM (5–10 mg/kg or clarithromycin (CAM, 5–10 mg/kg significantly inhibited OVA- and LPS-induced mucus production, whereas josamycin (JM or ampicillin (ABPC showed no effect. In vitro effects of AZM on airway epithelial cells were examined using NCI-H292 cells and human nasal epithelial cells cultured in air-liquid interface. Mucus secretion was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using an anti-MUC5AC monoclonal antibody. AZM or CAM significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α (20 ng/mL-induced MUC5AC secretion from NCI-H292 cells at 10−6–10−7 M, whereas JM or ABPC showed no effect. AZM significantly inhibited TNF- (20 ng/mL-induced MUC5AC secretion from human nasal epithelial cells at 10−4 M. MUC5AC mRNA expression was also significantly inhibited. These results indicate that the 15-member macrolide, AZM, exerts direct inhibitory effects on mucus secretion from airway epithelial cells and that it may be useful for the treatment of mucus hypersecretion caused by allergic inflammation and LPS stimulation.

  17. Pegylated Polyaspartamide-Polylactide-Based Nanoparticles Penetrating Cystic Fibrosis Artificial Mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Porsio, Barbara; Sardo, Carla; Giammona, Gaetano; Cavallaro, Gennara

    2016-03-14

    Here, the preparation of mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for pulmonary administration of ibuprofen in patients with cystic fibrosis is described. A fluorescent derivative of α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-D,L-aspartamide is synthesized by derivatization with rhodamine, polylactide, and poly(ethylene glycol), to obtain polyaspartamide-polylactide derivatives with different degrees of pegylation. Starting from these copolymers, fluorescent nanoparticles with different poly(ethylene glycol) content, empty and loaded with ibuprofen, showed spherical shape, colloidal size, slightly negative ζ potential, and biocompatibility toward human bronchial epithelial cells. The high surface poly(ethylene glycol) density of fluorescent nanoparticles and poly(ethylene glycol) brush-like conformation assumed on their surface, conferred to pegylated nanoparticles the mucus-penetrating properties, properly demonstrated by assessing their ability to avoid interactions with mucus components and to penetrate cystic fibrosis artificial mucus. Finally, ibuprofen release profile and uptake capacity within human bronchial epithelial cells in the presence of cystic fibrosis artificial mucus showed how these mucus-penetrating nanoparticles could rapidly diffuse through the mucus barrier reaching the mucosal surface, where they could offer a sustained delivery of ibuprofen at the site of disease.

  18. The dissolution of urinary mucus after cystoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, G; Mundy, A R

    1989-04-01

    Three agents have been tested for mucolytic activity to prevent or treat difficulties in bladder emptying following augmentation and substitution cystoplasty, particularly in patients emptying by intermittent self-catheterisation. Carbocysteine produced precipitation of mucus, which was found not to be helpful. N-acetylcysteine and urea both dissolved mucus, but urea proved to be more effective.

  19. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  20. Diffusion-sensitive optical coherence tomography for real-time monitoring of mucus thinning treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Kreda, Silvia M.; Sears, Patrick R.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.; Hill, David B.; Chapman, Brian S.; Tracy, Joseph B.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-03-01

    Mucus hydration (wt%) has become an increasingly useful metric in real-time assessment of respiratory health in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD, with higher wt% indicative of diseased states. However, available in vivo rheological techniques are lacking. Gold nanorods (GNRs) are attractive biological probes whose diffusion through tissue is sensitive to the correlation length of comprising biopolymers. Through employment of dynamic light scattering theory on OCT signals from GNRs, we find that weakly-constrained GNR diffusion predictably decreases with increasing wt% (more disease-like) mucus. Previously, we determined this method is robust against mucus transport on human bronchial epithelial (hBE) air-liquid interface cultures (R2=0.976). Here we introduce diffusion-sensitive OCT (DS-OCT), where we collect M-mode image ensembles, from which we derive depth- and temporally-resolved GNR diffusion rates. DS-OCT allows for real-time monitoring of changing GNR diffusion as a result of topically applied mucus-thinning agents, enabling monitoring of the dynamics of mucus hydration never before seen. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cell) with a layer of endogenous mucus were doped with topically deposited GNRs (80x22nm), and subsequently treated with hypertonic saline (HS) or isotonic saline (IS). DS-OCT provided imaging of the mucus thinning response up to a depth of 600μm with 4.65μm resolution, over a total of 8 minutes in increments of >=3 seconds. For both IS and HS conditions, DS-OCT captured changes in the pattern of mucus hydration over time. DS-OCT opens a new window into understanding mechanisms of mucus thinning during treatment, enabling real-time efficacy feedback needed to optimize and tailor treatments for individual patients.

  1. An investigation into the role of mucus thickness on mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract of pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varum, Felipe J O; Veiga, Francisco; Sousa, João S; Basit, Abdul W

    2010-07-11

    Mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract is a complex phenomenon and both formulation and physiological features need to be well understood and considered. Mucus thickness has been inferred to play a role in this process; however no definitive influence has been established. This study aimed to investigate the influence of mucus thickness on the mucoadhesion process, using a large animal (pig) as a model to closely resemble the human physiological features. The mucus thickness of different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of pig was fully measured by means of a histochemical method (hematoxilin/eosin) employing cryostat sections. Mucoadhesion was evaluated ex vivo on porcine mucosa by tensiometry using a polyacrylic acid polymer (Carbopol 974P NF) as a mucoadhesive model material, both in a dry and swollen state. Mucus was thickest in the stomach (body 67.9+/-54.7 microm) and mucus thickness increased from proximal to distal segments in both the small intestine (duodenum 25.9+/-11.8 microm, ileum 31.0+/-15.7 microm) and large intestine (caecum 19.4+/-8.7 microm, ascending colon 31.9+/-17.2 microm, descending colon 35.1+/-16.0 microm and rectum 40.8+/-12.5 microm). Swollen polymer exhibited lower mucoadhesion than the dry form in all sections analysed. Mucus thickness plays a role on the mucoadhesion, as thicker mucus provides deeper polymer chain diffusion and entanglements; however, other factors are also involved in this complex process.

  2. Modeling neutralization kinetics of HIV by broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in genital secretions coating the cervicovaginal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A McKinley

    Full Text Available Eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM represents a promising "first line of defense" strategy to reduce vaginal HIV transmission. However, it remains unclear what levels of bnAb must be present in CVM to effectively reduce infection. We approached this complex question by modeling the dynamic tally of bnAb coverage on HIV. This analysis introduces a critical, timescale-dependent competition: to protect, bnAb must accumulate at sufficient stoichiometry to neutralize HIV faster than virions penetrate CVM and reach target cells. We developed a model that incorporates concentrations and diffusivities of HIV and bnAb in semen and CVM, kinetic rates for binding (kon and unbinding (koff of select bnAb, and physiologically relevant thicknesses of CVM and semen layers. Comprehensive model simulations lead to robust conclusions about neutralization kinetics in CVM. First, due to the limited time virions in semen need to penetrate CVM, substantially greater bnAb concentrations than in vitro estimates must be present in CVM to neutralize HIV. Second, the model predicts that bnAb with more rapid kon, almost independent of koff, should offer greater neutralization potency in vivo. These findings suggest the fastest arriving virions at target cells present the greatest likelihood of infection. It also implies the marked improvements in in vitro neutralization potency of many recently discovered bnAb may not translate to comparable reduction in the bnAb dose needed to confer protection against initial vaginal infections. Our modeling framework offers a valuable tool to gaining quantitative insights into the dynamics of mucosal immunity against HIV and other infectious diseases.

  3. Mucoactive agents for airway mucus hypersecretory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Duncan F

    2007-09-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a feature of a number of severe respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). However, each disease has a different airway inflammatory response, with consequent, and presumably linked, mucus hypersecretory phenotype. Thus, it is possible that optimal treatment of the mucus hypersecretory element of each disease should be disease-specific. Nevertheless, mucoactive drugs are a longstanding and popular therapeutic option, and numerous compounds (eg, N-acetylcysteine, erdosteine, and ambroxol) are available for clinical use worldwide. However, rational recommendation of these drugs in guidelines for management of asthma, COPD, or CF has been hampered by lack of information from well-designed clinical trials. In addition, the mechanism of action of most of these drugs is unknown. Consequently, although it is possible to categorize them according to putative mechanisms of action, as expectorants (aid and/or induce cough), mucolytics (thin mucus), mucokinetics (facilitate cough transportability), and mucoregulators (suppress mechanisms underlying chronic mucus hypersecretion, such as glucocorticosteroids), it is likely that any beneficial effects are due to activities other than, or in addition to, effects on mucus. It is also noteworthy that the mucus factors that favor mucociliary transport (eg, thin mucus gel layer, "ideal" sol depth, and elasticity greater than viscosity) are opposite to those that favor cough effectiveness (thick mucus layer, excessive sol height, and viscosity greater than elasticity), which indicates that different mucoactive drugs would be required for treatment of mucus obstruction in proximal versus distal airways, or in patients with an impaired cough reflex. With the exception of mucoregulatory agents, whose primary action is unlikely to be directed against mucus, well-designed clinical trials are required to unequivocally determine the

  4. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-08-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  5. A Dietary Fiber-Deprived Gut Microbiota Degrades the Colonic Mucus Barrier and Enhances Pathogen Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mahesh S; Seekatz, Anna M; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Hickey, Christina A; Wolter, Mathis; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Kitamoto, Sho; Terrapon, Nicolas; Muller, Arnaud; Young, Vincent B; Henrissat, Bernard; Wilmes, Paul; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Núñez, Gabriel; Martens, Eric C

    2016-11-17

    Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier. Dietary fiber deprivation, together with a fiber-deprived, mucus-eroding microbiota, promotes greater epithelial access and lethal colitis by the mucosal pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. Our work reveals intricate pathways linking diet, the gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which could be exploited to improve health using dietary therapeutics.

  6. TMEM16A mediates the hypersecretion of mucus induced by Interleukin-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiachen; Jiang, Youfan; Li, Li; Liu, Yanan; Tang, Hui; Jiang, Depeng

    2015-06-10

    Previous studies showed that the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) was involved in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion induced by Interleukin-13 (IL-13). However, the mechanisms underlying the process were unknown. Recently, transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was identified as the channel underlying the CaCC current. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the TMEM16A channel is part of the mechanism underlying IL-13-induced mucus hypersecretion. We observed that both TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated after treatment with IL-13 in human bronchial epithelial 16 (HBE 16) cells, which correlated with an increase in mucus production. Additionally, mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intratracheal instillation of IL-13 and similar increases were observed in the expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in the bronchial epithelium. Niflumic acid (NA), a selective antagonist of CaCC, markedly blocked IL-13-induced mucin (MUC) 5AC mRNA and protein production in vivo and in vitro. Further investigation with HBE16 cells revealed that TMEM16A overexpression clearly promoted mucus production, IκBα phosphorylation, and p65 accumulation in the nucleus. The loss of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of mucus production, and the TMEM16A-mediated production of MUC5AC was significantly blocked by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor. Therefore, the TMEM16A channel acts upstream of NF-κB in the regulation of mucus production. This is the first demonstration that the TMEM16A-NF-κB pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced mucus production, which provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism of mucin overproduction.

  7. Detection of cervical neoplasia by DNA methylation analysis in cervico-vaginal lavages, a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsink, J. J. H.; Yang, N.; Lendvai, A.; Klip, H. G.; Volders, H. H.; Buikema, H. J.; van Hemel, B. M.; Voll, M.; Bennink, H. J. T. Coelingh; Schuuring, E.; Wisman, G. B. A.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To explore the feasibility of DNA methylation analysis for the detection of cervical neoplasia in self-obtained cervico-vaginal lavages. Methods. Lavages collected by a self-sampling device and paired cervical scrapings were obtained from 20 cervical cancer patients and 23 patients referr

  8. Detection of cervical neoplasia by DNA methylation analysis in cervico-vaginal lavages, a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsink, J. J. H.; Yang, N.; Lendvai, A.; Klip, H. G.; Volders, H. H.; Buikema, H. J.; van Hemel, B. M.; Voll, M.; Bennink, H. J. T. Coelingh; Schuuring, E.; Wisman, G. B. A.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    Objective. To explore the feasibility of DNA methylation analysis for the detection of cervical neoplasia in self-obtained cervico-vaginal lavages. Methods. Lavages collected by a self-sampling device and paired cervical scrapings were obtained from 20 cervical cancer patients and 23 patients

  9. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria: An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%, whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9% and inorganic matter (67.1%. The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones’ mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest.

  10. Bioactive potency of epidermal mucus extracts from greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal, 1775

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Manikantan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the bio-potency of epidermal mucus from Epinephelus tauvina. Methods: Mucus was extracted with acidic, organic and aqueous solvents. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid content of mucus extracts were quantified by UV-spectrophotometer, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometer, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five human and fish pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The molecular weight of peptides was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The haemolytic activity of extracts was tested against chick, goat, cow and human red blood cell. Results: Protein contributed with maximum of 26.25% in crude mucus. Arginine was recorded maximum of (133.9 nmol/mL in crude mucus. 2,4,6-Decatrienoic acid and bis (a-chloroethyl sulfone were confirmed in organic extract. The antimicrobial activity of acidic extract was significant. Among the human pathogens, maximum zone of inhibition [(26.0 ± 0.3 mm] was observed against Proteus mirabilis. Whereas, among fish pathogens maximum zone of inhibition [(25.0 ± 0.1 mm] was observed against Vibrio parahemolyticus. The activity of other two extracts was not remarkable. The molecular weight of peptides ranged from 115.5– 37.1 kDa in acidic extract was determined. Chicken and goat blood were found to be highly vulnerable to the lysis. Conclusions: The whole mucus could be a promising source with numerous bioactivepotency. Consequently, this preliminary information suggested that mucus is a source of novel antimicrobial agents for fish and human health related applications.

  11. Bioactive potency of epidermal mucus extracts from greasy grouper,Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal, 1775)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganesh Manikantan; Somasundarannair Lyla; Syed Ajmal Khan; Packiaraj Vijayanand; George Edward Gnana Jothi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the bio-potency of epidermal mucus fromEpinephelus tauvina. Methods: Mucus was extracted with acidic, organic and aqueous solvents. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid content of mucus extracts were quantified by UV-spectrophotometer, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five human and fish pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The molecular weight of peptides was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The haemolytic activity of extracts was tested against chick, goat, cow and human red blood cell. Results:Protein contributed with maximum of 26.25% in crude mucus. Arginine was recorded maximum of (133.9 nmol/mL) in crude mucus. 2,4,6-Decatrienoic acid and bis (a-chloroethyl) sulfone were confirmed in organic extract. The antimicrobial activity of acidic extract was significant. Among the human pathogens, maximum zone of inhibition [(26.0 ± 0.3) mm] was observed againstProteus mirabilis. Whereas, among fish pathogens maximum zone of inhibition [(25.0 ± 0.1) mm] was observed againstVibrio parahemolyticus. The activity of other two extracts was not remarkable. The molecular weight of peptides ranged from 115.5–37.1 kDa in acidic extract was determined. Chicken and goat blood were found to be highly vulnerable to the lysis. Conclusions: The whole mucus could be a promising source with numerous bioactive- potency. Consequently, this preliminary information suggested that mucus is a source of novel antimicrobial agents for fish and human health related applications.

  12. Prothymosin α variants isolated from CD8+ T cells and cervicovaginal fluid suppress HIV-1 replication through type I interferon induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Avelino; Yen, Benjamin; Gusella, Gabriele Luca; Thomas, Albert G; Mullen, Michael P; Aberg, Judith; Chen, Xintong; Hoshida, Yujin; van Bakel, Harm; Schadt, Eric; Basler, Christopher F; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Mosoian, Arevik

    2015-05-01

    Soluble factors from CD8(+) T cells and cervicovaginal mucosa of women are recognized as important in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and transmission. Previously, we have shown the strong anti-HIV-1 activity of prothymosin α (ProTα) derived from CD8(+) T cells. ProTα is a small acidic protein with wide cell distribution, to which several functions have been ascribed, depending on its intracellular or extracellular localization. To date, activities of ProTα have been attributed to a single protein known as isoform 2. Here we report the isolation and identification of 2 new ProTα variants from CD8(+) T cells and cervicovaginal lavage with potent anti-HIV-1 activity. The first is a splice variant of the ProTα gene, known as isoform CRA_b, and the second is the product of a ProTα gene, thus far classified as a pseudogene 7. Native or recombinant ProTα variants potently restrict HIV-1 replication in macrophages through the induction of type I interferon. The baseline expression of interferon-responsive genes in primary human cervical tissues positively correlate with high levels of intracellular ProTα, and the knockdown of ProTα variants by small interfering RNA leads to downregulation of interferon target genes. Overall, these findings suggest that ProTα variants are innate immune mediators involved in immune surveillance.

  13. Sperm counts in enzymatically liquefied cervical mucus: quantitative validation using donor cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agostini, A; Campana, A

    1996-02-01

    The post-coital test evaluates the penetration of spermatozoa into cervical mucus; it relies on subjective measurements and therefore lacks precision. Enzymatic liquefaction of cervical mucus allows sperm concentration to be measured in post-coital test samples, but the reliability of such measurements is not known. Donor cervical mucus was used as a model to test the accuracy and sensitivity of sperm quantification in liquefied cervical mucus. Donor cervical mucus was dissolved by enzymatic treatments in the presence of known numbers of spermatozoa and the recovery of sperm cells was assessed after liquefaction of the samples. Enzymatic treatment of cervical mucus with a combination of bromelin and glycosidases resulted in reliable and fast liquefaction of the samples. The accuracy of sperm concentration measurements was 89 +/- 10% (mean +/- SD, n = 50), and the sensitivity limits were 1 x 10(6) and 0.2 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml for quantitative concentration measurement and qualitative sperm detection respectively. This study demonstrates that liquefaction of cervical mucus by combined protease and glycosidases allows accurate and sensitive determination of sperm concentration in the sample. Therefore we believe that valuable data can be obtained for sperm concentration and total sperm counts in post-coital tests, that should help to improve the reliability of the post-coital test.

  14. 两种前处理方法对粘液型宫颈HPV分型结果的比较%Comparison of two different pretreatment methods in detecting genotypes of human papillomavirus in cervical epithelium samples with cervical mucus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍金华; 郑琰; 高月婵; 陈建勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of different pretreatment methods on the detection of genotypes of human papillomavirus in cervical epithelium samples with cervical mucus. Methods The 100 cervical epithelium samples with cervical mucus in gynecology department was pre-treated by traditional method (sodium chloride- concussion method )and proteinase K digestion method. The samples were checked for 21 types HPV by flow through hybridization and gene chip technology. The two different pretreatment methods were used to study the efficiency of HPV DNA extraction and genotyping. Results DNA purification aand concentration afrter extraction were 1.63 ±0.71 and(96.35 ± 13.15)μg/ml while that of HPV-DNA extraction( 105.14 ± 18.65 )μg/ml used by proteinase K digestion method were( 1.80 ± 0.52)and( 105.14 ± 18.65 )μg/ml markedly increased compared with those used by traditional method (P<0.01). PCR inhibitors were detected from 4 samples pre-treated by the traditional method,but no PCR reaction inhibitor was detected from the samples pre-treated by proteinase K digestion method. The rates of positive, single types of infection and multiple infection in the HPV types pre-treated by the traditional method and proteinase K digestion method were 28.0%,23.0%,5.0% and 32.0%, 26.0% ,6.0% .respectively. The value of Kappa was 0.888,showing a high degree of consistency. Conclusion The proteinase K digestion method is suitable for detection of HPV-DNA from cervical epithelium samples with cervical mucus, the pretreatment procedure using proteinase K digestion method is easier to get rid of the PCR reaction inhibitors ,which ensures the quality of HPV DNA. It is applicable in clinical laboratory.%目的 研究2种前处理方法对粘液型标本HPV DNA杂交结果的影响,为进一步提高临床检验质量和改进检测技术提供理论依据.方法 收集100例妇科门诊患者粘液型宫颈脱落细胞标本,分别采用常规方法(生理盐水

  15. TMEM16A mediates the hypersecretion of mucus induced by Interleukin-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiachen; Jiang, Youfan; Li, Li; Liu, Yanan; Tang, Hui; Jiang, Depeng, E-mail: depengjiang@163.com

    2015-06-10

    Previous studies showed that the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel (CaCC) was involved in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion induced by Interleukin-13 (IL-13). However, the mechanisms underlying the process were unknown. Recently, transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was identified as the channel underlying the CaCC current. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the TMEM16A channel is part of the mechanism underlying IL-13-induced mucus hypersecretion. We observed that both TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated after treatment with IL-13 in human bronchial epithelial 16 (HBE 16) cells, which correlated with an increase in mucus production. Additionally, mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intratracheal instillation of IL-13 and similar increases were observed in the expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in the bronchial epithelium. Niflumic acid (NA), a selective antagonist of CaCC, markedly blocked IL-13-induced mucin (MUC) 5AC mRNA and protein production in vivo and in vitro. Further investigation with HBE16 cells revealed that TMEM16A overexpression clearly promoted mucus production, IκBα phosphorylation, and p65 accumulation in the nucleus. The loss of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of mucus production, and the TMEM16A-mediated production of MUC5AC was significantly blocked by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor. Therefore, the TMEM16A channel acts upstream of NF-κB in the regulation of mucus production. This is the first demonstration that the TMEM16A-NF-κB pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced mucus production, which provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism of mucin overproduction. - Highlights: • TMEM16A acts as downstream events of IL-13 signaling pathway. • Established the link between TMEM16A and mucus hypersecretion. • NF-κB activation might be responsible for TMEM16A mediated mucus secretion.

  16. Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals and coral mucus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Balasubramanian, R.

    Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals, fresh coral mucus and floating and attached mucus detritus from the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea was studied. Corallochytrium limacisporum Raghukumar, Thraustochytrium motivum Goldstein...

  17. Intravaginal HPV DNA vaccination with electroporation induces local CD8+ T-cell immune responses and antitumor effects against cervicovaginal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Peng, S; Qiu, J; Miao, J; Yang, B; Jeang, J; Hung, C-F; Wu, T-C

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the potential to inhibit the progression of an established HPV infection to precancer and cancer lesions by targeting HPV oncoproteins. We have previously developed a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to E7, CRT/E7 DNA vaccine, for use in the treatment of HPV-associated lesions. Since the transfection efficiency of DNA vaccines administered in vivo is typically low, we examined the use of electroporation as well as different routes of administration to enhance antigen-specific tumor control. We tested the effects of the CRT/E7 DNA vaccine administered intramuscularly or intravaginally, with or without electroporation, on the generation of CD8+ T-cell immunity and therapeutic antitumor effects in HPV16 E7-expressing cervicovaginal tumor-bearing mice. We found that intravaginal vaccination of CRT/E7 DNA followed by electroporation-induced potent E7-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in the cervicovaginal tract, compared with intramuscular injection followed by electroporation. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice vaccinated intravaginally followed by electroporation had an enhanced survival, antitumor effects and local production of IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells compared with those vaccinated intramuscularly with electroporation. Thus, we show that intravaginal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination followed by electroporation generates the most potent therapeutic antitumor effects against an orthotopic E7-expressing tumor model. The current study will have significant clinical implications once a clinically applicable electroporation device for intravaginal use becomes available.

  18. Uterine conserving surgery in a case of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet; Saini, Suwa Ram; Nanda, Sakshi; Choudhary, Sumesh; Roy, Priyankur; Singh, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    The presence of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus is a very rare mullerian anomaly. Its true incidence is still unknown. The presence of functioning unicornuate uterus poses a great challenge for a gynecologist because a successful repair could restore normal menses and may preserve a patient's fertility. Hence, we report a case of 16-year-old unmarried female who presented with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea with cyclical lower abdominal pain. On clinical and radiological evaluation, she was diagnosed with complete cervicovaginal agenesis with right unicornuate uterus (hematometra and hematosalpinx). She underwent vaginoplasty (McIndoes method) along with uterovaginal anastomosis by neocervix formation, in order to preserve her uterus. On follow-up, her vagina was completely healed, and she was menstruating normally. PMID:28216917

  19. Uterine conserving surgery in a case of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus is a very rare mullerian anomaly. Its true incidence is still unknown. The presence of functioning unicornuate uterus poses a great challenge for a gynecologist because a successful repair could restore normal menses and may preserve a patient′s fertility. Hence, we report a case of 16-year-old unmarried female who presented with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea with cyclical lower abdominal pain. On clinical and radiological evaluation, she was diagnosed with complete cervicovaginal agenesis with right unicornuate uterus (hematometra and hematosalpinx. She underwent vaginoplasty (McIndoes method along with uterovaginal anastomosis by neocervix formation, in order to preserve her uterus. On follow-up, her vagina was completely healed, and she was menstruating normally.

  20. Conjunctival mucus ferning in hypovitaminosis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular ferning test was used to qualitatively assess mucus function in early stages of xerophthalmia. The results indicate that inspite of histological evidence of loss of goblet cells in the early stages, mucous function and production is sufficient to produce ferning. It is suggested that such derangements in mucous ferning may occur in more advanced stages of xerophthalmia.

  1. The Contribution of Cervicovaginal Infections to the Immunomodulatory Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Chen, Pai-Lien; Morrison, Charles S.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Mendonca, Kevin; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert; Mauck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Particular types of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and genital tract infections have been independently associated with risk of HIV-1 acquisition. We examined whether immunity in women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), combined oral contraceptives (COC), or no HCs differs by the presence of cervicovaginal infections. Immune mediators were quantified in cervical swabs from 832 HIV-uninfected reproductive-age Ugandans and Zimbabweans. Bacterial infections and HI...

  2. Cervicovaginal bacterial count and failure of metronidazole therapy for bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchiari, Heloise R; Ferreira, Carolina S T; Golim, Márjorie A; Silva, Márcia G; Marconi, Camila

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate whether total bacterial count in cervicovaginal fluid is associated with failure of metronidazole therapy for bacterial vaginosis. In a cross-sectional study, women attending a primary health center in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, for routine cervical screening between September 2012 and October 2013 were enrolled. Women who tested positive for bacterial vaginosis (Nugent classification) were offered oral metronidazole. Women who completed metronidazole treatment and an equal number of control women with normal vaginal flora at initial screening were included in analyses of total bacterial count, assessed by flow cytometry of cervicovaginal fluid samples. Of 287 women who enrolled, 49 were excluded because they tested positive for trichomoniasis, chlamydial endocervicitis, gonorrhea, or candidiasis. Among the remaining 238, 85 (35.7%) had bacterial vaginosis. Among 36 women evaluated at follow-up, 23 (63.9%) had successfully restored lactobacilli-dominant flora, 12 (33.3%) had persistent bacterial vaginosis, and 1 (2.8%) had vaginal candidiasis (excluded from flow cytometry). Total bacterial count did not differ between 35 women with bacterial vaginosis and 35 with normal vaginal flora (P=0.62). Total bacterial count did not differ at enrollment between women who went on to have persistent bacterial vaginosis and those who had successful treatment (P=0.78). Failure of oral metronidazole therapy for bacterial vaginosis was not associated with total bacterial count in cervicovaginal fluid. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cathelicidin stimulates colonic mucus synthesis by up-regulating MUC1 and MUC2 expression through a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHO Chi-hin

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mucus forms the physical barrier along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It plays an important role to prevent mucosal damage and inflammation. Our previous finding showed that antibacterial peptide 'cathelicidin' increased mucus thickness and prevented inflammation in the colon. In the current study, we examined the protective mechanisms by which the peptide increased mucus synthesis in vitro. Methods Human colonic cell line (HT-29) was used to assess the stimulatory action of cathelicidin on mucus synthesis which was measured by the D-[6-3H] glucosamine incorporation assay. Results Human cathelicidin (LL-37) dose-dependently (10-40 μg·mL-1) and significantly stimulated mucus synthesis. Real-time PCR data showed that addition of LL-37 induced more than 50 % increase in MUC1 and MUC2 mRNA levels. Treatment with MUC1 and MUC2 siRNAs normalized the stimulatory action of LL-37 on mucus synthesis. LL-37 also activated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in the cells. A specific inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway, U0126, completely blocked the increase of MUC1 and MUC2 expression as well as mucus synthesis by LL-37. Conclusions Taken together LL-37 stimulates mucus synthesis through the activation of MUC1 and MUC2 expression and the MAP kinase pathway in human colonic cells.

  4. Resveratrol inhibits mucus overproduction and MUC5AC expression in a murine model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhen-Hua; Tang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Guo; Lai, Yi-Min; Chen, Qing-Ge; Li, Zao; Yang, Wei; Luo, Xu-Min; Wang, Xiong-Biao

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that resveratrol is able to significantly inhibit the upregulation of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), a major component of mucus; thus indicating that resveratrol may have potential in regulating mucus overproduction. However, there have been few studies regarding the resveratrol‑mediated prevention of MUC5AC overproduction in vivo, and the mechanisms by which resveratrol regulates MUC5AC expression have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, an ovalbumin (OVA)‑challenged murine model of asthma was used to assess the effects of resveratrol treatment on mucus production in vivo. The results demonstrated that resveratrol significantly inhibited OVA‑induced airway inflammation and mucus production. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of MUC5AC were increased in the OVA‑challenged mice, whereas treatment with resveratrol significantly inhibited this effect. The expression levels of murine calcium‑activated chloride channel (mCLCA)3, an important key mediator of MUC5AC production, were also reduced following resveratrol treatment. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrated that resveratrol significantly inhibited human (h)CLCA1 and MUC5AC expression in a dose‑dependent manner. These results indicated that resveratrol was effective in preventing mucus overproduction and MUC5AC expression in vivo, and its underlying mechanism may be associated with regulation of the mCLCA3/hCLCA1 signaling pathway.

  5. Decreased colonic mucus in rats with loperamide-induced constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotoyodome, A; Meguro, S; Hase, T; Tokimitsu, I; Sakata, T

    2000-06-01

    Constipation is a risk factor of colorectal cancer. Mucin is a major component of lumenal mucus, which protects the colorectal mucosa against mechanical and chemical damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate mucus production and to quantitate lumen mucus in a rat model of spastic constipation. We induced constipation with loperamide (1.5 mg/kg), and histochemically evaluated mucus production and the thickness of the mucus layer at the fecal surface. We quantitated the mucus attached to the mucosal surface using colonic perfusion with N-acetylcysteine. While more feces remained in the colon, there was less fecal excretion and lower fecal water content in loperamide-administered rats than in control rats. Crypt epithelial cells contained less mucus in constipated rats than in control rats. The mucus layer at the fecal surface was thinner and less mucus was recovered from the mucosal surface in constipated rats than in control rats. Mucus production of crypt epithelial cells and mucus at the fecal and mucosal surface were reduced by loperamide-induced constipation.

  6. Assessment of mucus thickness and production in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Lena; Phillipson, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the mucus gel layer covering the gastrointestinal tract makes it difficult to study outside its natural site attached to the mucosa. Here, we describe a technique for intravital microscopy studies of the mucus gel layer from the stomach down to the colon in anesthetized rats and mice. Mucus thickness and accumulation rate in each segment of the gastrointestinal tract is measured with a micropipette technique under observation through a stereomicroscope. In this way, the nature of the mucus gel in vivo is readily studied, and effects of interventions or disease on the mucus can be determined in longitudinal studies or by comparing animals. Using this technique, we have been able to demonstrate that there are two forms of mucus gel adherent to the stomach and colon mucosa: one layer which is removable by suction and an underlying firm adherent gel layer, while in the small intestine, all mucus adhering to the mucosa can easily be removed.

  7. Skin mucus proteins of lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus

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    Deepti Manjari Patel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus serves as a first line of defense against pathogens and external stressors. In this study the proteomic profile of lumpsucker skin mucus was characterized using 2D gels coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Mucosal proteins were identified by homology searches across the databases SwissProt, NCBInr and vertebrate EST. The identified proteins were clustered into ten groups based on their gene ontology biological process in PANTHER (www.patherdb.org. Calmodulin, cystatin-B, histone H2B, peroxiredoxin1, apolipoprotein A1, natterin-2, 14-3-3 protein, alfa enolase, pentraxin, warm temperature acclimation 65 kDa (WAP65kDa and heat shock proteins were identified. Several of the proteins are known to be involved in immune and/or stress responses. Proteomic profile established in this study could be a benchmark for differential proteomics studies.

  8. [Computed tomography in endobronchial mucus accumulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, M; Barone, M; Loria, G; Minutoli, F; Stroscio, S

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the value of CT in depicting endobronchial mucoid collections, the authors retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 22 patients, 14 with mucous plugs, 7 with mucoid pseudotumors, and one with a bronchocele due to bronchial atresia. Atelectasis could be seen in 11 of 14 patients with mucous plugs. In 12 of 14 patients with mucous plugs CT showed the involved bronchi filled by fluid representing abnormal mucus accumulation. In the patients with atelectasis CT showed mucus-filled bronchi as low-attenuation branching structures (mucoid bronchogram). All the mucoid pseudotumors appeared as low-attenuation (< 20 HU) polypoid wall lesions with no involvement of the bronchial walls. In a patient with bronchial atresia CT showed a solitary pulmonary nodule (representing the obstructed and dilated bronchus filled by mucus) surrounded by peripheral pulmonary hyperinflation. Characteristically, the endobronchial mucoid collections never enhanced after bolus contrast medium. Endobronchial mucoid collections had to be differentiated from endobronchial neoplasms. In some cases bronchoscopy was necessary to make the differential diagnosis. In conclusion, CT is a valuable tool with good sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing endobronchial mucoid collections.

  9. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osadnik CR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian R Osadnik,1,2 Christine F McDonald,2,3 Anne E Holland2,4,51Department of Physiotherapy, Monash University, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Health, 4Department of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, 5Department of Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaWe wish to thank Ramos et al for presenting a succinct and up-to-date synthesis of the evidence relating to the important issue of mucus hypersecretion in COPD.1 The authors highlight the association of mucus hypersecretion with poor outcomes, including increased risk of exacerbations, hospitalization and mortality. These associations have led to interest in the potential benefits of mucus clearance techniques in COPD. As Ramos et al1 point out, although the physiological rationale for airway clearance techniques (ACTs in COPD is strong, clinical efficacy has historically been difficult to establish, perhaps due to the variety of techniques and outcomes that have been employed in small studies. We have recently synthesized this body of evidence in a Cochrane systematic review of ACTs for individuals with COPD. The review demonstrated ACTs are safe and meta-analysis showed they confer small beneficial effects on a limited range of important clinical outcomes, such as the need for and duration of ventilatory assistance during an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD.2View original paper by Ramos and colleagues.

  10. Cervical mucus properties stratify risk for preterm birth.

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    Agatha S Critchfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction.

  11. The advantage of mucus for adhesive locomotion in gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Mayuko; Ueyama, Daishin; Kobayashi, Ryo

    2014-07-21

    For many gastropods, locomotion is driven by a succession of periodic muscular waves (contractions and relaxations) moving along the foot. The force generated by these waves is coupled to the substratum by a thin layer of pedal mucus. Gastropod pedal mucus has unusual physical properties: the mucus is a viscoelastic solid at small deformation and shows a sharp yield point; then, at greater strains, the mucus is a viscous liquid, although it will recover its solidity if allowed to heal for a certain period. In this paper, to clarify the role of the mucus and the flexible muscular waves in adhesive locomotion, we use a simple mathematical model to verify that directional migration can be realized through the interaction between the periodic muscular waves and the specific physical features of mucus. Our results indicate that the hysteresis property of mucus is essential in controlling kinetic friction for the realization of crawling locomotion. Furthermore, our numerical calculations show that both the hysteresis property of mucus and the contraction ratio of muscle give rise to two styles of locomotion, direct waves and retrograde waves, which until now have been explained by different mechanisms. The biomechanical effectiveness of mucus in adhesive locomotion is also discussed.

  12. Aerosol Medications for Treatment of Mucus Clearance Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Property profiling of biosimilar mucus in a novel mucus-containing in vitro model for assessment of intestinal drug absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Baldursdóttir, Stefania G; Müllertz, Anette;

    2014-01-01

    comparable to freshly isolated porcine intestinal mucus (PIM). Further, this multicomponent biosimilar mucus mixture was optimized with regards to the lipid content in order to obtain cellular biocompatibility with well-differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. In contrast, PIM was found to severely disrupt...... of the biorelevance of the Caco-2 cell culture model by application of mucus, resulting in an in vitro model of oral mucosa suitable for future assessment of innovative drug delivery approaches....

  14. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis.

  15. Core 1- and 3-derived O-glycans collectively maintain the colonic mucus barrier and protect against spontaneous colitis in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, K; Fu,J.; Johansson, MEV; Liu, X; Gao, N; Q. Wu; J. Song; McDaniel, JM; McGee, S; Chen, W.; Braun, J; Hansson, GC; Xia, L

    2016-01-01

    Core 1- and 3-derived mucin-type O-glycans are primary components of the mucus layer in the colon. Reduced mucus thickness and impaired O-glycosylation are observed in human ulcerative colitis. However, how both types of O-glycans maintain mucus barrier function in the colon is unclear. We found that C1galt1 expression, which synthesizes core 1 O-glycans, was detected throughout the colon, whereas C3GnT, which controls core 3 O-glycan formation, was most highly expressed in the proximal colon...

  16. Core 1- and core 3-derived O-glycans collectively maintain the colonic mucus barrier and protect against spontaneous colitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Kirk; Fu, Jianxin; Johansson, Malin EV; Liu, Xiaowei; Gao, Nan; Wu,Qian; Song, Jianhua; McDaniel, J. Michael; McGee, Samuel; Chen, Weichang; Braun, Jonathan; Hansson, Gunnar C; Xia, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Core 1- and core 3-derived mucin-type O-glycans are primary components of the mucus layer in the colon. Reduced mucus thickness and impaired O-glycosylation are observed in human ulcerative colitis. However, how both types of O-glycans maintain mucus barrier function in the colon is unclear. We found that C1galt1 expression, which synthesizes core 1 O-glycans, was detected throughout the colon, whereas C3GnT, which controls core 3 O-glycan formation, was most highly expressed in the proximal ...

  17. The gastrointestinal mucus system in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Malin E V; Sjövall, Henrik; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2013-06-01

    Mucins--large, highly glycosylated proteins--are important for the luminal protection of the gastrointestinal tract. Enterocytes have their apical surface covered by transmembrane mucins and goblet cells produce the secreted gel-forming mucins that form mucus. The small intestine has a single unattached mucus layer, which in cystic fibrosis becomes attached, accounting for the intestinal manifestations of this disease. The stomach and colon have two layers of mucus; the inner layer is attached and the outer layer is less dense and unattached. In the colon, the outer mucus layer is the habitat for commensal bacteria. The inner mucus layer is impervious to bacteria and is renewed every hour by surface goblet cells. The crypt goblet cells have the ability to restitute the mucus layer by secretion, for example after an ischaemic challenge. Proteases of certain parasites and some bacteria can cleave mucins and dissolve the mucus as part of their pathogenicity. The inner mucus layer can, however, also become penetrable to bacteria by several other mechanisms, including aberrations in the immune system. When bacteria reach the epithelial surface, the immune system is activated and inflammation is triggered. This mechanism might occur in some types of ulcerative colitis.

  18. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Cortés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus—a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline patterns observable in mucus at oestrus stage (some of them resembling ferns, palm leaves and stellar patterns, among others. Finally, it addresses the importance of the phenomenon of cervical mucus crystallization for the understanding of bovine reproductive physiology.

  19. The Influence of Cervicovaginitis Agents on Epithelial Cell Changes: Comparison of Mardin City's Data with the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık İkbal BARIŞ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper was to observe the reactive changes of epithelial cells exposed to the influence of cervicovaginitis agents that play an important role in the cytology practice and may cause an exaggerated appearance.Material and Method: 378 cases with cervicovaginitis caused by a specific agent were compared with 100 control cases. It was recorded if the inflammation had concomitant cellular changes and atypia or not. After treatment, control smears were examined. The reactive and atypical situations of the cells were considered after the treatment. With the aid of the previous data, the answer to the following question was searched: Is epithelial atypia a real event or a reactive atypia that accompanies an existing cervicitis agent?Results: In the first interpretation, Candida group had the most frequent reactive and ASC-US (Atypic Squamous cells of Undetermined Significance changes (56,4% and 59,5% respectively. The bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis groups showed ASC-US rates of 25% and 9,5% respectively while in control group the rate was 6,0%. After treatment, the number of cases of ASC-US decreased from 50 to 11. Similarly, the number decreased from 21 to 10 in the bacterial vaginosis group.Conclusion: Cervicovaginitis agents need more attention because of their outcomes. Being aware of the cervicovaginitis agents during interpretation is essential for preventing a false positive diagnosis and unnecessary anxiety especially where cellular atypia is concerned.

  20. Faecal mucus degrading glycosidases in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J M; Gallimore, R; Elias, E; Allan, R N; Kennedy, J F

    1985-08-01

    Because the normal faecal flora includes bacteria which can produce mucus-digesting glycosidases, it follows that increased digestion of colonic mucus by these bacterial enzymes could be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal activities of potential mucus-degrading glycosidases have therefore been assayed in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls. The enzymes alpha-D-galactosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-NAc-D-glucosaminidase alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase were assayed. Considerable glycosidase activity was present in most faecal samples. Similar activities of all the enzymes assayed were found in faeces from patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and normal controls and there was no significant correlation with disease activity. These results imply that relapse of ulcerative colitis is not initiated by increased degradation of colonic mucus by faecal glycosidases but do not exclude a role for bacterial mucus degradation in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.

  1. Studies of mucus in mouse stomach, small intestine, and colon. I. Gastrointestinal mucus layers have different properties depending on location as well as over the Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermund, Anna; Schütte, André; Johansson, Malin E V; Gustafsson, Jenny K; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2013-09-01

    Colon has been shown to have a two-layered mucus system where the inner layer is devoid of bacteria. However, a complete overview of the mouse gastrointestinal mucus system is lacking. We now characterize mucus release, thickness, growth over time, adhesive properties, and penetrability to fluorescent beads from stomach to distal colon. Colon displayed spontaneous mucus release and all regions released mucus in response to carbachol and PGE2, except the distal colon and domes of Peyer's patches. Stomach and colon had an inner mucus layer that was adherent to the epithelium. In contrast, the small intestine and Peyer's patches had a single mucus layer that was easily aspirated. The inner mucus layer of the distal colon was not penetrable to beads the size of bacteria and the inner layer of the proximal colon was only partly penetrable. In contrast, the inner mucus layer of stomach was fully penetrable, as was the small intestinal mucus. This suggests a functional organization of the intestinal mucus system, where the small intestine has loose and penetrable mucus that may allow easy penetration of nutrients, in contrast to the stomach, where the mucus provides physical protection, and the colon, where the mucus separates bacteria from the epithelium. This knowledge of the mucus system and its organization improves our understanding of the gastrointestinal tract physiology.

  2. A new method of separation and quantitation of mucus glycoprotein in rat gastric mucus gel layer and its application to mucus secretion induced by 16,16-dimethyl PGE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuro, Y; Ishihara, K; Ohara, S; Saigenji, K; Hotta, K

    1991-10-01

    A method was established for recovering the mucus gel layer of rat gastric mucosa without damage to underlying surface epithelium. The mucus gel was solubilized by stirring the gastric mucosa in a solution of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent. Optimal mucus gel solubilization was possible by treatment with 2% NAC for 5 minutes at room temperature. Mucus glycoprotein was quantitatively extracted and measured from the mucus gel sample obtained by the NAC treatment. This treatment caused no damage to surface epithelial cells, as observed by a light microscope. Besides NAC, pronase solution was also adequate for solubilizing the mucus gel layer without any damage to the surface epithelium. However, extraction and measurement of mucus glycoprotein from the pronase-treated mucus gel sample was not possible due to contamination by high molecular hexose-containing substances which were eluted along with the mucus glycoprotein from the column of Bio-Gel A-1.5m. This NAC method was used to examine changes in mucus glycoprotein content in the mucus gel at one hour following the oral administration of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2. A significant increase in mucus glycoprotein of the gel was brought about by the prostaglandin treatment. Thus, the present method was suitable for estimating the amount of mucus secreted in to the mucus gel layer.

  3. KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, H; Hama, Y; Sumi, T; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    2001-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the mucus coat of fish plays a variety of important physical, chemical, and physiological functions. One of the major constituents of the mucus coat is mucus glycoprotein. We found that sialic acids in the skin mucus of the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, consisted predominantly of KDN. Subsequently, we isolated KDN-containing glycoprotein from loach skin mucus and characterized its chemical nature and structure. Loach mucus glycoprotein was purified from the Tris-HCl buffer extract of loach skin mucus by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Nuclease P1 treatment, and Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration. The purified mucus glycoprotein was found to contain 38.5 KDN, 0.5% NeuAc, 25.0% GalNAc, 3.5% Gal, 0.5% GlcNAc and 28% amino acids. Exhaustive Actinase digestion of the glycoprotein yielded a glycopeptide with a higher sugar content and higher Thr and Ser contents. The molecular size of this glycopeptide was approximately 1/12 of the intact glycoprotein. These results suggest that approximately 11 highly glycosylated polypeptide units are linked in tandem through nonglycosylated peptides to form the glycoporotein molecule. The oligosaccharide alditols liberated from the loach mucus glycoprotein by alkaline borohydride treatment were separated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and HPLC. The purified sugar chains were analyzed b --> 6GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 3(GalNAcbeta1 --> 14)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(GalNAcalpha1 --> 3)GalNAc-ol, KDNalpha2 --> 6(Gal3alpha1--> 3)GalNAc-ol, and NeuAcalpha2 --> 6Gal NAc-ol. It is estimated that one loach mucus glycoprotein molecule contains more than 500 KDN-containing sugar chains that are linked to Thr and Ser residues of the protein core through GalNAc.

  4. Aspergillus in a cervico-vaginal smear of an adult postmenopausal female: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several case reports documenting opportunistic fungal infection in the female genital tract, with Aspergillus spp being a rarely reported causative organism. We hereby report a case of Aspergillus infection in a 48 year-old, postmenopausal female with carcinoma of the cervix. She presented with features of pelvic inflammatory disease, and an initial routine cervico-vaginal smear revealed severe inflammation along with fungal bodies. The features were consistent with the presence of Aspergillus spp, while the background epithelial cells were negative for intraepithelial malignancy. She was offered therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. A repeat Papanicolaou smear after two weeks was negative for intraepithelial organisms, but showed the evidence of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, with biopsy confirming squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Sodium alginate decreases the permeability of intestinal mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Alan R.; Macierzanka, Adam; Aarak, Kristi; Rigby, Neil M.; Parker, Roger; Channell, Guy A.; Stephen E. Harding; Balazs H Bajka

    2016-01-01

    In the small intestine the nature of the environment leads to a highly heterogeneous mucus layer primarily composed of the MUC2 mucin. We set out to investigate whether the soluble dietary fibre sodium alginate could alter the permeability of the mucus layer. The alginate was shown to freely diffuse into the mucus and to have minimal effect on the bulk rheology when added at concentrations below 0.1%. Despite this lack of interaction between the mucin and alginate, the addition of alginate ha...

  6. Property profiling of biosimilar mucus in a novel mucus-containing in vitro model for assessment of intestinal drug absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegh, Marie; Baldursdóttir, Stefania G; Müllertz, Anette; Nielsen, Hanne M

    2014-07-01

    Oral delivery of drugs, including peptide and protein therapeutics, can be impeded by the presence of the mucus surface-lining the intestinal epithelium. The aim of the present project was to design and characterize biosimilar mucus compatible with Caco-2 cell monolayers cultured in vitro to establish a more representative in vitro model for the intestinal mucosa. The rheological profile of a biosimilar mucus mixture composed of purified gastric mucin, lipids and protein in buffer was optimized by supplementing with an anionic polymer to display viscoelastic properties and a microstructure comparable to freshly isolated porcine intestinal mucus (PIM). Further, this multicomponent biosimilar mucus mixture was optimized with regard to the lipid content in order to obtain cellular compatibility with well-differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. In contrast, PIM was found to severely disrupt the Caco-2 cell monolayer. When combined with the Caco-2 cell monolayers, the final biosimilar mucus was found to significantly affect the permeability profiles for hydrophobic and hydrophilic small and large model drug compounds in different ways. In conclusion, the present study describes an improvement of the biorelevance of the Caco-2 cell culture model by application of mucus, resulting in an in vitro model of oral mucosa suitable for future assessment of innovative drug delivery approaches. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES FOR SPERM - CERVICAL-MUCUS INTERACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KREMER, J; JAGER, S

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the effects of antisperm antibodies on the sperm - cervical mucus interaction. Antisperm IgA on spermatozoa or in cervical mucus can severely inhibit sperm penetration of cervical mucus and migration through it. Disturbance of the sperm - cervical mucus interaction is the

  8. HCO3- Transport in Relation to Mucus Secretion from Submucosal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo NS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of HCO(3(- transport in relation to fluid secretion by submucosal glands is being studied in sheep, pigs, cats and humans. Optical methods have been developed to measure secretion rates of mucus volume from single glands with sufficient temporal resolution to detect differences in minute-by-minute secretion rates among glands. The ionic composition and viscoelastic properties of the uncontaminated gland mucus are measured with a combination of ratiometric fluorescent indicators, ion-selective microelectrodes, FRAP, and a miniaturized, magnetic force viscometer. Sheep glands secreted basally at low rates, showed small, transient responses to alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists, and large responses to a cholinergic agonist, carbachol. Peak rates and temporal patterns of responses to carbachol differed markedly among glands. To assess the contribution of HCO(3(- transport to gland secretion, we either inhibited Na(+/K(+/2Cl(- cotransporter (NKCC with bumetanide or replaced HCO(3(- with HEPES and gassed with O(2. Bumetanide caused a small, non-significant inhibition of basal secretion, but removal of HCO(3(-/CO(2 significantly reduced basal secretion almost by half. Both bumetanide and removal of HCO(3(-/CO(2 reduced carbachol-stimulated secretion significantly, with HCO(3(- removal having the larger effect: a reduction to 33% of control (P less than 0.01. The remaining secretory response to carbachol was nearly eliminated by bumetanide. Sheep mucus pH measured with ion selective electrodes was about 0.4 log more acidic than the bath. In humans, we observed the same pattern of responses to agonists and antagonists as in sheep, and observed a mucus pH of 7.0 using 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF. We hypothesize that HCO(3(- transport is important in the formation of mucus secretion, but that most HCO(3(- is scavenged before the final mucus appears at the duct opening. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

  9. Mucus can change the permeation rank order of drug candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagesaether, Ellen; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of mucus on the permeability of newly developed structurally related free fatty acid receptor 1-agonists TUG-488, TUG-499 and TUG-424, which were compared to the more hydrophilic ketoprofen and the more hydrophobic testosterone as reference drugs...... out at a lower agitation. These results indicate that an experimental system without mucus can give a faulty rank order of permeation compared to mucous membranes when structurally related drug candidates are tested....... a minor influence. However, for one of the drug candidates, TUG-499, mucus had a clear impact, and this could not be explicitly related to the hydrophobicity of this compound. Secreted mucus thus changed the obtained rank order of permeation. This was especially apparent when the experiments were carried...

  10. Rotating magnetic particle microrheometry in biopolymer fluid dynamics: mucus microrheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseris, George J; Yeates, Donovan B

    2007-09-14

    The polymer properties of canine mucus were investigated through the method of rotating magnetic particle microrheometry. Mucus is visualized as a physically entangled biopolymer of low polydispersity in a water-based solution. Mucus was modeled according to the constitutive law of a Doi-Edwards fluid. The magnetic-particle equation of rotational motion is analytically solved in the linear viscoelastic limit rendering theoretical flow profiles which are used to fit the experimental trace signals of the particle remanent-magnetic-field decay. The zero-shear-rate viscosity was found to be 18,000 P and the relaxation time at about 42 s. The molecular weight between entanglements for mucins was estimated at 1.7 MDa rendering an estimation of about seven physical cross-links per molecule. Rheological investigations were extended also to diluted and concentrated rations of the normal mucus simulating the conditions found in more physiological extremes.

  11. Bioactivities of crude mucus proteins from Eudrilus eugeniae (African night crawler) and Perionyx excavatus (Blue worm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem-U-Domkit, K; Muangman, T; Klungsupya, P; Chantsavang, S; Kubera, A

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the enzymatic anti-oxidative, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of crude mucus proteins from the two earthworms including Eudrilus eugeniae (African night crawler) and Perionyx excavatus (Blue worm). The bioactivities were determined by hemolytic activity, cytotoxic activity using HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, L-929 mouse fibroblast and TK6 human lymphoblast cell lines and antioxidant activity. The results indicated that the hemolytic activity of mucus proteins of P. excavatus was higher than that of E. eugeniae. The cytotoxic activity of the mucus proteins of E. eugeniae could inhibit the growth of HepG2 with the IC50 at 144.2 ± 0.18 µg/mL but showed no effect on L-929 and TK6. On the other hand, the crude proteins of P. excavatus decreased cell viability of both L-929 and HepG2 with their IC50 respectively were 6.87 ± 0.16 and 174.3 ± 0.19 µg/mL but they did not reduce the growth of TK6 cell line. The SOD-like activity of P. excavatus and E. eugeniae crude proteins were found with the IC50 at 149 µg/mL and 386.2 µg/mL, respectively. For GPx-like activity, crude proteins of P. excavatus exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) greater activity than those of E. eugeniae when tested at the concentration 100 µg/mL. This study revealed the bioactivities of crude mucus of earthworms which served as alternative natural proteins for the prophylaxis or treatment of free radical-related diseases as well as development of dietary supplements and cosmetics.

  12. Kaempferol Inhibits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Mucus Hypersecretion in Airway Epithelial Cells And Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Hye; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Mucus hypersecretion is an important pathological feature of chronic airway diseases, such as asthma and pulmonary diseases. MUC5AC is a major component of the mucus matrix forming family of mucins in the airways. The initiation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated stress responses contributes to the pathogenesis of airway diseases. The present study investigated that ER stress was responsible for airway mucus production and this effect was blocked by the flavonoid kaempferol. Oral administration of ≥10 mg/kg kaempferol suppressed mucus secretion and goblet cell hyperplasia observed in the bronchial airway and lung of BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). TGF-β and tunicamycin promoted MUC5AC induction after 72 h in human bronchial airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells, which was dampened by 20 μM kaempferol. Kaempferol inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress of airway epithelial cells through disturbing the activation of the ER transmembrane sensor ATF6 and IRE1α. Additionally, this compound demoted the induction of ER chaperones such as GRP78 and HSP70 and the splicing of XBP-1 mRNA by tunicamycin. The in vivo study further revealed that kaempferol attenuated the induction of XBP-1 and IRE1α in epithelial tissues of OVA-challenged mice. TGF-β and tunicamycin induced TRAF2 with JNK activation and such induction was deterred by kaempferol. The inhibition of JNK activation encumbered the XBP-1 mRNA splicing and MUC5AC induction by tunicamycin and TGF-β. These results demonstrate that kaempferol alleviated asthmatic mucus hypersecretion through blocking bronchial epithelial ER stress via the inhibition of IRE1α-TRAF2-JNK activation. Therefore, kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent targeting mucus hypersecretion-associated pulmonary diseases.

  13. Evaluation of the relationship between fungal infection, neutrophil leukocytes and macrophages in cervicovaginal smears: Light microscopic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirezen, Şayeste; Dönmez, Hanife Güler; Özcan, Merve; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Right after opportunistic fungi become pathogenic, they face immune system cells including macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes. Although the relationship between fungi and immune cells are being widely studied by using animal models and culture techniques, cervicovaginal smears have not been used to evaluate this interaction yet. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between fungal infection, macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes in cervicovaginal smear. Materials and Methods: Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears from 2307 women, aged between 18 and 73 years, were examined by light microscopy. Periodic acid–Schiff stain was also used to confirm the presence of fungal cell walls. Results: Fungal infections were detected in 239 of 2307 patients (10.4%), and these cases were taken as the study group. Cases without any infectious agents (n = 1800, 78%) were considered as the control group. When the study and control groups were statistically compared in view of macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes, a significant relationship between presence of fungal infection, macrophages and neutrophil leukocytes was detected (P 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that macrophages and neutrophils may play a determining role in host defense against fungal infection together, but neither yeast nor filamentous forms affect the presence of neutrophil leukocytes and macrophages. As a result of this, both yeast and filamentous forms may have pathogenic effects. PMID:26229242

  14. Mimicking microbial strategies for the design of mucus-permeating nanoparticles for oral immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Carlos; Martín-Arbella, Nekane; Brotons, Ana; Camacho, Ana I; Irache, J M

    2015-10-01

    Dealing with mucosal delivery systems means dealing with mucus. The name mucosa comes from mucus, a dense fluid enriched in glycoproteins, such as mucin, which main function is to protect the delicate mucosal epithelium. Mucus provides a barrier against physiological chemical and physical aggressors (i.e., host secreted digestive products such as bile acids and enzymes, food particles) but also against the potentially noxious microbiota and their products. Intestinal mucosa covers 400m(2) in the human host, and, as a consequence, is the major portal of entry of the majority of known pathogens. But, in turn, some microorganisms have evolved many different approaches to circumvent this barrier, a direct consequence of natural co-evolution. The understanding of these mechanisms (known as virulence factors) used to interact and/or disrupt mucosal barriers should instruct us to a rational design of nanoparticulate delivery systems intended for oral vaccination and immunotherapy. This review deals with this mimetic approach to obtain nanocarriers capable to reach the epithelial cells after oral delivery and, in parallel, induce strong and long-lasting immune and protective responses.

  15. Bacteroides in the infant gut consume milk oligosaccharides via mucus-utilization pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcobal, Angela; Barboza, Mariana; Sonnenburg, Erica D; Pudlo, Nicholas; Martens, Eric C; Desai, Prerak; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Weimer, Bart C; Mills, David A; German, J Bruce; Sonnenburg, Justin L

    2011-11-17

    Newborns are colonized with an intestinal microbiota shortly after birth, but the factors governing the retention and abundance of specific microbial lineages are unknown. Nursing infants consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) that pass undigested to the distal gut, where they may be digested by microbes. We determined that the prominent neonate gut residents, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bacteroides fragilis, induce the same genes during HMO consumption that are used to harvest host mucus glycans, which are structurally similar to HMOs. Lacto-N-neotetraose, a specific HMO component, selects for HMO-adapted species such as Bifidobacterium infantis, which cannot use mucus, and provides a selective advantage to B. infantis in vivo when biassociated with B. thetaiotaomicron in the gnotobiotic mouse gut. This indicates that the complex oligosaccharide mixture within HMOs attracts both mutualistic mucus-adapted species and HMO-adapted bifidobacteria to the infant intestine that likely facilitate both milk and future solid food digestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autophagy is essential for ultrafine particle-induced inflammation and mucus hyperproduction in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Hua; Wu, Yin-Fang; Wang, Ping-Li; Wu, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhou-Yang; Zhao, Yun; Zhou, Jie-Sen; Zhu, Chen; Cao, Chao; Mao, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Feng; Wang, Bei-Bei; Cormier, Stephania A; Ying, Song-Min; Li, Wen; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Environmental ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is capable of inducing airway injury, while the detailed molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate pivotal roles of autophagy in regulation of inflammation and mucus hyperproduction induced by PM containing environmentally persistent free radicals in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and in mouse airways. PM was endocytosed by HBE cells and simultaneously triggered autophagosomes, which then engulfed the invading particles to form amphisomes and subsequent autolysosomes. Genetic blockage of autophagy markedly reduced PM-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, e.g. IL8 and IL6, and MUC5AC in HBE cells. Mice with impaired autophagy due to knockdown of autophagy-related gene Becn1 or Lc3b displayed significantly reduced airway inflammation and mucus hyperproduction in response to PM exposure in vivo. Interference of the autophagic flux by lysosomal inhibition resulted in accumulated autophagosomes/amphisomes, and intriguingly, this process significantly aggravated the IL8 production through NFKB1, and markedly attenuated MUC5AC expression via activator protein 1. These data indicate that autophagy is required for PM-induced airway epithelial injury, and that inhibition of autophagy exerts therapeutic benefits for PM-induced airway inflammation and mucus hyperproduction, although they are differentially orchestrated by the autophagic flux.

  17. Preliminary investigation on antimicrobial and proteolytic property of the epidermal mucus secretion of marine stingrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rathinam Vennila; Kalainesan Rajesh Kumar; Shankar Kanchana; Muthuvel Arumugam; Shanmugam Vijayalakshmi; Thangavel Balasubramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the antibacterial, antifungal, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the protease activity of the stingray mucus Dasyatis sephen (D. sephen) and Himantura gerrardi (H. gerrardi). Methods: Antimicrobial activity of crude aqueous, acidic and organic mucus extract was evaluated by disc diffusion method against human pathogens, MIC of the active samples were determined by spectrophotometric method and the protease activity which is responsible for the antimicrobial activity was determined by using zymogram method. Results:The crude acidic extracts of both the species showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) and the acidic extracts of both the species exhibit antifungal activity against all the tested pathogens. Remaining extracts didn't show any inhibitory activity. The acidic extracts of H. gerrardi is significantly active against S. typhi, E. coli, V. cholerae, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Alternaria alternaria (A. alternaria), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Candida tropicalis (C. tropicalis) at the minimum concentration of 16μg/mL, but the acidic extract of D. sephen required 32μg/mL of protein to inhibit S.typhi, E. coli, Aspergillus niger (A. niger), penicillium sp, T. mentagrophytes, A. alternaria. Both the D. sephen and H. gerrardi shows the proteolytic activity above the molecular mass of> 66 KDa. The characterization of protease class using inhibitors showed the presence of both serine and metallo protease in the the samples. Conclusions:Protease activity present in the sting ray mucus is one of the key factor responsible for the antimicrobial activity and the results proved the role of mucus in the innate immunity.

  18. Peptide-derivatized SB105-A10 dendrimer inhibits the infectivity of R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains in primary PBMCs and cervicovaginal histocultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Bon

    Full Text Available Peptide dendrimers are a class of molecules that exhibit a large array of biological effects including antiviral activity. In this report, we analyzed the antiviral activity of the peptide-derivatized SB105-A10 dendrimer, which is a tetra-branched dendrimer synthetized on a lysine core, in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs that were challenged with reference and wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strains. SB105-A10 inhibited infections by HIV-1 X4 and R5 strains, interfering with the early phases of the viral replication cycle. SB105-A10 targets heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs and, importantly, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR assay revealed that SB105-A10 strongly binds gp41 and gp120, most likely preventing HIV-1 attachment/entry through multiple mechanisms. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of SB105-A10 was also detectable in an organ-like structure of human cervicovaginal tissue, in which SB105-A10 inhibited the HIV-1ada R5 strain infection without altering the tissue viability. These results demonstrated the strong antiviral activity of SB105-A10 and suggest a potential microbicide use of this dendrimer to prevent the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1.

  19. Cervicovaginal Fluid Acetate: A Metabolite Marker of Preterm Birth in Symptomatic Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabebe, Emmanuel; Reynolds, Steven; Stern, Victoria; Stafford, Graham; Paley, Martyn; Anumba, Dilly O. C.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in vaginal microbiota that is associated with preterm birth (PTB) leave specific metabolite fingerprints that can be detected in the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) using metabolomics techniques. In this study, we characterize and validate the CVF metabolite profile of pregnant women presenting with symptoms of threatened preterm labor (PTL) by both 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and enzyme-based spectrophotometry. We also determine their predictive capacity for PTB, singly, and in combination, with current clinical screening tools – cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (FFN) and ultrasound cervical length (CL). CVF was obtained by high-vaginal swabs from 82 pregnant women with intact fetal membranes presenting between 24 and 36 weeks gestation with symptoms of threatened, but not established, PTL. Dissolved CVF samples were scanned with a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer. Acetate and other metabolites were identified in the NMR spectrum, integrated for peak area, and normalized to the total spectrum integral. To confirm and validate our observations, acetate concentrations (AceConc) were also determined from a randomly-selected subset of the same samples (n = 57), by spectrophotometric absorption of NADH using an acetic acid assay kit. CVF FFN level, transvaginal ultrasound CL, and vaginal pH were also ascertained. Acetate normalized integral and AceConc were significantly higher in the women who delivered preterm compared to their term counterparts (P = 0.002 and P = 0.006, respectively). The 1H-NMR-derived acetate integrals were strongly correlated with the AceConc estimated by spectrophotometry (r = 0.69; P 0.53 g/l), and of delivery within 2 weeks of the index assessment (acetate integral: AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.58–0.96; AceConc: AUC = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.5–0.9). The predictive accuracy of CVF acetate was similar to CL and FFN. The combination of CVF acetate, FFN, and ultrasound CL in a binary logistic

  20. Cervicovaginal fluid acetate: a metabolite marker of preterm birth in symptomatic pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Amabebe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in vaginal microbiota that are associated with preterm birth (PTB leave specific metabolite fingerprints that can be detected in the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF using metabolomics techniques. In this study we characterize and validate the CVF metabolite profile of pregnant women presenting with symptoms of threatened preterm labor (PTL by both 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR and enzyme-based spectrophotometry. We also determine their predictive capacity for PTB, singly and in combination with current clinical screening tools – cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (FFN and ultrasound cervical length (CL.CVF was obtained by high-vaginal swabs from 82 pregnant women with intact fetal membranes presenting between 24 and 36 weeks (wks gestation with symptoms of threatened, but not established, PTL. Dissolved CVF samples were scanned with a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer. Acetate and other metabolites were identified in the NMR spectrum, integrated for peak area, and normalized to the total spectrum integral. To confirm and validate our observations, acetate concentrations (AceConc were also determined from a randomly selected subset of the same samples (n=57, by spectrophotometric absorption of NADH using an acetic acid assay kit. CVF FFN level, transvaginal ultrasound CL, and vaginal pH were also ascertained.Acetate normalized integral and AceConc were significantly higher in the women who delivered preterm compared to their term counterparts (P=0.002 and P=0.006 respectively. The 1H-NMR-derived acetate integrals were strongly correlated with the AceConc estimated by spectrophotometry (r=0.69; P0.53 g/l, and of delivery within 2 weeks of the index assessment (acetate integral: AUC=0.77, 95% CI=0.58-0.96; AceConc: AUC=0.68, 95% CI=0.5-0.9. The combination of CVF acetate, FFN and ultrasound CL in a binary logistic regression model improved the prediction of PTB compared to the 3 markers individually. Elevated CVF acetate in women with

  1. Self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring HIV-1 and HSV-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Janet M; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Whitehead, Sara; Hanson, Debra L; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Cheng, Chen Y; Chonwattana, Wannee; Mueanpai, Famui; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Markowitz, Lauri; Dunne, Eileen F

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 and HSV-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women. To determine how self-collected genital swabs compare to provider-collected cervicovaginal lavage, paired self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage from women co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated. Women were in an acyclovir clinical trial and their samples were tested for HIV-1 RNA (361 samples) and HSV-2 DNA (378 samples). Virus shedding, quantity and acyclovir effect were compared. HIV-1 and HSV-2 were more frequently detected in self-collected genital swabs: 74.5% of self-collected genital swabs and 63.6% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HIV-1 (p ≤ 0.001, Fisher's exact test) and 29.7% of self-collected genital swabs and 19.3% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HSV-2 (p ≤ 0.001) in the placebo month. Cervicovaginal lavage and self-collected genital swabs virus levels were correlated (Spearman's rho, 0.68 for HIV; 0.61 for HSV-2) and self-collected genital swabs levels were generally higher. In multivariate modeling, self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage could equally detect the virus-suppressive effect of acyclovir: for HIV-1, proportional odds ratios were 0.42 and 0.47 and for HSV-2, they were 0.10 and 0.03 for self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage, respectively. Self-collected genital swabs should be considered for detection and measurement of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in clinical trials and other studies as they are a sensitive method to detect virus and can be collected in the home with frequent sampling.

  2. Characterization of shed medicinal leech mucus reveals a diverse microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Maree Ott

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial transmission through mucosal-mediated mechanisms is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. One example of this occurs with Hirudo verbana, the medicinal leech, where host attraction to shed conspecific mucus facilitates horizontal transmission of a predominant gut symbiont, the Gammaproteobacterium Aeromonas veronii. However, whether this mucus may harbor other bacteria has not been examined. Here, we characterize the microbiota of shed leech mucus through Illumina deep sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP typing with subsequent Sanger Sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene clone library provided qualitative confirmation of the microbial composition. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length 16S rRNA sequences were performed to examine microbial taxonomic distribution. Analyses using both technologies indicate the dominance of the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla within the mucus microbiota. We determined the presence of other previously described leech symbionts, in addition to a number of putative novel leech-associated bacteria. A second predominant gut symbiont, the Rikenella-like bacteria, was also identified within mucus and exhibited similar population dynamics to A. veronii, suggesting persistence in syntrophy beyond the gut. Interestingly, the most abundant bacterial genus belonged to Pedobacter, which includes members capable of producing heparinase, an enzyme that degrades the anticoagulant, heparin. Additionally, bacteria associated with denitrification and sulfate cycling were observed, indicating an abundance of these anions within mucus, likely originating from the leech excretory system. A diverse microbiota harbored within shed mucus has significant potential implications for the evolution of microbiomes, including opportunities for gene transfer and utility in host capture of a diverse group of symbionts.

  3. Antisperm antibodies in cervical mucus in an unselected subfertile population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert-Kruse, W; Böckem-Hellwig, S; Doll, A; Rohr, G; Tilgen, W; Runnebaum, B

    1993-07-01

    To determine the incidence and the clinical significance of antisperm antibodies (ASA) in cervical secretions in an unselected subfertile population, cervical mucus samples of 192 patients with long-standing infertility were screened by means of the indirect mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) test allowing differentiation for immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG in a parallel test setting. In addition, the indirect MAR IgG test in cervical mucus was evaluated by means of IgG coated latex particles instead of sensitized erythrocytes as the indicator system. All cervical mucus samples were taken under standardized conditions. Results of ASA determination were related to microbial findings in the cervix and the outcome of sperm-mucus interaction testing in vivo and in vitro, and the subsequent fertility in a prospective study. The total incidence of cervical mucus ASA within this population was low (testing with latex microspheres as indicator particles. Results were not influenced by microbial colonization of the cervix and were not markedly related to lymphocytes subset testing. All ASA positive women had a negative outcome of the post-coital test, but the majority of negative post-coital tests was not caused by local mucus antibodies of the IgG and/or IgA class. In patients with positive indirect MAR testing in cervical mucus, there was no pregnancy within an observation period of > 12 months. In conclusion, the results indicate the ASA in cervical secretions are not frequent but nevertheless are a severe cause of infertility when present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Comparison of Murine Cervicovaginal Infection by Chlamydial Strains: Identification of Extrusions Shed In vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jennifer H.; Behar, Amanda R.; Snider, Timothy A.; Allen, Noah A.; Lutter, Erika I.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and preventable blindness. Untreated, asymptomatic infection as well as frequent re-infection are common and may drive pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. In vivo models of chlamydial infection continue to be instrumental in progress toward a vaccine and further elucidating the pathogenesis of this intracellular bacterium, however significant gaps in our understanding remain. Chlamydial host cell exit occurs via two mechanisms, lysis and extrusion, although the latter has yet to be reported in vivo and its biological role is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether chlamydial extrusions are shed in vivo following infection with multiple strains of Chlamydia. We utilized an established C3H/HeJ murine cervicovaginal infection model with C. trachomatis serovars D and L2 and the Chlamydia muridarum strain MoPn to monitor the (i) time course of infection and mode of host cell exit, (ii) mucosal and systemic immune response to infection, and (iii) gross and histopathology following clearance of active infection. The key finding herein is the first identification of chlamydial extrusions shed from host cells in an in vivo model. Extrusions, a recently appreciated mode of host cell exit and potential means of dissemination, had been previously observed solely in vitro. The results of this study demonstrate that chlamydial extrusions exist in vivo and thus warrant further investigation to determine their role in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:28217555

  5. Cervico-vaginal immunoglobulin G levels increase post-ovulation independently of neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrein Schaefer

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs is often higher in females than in males. Although the reproductive cycle profoundly modulates local immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT system, significant gaps in our knowledge of the immunobiology of the FRT still exist. An intriguing and frequently observed characteristic of the FRT is the predominant presence of immunoglobulin (Ig G in cervico-vaginal secretions. We show here that in the mouse, IgG accumulation was enhanced approximately 5-fold post-ovulation, and was accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the FRT. To determine whether these two events were causally related, we performed short-term neutrophil depletion experiments at individual stages throughout the estrous cycle. Our results demonstrate that neutrophils were not necessary for cycle-dependent tissue remodeling and cycle progression and that cycle-dependent IgG accumulation occurred independent of neutrophils. We thus conclude that neutrophil influx and IgG accumulation are independent events that occur in the FRT during the reproductive cycle.

  6. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Amy Liese; Cole, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT) are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa. PMID:27025760

  7. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Liese Cole

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa.

  8. The prevalence of actinomycetes-like organisms found in cervicovaginal smears of 300 IUD wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M C; Buschmann, B O; Dowling, E A; Pollock, H M

    1979-01-01

    The association of Actinomyces with IUD wearers has been widely documented and the possibility of the recognition of actinomycetes-like organisms in routine Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears has been reported. We conducted a retrospective study of IUD wearers to determine the prevalence and significance of actinomycetes-like organisms found in such smears. Three hundred smears from current IUD wearers were rescreened for actinomycetes-like organisms. Of this group, 200 patients were from a public health family planning clinic, and 100 were private patients. The incidence for the public health group was 25.5% and for the private patient group, 8%. A case history of actinomycosis is included. Findings such as other infectious agents, abnormal cytology and symptoms are also discussed. Although the presence of Actinomyces probably represents an opportunistic infection, the threat of pelvic actinomycosis with serious complications poses a management problem to the clinician when Actinomyces is reported in a routine Papanicolaou smear. Our findings lead us to question the practicality of the earlier recommendations of IUD removal and antibiotic therapy.

  9. Nanoparticle passage through porcine jejunal mucus: Microfluidics and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Mahon, Eugene; Harrison, Sabine M; McGetrick, Jim; Muniyappa, Mohankumar; Carrington, Stephen D; Brayden, David J

    2017-04-01

    A micro-slide chamber was used to screen and rank sixteen functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles (SiNP) of different sizes (10, 50, 100 and 200 nm) and surface coatings (aminated, carboxylated, methyl-PEG1000ylated, and methyl-PEG2000ylated) according to their capacity to permeate porcine jejunal mucus. Variables investigated were influence of particle size, surface charge and methyl-PEGylation. The anionic SiNP showed higher transport through mucus whereas the cationic SiNP exhibited higher binding with lower transport. A size-dependence in transport was identified - 10 and 50 nm anionic (uncoated or methyl-PEGylated) SiNP showed higher transport compared to the larger 100 and 200 nm SiNP. The cationic SiNP of all sizes interacted with the mucus, making it more viscous and less capable of swelling. In contrast, the anionic SiNP (uncoated or methyl-PEGylated) caused minimal changes in the viscoelasticity of mucus. The data provide insights into mucus-NP interactions and suggest a rationale for designing oral nanomedicines with improved mucopermeability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complex rheological behaviors of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) skin mucus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang, E-mail: 11229036@zju.edu.cn; Su, Heng, E-mail: shtdyso@163.com; Lv, Weiyang, E-mail: 3090103369@zju.edu.cn; Du, Miao, E-mail: dumiao@zju.edu.cn; Song, Yihu, E-mail: s-yh0411@zju.edu.cn; Zheng, Qiang, E-mail: zhengqiang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The functions and structures of biological mucus are closely linked to rheology. In this article, the skin mucus of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) was proved to be a weak hydrogel susceptible to shear rate, time, and history, exhibiting: (i) Two-region breakdown of its gel structure during oscillatory strain sweep; (ii) rate-dependent thickening followed by three-region thinning with increased shear rate, and straight thinning with decreased shear rate; and (iii) time-dependent rheopexy at low shear rates, and thixotropy at high shear rates. An interesting correlation between the shear rate- and time-dependent rheological behaviors was also revealed, i.e., the rheopexy-thixotropy transition coincided with the first-second shear thinning region transition. Apart from rheology, a structure of colloidal network was observed in loach skin mucus using transmission electron microscopy. The complex rheology was speculated to result from inter- and intracolloid structural alterations. The unique rheology associated with the colloidal network structure, which has never been previously reported in vertebrate mucus, may play a key role in the functions (e.g., flow, reannealing, lubrication, and barrier) of the mucus.

  11. DNA Supercoiling Regulates the Motility of Campylobacter jejuni and Is Altered by Growth in the Presence of Chicken Mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Claire; Scanlan, Eoin; Hilliard, Amber; Cotroneo, Chiara E; Bourke, Billy; Ó Cróinín, Tadhg

    2016-09-13

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, but relatively little is known about the global regulation of virulence factors during infection of chickens or humans. This study identified DNA supercoiling as playing a key role in regulating motility and flagellar protein production and found that this supercoiling-controlled regulon is induced by growth in chicken mucus. A direct correlation was observed between motility and resting DNA supercoiling levels in different strains of C. jejuni, and relaxation of DNA supercoiling resulted in decreased motility. Transcriptional analysis and Western immunoblotting revealed that a reduction in motility and DNA supercoiling affected the two-component regulatory system FlgRS and was associated with reduced FlgR expression, increased FlgS expression, and aberrant expression of flagellin subunits. Electron microscopy revealed that the flagellar structure remained intact. Growth in the presence of porcine mucin resulted in increased negative supercoiling, increased motility, increased FlgR expression, and reduced FlgS expression. Finally, this supercoiling-dependent regulon was shown to be induced by growth in chicken mucus, and the level of activation was dependent on the source of the mucus from within the chicken intestinal tract. In conclusion, this study reports for the first time the key role played by DNA supercoiling in regulating motility in C. jejuni and indicates that the induction of this supercoiling-induced regulon in response to mucus from different sources could play a critical role in regulating motility in vivo Although Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, very little is understood about how this pathogen controls the expression of genes involved in causing disease. This study for the first time identifies DNA supercoiling as a key regulator of motility in C. jejuni, which is essential for both pathogenesis and colonization. Altering the

  12. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  13. RESEARCHES ON THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF CERVICAL MUCUS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZABELA MARTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To succeed in artificial insemination and to produce the fecundation in cows it isnecessary to have knowledge about optimal time of ovulation. Such possibilityappears using the values of electrical resistance of cervical mucus. The smallestvalues are obtained during the ovulation due to the pH modification influenced by theestrogens. The purpose of the paper was to determine the electrical resistance of thecervical mucus in cows with clinical signs of estrus, depending on females’ age. Also,the electrical resistance of the cervical mucus in cows in different physiologicalstages (pregnant, no pregnant was measured. The ovulation detector DRAMINSKIwas used. This equipment allows to obtained a quickly and precise rapport on thephysiological stage of the cow. It can be detected the cow with atypical ovulation,irregular ovulation. This method improve the insemination efficiency, allowsdetecting early gestation period or the moment of ovulation. All these have a positiveinfluence on the development strategy of the farm and improve the economicperformances.

  14. Mucus Distribution Model in a Lung with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Zarei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is the most common autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians with a reported incidence of 1 in every 3200 live births. Most strikingly, CF is associated with early mortality. Host in flammatory responses result in airway mucus plugging, airway wall edema, and eventual destruction of airway wall support structure. Despite aggressive treatment, the median age of survival is approximately 38 years. This work is the first attempt to parameterize the distributions of mucus in a CF lung as a function of time. By default, the model makes arbitrary choices at each stage of the construction process, whereby the simplest choice is made. The model is sophisticated enough to fit the average CF patients' spirometric data over time and to identify several interesting parameters: probability of colonization, mucus volume growth rate, and scarring rate. Extensions of the model appropriate for describing the dynamics of single patient MRI data are also discussed.

  15. In vivo determination of mouse olfactory mucus cation concentrations in normal and inflammatory states.

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    Senthil Selvaraj

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Olfaction is impaired in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS. The study has two aims: (1 to determine whether changes in cation concentration occur in the olfactory mucus of mice with CRS, which may affect chemo-electrical transduction, (2 and to examine whether these alterations are physiologically significant in humans. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study in mice and translational study in humans. METHODS: Inflammation was induced by sensitization and chronic exposure of 16 C57BL/6 mice to Aspergillus fumigatus. The control group included 16 untreated mice. Ion-selective microelectrodes were used to measure free cation concentrations in the olfactory mucus of 8 mice from each treatment group, while the remaining mice were sacrificed for histology. To validate the findings in the animal model, olfactory threshold was measured in 11 healthy human participants using Sniffin' Sticks before and after nasal irrigation with solutions that were composed of either of the cation concentrations. RESULTS: In 8 mice, olfactory mucus of chronically inflamed mice had lower [Na(+] (84.8±4.45 mM versus 93.73±3.06 mM, p = 0.02, and higher [K(+] (7.2±0.65 mM versus 5.7±0.20 mM, p = 0.04 than controls. No difference existed in [Ca(2+] (0.50±0.12 mM versus 0.54±0.06 mM, p = 0.39. In humans, rinsing with solutions replicating ion concentrations of the mouse mucosa with chronic inflammation caused a significant elevation in the median olfactory threshold (9.0 to 4.8, p = 0.003 but not with the control solution (8.3 to 7.8, p = 0.75. CONCLUSION: Chronic inflammation elevates potassium and lowers sodium ion concentration in mice olfactory mucus. Nasal irrigation with a corresponding solution induced olfactory threshold shift in humans.

  16. A comparative analysis of conventional and SurePath liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology: A study of 140 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of Papanicolaou (Pap test in cervical cancer screening need not be overemphasized. While most Western countries have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC, which is considered superior, many developing countries are still using the conventional Pap smear (CPS technique. Objective: To compare the staining and cytomorphological features on conventional versus liquid-based cervicovaginal smears. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty cervicovaginal smears prepared by the standard conventional and LBC techniques were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting cervicovaginal smears. Twelve parameters were studied, compared, and statistically analyzed. A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: 129/140 (92% of CPSs and 130/140 (93% LBC smears were satisfactory. LBC had a significantly shorter screening time (2.0 ± 0.08 vs 4.0 ± 0.65 and better representative material than that of CPS (50% vs 42%. Neutrophils were significantly more in CPS than LBC (96% vs 92% with a P value <0.05 while hemorrhagic background and red blood cells (RBCs were more prominent in CPS. LBC showed significant artifactual changes in squamous epithelial cells. Epithelial abnormalities ranging from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were seen in 3% (4 and 2% (2 of CPSs and LBCs, respectively. Organisms were better picked up in CPS (99% in CPS vs 73% LBC with a value of P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Although a shorter screening time and cleaner background are the major advantages of LBC, CPS is not inferior to LBC. Considering the high cost, rather than the advantages associated with LBC, we feel that CPS is a better option for developing countries.

  17. Susceptibility to Chronic Mucus Hypersecretion, a Genome Wide Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E.; Smolonska, Joanna; van den Berge, Maarten; Wijmenga, Ciska; Zanen, Pieter; Luinge, Marjan A.; Platteel, Mathieu; Lammers, Jan-Willem; Dahlback, Magnus; Tosh, Kerrie; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Sterk, Peter J.; Spira, Avi; Vestbo, Jorgen; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Benn, Marianne; Nielsen, Sune F.; Dahl, Morten; Verschuren, W. Monique; Picavet, H. Susan J.; Smit, Henriette A.; Owsijewitsch, Michael; Kauczor, Hans U.; de Koning, Harry J.; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Eva; Mejza, Filip; Nastalek, Pawel; van Diemen, Cleo C.; Cho, Michael H.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Lomas, David A.; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Bossé, Yohan; Obeidat, M. A.; Loth, Daan W.; Lahousse, Lies; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Andre; Stricker, Bruno H.; Brusselle, Guy G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Brouwer, Uilke; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Vonk, Judith M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Timens, Wim; Boezen, H. Marike; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a minority of smokers develops CMH. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is a predisposing genetic constitution. Therefore, we performed a genome wide association (GWA) study of CMH in Caucasian populations. Methods GWA analysis was performed in the NELSON-study using the Illumina 610 array, followed by replication and meta-analysis in 11 additional cohorts. In total 2,704 subjects with, and 7,624 subjects without CMH were included, all current or former heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years). Additional studies were performed to test the functional relevance of the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Results A strong association with CMH, consistent across all cohorts, was observed with rs6577641 (p = 4.25×10−6, OR = 1.17), located in intron 9 of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 locus (SATB1) on chromosome 3. The risk allele (G) was associated with higher mRNA expression of SATB1 (4.3×10−9) in lung tissue. Presence of CMH was associated with increased SATB1 mRNA expression in bronchial biopsies from COPD patients. SATB1 expression was induced during differentiation of primary human bronchial epithelial cells in culture. Conclusions Our findings, that SNP rs6577641 is associated with CMH in multiple cohorts and is a cis-eQTL for SATB1, together with our additional observation that SATB1 expression increases during epithelial differentiation provide suggestive evidence that SATB1 is a gene that affects CMH. PMID:24714607

  18. Susceptibility to chronic mucus hypersecretion, a genome wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkelies E Dijkstra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a minority of smokers develops CMH. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is a predisposing genetic constitution. Therefore, we performed a genome wide association (GWA study of CMH in Caucasian populations. METHODS: GWA analysis was performed in the NELSON-study using the Illumina 610 array, followed by replication and meta-analysis in 11 additional cohorts. In total 2,704 subjects with, and 7,624 subjects without CMH were included, all current or former heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years. Additional studies were performed to test the functional relevance of the most significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. RESULTS: A strong association with CMH, consistent across all cohorts, was observed with rs6577641 (p = 4.25×10(-6, OR = 1.17, located in intron 9 of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 locus (SATB1 on chromosome 3. The risk allele (G was associated with higher mRNA expression of SATB1 (4.3×10(-9 in lung tissue. Presence of CMH was associated with increased SATB1 mRNA expression in bronchial biopsies from COPD patients. SATB1 expression was induced during differentiation of primary human bronchial epithelial cells in culture. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, that SNP rs6577641 is associated with CMH in multiple cohorts and is a cis-eQTL for SATB1, together with our additional observation that SATB1 expression increases during epithelial differentiation provide suggestive evidence that SATB1 is a gene that affects CMH.

  19. In captive rhesus macaques, cervicovaginal inflammation is common but not associated with the stable polymicrobial microbiome.

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    Gregory Spear

    Full Text Available Vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques (RM with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV has been used to study the biology of HIV transmission. Although the results of vaginal SIV transmission experiments could be affected by vaginal inflammation, studies to date have been conducted without regard to levels of pre-existing genital inflammation present in RM. We collected cevicovaginal secretions (CVS from 33-36 RM during the mid menstrual cycle (day 10-20 at 2 time points approximately 8 months apart and characterized the mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and interferon-stimulated genes. There was extreme variability in the levels of inflammatory mediators (IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF, IL-1b, IP-10, MIG, IL-12 and IL-17. In most animals, the mRNA levels of the inflammatory mediators were similar in the 2 CVS samples collected 8 months apart, suggesting that genital inflammation is stable in a subset of captive female RM. At both time points the cervicovaginal microbiota had low levels of Lactobacillus and was relatively diverse with an average of 13 genera in the samples from the first time point (median 13, range 7-21 and an average of 11.5 genera in the samples from the second time point (median 11, range 5-20. Many of the macaques had similar microbiota in the samples collected 8 months apart. However, we found no correlation between specific bacterial genera and the mRNA or protein levels of the inflammatory mediators in the genital tract of RM in this study. It seems likely that results of published vaginal SIV transmission experiments in RM have been influenced by pre-existing inflammation in the animals used for the experiments.

  20. Cervicovaginal Neutralizing Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Women Seropositive for HSV Types 1 and 2

    OpenAIRE

    Mbopi-Kéou, Francois-Xavier; Bélec, Laurent; Dalessio, Julie; Legoff, Jérôme; Grésenguet, Gérard; Mayaud, Philippe; Brown, David W.G.; Ashley Morrow, Rhoda

    2003-01-01

    Antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA isotypes were detected in the cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) of 77 HSV-1- and HSV-2-seropositive but clinically asymptomatic African women by type-specific enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting (ECL-WB). Of the 77 subjects, 34 were HIV negative, shedding HSV-2 DNA in their genital secretions; 20 were HIV positive, shedding HSV-2 DNA; and 23 were HIV negative, not shedding HSV-2 DNA. HSV-sp...

  1. Direct visualization of mucus production by the cold-water coral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetsche, E.-M.; Baussant, T.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Lophelia pertusa is the dominant reef-building organism of cold-water coral reefs, and is known to produce significant amounts of mucus, which could involve an important metabolic cost. Mucus is involved in particle removal and feeding processes, yet the triggers and dynamics of mucus product

  2. Intestinal Mucus Gel and Secretory Antibody are Barriers to Campylobacter jejuni Adherence to INT 407 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    An in vitro mucus assay was developed to study the role of mucus gel and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in preventing attachment of Campylobacter ... jejuni to INT 407 cells. An overlay of rabbit small intestinal mucus was found to impede the attachment of C. jejuni to a monolayer of INT 407 cells

  3. Steric and interactive barrier properties of intestinal mucus elucidated by particle diffusion and peptide permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegh, Marie; García-Díaz, María; Müllertz, Anette; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-09-01

    The mucus lining of the gastrointestinal tract epithelium is recognized as a barrier to efficient oral drug delivery. Recently, a new in vitro model for assessment of drug permeation across intestinal mucosa was established by applying a biosimilar mucus matrix to the surface of Caco-2 cell monolayers. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the steric and interactive barrier properties of intestinal mucus by studying the permeation of peptides and model compounds across the biosimilar mucus as well as across porcine intestinal mucus (PIM). As PIM disrupted the Caco-2 cell monolayers, a cell-free mucus barrier model was implemented in the studies. Both the biosimilar mucus and the PIM reduced the permeation of the selected peptide drugs to varying degrees illustrating the interactive properties of both mucus matrices. The reduction in peptide permeation was decreased depending on the cationicity and H-bonding capacity of the permeant clearly demonstrated by using the biosimilar mucus, whereas the larger inter sample variation of the PIM matrix obstructed similarly clear conclusions. Thus, for mechanistic studies of permeation across mucus and mucosa the biosimilar mucus offers a relevant and reproducible alternative to native mucus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Susceptibility to Chronic Mucus Hypersecretion, a Genome Wide Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E; Smolonska, Joanna; van den Berge, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is associated with an increased frequency of respiratory infections, excess lung function decline, and increased hospitalisation and mortality rates in the general population. It is associated with smoking, but it is unknown why only a minority of sm...

  5. Sodium alginate decreases the permeability of intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Alan R; Macierzanka, Adam; Aarak, Kristi; Rigby, Neil M; Parker, Roger; Channell, Guy A; Harding, Stephen E; Bajka, Balazs H

    2016-01-01

    In the small intestine the nature of the environment leads to a highly heterogeneous mucus layer primarily composed of the MUC2 mucin. We set out to investigate whether the soluble dietary fibre sodium alginate could alter the permeability of the mucus layer. The alginate was shown to freely diffuse into the mucus and to have minimal effect on the bulk rheology when added at concentrations below 0.1%. Despite this lack of interaction between the mucin and alginate, the addition of alginate had a marked effect on the diffusion of 500 nm probe particles, which decreased as a function of increasing alginate concentration. Finally, we passed a protein stabilised emulsion through a simulation of oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion. We subsequently showed that the addition of 0.1% alginate to porcine intestinal mucus decreased the diffusion of fluorescently labelled lipid present in the emulsion digesta. This reduction may be sufficient to reduce problems associated with high rates of lipid absorption such as hyperlipidaemia.

  6. Accumulation of nanoparticles in “jellyfish” mucus: a bio-inspired route to decontamination of nano-waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwa, Amit; Thiéry, Alain; Lombard, Fabien; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Boisset, Claire; Bramard, Jean-François; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    The economic and societal impacts of nano-materials are enormous. However, releasing such materials in the environment could be detrimental to human health and the ecological biosphere. Here we demonstrate that gold and quantum dots nanoparticles bio-accumulate into mucus materials coming from natural species such as jellyfish. One strategy that emerges from this finding would be to take advantage of these trapping properties to remove nanoparticles from contaminated water.

  7. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  8. Pirenzepine block of ACh-induced mucus secretion in tracheal submucosal gland cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, J.M.; Dwyer, T.M. (Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Muscarinic stimulation of mucus secretion, as measured by the release of ({sup 3}H)glycoprotein, was studied in explants from the tracheal epithelium of weanling swine. The mucus glycoprotein secretion was transient, ceasing within the first 10 min of a continuous exposure to 100 {mu}M ACh. Increasing the solutions' osmotic pressure did not alter basal mucus glycoprotein secretion. Mucus glycoprotein secretion was inhibited by 2-10 {mu}M PZP, indicting that the M{sub 3} muscarinic receptors mediate cholinergic stimulation of mucus production.

  9. In situ variation of cervical mucus pH during exposure to atmospheric air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa C.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if exposure of cervical mucus to air during specular examination could modify mucus pH. Detection of changes is justified because of their possible interference with sperm-mucus interaction, since an acidic pH is unfavorable to sperm penetration and is associated with infertility due to the cervical factor. Twenty women with good quality mucus were evaluated. pH measurements of ecto- and endocervical mucus were made in situ using a glass electrode after 0-, 5- and 10-min exposure to air. There was a progressive alkalinization of mucus pH. Mean values of ectocervical mucus pH were 6.91, 7.16 and 7.27, while mean values of endocervical mucus pH were 7.09, 7.34 and 7.46 at 0, 5 and 10 min, respectively. Significant differences were found between the mean values obtained at 0 and 5 min, and at 0 and 10 min (P<0.05, whereas the differences in mean values at 5 and 10 min were not significant at either site. We conclude that 5 to 10 min of exposure to atmospheric air affects cervical mucus pH in a significant way. Since tests used to evaluate sperm-mucus interaction generally have not considered this possibility, we suggest that they should be performed immediately after mucus collection in order to avoid misinterpretation of the results.

  10. The Interaction of Large Bowel Microflora with the Colonic Mucus Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Pearson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The colonic mucus barrier is the first line of defence that the underlying mucosa has against the wide range of potentially damaging agents of microbial, endogenous, and dietary origin that occur within the colonic lumen. The functional component of mucus is the secreted, polymeric glycoprotein mucin. The mucus barrier can either act as an energy source or a support medium for growth to the intestinal microflora. The mucus barrier appears to effectively partition the vast number of microbial cells from the underlying epithelium. The normal functionality and biochemistry of this mucus barrier appears to be lost in diseases of the colorectal mucosa. Germ-free animal studies have highlighted the necessity of the presence of the colonic microflora to drive the maturation of the colonic mucosa and normal mucus production. A number of by-products of the microflora have been suggested to be key luminal drivers of colonic mucus secretion.

  11. Comparison of the Caco-2, HT-29 and the mucus-secreting HT29-MTX intestinal cell models to investigate Salmonella adhesion and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Mélanie; Zihler Berner, Annina; Chervet, Noémie; Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-09-01

    Human intestinal cell models are widely used to study host-enteric pathogen interactions, with different cell lines exhibiting specific characteristics and functions in the gut epithelium. In particular, the presence of mucus may play an important role in adhesion and invasion of pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the mucus-secreting HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cell model to test adhesion and invasion of Salmonella strains and compare with data obtained with the more commonly used Caco-2 and HT-29 models. Adhesion of Salmonella to HT29-MTX cell model was significantly higher, likely due to high adhesiveness to mucins present in the native human mucus layer covering the whole cell surface, compared to the non- and low-mucus producing Caco-2 and HT-29 cell models, respectively. In addition, invasion percentages of some clinical Salmonella strains to HT29-MTX cultures were remarkably higher than to Caco-2 and HT-29 cells suggesting that these Salmonellae have subverted the mucus to enhance pathogenicity. The transepithelial electrical resistances of the infected HT29-MTX cell model decreased broadly and were highly correlated with invasion ability of the strain. Staining of S. Typhimurium-infected cell epithelium confirmed the higher invasion by Salmonella and subsequent disruption of tight junctions of HT29-MTX cell model compared with the Caco-2 and HT-29 cell models. Data from this study suggest that the HT29-MTX cell model, with more physiologically relevant characteristics with the mucus layer formation, could be better suited for studying cells-pathogens interactions.

  12. Eosinophil cationic protein stimulates and major basic protein inhibits airway mucus secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Davey, R T; Lundgren, B

    1991-01-01

    Possible roles of eosinophil (EO) products in modulating the release of mucus from airway explants were investigated. Cell- and membrane-free lysates from purified human EOs (1 to 20 x 10(5)) caused a dose-dependent release of respiratory glycoconjugates (RGC) from cultured feline tracheal explants...... chromatography. ECP (0.025 to 25 micrograms/ml) caused a dose-dependent increase in RGC release from both feline and human airway explants and also stimulated the release of the serous cell-marker, lactoferrin, from human bronchial explants. EO-derived neurotoxin (0.025 to 50 micrograms/ml) failed to affect RGC...... release, whereas MBP (50 micrograms/ml) significantly inhibited RGC release from feline explants. Thus, ECP stimulates RGC and lactoferrin release from airway explants, whereas MBP inhibits RGC release....

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Eel (Anguilla spp.) Mucus against Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Tomy Nurtamin; Resty Yulianita Nurman; Indria Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever has become one global health problem. Typhoid fever is caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Salmonella typhi. Eel (Anguilla spp.) is a fish which lives in the sea or in freshwater. Several previous studies have found that Anguilla spp. mucus has the ability as antibacterial against Gram-positive and negative. Although the antibacterial activity of Anguilla spp. against various pathogens had been reported, very little is known about its activity against Salmonella typ...

  14. A Novel Oligosaccharide from the Mucus of the Loach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel oligosaccharide was isolated and purified from the mucus of the loach,Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.It was identified by several qualitative tests and characterized by elementary analysis,UV and IR spectrum.Its average molecular weight (Mw=1539.4) was determined by gel permeation chromatography.The major structural monomers of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus oligosaccharide were identified to be D-galactose and L-fucose by paper chromatography and gas chromatography.

  15. Highly compacted biodegradable DNA nanoparticles capable of overcoming the mucus barrier for inhaled lung gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; da Silva, Adriana L; Chisholm, Jane; Song, Eric; Choi, Won Kyu; Boyle, Michael P; Morales, Marcelo M; Hanes, Justin; Suk, Jung Soo

    2015-07-14

    Gene therapy has emerged as an alternative for the treatment of diseases refractory to conventional therapeutics. Synthetic nanoparticle-based gene delivery systems offer highly tunable platforms for the delivery of therapeutic genes. However, the inability to achieve sustained, high-level transgene expression in vivo presents a significant hurdle. The respiratory system, although readily accessible, remains a challenging target, as effective gene therapy mandates colloidal stability in physiological fluids and the ability to overcome biological barriers found in the lung. We formulated highly stable DNA nanoparticles based on state-of-the-art biodegradable polymers, poly(β-amino esters) (PBAEs), possessing a dense corona of polyethylene glycol. We found that these nanoparticles efficiently penetrated the nanoporous and highly adhesive human mucus gel layer that constitutes a primary barrier to reaching the underlying epithelium. We also discovered that these PBAE-based mucus-penetrating DNA nanoparticles (PBAE-MPPs) provided uniform and high-level transgene expression throughout the mouse lungs, superior to several gold standard gene delivery systems. PBAE-MPPs achieved robust transgene expression over at least 4 mo following a single administration, and their transfection efficiency was not attenuated by repeated administrations, underscoring their clinical relevance. Importantly, PBAE-MPPs demonstrated a favorable safety profile with no signs of toxicity following intratracheal administration.

  16. Copper oxide nanoparticles aggravate airway inflammation and mucus production in asthmatic mice via MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Won; Lee, In-Chul; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Ko, Je-Won; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Shin, In-Sik; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs), metal oxide nanoparticles were used in multiple applications including wood preservation, antimicrobial textiles, catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation and heat transfer fluid in machines. We investigated the effects of CuONPs on the respiratory system in Balb/c mice. In addition, to investigate the effects of CuONPs on asthma development, we used a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. CuONPs markedly increased airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts, proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS). CuONPs induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion with increases in phosphorylation of the MAPKs (Erk, JNK and p38). In the OVA-induced asthma model, CuONPs aggravated the increased AHR, inflammatory cell count, proinflammatory cytokines, ROS and immunoglobulin E induced by OVA exposure. In addition, CuONPs markedly increased inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung and mucus secretions, and MAPK phosphorylation was elevated compared to OVA-induced asthmatic mice. Taken together, CuONPs exhibited toxicity on the respiratory system, which was associated with the MAPK phosphorylation. In addition, CuONPs exposure aggravated the development of asthma. We conclude that CuONPs exposure has a potential toxicity in humans with respiratory disease.

  17. Effect of chest physiotherapy on the removal of mucus in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossman, C.M.; Waldes, R.; Sampson, D.; Newhouse, M.T.

    1982-07-01

    We studied the effectiveness of some of the components of a physiotherapy regimen on the removal of mucus from the lungs of 6 subjects with cystic fibrosis. On 5 randomized study days, after inhalation of a /sup 99/mTc-human serum albumin aerosol to label primarily the large airways, the removal of lung radioactivity was measured during 40 min of (a) spontaneous cough while at rest (control), (b) postural drainage, (c) postural drainage plus mechanical percussion, (d) combined maneuvers (postural drainage, deep breathing with vibrations, and percussion) administered by a physiotherapist, (e) directed vigorous cough. Measurements continued for an additional 2 h of quiet rest. Compared with the control day, all forms of intervention significantly improved the removal of mucus: cough (p less than 0.005), physiotherapy maneuvers (0.005 less than or equal to p less than 0.01), postural drainage (p less than 0.05), and postural drainage plus percussion (p less than 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between regimented cough alone and therapist-administered combined maneuvers, nor between postural drainage alone and with mechanical percussion. We conclude that in cystic fibrosis, vigorous, regimented cough sessions may be as effective as therapist-administered physiotherapy in removing pulmonary secretions. Postural drainage, although better than the control maneuver, was not as effective as cough and was not enhanced by mechanical percussion. Frequent, vigorous self-directed cough sessions are potentially as useful as more complex measures for effective bronchial toilet.

  18. New developments in goblet cell mucus secretion and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, G M H; Johansson, M E V; Gustafsson, J K; Bergström, J H; Hansson, G C

    2015-07-01

    Goblet cells and their main secretory product, mucus, have long been poorly appreciated; however, recent discoveries have changed this and placed these cells at the center stage of our understanding of mucosal biology and the immunology of the intestinal tract. The mucus system differs substantially between the small and large intestine, although it is built around MUC2 mucin polymers in both cases. Furthermore, that goblet cells and the regulation of their secretion also differ between these two parts of the intestine is of fundamental importance for a better understanding of mucosal immunology. There are several types of goblet cell that can be delineated based on their location and function. The surface colonic goblet cells secrete continuously to maintain the inner mucus layer, whereas goblet cells of the colonic and small intestinal crypts secrete upon stimulation, for example, after endocytosis or in response to acetyl choline. However, despite much progress in recent years, our understanding of goblet cell function and regulation is still in its infancy.

  19. Reducing mucus production after urinary reconstruction: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Dow, J; Robson, C N; Matthews, J N; Neal, D E; Pearson, J P

    2001-05-01

    After transposition into the urinary tract, intestinal segments continue to produce mucus. We determine the effectiveness of muco-regulatory drugs, including N-acetylcysteine, aspirin and ranitidine, in reducing mucus secretion and urine viscosity in patients with transposed segments. Our trial was a prospective randomized, double-blind placebo controlled crossover study involving 12 patients who underwent ileal conduit and 31 who underwent bladder reconstruction. Each treatment lasted 3 weeks with a 2-week washout. Pretreatment and posttreatment 24-hour urine samples were analyzed for mucin and viscosity after papain digestion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and periodic acid-Schiff assay. A disease specific questionnaire and SF-36 quality of life survey were completed. According to the questionnaire, mucus production did not decrease with time in 67% of patients. Mucin comprised 3% of the total nondialyzable material in urine (65 mg./24-hour for ileal conduit and 60 mg./24-hour for bladder reconstruction). Analysis of questionnaires and laboratory results failed to demonstrate any benefit of taking muco-regulatory agents compared with placebo. The use of N-acetylcysteine, aspirin and ranitidine did not result in a reduction in mucin production, urine viscosity or improvement in quality of life.

  20. The influence of small intestinal mucus structure on particle transport ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajka, Balázs H; Rigby, Neil M; Cross, Kathryn L; Macierzanka, Adam; Mackie, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    Mucus provides a barrier to bacteria and toxins while allowing nutrient absorption and waste transport. Unlike colonic mucus, small intestinal mucus structure is poorly understood. This study aimed to provide evidence for a continuous, structured mucus layer and assess the diffusion of different sized particles through it. Mucus structure was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Ultra-structure was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Tracking of 100 nm and 500 nm latex beads was conducted using ex vivo porcine mucus. The porcine jejunum and ileum were filled with mucus. Layered MUC2 staining was visible throughout the small intestine, covering villus tips. Scanning electron microscopy showed net-like mucin sheets covering villi (211 ± 7 nm pore diameter). Particle tracking of 100 nm latex beads, showed no inhibition of diffusion through mucus while 500 nm beads displayed limited diffusion. These results suggest a continuous mucus layer exists throughout the small intestine, which is highly stratified adjacent to the epithelium. The network observed is consistent with previous observations and correlates with stratified MUC2 staining. Mucin pore size is consistent with free diffusion of 100 nm and limited diffusion of 500 nm particles. Small Intestinal mucus structure has important implications for drug delivery systems and prevention and treatment of conditions like mucositis and inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. The effect of nanoparticle permeation on the bulk rheological properties of mucus from the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, M D; Van Rooij, L K; Chater, P I; Pereira de Sousa, I; Pearson, J P

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of delivering oral therapeutic peptides, proteins and nucleotides is often hindered by the protective mucus barrier that covers mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Encapsulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in nanocarriers is a potential strategy to protect the cargo but they still have to pass the mucus barrier. Decorating nanoparticles with proteolytic enzymes has been shown to increase the permeation through mucus. Here we investigate the effect of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (BRO), a proteolytic enzyme from pineapple stem, on the bulk rheology of mucus as well as non-decorated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles. Porcine intestinal mucus from the small intestine was incubated for 30min in the presence of PLGA nanoparticles or polyacrylic nanoparticles decorated with bromelain (PAA-BRO). The effect of nanoparticles on the rheological properties, weight of gel, released glycoprotein content from mucus as well as the viscosity of liquid removed was assessed. Treatment with nanoparticles decreased mucus gel strength with PAA-BRO reducing it the most. PAA-BRO nanoparticles resulted in the release of increased glycoprotein from the gel network whereas mucus remained a gel and exhibited a similar breakdown stress to control mucus. Therefore it would be possible to use bromelain to increase the permeability of nanoparticles through mucus without destroying the gel and leaving the underlying mucosa unprotected.

  2. Simvastatin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced airway mucus hypersecretion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Xue-mei; WANG Bai-ding; WEN Fu-qiang; FENG Yu-lin; HUANG Xiang-yang; XIAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    Background Mucus hypersecretion in the respiratory tract and goblet cell metaplasia in the airway epithelium contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with airway inflammatory diseases.This study aimed to examine the effect and mechanisms of simvastatin on airway mucus hypersecretion in rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods Mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intra-tracheal instillation of LPS.Rats treated with or without LPS were administered intra-peritoneally simvastatin (5 and 20 mg/kg) for 4 days.Expression of Muc5ac,RhoA and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 in lung were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),immunohistochemistry or Western blotting.Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)were assayed by an enzyme-linked lectin assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Simvastatin attenuated LPS-induced goblet cell hyperplasia in bronchial epithelium and Muc5ac hypersecretion at both the gene and protein levels in lung (P<0.05).Moreover,simvastatin inhibited neutrophil accumulation and the increased concentration of TNF-α and IL-8 in BALF follows LPS stimulation (P<0.05).The higher dose of simvastatin was associated with a more significant reduction in Muc5ac mRNA expression,neutrophil accumulation and inflammatory cytokine release.Simultaneously,the increased expression of RhoA and p38 MAPK were observed in LPS-treated lung (P<0.05).Simvastatin inhibited the expression of RhoA and p38 phosphorylation in lung following LPS stimulation (P<0.05).However,the increased expression of p38 protein in LPS-traated lung was not affected by simvastatin administration.Conclusions Simvastatin attenuates airway mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary inflammatory damage induced by LPS.The inhibitory effect of simvastatin on airway mucus hypersecretion may be through,at least in part,the suppression of neutrophil accumulation and inflammatory cytokine

  3. Lactobacillus-Deficient Cervicovaginal Bacterial Communities Are Associated with Increased HIV Acquisition in Young South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmann, Christina; Anahtar, Melis N; Handley, Scott A; Farcasanu, Mara; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Bowman, Brittany A; Padavattan, Nikita; Desai, Chandni; Droit, Lindsay; Moodley, Amber; Dong, Mary; Chen, Yuezhou; Ismail, Nasreen; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Wesemann, Duane R; Mitchell, Caroline; Dong, Krista L; Huttenhower, Curtis; Walker, Bruce D; Virgin, Herbert W; Kwon, Douglas S

    2017-01-17

    Elevated inflammation in the female genital tract is associated with increased HIV risk. Cervicovaginal bacteria modulate genital inflammation; however, their role in HIV susceptibility has not been elucidated. In a prospective cohort of young, healthy South African women, we found that individuals with diverse genital bacterial communities dominated by anaerobes other than Gardnerella were at over 4-fold higher risk of acquiring HIV and had increased numbers of activated mucosal CD4(+) T cells compared to those with Lactobacillus crispatus-dominant communities. We identified specific bacterial taxa linked with reduced (L. crispatus) or elevated (Prevotella, Sneathia, and other anaerobes) inflammation and HIV infection and found that high-risk bacteria increased numbers of activated genital CD4(+) T cells in a murine model. Our results suggest that highly prevalent genital bacteria increase HIV risk by inducing mucosal HIV target cells. These findings might be leveraged to reduce HIV acquisition in women living in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Lactobacillus reuteri Surface Mucus Adhesins Upregulate Inflammatory Responses Through Interactions With Innate C-Type Lectin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bene, Krisztián P; Kavanaugh, Devon W; Leclaire, Charlotte; Gunning, Allan P; MacKenzie, Donald A; Wittmann, Alexandra; Young, Ian D; Kawasaki, Norihito; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri exhibits strain-specific adhesion and health-promoting properties. Here, we investigated the role of the mucus adhesins, CmbA and MUB, upon interaction of L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 strains with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We showed that mucus adhesins increased the capacity of L. reuteri strains to interact with moDCs and promoted phagocytosis. Our data also indicated that mucus adhesins mediate anti- and pro-inflammatory effects by the induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 cytokines. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 were exclusively able to induce moDC-mediated Th1 and Th17 immune responses. We further showed that purified MUB activates moDCs and induces Th1 polarized immune responses associated with increased IFNγ production. MUB appeared to mediate these effects via binding to C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), as shown using cell reporter assays. Blocking moDCs with antibodies against DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or Dectin-2 did not affect the uptake of the MUB-expressing strain, but reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-6 by moDCs significantly, in line with the Th1 polarizing capacity of moDCs. The direct interaction between MUB and CLRs was further confirmed by atomic force spectroscopy. Taken together these data suggest that mucus adhesins expressed at the cell surface of L. reuteri strains may exert immunoregulatory effects in the gut through modulating the Th1-promoting capacity of DCs upon interaction with C-type lectins.

  5. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use Is Associated With Elevated Innate Immune Effector Molecules in Cervicovaginal Secretions of HIV-1-Uninfected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Brandon L; Introini, Andrea; Roxby, Alison C; Choi, Robert Y; Bosire, Rose; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Hirbod, Taha; Farquhar, Carey; Broliden, Kristina

    2015-05-01

    The effects of sex hormones on the immune defenses of the female genital mucosa and its susceptibility to infections are poorly understood. The injectable hormonal contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may increase the risk for HIV-1 acquisition. We assessed the local concentration in the female genital mucosa of cationic polypeptides with reported antiviral activity in relation to DMPA use. HIV-1-uninfected women were recruited from among couples testing for HIV in Nairobi, Kenya. Cervicovaginal secretion samples were collected, and the concentrations of HNP1-3, LL-37, lactoferrin, HBD-2, and SLPI were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Levels of cationic polypeptides in cervicovaginal secretions were compared between women who were not using hormonal contraception and those using DMPA, oral, or implantable contraception. Among 228 women, 165 (72%) reported not using hormonal contraception at enrollment, 41 (18%) used DMPA, 16 (7%) used an oral contraceptive, and 6 (3%) used a contraceptive implant. Compared with nonusers of hormonal contraception, DMPA users had significantly higher mean levels of HNP1-3 (2.38 vs. 2.04 log₁₀ ng/mL; P = 0.024), LL-37 (0.81 vs. 0.40 log10 ng/mL; P = 0.027), and lactoferrin (3.03 vs. 2.60 log₁₀ ng/mL; P = 0.002), whereas SLPI and HBD-2 were similar. Although all analyzed cationic polypeptides have intrinsic antiviral capacity, their interaction and cumulative effect on female genital mucosa susceptibility to infections in vivo has yet to be unraveled. This study suggests a potential mechanism underlying the effect of DMPA on the innate immune defenses, providing a rationale to investigate its effect on HIV-1 acquisition risk.

  6. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  7. Studying the effects of reproductive hormones and bacterial vaginosis on the glycome of lavage samples from the cervicovaginal cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1 no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2 no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3 no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4 combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5 depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera injections for at least 6 months, (6 levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV. Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system.

  8. Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus crispatus 2,029: Homeostatic Interaction with Cervicovaginal Epithelial Cells and Antagonistic Activity to Genitourinary Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Vyacheslav; Khlebnikov, Valentin; Kosarev, Igor; Bairamova, Guldana; Vasilenko, Raisa; Suzina, Natalia; Machulin, Andrey; Sakulin, Vadim; Kulikova, Natalia; Vasilenko, Nadezhda; Karlyshev, Andrey; Uversky, Vladimir; Chikindas, Michael L; Melnikov, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 isolated upon investigation of vaginal lactobacilli of healthy women of reproductive age was selected as a probiotic candidate. The aim of the present study was elucidation of the role of L. crispatus 2029 in resistance of the female reproductive tract to genitourinary pathogens using cervicovaginal epithelial model. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 has surface layers (S-layers), which completely surround cells as the outermost component of their envelope. S-layers are responsible for the adhesion of lactobacilli on the surface of cervicovaginal epithelial cells. Study of interactions between L. crispatus 2029 and a type IV collagen, a major molecular component of epithelial cell extracellular matrix, showed that 125I-labeled type IV collagen binds to lactobacilli with high affinity (Kd = (8.0 ± 0.7) × 10(-10) M). Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 consistently colonized epithelial cells. There were no toxicity, epithelial damage and apoptosis after 24 h of colonization. Electronic microscope images demonstrated intimate association between L. crispatus 2029 and epithelial cells. Upon binding to epithelial cells, lactobacilli were recognized by toll-like 2/6 receptors. Lactobacillus crispatus induced NF-κB activation in epithelial cells and did not induce expression of innate immunity mediators IL-8, IL-1β, IL-1α and TNF-α. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 inhibited IL-8 production in epithelial cells induced by MALP-2 and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, maintaining the homeostasis of female reproductive tract. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 produced H2O2 and provided wide spectrum of antagonistic activity increasing colonization resistance to urinary tract infections by bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis associated agents.

  9. Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, C.; Huettel, M.; Klueter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs(1), but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus(2,3). Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic...... matter from the water column and rapidly carries energy and nutrients to the reef lagoon sediment, which acts as a biocatalytic mineralizing filter. In the Great Barrier Reef, the dominant genus of hard corals, Acropora, exudes up to 4.8 litres of mucus per square metre of reef area per day. Between 56......% and 80% of this mucus dissolves in the reef water, which is filtered through the lagoon sands. Here, coral mucus is degraded at a turnover rate of at least 7% per hour. Detached undissolved mucus traps suspended particles, increasing its initial organic carbon and nitrogen content by three orders...

  10. Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, C.; Huettel, M.; Klueter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs(1), but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus(2,3). Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic...... matter from the water column and rapidly carries energy and nutrients to the reef lagoon sediment, which acts as a biocatalytic mineralizing filter. In the Great Barrier Reef, the dominant genus of hard corals, Acropora, exudes up to 4.8 litres of mucus per square metre of reef area per day. Between 56......% and 80% of this mucus dissolves in the reef water, which is filtered through the lagoon sands. Here, coral mucus is degraded at a turnover rate of at least 7% per hour. Detached undissolved mucus traps suspended particles, increasing its initial organic carbon and nitrogen content by three orders...

  11. Comparative permeability of some acyclovir derivatives through native mucus and crude mucin dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legen; Kristl, A

    2001-08-01

    The permeability of some guanine derivatives (acyclovir [ACV], deoxyacyclovir [DCV], and their N-acetyl congeners) through native porcine mucus and crude porcine mucin dispersions (30% and 50% w/v) was investigated in two-compartment dialysis cells. High correlation between apparent permeability coefficients Papp of tested substances determined in these two models was observed, although the examined compounds permeated faster through the native mucus. It was also established that Papp values decrease with increasing hydrophilicity and molecular mass of the tested substances. Furthermore, the influence of some substances that affect mucus structure (cysteine, N-acetylcysteine [NCY], sodium taurocholate [ST], and sodium chloride) on the permeation rate of the examined compounds through mucus and mucin dispersions was examined. It was shown that the Papp values of guanine derivatives were generally lower after the addition of these substances to the native mucus and mucin dispersions, although the lowering effect was more pronounced in the case of native mucus.

  12. Size-Limited Penetration of Nanoparticles into Porcine Respiratory Mucus after Aerosol Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Xabier; Pawelzyk, Paul; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Wagner, Christian; Willenbacher, Norbert; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-04-11

    We investigated the rheological properties and the penetration of differently sized carboxylated nanoparticles in pig pulmonary mucus, on different distance and time scales. Nanoparticles were either mechanically mixed into the mucus samples or deposited as an aerosol, the latter resembling a more physiologically relevant delivery scenario. After mechanical dispersion, 500 nm particles were locally trapped; a fraction of carboxylated tracer particles of 100 or 200 nm in diameter could however freely diffuse in these networks over distances of approximately 20 μm. In contrast, after aerosol deposition on top of the mucus layer only particles with a size of 100 nm were able to penetrate into mucus, suggesting the presence of smaller pores at the air-mucus interface compared to within mucus. These findings are relevant to an understanding of the fate of potentially harmful aerosol particles, such as pathogens, pollutants, and other nanomaterials after incidental inhalation, as well as for the design of pulmonary drug delivery systems.

  13. The protease-activated receptor-2 agonist induces gastric mucus secretion and mucosal cytoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Kawabata, Atsufumi; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Nishida, Minoru; Araki, Hiromasa; Arizono, Naoki; Oda, Yasuo; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2001-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a receptor activated by trypsin/tryptase, modulates smooth muscle tone and exocrine secretion in the salivary glands and pancreas. Given that PAR-2 is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, we investigated effects of PAR-2 agonists on mucus secretion and gastric mucosal injury in the rat. PAR-2–activating peptides triggered secretion of mucus in the stomach, but not in the duodenum. This mucus secretion was abolished by pretreatment with capsai...

  14. Different macro- and micro-rheological properties of native porcine respiratory and intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkasam, Harish; Ernst, Matthias; Guenther, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-08-20

    Aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences at macro- and microscale in the viscoelastic properties of mucus that covers the epithelia of the intestinal and respiratory tract. Natural mucus was collected from pulmonary and intestinal regions of healthy pigs. Macro-rheological investigations were carried out through conventional plate-plate rheometry. Microrheology was investigated using optical tweezers. Our data revealed significant differences both in macro- and micro-rheological properties between respiratory and intestinal mucus.

  15. Antibacterial substance from mucus of a scleractinian coral,Symphyllia gigantea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guohua; HUANG Liangmin; TAN Yehui; YIN Jianqiang; WANG Hankui; HUANG Hui; ZOU Kun; LI Ruiping

    2007-01-01

    Coral mucus covers the surface of coral and contains antibacterial substances as a first line of defense. Coral mucus not only enables the coral itself to resist disease, but also provides antibacterial agents for people. We collected mucus from a scleractinian coral (Symphyllia gigantea) at Sta. Sanya (China), then extracted the antibacterial substances using 10% glacial acetic acid with the help of antiprotease inhibitors, and tested the antibacterial activity by a terrestrial bacterium (Staphylococcus aurevs) and a marine bacterium (Vibrio anguillarum). The result showed that, there were antibacterial agents in the mucus, and their antibacterial activities were lost by treatment of the sample at 90 °C water for 10 min.

  16. Luteolin Attenuates Airway Mucus Overproduction via Inhibition of the GABAergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chen-Hung; Lin, Ching-Huei; Zhou, Ning; Kao, Shung-Te; Wu, Dong Chuan

    2016-09-06

    Airway mucus overproduction is one of the most common symptoms of asthma that causes severe clinical outcomes in patients. Despite the effectiveness of general asthma therapies, specific treatments that prevent mucus overproduction in asthma patients remain lacking. Recent studies have found that activation of GABAA receptors (GABAAR) is important for promoting mucus oversecretion in lung airway epithelia. Here, we report that luteolin, a natural flavonoid compound, suppresses mucus overproduction by functionally inhibiting the GABAergic system. This hypothesis was investigated by testing the effects of luteolin on goblet cell hyperplasia, excessive mucus secretion, and GABAergic transmission using histological and electrophysiological approaches. Our results showed that 10 mg/kg luteolin significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the lung tissue and inhibited mucus overproduction in an in vivo asthma model induced by ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. Patch-clamp recordings showed that luteolin inhibited GABAAR-mediated currents in A549 cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of luteolin on OVA-induced goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus overproduction were occluded by the GABAAR antagonist picrotoxin. In conclusion, our observations indicate that luteolin effectively attenuates mucus overproduction at least partially by inhibiting GABAARs, suggesting the potential for therapeutic administration of luteolin in the treatment of mucus overproduction in asthma patients.

  17. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara K.; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer;

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. DesignExperimental research. SettingDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Population/SampleSpontaneously shed CMPs from 18 healthy women in active...... labor. MethodsViscoelastic properties of CMPs were investigated with a dynamic oscillatory rheometer using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Main outcome measuresThe rheological variables obtained were as follows: elastic modulus (G), viscous modulus (G...

  18. Role of mucus in ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzis, J; Hegedüsová, R; Mirossay, L

    2000-01-01

    Gastric mucus plays an important role in gastric mucosal protection. Apart from its "barrier" function, it has been demonstrated that mucus protects gastric epithelial cells against toxic oxygen metabolites derived from the xanthine/ xanthine oxidase system. In this study, we investigated the effect of malotilate and sucralfate (mucus production stimulators) and N-acetylcysteine (mucolytic agent) on ischemia/reperfusion-induced gastric mucosal injury. Gastric ischemia was induced by 30 min clamping of the coeliac artery followed by 30 min of reperfusion. The mucus content was determined by the Alcian blue method. Sucralfate (100 mg/kg), malotilate (100 mg/kg), and N-acetylcysteine (100 mg/kg) were given orally 30 min before surgery. Both sucralfate and malotilate increased the mucus production in control rats. On the other hand, N-acetyloysteine significantly decreased mucus content in control (sham) group. A significant decrease of mucus content was found in the control and the N-acetylcysteine pretreated group during the period of ischemia. On the other hand, sucralfate and malotilate prevented the decrease the content of mucus during ischemia. A similar result can be seen after ischemia/reperfusion. In the control group and N-acetylcysteine pretreated group a significant decrease of adherent mucus content was found. However, sucralfate and malotilate increased mucus production (sucralfate significantly). Sucralfate and malotilate also significantly protected the gastric mucosa against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury. However, N-acetylcysteine significantly increased gastric mucosal injury after ischemia/reperfusion. These results suggest that gastric mucus may be involved in the protection of gastric mucosa after ischemia/reperfusion.

  19. Mucus sugar content shapes the bacterial community structure in thermally stressed Acropora muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny T.M. Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the chemical composition of a coral’s mucus can influence the associated bacterial community. However, information on this topic is rare, and non-existent for corals that are under thermal stress. This study therefore compared the carbohydrate composition of mucus in the coral Acropora muricata when subjected to increasing thermal stress from 26°C to 31°C, and determined whether this composition correlated with any changes in the bacterial community. Results showed that, at lower temperatures, the main components of mucus were N-acetyl glucosamine and C6 sugars, but these constituted a significantly lower proportion of the mucus in thermally-stressed corals. The change in the mucus composition coincided with a shift from a γ-Proteobacteria- to a Verrucomicrobiae- and α-Proteobacteria-dominated community in the coral mucus. Bacteria in the class Cyanobacteria also started to become prominent in the mucus when the coral was thermally stressed. The increase in the relative abundance of the Verrucomicrobiae at higher temperature was strongly associated with a change in the proportion of fucose, glucose and mannose in the mucus. Increase in the relative abundance of α-Proteobacteria were associated with GalNAc and glucose, while the drop in relative abundance of γ-Proteobacteria at high temperature coincided with changes in fucose and mannose. Cyanobacteria were highly associated with arabinose and xylose. Changes in mucus composition and the bacterial community in the mucus layer occurred at 29°C, which were prior to visual signs of coral bleaching at 31°C. A compositional change in the coral mucus, induced by thermal stress could therefore be a key factor leading to a shift in the associated bacterial community. This, in turn, has the potential to impact the physiological function of the coral holobiont.

  20. Prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears in a cervical cancer screening program with emphasis on a case of primary bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusiol Teresa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and significance of psammoma bodies (PBs in the cervicovaginal smears of the screening population of Trento district (Italy, with the description of the cytological presentation of an asymptomatic bilateral ovarian psammocarcinoma. Methods From 1993 to 2006, women with PBs detected on consecutively screened cervical smears were identified from the computerized pathology database of Rovereto Hospital. The follow-up period was set from the time of cytological diagnosis to May 31st, 2007. Clinical information was obtained from retrospective review of women's medical records. The source of PBs was identified with adequate diagnostic procedures. Results PBs were found in six of the 201,231 Papanicolaou screening smears (0.0029%. Benign conditions (intrauterine device, inclusion ovarian cysts and ovarian cystoadenofibroma with PBs were found in four patients. In two cases, PBs were associated with malignant cells; a bilateral ovarian malignancy was diagnosed in both cases, a serous adenocarcinoma and a psammocarcinoma. Conclusion PBs in the cervicovaginal smears are a rare finding, associated more often with benign conditions than with malignancies. Moreover, to our knowledge, our case of primary ovarian psammocarcinoma is the first report in which the presence of malignant cells and PBs in the cervicovaginal and endometrial smears represents the first manifestation of disease.

  1. Targeted epigenetic editing of SPDEF reduces mucus production in lung epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Juan; Cano Rodriguez, David; Winkle, Melanie; Gjaltema, Rutger A F; Goubert, Désirée; Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Heijink, Irene H; Rots, Marianne G; Hylkema, Machteld N

    2016-01-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion contributes to the morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Reducing mucus production is crucial for improving patients' quality of life. The transcription factor SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor (SPDEF) plays a critical ro

  2. Investigation of mucus transport in an idealized lung airway model using multiphase CFD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Rahul; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-11-01

    Mucus, a Bingham fluid is transported in the pulmonary airways by consistent beating of the cilia and exhibits a wide range of physical properties in response to the core air flow and various pathological conditions. A better understanding of the interfacial instability is required as it plays a crucial role in gas transport, mixing, mucus clearance and drug delivery. In the current study, mucus is modelled as a Newtonian fluid and the two phase gas-liquid flow in the airways is investigated using an inhomogeneous Eulerian-Eulerian approach. The complex interface between the phases is tracked using the conventional VOF (Volume of Fluid) method. Results from our CFD simulations which are performed in idealized single and double bifurcation geometries will be presented and the influence of airflow rate, mucus layer thickness, mucus viscosity, airway geometry (branching & diameter) and surface tension on mucus flow behavior will be discussed. Mean mucus layer thickness, pressure drop due to momentum transfer & increased airway resistance, mucus transport speed and the flow morphology will be compared to existing experimental and theoretical data.

  3. Epidermal secretions of terrestrial flatworms and slugs: Lehmannia valentiana mucus contains matrilin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Graham, Lloyd D

    2007-11-01

    We describe the epidermal mucus of two types of terrestrial invertebrates: free-living flatworms (Tricladida: Terricola), and the slug Lehmannia valentiana (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Both exhibited similar dry shear strengths (1.4-1.7 MPa). In denaturing gel electrophoresis, the protein fraction of flatworm mucus migrated mainly as a broad band (200-300 kDa). Slug mucus had a higher protein content than flatworm mucus but it contained more carbohydrate than protein, mainly as large heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans. Proteins and glycosaminoglycans were both essential for the mechanical integrity of the slug hydrogel. The protein fraction of slug mucus contained approximately 12 larger proteins (30-300 kDa) and approximately 6 smaller ones (10-28 kDa). Complete cDNA clones were obtained for the slug mucus 40 kDa protein (Sm40; Genbank accession EF634345) and 85 kDa protein (Sm85; Genbank accession EF634346). Both proteins contain EGF-like repeats and von Willebrand A-domains, and therefore resemble vertebrate matrilins. Many of the larger slug mucus proteins appear to contain A-domains, and these may play a role in the unusual rheological properties of gastropod mucus.

  4. Novel mucus-penetrating liposomes as a potential oral drug delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiuying; Chen, Dan; Le, Chaoyi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal mucus-penetrating properties and intestinal cellular uptake of two types of liposomes modified by Pluronic F127 (PF127).......The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal mucus-penetrating properties and intestinal cellular uptake of two types of liposomes modified by Pluronic F127 (PF127)....

  5. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  6. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  7. Efficient mucus permeation and tight junction opening by dissociable "mucus-inert" agent coated trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Xi; Shan, Wei; Li, Lian; Zhong, Jiaju; Zhang, Zhirong; Huang, Yuan

    2016-01-28

    Oral administration of protein drugs is greatly impeded by the lack of drug carriers that can efficiently overcome the absorption barriers of mucosa tissue, which consists of not only epithelium but also a blanket of mucus gel. We herein report a novel self-assembled nanoparticle (NP) platform for oral delivery of insulin by facilitating the efficient permeation through both of these two barriers. The NP possesses a core composed of insulin and trimethyl chitosan (TMC), and a dissociable "mucus-inert" hydrophilic coating of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer (pHPMA) derivative. The NPs exhibited free Brownian motion and excellent permeability in mucus, which enabled the access of the NP core to the epithelial cell surface underneath the mucus. Moreover, investigation of NP behavior showed that the pHPMA molecules started to dissociate as the NP permeates through mucus, and the TMC NP core was then exposed to facilitate transepithelial transport via paracellular pathway. The pHPMA coating significantly improved transepithelial transport of TMC-based NP and their ability to open tight junctions between the mucus-secreting epithelial cells. Moreover, in diabetic rats, pHPMA coated NPs generated a prominent hypoglycemic response following oral administration, and exhibited a relative bioavailability 2.8-fold higher than that of uncoated TMC-based NPs. Our study provided the evidence of using pHPMA as "mucus-inert" agent to enhance mucus permeation of TMC-based NPs, and validated a novel strategy to overcome the multiple absorption barriers using NP platform with dissociable hydrophilic coating and TMC-based core possessing tight junction-opening ability.

  8. Micro-configuration Observation of Porous Bioceramic for Sliding on Intestinal Mucus Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure of the prepared porous bioceramic material, including surface porosity and apparent contact area with the artificial mucus film are computed and analyzed. The surface micro-configurations of the porous material before and after sliding on the mucus ftlm are observed in 2D and 3 D by digital microscopy. We describe how much mucus enters and stays within different pores, and how the porous material with rough/porous surface contacts with the mucus film ( elastic surface/gel). The presented results illustrate that the material with different porous structure can lead to different mucus suction, surface scraping and changes of contact area and condition during sliding, which will be active for high friction of robotic endoscope with the intestinal wall for intestinal locomotion.

  9. Effect of Native Gastric Mucus on in vivo Hybridization Therapies Directed at Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Rita S; Dakwar, George R; Xiong, Ranhua

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than 50% of the worldwide population. It is mostly found deep in the gastric mucus lining of the stomach, being a major cause of peptic ulcers and gastric adenocarcinoma. To face the increasing resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics, antimicrobial nucleic acid...... barriers-the highly viscoelastic gastric mucus and the bacterial cell envelope. We found that LNA/2'OMe is capable of diffusing rapidly through native, undiluted, gastric mucus isolated from porcine stomachs, without degradation. Moreover, although LNA/2'OMe hybridization was still successful without...... permeabilization and fixation of the bacteria, which is normally part of in vitro studies, the ability of LNA/2'OMe to efficiently hybridize with H. pylori was hampered by the presence of mucus. Future research should focus on developing nanocarriers that shield LNA/2'OMe from components in the gastric mucus...

  10. A priming effect of benthic gastropod mucus on sedimentary organic matter remineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannides, A. K.; Aller, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Mucous gels are produced by benthic animals rapidly and in copious amounts, and have previously been shown to significantly affect diffusion rates of redox-sensitive ions and organic compounds in sediment pore waters. They are also a highly likely priming substrate whose addition in modest amounts affects sedimentary organic matter remineralization. We tested the priming effect of benthic infaunal mucus using secretions of the common gastropod Neverita duplicata as model substrate. Their composition is typical of marine molluscan mucus, consisting primarily of water (>96% by weight), which is in relative equilibrium with seawater. Salt-free dry weight constitutes 0.7% and 0.6% of total pedal and hypobranchial mucus, respectively. The C:N ratios of pedal and hypobranchial mucus indicate that the organic component consists of a mucopolysaccharide-glycoprotein complex that varies depending on its function, while low C:S ratios of the insoluble component and positive staining with Alcian Blue dye are indicative of S-ester and alkyl-SO42- groups bridging mucopolysaccharide and glycoprotein components. Anoxic incubations of pedal mucus of N. duplicata, sediment, and mucus-sediment mixture, resulted in the anaerobic generation of ΣCO2 and NH4+ at ratios lower than initial C:N ratios, indicating the preferential decomposition of N-rich moieties. Production rates of SCO2 and NH4+ in mucus-sediment incubations are higher, by 9±16% and 29±11%, respectively, than those predicted from linear addition of mucus-only and sediment-only rates. The statistically significant accelerated remineralization rate of N in the presence of modest mucus contribution (0.2% of total N), suggests that benthic mucus addition affects sedimentary organic matter remineralization processes through a "priming" effect.

  11. iNOS-dependent increase in colonic mucus thickness in DSS-colitic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Schreiber

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h, the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. RESULTS: Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm. During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm. While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm, L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm. The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. CONCLUSION: Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an i

  12. Selective filtration of abnormal spermatozoa by the cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundl, G; Grimm, H J; Hofmann, N

    1988-04-01

    The Düsseldorf classification of spermatozoal morphology in semen is based on the spermatogenesis in the testis. So it is possible in some cases to relate a pathological finding in semen to a special disorder in the testis. We have tested the filtering effect of the cervical mucus on the various spermatozoal forms by performing a post-coital test from the upper cervical region after artificial insemination from the husband (AIH). It was found that in addition to the motility of spermatozoa their outer shape is very important for their transport through the cervical canal. Pathological spermatozoa with a rather normal-shaped head like AI and AII forms will pass the cervix almost like normal spermatozoa. In a superficial post-coital test they can be classified as 'normal'. Still, they are not able to fertilize an egg.

  13. Rheologic studies on middle ear effusions and their mucus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, J E; Green, G G; Birchall, J P; Pearson, J P

    1989-04-01

    The properties of pooled thick and thin middle ear effusions, from children with otitis media with effusion, were studied by viscometry. Mucus glycoproteins were responsible for effusion viscosity. Their percentage by weight in thick and thin effusions was 25% and 8.2%, respectively. N-acetylcysteine and 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol caused a 39% viscosity drop in a 5-mg/mL glycoprotein solution, whereas S-carboxymethylcysteine had no effect. Treatment of thick effusions with 0.2 mol/L of mercaptoethanol initially caused a viscosity decrease followed by a gradual increase. Higher reducing agent concentrations (0.5 mol/L) caused a more rapid decrease followed by a rapid increase, presumably by causing nonspecific aggregation of reduced protein molecules. These results suggest that the concentration of and the time that a mucolytic is in the middle ear would be of prime importance in achieving the desired decrease in viscosity.

  14. Towards a versatile technique for tracking nanoparticle-mucus interaction: a step on the road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafee, N.; Schneider, M.

    2014-02-01

    Respiratory mucus is one of the main barriers for nanoparticle-based pulmonary delivery systems. This holds true especially for lung diseases like cystic fibrosis, where a very tenacious thick mucus layer hinders particle diffusion to the lung epithelium or the target area. Typically, mean square displacement of particles is used for mobility evaluation. In contrast, our objective is to develop a feasible technique to track directed particle penetration as a prerequisite for efficient pulmonary nanotherapy. Therefore, particle diffusion in artificial mucus was monitored based on confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and particle-mucus interaction was observed. As pharmaceutical relevant and benign materials, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by hot-melt emulsification using glyceryl behenate and different stabilizing agents such as poloxamer-407, tween-80, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The diffusion of labeled SLNs in stained artificial sputum representing CF-patient sputum was verified by 3D time laps imaging. Thus, the effect of coating, particle size and mucus viscosity on nanoparticle diffusion was studied. Using image analysis software "Image J", the total fluorescent signal after 30 min in case of poloxamer-coated SLNs was 5 and 100 folds higher than tween- and PVA-coated SLNs, respectively. Nevertheless, increasing mucus viscosity reduced the diffusion of tweencoated SLNs by a factor of 10. Studying particle-mucus interaction by CLSM can be considered a promising and versatile technique.

  15. "The effects of polysorbate surfactants on the structure of mucus Glycoproteins "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajadi Tabassi A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic oscillatory technique was used to assess the effect of polysorbate non-ionic surfactants on mucus rheology. Adherent mucus gel was scraped from the surface mucosa of pig stomachs and purified by gel exclusion chromatography followed by ultrafiltration and gelation. Rheological measurements of this gel were carried out on a Carri-Med Controlled Stress Rheometer. Appropriate volumes of surfactant solution were added to weighed samples of mucus gel so that a final concentration of 20 mM surfactant was achieved in a gel containing 8% w/w solids content. Polysorbate 20 (PS20, polysorbate 40 (PS40, polysorbate 60 (PS60 and polysorbate 80 (PS80 all decreased both storage (elastic modulus G’ and loss (viscous modulus G’’ significantly at 10 Hz (PPS20>PS60>PS40. The mechanisms by which surfactants disturb the mucus structure are not fully understood, nonetheless, they could possibly affect the mucus gel properties by causing depletion of the glycoprotein constituents such as non-mucin proteins and mucin associated lipids. This might lead to the conclusion that polysorbates, by reducing the viscoelasticity of mucus gel could alleviate its barrier properties and facilitate the diffusion of concomitantly administered drugs via mucus gel.

  16. Lactobacillus strains belonging to Casei group display various adherence to enterocytes and mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Markowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of lactobacilli to adhere to the surface of the intestine is an important functional characteristic which can largely determine the effective colonization of the intestinal tract by probiotics. The following study compares the adhesion efficiency of the twenty strains of Lactobacillus genus belonging to Casei group to the Caco-2 cells and gastrointestinal mucus. Material and methods. Twenty isolates of lactobacilli belonging to Casei group were tested. The ability of bacterial cells to adhere to mucus was examined using adhesion assay to gastrointestinal mucus. Obtained results were compared with adhesion efficiency to Caco-2 cells. Phylogenetic relationship between isolates was analysed by rep-PCR. Results. The results showed large differences in adhesion efficiency between strains, as well as differences in the efficiency of adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells and mucus. Group similarity highlighted by a rep-PCR technique does not correspond with groups of similarity in terms of the characteristics of the ability to adhere to mucus or the epithelial cells of intestinal tract. Conclusions. Strains having a high adhesion efficiency to enterocytes do not always show a high adhesion efficiency to the mucus. This may indicate the presence of different and multiple factors responsible for adhesion efficiency of Lactobacillus group Casei strains to epithelial cells and mucus.

  17. Therapeutic Potential to Modify the Mucus Barrier in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, numerous studies have shown that disruption of the mucus barrier plays an important role in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in ulcerative colitis. Alterations in the mucus barrier are well supported by published data and are widely accepted. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization and Carnoy’s fixation has revealed the importance of the mucus barrier in maintaining a mutualistic relationship between host and bacteria. Studies have raised the possibility that modulation of the mucus barrier may provide therapies for the disease, using agents such as short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This review describes changes in the mucus barrier of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in animal models of the disease. We also review the involvement of the mucus barrier in the exacerbation of the disease and explore the therapeutic potential of modifying the mucus barrier with short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics, probiotics, fatty acid synthase, H2S, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and phophatidyl choline.

  18. Quantitative post-coital test: sperm counts in cervical mucus after enzymatic liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agostini, A; Tawfik, E; Campana, A

    1996-02-01

    The post-coital test involves direct microscopic examination of sperm number and motility in cervical mucus. The results depend on the quality of the mucus and the distribution of spermatozoa within the sample. To progress from such qualitative data to quantitative measurements of the spermatozoa present in post-coital mucus, we have developed methods to measure sperm concentrations in enzymatically liquefied post-coital cervical mucus. The mucus score and sperm motility were measured prior to mucus liquefaction, and, together with sperm concentration, they allowed the calculation of the total number of motile spermatozoa present. A combination of bromelin and glycosidases proved to be more efficient in achieving reliable mucus liquefaction than treatment with bromelin alone, and was used to liquefy a series of 36 post-coital test samples. Total sperm numbers ranged between 19 x 10(3) and 16.8 x 10(6). Of the samples, 75% contained post-coital test, and to estimate the number of motile spermatozoa reaching the upper female genital tract.

  19. Airway mucus, inflammation and remodeling: emerging links in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou-Suckow, Zhe; Duerr, Julia; Hagner, Matthias; Agrawal, Raman; Mall, Marcus A

    2017-03-01

    Airway mucus obstruction is a hallmark of many chronic lung diseases including rare genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia, as well as common lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the role of excess airway mucus in the in vivo pathogenesis of these diseases remains poorly understood. The generation of mice with airway-specific overexpression of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), exhibiting airway surface dehydration (mucus hyperconcentration), impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) and mucus plugging, led to a model of muco-obstructive lung disease that shares key features of CF and COPD. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the understanding of causes of impaired MCC and in vivo consequences of airway mucus obstruction that can be inferred from studies in βENaC-overexpressing mice. These studies confirm that mucus hyperconcentration on airway surfaces plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of impaired MCC, mucus adhesion and airway plugging that cause airflow obstruction and provide a nidus for bacterial infection. In addition, these studies support the emerging concept that excess airway mucus per se, probably via several mechanisms including hypoxic epithelial necrosis, retention of inhaled irritants or allergens, and potential immunomodulatory effects, is a potent trigger of chronic airway inflammation and associated lung damage, even in the absence of bacterial infection. Finally, these studies suggest that improvement of mucus clearance may be a promising therapeutic strategy for a spectrum of muco-obstructive lung diseases.

  20. Disintegration of nano-embedded microparticles after deposition on mucus: A mechanistic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, Christian A; Bohr, Adam; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    and then evaluated for their disintegration behavior after aerosolization onto model mucus. Although a rapid and complete aqueous redispersion was observed for specific excipient/nanoparticle weight ratios (i.e., greater than 1/1), the same formulations revealed no disintegration after deposition onto a static mucus...... layer. Double-labeled NEMs powders (i.e., dual color staining of polymeric nanoparticles and trehalose) demonstrated rapid matrix dissolution, while the nanoparticle aggregates persisted. When deposited onto agitated mucus, however, sufficient disintegration of NEMs into individual polymeric...

  1. Effect of cold-restraint stress and zinc acexamate on gastric mucus production in intact glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar, G; Navarro, C; Sendros, S; Bulbena, O

    1987-11-01

    Gastric mucus content was morphometrically evaluated in gastric glands of normal and cold-restraint stressed rats. Variations induced by treatment with zinc acexamate (200 mg/kg p.o.) were also investigated. Stress decreased the glycoprotein content in glands located in areas of injury. However, in intact glands from the same animals, the glycoprotein content was increased and the proportion of sulphated macromolecules greatly augmented. Zinc acexamate reduced the severity of damage in stressed rats. Although it augmented mucus content it prevented the modification in sulphated macromolecules in these rats. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of gastric mucus in preventing gastric damage.

  2. Attribution of 12 High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes to Infection and Cervical Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joura, Elmar A.; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined a...

  3. Effect of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on human papillomavirus detection in young, unscreened women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Lenselink, C.H.; Quint, W.G.V.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted among 2,065 women aged 18-29 years. The women returned a self-collected cervicovagin

  4. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Outcompetes Enterococcus faecium via Mucus-Binding Pili: Evidence for a Novel and Heterospecific Probiotic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Hanne L P; Douillard, François P; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Laine, Pia K; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-10-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of beneficial bacteria to weed out opportunistic pathogens. Specifically, the widely studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG has been applied successfully in the context of VRE infections. Here, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of this model probiotic on VRE decolonization. Both clinical VRE isolates and L. rhamnosus GG express pili on their cell walls, which are the key modulators of their highly efficient colonization of the intestinal mucosa. We found that one of the VRE pilus clusters shares considerable sequence similarity with the SpaCBA-SrtC1 pilus cluster of L. rhamnosus GG. Remarkable immunological and functional similarities were discovered between the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG and those of the clinical E. faecium strain E1165, which was characterized at the genome level. Moreover, E. faecium strain E1165 bound efficiently to mucus, which may be prevented by the presence of the mucus-binding SpaC protein or antibodies against L. rhamnosus GG or SpaC. These results present experimental support for a novel probiotic mechanism, in which the mucus-binding pili of L. rhamnosus GG prevent the binding of a potential pathogen to the host. Hence, we provide a molecular basis for the further exploitation of L. rhamnosus GG and its pilins for prophylaxis and treatment of VRE infections. Concern about vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial infections is rising globally. The arsenal of antibiotic strategies to treat these infections is nearly exhausted, and hence, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here, we provide molecular evidence to underpin reports of the successful clinical application of

  5. Towards the modeling of mucus draining from human lung: role of airways deformation on air-mucus interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mauroy, Benjamin; Pelca, Dominique; Fausser, Christian; Merckx, Jacques; Mitchell, Barrett R

    2015-01-01

    Chest physiotherapy is an empirical technique used to help secretions to get out of the lung whenever stagnation occurs. Although commonly used, little is known about the inner mechanisms of chest physiotherapy and controversies about its use are coming out regularly. Thus, a scientific validation of chest physiotherapy is needed to evaluate its effects on secretions. We setup a quasi-static numerical model of chest physiotherapy based on thorax and lung physiology and on their respective biophysics. We modeled the lung with an idealized deformable symmetric bifurcating tree. Bronchi and their inner fluids mechanics are assumed axisymmetric. Static data from the literature is used to build a model for the lung's mechanics. Secretions motion is the consequence of the shear constraints apply by the air flow. The input of the model is the pressure on the chest wall at each time, and the output is the bronchi geometry and air and secretions properties. In the limit of our model, we mimicked manual and mechanical ...

  6. Towards the modeling of mucus draining from human lung: role of airways deformation on air-mucus interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eMauroy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chest physiotherapy is an empirical technique used to help secretions to get out of the lung whenever stagnation occurs. Although commonly used, little is known about the inner mechanisms of chest physiotherapy and controversies about its use are coming out regularly. Thus, a scientific validation of chest physiotherapy is needed to evaluate its effects on secretions.We setup a quasi-static numerical model of chest physiotherapy based on thorax and lung physiology and on their respective biophysics. We modeled the lung with an idealized deformable symmetric bifurcating tree. Bronchi and their inner fluids mechanics are assumed axisymmetric. Static data from the literature is used to build a model for the lung's mechanics. Secretions motion is the consequence of the shear constraints apply by the air flow. The input of the model is the pressure on the chest wall at each time, and the output is the bronchi geometry and air and secretions properties. In the limit of our model, we mimicked manual and mechanical chest physiotherapy techniques. We show that for secretions to move, air flow has to be high enough to overcome secretion resistance to motion. Moreover, the higher the pressure or the quicker it is applied, the higher is the air flow and thus the mobilization of secretions. However, pressures too high are efficient up to a point where airways compressions prevents air flow to increase any further. Generally, the first effects of manipulations is a decrease of the airway tree hydrodynamic resistance, thus improving ventilation even if secretions do not get out of the lungs. Also, some secretions might be pushed deeper into the lungs; this effect is stronger for high pressures and for mechanical chest physiotherapy. Finally, we propose and tested two adimensional numbers that depend on lung properties and that allow to measure the efficiency and comfort of a manipulation.

  7. Impact of bacterial vaginosis, as assessed by nugent criteria and hormonal status on glycosidases and lectin binding in cervicovaginal lavage samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J Moncla

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of hormonal status and bacterial vaginosis (BV on the glycosidases present and glycosylation changes as assessed by lectin binding to cervicovaginal lavage constituents. Frozen cervicovaginal lavage samples from a completed study examining the impact of reproductive hormones on the physicochemical properties of vaginal fluid were utilized for the present study. In the parent study, 165 women were characterized as having BV, intermediate or normal microflora using the Nugent criteria. The presence of glycosidases in the samples was determined using quantitative 4-methyl-umbelliferone based assays, and glycosylation was assessed using enzyme linked lectin assays (ELLA. Women with BV had elevated sialidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase and α-glucosidase activities compared to intermediate or normal women (P<0.001, 0.003, 0.006 and 0.042 respectively. The amount of sialic acid (Sambucus nigra, P = 0.003 and high mannose (griffithsin, P<0.001 were reduced, as evaluated by lectin binding, in women with BV. When the data were stratified according to hormonal status, α-glucosidase and griffithsin binding were decreased among postmenopausal women (P<0.02 when compared to premenopausal groups. These data suggest that both hormonal status and BV impact the glycosidases and lectin binding sites present in vaginal fluid. The sialidases present at increased levels in women with BV likely reduce the number of sialic acid binding sites. Other enzymes likely reduce griffithsin binding. The alterations in the glycosidase content, high mannose and sialic acid binding sites in the cervicovaginal fluid associated with bacterial vaginosis may impact susceptibility to viruses, such as HIV, that utilize glycans as a portal of entry.

  8. Detection, quantification and genotyping of Herpes Simplex Virus in cervicovaginal secretions by real-time PCR: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad-Sancho Angels

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD is an important public health problem, whose interaction with HIV results in mutually enhancing epidemics. Conventional methods for detecting HSV tend to be slow and insensitive. We designed a rapid PCR-based assay to quantify and type HSV in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL fluid of subjects attending a Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM clinic. Vaginal swabs, CVL fluid and venous blood were collected. Quantitative detection of HSV was conducted using real time PCR with HSV specific primers and SYBR Green I. Fluorogenic TaqMan Minor Groove Binder (MGB probes designed around a single base mismatch in the HSV DNA polymerase I gene were used to type HSV in a separate reaction. The Kalon test was used to detect anti-HSV-2 IgG antibodies in serum. Testing for HIV, other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and related infections was based on standard clinical and laboratory methods. Results Seventy consecutive GUM clinic attendees were studied. Twenty-seven subjects (39% had detectable HSV DNA in CVL fluid; HSV-2 alone was detected in 19 (70% subjects, HSV-1 alone was detected in 4 (15% subjects and both HSV types were detected in 4 (15% subjects. Eleven out of 27 subjects (41% with anti-HSV-2 IgG had detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL fluid. Seven subjects (10% were HIV-positive. Three of seven (43% HIV-infected subjects and two of five subjects with GUD (40% were secreting HSV-2. None of the subjects in whom HSV-1 was detected had GUD. Conclusion Quantitative real-time PCR and Taqman MGB probes specific for HSV-1 or -2 were used to develop an assay for quantification and typing of HSV. The majority of subjects in which HSV was detected had low levels of CVL fluid HSV, with no detectable HSV-2 antibodies and were asymptomatic.

  9. Lectin histochemical aspects of mucus function in the oesophagus of the reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, W; Luz, S; Schnapper, A

    2009-08-01

    Using lectin histochemistry, the study characterizes basic functional aspects of the mucus produced by the oesophageal epithelium of the Reticulated python (Python reticulatus). Reaction staining varied as related to the two epithelium types present, containing goblet cells and ciliary cells. Remarkable intensities were achieved especially in the luminal mucus layer and the fine mucus covering the epithelial ciliary border for Con A (alpha-D-Man; alpha-D-Glc) as part of neutral glycoproteins, Limax flavus agglutinin (NeuNac = NeuNgc), emphasizing that water binding hyaluronan provides a hydrated interface conductive to the passage of material and UEA-I (alpha-L-Fuc), corroborating the view that fucose-rich highly viscous mucus is helpful against mechanical stress during prey transport.

  10. Impaired Mucus Detachment Disrupts Mucociliary Transport in a Piglet Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegger, Mark J.; Fischer, Anthony J.; McMenimen, James D.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Tucker, Alex J.; Awadalla, Maged A.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Zabner, Joseph; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) is initiated by defective host defense that predisposes airways to bacterial infection. People with advanced CF exhibit deficits in mucociliary transport (MCT), a process that traps and propels bacteria out of lungs, but whether this occurs first or is secondary to airway remodeling has been unclear. To assess MCT, we tracked movement of radiodense microdisks in airways of newborn CF piglets. Cholinergic stimulation, which elicits mucus secretion, caused microdisks to become stuck. Impaired MCT was not due to periciliary liquid depletion; rather, CF submucosal glands secreted mucus strands that remained tethered to gland ducts and hindered MCT. Inhibiting anion secretion in non-CF airways replicated CF abnormalities. These findings identify impaired MCT as a primary defect, link CFTR loss in submucosal glands to failure of mucus detachment from glands, and suggest that submucosal glands and tethered mucus may be targets for early CF treatment. PMID:25124441

  11. The effect of mucolytic agents on the rheologic and transport properties of canine tracheal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R; Litt, M; Marriott, C

    1980-03-01

    The effect of several sulfhydryl and other agents on the rheologic and mucociliary transport properties of a model secretion, reconstituted canine tracheal mucus, was investigated. The mucus was obtained via the canine tracheal pouch. Rheologic properties were determined by mirorheometry, and the ciliary transport rate was determined using the frog palate technique. It was found that N-acetyl cysteine decreased the elastic modulus, leading to improved mucociliary transport at concentrations such that the mucin did not precipitate. S-carboxymethyl cysteine had no effect on either mucus properties or mucociliary transport rate, and its reported effectiveness in vivo must be due to some mechanism other than solubilization of mucin. Similar results were found with other blocked sulfhydryl compounds. Urea and potassium iodide to decrease mucus elasticity, but are harmful to cilia at the concentrations needed.

  12. 76 FR 36557 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License; Devices for Clearing Mucus From Endotracheal Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... once a minute, or as desired. Studies involving intubated sheep showed that all mucus was cleared from... for ventilator associated pneumonia. The prospective exclusive license will be royalty bearing and...

  13. Draft genome sequence of Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from coral mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rafaella Z. Palermo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe the genomic features of the Actinobacteria Kocuria sp. SM24M-10 isolated from mucus of the Brazilian endemic coral Mussismilia hispida. The sequences are available under accession number LDNX01000000 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/LDNX00000000. The genomic analysis revealed interesting information about the adaptation of bacteria to the marine environment (such as genes involved in osmotic and oxidative stress and to the nutrient-rich environment provided by the coral mucus.

  14. [Inhibitory effect of nasal mucus on the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H

    1990-01-01

    The absorption of Dibekacin (DKB) through rabbit's tracheal mucosa with and without nasal mucus were examined in vitro. The modified double chamber method was used for the purpose of this study. DKB solution (20 mg/ml) and Hanks' balanced salt solution were put into the donor compartment (DC) and the receiver compartment (RC), respectively. A plate with a hole and the tracheal mucosa were inserted between the compartments in the order of DC, dialytic membrane, the plate, the rabbit tracheal mucosa and RC. The hole of the plate was filled with nasal mucus or Hanks' solution. The latter was used as the control. The chamber was incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. The absorption rate (AR) was obtained by dividing the concentration of DKB in RC by that in DC. The nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis significantly decreased the AR of DKB compared with that in the control (P less than 0.05). The AR significantly decreased with increments in the thickness of nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis. This decreased AR was improved by the addition of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to DKB solution in DC. NAC can cleave disulfied bonds of mucus glycoprotein and this results in the decrease of viscoelasticity of nasal mucus. The results indicate that nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis intercept the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium in vitro. One of the mechanisms of the intercepter may be due to the high molecular-reticular structure of nasal mucus.

  15. Genetically dictated change in host mucus carbohydrate landscape exerts a diet-dependent effect on the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Purna C; Marcobal, Angela; Ursell, Luke K; Smits, Samuel A; Sonnenburg, Erica D; Costello, Elizabeth K; Higginbottom, Steven K; Domino, Steven E; Holmes, Susan P; Relman, David A; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Sonnenburg, Justin L

    2013-10-15

    We investigate how host mucus glycan composition interacts with dietary carbohydrate content to influence the composition and expressed functions of a human gut community. The humanized gnotobiotic mice mimic humans with a nonsecretor phenotype due to knockout of their α1-2 fucosyltransferase (Fut2) gene. The fecal microbiota of Fut2(-) mice that lack fucosylated host glycans show decreased alpha diversity relative to Fut2(+) mice and exhibit significant differences in community composition. A glucose-rich plant polysaccharide-deficient (PD) diet exerted a strong effect on the microbiota membership but eliminated the effect of Fut2 genotype. Additionally fecal metabolites predicted host genotype in mice on a polysaccharide-rich standard diet but not on a PD diet. A more detailed mechanistic analysis of these interactions involved colonization of gnotobiotic Fut2(+) and Fut2(-) mice with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent member of the human gut microbiota known to adaptively forage host mucosal glycans when dietary polysaccharides are absent. Within Fut2(-) mice, the B. thetaiotaomicron fucose catabolic pathway was markedly down-regulated, whereas BT4241-4247, an operon responsive to terminal β-galactose, the precursor that accumulates in the Fut2(-) mice, was significantly up-regulated. These changes in B. thetaiotaomicron gene expression were only evident in mice fed a PD diet, wherein B. thetaiotaomicron relies on host mucus consumption. Furthermore, up-regulation of the BT4241-4247 operon was also seen in humanized Fut2(-) mice. Together, these data demonstrate that differences in host genotype that affect the carbohydrate landscape of the distal gut interact with diet to alter the composition and function of resident microbes in a diet-dependent manner.

  16. Accumulation of dietary and aqueous cadmium into the epidermal mucus of the discus fish Symphysodon sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunder, Richard J., E-mail: richard.maunder@astrazeneca.com [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Buckley, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.buckley@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Val, Adalberto L., E-mail: dalval@inpa.gov.br [Department of Ecology, Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, INPA, Manaus (Brazil); Sloman, Katherine A., E-mail: katherine.sloman@uws.ac.uk [School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    The discus fish Symphysodon sp. is an Amazonian cichlid with a unusual form of parental care where fry obligately feed from parental mucus for the first few weeks of life. Here, we investigated the possible impact of environmental cadmium on this species, particularly with respect to mucus contamination. We exposed groups of fish to cadmium either through their food (400 mg kg{sup -1}) or through the water (3 {mu}g l{sup -1}) for 4 weeks, and measured tissue concentrations and ATPase activities at weekly intervals. Cadmium significantly accumulated in all tissues (except for muscle) after 7 days, and tissue concentrations increased until the end of the experiment. Significant alterations in ATPase activities of intestine and kidney were observed at day 7 and 14, but no alterations in gill ATPase activities occurred. The epidermal mucus showed a high accumulation of cadmium from both exposures, but particularly from the diet, indicating that dietary cadmium can be transferred from gut to mucus. Combining this data with approximations of fry bite volumes and bite frequencies, we constructed daily estimates of the cadmium that could potentially be consumed by newly hatched fry feeding on this mucus. These calculations suggest that feeding fry might consume up to 11 {mu}g g{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and hence indicate that this species' dependency on parental mucus feeding of fry could make them particularly susceptible to cadmium contamination of their native habitat.

  17. The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utiyama, Daniela Mitiyo Odagiri; Yoshida, Carolina Tieko; Goto, Danielle Miyuki; de Santana Carvalho, Tômas; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation.

  18. Lyn kinase represses mucus hypersecretion by regulating IL-13-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Yang, Xiaoqiong; Li, Yin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yun; Dai, Xi; Niu, Bin; Wu, Juan; Yuan, Xiefang; Xiong, Anjie; Liu, Zhigang; Zhong, Nanshan; Wu, Min; Li, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    In asthma, mucus hypersecretion is thought to be a prominent pathological feature associated with widespread mucus plugging. However, the current treatments for mucus hypersecretion are often ineffective or temporary. The potential therapeutic targets of mucus hypersecretion in asthma remain unknown. Here, we show that Lyn is a central effector of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and mucous hypersecretion in asthma. In Lyn-transgenic mice (Lyn-TG) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice exposed to ovalbumin (OVA), Lyn overexpression attenuates mucus hypersecretion and ER stress. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) induced MUC5AC expression by enhancing ER stress in vitro. Lyn serves as a negative regulator of IL-13-induced ER stress and MUC5AC expression. We further find that an inhibitor of ER stress, which is likely involved in the PI3K p85α/Akt pathway and NFκB activity, blocked MUC5AC expression in Lyn-knockdown cells. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt signaling is required for IL-13-induced ER stress and MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells. The ER stress regulation of MUC5AC expression depends on NFκB in Lyn-knockdown airway epithelial cells. Our studies indicate not only a concept of mucus hypersecretion in asthma that involves Lyn kinase but also an important therapeutic candidate for asthma.

  19. Role of mucus in gastric mucosal injury induced by local ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, K; Joh, T; Yokoyama, Y; Itoh, M

    1995-09-01

    The role of gastric mucus was evaluated in a rat model of gastric epithelial damage induced by local ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) stress. In this model, blood-to-lumen chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) clearance served as an index of injury. Tetraprenyl acetone (TPA; 100 mg, 200 mg/kg IP) was used to stimulate mucus production. Administration of TPA increased both the hexosamine content in gastric tissue and the amount of alcian blue-periodic acid Schiff (AB-PAS) stained mucus in the mucosa in a dose-dependent manner. Increases in 51Cr-EDTA clearance induced by I/R were significantly attenuated by TPA in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 0.6%, 0.8%) was perfused into the gastric lumen to assess the effect of reduction in mucus on the injury induced by I/R. Although mean values of hexosamine content were increased by perfusion with NAC, AB-PAS-stained mucus in the mucosa was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Perfusion of NAC did not change basal 51Cr-EDTA clearance but significantly exacerbated the increase in clearance induced by I/R in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that gastric mucus protects the gastric mucosa against I/R stress in vivo.

  20. Oxidation increases mucin polymer cross-links to stiffen airway mucus gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shaopeng; Hollinger, Martin; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Kerr, Sheena C; Dunican, Eleanor M; Daniel, Brian M; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Erzurum, Serpel C; Willard, Belinda; Hazen, Stanley L; Huang, Xiaozhu; Carrington, Stephen D; Oscarson, Stefan; Fahy, John V

    2015-02-25

    Airway mucus in cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly elastic, but the mechanism behind this pathology is unclear. We hypothesized that the biophysical properties of CF mucus are altered because of neutrophilic oxidative stress. Using confocal imaging, rheology, and biochemical measures of inflammation and oxidation, we found that CF airway mucus gels have a molecular architecture characterized by a core of mucin covered by a web of DNA and a rheological profile characterized by high elasticity that can be normalized by chemical reduction. We also found that high levels of reactive oxygen species in CF mucus correlated positively and significantly with high concentrations of the oxidized products of cysteine (disulfide cross-links). To directly determine whether oxidation can cross-link mucins to increase mucus elasticity, we exposed induced sputum from healthy subjects to oxidizing stimuli and found a marked and thiol-dependent increase in sputum elasticity. Targeting mucin disulfide cross-links using current thiol-amino structures such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) requires high drug concentrations to have mucolytic effects. We therefore synthesized a thiol-carbohydrate structure (methyl 6-thio-6-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) and found that it had stronger reducing activity than NAC and more potent and fast-acting mucolytic activity in CF sputum. Thus, oxidation arising from airway inflammation or environmental exposure contributes to pathologic mucus gel formation in the lung, which suggests that it can be targeted by thiol-modified carbohydrates.

  1. The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mitiyo Odagiri Utiyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters. METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR smoking history of 34 (20-58 pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min, although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (∼26%, an increased number of macrophages (2-fold and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation.

  2. Lyn kinase represses mucus hypersecretion by regulating IL-13-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In asthma, mucus hypersecretion is thought to be a prominent pathological feature associated with widespread mucus plugging. However, the current treatments for mucus hypersecretion are often ineffective or temporary. The potential therapeutic targets of mucus hypersecretion in asthma remain unknown. Here, we show that Lyn is a central effector of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress and mucous hypersecretion in asthma. In Lyn-transgenic mice (Lyn-TG and wild-type (WT C57BL/6J mice exposed to ovalbumin (OVA, Lyn overexpression attenuates mucus hypersecretion and ER stress. Interleukin 13 (IL-13 induced MUC5AC expression by enhancing ER stress in vitro. Lyn serves as a negative regulator of IL-13-induced ER stress and MUC5AC expression. We further find that an inhibitor of ER stress, which is likely involved in the PI3K p85α/Akt pathway and NFκB activity, blocked MUC5AC expression in Lyn-knockdown cells. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt signaling is required for IL-13-induced ER stress and MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells. The ER stress regulation of MUC5AC expression depends on NFκB in Lyn-knockdown airway epithelial cells. Our studies indicate not only a concept of mucus hypersecretion in asthma that involves Lyn kinase but also an important therapeutic candidate for asthma.

  3. Vaginal mucus from ewes treated with progestogen sponges affects quality of ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Jorgelina; Ríos, Glenda; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-03-15

    The use of intravaginal sponges (IS) to synchronize estrous onset in ewes provokes vaginitis, an increase in the vaginal bacterial load, and growth of bacterial species that are not present during spontaneous estrous behavior. The objective of the study was to compare the functional sperm parameters after incubating it with mucus collected from the vagina of ewes during spontaneous estrus or estrous synchronized with IS. Pooled spermatozoa were co-incubated with: (1) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in spontaneous estrus; (2) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in estrus pretreated with progestogen-impregnated IS; (3) synthetic mucus; and (4) medium without mucus as a control group. Sperm samples were evaluated after incubating it for 30 and 90 minutes. The number of colony-forming units (CFUs/mL), pH, and osmolality were greater in the mucus collected from ewes treated with IS than from those untreated (P = 0.046; P sheep in spontaneous estrus for 30 and 90 minutes (P synchronization treatments. This may partially explain the decrease in conception rate obtained with treatments with IS.

  4. Association between HSV-2 and HIV-1 viral load in semen, cervico-vaginal secretions and genital ulcers of Thai men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kathryn; Jiamton, Sukhum; Pepin, Jacques; Cowan, Frances; Mahakkanukrauh, Bussakorn; Suttent, Ruengpung; Robinson, Noah J; Deslandes, Sylvie; Frost, Eric; Chaisilwattana, Pongsakdi; Suthipinittharm, Puan; Grosskurth, Heiner; Brown, David; Jaffar, Shabbar

    2006-10-01

    We studied the association between herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and HIV-1 viralload in plasma, semen, cervico-vaginal secretions and genital ulcers. Forty-seven (68%) men and 57 (80%) women were HSV-2 antibody positive, of whom 12 (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20, 32) and five (8%, 95% CI 4, 12), respectively, had HSV-2 genital shedding detected by polymerase chain reaction. The mean HIV-1 seminal and cervico-vaginal viral loads did not differ significantly according to the presence of HSV-2 shedding. Eleven men and 15 women presented with genital ulcers; all ulcers were due to HSV-2. Ten men and nine women were followed up over six days: the mean (95% CI) HIV-1 log viral load copies/mL in the genital ulcers at baseline and final visits were 2.5 (2.3, 2.7) and 3.1 (2.0, 4.2) for men and 3.0 (2.6, 3.4) and 2.7 (2.3, 3.1) for women. These findings do not support the hypothesis that HSV-2 increases the HIV-1 viral load in genital secretions.

  5. Assessing mucus and airway morphology in response to a segmental allergen challenge using OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David C.; Miller, Alyssa J.; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Hariri, Lida P.; Harris, R. Scott; Cho, Jocelyn L.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Asthma affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and the prevalence of the disease appears to be increasing. One of the most important aspects of asthma is the excessive bronchoconstriction that results in many of the symptoms experienced by asthma sufferers, but the relationship between bronchoconstriction and airway morphology is not clearly established. We present the imaging results of a study involving a segmental allergen challenge given to both allergic asthmatic (n = 12) and allergic non-asthmatic (n = 19) human volunteers. Using OCT, we have imaged and assessed baseline morphology in a right upper lobe (RUL) airway, serving as the control, and a right middle lobe (RML) airway, in which the allergen was to be administered. After a period of 24 hours had elapsed following the administration of the allergen, both airways were again imaged and the response morphology assessed. A number of airway parameters were measured and compared, including epithelial thickness, mucosal thickness and buckling, lumen area, and mucus content. We found that at baseline epithelial thickness, mucosal thickness, and mucosal buckling were greater in AAs than ANAs. We also observed statistically significant increases in these values 24 hours after the allergen had been administered for both the ANA and AA sets. In comparison, the control airway which received a diluent showed no statistically significant change.

  6. Characterization of vibrios diversity in the mucus of the polychaete Myxicola infundibulum (Annellida, Polichaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, Loredana; Giangrande, Adriana; Pizzolante, Graziano; Caruso, Giorgia; Alifano, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Vibrios are among the most abundant culturable microbes in aquatic environments. They can be either free-living in the water column or associated with several marine organisms as mutualists, saprophytes, or parasites. In the present study we analysed vibrios abundance and diversity in the mucus of the polychaete Myxicola infundibulum, complementing culture-based with molecular methods. Vibrios reached 4.6 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1) thus representing a conspicuous component of the heterotrophic culturable bacteria. In addition, luminous vibrios accounted for about 60% of the total culturable vibrios in the mucus. The isolates were assigned to: Vibrio gigantis, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio jasicida, Vibrio crassostreae, Vibrio kanaloae, and Vibrio xuii. Two Vibrio isolates (MI-13 and MI-15) may belong to a new species. We also tested the ability of the Vibrio isolates to grow on M. infundibulum mucus as the sole carbon source. All strains showed appreciable growth in the presence of mucus, leading us to conclude that this matrix, which is abundant and covers the animal entirely, may represent a microcosm and a food source for some bacteria, playing a crucial role in the structuring of a mucus-associated beneficial microbial community. Moreover, the trophic relationship between vibrios and M. infundibulum mucus could be enhanced by the protection that mucus offers to vibrios. The results of this study represent a contribution to the growing evidence for complex and dynamic invertebrate-microbe associations present in nature and highlight the importance of exploring relationships that Vibrio species establish with marine invertebrates.

  7. Cervicovaginal cytology in the detection of recurrence after cervical cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimel, B J; Ferda, Aaron; Erwin, Jamie; Dewdney, Summer B; Seamon, Leigh; Gao, Feng; DeSimone, Christopher; Cotney, Kristen K; Huh, Warner; Massad, L Stewart

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the utility of liquid-based cytology in detecting recurrent cervical cancer among treated cervical cancer patients. A retrospective multi-institution study identified patients treated for cervical cancer from January 1, 2000, to November 1, 2009, through local cancer registries and patient databases. Patients were excluded if they lacked follow-up or treatment data. In all, 4,167 cytology results from 929 women were identified. Of these, 626 (15%) Pap test results from 312 (34%) women were abnormal, including 296 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; 47%); 179 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL; 29%), 59 atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H; 9%); 55 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL; 9%); 14 atypical glandular cells (2%), and 23 favor neoplasia (4%). Abnormal Pap test results led to 201 colposcopies in 135 women. Only 45 women had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or worse, 25 had CIN 3, and 12 had cancer. Only 5 of 475 (1%) women with ASC-US or LSIL had CIN 3. Cancer recurred in 147 women, with 12 (8.1%) detected by Pap test; all but one had Pap test results of ASC-H or worse. One patient with ASC-US and human papillomavirus had a visible lesion on return for assessment 2 months after Pap testing. Colposcopy for cytology less than HSIL without a visible lesion on examination did not detect any recurrence or CIN 3. When stratified by stage and institution, patients treated with radiation had a higher risk of abnormal Pap test results (P<.001). A third of cervical cancer survivors will have abnormal cytology during follow-up, but in the absence of a visible lesion, those with ASC-US or LSIL can be followed without colposcopy unless abnormalities persist. Women with ASC-H, HSIL, and similar abnormalities deserve colposcopy. II.

  8. Effects of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation on airway mucus clearance: A bench model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Restrepo, Lorena; Shaffer, Lauren; Amalakuhan, Bravein; Restrepo, Marcos I; Peters, Jay; Restrepo, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the ability of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) to promote airway clearance in spontaneously breathing patients and those on mechanical ventilation. METHODS An artificial lung was used to simulate a spontaneously breathing patient (Group 1), and was then connected to a mechanical ventilator to simulate a patient on mechanical ventilation (Group 2). An 8.5 mm endotracheal tube (ETT) connected to the test lung, simulated the patient airway. Artificial mucus was instilled into the mid-portion of the ETT. A filter was attached at both ends of the ETT to collect the mucus displaced proximally (mouth-piece filter) and distally (lung filter). The IPV machine was attached to the proximal end of the ETT and was applied for 10-min each to Group 1 and 2. After each experiment, the weight of the various circuit components were determined and compared to their dry weights to calculate the weight of the displaced mucus. RESULTS In Group 1 (spontaneously breathing model), 26.8% ± 3.1% of the simulated mucus was displaced proximally, compared to 0% in Group 2 (the mechanically ventilated model) with a P-value of < 0.01. In fact, 17% ± 1.5% of the mucus in Group 2 remained in the mid-portion of the ETT where it was initially instilled and 80% ± 4.2% was displaced distally back towards the lung (P < 0.01). There was an overall statistically significant amount of mucus movement proximally towards the mouth-piece in the spontaneously breathing (SB) patient. There was also an overall statistically significant amount of mucus movement distally back towards the lung in the mechanically ventilated (MV) model. In the mechanically ventilated model, no mucus was observed to move towards the proximal/mouth piece section of the ETT. CONCLUSION This bench model suggests that IPV is associated with displacement of mucus towards the proximal mouthpiece in the SB patient, and distally in the MV model. PMID:28828301

  9. Serum levonorgestrel concentration and cervical mucus viscosity after six months of monoplant® implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka R. Gunardi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of levonorgestrel implants as a contraceptive method have undergone changes in the number of implants used, beginning from six rods in the early methods to two rods in the present method and have been proven effective. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of single rod implant (Monoplant® by measuring serum levonorgestrel concentration and cervical mucus quality.Methods: Thirty healthy women, aged 20-40 year old, and have been proven fertile, underwent single rod implant insertion. Levonorgestrel serum levels was measured every month and cervical mucus viscosity was examined every three month, until six months.Results: Levonorgestrel serum concentration was consistently above minimum effective level (200 pg/mL, from month 3 to 6 respectively 338.9 pg/mL, 424.8 pg/mL, 320.3 pg/mL, and 337.5 pg/mL. Almost all of the acceptors (96.7% had good cervical mucus viscosity since three months following implant insertion. Conclusion: Levonorgestrel serum concentration in Monoplant® users was still above minimum contraceptive level until the sixth month. Viscosity of cervical mucus increased immediately following implant insertion. This indicates that single rod levonorgestrel implant is effective as a contraceptive method.Keywords: cervical mucus viscosity, implant monoplant®, serum levonorgestrel

  10. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-07

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.

  11. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Juliana; Patel, Kruti R; Aven, Linh; Achey, Rebecca; Minns, Martin S; Lee, Yoonjoo; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery E; Ai, Xingbin

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are the only innervated airway epithelial cells. To what extent neural innervation regulates PNEC secretion and function is unknown. Here, we discover that neurotrophin 4 (NT4) plays an essential role in mucus overproduction after early life allergen exposure by orchestrating PNEC innervation and secretion of GABA. We found that PNECs were the only cellular source of GABA in airways. In addition, PNECs expressed NT4 as a target-derived mechanism underlying PNEC innervation during development. Early life allergen exposure elevated the level of NT4 and caused PNEC hyperinnervation and nodose neuron hyperactivity. Associated with aberrant PNEC innervation, the authors discovered that GABA hypersecretion was required for the induction of mucin Muc5ac expression. In contrast, NT4(-/-) mice were protected from allergen-induced mucus overproduction and changes along the nerve-PNEC axis without any defects in inflammation. Last, GABA installation restored mucus overproduction in NT4(-/-) mice after early life allergen exposure. Together, our findings provide the first evidence for NT4-dependent neural regulation of PNEC secretion of GABA in a neonatal disease model. Targeting the nerve-PNEC axis may be a valid treatment strategy for mucus overproduction in airway diseases, such as childhood asthma.-Barrios, J., Patel, K. R., Aven, L., Achey, R., Minns, M. S., Lee, Y., Trinkaus-Randall, V. E., Ai, X. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion. © FASEB.

  12. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, B P; Lichtendonk, W J; Witjes, J A

    2002-05-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a refrigerator. After precipitation, the urine was decanted. The residue was stirred to a homogeneous suspension. To samples of 4.5 ml mucus, 0.5 ml NAC 10% was added. To the control sample, 0.5 ml water was added. The samples were incubated in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 5, 30 and 60 min. Viscosity was measured in the Bohlin VOR Rheometer. The viscosity of the ileal neobladder mucus decreased quickly after incubating with NAC 10%. Viscosity increased slightly after I h of incubation. The viscosity in the control sample was higher than in the other incubated samples. NAC was found to decrease the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus, supporting the in vivo experience that NAC can be useful in patients with an ileal neobladder to facilitate the evacuation of mucus by decreasing viscosity.

  13. A foam model highlights the differences of the macro- and microrheology of respiratory horse mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Andreas; Torge, Afra; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Wagner, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Native horse mucus is characterized with micro- and macrorheology and compared to hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gel as a model. Both systems show comparable viscoelastic properties on the microscale and for the HEC the macrorheology is in good agreement with the microrheology. For the mucus, the viscoelastic moduli on the macroscale are several orders of magnitude larger than on the microscale. Large amplitude oscillatory shear experiments show that the mucus responds nonlinearly at much smaller deformations than HEC. This behavior fosters the assumption that the mucus has a foam like structure on the microscale compared to the typical mesh like structure of the HEC, a model that is supported by cryogenic-scanning-electron-microscopy (CSEM) images. These images allow also to determine the relative amount of volume that is occupied by the pores and the scaffold. Consequently, we can estimate the elastic modulus of the scaffold. We conclude that this particular foam like microstructure should be considered as a key factor for the transport of particulate matter which plays a central role in mucus function with respect to particle penetration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clearance of viscoelastic mucus simulant with airflow in a rectangular channel, an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Amgad A; Evrensel, Cahit A; Krumpe, Peter E

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of mucus simulant with airflow in a rectangular channel is investigated experimentally. Two different viscoelastic gel mucus simulants are prepared by cross linking Borax with Locust Bean Gum (LBG) solution; liquid-like (LM) with lower storage modulus and semi-solid (SM). The rheological difference between LM and SM represent the qualitative change from liquid-like healthy mucus to the one with higher storage modulus found in a person with lung disease. The study concentrates on the effect of viscoelastic layer thickness and rheology on the wave formation and clearance due to its interaction with airflow. The results indicate that the onset air velocity for wave initiation reduces by increasing layer thickness. This effect is more pronounced for SM. Slowly propagating waves initiate at a lower air velocity for LM compared to SM for thinner layer thickness and this behavior reverses for a thicker layer. Although SM clears at a critical air velocity, LM does not show clearance behavior, defined as separation of layer section from rest and movement in the downstream flow direction. This seems to suggest that thicker mucus with higher elastic modulus, similar to the mucus for a person with lung disease, may clear easier with a two-phase air-liquid flow, as in cough.

  15. Comparative performance of novel self-sampling methods in detecting high-risk human papillomavirus in 30,130 women not attending cervical screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgraaf, R.P.; Verhoef, V.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Siebers, A.G.; Bulten, J.; Kuyper-de Ridder, G.M. de; Meijer, C.J.W.; Snijders, P.J.L.M.; Heideman, D.A.; Hout, J. in't; Kemenade, F.J. van; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether the participation rate for a brush-based cervicovaginal self-sampling device is noninferior to the participation rate for a lavage-based one for testing for hrHPV (high-risk human papillomavirus). Additionally, positivity rates for hrHPV, the detection rates for cervical

  16. Structure and Function of the Mucus Clearance System of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brenda M.; Button, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), a defect in ion transport results in thick and dehydrated airway mucus, which is difficult to clear, making such patients prone to chronic inflammation and bacterial infections. Physiotherapy using a variety of airway clearance techniques (ACTs) represents a key treatment regime by helping clear the airways of thickened, adhered, mucus and, thus, reducing the impact of lung infections and improving lung function. This article aims to bridge the gap between our understanding of the physiological effects of mechanical stresses elicited by ACTs on airway epithelia and the reported effectiveness of ACTs in CF patients. In the first part of this review, the effects of mechanical stress on airway epithelia are discussed in relation to changes in ion transport and stimulation in airway surface layer hydration. The second half is devoted to detailing the most commonly used ACTs to stimulate the removal of mucus from the airways of patients with CF. PMID:23751214

  17. LIF analysis of cervical mucus and amniotic fluid for maturity monitoring in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, Aurelija; Auksorius, Egidijus; Ramasauskaite, Diana; Smilgeviciute, Ale; Tamasauskas, Oldas; Vanseviciute, Rasa; Veleckas, Doras

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of autoflorescence spectroscopy in the diagnosis of cervix maturity through cervical mucus florescence and foetal lung maturity through amniotic fluid fluorescence. LED and broadband Mercury light were used to induce fluorescence in cervical mucus and amniotic fluid respectively. Mature specimens compared to immature ones showed a significant decrease in cervical mucus fluorescence values measured at 420 nm (p = 0.0004) and in measured amniotic fluid fluorescence values at 410 nm (p = 0.0686). Probability-based classification algorithm was developed to identify samples 'maturity' through analysis of the fluorescence spectra. Employing fluorescence intensity at 420 nm for cervix maturity diagnosis rendered optimal sensitivity of 92.9%, specificity of 83.3% and area under the ROC curve of 91.1%.

  18. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunye Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.

  19. Effect of trefoil factors on the viscoelastic properties of mucus gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, L; Madsen, F; Poulsen, S S

    2002-01-01

    Trefoil peptides (TFFs) are expressed and secreted in a tissue-specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence of coexpression of trefoil peptides and mucins has been demonstrated in most mucus-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. The expression of trefoil peptides is up-regulat......-regulated in gastric ulceration and colitis. It is believed that TFF peptides interact with mucin to increase viscosity but this has never been confirmed. The aims of the present study were to elucidate the direct effect of trefoil peptides on mucus gel formation....

  20. Adhesion mechanisms of Vibrio fluvialis to skin mucus of Epinephelus awoara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢庆枇; 赵敏慧; 王晓露; 邹文政; 陈昌生

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio fluvialis incubated in trypticase soy broth(TSB)showed stronger adhesion to the skin mucus of Epinephelus awoara than V.fluvialis grown on trypticase soy agar(TSA),and this bacterial adhesion was assessed in terms of saturation kinetics.Treating bacteria with antibody against O-antigens resulted in significantly reduced bacterial adhesion.In the early growth stage,the adhering bacteria numbers increased with incubation time,peaked at 24 h,and then dropped sharply.Prior heat treatment of the mucus at ...

  1. SPDEF is required for mouse pulmonary goblet cell differentiation and regulates a network of genes associated with mucus production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Xu, Y.; Kitzmiller, J.; Wert, S.E.; Maeda, Y.; Gregorieff, A.; Clevers, H.; Whitsett, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Various acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli increase the number and activity of pulmonary mucus-producing goblet cells, and goblet cell hyperplasia and excess mucus production are central to the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases. However, little is known about the transcriptional program

  2. Effects of verapamil, carbenoxolone and N-acetylcysteine on gastric wall mucus and ulceration in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, M W; Ogle, C W; Cho, C H

    1986-01-01

    The effects of verapamil on gastric wall mucus and ulceration were studied in rats which were restrained and exposed to 4 degrees C (stress). Stress for 2 h significantly depleted stomach wall mucus and produced marked gastric glandular ulcers. Verapamil pretreatment (2, 4, 8 or 16 mg/kg), injected intraperitoneally 30 min before experimentation, significantly prevented stress-induced mucus depletion and gastric ulceration; however, it did not itself influence stomach wall mucus levels in nonstressed animals. Intragastric administration of carbenoxolone (100 or 200 mg/kg), also given 30 min before stress, exhibited similar actions as verapamil. A 15% solution of N-acetylcysteine (10 ml/kg), given orally, strongly decreased the mucus content in both nonstress and stress conditions; it induced ulcers in nonstressed rats, and worsened stress ulceration. These effects were not reversed by verapamil pretreatment. The influence of multiple-dose pretreatment with verapamil or carbenoxolone on mucus content and ulceration in the gastric glandular mucosa during stress is also discussed. It is concluded that gastric wall mucus depletion is likely to play an important role in stress ulcer formation; the antiulcer action of verapamil could partly be due to the preservation of mucus.

  3. Development of a physiologically relevant dripping analytical method using simulated nasal mucus for nasal spray formulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Masiuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for nasal spray formulations have been elementary evaluating the dripping characteristics of a formulation and have not assessed the behavior of the nasal formulation in the presence of varying types of mucus depending on the indication or diseased state. This research investigated the effects of nasal mucus on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and focused on developing an improved in vitro analytical test method that is more physiologically relevant in characterizing nasal formulation dripping behavior. Method development was performed using simulated nasal mucus preparations for both healthy and diseased states as coatings for the dripping experiment representing a wide range of viscosity. Factors evaluated during development of this in vitro test method included amount of mucus, application of mucus, drying times, and compatibility of the mucus on a C18 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC substrate. The dripping behavior of nasal formulations containing a range of 1% Avicel to 3.5% Avicel was assessed by actuating the nasal spray on a perpendicular TLC plate coated with either healthy or diseased simulated nasal mucus. After actuation of the nasal spray, the dripping of the formulation on the coated TLC plate was measured after the plate was repositioned vertically. The method that was developed generated reproducible results on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and provided critical information about the compatibility of the formulation with the nasal mucus for different diseased states, aiding in nasal spray formulation development and physical characterization of the nasal spray.

  4. Development of a physiologically relevant dripping analytical method using simulated nasal mucus for nasal spray formulation analysis$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tina Masiuk n; Parul Kadakia; Zhenyu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for nasal spray formulations have been elementary evaluating the dripping char-acteristics of a formulation and have not assessed the behavior of the nasal formulation in the presence of varying types of mucus depending on the indication or diseased state. This research investigated the effects of nasal mucus on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and focused on developing an improved in vitro analytical test method that is more physiologically relevant in characterizing nasal formulation dripping behavior. Method development was performed using simulated nasal mucus preparations for both healthy and diseased states as coatings for the dripping experiment representing a wide range of viscosity. Factors evaluated during development of this in vitro test method included amount of mucus, application of mucus, drying times, and compatibility of the mucus on a C18 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) substrate. The dripping behavior of nasal formulations containing a range of 1%Avicel to 3.5%Avicel was assessed by actuating the nasal spray on a perpendicular TLC plate coated with either healthy or diseased simulated nasal mucus. After actuation of the nasal spray, the dripping of the formulation on the coated TLC plate was measured after the plate was repositioned vertically. The method that was developed generated reproducible results on the dripping behavior of nasal formula-tions and provided critical information about the compatibility of the formulation with the nasal mucus for different diseased states, aiding in nasal spray formulation development and physical characterization of the nasal spray.

  5. A histamine H2 receptor antagonist, roxatidine, stimulates mucus secretion and synthesis by cultured rabbit gastric mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Okabe, S

    1995-12-01

    We examined the effects of the known antisecretory and mucosal protective drug, roxatidine, on the secretion and synthesis of mucus by cultured rabbit gastric mucosal cells. The amounts of secreted and synthesized mucus were determined by the [3H] glucosamine labelling method. Exposure of the cells to roxatidine for 8 hr caused increases in the secretion and synthesis of mucus in a dose-related manner. The increase in mucus synthesis was maximally induced 4 hr after the addition of roxatidine, while mucus secretion was maximally enhanced a further 4 hr later. However, other H2 antagonists such as cimetidine, rantidine and famotidine failed to stimulate the secretion and synthesis of gastric mucus. In addition, neither indomethacin nor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester affected the roxatidine-induced increases in mucus secretion and synthesis. We conclude that roxatidine directly acts on gastric mucosal cells, inducing increases in both the secretion and synthesis of mucus, and that an unknown regulatory pathway might be involved in these stimulatory actions of roxatidine.

  6. Genomic characterization of non-mucus-adherent derivatives of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals genes affecting pilus biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinkangas, Pia; Reunanen, Justus; Douillard, François P; Ritari, Jarmo; Uotinen, Virva; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is one of the best-characterized lactic acid bacteria and can be considered a probiotic paradigm. Comparative and functional genome analysis showed that L. rhamnosus GG harbors a genomic island including the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster, encoding the cell surface-decorating host-interacting pili. Here, induced mutagenesis was used to study pilus biogenesis in L. rhamnosus GG. A combination of two powerful approaches, mutation selection and next-generation sequencing, was applied to L. rhamnosus GG for the selection of pilus-deficient mutants from an enriched population. The isolated mutants were first screened by immuno-dot blot analysis using antiserum against pilin proteins. Relevant mutants were selected, and the lack of pili was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The pilosotype of 10 mutant strains was further characterized by analyzing pilin expression using Western blot, dot blot, and immunofluorescence methods. A mucus binding assay showed that the mutants did not adhere to porcine intestinal mucus. Comparative genome sequence analysis using the Illumina MiSeq platform allowed us to determine the nature of the mutations in the obtained pilus-deficient derivatives. Three major classes of mutants with unique genotypes were observed: class I, with mutations in the srtC1 gene; class II, with a deletion containing the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster; and class III, with mutations in the spaA gene. Only a limited number of collateral mutations were observed, and one of the pilus-deficient derivatives with a deficient srtC1 gene contained 24 other mutations. This strain, PB12, can be considered a candidate for human trials addressing the impact of the absence of pili.

  7. Role of Mechanical Stress in Regulating Airway Surface Hydration and Mucus Clearance Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Brian; Boucher, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Effective clearance of mucus is a critical innate airway defense mechanism, and under appropriate conditions, can be stimulated to enhance clearance of inhaled pathogens. It has become increasingly clear that extracellular nucleotides (ATP and UTP) and nucleosides (adenosine) are important regulators of mucus clearance in the airways as a result of their ability to stimulate fluid secretion, mucus hydration, and cilia beat frequency (CBF). One ubiquitous mechanism to stimulate ATP release is through external mechanical stress. This article addresses the role of physiologically-relevant mechanical forces in the lung and their effects on regulating mucociliary clearance (MCC). The effects of mechanical forces on the stimulating ATP release, fluid secretion, CBF, and MCC are discussed. Also discussed is evidence suggesting that airway hydration and stimulation of MCC by stress-mediated ATP release may play a role in several therapeutic strategies directed at improving mucus clearance in patients with obstructive lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PMID:18585484

  8. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rix, L.; de Goeij, J.M.; Mueller, C.E.; Struck, U.; Middelburg, J.J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Wild, C.; Naumann, M.S.; van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and

  9. Ovulation Prediction by using Urine LH Rapid Determination Combinedwith Cervical Mucus Score

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇芬; 狄文; 桂彪; 张惠英; 金忆; 肖宇红; 丁青; 王寒正; 孙志达; 沈维雄

    1993-01-01

    Infertility may be induced by many causes. It is partly due to the inappropriate time of intercourse from ignorance of the date of ovulation by the infertile couples.Basal body temperature, cervical mucus, B-ultrasonography, blood LH ( luteinizing hormone ) and sex-steroid hormone assay are the common methods used for monitoring ovulation.

  10. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a

  11. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rix, L.; de Goeij, J.M.; Mueller, C.E.; Struck, U.; Middelburg, J.J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Wild, C.; Naumann, M.S.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrient

  12. 15-HETE is the main eicosanoid present in mucus of ulcerative protocolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Prostaglandins, leukotrienes and mono-hydroxy acid products of arachidonic acid were measured in mucus of freshly recovered morning stools of a patient with an exacerbation of ulcerative proctocolitis. Eicosanoids in ether extracts were separated by high performance liquid

  13. Active microrheology determines scale-dependent material properties of Chaetopterus mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, W. J.; Messmore, A.; Tu, J.; Morales-Sanz, A.; Blair, D. L.; Deheyn, D. D.; Urbach, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    We characterize the lengthscale-dependent rheological properties of mucus from the ubiquitous Chaetopterus marine worm. We use optically trapped probes (2–10 μm) to induce microscopic strains and measure the stress response as a function of oscillation amplitude. Our results show that viscoelastic properties are highly dependent on strain scale (l), indicating three distinct lengthscale-dependent regimes at l1 ≤4 μm, l2≈4–10 μm, and l3≥10 μm. While mucus response is similar to water for l1, suggesting that probes rarely contact the mucus mesh, the response for l2 is distinctly more viscous and independent of probe size, indicative of continuum mechanics. Only for l3 does the response match the macroscopic elasticity, likely due to additional stiffer constraints that strongly resist probe displacement. Our results suggest that, rather than a single lengthscale governing crossover from viscous to elastic, mucus responds as a hierarchical network with a loose biopolymer mesh coupled to a larger scaffold responsible for macroscopic gel-like mechanics. PMID:28562662

  14. The effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on the viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) proved to be an effective mucolytic in pulmonary secretions. Our goal was to investigate the in vitro effect of NAC on viscosity of ileal neobladder mucus. The urine of a patient with an ileal neobladder was collected during the first 7 days postoperatively and stored in a

  15. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE REGULARITY OF CERVICAL MUCUS PEROXIDASE (CMPx) ACTIVITY IN REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHong; CAOZuan-Sun; WENGQi-Liang; MAOWen-Jun

    1989-01-01

    29 infertile women with normal menstrual cycles, aged 23-33, were closely observed for 30 cycles. Blood aamples and cervical mucus in follicular, periovulatory and mid lutcul phases were collected respectively for LH, E2 , P and CMPx activity measurement.B-ultrasnographic monitoring was applied during menstrual cycles. Modified Insler score

  16. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rix, L.; de Goeij, J.M.; Mueller, C.E.; Struck, U.; Middelburg, J.J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Wild, C.; Naumann, M.S.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrient

  17. Dextran-protamine coated nanostructured lipid carriers as mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for lipophilic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloqui, Ana; Solinís, María Ángeles; des Rieux, Anne; Préat, Véronique; Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia

    2014-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were (i) to evaluate the effect of the mucus layer on saquinavir-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (SQV-NLCs) uptake and (ii) to evaluate the mucopenetrating properties of dextran-protamine (Dex-Prot) coating on NLCs as per SQV permeability enhancement. Three different NLC formulations differing on particle size and surfactant content were obtained and coated with Dex-Prot complexes. SQV permeability was then evaluated across Caco-2 cell monolayers (enterocyte-like model) and Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell monolayers (mucus model). In the Caco-2 monolayers, Dex-Prot-NLCs increased up to 9-fold SQV permeability in comparison to uncoated nanoparticles. In the Caco-2/HT29-MTX monolayers, Dex-Prot-NLCs presenting a surface charge close to neutrality significantly increased SQV permeability. Hence, Dex-Prot complex coating is a promising strategy to ensure successful nanoparticle mucus-penetration, and thus, an efficient nanoparticle oral delivery. To our knowledge, this is the first time that Dex-Prot coating has been described as a nanoparticle muco-penetration enhancer across the intestinal mucus barrier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trefoil factor peptide 3 is positively correlated with the viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara Kjær; Samson, Mie Hesselund; Becher, Naja

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug are considered essential for the occlusion of the cervical canal and thereby for protection against ascending infections during pregnancy. Factors controlling this property are virtually unknown. This study explores a possible role of trefoil...

  19. Analysis of stable isotopes in fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  20. Stable isotope analysis of fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  1. Trace minerals profile of blood serum and estrual mucus in repeat breeder Kankrej cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N F Chaudhari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with an idea to ascertain involvement of trace minerals in failure of conception in Knakrej cow. Materials and Methods: The animals under study were comprised of 10 normal (Group-I and 20 repeat breeder (Group-II Kankrej cows. Blood samples of each repeat breeding and normally cycling cows was collected before Artificial insemination. The mucus samples were collected aseptically before breeding. The cervical mucus was diluted with triple glass distilled water at the rate of 1: 3 using vertex machine. The diluted mucus and serum was used for the trace minerals estimation. Results: The values observed for copper, iron, zinc and manganese in blood serum of normal and repeat breeding animals was 2.27 ± 0.05 vs 0.87 ± 0.02, 1.41 ± 0.02 vs 0.65 ± 0.01, 1.94 ± 0.01 vs 1.78 ± 0.02 and 0.43 ± 0.02 vs 0.18 ± 0.01 ppm, respectively and in estrual mucus it was 1.37 ± 0.10 vs 0.44 ± 0.06, 0.74 ± 0.07 vs 0.33 ± 0.05, 1.47 ± 0.10 vs 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.29 ± 0.04 vs 0.23 ± 0.03 ppm, respectively. All the values in blood serum and estrual mucus were significantly (p<0.01 higher in normal than repeat breeder cows except manganese in estrual mucus, which was non significantly higher in normal as compared to repeat breeder Kankrej cows. Conclusion: All trace minerals was higher in blood serum of normal animals as compared to repeat breeder. In estrual mucus except manganese, all trace minerals was higher in normal cows than repeat breeder. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 143-146

  2. Fetal cells in cervical mucus in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioni, Riccardo; Bussani, Cecilia; Scarselli, Benedetta; Bucciantini, Sandra; Barciulli, Francesco; Scarselli, Gianfranco

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to first evaluate the presence of fetal cells in cervical mucus samples collected in the first trimester of pregnancy and then to compare different laboratory methods for the detection of these cells. Mucus samples were collected by using a cytobrush before termination of pregnancy (TOP) from 143 pregnant women between 7 and 12 weeks of gestation. None of the women had undergone an invasive diagnostic procedure prior to cervical mucus sampling. Samples of placental tissue were collected from each patient at TOP. Slides from each sample were first observed under an inverted microscope to detect possible sperm contamination. In the first part of our experiments, 40 mucus samples were treated with a mucolytic solution containing N-acetylcysteine (AC) and were analysed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The second series, consisting of 71 mucus samples, was treated with a mucolytic solution containing dithiothreitol (DTT): all 71 samples were analysed by a PCR-based assay, and an aliquot for fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis was also obtained from 48 out of 71 samples. In the third part of our experiments, performed on 32 mucus samples, mucus trapped on the cytobrush was directly spread on two slides for FISH analysis without any mucolytic treatment. All placental tissue samples obtained at termination were analysed by FISH for fetal sexing. Overall, the use of PCR-based or FISH analyses on 143 mucus samples resulted in correct sex prediction in 92/143 (64.3%) samples [20/66 (30.3%) cases from known male pregnancies and 72/77 (93.5%) cases from known female pregnancies]. In the AC group, Y-derived sequences were found in 7/23 samples (30.4%) from known male pregnancies and in 1/17 cases from known female pregnancies, with an overall correct sex prediction in 23/40 cases (57.5%). In the DTT group, Y-derived sequences could be amplified in 10/30 samples (33.3%) from known male pregnancies and in 4/41 cases from known

  3. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OESTRUS MUCUS AND CONCEPTION RATES IN REPEAT BREEDER BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Samad. S.M. Iqbal Shah. Nazir Ahmad and Nafees Akhtar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study some physical characteristics of oestrus mucus and conception rates in repeat breeder buffaloes after different treatments. For this purpose 60 adult buffaloes with history of repeat breeding were used. Mucus samples from these animals were collected during heat and studied for colour, consistence, pH and fern pattern. Experimental buffaloes were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. In buffa1oes of group A, GnRH was given immediately after insemination. In group B antibiotic infusion was given 24 hr after insemination. In animals of group C, insemination was done in the uterine horn ipsilateral to ovary bearing mature graafian follicle. Animals of group D were inseminated in the uterine body and served as control. The results indicated that oestrus mucus was transparent in 55.0%, translucent in 38.33% and whitish in 6.67% buffaloes. The consistency of mucus was viscous in 38.33%, thin in 50.0% and thick in, 11.67% repeat breeder buffaloes. Mean pH of oestrus mucus was 7.49 ± 0.35. Fren pattern was very characteristic in 6.67% characteristic in 48.33% and less characteristic in 45.0% buffaloes. The conception rates in animals of group B were significantly higher ( P<0.05 than those of group A, C or D; the differences in conception rates among buffaloes of the latter three groups were non significant. It was concluded that post-insemination antibiotic infusion may be used to improve conception rates in repeat breeder buffaloes.

  4. The influence of mucus microstructure and rheology in H. pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama eBansil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has evolved to survive in the highly acidic environment of the stomach and colonize on the epithelial surface of the gastric mucosa. Its pathogenic effects are well known to cause gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In order to infect the stomach and establish colonies on the mucus epithelial surface, the bacterium has to move across the gel-like gastric mucus lining of the stomach under acidic conditions. In this review we address the question of how the bacterium gets past the protective mucus barrier from a biophysical perspective. We begin by reviewing the molecular structure of gastric mucin and discuss the current state of understanding concerning mucin polymerization and low pH induced gelation. We then focus on the viscoelasticity of mucin in view of its relevance to the transport of particles and bacteria across mucus, the key first step in H. pylori infection. The second part of the review focuses on the motility of H. pylori in mucin solutions and gels, and how infection with H. pylori in turn impacts the viscoelastic properties of mucin. We present recent microscopic results tracking the motion of H. pylori in mucin solutions and gels. We then discuss how the biochemical strategy of urea hydrolysis required for survival in the acid is also relevant to the mechanism that enables flagella driven swimming across the mucus gel layer. Other aspects of the influence of H. pylori infection such as, altering gastric mucin expression, its rate of production and its composition, and the influence of mucin on factors controlling H. pylori virulence and proliferation are briefly discussed with references to relevant literature.

  5. Healing process in mice model of surgical wounds enhanced by Phyllocaulis boraceiensis mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Piza, Ana Rita de; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Phyllocaulis boraceiensis mucus has been studied as a potential source of new natural compounds that are capable of inducing proliferation and remodeling tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of healing in the wounded mouse skin, which was treated with an ointment that was composed of mucus, which was released by P boraceiensis. Mice were submitted to a 1-cm dorsal excision. The control group (T1) was treated with papain; the T2 group was treated with papain that was associated with 0.18 μg/μL of mucus; and the T3 group was treated with papain that was associated with 0.012 μg/μL of mucus. Accelerated proliferation was observed after 3 days in the T3 group, presenting a high deposition of fibroblasts at the wound margin, whereas accelerated proliferation in the T1 group began 5 days after surgery. The T2 group presented inflammation during all periods of observation, and even when healing had already begun, the new tissue showed capillary fragility. Remodeling began after 4 days in the T3 group, whereas remodeling began after 6 days in the other groups. T3 showed edema, hyperemia, and bleeding only until the fifth day, and granulation and scar tissues intensely appeared from the 11th day forward. T1 and T2 groups exhibited edema, hyperemia, and bleeding until the 11th day, and granulation and scar tissues appeared after the 13th day. The healing process and wound closure were efficient after the daily application of 0.012 μg/μL P boraceiensis mucus.

  6. Glycobiome: Bacteria and mucus at the epithelial interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, J.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Belzer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised with a dense and diverse microbial community, that is an important player in human health and physiology. Close to the epithelial cells the mucosal microbiota is separated from the host with a thin lining of host derived glycans, including the cell surfa

  7. Glycobiome: Bacteria and mucus at the epithelial interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, J.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Belzer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised with a dense and diverse microbial community, that is an important player in human health and physiology. Close to the epithelial cells the mucosal microbiota is separated from the host with a thin lining of host derived glycans, including the cell

  8. 16s rRNA Identification of Pediococcus spp. from Broiler and Studies of Adherence Ability on Immobilized Mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Damayanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study taxonomical status of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from broiler and adherence ability on mucus in vitro. Molecular analysis was performed by analyzing 16S rRNA gene using universal primer. The adherence assay on mucus was carried out using microplate method with total plate count (TPC, absorbance (A550 and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results of this studies revealed that three of LAB isolates have closed relation to Pediococcus acidilactici (99.9% species.Three isolates of P. acidilactici have adherence ability on broiler mucus higher than that on porcine mucin with an adherence percentage of 55.5% versus 50.8% and absorbance A550 of 0.061 versus 0.051, respectively. The highest adherence ability showed by P. acidilactici R02 with adherence percentage was 59.3% and absorbance A550 = 0.068. Adherence on mucus were affected by the addition of 3 g/l of gastric juice and 0.3% (b/v of bile salt. Adherence analysis using SEM also showed that the adherence on broiler mucus was higher than the adherence on porcine mucin. Altogether this adherence studies, suggest that three isolates of P. acidilactici LAB were capable of colonizing host intestinal mucus in vitro as important property to be promising probiotic bacteria for broiler.Key words : adherence, broiler, Pediococcus, mucus, 16S rRNA

  9. The pH of cervical mucus, quality of semen, and outcome of the post-coital test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, J C; Matthews, C D

    1986-06-01

    In preliminary experiments, pH measurements were made with pH paper and with a pH electrode on cervical mucus in situ and after aspiration. Paper and electrode gave comparable results with aspirated mucus. Measurements made on mucus in situ and then after aspiration were concordant only when pH paper, but not the pH electrode, was used to measure pH in situ. All spermatozoa were immotile in the post-coital test when the pH of the mucus was below 6. A pH below 6 was found in 38% (23 out of 61) of post-coital tests in which there were fewer than 1% of motile spermatozoa (19% of all tests). The male partners of women who had a mucus pH greater than 6 but had less than 1% of spermatozoa motile in the post-coital test, had slightly poorer quality semen than the partners of women with mucus pH less than 6, or in which there were motile spermatozoa in the mucus.

  10. Improved smell function with increased nasal mucus sonic hedgehog in hyposmic patients after treatment with oral theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I; Hosein, Suzanna; Stateman, William A; Knöppel, Alexandra B; Abdelmeguid, Mona

    We previously demonstrated the presence of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in nasal mucus in normal subjects and in patients with smell loss (hyposmia). Nasal mucus Shh levels were found significantly diminished in untreated hyposmic patients of multiple etiologies. Since treatment with oral theophylline has been previously associated with improvement in smell function we wished to study if such treatment increased nasal mucus Shh as well as improved smell function in patients with hyposmia. Forty-four patients with hyposmia of several etiologies were evaluated for changes in hyposmia by subjective measurements of smell, taste and flavor perception and by olfactometry. Measurements of nasal mucus Shh were made in relationship to each set of sensory measurements. Patients were treated with oral theophylline at doses of 200-800mg for periods of 2-10months with sensory function, nasal mucus Shh and serum theophylline levels evaluated at these time intervals. Nasal mucus Shh measurements were made with a sensitive spectrophotometric ELISA assay and theophylline with a fluorometric assay. There was consistent, significant improvement in subjective responses in smell, taste and flavor perception and in olfactometry associated with increased nasal mucus Shh and serum theophylline after theophylline treatment. Improvement in smell function and in nasal mucus Shh was positively correlated in a dose-response relationship after treatment with oral theophylline. Results are consistent with a successful role for theophylline in improvement of smell function in hyposmic patients of multiple etiologies associated with increased nasal mucus Shh which can act as a biochemical marker for smell function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 prevents Decline of Mucus Barrier in Colon of Accelerated Aging Ercc1-/Δ7 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan A Van Beek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-wk bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20wk, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice was characterized by a thin (<10µm mucus layer. L. plantarum prevented this decline in mucus integrity in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice, whereas B. breve exacerbated it. Bacterial supplementations affected the expression of immune-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4. Regulatory T cell frequencies were increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes of L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1-/Δ7 mice showed increased specific antibody production in a T cell-dependent immune response in vivo. By contrast, the effects of bacterial supplementation on wild-type control mice were negligible. Thus, supplementation with L. plantarum – but not with L. casei and B. breve – prevented the decline in the mucus barrier in Ercc1-/Δ7 mice. Our data indicate that age is an important factor influencing beneficial or detrimental effects of candidate probiotics. These findings also highlight the need for caution in translating beneficial effects of probiotics observed in young animals or humans to the elderly.

  12. Supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Prevents Decline of Mucus Barrier in Colon of Accelerated Aging Ercc1−/Δ7 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Adriaan A.; Sovran, Bruno; Hugenholtz, Floor; Meijer, Ben; Hoogerland, Joanne A.; Mihailova, Violeta; van der Ploeg, Corine; Belzer, Clara; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Vermeij, Wilbert P.; de Vos, Paul; Wells, Jerry M.; Leenen, Pieter J. M.; Nicoletti, Claudio; Hendriks, Rudi W.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that probiotics improve intestinal barrier function, little is known about the effects of probiotics on the aging intestine. We investigated effects of 10-week bacterial supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Lactobacillus casei BL23, or Bifidobacterium breve DSM20213 on gut barrier and immunity in 16-week-old accelerated aging Ercc1−/Δ7 mice, which have a median lifespan of ~20 weeks, and their wild-type littermates. The colonic barrier in Ercc1−/Δ7 mice was characterized by a thin (< 10 μm) mucus layer. L. plantarum prevented this decline in mucus integrity in Ercc1−/Δ7 mice, whereas B. breve exacerbated it. Bacterial supplementations affected the expression of immune-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4. Regulatory T cell frequencies were increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes of L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1−/Δ7 mice. L. plantarum- and L. casei-treated Ercc1−/Δ7 mice showed increased specific antibody production in a T cell-dependent immune response in vivo. By contrast, the effects of bacterial supplementation on wild-type control mice were negligible. Thus, supplementation with L. plantarum – but not with L. casei and B. breve – prevented the decline in the mucus barrier in Ercc1−/Δ7 mice. Our data indicate that age is an important factor influencing beneficial or detrimental effects of candidate probiotics. These findings also highlight the need for caution in translating beneficial effects of probiotics observed in young animals or humans to the elderly. PMID:27774093

  13. Acidic Conditions in the NHE2-/- Mouse Intestine Result in an Altered Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Population with Changes in Mucus Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Engevik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms bacteria use to proliferate and alter the normal bacterial composition remain unknown. The ability to link changes in the intestinal micro-environment, such as ion composition and pH, to bacterial proliferation is clinically advantageous for diseases that involve an altered gut microbiota, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease, obesity and diabetes. In human and mouse intestine, the apical Na+/H+ exchangers NHE2 and NHE3 affect luminal Na+, water, and pH. Loss of NHE2 results in acidic luminal pH. Since acid resistance systems in gram-positive bacteria are well documented, we hypothesize that gram-positive bacteria would increase in representation in the acidic NHE2-/- intestine. Methods: Intestinal ion composition was measured by fame photometry and chloridometry and pH measured electrochemically. DNA extracted from intestinal flushes or from mucosal scrapings was analyzed by qRT-PCR to examine luminal and mucosa-associated bacterial populations. Epithelial mucus oligosaccharide patterns were examined by histology with FIT-C labeled lectins. Results: Although total luminal and mucosa-associated bacteria were unchanged in NHE2-/- intestine, gram-positive bacterial phyla were increased in the mucosa-associated bacterial population in a region-specific manner. The genera Clostridium and Lactobacillus were increased in the cecum and colon which corresponded to changes in NHE2-/- mucus oligosaccharide composition of mannose, N-acetyglucosamine, N-acetygalactosamine and galactose. Conclusions: Together these data indicate that changes in ion transport induce region-specific bacterial changes, which alter host mucus oligosaccharide patterns. These host-bacterial interactions provide a possible mechanism of niche-development and shed insight on how certain groups proliferate in changing environments and maintain their proliferation by altering the host.

  14. Identification and biological activity of potential probiotic bacterium isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kiňová Sepov��

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lactic acid bacterium E isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb was identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA fragment and species-specific PCR as Lactobacillus reuteri. Its potential antimicrobial activity and ability to modulate immune system in vitro and in vivo was determined. The growth inhibition of potential pathogens decreased from Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica ser. Minnesota to Escherichia coli. The lowest inhibition activity was observed in the case of Candida albicans. The ability of L. reuteri E to modulate biological activities of human and mouse mononuclear cells was estimated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The production of IL-1β by monocytes in vitro was significantly induced by L. reuteri E (relative activity 2.47. The ability to modulate biological activities of mononuclear cells by living L. reuteri E cells in vitro in comparison to disintegrated L. reuteri E cells in vivo differed. For example lysozyme activity in vitro was inhibited while in vivo was stimulated (relative activities 0.30 and 1.83, respectively. The peroxidase activity in vitro was stimulated while in vivo was inhibited (relative activities 1.53 and 0.17, respectively. Obtained results indicate that L. reuteri E is potential candidate to be used in probiotic preparations for animals and/or human.

  15. Identification and biological activity of potential probiotic bacterium isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepová, H. Kiňová; Dubnicková, M.; Bilková, A.; Bukovský, M.; Bezáková, L.

    2011-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium E isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb was identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA fragment and species-specific PCR as Lactobacillus reuteri. Its potential antimicrobial activity and ability to modulate immune system in vitro and in vivo was determined. The growth inhibition of potential pathogens decreased from Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica ser. Minnesota to Escherichia coli. The lowest inhibition activity was observed in the case of Candida albicans. The ability of L. reuteri E to modulate biological activities of human and mouse mononuclear cells was estimated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The production of IL-1β by monocytes in vitro was significantly induced by L. reuteri E (relative activity 2.47). The ability to modulate biological activities of mononuclear cells by living L. reuteri E cells in vitro in comparison to disintegrated L. reuteri E cells in vivo differed. For example lysozyme activity in vitro was inhibited while in vivo was stimulated (relative activities 0.30 and 1.83, respectively). The peroxidase activity in vitro was stimulated while in vivo was inhibited (relative activities 1.53 and 0.17, respectively). Obtained results indicate that L. reuteri E is potential candidate to be used in probiotic preparations for animals and/or human. PMID:24031741

  16. Chemotactic Activity of Cyclophilin A in the Skin Mucus of Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Its Active Site for Chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ullah Dawar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus is a dynamic barrier for invading pathogens with a variety of anti-microbial enzymes, including cyclophilin A (CypA, a multi-functional protein with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase activity. Beside various other immunological functions, CypA induces leucocytes migration in vitro in teleost. In the current study, we have discovered several novel immune-relevant proteins in yellow catfish skin mucus by mass spectrometry (MS. The CypA present among them was further detected by Western blot. Moreover, the CypA present in the skin mucus displayed strong chemotactic activity for yellow catfish leucocytes. Interestingly, asparagine (like arginine in mammals at position 69 was the critical site in yellow catfish CypA involved in leucocyte attraction. These novel efforts do not only highlight the enzymatic texture of skin mucus, but signify CypA to be targeted for anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  17. High-attenuation mucus plugs on MDCT in a child with cystic fibrosis: potential cause and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Andrey; Brown, Shanaree [Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Applegate, Kimberly E. [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Howenstine, Michelle [Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Pulmonology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2007-06-15

    High-attenuation mucus plugging is a rare finding in both adults and children. When it occurs, the field of differential diagnoses is typically quite small and includes acute hemorrhage, aspiration of radiodense material, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The last of these three diagnoses is the most difficult to make, although ABPA is more commonly seen in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) or asthma. ABPA is radiographically characterized by recurrent mucus plugging, atelectasis, and central bronchiectasis. Thus far, high-attenuation mucus plugs have only been reported in adults. We report a rare case of a child with CF who had high-attenuation mucus plugs and atelectasis that raised the possibility of ABPA. We discuss the differential diagnoses of this finding and the role of multidetector CT in these children. (orig.)

  18. Microbiotas from UC patients display altered metabolism and reduced ability of LAB to colonize mucus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; van den Abbeele, Pieter; Sulek, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    We compared fecal microbial communities derived either from Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients in remission (n = 4) or in relapse (n = 4), or from healthy subjects (n = 4). These communities were used for inoculation of a dynamic in vitro gut model, which contained integrated mucin-covered microcosms....... We found that the microbiota of the 'mucus' largely differed from that of the 'lumen'. This was partly due to decreased mucus-associated populations of lactic acid producing bacterial populations (LAB), as LAB originating from UC patients had a significantly decreased capacity to colonize the mucin......-covered microcosms as compared to those originating from healthy subjects. We found significant differences between the metabolomes of UC patients in relapse and remission, respectively, while the metabolome of patients in remission resembled that of healthy subjects. These novel findings constitute an important...

  19. Imaging of mucus clearance in the airways of living spontaneously breathing mice by optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Mario; Schulz-Hildebrandt, Hinnerk; Hüttmann, Gereon; König, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Mucus transport is essential to remove inhaled particles and pathogens from the lung. Impaired removal of mucus often results in worsening of lung diseases. To understand the mechanisms of mucus transport and to monitor the impact of therapeutic strategies, it is essential to visualize airways and mucus in living animals without disturbing transport processes by intubation or surgically opening the airways. We developed a custom-built optical coherence microscope (OCM) providing a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 1.5 µm with a field of view of 2 mm at up to 150 images/s. Images of the intact trachea and its mucus transport were recorded in anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice. NaCl solution (0.9% and 7%) or Lipopolysaccharide were applied intranasally. OCM resolved detailed structure of the trachea and enabled measuring the airway surface liquid (ASL) thickness through the tracheal wall. Without stimulation, the amount of ASL was only a few µm above the epithelium and remained constant. After intranasal application of 30 µl saline at different concentrations, an early fast cough-like fluid removal with velocities higher than 1 mm/s was observed that removed a high amount of liquid. The ASL thickness increased transiently and quickly returned to levels before stimulation. In contrast to saline, application of Lipopolysaccharide induced substantial mucus release and an additional slow mucus transport by ciliary beating (around 100 µm/s) towards the larynx was observed. In conclusion, OCM is appropriate unique tool to study mechanisms of mucus transport in the airways and effects of therapeutic interventions in living animals.

  20. Preparation and characterization of mucus-penetrating papain/poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christiane; Leithner, Katharina; Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Salvenmoser, Willi; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Particle diffusion through the intestinal mucosal barrier is restricted by the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of the mucus gel layer, preventing their penetration to the underlying absorptive endothelial cells. To overcome this natural barrier, we developed nanoparticles which have a remarkable ability to cleave mucoglycoprotein substructures responsible for the structural and rheological properties of mucus. After rheological screening of various mucolytic proteases, nanoparticles composed of poly(acrylic acid) and papain were prepared and characterized regarding particle size and zeta potential. Analysis of nanoparticles showed mean diameters sub-200 nm (162.8-198.5 nm) and negative zeta potentials advancing the mobility in mucus gel. Using diffusion chamber studies and the rotating diffusion tubes method, we compared the transport rates of papain modified (PAPC) and unaltered poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles through freshly excised intestinal porcine mucus. Results of the diffusion assays demonstrated strongly enhanced permeation behavior of PAPC particles owing to local mucus disruption by papain. Improved transport rates, reduction in mucus viscosity and the retarded release of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds make proteolytic enzyme functionalized nanoparticles of substantial interest for improved targeted drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Although cytotoxicity tests of the nanoparticles could not be performed, safety of papain and PAA was already verified making PAPC particles a promising candidate in the pharmaceutical field of research. The focus of the present study was the development of particles which penetrate the mucus barrier to approach the underlying epithelium. Improvements of particles that penetrate the mucus followed by cell uptake in this direction are ongoing.

  1. Preparation and characterization of mucus-penetrating papain/poly(acrylic acid) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christiane; Leithner, Katharina; Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian [Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck, CCB-Centrum for Chemistry und Biomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Institute of Pharmacy (Austria); Salvenmoser, Willi [University of Innsbruck, Department for Evolutionary Developmental Biology, Institute of Zoology and Center for Molecular Biosciences (Austria); Bernkop-Schnuerch, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.bernkop@uibk.ac.at [Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, University of Innsbruck, CCB-Centrum for Chemistry und Biomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Institute of Pharmacy (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    Particle diffusion through the intestinal mucosal barrier is restricted by the viscoelastic and adhesive properties of the mucus gel layer, preventing their penetration to the underlying absorptive endothelial cells. To overcome this natural barrier, we developed nanoparticles which have a remarkable ability to cleave mucoglycoprotein substructures responsible for the structural and rheological properties of mucus. After rheological screening of various mucolytic proteases, nanoparticles composed of poly(acrylic acid) and papain were prepared and characterized regarding particle size and zeta potential. Analysis of nanoparticles showed mean diameters sub-200 nm (162.8-198.5 nm) and negative zeta potentials advancing the mobility in mucus gel. Using diffusion chamber studies and the rotating diffusion tubes method, we compared the transport rates of papain modified (PAPC) and unaltered poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) particles through freshly excised intestinal porcine mucus. Results of the diffusion assays demonstrated strongly enhanced permeation behavior of PAPC particles owing to local mucus disruption by papain. Improved transport rates, reduction in mucus viscosity and the retarded release of hydrophilic macromolecular compounds make proteolytic enzyme functionalized nanoparticles of substantial interest for improved targeted drug delivery at mucosal surfaces. Although cytotoxicity tests of the nanoparticles could not be performed, safety of papain and PAA was already verified making PAPC particles a promising candidate in the pharmaceutical field of research. The focus of the present study was the development of particles which penetrate the mucus barrier to approach the underlying epithelium. Improvements of particles that penetrate the mucus followed by cell uptake in this direction are ongoing.

  2. 16s rRNA Identification of Pediococcus spp. from Broiler and Studies of Adherence Ability on Immobilized Mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Ema Damayanti; Lies Mira Yusiati; Achmad Dinoto

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study taxonomical status of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from broiler and adherence ability on mucus in vitro. Molecular analysis was performed by analyzing 16S rRNA gene using universal primer. The adherence assay on mucus was carried out using microplate method with total plate count (TPC), absorbance (A550) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of this studies revealed that three of LAB isolates have closed relation ...

  3. Association of tracheal mucus or blood and airway neutrophilia with racing performance in Thoroughbred horses in an Australian racing yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, R O; Ahern, B J; Boston, R; Begg, L M

    2016-04-01

    To determine the variation of tracheal mucus scores, tracheal blood scores and transendoscopic tracheal wash (TW) cytology in a population of Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses and assess their association with racing performance. A total of 220 endoscopic examinations were performed and TWs obtained from 155 TB racehorses. Samples were collected 60-120 min following gallop work. Tracheal mucus score, tracheal blood score and TW cytology were analysed and their association with racing performance assessed. Of the total examinations and samples, 194 from 135 horses fitted the criteria for inclusion. The overall prevalence of visible tracheal mucus was 2.5% (5/194) and of increased tracheal mucus was 0%. The prevalence of visible tracheal blood was 8.8% (17/194) and of increased tracheal blood was 4.6% (9/194). A total of 36% (70/194) of TWs contained elevated percentages of neutrophils and of these, 96% (67/70) occurred in the absence of any visible tracheal mucus. There was no significant association between tracheal mucus score or TW cytology and subsequent racing performance. There was a statistically significant association (P = 0.004) between increased tracheal blood scores and poor racing performance. Visible tracheal blood seen after strenuous exercise in clinically normal TB racehorses was a risk factor for poor racing performance, but the presence of airway neutrophilia was not. No horses in this study were found to have increased tracheal mucus, so the association of increased tracheal mucus with racing performance could not be assessed. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Altered goblet cell differentiation and surface mucus properties in Hirschsprung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R Thiagarajah

    Full Text Available Hirschsprung disease-associated enterocolitis (HAEC leads to significant mortality and morbidity, but its pathogenesis remains unknown. Changes in the colonic epithelium related to goblet cells and the luminal mucus layer have been postulated to play a key role. Here we show that the colonic epithelium of both aganglionic and ganglionic segments are altered in patients and in mice with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR. Structurally, goblet cells were altered with increased goblet cell number and reduced intracellular mucins in the distal colon of biopsies from patients with HSCR. Endothelin receptor B (Ednrb mutant mice showed increased goblet cell number and size and increased cell proliferation compared to wild-type mice in aganglionic segments, and reduced goblet cell size and number in ganglionic segments. Functionally, compared to littermates, Ednrb-/- mice showed increased transepithelial resistance, reduced stool water content and similar chloride secretion in the distal colon. Transcript levels of goblet cell differentiation factors SPDEF and Math1 were increased in the distal colon of Ednrb-/- mice. Both distal colon from Ednrb mice and biopsies from HSCR patients showed reduced Muc4 expression as compared to controls, but similar expression of Muc2. Particle tracking studies showed that mucus from Ednrb-/- mice provided a more significant barrier to diffusion of 200 nm nanoparticles as compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest that aganglionosis is associated with increased goblet cell proliferation and differentiation and subsequent altered surface mucus properties, prior to the development of inflammation in the distal colon epithelium. Restoration of normal goblet cell function and mucus layer properties in the colonic epithelium may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of HAEC.

  5. Nutritional and environmental impacts on skin and mucus condition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Linda Beate

    2015-01-01

    The skin and associated mucus layer of Atlantic salmon constitutes its first line of defence against the aqueous environment. Through intensive farming, a range of stressors including both mechanical and environmental factors are known to have an impact on the skin condition of fish. Damaged skin can serve as a portal of entry for primary pathogens and secondary infections. Two of the current main problems in the salmon farming industry are skin related: ectoparasitism with sea...

  6. Characterisation of the human uterine microbiome in non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 region of the 16S rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Verstraelen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is widely assumed that the uterine cavity in non-pregnant women is physiologically sterile, also as a premise to the long-held view that human infants develop in a sterile uterine environment, though likely reflecting under-appraisal of the extent of the human bacterial metacommunity. In an exploratory study, we aimed to investigate the putative presence of a uterine microbiome in a selected series of non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene.Methods. Nineteen women with various reproductive conditions, including subfertility, scheduled for hysteroscopy and not showing uterine anomalies were recruited. Subjects were highly diverse with regard to demographic and medical history and included nulliparous and parous women. Endometrial tissue and mucus harvesting was performed by use of a transcervical device designed to obtain endometrial biopsy, while avoiding cervicovaginal contamination. Bacteria were targeted by use of a barcoded Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene V1-2 region, yielding an average of 41,194 reads per sample after quality filtering. Taxonomic annotation was pursued by comparison with sequences available through the Ribosomal Database Project and the NCBI database.Results. Out of 183 unique 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences, 15 phylotypes were present in all samples. In some 90% of the women included, community architecture was fairly similar inasmuch B. xylanisolvens, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. fragilis and an undetermined Pelomonas taxon constituted over one third of the endometrial bacterial community. On the singular phylotype level, six women showed predominance of L. crispatus or L. iners in the presence of the Bacteroides core. Two endometrial communities were highly dissimilar, largely lacking the Bacteroides core, one dominated by L. crispatus and another consisting of a highly diverse community, including

  7. Characterisation of the human uterine microbiome in non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 region of the 16S rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Hans; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Desimpel, Fabian; Jauregui, Ruy; Vankeirsbilck, Nele; Weyers, Steven; Verhelst, Rita; De Sutter, Petra; Pieper, Dietmar H; Van De Wiele, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is widely assumed that the uterine cavity in non-pregnant women is physiologically sterile, also as a premise to the long-held view that human infants develop in a sterile uterine environment, though likely reflecting under-appraisal of the extent of the human bacterial metacommunity. In an exploratory study, we aimed to investigate the putative presence of a uterine microbiome in a selected series of non-pregnant women through deep sequencing of the V1-2 hypervariable region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Methods. Nineteen women with various reproductive conditions, including subfertility, scheduled for hysteroscopy and not showing uterine anomalies were recruited. Subjects were highly diverse with regard to demographic and medical history and included nulliparous and parous women. Endometrial tissue and mucus harvesting was performed by use of a transcervical device designed to obtain endometrial biopsy, while avoiding cervicovaginal contamination. Bacteria were targeted by use of a barcoded Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene V1-2 region, yielding an average of 41,194 reads per sample after quality filtering. Taxonomic annotation was pursued by comparison with sequences available through the Ribosomal Database Project and the NCBI database. Results. Out of 183 unique 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences, 15 phylotypes were present in all samples. In some 90% of the women included, community architecture was fairly similar inasmuch B. xylanisolvens, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. fragilis and an undetermined Pelomonas taxon constituted over one third of the endometrial bacterial community. On the singular phylotype level, six women showed predominance of L. crispatus or L. iners in the presence of the Bacteroides core. Two endometrial communities were highly dissimilar, largely lacking the Bacteroides core, one dominated by L. crispatus and another consisting of a highly diverse community, including Prevotella spp

  8. Adhesion of pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus to the gill mucus of Pseudosciaena crocea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; YAN Qingpi; MA Shen; ZHUANG Zhixia; WANG Xiaoru

    2007-01-01

    Adhesion of Vibrio alginolyticus to the gill mucus of Pseudosciaena crocea has been investigated using [methyl-3H]thymidine as isotope tracer. The results showed that: the adhesive quantity of V. alginolyticus increased with bacterial concentrations and reached equilibrium after incubated for 180 min; the higher adhesive quantity was obtained at 15~30 ℃ and sourish conditions; adhesion of V. alginolyticus could not achieved without Na+, and Ca2+ played an auxiliary role in the bacterial adhesion; adhesion of V. alginolyticus was inhibited remarkably by starvation, heat treatment and periodic acid treatment; all of the eight kinds of carbohydrates investigated enhanced the adhesion of V. alginolyticus to the gill mucus of P. crocea, among them, glucose, mannose, fructose and maltose showed the specially enhanced adhesion. The results indicated that V. alginolyticus could adhere to the gill mucus of P. crocea facilely in seawater, and this bacterial adhesion was influenced by environmental factors and closely related to superficial carbohydrate structures and some heat-sensitive structures.

  9. Mitomycin-C suppresses mucus secretion in an ileal neobladder rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiwei; Yu, Yang; Shu, Junjie; Ming, Hao; Li, Weiping; Fan, Zhilu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mucus secretion status of mature goblet cells following the application of mitomycin-C (MMC) in ileal neobladder rat models. Bladder substitution models were established in Sprague Dawley rats, which had been divided into five groups, namely the control (sham), normal saline (NS), high-dose MMC (HMMC), low-dose MMC (LMMC) and dehydrated alcohol (DA) groups. To evaluate the total protein concentration and level of sialic acid following the therapy, urine from the rats in each group was collected on days 8, 11 and 14. In addition, to observe the variances between mucus secretion and the ileum goblet cells, immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin and eosin staining were conducted in the different groups on day 17. The results indicated that the ileal neobladder mucosas in the MMC groups were clearly undamaged, as compared with the DA group. Furthermore, the MMC and DA groups were shown to inhibit the proliferation of goblet cells. The concentration of protein and sialic acid in the LMMC group was found to be lower compared with the NS group, while the concentration in the HMMC group was considerably lower. In conclusion, HMMC was demonstrated to evidently reduce the mucin and sialic acid concentration in the urine, without visible damage to the ileal neobladder mucus membrane. Therefore, MMC may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of certain bladder conditions.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Couples Motility and Diffusion to Actively Create a Heterogeneous Complex Medium in Gastric Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Henry; Mirbagheri, Seyed Amir

    2016-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori swims through mucus gel by generating ammonia that locally neutralizes the acidic gastric environment, turning nearby gel into a fluid pocket. The size of the fluid zone is important for determining the physics of the motility: in a large zone swimming occurs as in a fluid through hydrodynamic principles, while in a very small zone the motility could be strongly influenced by nonhydrodynamic cell-mucus interactions including chemistry and adhesion. We calculate the size of the fluid pocket. We model how swimming depends on the de-gelation range using a Taylor sheet swimming through a layer of Newtonian fluid bounded by a Brinkman fluid. Then, we model how the de-gelation range depends on the swimming speed by considering the advection-diffusion of ammonia exuded from a translating sphere. Self-consistency between both models determines the values of the swimming speed and the de-gelation range. We find that H. pylori swims through mucus as if unconfined, in a large pocket of Newtonian fluid. Funded by National Science Foundation award CBET-1252182.

  11. Potamotrygon cf. henlei stingray mucus: biochemical features of a novel antimicrobial protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Katia; Monteiro-dos-Santos, Juliane; Seibert, Carla Simone; Silva, Pedro Ismael; Marques, Elineide Eugênio; Richardson, Michael; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2012-10-01

    Antimicrobial molecules are important components of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They have been studied widely in several fishes, but little is known about these defence factors in stingrays, which are thought to have less sophisticated adaptive immune systems when compared to other teleosts. Stingrays from the specie Potamotrygon cf. henlei are distributed throughout the rivers of central-west Brazil, being the cause of numerous envenomations occurring in the dry seasons. In a previous study, we reported that the mucus of the stingray P. cf. henlei shows antimicrobial effects. Here, to analyze the antimicrobial compounds from the mucus of P. cf. henlei, we employed solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation followed by ESI-MS, and Edman degradation. A protein similar to the β-chain of hemoglobin was identified, isolated and partially sequenced by Edman degradation. This protein has a molecular weight of 16072.8 Da, and was shown to be active against bacteria (Micrococcus luteus and Escherichiacoli) and yeast (Candida tropicalis) without hemolytic activity. Effects of this new protein in the microcirculation environment were also evaluated. The results obtained provide fundamental information for future basic research, clinical diagnosis and development of new therapies to accident treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a bioactive polypeptide from the mucus of a stingray.

  12. Competition for attachment of aquaculture candidate probiotic and pathogenic bacteria on fish intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, N G; Leukes, W D; Kaiser, H; Daya, S; Baxter, J; Hecht, T

    2004-06-01

    Probiotics for aquaculture are generally only selected by their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites; however, attachment to intestinal mucus is important in order to remain within the gut of its host. Five candidate probiotics (AP1-AP5), isolated from the clownfish, Amphiprion percula (Lacepéde), were examined for their ability to attach to fish intestinal mucus and compete with two pathogens, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus. Two different radioactive isotopes were used to quantify competition between pathogens and probionts. Attachment of the pathogens was enhanced by the presence of the candidate probiotics. However, the addition of the candidate probiotics after the pathogens resulted in reduced pathogen attachment. Only AP5 caused lower attachment success of V. alginolyticus when added before the pathogen. When AP5 was added first, the average attachment change was 41% compared with 72% when added after V. alginolyticus, suggesting that the probiotic is displaced but that enhanced attachment of the pathogen does not occur. Conversely, when V. alginolyticus was added first, followed by AP5, attachment change was 37% while AP5 had 92% attachment change when added second. This implies that the pathogen was displaced by the candidate probiotic and therefore it appeared that, based on the ability of probiont AP5 to attach to mucus, the growth of the pathogen in the digestive tract might be suppressed by the candidate probiont's presence.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Couples Motility and Diffusion to Actively Create a Heterogeneous Complex Medium in Gastric Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, Seyed Amir; Fu, Henry Chien

    2016-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori swims through mucus gel by generating ammonia that locally neutralizes the acidic gastric environment, turning nearby gel into a fluid pocket. The size of the fluid zone is important for determining the physics of the motility: in a large zone swimming occurs as in a fluid through hydrodynamic principles, while in a very small zone the motility could be strongly influenced by nonhydrodynamic cell-mucus interactions including chemistry and adhesion. Here, we calculate the size of the fluid pocket. We model how swimming depends on the de-gelation range using a Taylor sheet swimming through a layer of Newtonian fluid bounded by a Brinkman fluid. Then, we model how the de-gelation range depends on the swimming speed by considering the advection-diffusion of ammonia exuded from a translating sphere. Self-consistency between both models determines the values of the swimming speed and the de-gelation range. We find that H. pylori swims through mucus as if unconfined, in a large pocket of Newtonian fluid.

  14. Characterization of gelatin/chitosan scaffold blended with aloe vera and snail mucus for biomedical purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Angulo, Daniel Enrique; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2016-11-01

    Biologically active scaffolds used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been generating promising results in skin replacement. The present study aims to test the hypothesis that the incorporation of Aloe vera and snail mucus into scaffolds based on gelatin and chitosan could improve their structure, composition and biodegradability, with a potential effect on bioactivity. Homogeneous pore diameter as well as pore walls in the composite scaffold could be seen in the SEM image. The pores in the scaffolds were interconnected and their sizes ranged from 93 to 296μm. The addition of Aloe vera and snail mucus enlarged the mean pore size with increased porosity and caused changes in the pore architecture. The FTIR analysis has shown good affinity and interaction between the matrix and the Aloe, which may decrease water-binding sites, so this fact hindered the water absorption capacity of the material. The mechanical properties could explain the highest swelling capacity of the snail scaffold, because the high percentage of elongation could facilitate the entry of liquid in it, generating a matrix with plenty of fluid retention. The real innovation in the present work could be the use of these substances (Aloe and snail mucus) for tissue engineering.

  15. Beyond the mucus escalator: Complex ciliary hydrodynamics in disease and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Janna; Guo, Hanliang; John, Dabiri; Kanso, Eva; McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Cilia are microscopic, hair-like structures lining external and internal body surfaces where they interact with fluids. The main function of motile cilia is often described as that of a ``mucus escalator'', i.e., a homogeneous ciliary carpet moving along layer of mucus along the surface to transport food, germ cells, debris, or pathogens. Accordingly, the performance of ciliary systems is usually measured in terms of a single metric, transport velocity, or its presumed proxy, ciliary beat frequency. We challenge this simple view through the observation that both healthy and diseased biological systems exhibit a variety of cilia morphologies, beat patterns, and arrangements, resulting in complex flow patterns and transport phenomena that cannot be reduced to a single parameter. Here we present two case studies. In one system, the ciliated surface creates two distinct flow regimes for first trapping and then sheltering potential symbiont bacteria for further biochemical screening. In the other system, chronic disease induces a misalignment of ciliary beat, leading to a pathological transition from uniform mucus transport to a pattern of stagnation and circulation. These studies suggest that (a), we need to develop a wider range of metrics for describing ciliary transport in biological and clinical contexts, and (b), engineered ciliated systems exploiting a variety of design parameters could provide novel ways of manipulating fluids at the microscale.

  16. Altered mucus glycosylation in core 1 O-glycan-deficient mice affects microbiota composition and intestinal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Felix; Adam, Nina; Johansson, Malin E V; Xia, Lijun; Hansson, Gunnar C; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    A functional mucus layer is a key requirement for gastrointestinal health as it serves as a barrier against bacterial invasion and subsequent inflammation. Recent findings suggest that mucus composition may pose an important selection pressure on the gut microbiota and that altered mucus thickness or properties such as glycosylation lead to intestinal inflammation dependent on bacteria. Here we used TM-IEC C1galt (-/-) mice, which carry an inducible deficiency of core 1-derived O-glycans in intestinal epithelial cells, to investigate the effects of mucus glycosylation on susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, gut microbial ecology and host physiology. We found that TM-IEC C1galt (-/-) mice did not develop spontaneous colitis, but they were more susceptible to dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis. Furthermore, loss of core 1-derived O-glycans induced inverse shifts in the abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. We also found that mucus glycosylation impacts intestinal architecture as TM-IEC C1galt(-/-) mice had an elongated gastrointestinal tract with deeper ileal crypts, a small increase in the number of proliferative epithelial cells and thicker circular muscle layers in both the ileum and colon. Alterations in the length of the gastrointestinal tract were partly dependent on the microbiota. Thus, the mucus layer plays a role in the regulation of gut microbiota composition, balancing intestinal inflammation, and affects gut architecture.

  17. Sodium chloride increases the ciliary transportability of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis sputum on the mucus-depleted bovine trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, P J; Hall, R L; Chan, W; Cole, P J

    1997-01-01

    Mucus retention in the lungs is an important feature of several respiratory diseases (Regnis, J.A., M. Robinson, D.L. Bailey, P. Cook, P. Hooper, H.K. Chan, I. Gonda, G. Bautovich, and P.T.P. Bye. 1994. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150:66-71 and Currie, D.C., D. Pavia, J.E. Agnew, M.T. Lopez-Vidriero, P.D. Diamond, P.J. Cole, and S.W. Clarke. 1987. Thorax. 42:126-130). On the mucus-depleted bovine trachea, the ciliary transport rate of sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis of other causes was slow, but the rate was doubled by increasing the sodium chloride content by 90 mM. Increasing the sputum osmolality by inspissation or by the addition of nonelectrolytes had a similar effect. The viscoelasticity of sputum, but not the bovine ciliary beat frequency, was markedly saline dependent over the pathophysiological range. This suggests that low mucus salinity, not (as is generally assumed) its under-hydration, contributes to its retention in bronchiectasis due to cystic fibrosis and other causes, probably by affecting its rheology. It also indicates how the genetic defect in cystic fibrosis might lead to impaired mucus clearance. Therapies that increase the osmolality of lung mucus might benefit patients with mucus retention.

  18. Far from superficial: microbial diversity associated with the skin and mucus of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Rocco C.; Dove, Alistair; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    During horizontal or water-borne infection involving an obligate pathogen (e.g. – Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis), the pathogen interacted with and influenced the microbial diversity of the dermal mucus of fish. Prior to infection, the prevalent bacterial flora cultured from juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) included Pseudomonas fluorescens, Comomonas terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., Pseudomonas dimunita, Alcaligenes denitrificans, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Serratia liquefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, other motile Aeromonas spp., and Corynebacterium aquaticum. After A. salmonicida was initially detected in this population as an external mucus infection, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp., C. terrigenia, P. fluorescens, and P. dimunita, Staphylococcus sp., and A. hydrophila, were also present in appreciable numbers. Within several weeks, however, the A. salmonicida infection amplified and composed 78% of the total flora in the mucus. Only P. dimunita (4%). P. fluorescens (2%), and C. terrigenia (1%) were cultured at that time and more than a third of these fish showed evidence of a systemic A. salmonicida infection within their kidneys. Eight weeks after oral oxytetracycline treatments, A. salmonicida was no longer isolated from the mucus or kidneys of any fish and glucose inert or other oxidative microbes (e.g., P. fluorescens, C. terrigenia, Acinetobacter sp., Moraxella sp.) were beginning to repopulate the external surface of the salmon in increasing frequency. Still present and composing fairly large percentages of the total flora were A. hydrophila, as well as Enterobacter sp., and P. putrefaciens. A normal microbial diversity was re-established as the fish recovered. In another investigation, reduced biological diversity was noted in the dermal mucus among smallmouth bass that were sampled from the Jackson River (Covington, VA). In these fish, A. hydrophila and P. putrefaciens were the two

  19. Phylogenetic characterization of culturable actinomycetes associated with the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera from Gulf of Mannar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyanand, Paramasivam; Manju, Sivalingam; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is a virtually untapped source of novel actinomycete diversity and its metabolites. Investigating the diversity of actinomycetes in other marine macroorganisms, like seaweeds and sponges, have resulted in isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. Actinomycetes diversity associated with corals and their produced metabolites have not yet been explored. Hence, in this study we attempted to characterize the culturable actinomycetes population associated with the coral Acropora digitifera. Actinomycetes were isolated from the mucus of the coral wherein the actinomycetes count was much higher when compared with the surrounding seawater and sediment. Actinobacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene primers were used for identifying the isolates at the molecular level in addition to biochemical tests. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes revealed several polymorphic groups within the isolates. Sequencing and blast analysis of the isolates revealed that some isolates had only 96.7% similarity with its nearest match in GenBank indicating that they may be novel isolates at the species level. The isolated actinomycetes exhibited good antibacterial activity against various human pathogens. This study offers for the first time a prelude about the unexplored culturable actinomycetes diversity associated with a scleractinian coral and their bioactive capabilities. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prioritization of a plant polysaccharide over a mucus carbohydrate is enforced by a Bacteroides hybrid two-component system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jonathan B; Sonnenburg, Justin L

    2012-08-01

    Bacteroides is a dominant genus within the intestinal microbiota of healthy humans. Key adaptations of the Bacteroides to the dynamic intestinal ecosystem include a diverse repertoire of genes involved in sensing and processing numerous diet- and host-derived polysaccharides. One such adaptation is the carbohydrate-sensing hybrid two-component system (HTCS) family of signalling sensors, which has been widely expanded within the Bacteroides. Using Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron as a model, we have created a chimeric HTCS consisting of the well-characterized sensing domain of one HTCS, BT1754, and the regulatory domain of another HTCS, BT0366, to explore the regulatory capabilities of these molecules. We found that the BT0366 regulatory region directly binds to and mediates induction of the adjacent polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) using whole-genome transcriptional profiling after inducing signalling through our chimeric protein. We also found that BT0366 activation simultaneously leads to repression of distal PULs involved in mucus carbohydrate consumption. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which an HTCS enforces a nutrient hierarchy within the Bacteroides via induction and repression of multiple PULs. Thus, hybrid two-component systems provide a mechanism for prioritizing consumption of carbohydrates through simultaneous binding and regulation of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Correlation between Copper Ion Concentration in Cervical Mucus and Fllbrinolytic Activity in Menstrual Blood in Copper-releasiag IUD Users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建华; 潘家骧; 严隽鸿

    1993-01-01

    In the present study, 44 women using TCu220c-IUD or inert-IUD were asked to make follow-ups before insertion and at the 1st., 3rd., 6th, 9th and 12th month after insertion The mean menstrual blood loss, the fibrinalytic activity including the activation of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) and the amount of plasminogen PIG) and fibrinogen-fibrin degradation products (FDP) in menstrual blood and the copper ion concentration in cervical mucus were determined. The correlation between the copper ion concentration and the fibrinalytic activity was considered. It was found that the change of the copper ion concentration was positively correlated with that of the activition of t-PA and the amount of FDP. On the contrary, the change ofthe copper ion concentration was inversely related to the change of PLG value. It is concluded that the high copper ion level can enhance the activation of fibrinolytic system in human endometrium and induce the increase of menorrhagia.

  2. Neonatal Pulmonary Macrophage Depletion Coupled to Defective Mucus Clearance Increases Susceptibility to Pneumonia and Alters Pulmonary Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Yogesh; Wilkinson, Kristen J; Terrell, Kristy A; Burns, Kimberlie A; Livraghi-Butrico, Alessandra; Doerschuk, Claire M; O'Neal, Wanda K; Boucher, Richard C

    2016-02-01

    Resident immune cells (e.g., macrophages [MΦs]) and airway mucus clearance both contribute to a healthy lung environment. To investigate interactions between pulmonary MΦ function and defective mucus clearance, a genetic model of lysozyme M (LysM) promoter-mediated MΦ depletion was generated, characterized, and crossed with the sodium channel β subunit transgenic (Scnn1b-Tg) mouse model of defective mucus clearance. Diphtheria toxin A-mediated depletion of LysM(+) pulmonary MΦs in wild-type mice with normal mucus clearance resulted in lethal pneumonia in 24% of neonates. The pneumonias were dominated by Pasteurella pneumotropica and accompanied by emaciation, neutrophilic inflammation, and elevated Th1 cytokines. The incidence of emaciation and pneumonia reached 51% when LysM(+) MΦ depletion was superimposed on the airway mucus clearance defect of Scnn1b-Tg mice. In LysM(+) MΦ-depleted Scnn1b-Tg mice, pneumonias were associated with a broader spectrum of bacterial species and a significant reduction in airway mucus plugging. Bacterial burden (CFUs) was comparable between Scnn1b-Tg and nonpneumonic LysM(+) MΦ-depleted Scnn1b-Tg mice. However, the nonpneumonic LysM(+) MΦ-depleted Scnn1b-Tg mice exhibited increased airway inflammation, the presence of neutrophilic infiltration, and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with Scnn1b-Tg mice. Collectively, these data identify key MΦ-mucus clearance interactions with respect to both infectious and inflammatory components of muco-obstructive lung disease.

  3. Spray-dried powders enhance vaginal siRNA delivery by potentially modulating the mucus molecular sieve structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Na Wu,1,2,* Xinxin Zhang,2,* Feifei Li,2 Tao Zhang,2 Yong Gan,2 Juan Li1 1School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Vaginal small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery provides a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal diseases. However, the densely cross-linked mucus layer on the vaginal wall severely restricts nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery to the vaginal epithelium. In order to overcome this barrier and enhance vaginal mucus penetration, we prepared spray-dried powders containing siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Powders with Pluronic F127 (F127, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC, and mannitol as carriers were obtained using an ultrasound-assisted spray-drying technique. Highly dispersed dry powders with diameters of 5–15 µm were produced. These powders showed effective siRNA protection and sustained release. The mucus-penetrating properties of the powders differed depending on their compositions. They exhibited different potential of opening mesh size of molecular sieve in simulated vaginal mucus system. A powder formulation with 0.6% F127 and 0.1% HPMC produced the maximum increase in the pore size of the model gel used to simulate vaginal mucus by rapidly extracting water from the gel and interacting with the gel; the resulting modulation of the molecular sieve effect achieved a 17.8-fold improvement of siRNA delivery in vaginal tract and effective siRNA delivery to the epithelium. This study suggests that powder formulations with optimized compositions have the potential to alter the steric barrier posed by mucus and hold promise for effective vaginal siRNA delivery. Keywords: siRNA delivery, vaginal administration, spray-dried powders, mucus penetration, molecular sieve effect

  4. Stress disrupts intestinal mucus barrier in rats via mucin O-glycosylation shift: prevention by a probiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Stéphanie; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Ait-Belgnaoui, Afifa; Mancuso, Alessandro; Mercade-Loubière, Myriam; Salvador-Cartier, Christel; Gillet, Marion; Ferrier, Laurent; Loubière, Pascal; Dague, Etienne; Theodorou, Vassilia; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2014-08-15

    Despite well-known intestinal epithelial barrier impairment and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and IBS-like models, structural and physical changes in the mucus layer remain poorly understood. Using a water avoidance stress (WAS) model, we aimed at evaluating whether 1) WAS modified gut permeability, visceral sensitivity, mucin expression, biochemical structure of O-glycans, and related mucus physical properties, and 2) whether Lactobacillus farciminis treatment prevented these alterations. Wistar rats received orally L. farciminis or vehicle for 14 days; at day 10, they were submitted to either sham or 4-day WAS. Intestinal paracellular permeability and visceral sensitivity were measured in vivo. The number of goblet cells and Muc2 expression were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Mucosal adhesion of L. farciminis was determined ex situ. The mucin O-glycosylation profile was obtained by mass spectrometry. Surface imaging of intestinal mucus was performed at nanoscale by atomic force microscopy. WAS induced gut hyperpermeability and visceral hypersensitivity but did not modify either the number of intestinal goblet cells or Muc2 expression. In contrast, O-glycosylation of mucins was strongly affected, with the appearance of elongated polylactosaminic chain containing O-glycan structures, associated with flattening and loss of the mucus layer cohesive properties. L. farciminis bound to intestinal Muc2 and prevented WAS-induced functional alterations and changes in mucin O-glycosylation and mucus physical properties. WAS-induced functional changes were associated with mucus alterations resulting from a shift in O-glycosylation rather than from changes in mucin expression. L. farciminis treatment prevented these alterations, conferring epithelial and mucus barrier strengthening.

  5. Antimicrobial proteins of Snail mucus (Achatina fulica against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herluinus Mafranenda DN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achasin and mytimacin-AF are proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica which have antimicrobial activity. Snail mucus is suspected to have other proteins which have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the oral pathologic bacteria. Purpose: The study were aimed to characterize the proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica that have antimicrobial activities to Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and to compared the antimicrobial effect of achasin and mytimacin-AF. Methods: The sample of study was the mucus of snails which were taken from Yogyakarta Province. The isolation and characterization of protein were conducted by using SDS-PAGE method, electroelution, and dialysis. Nano drop test was conducted to determine protein concentration. The sensitivity test was conducted by using dilution test, and followed by spectrophotometry and paper disc diffusion tests. Results: The study showed that proteins successfully characterized from snail mucus (Achatina fulica were proteins with molecular weights of 83.67 kDa (achasin, 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa (full amino acid sequence of mytimacin-AF and 9.7 kDa (mytimacin-AF. Based on the dilution test, Achasin had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. But the paper disc diffusion test result showed that Achasin had antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, while mytimacin-AF had no antimicrobial activities. Conclusion: The proteins with molecular weights of 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa were considered as new antimicrobial proteins isolated from snail mucus. Achasin, had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

  6. Changes in the reproductive system of the snail Helix aspersa caused by mucus from the love dart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, J M; Chase, R

    1998-08-01

    The function of the love dart in certain species of terrestrial snails is unknown. In Helix aspersa, the dart is a sharp calcareous structure that is used to pierce the partner's skin during courtship. When expelled, the dart is covered with a thick mucus. The hypothesis tested here is that the mucus contains a biologically active substance. Extracts of the digitiform glands that produce this mucus were applied to parts of the reproductive system in vitro. The extracts triggered an initial reconfiguration of the copulatory canal that caused the bursa tract diverticulum to become more accessible to the spermatophore. The reconfiguration of the copulatory canal also closed off the tract leading to the bursa copulatrix, a sperm-digesting organ. A few minutes after the initial contraction, the peristaltic contractions in the diverticulum became significantly more frequent. This latter effect continued for at least 1 h, provided that the mucus extract remained in the saline bath. The minimum effective dosage was less than the 2.2 mg of mucus transferred with the dart. Sperm competition is expected in Helix aspersa since multiple matings occur before eggs are laid. By influencing the female organs involved in the processing of foreign sperm, the dart shooter may increase the chance that his sperm will fertilise eggs.

  7. Humoral immune response against native or {sup 60}Co irradiated venom and mucus from stingray Paratrygon aiereba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazi, Gabriela Ortega Coelho; Alves, Glaucie Jussilane; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson de Oliveira; Rocha, Andre Moreira; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: 0916@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Seibert, Carla Simone, E-mail: carlaseibert@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Poisonings and traumas caused by poisonous freshwater fish such as rays are considered a major public health problem and draw attention because of accidents involving these animals cause serious local symptoms and are disabling, keeping the victim away from work. The therapy of these cases is based only on the symptoms of patients, which implies in its low efficiency, causing suffering for the victims. This study aims to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response in animals inoculated with native or {sup 60}Co irradiated Paratrygon aiereba venom and mucus. Ionizing radiation has proven to be an excellent tool to decrease the toxicity of venoms and isolated toxins. The mucus and venom samples of P. aiereba were irradiated using gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. Animals models were immunized with the native or irradiated mucus or venom. The assays were conducted to assess the production of antibodies by the immunized animals using enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Preliminary results show the production of antibodies by the immunized animals. The resulting sera were also checked for antigenic cross- reactivity between venom and mucus, demonstrating the potential of mucus as an antigen for serum production for the specific treatment for accidents by stingrays. However, it is essential to carry out further tests in order to verify the neutralization of the toxin by antibodies formed by animals. (author)

  8. Pic, an autotransporter protein secreted by different pathogens in the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a potent mucus secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Gutierrez-Jimenez, Javier; Garcia-Tovar, Carlos; Castro, Luis A; Salazar-Gonzalez, Hector; Cordova, Vanessa

    2010-10-01

    A hallmark of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection is a formation of biofilm, which comprises a mucus layer with immersed bacteria in the intestines of patients. While studying the mucinolytic activity of Pic in an in vivo system, rat ileal loops, we surprisingly found that EAEC induced hypersecretion of mucus, which was accompanied by an increase in the number of mucus-containing goblet cells. Interestingly, an isogenic pic mutant (EAEC Δpic) was unable to cause this mucus hypersecretion. Furthermore, purified Pic was also able to induce intestinal mucus hypersecretion, and this effect was abolished when Pic was heat denatured. Site-directed mutagenesis of the serine protease catalytic residue of Pic showed that, unlike the mucinolytic activity, secretagogue activity did not depend on this catalytic serine protease motif. Other pathogens harboring the pic gene, such as Shigella flexneri and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), also showed results similar to those for EAEC, and construction of isogenic pic mutants of S. flexneri and UPEC confirmed this secretagogue activity. Thus, Pic mucinase is responsible for one of the pathophysiologic features of the diarrhea mediated by EAEC and the mucoid diarrhea induced by S. flexneri.

  9. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Little is known about how the microbiota regulates mucin proteins, which protect...... the mucosal surfaces of all epithelial linings by physical hindrance or specific binding of pathogenic agents including virus and bacteria. It has been shown that the presence and composition of the microbiota is directly involved in the regulation of gene transcription in the intestinal epithelium....... The intestinal mucus layer of germ free mice has been shown to display a distinctly different composition and structure compared to mucus from conventionally bred animals in vitro and in vivo. This points towards an important role of the microbiota in the regulation of mucin production. To which extent...

  10. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    The interplay between the gut microbiota and the intestinal mucus layer is important both in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier as part of the innate immune defense, and in the conservation of gut homeostasis. Little is known about how the microbiota regulates mucin proteins, which protect...... the mucosal surfaces of all epithelial linings by physical hindrance or specific binding of pathogenic agents including virus and bacteria. It has been shown that the presence and composition of the microbiota is directly involved in the regulation of gene transcription in the intestinal epithelium....... The intestinal mucus layer of germ free mice has been shown to display a distinctly different composition and structure compared to mucus from conventionally bred animals in vitro and in vivo. This points towards an important role of the microbiota in the regulation of mucin production. To which extent...

  11. Epidemiological survey of mucus extravasation phenomenon at an oral pathology referral center during a 43 year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara Manoela Marinho Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Mucoceles are common benign pseudocystic lesions of the oral cavity; their main etiological factors are trauma and ductal obstruction. Two histological patterns are found: mucus retention phenomenon (MRP and mucus extravasation phenomenon (MEP. Mucus extravasation phenomenon is the more common histological subtype and it mainly affects the lower lip. The knowledge of its main clinical features and management is important to assist health professionals in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relative frequency and distribution of oral mucoceles in an oral pathology reference center. METHODS: Cross-sectional historical study that analyzed all cases pathologically diagnosed as mucus extravasation phenomenon by the department of anatomic pathology of an oral pathology referral center from June of 1970 to May of 2014, considering the clinical characteristics of the lesion and those relating to the patient. SPSS v. 20.0 software for Windows was used for descriptive analysis. RESULTS: During 43 years, 719 cases of mucus extravasation phenomenon (54.7% men and 45.3% women were registered, with the lower lip as the most commonly affected site (n = 484; 67.3%. The average age of patients was 20.8 years (SD ± 14.4 with a peak occurrence in the second decade of life. Most professionals had oral mucocele/ranula (n = 606; 84.3% as the initial clinical impression. CONCLUSION: Mucus extravasation phenomenon is a lesion that primarily affects young patients, affecting mainly the lower lip, and is commonly found in oral diagnostic services.

  12. Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Actinomycetes Symbiont Hard Coral Mucus of Genera Goniopora and Porites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening new bioactive compounds from marine actinomycete organisms associated with corals (Goniopora and Porites can be an alternative method to discover the natural antifungal compounds. This study aims to determine the density and diversity of actinomycete symbionts based on repetitive sequence-based-polymerase chain reactions (rep-PCR and to discern the ability of antifungal activity of isolates symbiotic with hard coral mucus by using a pour plate method. A total of 143 isolates were obtained from the hard coral mucus of genera Goniopora and Porites. High genetic diversity was observed among the isolates. Ten isolates with different morphological characteristics were selected to extract its secondary metabolites and then followed by an antifungal test. The isolate with the code of SCAS324 was the one with the antifungal activity, marked by the formation of a very strong inhibition zone of 54.7±0.4 mm toward Aspergillus flavus and 49.2±2.7 mm toward Candida albicans. Antifungal screening showed that the antifungal activity of the isolate SCAS324 was three times as effective as the commercial antifungal.

  13. The protein disulfide isomerase AGR2 is essential for production of intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Woo; Zhen, Guohua; Verhaeghe, Catherine; Nakagami, Yasuhiro; Nguyenvu, Louis T; Barczak, Andrea J; Killeen, Nigel; Erle, David J

    2009-04-28

    Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) aid protein folding and assembly by catalyzing formation and shuffling of cysteine disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Many members of the PDI family are expressed in mammals, but the roles of specific PDIs in vivo are poorly understood. A recent homology-based search for additional PDI family members identified anterior gradient homolog 2 (AGR2), a protein originally presumed to be secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we show that AGR2 is present within the ER of intestinal secretory epithelial cells and is essential for in vivo production of the intestinal mucin MUC2, a large, cysteine-rich glycoprotein that forms the protective mucus gel lining the intestine. A cysteine residue within the AGR2 thioredoxin-like domain forms mixed disulfide bonds with MUC2, indicating a direct role for AGR2 in mucin processing. Mice lacking AGR2 were viable but were highly susceptible to colitis, indicating a critical role for AGR2 in protection from disease. We conclude that AGR2 is a unique member of the PDI family, with a specialized and nonredundant role in intestinal mucus production.

  14. Changes in the Mucus Barrier during Cisplatin-Induced Intestinal Mucositis in Rats

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    Hajime Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Gastrointestinal mucositis is a frequent complication of antineoplastic chemotherapy, but the effects of chemotherapy on mucosal defense mechanisms remain poorly understood. We studied the effects of cisplatin on mucin, one of the principal defense factors of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and evaluated the efficacy of two different types of H2-receptor antagonists against cisplatin-induced mucositis. Methods. Cisplatin (6 mg/kg was administered intravenously to rats (day 0. The rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7, and 11 days after treatment, and their stomach, jejunum, ileum, and colon were removed. Immunoreactivity of the mucosa was compared with the use of anti-mucin monoclonal antibody. To evaluate the efficacy of H2-receptor antagonists, either famotidine (3 mg/kg or lafutidine (30 mg/kg was given orally once daily on days 0, 1, and 2. Histological and biochemical findings were compared among the groups to assess effects on cisplatin-induced injury. Results. Cisplatin significantly altered the immunoreactivity and content of mucin in the small intestinal mucosa, especially in the ileum. Lafutidine protected against cisplatin-induced mucosal injury and attenuated decreased mucin accumulation. Conclusion. Cisplatin appears to alter the mucus barrier function in the intestinal mucosa. Lafutidine might effectively prevent chemotherapy-induced mucositis by activating intestinal mucus cells.

  15. Atelectasis and mucus plugging in spinal cord injury: case report and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonimski, M; Aguilera, E J

    2001-01-01

    The leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population are airway mucus plugging and atelectasis. To illustrate the risks of pulmonary disease in individuals with SCI, and present effective therapeutic interventions. Case study of a 60-year-old veteran with T7 ASIA A spinal cord injury, who presented with a complete collapse of the left lung. This patient developed fever, sepsis, and acute renal failure following colonoscopy. Following nephrostomy to remove a calculus, chest x-ray revealed complete collapse of the left lung. Despite the severe degree of atelectasis, he exhibited only mild respiratory distress. Aggressive treatment including chest physiotherapy techniques and pharmacologic intervention (acetylcysteine; bronchodilators) resulted in significant radiographic and clinical improvement. After his return to the SCI unit, his respiratory function was monitored, and assisted cough techniques were continued. Individuals with SCI have high risk of pulmonary complications. Because of neurological deficits, the usual signs and symptoms may not be apparent. Optimal management depends upon awareness of the risks, and a thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of mucus plugging and atelectasis and the alterations in pulmonary mechanics (dependent on level of injury).

  16. A new paradigm in respiratory hygiene: modulating respiratory secretions to contain cough bioaerosol without affecting mucus clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gloria

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the respiratory secretions to minimize the aerosolization that facilitates transmission of airborne diseases, a fundamental premise is that the prototype drugs have no adverse effect on the first line of respiratory defense, clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Methods To assess and demonstrate the primary mechanism of our mucomodulators (XLs, we have built our evidence moving from basic laboratory studies to an ex-vivo model and then to an in-vivo large animal model. We exposed anesthetized dogs without hypersecretion to different dose concentrations of aerosolized XL "B", XL "D" and XL "S". We assessed: cardio-respiratory pattern, tracheal mucus clearance, airway patency, and mucus viscoelastic changes. Results Exposure of frog palate mucus to XLs did not affect the clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Dogs maintained normal cardio-respiratory pattern with XL administration. Tracheal mucociliary clearance in anesthetized dogs indicated a sustained 40% mean increase. Tracheal mucus showed increased filance, and there was no mucus retention in the airways. Conclusion The ex-vivo frog palate and the in-vivo mammalian models used in this study, appear to be appropriate and complement each other to better assess the effects that our mucomodulators exert on the mucociliary clearance defence mechanism. The physiological function of the mucociliary apparatus was not negatively affected in any of the two epithelial models. Airway mucus crosslinked by mucomodulators is better cleared from an intact airway and normally functioning respiratory system, either due to enhanced interaction with cilia or airflow-dependent mechanisms. Data obtained in this study allow us to assure that we have complied with the fundamental requirement

  17. Association of chronic mucus hypersecretion with FEV1 decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity. Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic mucus hypersecretion, and FEV1 decline, and subsequent hospitalization from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study on 5,354 women and 4,081 men 30 to 79 yr of age with ass......The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic mucus hypersecretion, and FEV1 decline, and subsequent hospitalization from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study on 5,354 women and 4,081 men 30 to 79 yr of age...

  18. Effect of pheromone induction on transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in intestinal mucus ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2001-01-01

    The effect of synthetic sex pheromone on pheromone-inducible conjugation between the isogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains OG1RF and OG1SS was investigated in (i) Todd-Hewitt broth medium and (ii) intestinal mucus isolated from germ-free rats. In broth, the presence of synthetic pheromone cCF10...... in the experiment. We suggest that due to differences in diffusion rates and medium-binding of the pheromones, the effect of the synthetic cCF10 was immediately dominated by the effect of pheromones produced by the recipient E. faecalis strain in broth, while this happened later in mucus....

  19. Atypical endometrial cells and atypical glandular cells favor endometrial origin in Papanicolaou cervicovaginal tests: Correlation with histologic follow-up and abnormal clinical presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2001 Bethesda system recommends further classifying atypical glandular cells (AGCs as either endocervical or endometrial origin. Numerous studies have investigated the clinical significance of AGC. In this study, we investigated the incidence of clinically significant lesions among women with liquid-based Papanicolaou cervicovaginal (Pap interpretations of atypical endometrial cells (AEMs or AGC favor endometrial origin (AGC-EM. More importantly, we correlated patients of AEM or AGC-EM with their clinical presentations to determine if AEM/AGC-EM combined with abnormal vaginal bleeding is associated with a higher incidence of significant endometrial pathology. All liquid-based Pap tests with an interpretation of AEM and AGC-EM from July, 2004 through June, 2009 were retrieved from the database. Women with an interpretation of atypical endocervical cells, AGC, favor endocervical origin or AGC, favor neoplastic were not included in the study. The most severe subsequent histologic diagnoses were recorded for each patient. During this 5-year period, we accessioned 332,470 Pap tests of which 169 (0.05% were interpreted as either AEM or AGC-EM. Of the 169 patients, 133 had histologic follow-up within the health care system. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 71 years old (mean 49.7. On follow-up histology, 27 (20.3% had neoplastic/preneoplastic uterine lesions. Among them, 20 patients were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma (18 endometrial, 1 endocervical, and 1 metastatic colorectal, 3 with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 4 with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. All patients with significant endometrial pathology, except one, were over 40 years old, and 22 of 25 patients reported abnormal vaginal bleeding at the time of endometrial biopsy or curettage. This study represents a large series of women with liquid-based Pap test interpretations of AEM and AGC-EM with clinical follow-up. Significant preneoplastic or neoplastic endometrial

  20. Lycopene, Lutein and Zeaxanthin May Reduce Faecal Blood, Mucus and Pus but not Abdominal Pain in Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Zakrzewska, Paulina; Włodarek, Dariusz; Lech, Gustaw

    2016-01-01

    Background: The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is diarrhoea, which is often accompanied by painful tenesmus and faecal blood and mucus. It sometimes co-occurs with abdominal pain, fever, feeling of fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. Some dietary factors have been indicated as important in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between retinoid intake (total vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (abdominal pain, faecal blood, faecal mucus, faecal pus) in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission. Methods: Assessment of diet was based on self-reported data from each patient’s dietary records taken over a period of three typical, random days (2 weekdays and 1 day of the weekend). Results: A total of 56 individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission (19 males and 37 females) were recruited for the study. One in every four individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission was characterised as having inadequate vitamin A intake. Higher lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin intakes in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission were associated with lower faecal blood, mucus and pus but not with lower incidence of abdominal pain. Higher carotene intake in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission may contribute to higher incidence of faecal mucus. Conclusions: Optimising intake of specific retinoids may enhance disease control in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Prospective studies, including patient reported and objective outcomes, are required to confirm this. PMID:27706028

  1. Skin mucus proteome of gilthead sea bream: A non-invasive method to screen for welfare indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanahuja, Ignasi; Ibarz, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    In teleosts, the skin mucus is the first physical barrier against physical and chemical attacks. It contains components related to metabolism, environmental influences and nutritional status. Here, we study mucus and composition based on a proteome map of soluble epidermal mucus proteins obtained by 2D-electrophoresis in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Over 1300 spots were recorded and the 100 most abundant were further analysed by LC-MS/MS and identified by database retrieval; we also established the related specific biological processes by Gene Ontology enrichment. Sixty-two different proteins were identified and classified in 12 GO-groups and into three main functions: structural, metabolic and protection-related. Several of the proteins can be used as targets to determine fish physiological status: actins and keratins, and especially their catabolic products, in the structural functional group; glycolytic enzymes and ubiquitin/proteasome-related proteins in the metabolic functional group; and heat shock proteins, transferrin and hemopexins, in the protection-related group. This study analyses fish mucus, a potential non-invasive tool for characterising fish status, beyond defence capacities, and we postulate some putative candidates for future studies along similar lines.

  2. Modified-chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles downregulate cellular CDX2 expression and cross the gastric mucus barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sadio

    Full Text Available Development of effective non-viral vectors is of crucial importance in the implementation of RNA interference in clinical routine. The localized delivery of siRNAs to the gastrointestinal mucosa is highly desired but faces specific problems such as the stability in gastric acidity conditions and the presence of the mucus barrier. CDX2 is a transcription factor critical for intestinal differentiation being involved in the initiation and maintenance of gastrointestinal diseases. Specifically, it is the trigger of gastric intestinal metaplasia which is a precursor lesion of gastric cancer. Its expression is also altered in colorectal cancer, where it may constitute a lineage-survival oncogene. Our main objective was to develop a nanoparticle-delivery system of siRNA targeting CDX2 using modified chitosan as a vector. CDX2 expression was assessed in gastric carcinoma cell lines and nanoparticles behaviour in gastrointestinal mucus was tested in mouse explants. We show that imidazole-modified chitosan and trimethylchitosan/siRNA nanoparticles are able to downregulate CDX2 expression and overpass the gastric mucus layer but not colonic mucus. This system might constitute a potential therapeutic approach to treat CDX2-dependent gastric lesions.

  3. Novel mucus-penetrating liposomes as a potential oral drug delivery system: preparation, in vitro characterization, and enhanced cellular uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuying; Chen, Dan; Le, Chaoyi; Zhu, Chunliu; Gan, Yong; Hovgaard, Lars; Yang, Mingshi

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal mucus-penetrating properties and intestinal cellular uptake of two types of liposomes modified by Pluronic F127 (PF127). Methods The two types of liposomes, ie, PF127-inlaid liposomes and PF127-adsorbed liposomes, were prepared by a thin-film hydration method followed by extrusion, in which coumarin 6 was loaded as a fluorescence marker. A modified Franz diffusion cell mounted with the intestinal mucus of rats was used to study the diffusion characteristics of the two types of PF127 liposomes. Cell uptake studies were conducted in Caco-2 cells and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microcopy as well as flow cytometry. Results The diffusion efficiency of the two types of PF127-modified liposomes through intestinal rat mucus was 5–7-fold higher than that of unmodified liposomes. Compared with unmodified liposomes, PF127-inlaid liposomes showed significantly higher cellular uptake of courmarin 6. PF127-adsorbed liposomes showed a lower cellular uptake. Moreover, and interestingly, the two types of PF127-modified liposomes showed different cellular uptake mechanisms in Caco-2 cells. Conclusion PF127-inlaid liposomes with improved intestinal mucus-penetrating ability and enhanced cellular uptake might be a potential carrier candidate for oral drug delivery. PMID:22163166

  4. Growth and survival of the fish pathogenic bacterium, Flavobacterium columnare, in tilapia mucus and porcine gastric mucin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare is an economically important gram negative bacterium that infects most freshwater farmed fish worldwide. Flavobacterium columnare colonizes the skin and gills of fish in the initial steps of pathogenesis. The fish’s surface is coated with mucus made up of high molecular we...

  5. Comparison of mucus flow rate, radiolabelled glycoprotein output and smooth muscle contraction in the ferret trachea in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyle, H.; Widdicombe, J.G.; Wilffert, B.

    1988-01-01

    1. The concentration-response curves for rate of mucus output, labelled-glycoprotein output and smooth muscle contraction in response to methacholine, phenylephrine and salbutamol were determined in the ferret trachea in vitro. 2. The potencies of methacholine and phenylephrine are both in order: sm

  6. Adhesion properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus mucus-binding factor to mucin and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Ueno, Shintaro; Terao, Akari; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Sujaya, I Nengah; Fukuda, Kenji; Urashima, Tadasu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We previously described potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, isolated from fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which showed high adhesion to porcine colonic mucin (PCM) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Recently, mucus-binding factor (MBF) was found in the GG strain of L. rhamnosus as a mucin-binding protein. In this study, we assessed the ability of recombinant MBF protein from the FSMM22 strain, one of the isolates of L. rhamnosus from fermented Sumbawa mare milk, to adhere to PCM and ECM proteins by overlay dot blot and Biacore assays. MBF bound to PCM, laminin, collagen IV, and fibronectin with submicromolar dissociation constants. Adhesion of the FSMM22 mbf mutant strain to PCM and ECM proteins was significantly less than that of the wild-type strain. Collectively, these results suggested that MBF contribute to L. rhamnosus host colonization via mucin and ECM protein binding.

  7. STOMATOLOGIC ASPECTS IN THERAPY OF LOCALLY DISTRIBUTED CANCER OF ORAL CAVITY MUCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Matyakin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the investigation: to improve prophylaxis of dental complications during the therapy in the patients with locally distributed cancer of oral cavity mucus.Materials. Results of sanation of oral cavity in 305 patients with cancer of oral and pharyngeal area are analyzed.Results. The best results are noted in the patients given surgical sanation before chemo-radial therapy. The most number of complications is observed when teeth were extracted after chemical therapy in the period of radial therapy at summary focal dose above 20 Gy as well as in the late periods after radial therapy.Conclusion. A complex of preventive measures with using haemostatic sponge with canamycin in such patients decreases the number of complications and the terms of healing of alveoli of extracted teeth.

  8. Mucus altering agents as adjuncts for nonviral gene transfer to airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, S; Kitson, C; Farley, R; Steel, R; Marriott, C; Parkins, D A; Scarpa, M; Wainwright, B; Evans, M J; Colledge, W H; Geddes, D M; Alton, E W

    2001-09-01

    Nonviral vectors have been shown to be a safe and valid alternative to recombinant viruses for gene therapy of cystic fibrosis (CF). Nevertheless, gene transfer efficiency needs to be increased before clinical efficacy is likely in man. One barrier to increased efficacy is normal airway mucus. Using an ex vivo model of sheep tracheal epithelium, we show that this barrier can, in part, be overcome by treatment with the mucolytic agents, Nacystelyn or N-acetylcysteine using either a cationic lipid or a cationic polymer as the gene transfer agent. Further, in vivo application of either Nacystelyn or the anticholinergic glycopyrrolate, both clinically used agents, resulted in increased reporter gene expression in the mouse lung, but no significant correction of the bioelectric defect in CF null mice. These results, whilst unlikely to be sufficient in themselves to achieve clinically relevant gene therapy, may be a further useful step in the attainment of this goal.

  9. The pH of cervical mucus and the postcoital test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, P M; Cohen, M R

    1980-09-01

    In this study, 25 women with 28-day cycles were considered for a total of 44 menstrual cycles. The women were subjected to the Sims-Huhner postcoital test at 6.2 hours after intercourse during the periovulatory period. Each couple was instructed to abstain from sexual intercourse for 4 days prior to the test. Samples of cervical mucus were obtained and evaluated for quantity, viscosity, elasticity, ferning, cellularity, pH, and the postcoital status of the spermatozoa (percentage motility and grade). The pH measurements were made by the use of phenaphthazine paper. After the establishment of the pH measurements the patients were divided into two groups (low and high pH) and statistically compared on the basis of the spermatozoal postcoital test results. The results obtained revealed significant differences (P 0.05).

  10. Adhesive mucous gel layer and mucus release as intestinal barrier in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiboshi, Y; Nezu, R; Cui, L; Chen, K; Khan, J; Yoshida, H; Sando, K; Kamata, S; Takagi, Y; Okada, A

    1996-01-01

    Although it has been reported that total parenteral nutrition induces an increased intestinal permeability and a decreased mucous gel layer covering the intestinal epithelium, the role of mucous gel on intestinal permeability has not been well understood. We examined the in vivo effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) as mucolytic agent and colchicine as suppressant of the mucus production on the intestinal transmission of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 70,000 (FITC-dextran). Rats were divided into four groups. In each group, FITC-dextran (750 mg/kg) with or without NAC (3000 mg/kg) was injected into the small intestinal lumen 3 hours after intraperitoneal injection of saline or colchicine (Col, 10 mg/kg). Thirty minutes after injection of FITC-dextran, blood samples were taken from portal vein to analyze plasma fluorescein concentration by fluorescence spectrometry. Samples of small intestine were sectioned in a cryostat for fluorescence microscopy, and the identical sections were stained by periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Plasma FITC-dextran level in NAC group was higher than that in control group (p NAC group was higher than that in Col group (p NAC group was higher than that in NAC group (p NAC and Col + NAC groups. FITC-dextran and mucous gel showed complementary distribution in all rats. The villous interstitial edema was recognized in NAC group and the villi were disrupted in Col + NAC group. These results suggest that intestinal permeability is possibly affected not only by the mucous gel covering the intestinal epithelium but also by mucus release from goblet cells of the small intestine.

  11. Nanocomplexes for gene therapy of respiratory diseases: Targeting and overcoming the mucus barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Sante; Trapani, Adriana; Castellani, Stefano; Carbone, Annalucia; Belgiovine, Giuliana; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Puglisi, Giovanni; Cavallaro, Gennara; Trapani, Giuseppe; Conese, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Gene therapy, i.e. the delivery and expression of therapeutic genes, holds great promise for congenital and acquired respiratory diseases. Non-viral vectors are less toxic and immunogenic than viral vectors, although they are characterized by lower efficiency. However, they have to overcome many barriers, including inflammatory and immune mediators and cells. The respiratory and airway epithelial cells, the main target of these vectors, are coated with a layer of mucus, which hampers the effective reaching of gene therapy vectors carrying either plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA. This barrier is thicker in many lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis. This review summarizes the most important advancements in the field of non-viral vectors that have been achieved with the use of nanoparticulate (NP) systems, composed either of polymers or lipids, in the lung gene delivery. In particular, different strategies of targeting of respiratory and airway lung cells will be described. Then, we will focus on the two approaches that attempt to overcome the mucus barrier: coating of the nanoparticulate system with poly(ethylene glycol) and treatment with mucolytics. Our conclusions are: 1) Ligand and physical targeting can direct therapeutic gene expression in specific cell types in the respiratory tract; 2) Mucopenetrating NPs are endowed with promising features to be useful in treating respiratory diseases and should be now advanced in pre-clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the development of such polymer- and lipid-based NPs in the context of in vitro and in vivo disease models, such as lung cancer, as well as in clinical trials.

  12. N-acetyl-cysteine and prostaglandin. Comparable protection against experimental ethanol injury in the stomach independent of mucus thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henagan, J M; Smith, G S; Schmidt, K L; Miller, T A

    1986-12-01

    The role of barrier mucus in mediating the protective effects of 16,16 dimethyl PGE2 (dm PGE2) against ethanol-induced gastric injury, with and without concomitant treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a potent mucolytic agent, was evaluated. Fasted rats were orally administered either saline, 10 micrograms/kg dm PGE2, 20% NAC, or 10 micrograms/kg dm PGE2 plus 20% NAC. In the first study, the rats were killed 15 minutes later and their stomachs were removed and assayed for barrier mucus adherent to the gastric wall using the Alcian blue technique. In the second study, the rats were orally given 2 mL of absolute ethanol (EtOH) after receiving one of these pretreatment regimens, and 5 minutes later they were killed and their stomachs were evaluated histologically by light microscopy for the magnitude of EtOH injury. Although NAC significantly reduced the thickness of barrier mucus by 76% when compared with control animals, it did not adversely affect the ability of dm PGE2 to spare the deep epithelium from injury by EtOH. In fact, NAC was as effective a protective agent as dm PGE2. Neither agent prevented damage to the surface epithelium by EtOH, verifying previous studies regarding the protective effects of prostaglandins. These results indicate that both dm PGE2 and NAC prevent EtOH-induced damage to the deeper layers of the gastric mucosa independent of mucus gel layer thickness, suggesting that other mechanisms than mucus are involved in mediating this protection.

  13. Novel mucus-penetrating liposomes as a potential oral drug delivery system: preparation, in vitro characterization, and enhanced cellular uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Xiuying Li1, Dan Chen1, Chaoyi Le2, Chunliu Zhu1, Yong Gan1, Lars Hovgaard3, Mingshi Yang41Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; 2University of Toronto Mississauga Campus, Ontario, Canada; 3Oral Formulation Development, Novo Nordisk A/S, Maalov; 4Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal mucus-penetrating properties and intestinal cellular uptake of two types of liposomes modified by Pluronic F127 (PF127.Methods: The two types of liposomes, ie, PF127-inlaid liposomes and PF127-adsorbed liposomes, were prepared by a thin-film hydration method followed by extrusion, in which coumarin 6 was loaded as a fluorescence marker. A modified Franz diffusion cell mounted with the intestinal mucus of rats was used to study the diffusion characteristics of the two types of PF127 liposomes. Cell uptake studies were conducted in Caco-2 cells and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microcopy as well as flow cytometry.Results: The diffusion efficiency of the two types of PF127-modified liposomes through intestinal rat mucus was 5–7-fold higher than that of unmodified liposomes. Compared with unmodified liposomes, PF127-inlaid liposomes showed significantly higher cellular uptake of courmarin 6. PF127-adsorbed liposomes showed a lower cellular uptake. Moreover, and interestingly, the two types of PF127-modified liposomes showed different cellular uptake mechanisms in Caco-2 cells.Conclusion: PF127-inlaid liposomes with improved intestinal mucus-penetrating ability and enhanced cellular uptake might be a potential carrier candidate for oral drug delivery.Keywords: Pluronic F127, mucus-penetrating, particles, liposomes, oral drug delivery

  14. Transport properties and aggregation phenomena of polyoxyethylene sorbitane monooleate (polysorbate 80) in pig gastrointestinal mucin and mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafitte, G; Thuresson, K; Jarwoll, P; Nydén, M

    2007-10-23

    The aqueous environment in the gastrointestinal tract frequently requires solubilization of hydrophobic drug molecules in appropriate drug delivery vehicles. An effective uptake/absorption and systemic exposure of a drug molecule entails many processes, one being transport properties of the vehicles through the mucus layer. The mucus layer is a complex mixture of biological molecules. Among them, mucin is responsible of the gel properties of this layer. In this study, we have investigated the diffusion of polyoxyethylene sorbitane monooleate (polysorbate 80), a commonly used nonionic surfactant, in aqueous solution, in mucin solutions at 0.25 and 5 wt %, and in mucus. These measurements were done by using the pulsed field gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSE-NMR) technique. We conclude that polysorbate 80 is a mixture of non-surface-active molecules that can diffuse freely through all the systems investigated and of surface-active molecules that form micellar structures with transport properties strongly dependent on the environment. Polysorbate 80 micelles do not interact with mucin even though their diffusion is hindered by obstruction of the large mucin molecules. On the other hand, the transport is slowed down in mucus due to interactions with other components such as lipids depots. In the last part of this study, a hydrophobic NMR probe molecule has been included in the systems to mimic a hydrophobic drug molecule. The measurements done in aqueous solution revealed that the probe molecules were transported in a closely similar way as the polysorbate 80 micelles, indicating that they were dissolved in the micellar core. The situation was more complex in mucus. The probe molecules seem to dissolve in the lipid depots at low concentrations of polysorbate 80, which slows down their transport. At increasing concentration of polysorbate 80, the diffusion of the probe molecules increases indicating a continuous dissolution of hexamethyldisilane in the

  15. Effect of grinding intensity and feed physical form on in vitro adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium and mannose residues in intestinal mucus receptors for salmonellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, A; Sander, S J; Verspohl, J; Beineke, A; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that feeding a fine, pelleted diet (FP) compared to a coarse meal diet (CM) results in a higher mannose content in the intestinal mucus of pigs and therefore an increased in vitro adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 L to the mucus. The 2 diets were fed to a total of 24 weaned pigs for 6 wk after which mannose content in the mucus was evaluated histochemically using the α1-3-d-mannose-specific lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin. The crypt width was determined as an indirect measure for the amount of secreted mucus. Ileal and cecal tissue samples were incubated with approximately 7.77 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium and numbers of salmonellae adhering to the mucus and/or mucosa were determined by culture techniques. There was no effect of feed physical form on the in vitro adhesion of S. Typhimurium either in the ileum (7.1 ± 0.19 log(10) cfu/g tissue) or in the cecum (6.8 ± 0.26 log(10) cfu/g). The mannose content of the mucus also did not differ between the treatment groups. The crypts of the duodenum, jejunum, and cecum were wider (P < 0.05) after feeding the CM diet. This might be an indication for a higher mucus production in these pigs.

  16. Overcoming the diffusion barrier of mucus and absorption barrier of epithelium by self-assembled nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Zhu, Xi; Liu, Min; Li, Lian; Zhong, Jiaju; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Zhirong; Huang, Yuan

    2015-03-24

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated great potential for the oral delivery of protein drugs that have very limited oral bioavailability. Orally administered NPs could be absorbed by the epithelial tissue only if they successfully permeate through the mucus that covers the epithelium. However, efficient epithelial absorption and mucus permeation require very different surface properties of a nanocarrier. We herein report self-assembled NPs for efficient oral delivery of insulin by facilitating both of these two processes. The NPs possess a nanocomplex core composed of insulin and cell penetrating peptide (CPP), and a dissociable hydrophilic coating of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer (pHPMA) derivatives. After systematic screening using mucus-secreting epithelial cells, NPs exhibit excellent permeation in mucus due to the "mucus-inert" pHPMA coating, as well as high epithelial absorption mediated by CPP. The investigation of NP behavior shows that the pHPMA molecules gradually dissociate from the NP surface as it permeates through mucus, and the CPP-rich core is revealed in time for subsequent transepithelial transport through the secretory endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway and endocytic recycling pathway. The NPs exhibit 20-fold higher absorption than free insulin on mucus-secreting epithelium cells, and orally administered NPs generate a prominent hypoglycemic response and an increase of the serum insulin concentration in diabetic rats. Our study provides the evidence of using pHPMA as dissociable "mucus-inert" agent to enhance mucus permeation of NPs, and validates a strategy to overcome the multiple absorption barriers using NP platform with dissociable hydrophilic coating and drug-loaded CPP-rich core.

  17. Airway mucus, mucins and their secretory regulations%气道粘液、粘蛋白及其分泌调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建民; 何韶衡; 赵卫华

    2003-01-01

    Mucus secreted mainly by epithelial goblet cells and submucosal glands coveting the respi-ratory tract plays an important role in the protection from external aggressions, such as solid particles,pathogens and chemical agents by mucocilialy clearance, The viscoelastic properties of mucus are mainly deter-mined by the presence of extensively - glycosylated high molecular weight mucins. A lot of factors influence the expression and secretion of mucins in airway, lead to mucus overproduction, which is a distinguishing feature of chronic obstructive pulmonaly disease (COPD) and causes disruption of the mucocilialy clearance function,resulting in airway block, chronic infection and death.

  18. Effects of oral treatment with N-acetylcysteine on the viscosity of intrauterine mucus and endometrial function in estrous mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, T S; Melkus, E; Walter, I; Senge, B; Schwab, S; Aurich, C; Heuwieser, W

    2012-10-01

    Persistent breeding-induced endometritis is ranked as the third most common medical problem in the adult mare and leads to enormous economic loss in horse breeding. In mares suffering from persistent breeding-induced endometritis, increased amounts of intrauterine (i.u.) fluid or viscous mucus in estrus or after breeding may act as a barrier for sperm and can contribute to low fertility. Current therapies of these mares aim to eliminate i.u. fluid and mucus by uterine lavage and/or administration of ecbolic drugs. Recently, i.u. administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to support therapy in mares with endometritis. It was the objective of the present study to investigate effects of an oral administration of NAC on the viscosity of i.u. fluid in estrous mares. It was hypothesized that oral treatment with NAC reduces the viscosity of i.u. fluid and has a positive effect on the inflammatory response of the endometrium. Mares (n = 12) were included in the study as soon as estrus was detected (ovarian follicle >3.0 cm and endometrial edema), which was defined as Day 1. They were randomly assigned to a treatment (10 mg/kg NAC on Days 1-4) or a control group (no treatment). On days 1 and 5 i.u. mucus was collected and its rheologic properties were accessed. On Day 5, endometrial biopsies were obtained and evaluated for integrity of the luminal epithelium, number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), staining for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), staining with Kiel 67 antigen (Ki-67), lectins and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the treatment group, viscosity of i.u. mucus increased significantly between Days 1 and 5 (P NAC treatment the mean number of PMN in endometrial biopsies was significantly lower compared to mares of the control group (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.8 ± 0.4; P NAC treatment compared to control mares (P mucus in deep uterine glands differed significantly between groups (both P NAC treatment does not reduce viscosity of uterine mucus but has an

  19. Variations of serum and mucus lysozyme activity and total protein content in the male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky 1901) during reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Zomorod; Heidari, Behrooz; Farzadfar, Fariba; Aghamaali, Mahmoudreza

    2014-03-01

    Serum and mucus lysozyme were measured in male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) under seasonal temperature, gonadal growth and reproductive migration. Significant difference with almost similar trend in serum and mucus lysozyme of the female Caspian kutum in sampling time and ovarian growth was observed. However, while there was no significant difference in serum lysozyme of the male specimen in sampling time and testicular growth, significant variations was observed in mucus lysozyme. In addition, there was significant difference in mucus total protein both for male and female specimens. The effectiveness ratio of factors on lysozyme variations followed in descending order by seasonal temperature (main factor), reproductive activity and migration with negligible effect and the lysozyme level was not significantly different in male and female Caspian kutum.

  20. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    2010-01-01

    the mucosal surfaces of all epithelial linings by physical hindrance or specific binding of pathogenic agents including virus and bacteria. It has been shown that the presence and composition of the microbiota is directly involved in the regulation of gene transcription in the intestinal epithelium...... expression of all mucin genes are dependent on the presence of microorganisms and whether specific bacteria are capable of regulating mucus production in early life remains, however, to be established. The very first period after birth is believed to be vulnerable for establishment of the gut microbiota...... animal groups and the two different days tested, which will be presented at the meeting. This is the first study to examine effects of different colonizing bacteria on mucus related gene expression levels in new born mice. These results may thus improve our understanding of the complex interplay between...

  1. Influence of the gut microbiota on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in early life development of the intestinal mucus layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng

    the mucosal surfaces of all epithelial linings by physical hindrance or specific binding of pathogenic agents including virus and bacteria. It has been shown that the presence and composition of the microbiota is directly involved in the regulation of gene transcription in the intestinal epithelium...... expression of all mucin genes are dependent on the presence of microorganisms and whether specific bacteria are capable of regulating mucus production in early life remains, however, to be established. The very first period after birth is believed to be vulnerable for establishment of the gut microbiota...... animal groups and the two different days tested, which will be presented at the meeting. This is the first study to examine effects of different colonizing bacteria on mucus related gene expression levels in new born mice. These results may thus improve our understanding of the complex interplay between...

  2. [Re-establishment of fertility in post-partum. Connections between the basal body temperature and the cervical mucus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, U; Bruno, G; Barbato, M; Bertolotti, G

    1986-01-01

    A temporary reduction of ovarian receptivity to gonadotropic stimuli occurs during post-partum; breast feeding is probably one of its most important modifying factors, possibly through endorphin-mediated gonadotropic hormone suppression. Suction of the nipple could stimulate endorphin release. 19 breast-feeding women were instructed to record their basal body temperatures, cervical mucus characteristics, type of breast feeding and weaning. The results clearly show that the longer the breast feeding, the longer the return of fertility is postponed. Specifically, no fertility was observed before the start of weaning, and in only 6 women was fertility observed during mixed breast and formula feeding. Finally, the majority of the women taking part in the study were able to predict the return of fertility based on changes in the cervical mucus, which demonstrates the utility of this family planning method, also in the post-partum period.

  3. Detection of antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in the vaginal mucus of Nigerian breeding cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerai Woldehiwet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of IgA antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in vaginal mucus (n = 66. IgA antibodies specific to C. fetus subsp. venerealis were detected in 7 (11% vaginal mucus samples. All but one of the IgA-positive samples originated from cows belonging to herds with a history of abortion and infertility which suggested an association between antibody detection and poor herd fertility. It was concluded that bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is prevalent in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria and its contribution to reduced reproductive performance in cattle herds may be grossly underestimated in this part of the world.

  4. Detection of antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in the vaginal mucus of Nigerian breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, Gideon D; Amin, Jibrilla D; Egwu, Godwin O; Yavari, Christine A; Murray, Richard D; Woldehiwet, Zerai

    2010-01-01

    The presence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgA antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in vaginal mucus (n = 66). IgA antibodies specific to C. fetus subsp. venerealis were detected in 7 (11%) vaginal mucus samples. All but one of the IgA-positive samples originated from cows belonging to herds with a history of abortion and infertility which suggested an association between antibody detection and poor herd fertility. It was concluded that bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is prevalent in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria and its contribution to reduced reproductive performance in cattle herds may be grossly underestimated in this part of the world.

  5. The mucus and mucins of the goblet cells and enterocytes provide the first defense line of the gastrointestinal tract and interact with the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaseyed, Thaher; Bergström, Joakim H; Gustafsson, Jenny K; Ermund, Anna; Birchenough, George M H; Schütte, André; van der Post, Sjoerd; Svensson, Frida; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M; Nyström, Elisabeth E L; Wising, Catharina; Johansson, Malin E V; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2014-07-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is covered by mucus that has different properties in the stomach, small intestine, and colon. The large highly glycosylated gel-forming mucins MUC2 and MUC5AC are the major components of the mucus in the intestine and stomach, respectively. In the small intestine, mucus limits the number of bacteria that can reach the epithelium and the Peyer's patches. In the large intestine, the inner mucus layer separates the commensal bacteria from the host epithelium. The outer colonic mucus layer is the natural habitat for the commensal bacteria. The intestinal goblet cells secrete not only the MUC2 mucin but also a number of typical mucus components: CLCA1, FCGBP, AGR2, ZG16, and TFF3. The goblet cells have recently been shown to have a novel gate-keeping role for the presentation of oral antigens to the immune system. Goblet cells deliver small intestinal luminal material to the lamina propria dendritic cells of the tolerogenic CD103(+) type. In addition to the gel-forming mucins, the transmembrane mucins MUC3, MUC12, and MUC17 form the enterocyte glycocalyx that can reach about a micrometer out from the brush border. The MUC17 mucin can shuttle from a surface to an intracellular vesicle localization, suggesting that enterocytes might control and report epithelial microbial challenge. There is communication not only from the epithelial cells to the immune system but also in the opposite direction. One example of this is IL10 that can affect and improve the properties of the inner colonic mucus layer. The mucus and epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract are the primary gate keepers and controllers of bacterial interactions with the host immune system, but our understanding of this relationship is still in its infancy.

  6. Effect of slow expiration with glottis opened in lateral posture (ELTGOL) on mucus clearance in stable patients with chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jocimar Avelar; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Lara, Rovilson; Parreira, Verônica Franco

    2012-03-01

    Slow expiration with glottis opened in lateral posture (ELTGOL, l'expiration lente totale glotte ouverte en infralatéral) has been used in clinical practice to improve mucus clearance from peripheral airways. The purpose of this crossover study was to evaluate the effect of ELTGOL on mucus clearance of right and left lungs, especially of peripheral lung areas, in stable patients with chronic bronchitis. Twelve 45-75-year-old patients with chronic bronchitis were studied (10 of whom had mild to moderate COPD according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines). Control and ELTGOL interventions were performed on a randomized allocation of subjects. Mucus clearance was measured through 6 posterior scintigraphy images taken with the patient in the right lateral decubitus position 20 (T1), 40 (T2), 60 (T3), 80 (T4), and 120 (T5) min after baseline image (T0). In the control intervention only ventilatory scintigraphy measurements were performed. During ELTGOL the technique was performed after the baseline image (T0). Significant increases in mucus clearance from the peripheral area were found only in the right lung, and were observed at all times during ELTGOL (P clearance were observed at all times studied in the total area of the right lung and in the left lung at T1 and T2. For the intermediate area and central areas, results were similar in both lungs. ELTGOL was efficient in increasing peripheral airway clearance in dependent lung of patients with chronic bronchitis, most of them with mild to moderate COPD.

  7. Interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles with proteins from aquatic organisms: the case of gill mucus from blue mussel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Adeline; Legros, Véronique; Gonnet, Florence; Daniel, Regis; Paquirissamy, Aurélie; Bénatar, Clémence; Spalla, Olivier; Chanéac, Corinne; Renault, Jean-Philippe; Pin, Serge

    2017-04-07

    To better understand the mechanisms of TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) uptake and toxicity in aquatic organisms, we investigated the interaction of NPs with the proteins found in gill mucus from blue mussels. Mucus is secreted by many aquatic organisms and is often their first line of defense against pathogens, xenobiotics, and other sources of environmental stress. Here, five TiO2 NPs and one SiO2 NP were incubated with gill mucus and run out on a one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel for a comparative qualitative analysis of the free proteins in the mucosal solution and the proteins bound to NPs. We then used nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to identify proteins of interest. Our data demonstrated dissimilar protein profiles between the crude mucosal solution and proteins adsorbed on NPs. In particular, extrapallial protein (EP), one of the most abundant mucus proteins, was absent from the adsorbed proteins. After thermal denaturation experiments, this absence was attributed to the EP content in aromatic amino acids that prevents protein unfolding and thus adsorption on the NP. Moreover, although the majority of the protein corona was qualitatively similar across the NPs tested here (SiO2 and TiO2), a few proteins in the corona showed a specific recruitment pattern according to the NP oxide (TiO2 vs SiO2) or crystal structure (anatase TiO2 vs rutile TiO2). Therefore, protein adsorption may vary with the type of NP. Graphical abstract Proteins with adsorption selectivity as identified from isolated bands.

  8. Near-Universal Prevalence of Pneumocystis and Associated Increase in Mucus in the Lungs of Infants With Sudden Unexpected Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Sergio L.; Ponce, Carolina A.; Gallo, Miriam; Pérez, Francisco; Astorga, J.-Felipe; Bustamante, Rebeca; Chabé, Magali; Durand-Joly, Isabelle; Iturra, Pablo; Miller, Robert F.; Aliouat, El Moukthar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pneumocystis without obvious accompanying pathology is occasionally reported in autopsied infant lungs. Its prevalence and significance are unknown. Interestingly, this mild infection induces a strong activation of mucus secretion–related genes in young immunocompetent rodents that has not been explored in infants. Excess mucus is induced by multiple airway offenders through nonspecific pathways and would explain a cofactor role of Pneumocystis in respiratory disease. We undertook characterization of the prevalence of Pneumocystis and associated mucus in infant lungs. Methods. Samples from 128 infants (mean age, 101 days) who died suddenly and unexpectedly in Santiago during 1999–2004 were examined for Pneumocystis using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) amplification of the P. jirovecii mtLSU ribosomal RNA gene and immunofluorescence microscopy (IF). Pneumocystis-negative infants 28 days and older and their age-closest positives were studied for MUC5AC expression and Pneumocystis burden by Western blot and quantitative PCR, respectively. Results. Pneumocystis DNA was detected by nPCR in 105 of the 128 infants (82.0%) and Pneumocystis organisms were visualized by IF in 99 (94.3%) of the DNA-positive infants. The infection was commonest at 3–4 months with 40 of 41 (97.6%) infants of that age testing positive. MUC5AC was significantly increased in Pneumocystis-positive tissue specimens (P = .013). Death was unexplained in 113 (88.3%) infants; Pneumocystis was detected in 95 (84.0%) of them vs 10 of 15 (66.7%) with explained death (P = .28). Conclusions. A highly focal Pneumocystis infection associated to increased mucus expression is almost universally present in the lungs of infants dying unexpectedly in the community regardless of autopsy diagnosis. PMID:23074306

  9. Alcanivorax dieselolei, an alkane-degrading bacterium associated with the mucus of the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria, Anthozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FF. Campos

    Full Text Available Analyses of 16S rDNA genes were used to identify the microbiota isolated from the mucus of the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum at Porto de Galinhas on the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil. This study is important as the first report of this association, because of the potential biotechnological applications of the bacterium Alcanivorax dieselolei, and as evidence for the presence of a hydrocarbon degrading bacterium in a reef ecosystem such as Porto de Galinhas.

  10. Bacillus cereus Adhesion to Simulated Intestinal Mucus Is Determined by Its Growth on Mucin, Rather Than Intestinal Environmental Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilia, Varvara; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rajkovic, Andreja; Heyndrickx, Marc; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adhesion of pathogenic bacteria to intestinal mucus, the protective layer of the gastrointestinal epithelium, is often considered a virulence factor. The ability of food-poisoning Bacillus cereus strains to attach to mucus and the factors affecting this interaction have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the role of adhesion in pathogenesis of B. cereus still remains unknown. In the present study, an in vitro assay based on mucin agar was used to simulate adhesion of B. cereus to mucus. Bacterial-associated factors (e.g., strain specificity and microbial competition) known to influence adhesion to different surfaces and a variety of environmental conditions (e.g., pH and oxygen) encountered in the gastrointestinal tract were investigated. The effect of these parameters on B. cereus NVH 0500/00 mucin adhesion was generally limited even in the presence of microbial competition. This suggests that B. cereus NVH 0500/00 is a versatile pathogen. Inoculation of 4 to 5 log colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter. B. cereus NVH 0500/00 resulted in 5-6 log CFU/mL mucin-associated bacteria after a short incubation period. This indicates that this pathogenic strain could grow in the presence of mucin agar. This growth may potentially mask the effect of the studied conditions. Yet, extensive attachment of B. cereus to mucin is not necessarily a prerequisite for virulence, because other pathogenic strains do not adhere with the same efficiency to mucin. Nevertheless, adhesion may contribute to the disease by providing close contact to nutrient sources, such as mucin, which would not only result in bacterial proliferation, but also in disruption of the protective host mucus surface.

  11. Role of mucus in the repair of gastric epithelial damage in the rat. Inhibition of epithelial recovery by mucolytic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J L; Whittle, B J

    1986-09-01

    A role for mucus in providing a microenvironment over sites of gastric damage, which is conducive to reepithelialization, has been proposed. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of disruption of such mucus on the recovery of epithelial integrity after damage induced by 50% ethanol. Exposure of an ex vivo chambered gastric mucosa to topically applied 50% ethanol resulted in copious release of mucus, cellular debris, and plasma, which formed a continuous cap over the mucosal surface. Ethanol-induced gastric damage was accompanied by extensive surface epithelial cell damage and a marked decrease in transmucosal potential difference. During the 30 min after ethanol was removed from the chamber, the epithelium became reestablished and the potential difference gradually recovered to 94% of the level before ethanol treatment. However, if the mucolytic agents N-acetylcysteine (5%) or pepsin (0.5%) were added to the bathing solutions, the "mucoid cap" disintegrated and the recovery of potential difference was significantly retarded (recovering to only 51% and 52% of levels before ethanol treatment). Histologic evaluation confirmed that mucosae treated with either agent had significantly less (p less than 0.005) intact epithelium at the end of the experiment. Removal of the mucoid cap with forceps caused a similar inhibition of the repair of the epithelium and the recovery of potential difference. Both mechanical and chemical (N-acetylcysteine) disruption of the mucoid cap resulted in a significant increase in the mucosal leakage of albumin and hemoglobin, supporting previous histologic evidence that the mucoid cap traps blood components over the damaged mucosa. These studies support the hypothesis that mucus released in response to topical application of an irritant plays an important role in the repair of epithelial damage through the process of restitution.

  12. The add-on N-acetylcysteine is more effective than dimethicone alone to eliminate mucus during narrow-band imaging endoscopy: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jen; Wang, Horng-Yuan; Chang, Chen-Wang; Hu, Kuang-Chun; Hung, Chien-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Jen; Shih, Shou-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that pronase can improve mucosal visibility, but this agent is not uniformly available for human use worldwide. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent, in improving mucus elimination as measured by decreased endoscopic water flushes during narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy. A consecutive series of patients scheduled for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at outpatient clinics were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The control group drank a preparation of 100 mg dimethicone (5 ml at 20 mg/ml) plus water up to 100 ml, and the NAC group drank 300 mg NAC plus 100 mg dimethicone and water up to 100 ml. During the endoscopy, the endoscopist used as many flushes of water as deemed necessary to produce a satisfactory NBI view of the entire gastric mucosa. In all, 177 patients with a mean age of 51 years were evaluated in this study. Significantly lesser water was used for flushing during NBI endoscopy for the NAC group than the control group; 40 ml (30-70, 0-120) versus 50 ml (30-100, 0-150) (median (interquartile range, range), p = 0.0095). Considering the safety profile of NAC, decreasing the number of water flushes for optimal vision and unavailability of pronase in some areas, the authors suggest the use of add-on NAC to eliminate mucus during NBI endoscopy.

  13. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Hadaidi, Ghaida

    2017-03-31

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral health, but their role in coral bleaching is unknown. We collected mucus from bleached and healthy Porites lobata colonies in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) and the Red Sea (RS) to investigate bacterial microbiome composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that bacterial community structure was notably similar in bleached and healthy corals, and the most abundant bacterial taxa were identical. However, fine-scale differences in bacterial community composition between the PAG and RS were present and aligned with predicted differences in sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling processes. Based on our data, we argue that bleached corals benefit from the stable composition of mucus bacteria that resemble their healthy coral counterparts and presumably provide a conserved suite of protective functions, but monitoring of post-bleaching survival is needed to further confirm this assumption. Conversely, fine-scale site-specific differences highlight flexibility of the bacterial microbiome that may underlie adjustment to local environmental conditions and contribute to the widespread success of Porites lobata.

  14. The influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies from cows sera and cervical mucus on bull sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies (ASA from the sera and cervical mucus of cows on bulls sperm motility. A total of 64 cows was included in the study and samples of sera and cervical mucus were collected on the day of artificial insemination. Cows were of Busha breed or mix breed with Simmental. The presence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence method and according to these results, cows were divided in groups as follows: cows with high or low ASA titer in their sera and cows with high or low ASA titer in the cervical mucus. Influence of antisperm antibodies on sperm motility was further estimated by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA. Results demonstrated a significant difference in the influence of antisperm antibodies depending on their origin and titer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molecular genetic and ecophysiological researches on the protection of autochthonous animal resources, sustaining domestic animals’ welfare, health and reproduction, and safe food production

  15. In vivo study of the mucus-permeating properties of PEG-coated nanoparticles following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaurraga, Laura; Martín-Arbella, Nekane; Zabaleta, Virginia; Quincoces, Gemma; Peñuelas, Ivan; Irache, Juan M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mucus-permeating properties of poly(ethyleneglycol)-coated nanoparticles prepared from the copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and maleic anhydride (Gantrez® AN) after oral administration in rats. Nanoparticles were "decorated" with PEGs of different molecular masses (PEG2000, PEG6000 and PEG10000) at a PEG-to-polymer ratio of 0.125. All the PEG-coated nanoparticles displayed a mean size of ∼150 nm, slightly negative ζ values and a "brush" conformation as determined from the calculation of the PEG density. For in vivo studies, nanoparticles were labelled with either (99m)Tc or fluorescent tags. Naked nanoparticles displayed a higher ability to interact with the mucosa of the stomach than with the small intestine. However, these interactions were restricted to the mucus layer covering the epithelial surface, as visualised by fluorescence microscopy. On the contrary, PEG-coated nanoparticles moved rapidly to the intestine, as determined by imaging, and, then, were capable to develop important interactions with the mucosa, reaching the surface of the epithelium. These mucus permeating properties were more intense for nanoparticles coated with PEG2000 or PEG6000 than with PEG10000. However, the capability of nanocarriers to develop adhesive interactions within the mucosa decreased when prepared at excessive PEG densities.

  16. Terminal carbohydrates abundance, immune related enzymes, bactericidal activity and physico-chemical parameters of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) skin mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuartero, María; Del Mar Collado-González, María; Díaz Baños, F Guillermo; Cuesta, Alberto; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    Recently, interest in mucosal surfaces, more specifically fish skin and its secreted mucus, has greatly increased among immunologists. The abundance of terminal carbohydrates, several enzymes (proteases, lysozyme, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, esterases and ceruloplasmin), bactericidal activity against fish pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and several physico-chemical parameters (protein concentration, pH, conductivity, redox potential, osmolarity, density and viscosity) in the skin mucus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) have been evaluated. Present results evidence the abundance of N-acetylneuraminic acid, mannose, glucose and N-acetyl-galactosamine in skin mucus. The levels of lysozyme, proteases, esterases and alkaline phosphatase were very similar (from 20 to 30 Units mg(-1) protein). However, 93 Units mg(-1) protein were detected of ceruloplasmin and only 4'88 Units mg(-1) protein of peroxidase. Skin mucus of S. senegalensis showed high bactericidal activity against the tested pathogen bacteria but weak activity against non-pathogenic bacteria. Finally, a clear relationship between mucus density and temperature was detected, while viscosity showed a direct shear- and temperature-dependent behaviour. These results could be useful for better understanding the role of the skin mucus as a key component of the innate immune system, as well as, for elucidating possible relationships between biological and physico-chemical parameters and disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In-vitro cervical mucus-sperm penetration tests and outcome of infertility treatments in couples with repeatedly negative post-coital tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, J; Valentine, A; Bahadur, G; Shenfield, F; Steele, S J; Jacobs, H S

    1995-01-01

    The results of in-vitro cervical mucus-sperm penetration tests and cross-hostility tests in 178 couples with repeatedly negative post-coital tests were recorded. Using a protocol of three cycles with intra-uterine inseminations (IUI) followed by three cycles with ovulation induction + IUI, the association between the cause of infertility, results of the in-vitro tests and the outcome of infertility treatment was investigated. We found that repeatedly negative post-coital tests are a good indicator of a cervical mucus-sperm penetration problem. The cross-hostility test clearly differentiates the abnormal factor in this interaction, and a good performance of the donors' spermatozoa in the cervical mucus correlates with increased pregnancy rate. In male factor infertility, failure of the husbands' spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus was not indicative of a deficient fertilization potential in vivo. In these patients a serious attempt should therefore be made to reverse the infertility by treatment with IUI or ovulation induction + IUI before attempting assisted reproduction. Women with polycystic ovaries and repeatedly negative post-coital tests should be investigated for sperm receptivity of the cervical mucus. Low receptivity of the cervical mucus may imply that endometrial receptivity and oocyte quality are also low. Ovulation induction and not IUI alone should therefore be used as the preferred mode of treatment to improve pregnancy rate.

  18. Lectin-conjugated microspheres for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection and interaction with mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Conway, Barbara R

    2014-08-15

    Using second generation mucoadhesives may enhance targeting antibiotics for eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the stomach for the treatment of peptic ulcer. The aim of this research was to prepare and characterise ethylcellulose/chitosan microspheres containing clarithromycin with their surfaces functionalised with concanavalin A to produce a floating-mucoadhesive formulation. The microspheres were prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Particle size, surface morphology, in vitro buoyancy profile, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and release kinetics of the particles were determined. Lectin was conjugated to the microsphere surface using two-stage carbodiimide activation and confirmed using FTIR, fluorescence studies and zeta potential measurements. Conjugation ranged from 11 to 15 μg Con A/mg microspheres which represents over 56% efficiency although there was some drug loss during the conjugation process. Conjugation did not have a significant effect on the buoyancy and release of drug from the microspheres using a mucus diffusion model with 53% and 40% of drug released from unconjugated and conjugated microspheres within 12h. Conjugation improved mucoadhesion and interaction with porcine gastric mucin compared to unconjugated microspheres. The buoyancy and improved mucoadhesion of the microspheres provides potential for delivery of clarithromycin and other drugs to the stomach.

  19. Effect of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced mucus secretion in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groneberg David A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activating factor and tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B are important mediators contributing to increased airway secretion in the context of different types of respiratory diseases including acute and chronic asthma. Leukotriene receptor antagonists are recommended as add-on therapy for this disease. The cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist montelukast has been used in clinical asthma therapy during the last years. Besides its inhibitory action on bronchoconstriction, only little is known about its effects on airway secretions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity. Methods The effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity in the rat were assessed by quantification of secreted 35SO4 labelled mucus macromolecules using the modified Ussing chamber technique. Results Platelet activating factor potently stimulated airway secretion, which was completely inhibited by the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist WEB 2086 and montelukast. In contrast, montelukast had no effect on tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity. Conclusion Cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonism by montelukast reverses the secretagogue properties of platelet activating factor to the same degree as the specific platelet activating factor antagonist WEB 2086 but has no influence on treacheal secretion elicited by tachykinins. These results suggest a role of montelukast in the signal transduction pathway of platelet activating factor induced secretory activity of the airways and may further explain the beneficial properties of cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonists.

  20. High-frequency chest compression system to aid in clearance of mucus from the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L G; Warwick, W J

    1990-01-01

    The authors developed a high-frequency chest compression (HFCC) device to aid in mucous clearance for patients with obstructive lung disease. The device, designed for self-therapy, consists of a large-volume variable-frequency air-pulse delivery system and a nonstretchable inflatable vest worn by the patient. Pressure pulses are controlled by the patient and applied during expiration. Pulse frequency is tunable from 5 to 25 Hz. Maximum vest pressure is 39 mmHg (5.2 kPa), with patient-controlled vest inflation and deflation time constants of 0.5 s. Vest pressure increases from 28 mmHg (3.7 kPa) at 5 Hz to 39 mmHg (5.2 kPa) at 25 Hz. Preliminary clinical trials have shown the HFCC device to be more effective than standard chest physical therapy. The HFCC device yielded a mean volume of cleared mucus of 3.3 cc per session, compared with 1.8 cc for a conventional therapy session.

  1. Effect of thiol derivatives on mixed mucus and blood clots in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risack, L E; Vandevelde, M E; Gobert, J G

    1978-01-01

    The disintegrating effect of three reducing thiol derivatives: [sodium mercaptoethane sulphonate (Mesna), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and dithio-1,4-threitol (DTT)] was investigated in vitro upon blood clots formed in the absence or in the presence of tracheobronchial secretions and compared with the effect of iso-osmotic saline solution. The amounts of haemoglobin released from the clots after 30 min incubation and the initial rates of haemoglobin release were compared for the different products at different concentrations. All three reducing agents showed some ability to disintegrate mixed clots to an extent depending on their concentration. After 30 min incubation, statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference in favour of Mesna at the three concentrations used, i.e. 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mmol/1. The initial rate of haemoglobin release in presence of Mesna was at all concentrations significantly higher than that of NAC or DTT. The effects on normal blood clots were much less pronounced. The effectiveness of Mesna in splitting up mixed blood and mucus clots in the management of patients who had inhaled blood is discussed.

  2. Enhanced binding of antibodies generated during chronic HIV infection to mucus component MUC16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Arangassery Rosemary; Fahrbach, Kelly; Smith, Archer; Mahan, Alison; Karim, Marcus; Licht, Anna; Zvonar, Ivan; Tedesco, Jacquelynn; Anderson, Meegan; Chapel, Anais; Suscovich, Todd; Malaspina, David; Streeck, Hendrik; Walker, Bruce D.; Kim, Arthur; Lauer, Georg; Altfeld, Marcus; Pillai, Shiv; Szleifer, Igal; Kelleher, Neil L.; Kiser, Patrick F.; Hope, Thomas J.; Alter, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of HIV across mucosal barriers accounts for the majority of HIV infections worldwide. Thus, efforts aimed at enhancing protective immunity at these sites are a top priority, including increasing virus-specific antibodies (Abs) and antiviral activity at mucosal sites. Mucin proteins, including the largest cell-associated mucin, MUC16, help form mucus to provide a physical barrier to incoming pathogens. Here we describe a natural interaction between Abs and MUC16 that is enhanced in specific disease settings such as chronic HIV infection. Binding to MUC16 was independent of IgG subclass, but strongly associated with shorter Ab glycan profiles, with agalactosylated (G0) Abs demonstrating the highest binding to MUC16. Binding of Abs to epithelial cells was diminished following MUC16-knockdown, and the MUC16 N-linked glycans were critical for binding. Further, agalactosylated VRC01 captured HIV more efficiently in MUC16. These data point to a novel opportunity to enrich Abs at mucosal sites by targeting Abs to MUC16 through changes in Fc-glycosylation, potentially blocking viral movement and sequestering the virus far from the epithelial border. Thus, next-generation vaccines or monoclonal therapeutics may enhance protective immunity by tuning Ab glycosylation to promote the enrichment of Abs at mucosal barriers. PMID:26960182

  3. Autophagy Protects against Colitis by the Maintenance of Normal Gut Microflora and Secretion of Mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Koichiro; Nishitani, Mayo; Takakura, Atsushi; Imai, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Masaaki; Kawashima, Hiroto

    2015-08-14

    Genome-wide association studies of inflammatory bowel diseases identified susceptible loci containing an autophagy-related gene. However, the role of autophagy in the colon, a major affected area in inflammatory bowel diseases, is not clear. Here, we show that colonic epithelial cell-specific autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) conditional knock-out (cKO) mice showed exacerbation of experimental colitis with more abundant bacterial invasion into the colonic epithelium. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that cKO mice had abnormal microflora with an increase of some genera. Consistently, expression of antimicrobial or antiparasitic peptides such as angiogenin-4, Relmβ, intelectin-1, and intelectin-2 as well as that of their inducer cytokines was significantly reduced in the cKO mice. Furthermore, secretion of colonic mucins that function as a mucosal barrier against bacterial invasion was also significantly diminished in cKO mice. Taken together, our results indicate that autophagy in colonic epithelial cells protects against colitis by the maintenance of normal gut microflora and secretion of mucus.

  4. Level of Copper Ion in Cervical Mucus of Various Duration after Inserting VCu200 IUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆喜; 黄祝姈; 潘琢如

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the effective period of VCu200 IUD. The concentration of copper ion was measured with non-flame atomic absorption s pectrophotometer HITACHI- 180. The average concentration of copper ion(x±sx) was 2.66±0.58 μg/g cervical mucus wet weight (μg/g · M·W·W) in the first year, then gradually decreasing to 0.91±0. 16 μg/g·M·W·W in the fifteenth-year group of VCu200 IUD. There was an average of 0.35±0.08~0. 56±0. 14 μg/g·M·W·W in the control group. It showed that the concentration of copper ion was decreasing with prolongation of use of VCu200 IUD and there was statistically significant difference between VCu200 IUD group, on the one hand, and the stainless steel ring group and the control group (P<0.05~0. 01) on the other hand. No difference was found between the stainless steel ring group and the control group (P>0. 05). It was reported in the literature that the concentration of copper ion in 1.0 μg/ml had the action of anti fertility, and it was found that the concentration of copper ion was higher than 1.0 μg/ml in the tenth year after insertion of VCu200 IUD. It suggested that effective period of VCu200 IUD was at least ten years.

  5. Archaeal and Bacterial Communities Associated with the Surface Mucus of Caribbean Corals Differ in Their Degree of Host Specificity and Community Turnover Over Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Pedro R; Roll, Katharina; Bergauer, Kristin; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies on the distribution of archaeal versus bacterial communities associated with the surface mucus layer of corals have rarely taken place. It has therefore remained enigmatic whether mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities exhibit a similar specificity towards coral hosts and whether they vary in the same fashion over spatial gradients and between reef locations. We used microbial community profiling (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the diversity and community structure of dominant archaeal and bacterial communities associating with the mucus of three common reef-building coral species (Porites astreoides, Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella annularis) over different spatial scales on a Caribbean fringing reef. Sampling locations included three reef sites, three reef patches within each site and two depths. Reference sediment samples and ambient water were also taken for each of the 18 sampling locations resulting in a total of 239 samples. While only 41% of the bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) characterized by T-RFLP were shared between mucus and the ambient water or sediment, for archaeal OTUs this percentage was 2-fold higher (78%). About half of the mucus-associated OTUs (44% and 58% of bacterial and archaeal OTUs, respectively) were shared between the three coral species. Our multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, PERMANOVA and CCA) showed that while the bacterial community composition was determined by habitat (mucus, sediment or seawater), host coral species, location and spatial distance, the archaeal community composition was solely determined by the habitat. This study highlights that mucus-associated archaeal and bacterial communities differ in their degree of community turnover over reefs and in their host-specificity.

  6. The mucus layer is critical in protecting against ischemia-reperfusion-mediated gut injury and in the restitution of gut barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaofa; Sheth, Sharvil U; Sharpe, Susan M; Dong, Wei; Lu, Qi; Xu, Dazhong; Deitch, Edwin A

    2011-03-01

    It is well documented that the gut injury plays a critical role in the development of systemic inflammation and distant organ injury in conditions associated with splanchnic ischemia. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms leading to gut injury is important. In this context, recent work suggests a protective role for the intestinal mucus layer and an injury-inducing role for luminal pancreatic proteases. Thus, we explored the role of the mucus layer in gut barrier function by observing how the removal of the mucus layer affects ischemia-reperfusion-mediated gut injury in rats as well as the potential role of luminal pancreatic proteases in the pathogenesis of gut injury. Ischemia was induced by the ligation of blood vessels to segments of the ileum for 45 min, followed by up to 3 h of reperfusion. The ileal segments were divided into five groups. These included a nonischemic control, ischemic segments exposed to saline, the mucolytic N-acetylcysteine (NAC), pancreatic proteases, or NAC + pancreatic proteases. Changes in gut barrier function were assessed by the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (molecular weight, 4,000 d) in ileal everted sacs. Gut injury was measured morphologically and by the luminal content of protein, DNA, and hemoglobin. The mucus layer was assessed functionally by measuring its hydrophobicity and morphologically. Gut barrier function was promptly and effectively reestablished during reperfusion, which was accompanied by the restoration of the mucus layer. In contrast, treatment of the gut with the mucolytic NAC for 10 min during ischemia resulted in a failure of mucus restitution and further increases in gut permeability and injury. The presence of digestive proteases by themselves did not exacerbate gut injury, but in combination with NAC, they caused an even greater increase in gut injury and permeability. These results suggest that the mucus layer not only serves as a barrier between the luminal contents and gut surface

  7. Detection of anorectal and cervicovaginal Chlamydia trachomatis infections following azithromycin treatment: prospective cohort study with multiple time-sequential measures of rRNA, DNA, quantitative load and symptoms.

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    Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Determination of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct treatment success is hampered by current assessment methods, which involve a single post-treatment measurement only. Therefore, we evaluated Ct detection by applying multiple laboratory measures on time-sequential post-treatment samples. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was established with azithromycin-treated (1000 mg Ct patients (44 cervicovaginal and 15 anorectal cases. Each patient provided 18 self-taken samples pre-treatment and for 8 weeks post-treatment (response: 96%; 1,016 samples. Samples were tested for 16S rRNA (TMA, bacterial load (quantitative PCR; Chlamydia plasmid DNA and type (serovar and multilocus sequence typing. Covariates (including behavior, pre-treatment load, anatomic site, symptoms, age, and menstruation were tested for their potential association with positivity and load at 3-8 weeks using regression analyses controlling for repeated measures. FINDINGS: By day 9, Ct positivity decreased to 20% and the median load to 0.3 inclusion-forming units (IFU per ml (pre-treatment: 170 IFU/ml. Of the 35 cases who reported no sex, sex with a treated partner or safe sex with a new partner, 40% had detection, i.e. one or more positive samples from 3-8 weeks (same Ct type over time, indicating possible antimicrobial treatment failure. Cases showed intermittent positive detection and the number of positive samples was higher in anorectal cases than in cervicovaginal cases. The highest observed bacterial load between 3-8 weeks post-treatment was 313 IFU/ml, yet the majority (65% of positive samples showed a load of ≤ 2 IFU/ml. Pre-treatment load was found to be associated with later load in anorectal cases. CONCLUSIONS: A single test at 3-8 weeks post-treatment frequently misses Ct. Detection reveals intermittent low loads, with an unknown risk of later complications or transmission. These findings warrant critical re-evaluation of the clinical management of single dose

  8. Accuracy of sperm-cervical mucus penetration tests in evaluating sperm motility in semen: a systematic quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Bolarinde; Afnan, Masoud; Papaioannou, Spyros; Sharif, Khaldoun; Björndahl, Lars; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan

    2003-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the accuracy of in-vitro sperm penetration into cervical mucus or substitutes in evaluating sperm motility in semen. This was a systematic quantitative review of test accuracy studies. The Cochrane library (2000:4), Medline (1966-2001), Embase (1988-2001) and SciSearch (1981-2001) were searched, in addition to manual searches of conference papers and bibliographies of known primary and review articles. Primary studies measuring in-vitro sperm penetration into cervical mucus, or substitutes (i.e. sperm-mucus penetration test, SMPT) and comparing results with sperm motility in semen were included. There were 18 primary diagnostic studies published in 17 papers, involving a total of 2580 samples. Fourteen primary diagnostic tests used vanguard distance as diagnostic criteria (SMPT(vd)) and the pooled likelihood ratio (LR) for positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) tests were 2.29 (1.82-2.87) and 0.52 (0.44-0.63) respectively. Four studies used diagnostic criteria based directly or indirectly on swim-up sperm count per high power field (SMPT(sc)) instead. Their pooled LR+ and LR- were 5.24 (3.36-8.18) and 0.15 (0.06-0.39) respectively. SMPT(vd) has a low accuracy in the evaluation of sperm motility in semen. However, SMPT(sc) was found to be more accurate. This method of using sperm concentration, instead of vanguard distance, as diagnostic criteria of in-vitro SMPT has potential as a useful laboratory-based sperm function test.

  9. CCR3 monoclonal antibody inhibits airway eosinophilic inflammation and mucus overproduction in a mouse model of asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-hao SHEN; Feng XU; Gen-sheng ZHANG; Shao-bin WANG; Wei-hua XU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the effect of a rat anti-mouse CC-chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3) monoclonal antibody (CCR3 mAb) on airway eosinophilia and mucus overproduction in asthmatic mice. Methods: An asthma model was sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA) in male C57BL/6 mice. Asthmatic mice were given dual administration (intraperitoneal injection and aerosol inhalation) of CCR3 mAb or nonspecific rat IgG (ns-IgG). The number of total and differential inflammatory cells in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was counted. Eosinophils number, the goblet cell percentage (GCP) and airway mucus index (AMI) were measured in the lung tissues. Interleukin (IL)-5 levels in the BALF were examined. The expression of MUC5AC and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA in the lung tissues was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results were compared among the groups. Results: CCR3 mAb significantly suppressed the increased eosinophils in the BALF and lung tissues in OVA-challenged mice compared with ns-IgG-treated mice. IL-5 levels in the BALF in CCR3 mAb and ns-IgG administration mice exhibited no obvious changes relative to OVA-challenged asthmatic mice. CCR3 mAb reduced the increased GCP and AMI after OVA challenge and decreased the enhanced expression of MUC5AC and EGFR mRNA in lung tissues in asthmatic animals. Conclusion: CCR3 mAb can significantly inhibit airway eosinophilia and mucus overproduction in asthmatic mice. Blockage of CCR3 may represent a new strategy to asthma therapy.

  10. Goblet Cells and Mucus Types in the Digestive Intestine and Respiratory Intestine in Bronze Corydoras (Callichthyidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, I L

    2015-10-01

    The structure and histochemical properties of the intestine in bronze corydoras (Corydoras aeneus), a stomach-containing teleost, are described, with emphasis on goblet cells and mucin types. The proximal intestine displayed a normal structure for teleosts, whereas the distal intestine was wide, translucent, thin-walled, richly vascularized and constantly filled with air, suggesting an important respiratory role. Goblet cells were common throughout the entire intestine and displayed a variable, but mainly faint metachromatic colour after toluidine blue. They were moderately coloured by alcian blue at both pH 2.5 and 0.2 and displayed no colour after periodic acid followed by Schiff's solution (PAS), but a distinct purple-brown colour after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). Together, these results suggest that the mucin in the intestine goblet cells consists mainly of sulphated proteoglycans. Further, the results from the present lectin and neuraminidase tests suggest that these mucins contain much N-acetylglucoseamines and some N-acetylgalactosamines and sialic acid, but seem to lack glucose and mannose. They also contain some galactose-N-acetylgalactosamines sequences, normally hidden by sialic acid. The distinct brush border and mucus layer on the epithelial cells in the respiratory intestine may indicate some digestive roles, such as absorption of water, ions and simple carbohydrates. As sulphated proteoglycans are tough and attract much water, this mucus may play important roles in the protection against mechanical and chemical damages and in the defence against micro-organisms throughout the entire intestine, but in the respiratory intestine it may impede significantly the oxygen uptake. However, as this part of the intestine usually contains no digesta, but is completely filled with air, frequently renewed by dry air from the atmosphere, and the main function of the mucus may be to protect the respiratory epithelium against a destroying and

  11. Relationship between physical characteristics and ionic content of cervical mucus pregnancy status to inseminate heifers detected in estrus

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    Savia CL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of zeal tends to be one of them factors multiple that affect the rate of pregnancy in dairy farms; because females are inseminated outside the most appropriate time to reach fertilization. The objective of the present study was to analyze macroscopic characteristics(quantity, appearance and consistency, crystallization phenomenon, pH, level of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and chlorine in the cervical mucus of heifers in order to relatethese properties with the periovulatory period. Be used 20 Holstein heifers. Mucus was obtained prior to insemination and it was picked up by suction from the cervix. pH was determined using reactive tape (6-7,9 and the degree of crystallization (0-4 was evaluated according to typical and atypical fern leaf formations. It was determined pH test (6-7,9 tape and evaluate the degree of crystallization (0 - 4 according to the typical and atypical formations of fern leaves. Ionic content was determined using commercial kits (Wiener SAIC laboratories. Pregnancy was detected in 60 days post insemination. Each variable was described by its mean and deviation standard and by ANOVA established significant differences between means. It showed that the pregnancy was related to a mucus contains a concentration significantly less than K and Mg, compared with empty heifers (K, P:7,76 V: 12,97; Mg, P:2, 80 V:3,93; p<0,05 t=2,16. pH was significantly higher in the pregnant females, and the crystallization grade significantly lower (pH P:7, 60 V: 6, 23; crystallization P: 1,31 V2, 21; p<0,01 t=3,01. The results allow concluding that the optimum to inseminate was associated with cervical mucus observed macroscopically liquid, transparent and generous; with a pH above 7.0 and that it was forming atypical leaves of fern with an average of 1.31. Probably, the liquid consistency or liquid facilitates the transport of sperm and an osmotic active, responsible for the retention force is not related to content perhaps

  12. [Clinical study of the cervical mucus and the post-coital tests: its role in sterility (authors transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguer, C; Fai, R

    1979-12-01

    Cervical mucus and post-coital test abnormalities are the most frequently observed in infertile couples. In most cases, such disorders reflect a hormonal dysfunction in the woman and also an alteration of spermiogram. This simple clinical examination reflects the fertility of the moment: its positivity is necessary but not sufficient for fecundation. When the result of this examination is normal, one may generally skip the spermiogram. If the result is abnormal, the test must be performed again until a clear positivity is obtained. If it is repeatedly negative, a spermiogram must be done.

  13. Characterization of biofilm-like structures formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a synthetic mucus medium

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    Haley Cecily L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accumulation of thick stagnant mucus provides a suitable environment for the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus within the lung alveoli of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. These infections cause significant lung damage, leading to respiratory failure and death. In an artificial mucin containing medium ASM+, P. aeruginosa forms structures that resemble typical biofilms but are not attached to any surface. We refer to these structures as biofilm like structures (BLS. Using ASM+ in a static microtiter plate culture system, we examined the roles of mucin, extracellular DNA, environmental oxygen (EO2, and quorum sensing (QS in the development of biofilm-like structures (BLS by P. aeruginosa; and the effect of EO2 and P. aeruginosa on S. aureus BLS. Results Under 20% EO2, P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 produced BLS that resemble typical biofilms but are confined to the ASM+ and not attached to the surface. Levels of mucin and extracellular DNA within the ASM+ were optimized to produce robust well developed BLS. At 10% EO2, PAO1 produced thicker, more developed BLS, while under 0% EO2, BLS production was diminished. In contrast, the S. aureus strain AH133 produced well-developed BLS only under 20% EO2. In PAO1, loss of the QS system genes rhlI and rhlR affected the formation of BLS in ASM+ in terms of both structure and architecture. Whether co-inoculated into ASM+ with AH133, or added to established AH133 BLS, PAO1 eliminated AH133 within 48–56 h. Conclusions The thick, viscous ASM+, which contains mucin and extracellular DNA levels similar to those found in the CF lung, supports the formation of biofilm-like structures similar to the aggregates described within CF airways. Alterations in environmental conditions or in the QS genes of P. aeruginosa, as occurs naturally during the progression of CF lung infection, affect the architecture and quantitative structural features of these BLS. Thus, ASM+ provides an

  14. A simple cost-effective modification improves the quality of immunocytochemical staining in cervical scrape samples characterized by presence of excess mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sagar; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deodhar, Kedar; Teni, Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a very important tool in a diverse range of biomedical research as well as in diagnostic cytopathology. Smears prepared from cervical scrapes contain a large amount of overlying mucus that interferes with the standard immunocytochemical staining protocol. A modified ICC protocol is described, which involves pretreatment of these smears with 1 mg/ml solution of Ambroxol hydrochloride in methanol for 1 hour. Source of Ambroxol hydrochloride was a 30 mg Mucolite™ tablet, at a cost of 1.70 rupees (∼3·5 US cents) per tablet. This mucolytic solution effectively clears the mucus, facilitating the accessibility of the antibody to the antigenic determinants. This pretreatment resulted in the increased percentage of positively stained cells as well as staining intensity, leading to improved overall ICC staining and score. This is a novel modification that can be cost-effectively applied in ICC staining protocols for cytology samples characterized by the presence of excess mucus. PMID:25620823

  15. Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

    2007-09-01

    The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine.

  16. Fast renewal of the distal colonic mucus layers by the surface goblet cells as measured by in vivo labeling of mucin glycoproteins.

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    Malin E V Johansson

    Full Text Available The enormous bacterial load and mechanical forces in colon create a special requirement for protection of the epithelium. In the distal colon, this problem is largely solved by separation of the bacteria from the epithelium by a firmly attached inner mucus layer. In addition, an outer mucus layer entraps bacteria to be cleared by distal transport. The mucus layers contain a network of Muc2 mucins as the main structural component. Here, the renewal rate of the inner protective mucus layer was studied as well as the production and secretion of Muc2 mucin in the distal colon. This was performed by intraperitoneal injection of N-azidoacetyl-galactosamine (GalNAz that was in vivo incorporated during biosynthesis of O-glycosylated glycoproteins. The only gel-forming mucin produced in the colon is the Muc2 mucin and as it carries numerous O-glycans, the granulae of the goblet cells producing Muc2 mucin were intensely stained. The GalNAz-labeled glycoproteins were first observed in the Golgi apparatus of most cells. Goblet cells in the luminal surface epithelium had the fastest biosynthesis of Muc2 and secreted material already three hours after labeling. This secreted GalNAz-labeled Muc2 mucin formed the inner mucus layer. The goblet cells along the crypt epithelium accumulated labeled mucin vesicles for a longer period and secretion of labeled Muc2 mucin was first observed after 6 to 8 h. This study reveals a fast turnover (1 h of the inner mucus layer in the distal colon mediated by goblet cells of the luminal surface epithelium.

  17. Simultaneous determination of allantoin and glycolic acid in snail mucus and cosmetic creams with high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mubarak, Mohamed Ahmed S; Lamari, Fotini N; Kontoyannis, Christos

    2013-12-27

    A new methodology for simultaneous quantitative analysis of allantoin and glycolic acid in snail mucus and cosmetic creams was developed. HPLC separation was achieved a Synergi-Hydro RP column within 7min using isocratic elution with potassium phosphate (pH 2.7; 10mM) at a flow rate of 0.7mL/min at 30°C. Sample pretreatment was performed by dilution of mucus or cosmetic cream in the elution buffer, heating at 60°C for 20min, adjusting the pH to 2.9 and purification with hexane extraction. Linearity was determined with spiked samples and the LLOQ values of 0.0125 and 0.2500mg/mL were determined for allantoin and glycolic acid, respectively. Accuracy and intra- and inter-day repeatability were studied at three levels of concentrations (0.04, 0.08 and 0.16mg/mL for allantoin and 0.1, 1.5 and 4.0mg/mL for glycolic acid) using spiked mucus and cream base samples; mean values of recovery were in the range of 96.81-102.42% in all matrices tested, whereas the respective RSDs (%Relative Standard Deviation) were less than 3.04% in all cases. Spiked mucus and cream samples were stable (RSD<4.16 and relative error<4.34%) at room temperature and at 4°C for 1 week and at -18°C for 6 months; samples were also stable after three freeze-thaw cycles. The method was applied to the analysis of different lots of snail mucus, and of three commercial creams containing snail mucus.

  18. Skin Mucus of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.). Protein Mapping and Regulation in Chronically Stressed Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Terova, Genciana; Simó-Mirabet, Paula; Rimoldi, Simona; Folkedal, Ole; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Olsen, Rolf E; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2017-01-01

    The skin mucus of gilthead sea bream was mapped by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. More than 2,000 proteins were identified with a protein score filter of 30. The identified proteins were represented in 418 canonical pathways of the Ingenuity Pathway software. After filtering by canonical pathway overlapping, the retained proteins were clustered in three groups. The mitochondrial cluster contained 59 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The second cluster contained 79 proteins related to antigen presentation and protein ubiquitination pathways. The third cluster contained 257 proteins where proteins related to protein synthesis, cellular assembly, and epithelial integrity were over-represented. The latter group also included acute phase response signaling. In parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methodology identified six proteins spots of different protein abundance when comparing unstressed fish with chronically stressed fish in an experimental model that mimicked daily farming activities. The major changes were associated with a higher abundance of cytokeratin 8 in the skin mucus proteome of stressed fish, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, the increased abundance of markers of skin epithelial turnover results in a promising indicator of chronic stress in fish.

  19. Effects of irradiated Ergosan on the growth performance and mucus biological components of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Chehrara, Fatemeh; Heidarieh, Marzieh; Nofouzi, Katayoon; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Effects of irradiated and non-irradiated Ergosan extract (alginic acid) on rainbow trout growth performance and skin mucosal immunity were compared. Ergosan was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. A total of 252 fish (128.03±9.4 g) were randomly divided into four equal groups, given the basal diet either unsupplemented with Ergosan (control group) or supplemented with crude Ergosan (5 g/kg), ethanol-extracted Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) or irradiated Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) according to this protocol: basal diet for 15 days, treatment diet for 15 days, basal diet for 10 days and treatment diet for 15 days. Highest growth performance was observed in fish fed irradiated Ergosan ( P <0.05). Dietary administration of different Ergosan types did not cause any changes in mucus protein level, but improved alkaline phosphatase level and hemagglutination titer compared with the control (basal diet without Ergosan) on day 55 of feeding trial ( P <0.05). Furthermore, the highest value of lysozyme activity was observed in gamma-irradiated Ergosan on day 55. In conclusion, gamma-irradiated Ergosan at 0.33 g/kg was found to improve growth performance and mucus biological components significantly in comparison with the control group (basal diet without Ergosan).

  20. Differential expression of skin mucus C-type lectin in two freshwater eel species, Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyuki; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Komiya, Kaoru; Yamashita, Hiroka; Nakamura, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Two types of lactose-specific lectins, galectin (AJL-1) and C-type lectin (AJL-2), were previously identified in the mucus of adult Anguilla japonica. Here, we compared the expression profiles of these two homologous lectins at the adult and juvenile stages between the tropical eel Anguilla marmorata and the temperate eel A. japonica. Only one lectin, predicted to be an orthologue of AJL-1 by LC-MS/MS, was detected in the mucus of adult A. marmorata. We also found that an orthologous gene to AJL-2 was expressed at very low levels, or not at all, in the skin of adult A. marmorata. However, we detected the gene expression of an AJL-2-orthologue in the skin of juvenile A. marmorata, and a specific antibody also detected the lectin in the juvenile fish epidermis. These findings suggest that expression profiles of mucosal lectins vary during development as well as between species in the Anguilla genus.

  1. The Vat-AIEC protease promotes crossing of the intestinal mucus layer by Crohn's disease-associated Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibold, Lucie; Garenaux, Estelle; Dalmasso, Guillaume; Gallucci, Camille; Cia, David; Mottet-Auselo, Benoit; Faïs, Tiphanie; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu; Barnich, Nicolas; Bonnet, Richard; Delmas, Julien

    2016-05-01

    The aetiology of Crohn's disease (CD) involves disorders in host genetic factors and intestinal microbiota. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are receiving increased attention because in studies of mucosa-associated microbiota, they are more prevalent in CD patients than in healthy subjects. AIEC are associated both with ileal and colonic disease phenotypes. In this study, we reported a protease called Vat-AIEC from AIEC that favours the mucosa colonization. The deletion of the Vat-AIEC-encoding gene resulted in an adhesion-impaired phenotype in vitro and affected the colonization of bacteria in contact with intestinal epithelial cells in a murine intestinal loop model, and also their gut colonization in vivo. Furthermore, unlike LF82Δvat-AIEC, wild-type AIEC reference strain LF82 was able to penetrate a mucus column extensively and promoted the degradation of mucins and a decrease in mucus viscosity. Vat-AIEC transcription was stimulated by several chemical conditions found in the ileum environment. Finally, the screening of E. coli strains isolated from CD patients revealed a preferential vat-AIEC association with AIEC strains belonging to the B2 phylogroup. Overall, this study revealed a new component of AIEC virulence that might favour their implantation in the gut of CD patients.

  2. Skin Mucus of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.). Protein Mapping and Regulation in Chronically Stressed Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Terova, Genciana; Simó-Mirabet, Paula; Rimoldi, Simona; Folkedal, Ole; Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Olsen, Rolf E.; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna

    2017-01-01

    The skin mucus of gilthead sea bream was mapped by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry using a quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. More than 2,000 proteins were identified with a protein score filter of 30. The identified proteins were represented in 418 canonical pathways of the Ingenuity Pathway software. After filtering by canonical pathway overlapping, the retained proteins were clustered in three groups. The mitochondrial cluster contained 59 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. The second cluster contained 79 proteins related to antigen presentation and protein ubiquitination pathways. The third cluster contained 257 proteins where proteins related to protein synthesis, cellular assembly, and epithelial integrity were over-represented. The latter group also included acute phase response signaling. In parallel, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis methodology identified six proteins spots of different protein abundance when comparing unstressed fish with chronically stressed fish in an experimental model that mimicked daily farming activities. The major changes were associated with a higher abundance of cytokeratin 8 in the skin mucus proteome of stressed fish, which was confirmed by immunoblotting. Thus, the increased abundance of markers of skin epithelial turnover results in a promising indicator of chronic stress in fish. PMID:28210224

  3. Platycodin D inhibits interleukin-13-induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and mucus in nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Botao; Gao, Ying; Zheng, Guoxi; Ren, Xiaoyong; Sun, Bin; Zhu, Kang; Luo, Huanan; Wang, Zhenghui; Xu, Min

    2016-12-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosal tissue. Platycodin D (PLD), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum, has anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of allergic asthma. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of PLD in the nasal mucosa have not been deeply investigated. The objective was to investigate the effect of PLD on inflammatory cytokines and mucus production from nasal epithelial cells. Our study showed that PLD inhibited the levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and eotaxin in interleukin (IL)-13-stimulated RPMI2650 cells. PLD also suppressed IL-13-induced mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) expression in RPMI2650 cells. Moreover, PLD treatment prevented IL-13-induced p-NF-κB p65 expression in RPMI2650 cells, as well as MAPK signaling pathway activation. Taken together, our results provided evidence that PLD inhibits IL-13-induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and mucus in nasal epithelial cells by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  4. Effect of guaifenesin on mucin production, rheology, and mucociliary transport in differentiated human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, JeanClare; Albrecht, Helmut; Park, Yong Sung; Rubin, Bruce; Solomon, Gail; Kim, K Chul

    2011-12-01

    Guaifenesin is widely used to alleviate symptoms of excessive mucus accumulation in the respiratory tract. However, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that guaifenesin improves mucociliary clearance in humans by reducing mucin release, by decreasing mucus viscoelasticity, and by increasing mucociliary transport. To test these hypotheses, human differentiated airway epithelial cells, cultured at an air-liquid interface, were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of guaifenesin by addition to the basolateral medium. To evaluate the effect on mucin secretion, the authors used an anzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the amounts of MUC5AC protein in apical surface fluid and cell lysates. To measure mucociliary transportability, additional cultures were treated for 1 or 6 hours with guaifenesin, and the movement of cell debris was measured from video data. Further, the authors measured mucus dynamic viscoelasticity using a micro cone and plate rheometer with nondestructive creep transformation. Guaifenesin suppressed mucin production in a dose-dependent manner at clinically relevant concentrations. The reduced mucin production was associated with increased mucociliary transport and decreased viscoelasticity of the mucus. Viability of the cultures was not significantly affected. These results suggest that guaifenesin could improve mucociliary clearance in humans by reducing the release and/or production of mucins, thereby altering mucus rheology.

  5. Characterization of the gacA-dependent surface and coral mucus colonization by an opportunistic coral pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J; Carpinone, Emily M; Ritchie, Kim B; Teplitski, Max

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic pathogens rely on global regulatory systems to assess the environment and to control virulence and metabolism to overcome host defenses and outcompete host-associated microbiota. In Gammaproteobacteria, GacS/GacA is one such regulatory system. GacA orthologs direct the expression of the csr (rsm) small regulatory RNAs, which through their interaction with the RNA-binding protein CsrA (RsmA), control genes with functions in carbon metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. The csrB gene was controlled by gacA in Serratia marcescens PDL100. A disruption of the S. marcescens gacA gene resulted in an increased fitness of the mutant on mucus of the host coral Acropora palmata and its high molecular weight fraction, whereas the mutant was as competitive as the wild type on the low molecular weight fraction of the mucus. Swarming motility and biofilm formation were reduced in the gacA mutant. This indicates a critical role for gacA in the efficient utilization of specific components of coral mucus and establishment within the surface mucopolysaccharide layer. While significantly affecting early colonization behaviors (coral mucus utilization, swarming motility, and biofilm formation), gacA was not required for virulence of S. marcescens PDL100 in either a model polyp Aiptasia pallida or in brine shrimp Artemia nauplii.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin causes airway goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion by inactivating the transcriptional factor FoxA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghua; Kuang, Zhizhou; Walling, Brent E; Bhatia, Shikha; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen, Yin; Gaskins, H Rex; Lau, Gee W

    2012-03-01

    The redox-active exotoxin pyocyanin (PCN) can be recovered in 100 µM concentrations in the sputa of bronchiectasis patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). However, the importance of PCN within bronchiectatic airways colonized by PA remains unrecognized. Recently, we have shown that PCN is required for chronic PA lung infection in mice, and that chronic instillation of PCN induces goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH), pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema and influx of immune cells in mouse airways. Many of these pathological features are strikingly similar to the mouse airways devoid of functional FoxA2, a transcriptional repressor of GCH and mucus biosynthesis. In this study, we postulate that PCN causes and exacerbates GCH and mucus hypersecretion in bronchiectatic airways chronically infected by PA by inactivating FoxA2. We demonstrate that PCN represses the expression of FoxA2 in mouse airways and in bronchial epithelial cells cultured at an air-liquid interface or conventionally, resulting in GCH, increased MUC5B mucin gene expression and mucus hypersecretion. Immunohistochemical and inhibitor studies indicate that PCN upregulates the expression of Stat6 and EGFR, both of which in turn repress the expression of FoxA2. These studies demonstrate that PCN induces GCH and mucus hypersecretion by inactivating FoxA2.

  7. Roles of extracellular Ca++ and calmodulin in roxatidine-stimulated secretion and synthesis of mucus by cultured rabbit gastric mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Okabe, S

    1998-01-01

    We found that roxatidine stimulates mucus secretion and synthesis by cultured rabbit gastric mucosal cells. In this study, we examined the roles of the extracellular Ca++ and calmodulin in these effects of roxatidine. Reduction of the extracellular Ca++ concentration decreased the roxatidine-induced increases in mucus secretion and synthesis by gastric mucosal cells. Roxatidine concentration-dependently promoted Ca++ influx and caused an increases in intracellular Ca++. After the addition of roxatidine, the increases in the secretion and synthesis reflected those in Ca++ influx and intracellular Ca++ concentration and then disappeared as Ca++ influx and intracellular Ca++ concentration returned to the control level. The roxatidine-stimulated Ca++ influx and intracellular Ca++ mobilization were abolished by reduction of the extracellular Ca++ concentration. Nifedipine and diltiazem inhibited both the effects of roxatidine, but even at 10 microM, the inhibition was partial. Furthermore, W-7 (a calmodulin antagonist) completely abolished the effects of roxatidine on mucus secretion and synthesis without causing a reduction of the stimulated Ca++ influx. Taken together, these results suggest that roxatidine promotes Ca++ influx through both voltage-sensitive Ca++ channels and other Ca++ entry gates and the subsequent intracellular Ca++ mobilization, leading to potentiation of mucus secretion and synthesis by rabbit gastric mucosal cells. In addition, Ca(++)-activated calmodulin may play a pivotal role in these stimulatory effects of roxatidine.

  8. Effects of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures on rheology of gum tragacanth - possible application for surfactant action on mucus gel simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, R; Puniyani, R R

    2000-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of specialised biomaterials consisting of clove oil- phospholipid mixtures as possible substitute surfactants in diseases of altered mucus viscosity by studying their effect on the viscosity of mucus gel simulants in vitro. Test surfactants consisting of phospholipid-clove oil mixtures in the ratio of 1 part of oil to 9 parts of phospholipid were prepared. The phospholipids used were dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and binary mixtures of PC: PE and PC: PG in the ratio of 2 parts of PC to 3 parts of PE or PG. The effects of the phospholipid-clove oil mixtures on the viscosity of mucus gel simulant (MGS: a polymeric gel consisting predominantly of gum tragacanth and simulating respiratory mucus), was studied by application of steady shear rates ranging from 0.512 to 51.2/s in a concentric cylinder viscometer at 37 degrees C. The change in MGS viscosity, after incubation with surfactants, was found to have a non-Newtonian character and to follow the power law model with R2 values >0.8. The addition of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures caused a decrease in the MGS viscosity when compared with the effect of the phospholipid alone at low shear rates in case of PC, PG and PCPG. The combination of PC : PG with clove oil caused ratios of change in MGS viscosity rheology.

  9. Mucispirillum schaedleri gen. nov., sp nov., a spiral-shaped bacterium colonizing the mucus layer of the gastrointestinal tract of laboratory rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, B.R.; O'Rourke, J.L.; Neilan, B.A.;

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract is covered by a layer of mucus that can harbour a range of bacterial species specifically adapted to colonize this ecological niche. Examination of 110 bacterial isolates cultivated from the gastrointestinal tract of 23 mice revealed the presence of a subgroup...

  10. The mucus layer is critical in protecting against ischemia/reperfusion-mediated gut injury and in the restitution of gut barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaofa; Sheth, Sharvil U.; Sharpe, Susan M.; Dong, Wei; Lu, Qi; Xu, Dazhong; Deitch, Edwin A.

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented that the gut injury plays a critical role in the development of systemic inflammation and distant organ injury in conditions associated with splanchnic ischemia. Consequently understanding the mechanisms leading to gut injury is important. In this context, recent work suggests a protective role for the intestinal mucus layer and an injury-inducing role for luminal pancreatic proteases. Thus, we explored the role of the mucus layer in gut barrier function by observing how the removal of the mucus layer affects ischemia/reperfusion-mediated gut injury in rats as well as the potential role of luminal pancreatic proteases in the pathogenesis of gut injury. Ischemia was induced by the ligation of blood vessels to segments of the ileum for 45 min, followed by up to three hours of reperfusion. The ileal segments were divided into 5 groups. These included a non-ischemic control, ischemic segments exposed to saline, the mucolytic N-acetylcholine (NAC), pancreatic proteases or NAC plus pancreatic proteases. Changes in gut barrier function were assessed by the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (MW 4000 Da; FD4) in ileal everted sacs. Gut injury was measured morphologically and by the luminal content of protein, DNA and hemoglobin. The mucus layer was assessed functionally by measuring its hydrophobicity and morphologically. Gut barrier function was promptly and effectively re-established during reperfusion, which was accompanied by the restoration of the mucus layer. In contrast, treatment of the gut with the mucolytic NAC for 10 min during ischemia resulted in a failure of mucus restitution and further increases in gut permeability and injury. The presence of digestive proteases by themselves did not exacerbate gut injury but in combination with NAC, they caused an even greater increase in gut injury and permeability. These results suggest that the mucus layer not only serves as a barrier between the luminal contents and gut surface

  11. Circular flow patterns induced by ciliary activity in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Khelloufi, Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CINaM, Marseille, France Team; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, Inserm, LAI, Marseille, France Team

    2016-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the transport at the surface of airways of a complex fluid layer, the mucus, moved by the beats of microscopic cilia present on epithelial ciliated cells. We explored the coupling between the spatial organisation and the activity of cilia and the transport of surface fluids on reconstituted cultures of human bronchial epithelium at air-liquid interface, obtained by human biopsies. We reveal the existence of stable local circular surface flow patterns of mucus or Newtonian fluid at the epithelium surface. We find a power law over more than 3 orders of magnitude showing that the average ciliated cell density controls the size of these flow patterns, and, therefore the distance over which mucus can be transported. We show that these circular flow patterns result from the radial linear increase of the local propelling forces (due to ciliary beats) on each flow domain. This linear increase of local forces is induced by a fine self-regulation of both cilia density and orientation of ciliary beats. Local flow domains grow and merge during ciliogenesis to provide macroscopic mucus transport. This is possible only when the viscoelastic mucus continuously exerts a shear stress on beating cilia, revealing a mechanosensitive function of cilia. M. K. Khelloufi thanks the society MedBioMed for financial support. This work was supported by the ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  12. Natural potentials of the medicinal plants from the Orchidaceae family with mucus as the main ingredients from Zlatar mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matović, M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous medicinal flora of Zlatar Mountain was studied in the aim of realizing the possibilities of its sustainable use for the needs of the pharmaceutical industry. The special attention was paid to genera Orchis, Ophrys, Plathanthera, Gimnadenia, etc. from the orchid family (Orchidaceae of which salep is made (Tuber salep. Salep is a typical mucous drug (contains over 50% of mucus, which is very beneficial and useful. The primary role of salep is to heal and strengthen the organism and urge the sexual and every other biological ability. Orchids of which salep is made (Orchis coriophora, Orchis laxiflora, Orchis morio, Orchis mascula, Orchis pallens, Orchis purpurea, Orchis simia, Orchis tridentata and Orchis ustulata are to be found on numerous habitats of Zlatar (in the bright forests, clearing areas and on forest meadows.

  13. Presence of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (Gaba) in the Pedal Mucus of the Critically Endangered Species Patella ferruginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ingraham, G A; Espinosa, F; Krock, B

    2015-05-01

    Patella ferruginea is a giant patellid limpet endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. It presently is in danger of extinction, and many have called for developing conservation measures including the mass production of spats for re-introduction projects. However, so far all attempts have been relatively unsuccessful. Previous work analyzing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the recruitment of patellid limpets has shown that larvae respond to the presence of this signaling molecule. This response could explain the gregarious distribution typical of this species. In the present study, we demonstrated that GABA is naturally secreted by P. ferruginea in the pedal mucus. GABA is preferentially secreted during the summer, coinciding with the reproductive resting period of the species. Further research should aim to analyze the effects of GABA on larval development and metamorphosis in order to assess its potential use to improve conservation efforts.

  14. Characterization of geographically distinct bacterial communities associated with coral mucus produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKew, B A; Dumbrell, A J; Daud, S D; Hepburn, L; Thorpe, E; Mogensen, L; Whitby, C

    2012-08-01

    Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H', 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H', 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which varied in relative abundance between coral genera and region. Distinct coral host-specific communities were also found; for example, Clostridiales were dominant on Acropora spp. (at Hoga and the Mexican Caribbean) compared to Porites spp. and seawater. Within the Gammproteobacteria, Halomonas spp. dominated sequence libraries from Porites spp. (49%) and Acropora spp. (5.6%) from the Mexican Caribbean, compared to the corresponding Indonesian coral libraries (<2%). Interestingly, with the exception of Porites spp. from the Mexican Caribbean, there was also a ubiquity of Psychrobacter spp., which dominated Acropora and Porites libraries from Indonesia and Acropora libraries from the Caribbean. In conclusion, there was a dominance of Halomonas spp. (associated with Acropora and Porites [Mexican Caribbean]), Firmicutes (associated with Acropora [Mexican Caribbean] and with Acropora and Porites [Hoga]), and Cyanobacteria (associated with Acropora and Porites [Hoga] and Porites [Sampela]). This is also the first report describing geographically distinct Psychrobacter spp. associated with coral mucus. In addition, the predominance of Clostridiales associated with Acropora spp. provided additional evidence for coral host-specific microorganisms.

  15. In vitro growth characteristics of five candidate aquaculture probiotics and two fish pathogens grown in fish intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Niall G; Leukes, Winston D; Kaiser, Horst

    2004-02-09

    The selection of probiotics for aquaculture is usually based on their antagonism towards pathogens. However, other criteria such as growth, attachment to intestinal mucus and production of beneficial compounds should also be considered. We suggest a protocol for the isolation and selection of potential probiotic bacteria based on their in vitro growth characteristics and propose a ranking index (RI) to screen potential aquaculture probionts. We suggest that the lag period and doubling time are the most important criteria for the comparison of growth curves, hence the RI is based on the doubling time (t(d)) and lag period (lambda) obtained from the growth profile of each bacterium. Bacteria were isolated from the gut of the common clownfish, Amphiprion percula, and screened for antagonistic activity towards seven aquatic pathogens. All five candidate probiotics showed antagonism to various aquatic pathogens. When grown in intestinal fish mucus no probiotic had a RI higher than the two tested pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus). However, candidate probiont AP1 had a faster specific growth rate (micro) (0.05) than the pathogens (0.049 and 0.047 respectively), while AP5 grown in marine broth had a shorter lag period than the pathogens. Strategies to increase probiotic concentration include the inoculation of high concentrations and the preconditioning of these bacteria to reduce the lag period. It should be tested whether or not such strategies will allow the probiotic bacteria to dominate initially and thereby gain a competitive advantage. This could become an important aspect under in vivo conditions where both attachment and nutrient supply differ from that found in in vitro studies.

  16. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Outcompetes Enterococcus faecium via Mucus-Binding Pili

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, Hanne L.P.; Douillard, François P.; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.; Laine, Pia K.; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of

  17. Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossowski, von I.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be

  18. Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossowski, von I.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Outcompetes Enterococcus faecium via Mucus-Binding Pili

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, Hanne L.P.; Douillard, François P.; Reunanen, Justus; Rasinkangas, Pia; Hendrickx, Antoni P.A.; Laine, Pia K.; Paulin, Lars; Satokari, Reetta; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major nosocomial threat. Enterococcus faecium is of special concern, as it can easily acquire new antibiotic resistances and is an excellent colonizer of the human intestinal tract. Several clinical studies have explored the potential use of be

  20. Validade da citologia cervicovaginal na detecção de lesões pré-neoplásicas e neoplásicas de colo de útero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Adriana de Araujo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O exame colpocitológico ou teste de Papanicolaou permite o diagnóstico precoce do câncer de colo do útero. O êxito no rastreamento desta doença dependerá, além de outros fatores, da acuidade diagnóstica do exame colpocitológico. Objetivos: Avaliar a acurácia diagnóstica da citologia cervicovaginal na detecção de lesões cervicais através da comparação citoistopatológica. Material e métodos: Avaliou-se o grau de concordância entre os exames citológico e histopatológico de 373 pacientes atendidas em um hospital universitário no período de 1990 a 1997 e foram calculados os indicadores: sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivos e negativos e as taxas de falsos positivos e falsos negativos do exame. Resultados: A taxa bruta de concordância citoistopatológica foi de 65,1%. A sensibilidade do exame foi alta (96,0%, no entanto sua especificidade foi baixa (51,5%, significando a inclusão de muitos resultados falsos positivos. A taxa de falsos positivos foi de 48,4%, enquanto a de falsos negativos foi de 4%. Discussão: Apesar de a sensibilidade do teste ser alta, sua especificidade é baixa, significando que muitas mulheres seriam falsamente diagnosticadas como doentes, levando a um número elevado de resultados falsos positivos e custos desnecessários, além do potencial caráter iatrogênico que esta ação poderia assumir. No entanto, um exame altamente sensível é o teste de escolha para programas de rastreamento de câncer cervical na população feminina. Conclusões: Para garantir a acuidade diagnóstica do teste de Papanicolaou são essenciais atividades de controle de qualidade nos laboratórios, tanto do procedimento colpocitológico quanto do histopatológico, permitindo, assim, o êxito na detecção precoce e no tratamento das lesões cervicais.

  1. BV和VVC患者阴道灌洗液中相关细胞因子水平检测及意义%Detection and significance of cytokines in cervicovaginal lavage fluid in patients with bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯贺强; 张学军; 戴随

    2011-01-01

    目的 提高细菌性阴道病(BV)和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)诊疗水平.方法 采集35例健康育龄妇女(对照组)、35例BV患者(BV组)、35例VVC患者(VVC组)阴道灌洗液,用ELISA法检测三组相关细胞因子(IL-2、IL-8、IFN-γ、IL-4、IL-13、IL-10、IgE)水平.结果 与对照组比较,BV组IL-2显著降低,IL-13、IL-4、IL-10显著升高,IL-8、IFN-γ、IgE无明显变化;VVC组IFN-γ显著降低,IL-2、IL-13、IL-4、IgE显著升高,IL-8、IL-10无显著变化.讨论 BV与VVC均存在Th1/Th2平衡失调,检测两种疾病局部细胞因子的变化有助于更好的控制感染.%Objective To improve the diagnosis and treament level of bacterial vaginosis(BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC).Methods Cervicovaginal lavage fluid was collected from 35 healthy women in child-bearing age ( control group) ,35 patients with BC(BV group) ,35 patients with VVC (WC group).The level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-8,IFN-γ,IL-4,IL-13 ,IL-10,IgE)of the three groups were detected by ELISA.Results Compared with the control group, the IL-2 of BV group decreased significantly,IL-13,IL-4,IL-10 increased significantly,IL-8,IFN-γ,IgE had no significant change;the IFN-γof VVC group decreased significantly, IL-2,IL-13,IL-4,IgE increased obviously,IL-8,IL-10 had no significant change.Conclusions The un-balance of Th1/Th2 is common in BV and VVC, detecting the changes of local cytokine is helpful for controling their inflammation better.

  2. Bacteroides in the Infant Gut Consume Milk Oligosaccharides via Mucus-Utilization Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Marcobal, Angela; Barboza, Mariana; Sonnenburg, Erica D.; Pudlo, Nicholas; Martens, Eric C.; Desai, Prerak; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Weimer, Bart C.; Mills, David A.; German, J. Bruce; Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    2011-01-01

    Newborns are colonized with an intestinal microbiota shortly after birth but the factors governing the retention and abundance of specific microbial lineages are unknown. Nursing infants consume human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) that pass undigested to the distal gut where they may be digested by microbes. We determined that the prominent neonate gut residents, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bacteroides fragilis, induce the same genes during HMO consumption that are used to harvest host mu...

  3. Oxidative stress and airway mucus hypersecretion%氧化应激与支气管哮喘气道黏液高分泌研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桃; 李国平

    2012-01-01

    哮喘是一种以支气管收缩可逆性、肺部炎症及气道重塑为特点的慢性气道炎症性疾病.黏液过度分泌导致气道阻塞、肺功能下降、气道重塑和感染增加.过度的活性氧/活性氮(ROS/RNS)产生造成气道炎症,气道高反应性,气道微血管高通透性和气道黏液高分泌,以及组织损伤和形态的改变.减轻氧化应激或增加抗氧化能够减轻气道嗜酸粒细胞,减少黏液分泌,减轻支气管高反应性.本文就氧化应激与哮喘气道黏液高分泌的关系作一综述.%Asthma is a bronchoconstriction reversibility,lung inflammation and airway remodeling for characteristics of chronic airway inflammatory disease.Excessive mucus secretion lead to obstruction of the airway,lung function decline,airway remodeling and increase infection.Excessive reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)produce cause airway inflammation,airway responsieness,airway microvascular high permeability and high airway mucus secretion,and tissue damage and the change of the form.Reduce oxidative stress or increase antioxidant that can reduce airway eosinophils,reduce mucus secretion,reduce bronchial high reaction.Oxidative stress and asthma airway mucus secretion relationship high application were introduced in this paper.

  4. A pilot study of the impact of high-frequency chest wall oscillation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with mucus hypersecretion

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravorty I; Chahal K; Austin G

    2011-01-01

    Indranil Chakravorty1, Kamaljit Chahal2, Gillian Austin21St George's Hospital, London, 2East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, Lister Hospital and Primary Care Trust, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UKIntroduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with mucus hypersecretion tend to demonstrate increased frequency of infective exacerbations and a steeper slope of decline in lung function. Enhanced mucociliary clearance with high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) d...

  5. A simple cost-effective modification improves the quality of immunocytochemical staining in cervical scrape samples characterized by presence of excess mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Sagar; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deodhar, Kedar; Teni, Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a very important tool in a diverse range of biomedical research as well as in diagnostic cytopathology. Smears prepared from cervical scrapes contain a large amount of overlying mucus that interferes with the standard immunocytochemical staining protocol. A modified ICC protocol is described, which involves pretreatment of these smears with 1 mg/ml solution of Ambroxol hydrochloride in methanol for 1 hour. Source of Ambroxol hydrochloride was a 30 mg Mucolite™ tab...

  6. Diagnostic Value of the Urine Mucus Test in Childhood Masturbation among Children below 12 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarin Keihani Doust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood masturbation (CM is considered a variant of normal sexual behavior; however, it is commonly misdiagnosed as epilepsy and movement disorders. As the first study from Iran, we analyzed a large population of infants and children with CM in a case-control study and evaluated the value of mucus in urine analysis as an alternative diagnostic tool for CM. Methods: A total of 623 children referred to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital for an evaluation of seizure or movement disorders were studied between 2008 and 2011. Totally, 359 children were found to have masturbatory behaviors (Group A and the rest (264 were assigned to Group B. CM was diagnosed by direct observation. Collected data comprised demographic characteristics, clinical and neurodevelopmental examinations, laboratory findings (particularly urine analysis, and electrocardiography. Results: The age of the children with CM was below 12 years old, and the girl-to-boy ratio was 7:1. Mucus in urine was positive in 357 (99.44% children in Group A and 22 (8.3% in Group B (P<0.001. A significant correlation was found between the presence of mucus in urine and masturbatory behaviors (P<0.001. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of mucus in urine can be used as an alternative laboratory test in children with CM below 12 years old and even in infants (≤24 months old. Further studies are needed to confirm the results.

  7. A simple cost-effective modification improves the quality of immunocytochemical staining in cervical scrape samples characterized by presence of excess mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Sagar; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deodhar, Kedar; Teni, Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a very important tool in a diverse range of biomedical research as well as in diagnostic cytopathology. Smears prepared from cervical scrapes contain a large amount of overlying mucus that interferes with the standard immunocytochemical staining protocol. A modified ICC protocol is described, which involves pretreatment of these smears with 1 mg/ml solution of Ambroxol hydrochloride in methanol for 1 hour. Source of Ambroxol hydrochloride was a 30 mg Mucolite™ tab...

  8. Rosuvastatin attenuates mucus secretion in a murine model of chronic asthma by inhibiting the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Tao; ZHANG Wei; WANG Dao-xin; HUANG Ni-wen; BO Hong; DENG Wang; DENG Jia

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by reversible bronchial constriction,pulmonary inflammation and airway remodeling.Current standard therapies for asthma provide symptomatic control,but fail to target the underlying disease pathology.Furthermore,no therapeutic agent is effective in preventing airway remodeling.A substantial amount of evidence suggests that statins have anti-inflammatory properties and immunomodulatory activity.In this study,we investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on airway inflammation and its inhibitory mechanism in mucus hypersecretion in a murine model of chronic asthma.Methods BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin to induce asthma.The recruitment of inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lung tissues were measured by Diff-Quik staining and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.ELISA was used for measuring the levels of IL-4,IL-5,IL-13 and TNF-α in BALF.Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining was used for mucus secretion.Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR)32 expression was measured by means of immunohistochemistry,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting.Results Rosuvastatin reduced the number of total inflammatory cells,lymphocytes,macrophages,neutrophils,and eosinophils recruited into BALF,the levels of IL-4,IL-5,IL-13 and TNF-α in BALF,along with the histological mucus index (HMI) and GABAAR β2 expression.Changes occurred in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions Based on its ability to reduce the inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion by regulating GABAAR activity in a murine model of chronic asthma,rosuvastatin may be a useful therapeutic agent for treatment of asthma.

  9. cAMP and cGMP in nasal mucus related to severity of smell loss in patients with smell dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, R I; Velicu, I

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate nasal mucus levels of cAMP and cGMP in patients with taste and smell dysfunction with respect to severity of their smell loss. cAMP and cGMP were measured in nasal mucus using a sensitive spectrophotometric 96 plate ELISA technique. Smell loss was measured in patients with taste and smell dysfunction by standardized psychophysical measurements of olfactory function and classified by severity of loss into four types from most severe to least severe such that anosmia > Type I hyposmia > Type II hyposmia > Type III hyposmia. Measurements of nasal mucus cyclic nucleotides and smell loss were made independently. As smell loss severity increased stepwise cAMP and cGMP levels decreased stepwise [cAMP, cGMP (in pmol/ml); anosmia - 0.004, 0.008: Type I hyposmia - 0.12+/-0.03, 0.10+/-0.03: Type II hyposmia - 0.15+/-0.02, 0.16+/-0.01: Type III hyposmia - 0.23+/-0.05, 0.20+/-0.15]. These results confirm the association of biochemical changes in cyclic nucleotides with systematic losses of smell acuity. These results confirm the usefulness of the psychophysical methods we defined to determine the systematic classification of smell loss severity. These changes can form the basis for the biochemical definition of smell loss among some patients with smell loss as well as for their therapy.

  10. Screening of Cytotoxic B. cereus on Differentiated Caco-2 Cells and in Co-Culture with Mucus-Secreting (HT29-MTX) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiaux, Virginie; Laloux, Laurie; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Mahillon, Jacques

    2016-11-05

    B. cereus is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen able to cause diarrhoea. However, the diarrhoeal potential of a B. cereus strain remains difficult to predict, because no simple correlation has yet been identified between the symptoms and a unique or a specific combination of virulence factors. In this study, 70 B. cereus strains with different origins (food poisonings, foods and environment) have been selected to assess their enterotoxicity. The B. cereus cell-free supernatants have been tested for their toxicity in vitro, on differentiated (21 day-old) Caco-2 cells, using their ATP content, LDH release and NR accumulation. The genetic determinants of the main potential enterotoxins and virulence factors (ces, cytK, entFM, entS, hbl, nhe, nprA, piplC and sph) have also been screened by PCR. This analysis showed that none of these genes was able to fully explain the enterotoxicity of B. cereus strains. Additionally, in order to assess a possible effect of the mucus layer in vitro, a cytotoxicity comparison between a monoculture (Caco-2 cells) and a co-culture (Caco-2 and HT29-MTX mucus-secreting cells) model has been performed with selected B. cereus supernatants. It appeared that, in these conditions, the mucus layer had no notable influence on the cytotoxicity of B. cereus supernatants.

  11. A comparison of a new mucolytic N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate with N-acetylcysteine: airway epithelial function and mucus changes in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, R P; App, E M; De Sanctis, G T; Coffiner, M; Maes, P; Rubin, B K; King, M

    1995-12-01

    A newly synthesized mucolytic agent, N-acetylcysteine L-lysinate (Nacystelyn) was studied. Tracheal mucus velocity (TMV), transepithelial potential difference (PD), rheological properties, and ion content of collected airway secretions were evaluated in six healthy mongrel dogs after placebo, Nacystelyn (NAL) and acetylcysteine (NAC) metered dose inhaler (MDI) aerosols. Although TMV was increased and viscoelasticity decreased after both treatments, the treatment effect with NAL was significantly greater. Furthermore, NAL increased the negative PD and CI- content of secretions in the trachea, an effect not observed after NAC. Both compounds increased ciliary beat frequency (CBF) on the frog palate at a concentration range similar to that approximated in dog airways. The increased mucociliary clearance could be partially explained by favourable rheological changes combined with stimulation of CBF. Since both compounds break disulfide bonds in mucus polymers, the greater change in mucus rheology and clearance rate after NAL, without change in water content, could be explained by the increase in CI- content. Nacystelyn appears to combine different modes of action which synergistically cause an increase in the clearance rate of airway secretions.

  12. Different effects of two types of H2-receptor antagonists, famotidine and roxatidine, on the mucus barrier of rat gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikama, Nobuaki; Ichikawa, Takafumi; Iwai, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2012-02-01

    Compared with the aggressive factors, little attention has been paid to the mucosal defensive factors in ulcer therapy, and the role of the H2-receptor antagonists in gastric mucosal protection has not been well characterized. In the present study, the effects of different types of H2-receptor antagonists (famotidine and roxatidine) on rat gastric mucus cells were investigated using both biochemical and histological methods. Each drug (famotidine, 3 mg/kg; roxatidine, 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats by gavage once daily for 7 days. The biosynthesis and tissue content of mucin were compared in the gastric mucosa treated with each drug. Using anti-mucin monoclonal antibodies, the mucin content and immunohistochemical localization were also compared. Both the biosynthesis and the accumulation of gastric mucin were significantly decreased in the famotidine-treated rats, but not in the roxatidine. Both the content and the immunoreactivity of surface mucus cell-derived mucin were reduced by famotidine, while they were maintained in roxatidine-treated rat stomachs. There was no difference between the groups in the content and immunoreactivity of mucous neck cell-derived mucin. H2-receptor antagonists should be classified in relation to gastric surface mucus cell function, raising the possibility of more effective ulcer therapy.

  13. Dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus modulated skin mucus protein profile, immune and appetite genes expression in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Yarahmadi, Peyman

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus on skin mucus protein pattern, immune and appetite related genes expression as well as growth performance in gold fish (Carassius auratus gibelio). Three hundred healthy gold fish (2.5 ± 0.05) juveniles were randomly distributed in 12 glass aquariums (400-L; 25 fish per aquaria) and fed experimental diets contain different levels of L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8)) for 8 weeks. SDS-PAGE analysis of skin mucus protein profile at the end of the feeding trial revealed differences in protein profile of probiotic fed fish and control group; even three new bands were observed in L. acidophilus treated groups. Furthermore, fish fed 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) supplemented diet showed up-regulation of both TNF-1α and TNF-2α gene expression (P acidophilus had no significant effects on growth performance (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that while no beneficial effects on growth performance, dietary L. acidophilus affects immune and appetite related genes expression as well as skin mucus protein profile.

  14. Assessment of cytology and mucin 2 in colorectal mucus collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Results of a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, Alexandre; Chhaya, Vivek; Bandaletova, Tatiana; Poullis, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Non-invasive diagnosis of colorectal disease remains problematic, fecal biomarkers presenting the only current option. Colorectal mucus is the diagnostically informative element of stool samples, but its separation from stool is difficult. We aimed to: (i) test a novel method of non-invasive colorectal mucus sampling in a pilot clinical trial; (ii) evaluate sampling method acceptance by study participants; (iii) characterize the collected material cytologically; and (iv) assess feasibility of quantitative protein analysis in the samples. A total of 141 patients with IBD (58), IBS (50), and healthy controls (33) participated in the study. Samples rich in colorectal mucus were self-collected by swabbing the anal area immediately following defecation. Collected samples were examined cytologically and subjected to quantitative analysis for total protein and mucin 2 (MUC2). The novel sampling technique was assessed as "good" or "adequate" by 96% of study participants. A total of 55% of the collected samples were free of fecal contamination. Cytology showed large numbers of well preserved inflammatory cells in IBD cases. Total protein values varied in all groups, being affected by fecal contamination. MUC2 levels were similar among all IBD-free individuals (control and IBS groups) and elevated in IBD patients (p cytological investigation and diagnostic biomarker analysis. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Specific degradation of the mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA) of Lactobacillus reuteri to an antimicrobial peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhle, Liv Anette; Brede, Dag Anders; Diep, Dzung B; Holo, Helge; Nes, Ingolf F

    2010-11-01

    The intestinal flora of mammals contains lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that may provide positive health effects for the host. Such bacteria are referred to as probiotic bacteria. From a pig, we have isolated a Lactobacillus reuteri strain that produces an antimicrobial peptide (AMP). The peptide was purified and characterized, and it was unequivocally shown that the AMP was a well-defined degradation product obtained from the mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA); it was therefore termed AP48-MapA. This finding demonstrates how large proteins might inherit unexpected pleiotropic functions by conferring antimicrobial capacities on the producer. The MapA/AP48-MapA system is the first example where a large protein of an intestinal LAB is shown to give rise to such an AMP. It is also of particular interest that the protein that provides this AMP is associated with the binding of the bacterium producing it to the surface/lining of the gut. This finding gives us new perspective on how some probiotic bacteria may successfully compete in this environment and thereby contribute to a healthy microbiota.

  16. ApuA, a multifunctional alpha-glucan-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus suis, mediates adhesion to porcine epithelium and mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Maria Laura; Fuentes, Susana; de Greeff, Astrid; Smith, Hilde; Wells, Jerry M

    2010-09-01

    We have identified apuA in Streptococcus suis, which encodes a bifunctional amylopullulanase with conserved alpha-amylase and pullulanase substrate-binding domains and catalytic motifs. ApuA exhibited properties typical of a Gram-positive surface protein, with a putative signal sequence and LPKTGE cell-wall-anchoring motif. A recombinant protein containing the predicted N-terminal alpha-amylase domain of ApuA was shown to have alpha-(1,4) glycosidic activity. Additionally, an apuA mutant of S. suis lacked the pullulanase alpha-(1,6) glycosidic activity detected in a cell-surface protein extract of wild-type S. suis. ApuA was required for normal growth in complex medium containing pullulan as the major carbon source, suggesting that this enzyme plays a role in nutrient acquisition in vivo via the degradation of glycogen and food-derived starch in the nasopharyngeal and oral cavities. ApuA was shown to promote adhesion to porcine epithelium and mucus in vitro, highlighting a link between carbohydrate utilization and the ability of S. suis to colonize and infect the host.

  17. Human Gastric Mucosal Hydrophobicity Does dot Decrease with Helicobacter Pylori Infection or Chronological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S Al-Marhoon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infection with cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe gastric diseases. Previous studies in humans have reported a decreased gastric hydrophobicity with H pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to differentiate between the effect of cagA+ and cagA- strains on gastric mucus hydrophobicity.

  18. Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: case report and review of the literature%浅表宫颈阴道肌纤维母细胞瘤临床病理学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海波; 牛俊扬

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To study the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma( SCVM ), with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Methods: One case of SCVM in the vingina was evaluated by lightmicroscopy, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results : An asymptomatic anterior vaginal mass was presented in a 48 years old female during a physical examination. The clinical diagnosis was cyst. The tumor presented as a well - circumscribed mass measuring 3. 3cm × 2. 5cm × 2cm, with a tremelloid appearance on cut surface. Histologically , the tumor was composed of a relatively uniform spindle and stellate - shaped cells, and arranged in variety of growth patterns, mostly in fascicles or storiform. No evident of cytologically atypical and rare mitotic figures (< 1/10HPF ), there was no necrosis. A mild inflammatory infiltrate, chiefly comprising mast cells. Thin - walled blood vessels were ohserved, especially towards the centre of the lesion. There was no aggregation of cells around the vessels, and no vessel walls were hyalinized. The tumor cells were showed strong immunostaining with vimentin, desmin, ER, PR and CD34. Other maker including α - smooth muscle actin ( α - SMA ), S100, HMB45 , CD31, CD57 and CK were all negative. Electron microscopic study showed myofihroblastic differentiation. There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis after complete local excision in half year follow - up. Conclusion : SCVM is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor arising within the lower female genital tract . About one third patients had a link with tamoxifen or hormone - replacement therapy. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies suggested a myofibroblastic differentiation. Histologically, SCVM should be differentiated from lots of spindle cell neoplasm.%目的:探讨浅表宫颈阴道肌纤维母细胞瘤(superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma,SCVM)的临床病理学特点、免疫表型

  19. Loss of the intestinal mucus layer in the normal rat causes gut injury but not toxic mesenteric lymph nor lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Susan M; Qin, Xiaofa; Lu, Qi; Feketeova, Eleonora; Palange, David C; Dong, Wei; Sheth, Sharvil U; Lee, Marlon A; Reino, Diego; Xu, Da-Zhong; Deitch, Edwin A

    2010-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that gut barrier failure is associated with distant organ injury and systemic inflammation. After major trauma or stress, the factors and mechanisms involved in gut injury are unknown. Our primary hypothesis is that loss of the intestinal mucus layer will result in injury of the normal gut that is exacerbated by the presence of luminal pancreatic proteases. Our secondary hypothesis is that the injury produced in the gut will result in the production of biologically active mesenteric lymph and consequently distant organ (i.e., lung) injury. To test this hypothesis, five groups of rats were studied: 1) uninstrumented naive rats; 2) control rats in which a ligated segment of distal ileum was filled with saline; 3) rats with pancreatic proteases placed in their distal ileal segments; 4) rats with the mucolytic N-acetylcysteine (NAC) placed in their distal ileal segments; and 5) rats exposed to NAC and pancreatic proteases in their ileal segments. The potential systemic consequences of gut injury induced by NAC and proteases were assessed by measuring the biological activity of mesenteric lymph as well as gut-induced lung injury. Exposure of the normal intestine to NAC, but not saline or proteases, led to increased gut permeability, loss of mucus hydrophobicity, a decrease in the mucus layer, as well as morphological evidence of villous injury. Although proteases themselves did not cause gut injury, the combination of pancreatic proteases with NAC caused more severe injury than NAC alone, suggesting that once the mucus barrier is impaired, luminal proteases can injure the now vulnerable gut. Because comparable levels of gut injury caused by systemic insults are associated with gut-induced lung injury, which is mediated by biologically active factors in mesenteric lymph, we next tested whether this local model of gut injury would produce active mesenteric lymph or lead to lung injury. It did not, suggesting that gut injury by itself may not

  20. Receptor-like Molecules on Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Interact with an Adhesion Factor from Lactobacillus reuteri

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Yosuke; MIYOSHI, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; SATOH, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    A surface protein of Lactobacillus reuteri, mucus adhesion-promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor. MapA is expressed in L. reuteri strains and adheres to piglet gastric mucus, collagen type I, and human intestinal epithelial cells such as Caco-2. The aim of this study was to identify molecules that mediate the attachment of MapA from L. reuteri to the intestinal epithelial cell surface by investigating the adhesion of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. ...

  1. Cervicovaginal Infections during Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Moaiedmohseni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted in order to assess the prevalence of different cervicovaginalinfections during pregnancy.Materials and methods: Totally 110 healthy pregnant women with complaints of vaginal symptoms intheir third trimester of pregnancy were checked for vaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, vaginaltrichomoniasis, streptococcus β hemoliticus, gonorrhea, syphilis, and infection by chlamydia trachomatisand HIV.Results: Among 110 studied women and mostly nullipara, the mean age was 25.2 years. All of them hadat least one symptom including discharge, itching or burning of vagina. Among them 39(35.5% hadvaginal and endocervical infection identified by laboratory tests including candidiasis 26.4%, bacterialvaginosis 8% and streptococcus β hemoliticus 5.3 %. Gonorrhea and trichomoniasis were not seen.Three of the patients had positive IgG antibody for chlamydia trachomatis. None of them had serologicalpositive test for syphilis and HIV.Conclusion: Symptomatic pregnant women need to be actively searched for infections. Besidesspeculum examination as an easy to carry out clinical test and if needed laboratory exams must be usedto choose the best treatment.

  2. Etiología de la infección cérvico vaginal en pacientes del Hospital Juárez de México Etiology of cervicovaginal infection in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Flores-Paz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la etiología de la infección cérvico vaginal, con el fin de establecer un diagnóstico acertado que permita ofrecer a las pacientes el tratamiento más apropiado. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De enero de 1995 a diciembre de 1999 se realizó un estudio bacteriológico a 6 811 muestras de exudado cérvico vaginal de pacientes del Hospital Juárez de México, de la Ciudad de México, con edades comprendidas entre los 13 y los 65 años, que referían leucorrea, prurito, hiperemia y dolor abdominal bajo. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de infección por cada germen fue G vaginalis, 22.65%, Candida spp, 19.13%, C albicans, 7.8%, T vaginalis, 1.5%, Streptococcus del grupo D, 11.78%, Streptococcus b haemolyticus, 4.59%, E coli, 13.46%, Klebsiella ssp, 2.0%, además de otras enterobacterias menos frecuentes como Citrobacter spp, Enterobacter spp, Pseudomonas spp, M morganii y P mirabilis. El 2.9% presentó anaerobios siempre asociados con G vaginalis. Se aislaron Neisseria spp y N weaveri en 0.15% de las muestras. La N gonorrhoeae no se encontró en ningún caso. Datos comparativos indican que, tanto Streptococcus hemoliticos como E coli tuvieron un marcado incremento en los dos últimos años, siendo el de esta última estadísticamente significativo (pOBJECTIVE: To identify the etiologic agents of cervicovaginal infection in order to establish an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 1995 to December 1999, bacteriological studies were done in cervical discharge specimens from 6 811 patients aged 13 to 65 years, seen at Hospital Juarez in Mexico City. All patients had leucorrhea, pruritus, hyperemia, and abdominal pain. Statistical significance was assessed using the chi-squared test. RESULTS: The frequencies of infectious agents were as follows: G. vaginalis, 22.65%, Candida spp, 19.13%, C. albicans, 7.8%, T. vaginalis, 1.5%, Streptococcus group D, 11.78%, Streptococcus b hemolytic, 4.59%, E. coli, 13

  3. Muco-inert nanoparticle probes and drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ying

    2011-12-01

    Mucus coats the exposed surfaces of the eyes and respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI) and cervicovaginal (CV) tracts, and protects mucosal tissues against pathogens and other foreign particulates. Most foreign particles are effectively trapped in mucus through steric and adhesive interactions, and are rapidly eliminated by different mucus clearance mechanisms. Nevertheless, mucus also immobilizes conventional drug and gene carriers, thereby precluding sustained and targeted drug delivery to mucosal sites. Synthetic particles engineered with muco-inert surfaces, and some viruses, can readily penetrate mucus gel, and may serve as useful probes to understand the biophysical barrier properties of mucus. Improved understanding of the mucus barrier could provide insights into methods to enhance drug and gene delivery at mucosal surfaces, as well as understanding the occasional failure of mucus to protect against infection or injury. Recently, muco-inert nanoparticles were developed by conjugating a dense layer of low MW polyethylene glycol to particle surfaces. Since they are slowed only by steric obstruction from the mucus mesh, various sized muco-inert nanoparticles can be used to probe the microstructure and microrheology of mucus. I applied this technique to determine whether the mucus barrier may be altered by exogenous factors, including the presence of detergent, pH changes and synthetic nanoparticles. I first studied the microrheology of native human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), and found that CVM behaves as a viscoelastic solid at length scales ≥ 1 microm (preventing large particles from diffusing through) but as a viscoelastic liquid at length scales up to at least 500 nm (allowing smaller particles to diffuse through low viscosity fluid-filled pores). Treating CVM with a nonionic detergent, N9, shifted the viscoelastic liquid-solid transition point to epithelium and thereby achieve prolonged retention. I first measured the long range penetration of MPP compared

  4. Role of intestinal mucus on the uptake of latex beads by Peyer's patches and on their transport to mesenteric lymph nodes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J; Iiboshi, Y; Cui, L; Wasa, M; Okada, A

    1999-01-01

    The effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a mucolytic agent on the uptake of fluorescent polystyrene microparticles by Peyer's patches, on intestinal permeability, and on subsequent transport to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were investigated to establish the role of mucus gel layer in this process. Twenty rats were divided into two groups: control (n = 10) and NAC (n = 10). Fluorescent polystyrene latex beads of 3.2+/-0.2 microm in diameter were used as a probe for measuring the previously mentioned parameters. The solution of latex beads (0.1 mL) was injected into a 2-cm length of ileal loop containing Peyer's patches, with 0.1 mL of saline (control group) or with 0.1 mL of NAC solution (NAC group) within 10 cm proximal from the ileocaecal valve. Intestinal loops, portal blood, and neighboring MLNs were taken within 1 hour of injection. Intestinal sections were stained by periodic acid-Schiff reagent. Peyer's patches and MLNs were analyzed for the count of particles by image analysis using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Morphologically, periodic acid-Schiff positive uniform mucus gel was present in front of Peyer's patches of the control group, and mucus gel layer was disrupted and noncontinuous in the NAC group. The number of particles within Peyer's patches and MLNs in the NAC group was significantly higher than that in the control group (pNAC group was significantly higher than that in the control group (pmucus gel layer located in front of Peyer's patches is one of the important factors for the uptake of noxious macromolecules, and this in turn plays a major role on small intestinal permeability and subsequent translocation to MLNs.

  5. Phenotypic plasticity in the common garden snail: big guts and heavier mucus glands compete in snails faced with the dual challenge of poor diet and coarse substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Adam J; Treloar, Marguerite

    2016-12-26

    Phenotypic plasticity allows animals to manage environmental challenges. Studies aimed at quantifying plasticity often focus on one challenge, such as diet, and one organ system, such the gastrointestinal tract, but this approach may not adequately reflect how plasticity could buffer multiple challenges. Thus, we investigated the outcomes of a dual challenge experiment that fed land snails either a high-fibre (low quality) or a low-fibre (high quality) diet, and simultaneously exercised them daily over 1.2 m on either a smooth surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or a rough sandpaper. By the end of 20 days, snails fed the poor quality diet had a longer crop and oesophagus and a heavier intestine and rectum than those offered a low-fibre diet. Additionally, high-fibre fed snails had a smaller spermoviduct and oviduct. When also exercised on sandpaper, high-fibre fed snails had a smaller digestive gland, a main energy store, than those exercised on PVC. All snails exercised on sandpaper had a heavier pedal mucus gland, used a loping gait and used less mucus than those on PVC plastic, but there was no difference in the average speed of snails on either surface, supporting the conclusion that loping is a mucus conserving gait. Notably, snails faced with both a diet and substrate challenge had a smaller kidney, which could directly effect fecundity. This demonstrates that our dual challenge approach has potential for evaluating the costs and limits of the plasticity necessary to fully appreciate the evolutionary significance of plasticity in snails and other species.

  6. Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in cigarette smoke-induced mucus hypersecretion in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jun; WANG Ke; FENG Yu-lin; CHEN Xue-rong; XU Dan; ZHANG Ming-ke

    2011-01-01

    Background Airway mucus hypersecretion is an important pathophysiological feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,which is closely associated with cigarette smoking.However,the signal transduction pathway from the cell surface to the nucleus through which cigarette smoke causes upregulation of mucin gene expression is not well known.This study was designed to investigate the role of extracellular signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) in airway mucus hypersecretion induced by cigarette smoke in rats.Methods A rat model of airway mucus hypersecretion was induced by exposure to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks.Rats exposed to inhalation of cigarette smoke or normal saline were given an intraperitoneal injection of U0126,a specific MEK1 kinase inhibitor,at doses of 0.25 mg/kg,0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg for 14 days.Expression of MUC5AC mRNA and protein,ERK 1/2 and phosphorylated-ERK 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2) were detected by RT-PCR,immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.Results Cigarette smoke significantly increased airway goblet cells metaplasia,induced the overexpression of MUG5AC mRNA and protein in bronchial epithelia,and increased the ratio of p-ERK 1/2 and ERK 1/2.U0126 significantly attentuated the expression of MUC5AC mRNA and protein induced by cigarette smoke (P <0.05).Moreover,there was a significant positive correlation between the ratio of p-ERK1/2 to ERK1/2 and the expression of MUC5AC mRNA and protein (P<0.05).Conclusions Inhibition of ERK 1/2 by U0126 decreased the ratio of p-ERK 1/2 to ERK 1/2 and expression of MUC5AC mRNA and protein.ERK 1/2 may play an essential role in cigarette smoke-induced mucus hypersecretion in vivo.

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of human intestinal spirochetosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Oda, Tomohiro; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2016-12-01

    Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) is a colorectal infection by Brachyspira species of spiral bacteria. Immunohistochemical cross-reaction to an antibody for Treponema pallidum aids its histologic diagnosis. This study's aim was to analyze the immunohistochemical characteristics of HIS. In this analysis, on 223 specimens from 83 HIS cases, we focused on so-called fringe formation (a histologic hallmark of HIS), spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts, and strong immunopositive materials in the mucosa, together with their location and the types of lesions. Fringe formation was found in 81.6% of all specimens and spiral organisms within mucus or within crypts in 97.3% and 57.0%, respectively. Strong immunopositive materials were observed in the surface epithelial layer in 87.9%, in the subepithelial layer in 94.6%, and in deeper mucosa in 2.2% of all specimens. The positive rates in conventional adenomas (24.0%, n = 146) and hyperplastic nodules (100%, n = 17) were each different from that found in inflammation (70.8%, n = 24), and spiral organisms were seen more frequently in the right-side large intestine than in the left (within mucus, 100%, n = 104 versus 95.0%, n = 119; within crypts, 65.4%, n = 104 versus 49.6%, n = 119). Thus, immunohistochemistry was effective not only in supporting the diagnosis of HIS but also in highlighting spiral organisms within mucus or crypts that were invisible in routine histology. Possibly, these spiral organisms may spread throughout the entire large intestine, although there is a potential problem with antibody specificity.

  8. Structure and function of airway surface layer of the human lungs & mobility of probe particles in complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liheng

    Numerous infectious particles such as bacteria and pathogens are deposited on the airway surface of the human lungs during our daily breathing. To avoid infection the lung has evolved to develop a smart and powerful defense system called mucociliary clearance. The airway surface layer is a critical component of this mucus clearance system, which consists of two parts: (1) a mucus layer, that traps inhaled particles and transports them out of the lung by cilia-generated flow; and (2) a periciliary layer, that provides a favorable environment for ciliary beating and cell surface lubrication. For 75 years, it has been dogma that a single gel-like mucus layer, which is composed of secreted mucin glycoproteins, is transported over a "watery" periciliary layer. This one-gel model, however, does not explain fundamental features of the normal system, e.g. formation of a distinct mucus layer, nor accurately predict how the mucus clearance system fails in disease. In the first part of this thesis we propose a novel "Gel-on-Brush" model with a mucus layer (the "gel") and a "brush-like" periciliary layer, composed of mucins tethered to the luminal of airway surface, and supporting data accurately describes both the biophysical and cell biological bases for normal mucus clearance and its failure in disease. Our "Gel-on-Brush" model describes for the first time how and why mucus is efficiently cleared in health and unifies the pathogenesis of major human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is expected that this "Gel-on-Brush" model of airway surface layer opens new directions for treatments of airway diseases. A dilemma regarding the function of mucus is that, although mucus traps any inhaled harmful particulates, it also poses a long-time problem for drug delivery: mobility of cargos carrying pharmaceutical agents is slowed down in mucus. The second part of this thesis aims to answer the question: can we theoretically understand the

  9. Purification and characterization of a 630 kDa bacterial killing metalloprotease (KilC) isolated from plaice Pleuronectes platessa (L.), epidermal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvete, T; Haugan, K

    2008-05-01

    Antibacterial chemicals in the mucus of fish such as lysozyme, lectins, peptides and proteases provide an efficient first line of defence against pathogens. This study shows that there are at least three antibacterial proteins in plaice skin mucus in addition to lysozyme. One of these proteins is responsible for approximately 74% of the antibacterial activity and is a 630 kDa protease complex designated KilC (bacterial killing metalloprotease C). Purified KilC kills the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa efficiently. The protease activity of KilC is dependent upon the divalent cation Mg(2+) and shows pH dual optima of 5.0 and 8.0. The enzyme has a temperature optimum of 25 degrees C and is made up of at least five different sized peptides. Studies with protease inhibitors show that the catalytic site of KilC may be cysteine- or serine protease-like. KilC may kill bacterial cells by acting directly upon the bacteria or by producing low molecular weight bioactive compounds such as peptides.

  10. Evaluating manta ray mucus as an alternative DNA source for population genetics study: underwater-sampling, dry-storage and PCR success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kashiwagi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sharks and rays are increasingly being identified as high-risk species for extinction, prompting urgent assessments of their local or regional populations. Advanced genetic analyses can contribute relevant information on effective population size and connectivity among populations although acquiring sufficient regional sample sizes can be challenging. DNA is typically amplified from tissue samples which are collected by hand spears with modified biopsy punch tips. This technique is not always popular due mainly to a perception that invasive sampling might harm the rays, change their behaviour, or have a negative impact on tourism. To explore alternative methods, we evaluated the yields and PCR success of DNA template prepared from the manta ray mucus collected underwater and captured and stored on a Whatman FTA™ Elute card. The pilot study demonstrated that mucus can be effectively collected underwater using toothbrush. DNA stored on cards was found to be reliable for PCR-based population genetics studies. We successfully amplified mtDNA ND5, nuclear DNA RAG1, and microsatellite loci for all samples and confirmed sequences and genotypes being those of target species. As the yields of DNA with the tested method were low, further improvements are desirable for assays that may require larger amounts of DNA, such as population genomic studies using emerging next-gen sequencing.

  11. miR-143 inhibits interleukin-13-induced inflammatory cytokine and mucus production in nasal epithelial cells from allergic rhinitis patients by targeting IL13Rα1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yaoshu; Zhang, Ruxin; Liu, Chunhui; Zhou, Lingling; Wang, Hong; Zhuang, Wenjie; Huang, Yu; Hong, Zhicong

    2015-01-30

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosal tissue. The interleukin-13 (IL-13) signaling pathway is of great importance in the pathogenesis of AR. However, how the signaling molecules in this pathway are regulated, particularly through microRNAs (miRNAs), remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory role and mechanism of miRNA-143 (miR-143) in IL-13-induced inflammatory cytokine and mucus production in nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from AR patients. Our results showed that forced expression of miR-143 significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), eotaxin and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) in IL-13-stimulated NECs. Moreover, we confirmed that miR-143 directly targeted and significantly suppressed IL-13 receptor α1 chain (IL13Rα1) gene expression. This study thus suggests that miR-143 regulation of IL-13-induced inflammatory cytokine and mucus production in NECs from AR patients probably partly depends on inhibition of IL13Rα1. Therefore, the IL13Rα1 signaling pathway may be a potential target for the prevention and treatment of AR by miR-143.

  12. The pharyngeal organ in the buccal cavity of the male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, supplies mucus for building bubble nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chao-Kai; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2010-11-01

    The male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, builds a bubble nest on the water surface to care for offspring during the reproductive period. To our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the composition of the bubble nest and to compare the pharyngeal organs of male and female Siamese fighting fish to determine the relationship between the pharyngeal organ and the ability to make bubble nests. Dot blots of the bubble nest probed with periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) staining and Ponceau S solution revealed that the contents of the nest are glycoprotein rich. Dissection of the heads of Siamese fighting fish showed that the pharyngeal organ is located in the position through which inhaled air passes. The epithelial structure of the pharyngeal organ of the Siamese fighting fish, like that of other teleosts, has numerous wrinkles and papillae. Mucous goblet cells were observed on the epithelium of pharyngeal organs in male and female fish. The pharyngeal organ was found to be larger in male than in female fish. In addition, the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ in male fish has a greater number of mucous goblet cells than that in female fish. In Siamese fighting fish, this sexual dimorphism of the pharyngeal organ suggests that the male fish secretes more glycoprotein-rich mucus to build the bubble nest. Future work will focus on the type of mucous cells found in the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ that contributes to bubble formation and will determine the components of the mucus in the bubble nest.

  13. Physiological response, blood chemistry profile and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus under low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Wang, Wei-Long; Yukun, Zhang; Olivier, Adissin

    2017-02-01

    Environmental stressors caused by inadequate aquaculture management strategies suppress the immune response of fish and make them more susceptible to diseases. Therefore, efforts have been made to relieve stress in fish by using various functional feed additives in the diet, including probiotics. The present work evaluates the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) on physiological stress response, blood chemistry and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) under low salinity stress. Fish were fed four diets supplemented with LR at [0 (LR0), 1 × 10(2) (LR1), 1 × 10(4) (LR2) and 1 × 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1)] for 56 days. Before stress, blood cortisol, urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), whereas plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) of fish-fed LR2 and LR3 diets were significantly lower (P  0.05). In addition, the fish that received LR-supplemented diets showed significantly higher tolerance against low salinity stress than the fish-fed LR-free diet (P < 0.05). The physiological status and the detected immune responses, including total plasma protein and mucus myeloperoxidase activity in red sea bream, will provide a more comprehensive outlook of the effects of probiotics to relieve stress in fish.

  14. The effects of feeding with synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimirad, Mahmood; Meshkini, Saeed; Ahmadifard, Nasrollah; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding on synbiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici and fructooligosaccharide) enriched adult Artemia franciscana on skin mucus immune responses, stress resistance, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). Three hundred and sixty fish with initial weight 3.2 ± 0.13 g were randomly divided into twelve aquaria (50 L) assigned to four groups in triplicates. Fish were fed for 7 weeks with dietary treatments, including treatment 1: feeding adult Artemia without enrichment (control group), treatment 2: feeding adult Artemia enriched with lyophilised probiotic P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)), 3: feeding adult Artemia enriched with prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) (100 mg L(-1)), group 4: feeding adult Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P. acidilactici (700 mg L(-1)) + FOS (100 mg L(-1))). Skin mucus immune responses (lysozyme activity, total Immunoglobulin and protease), stress resistance against environmental stress (acute decrease of temperature and increase salinity), intestinal microbiota as well as growth indices were measured at the end of feeding trial. Artemia enriched with synbiotic significantly improved growth performance compared to other treatments (P Artemia enriched with synbiotic (P Artemia was more effective than singular enrichment with probiotics or prebiotics.

  15. Gastroprotective effects of thymol on acute and chronic ulcers in rats: The role of prostaglandins, ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, and gastric mucus secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Diniz, Polyana B F; Pinheiro, Malone S; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2016-01-25

    Thymol, a monoterpene phenol derivative of cymene, is found in abundance in the essential oils of Thymus, Origanum, and Lippia species. The present study investigated the gastroprotective actions of thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the acute (ethanol- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcers) and chronic (acetic acid-induced ulcers) ulcer models in rats. Some of the mechanisms underlying to the gastroprotective effect of thymol were investigated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. Gastric secretion parameters (volume, pH, and total acidity) were also evaluated by the pylorus ligature model, and the mucus in the gastric content was determined. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of thymol was performed using the agar-well diffusion method. Thymol (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) produced dose dependent reduction (P ulcer model. The gastroprotective response caused by thymol (30 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated (P ulcer index (P ulcer models, respectively. In the model pylorus ligature, the treatment with thymol failed to significantly change the gastric secretion parameters. However, after treatment with thymol (30 and 100 mg/kg), there was a significant increase (P ulcer models through mechanisms that involve increased in the amount of mucus, prostaglandins, and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

  16. [Study of the basal temperature, cervix mucus, vaginal cytology, spermatic penetration, and length of the menstrual cycle, in patients under clomiphene treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Velasco, V; Bailón Uriza, R; Conde, B I; Salas, E

    1969-09-01

    55 patients under clomiphene treatment were studied during 149 cycles. In addition to the usual tests and controls, the authors made a basal temperature curve, took samples of cervical mucus and performed vaginal cytology tests, and calculated the average duration of the cycle. The cycle study based on the Sims Huhner test was also performed on 13 patients. Changes in the results of the tests were found to be related to the dosage and, above all, to the date on which treatment is started. Knowing the changes that occur in the cervical mucus and basal temperature, these 2 tests helped in detecting ovulation. Postcoital cervical sperm penetration improved 1 week after taking the last tablet. The duration of the menstrual cycle increased while taking the drug, and this prolongation of the cycle increased as the drug was administered at a later stage. With respect to vaginal cytology, it is necessary to know the changes that occur in order to interpret the findings correctly; vaginal cytology studies are unreliable in determining the occurrence and especially the probable date of ovulation.

  17. Modeling the human intestinal mucin (MUC2) C-terminal cystine knot dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, Vatsala D; Narpala, Sandeep R; Budil, David E; Sacco, Albert; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal mucus, a viscous secretion that lines the mucosa, is believed to be a barrier to absorption of many therapeutic compounds and carriers, and is known to play an important physiological role in controlling pathogen invasion. Nevertheless, there is as yet no clear understanding of the barrier properties of mucus, such as the nature of the molecular interactions between drug molecules and mucus components as well as those that govern gel formation. Secretory mucins, large and complex glycoprotein molecules, are the principal determinants of the viscoelastic properties of intestinal mucus. Despite the important role that mucins play in controlling transport and in diseases such as cystic fibrosis, their structures remain poorly characterized. The major intestinal secretory mucin gene, MUC2, has been identified and fully sequenced. The present study was undertaken to determine a detailed structure of the cysteine-rich region within the C-terminal end of human intestinal mucin (MUC2) via homology modeling, and explore possible configurations of a dimer of this cysteine-rich region, which may play an important role in governing mucus gel formation. Based on sequence-structure alignments and three-dimensional modeling, a cystine knot tertiary structure homologous to that of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is predicted at the C-terminus of MUC2. Dimers of this C-terminal cystine knot (CTCK) were modeled using sequence alignment based on HCG and TGF-beta, followed by molecular dynamics and simulated annealing. Results support the formation of a cystine knot dimer with a structure analogous to that of HCG.

  18. A pilot study of the impact of high-frequency chest wall oscillation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with mucus hypersecretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravorty I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indranil Chakravorty1, Kamaljit Chahal2, Gillian Austin21St George's Hospital, London, 2East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, Lister Hospital and Primary Care Trust, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UKIntroduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with mucus hypersecretion tend to demonstrate increased frequency of infective exacerbations and a steeper slope of decline in lung function. Enhanced mucociliary clearance with high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO devices previously used in cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis patients may offer the opportunity for community-based, self-managed therapy to improve quality of life and lung function.Study design and methods: A randomized controlled crossover pilot study of HFCWO compared with conventional treatment was conducted in 22 patients with moderate to severe COPD and mucus hypersecretion. Patients spent 4 weeks using an HFCWO (SmartVest® device and 4 weeks in a conventional phase with a 2-week washout. Eleven patients started with HFCWO and changed to conventional treatment, whereas the other eleven patients started conventional treatment and crossed over to HFCWO.Results: The patients were elderly with a mean age of 71 (standard deviation [SD] 10 years and were at the upper end of the normal range of body mass index (25 [SD 4.2] kg/m2. The majority of patients had moderate to severe COPD with a mean percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 41 (SD 15.6 and percentage predicted forced vital capacity of 73 (SD 17.7. Baseline sputum production was negatively correlated to lung function and positively to St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Symptom scores and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire symptom dimension improved significantly (-8, P < 0.05. Sputum production showed a declining trend in the HFCWO phase, although not reaching statistical significance. The HFCWO device was well tolerated with good reported compliance.Conclusion: This pilot study

  19. Alternatives to percussion and postural drainage. A review of mucus clearance therapies: percussion and postural drainage, autogenic drainage, positive expiratory pressure, flutter valve, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, and high-frequency chest compression with the ThAIRapy Vest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer, B

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review published studies on the efficacy of old and new mucus clearance techniques and to develop recommendations for different groups of patients. Mucus clearance is a problem in cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and many other pulmonary conditions. Percussion and postural drainage (P & PD) was the traditional method of facilitating mucus clearance, but the many hazards and contraindications along with the onerous nature and resultant poor patient compliance of this procedure have led to the development of alternative therapies. Research studies with cystic fibrosis patients support the efficacy of P & PD in patients who can tolerate it. However, equivalent sputum production can be accomplished with autogenic drainage, positive expiratory pressure, and Flutter valve therapy without the assistance of another caregiver, as long as the patient has the motivation, breath control, and neuromuscular function to perform these modalities. The Intrapulmonary Percussive Ventilation device and high-frequency chest compression with the ThAIRapy vest involve more elaborate and expensive equipment, yet these devices provide mucus clearance assistance to patients who lack the ability to perform the simpler techniques. Both mechanized modalities promote independence and self-care in the patient, and the effectiveness of both has been supported by the limited research published to date. Which alternative to recommend depends on the ability, motivation, preference, needs, and resources of each patient.

  20. Correlation Analysis between Cervical Mucus pH and Offspring Sex%奶牛宫颈粘液pH值与后代性别相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 马梦婷; 陈晓利; 王姗姗; 高庆华

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of cervical mucus pH on cow offspring sex. By collect cervical mucus from 200 cows, survey pH value of cervical mucus and record the number of cows and their offspring gender to speculate the relationship between cervical mucus pH value and gender of offspring. The results shows as the cervical mucus pH is higher the rate of male offspring is higher, on the contrary, the pH is lower the rate of female offspring is higher. When the cervical mucus pH≤6.7,offspring gender is mostly female, when pH≥7.6,offspring gender is mostly male, when the cervical mucus pH between 6.8―7.5, the number of male and female offspring is close to 1:1.%为了解子宫颈粘液对奶牛后代性别影响,采集200头奶牛的子宫颈粘液,测定子宫颈粘液的pH值并记录与其相应编号的母牛后代性别用以推测宫颈粘液pH值与后代性别的相关性。实验结果显示子宫颈粘液的pH值越高后代为雄性的几率越大,反之宫颈粘液pH值越低产雌性个体的几率越大。奶牛子宫颈粘液pH≤6.7的母牛,后代性别多为雌性,pH值≥7.6时,后代多为雄性,奶牛子宫颈粘液pH值在6.8~7.5之间时,雌雄后代数目较为均等,接近于1:1。

  1. Study on the toxicity and antioxidant activity of mucus powder from salamander skin%大鲵皮肤黏液的抗氧化性及安全性评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟良; 陈德经; 魏泓; 刘宇

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on antioxidant performance and safety evaluation of acute toxicity of sala-mander skin mucus.The study first uses pyrogallol autoxidation and DPPH method to determine salamander mucus to superoxide anion radical( O-·2 ) scavenging and DPPH radical scavenging.Then it experiments with giant salamander breeding mice fed to test acute toxicity of Andrias davidianus skin mucus and analyses toxic constituents of mucus temperament by using GC-MS chromatography.The results show that the clearance rate of Salamander mucus flour to superoxide anion radical and to DPPH radical scavenging is 6.77%and 90.25%respectively, and that LD50 value of Andrias mucus powder is 4.64 g/kg and toxic ingredient is imethyl disul-fide ( C2 H6 S2 ) .It concludes that Andrias mucus is antioxidant and low in toxicity, and that it can be devel-oped for health care products after detoxification.%为研究大鲵皮肤黏液的抗氧化性及急毒性安全性评价,利用邻苯三酚自氧化法和DPPH法,测定了大鲵黏液对超氧阴离子自由基( O-·2)及DPPH自由基的清除率;通过对小鼠灌胃饲养实验检测大鲵皮肤黏液的急毒性,并采用气质联用色谱分析黏液中的毒性成分。结果显示:大鲵黏液对超氧阴离子自由基的清除率为6.77%,对 DPPH 自由基的清除率为90.25%;大鲵黏液全粉的LD50值为4.64 g/kg,毒性成分为二甲基二硫醚( C2 H6 S2)。表明大鲵黏液具有抗氧化性和低毒性,经脱毒后可开发为保健产品。

  2. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species.

  3. High-frequency and low-frequency chest compression: effects on lung water secretion, mucus transport, heart rate, and blood pressure using a trapezoidal source pressure waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Clock, George D; Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwong; Warwick, Warren J

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency chest compression (HFCC), using an appropriate source (pump) waveform for frequencies at or above 3 Hz, can enhance pulmonary clearance for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using a trapezoidal HFCC source pressure waveform, secretion of water from epithelial tissue and transport of mucus through lung airways can be enhanced for patients with CF and COPD. At frequencies below 3 Hz, low-frequency chest compression (LFCC) appears to have a significant impact on the cardiovascular system. For a trapezoidal source pressure waveform at frequencies close to 1 Hz, LFCC produces amplitude or intensity variations in various components of the electrocardiogram time-domain waveform, produces changes at very low frequencies associated with the electrocardiogram frequency spectra (indicating enhanced parasympathetic nervous system activity), and promotes a form of heart rate synchronization. It appears that LFCC can also provide additional cardiovascular benefits by reducing peak and average systolic and diastolic blood pressure for patients with hypertension.

  4. Relationship between level of serum sperm immobilizing antibody and its inhibitory effect on sperm migration through cervical mucus in immunologically infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Hiroaki; Shiraishi, Yasuko; Hirano, Yuki; Kasumi, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Koji; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2007-02-01

    Sperm immobilizing antibodies often interfere with the penetration of sperm through the cervical mucus. However, the relationship between sperm immobilizing antibody titer and the result of the post-coital test (PCT) has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 50% sperm immobilization unit (SI50) titer, a quantitative measure of sperm immobilizing antibody, in patients' sera was correlated with the result of PCT. The sperm immobilization test (SIT) was performed for 2834 infertile women in two university hospitals. The SI50 titers were evaluated by quantitative SIT. In some cases with sperm immobilizing antibody, PCT was carried out before ovulation and assessed according to the criteria of World Health Organization (1992). Infertile couples with abnormal semen characteristics were excluded. Seventy-four of 2834 women had sperm immobilizing antibodies in their sera, giving a positive rate of 2.6%. Twenty-four (77.4%) of 31 women with sperm immobilizing antibodies and 28 (20.4%) of 137 women without the antibody had abnormal PCT results. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P10) SI50 titers, while that was 14 (66.7%) in 21 patients with low (10) SI50 titers. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.04). The SI50 titer in the serum can predict inhibitory effects on sperm migration through cervical mucus in immunologically infertile women. Evaluation of the SI50 titers in patients' sera seems to be useful for decision-making in infertile women with sperm immobilizing antibodies regarding whether they have the possibility of conceiving by timed intercourse.

  5. Fungal colonization with Pneumocystis correlates to increasing chloride channel accessory 1 (hCLCA1 suggesting a pathway for up-regulation of airway mucus responses, in infant lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal colonization with Pneumocystis is associated with increased airway mucus in infants during their primary Pneumocystis infection, and to severity of COPD in adults. The pathogenic mechanisms are under investigation. Interestingly, increased levels of hCLCA1 – a member of the calcium-sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins that drives mucus hypersecretion – have been associated with increased mucus production in patients diagnosed with COPD and in immunocompetent rodents with Pneumocystis infection. Pneumocystis is highly prevalent in infants; therefore, the contribution of Pneumocystis to hCLCA1 expression was examined in autopsied infant lungs. Respiratory viruses that may potentially increase mucus, were also examined. hCLCA1 expression was measured using actin-normalized Western-blot, and the burden of Pneumocystis organisms was quantified by qPCR in 55 autopsied lungs from apparently healthy infants who died in the community. Respiratory viruses were diagnosed using RT-PCR for RSV, metapneumovirus, influenza, and parainfluenza viruses; and by PCR for adenovirus. hCLCA1 levels in virus positive samples were comparable to those in virus-negative samples. An association between Pneumocystis and increased hCLCA1 expression was documented (P=0.028. Additionally, increasing Pneumocystis burden correlated with increasing hCLCA1 protein expression levels (P=0.017. Results strengthen the evidence of Pneumocystis-associated up-regulation of mucus-related airway responses in infant lungs. Further characterization of this immunocompetent host-Pneumocystis-interaction, including assessment of potential clinical significance, is warranted.

  6. Claspin as a biomarker of human papillomavirus-related high grade lesions of uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benevolo Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Claspin is a nuclear protein involved in DNA replication and damage response and is a key mediator for the S-phase checkpoint. Claspin expression is significantly high in several human solid tumors. Furthermore, high levels of claspin have been found in cervical cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding claspin expression in cervical tissues. Methods In order to investigate whether claspin immunoreactivity is related to the lesion severity and High-Risk (HR HPV infection, we analyzed claspin expression by immunohistochemistry in a series of cervical biopsies which represent the steps occurring during cervical carcinogenesis (normal tissues, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasias 1, 2 and 3, Squamous Cell Carcinomas. All patients also had a cervico-vaginal sample for HPV testing, collected immediately before the colposcopy-guided biopsy. The HR-HPV DNA detection was performed by the HR-HPV Hybrid Capture 2 test. HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Results Our results evidenced a constant and significant increase of the rate of claspin positivity from the normal tissues to carcinomas (pχ2trend 2  Conclusions Our findings indicate that in vivo claspin expression is significantly related to HR-HPV infection and lesion grade both in histological and cytological samples. Therefore, the analysis of claspin expression could be clinically relevant in the diagnosis of HPV-related cervical lesions, in particular when applied to cervico-vaginal cytology. Moreover, giving information on the proliferation rate of each lesion, claspin immunostaining may contribute to the evaluation of progression risk, thus being helpful in patient management. Nevertheless, only large prospective studies may clarify the true clinical usefulness of claspin expression in distinguishing lesions with different progression potential.

  7. Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigliotti Veronica S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimens is now based on identification of the DNA sequences unique to these infectious agents. However, current commercial test kits rely on nucleotide probe hybridization to determine DNA sequences, which may lead to diagnostic errors due to cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to find a practical approach to perform automated Sanger DNA sequencing in clinical laboratories for validation of the DNA tests for these three infectious agents. Methods A crude proteinase K digestate of 5% of the cells collected in a liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimen was used for the detection of DNA molecules specific for HPV, C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, and for preparation of materials suitable for direct automated DNA sequencing. Several sets of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were used to prepare nested PCR amplicons for direct DNA sequencing. Results Some variants of HPV-16 and HPV-31 were found to share an at least 34-base long sequence homology downstream of the GP5+ binding site, and all HPV-6 and HPV-11 variants shared an upstream 34-base sequence including part of the GP5+ primer. Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region. Using the automated Sanger DNA sequencing method for parallel comparative studies on split samples and to retest the residues of samples previously tested positive for C trachomatis and/or for N gonorrhoeae, we also found false-negative and false-positive results as reported by two commercial nucleic acid test kits. Conclusion Identification of a signature DNA sequence by the automated Sanger method is useful for validation of HPV genotyping and for molecular testing of

  8. Detection of Immune Infertile Dairy Cows with ASA in Cervical Mucus by Indirect ELISA%间接ELISA检测奶牛宫颈黏液ASA免疫不孕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗; 马瑛; 马梦婷; 廉德平; 高庆华

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish an indirect ELISA method for detection of cervical mucus ASA immune infertility in dairy cows, this study was conducted using sperm membrane protein as coating antigen, and the optimization of indirect ELISA for dairy ASA of cervical mucus was tested. Totally 27 ASA positive infertile cows and 29 ASA positive pregnant cows were tested to determine indirect ELISA detection standard. The cervical mucus ASA from the 137 cows was detected using the indirect ELISA respectively. It was the indirect ELISA optimization condition for cervical mucus ASA in dairy cows that antigen coated amount was 5µg/mL, cervical mucus dilution was 1:5, cervical mucus reaction time was 1h, and reaction time of the enzyme-labeled second antibody was 1.5h. The criteria for cervical mucus ASA immune infertility in dairy cows was that the OD490nm values higher than 0.513 were determined as ASA positive immune infertility for the indirect ELISA and lower than 0.410 as negative fertility, and the OD490nmvaluesbetween0.410and0.513weredeterminedasASApositivesuspectedcases.Thecoefifcient of variation for the method was less than 10% in the repeated trials. The results of the 137 clinical samples of cervical mucus showed that the 13 ASA positive immune infertile cows could not conceive, and there were the 89 pregnancies among the 98 dairy cows with negative results. It can be concluded that the indirect ELISA was an effective method on investigation of ASA in cervical mucus of immune infertility dairy cows.%为建立检测奶牛宫颈黏液ASA免疫不孕的间接ELISA方法,以精子膜蛋白为包被抗原,进行奶牛宫颈黏液ASA的间接ELISA的优化试验。对27头ASA阳性不孕和29头ASA阳性可孕奶牛进行了间接ELISA检测标准的确定试验;对137头奶牛的宫颈黏液ASA免疫不孕进行间接ELISA临床检测。奶牛宫颈黏液ASA的间接ELISA优化条件为:抗原包被量为5µg/mL,宫颈黏液稀释度为1:5

  9. Characterisation by X-ray microanalysis of metal granules in the mucus trails of Littorina littorea (Gastropoda) along a putative pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboreda, R; Davies, Mark S

    2006-07-01

    Metal-containing granules in the mucus trails of the marine gastropod Littorina littorea from nine sites in north-east England were analysed for elemental composition by X-ray microanalysis and characterised relative to a putative gradient of pollution. Overall granule density varied significantly between sites, means of 6.5-17.0 per field of view (2688 microm2). Most granules found (64%) were poly-metal of a wide variety of compositions, but could be classified as Si+X, Mg+X, S+X, Na+X, P+Ca, P+Al, where X indicates any other combination of elements. Si+Al+X accounted for 61% of the poly-metal granules found and was considered to be contamination from the beach substratum. In single-metal granule form only Ca, Si, Fe, Ti, Al and Na were found. The most common single-metal granule at each site was of Ca, except at two sites, where the most common single-metal granule was of Si. The densities of these granule types varied between sites but differences were found to be significant only in the case of Si granules. Across all sites, single-metal granules of Si (mean = 2.49 microm +/- 1.44 SD, n = 141) and Ca (2.22 microm +/- 1.08 SD, n = 147) were significantly larger than granules of Fe (1.74 microm +/- 0.95 SD, n = 63) and Ti (1.24 microm +/- 0.52 SD, n = 18). The range of sizes was large: Ca (0.5-6 microm), Si (0.5-10 microm), Fe (0.3-4.1 microm), Ti (0.5-2.5 microm). Between the sites there were significant differences in the size of Fe and Si granules but not Ca or Ti granules. Despite these variations in granule type and size, there was no evidence of a relationship with pollution and consequently a detoxifying function of the mucus trail in metal polluted environments is not apparent.

  10. Effects of guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine, and ambroxol on MUC5AC and mucociliary transport in primary differentiated human tracheal-bronchial cells

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    Seagrave JeanClare

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic intervention in the pathophysiology of airway mucus hypersecretion is clinically important. Several types of drugs are available with different possible modes of action. We examined the effects of guaifenesin (GGE, N-acetylcysteine (NAC and ambroxol (Amb on differentiated human airway epithelial cells stimulated with IL-13 to produce additional MUC5AC. Methods After IL-13 pre-treatment (3 days, the cultures were treated with GGE, NAC or Amb (10–300 μM in the continued presence of IL-13. Cellular and secreted MUC5AC, mucociliary transport rates (MTR, mucus rheology at several time points, and the antioxidant capacity of the drugs were assessed. Results IL-13 increased MUC5AC content (~25% and secretion (~2-fold and decreased MTR, but only slightly affected the G’ (elastic or G” (viscous moduli of the secretions. GGE significantly inhibited MUC5AC secretion and content in the IL-13-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50s at 24 hr ~100 and 150 μM, respectively. NAC or Amb were less effective. All drugs increased MTR and decreased G’ and G” relative to IL-13 alone. Cell viability was not affected and only NAC exhibited antioxidant capacity. Conclusions Thus, GGE effectively reduces cellular content and secretion of MUC5AC, increases MTR, and alters mucus rheology, and may therefore be useful in treating airway mucus hypersecretion and mucostasis in airway diseases.

  11. Effects of guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine, and ambroxol on MUC5AC and mucociliary transport in primary differentiated human tracheal-bronchial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Jeanclare; Albrecht, Helmut H; Hill, David B; Rogers, Duncan F; Solomon, Gail

    2012-10-31

    Therapeutic intervention in the pathophysiology of airway mucus hypersecretion is clinically important. Several types of drugs are available with different possible modes of action. We examined the effects of guaifenesin (GGE), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol (Amb) on differentiated human airway epithelial cells stimulated with IL-13 to produce additional MUC5AC. After IL-13 pre-treatment (3 days), the cultures were treated with GGE, NAC or Amb (10-300 μM) in the continued presence of IL-13. Cellular and secreted MUC5AC, mucociliary transport rates (MTR), mucus rheology at several time points, and the antioxidant capacity of the drugs were assessed. IL-13 increased MUC5AC content (~25%) and secretion (~2-fold) and decreased MTR, but only slightly affected the G' (elastic) or G" (viscous) moduli of the secretions. GGE significantly inhibited MUC5AC secretion and content in the IL-13-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50s at 24 hr ~100 and 150 μM, respectively). NAC or Amb were less effective. All drugs increased MTR and decreased G' and G" relative to IL-13 alone. Cell viability was not affected and only NAC exhibited antioxidant capacity. Thus, GGE effectively reduces cellular content and secretion of MUC5AC, increases MTR, and alters mucus rheology, and may therefore be useful in treating airway mucus hypersecretion and mucostasis in airway diseases.

  12. 大鲵皮肤药膏和大鲵黏液药膏烫伤药理试验研究%The Pharmacological Research of Cure Burn by the Ointment of Giant Salamander's Skin and Mucus

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    陈曦; 王杨科; 陈德经

    2012-01-01

    The SD rat back deep II degree bum model was established to investigate the healing effect of the ointment of giant salamander (Andrias davidianus)'s skin and mucus. The results showed that the ointment of giant salamander's skin and mucus could not only shorten the time for the healing of the wounded surface of burnt rats. In addition, the oinlment of giant salamander's skin and mucus reduce the size of the wound and was fast than MEBO moist. Under the microscope, the phenomenon that the skin appendages in dermis were still in integrity was observed, and no edema or inflammatory cell infiltration was found. The ointment of giant salamander's skin and mucus promoted the healing of experimental rat's wounded surface.%建立了SD大鼠背部深Ⅱ度烫伤模型,研究大鲵皮肤药膏和大鲵黏液药膏对大鼠皮肤烫伤的治疗作用.结果表明,大鲵皮肤药膏、大鲵黏液药膏能明显缩短烫伤后大鼠创面愈合时间;创面愈合速度较美宝湿润烧伤膏组快,并能使创面面积明显缩小;显微镜下观察真皮内皮肤附件结构完整,未见水肿及炎性细胞浸润.大鲵皮肤药膏、大鲵黏液药膏具有促进实验大鼠烫伤创面愈合的作用.

  13. Evaluation of Three Mycobacterium leprae Monoclonal Antibodies in Mucus and Lymph Samples from Ziehl-Neelsen Stain Negative Leprosy Patients and their Household Contacts in an Indian Community

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    Nora Cardona-Castro

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucus and lymph smears collected from leprosy patients (9 and their household contacts (44 in the Caño Mochuelo Indian Reservation, Casanare, Colombia, were examined with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb against Mycobacterium leprae. The individuals studied were: 5 borderline leprosy (BB patients, 4 with a lepromatous leprosy (LL, all of whom were undergoing epidemiological surveillance after treatment and 44 household contacts: 21 of the LL and 23 contacts of the BB patients. The MoAb were reactive with the following M. leprae antigens: 65 kd heat shock protein, A6; soluble antigen G7 and complete antigen, E11. All the samples were tested with each of the MoAb using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique and 3,3 diaminobenzidine as chromogen. The patients and household contacts studied were all recorded as Ziehl-Neelsen stain negative. The MoAb which showed optimal reaction was G7, this MoAb permited good visualization of the bacilli. Five patients with BB diagnosis and one with LL were positive for G7; of the BB patients' household contacts, 9 were positive for G7; 7 of the LL patients' household contacts were positive for the same MoAb. MoAb G7 allowed the detection of bacillar Mycobacterium spp. compatible structures in both patients and household contacts. G7 permited the visualization of the complete bacillus and could be used for early diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in patients.

  14. Mucoadhesion vs mucus permeability of thiolated chitosan polymers and their resulting nanoparticles using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sejin; Borrós, Salvador

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate the combination properties between mucoadhesion/mucus permeability of thiolated chitosans (TC) and their resulting nanoparticles using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The QCM-D experiments were conducted at pH 4 or 6.8 to assess the interaction between thiolated polymers, with low (TCL), medium (TCM) and high (TCH) contents of free thiol groups, and native porcine gastric mucin (NPGM). TCL was chosen for further carriers as it showed higher permeability into the NPGM layer compared to TCM and TCH. In this study, we describe a formulation of a novel carrier comprised by positively charged TCL, negatively charged DNA and degradable oligopeptide-modified poly(β-amino ester)s (PBAEs), which were employed in order to approach for tuning particle size and surface charge of complexes. TCL/PBAE complexes with or without DNA were characterized using dynamic light scattering. Mechanism of adsorption or permeation of the TCL/PBAE/DNA complexes into the NPGM barrier was investigated with QCM-D, which is a highly sensitive technique for studying nanomechanical (viscoelastic) changes of the substrates. This work might provide that the QCM-D technique would be a promising method to monitor the dynamic behaviour between complexes and NPGM.

  15. Enhanced oral delivery of paclitaxel using acetylcysteine functionalized chitosan-vitamin E succinate nanomicelles based on a mucus bioadhesion and penetration mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, He; Zhang, Tianhong; Sun, Jin; Liu, Xiaohong; Ren, Guolian; Kou, Longfa; Zhang, Youxi; Han, Xiaopeng; Ding, Wenya; Ai, Xiaoyu; Wu, Chunnuan; Li, Lin; Wang, Yongjun; Sun, Yinghua; Wang, Siling; He, Zhonggui

    2013-09-03

    In addition to being a physiological protective barrier, the gastrointestinal mucosal membrane is also a primary obstacle that hinders the oral absorption of many therapeutic compounds, especially drugs with a poor permeability. In order to resolve this impasse, we have designed multifunctional nanomicelles based on the acetylcysteine functionalized chitosan-vitamin E succinate copolymer (CS-VES-NAC, CVN), which exhibit marked bioadhesion, possess the ability to penetrate mucus, and enhance the oral absorption of a hydrophobic drug with a poor penetrative profile, paclitaxel. The intestinal absorption (Ka = 0.38 ± 0.04 min(-1), Papp = 0.059 cm · min(-1)) of CVN nanomicelles was greatly improved (4.5-fold) in comparison with paclitaxel solution, and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscope) pictures also showed not only enhanced adhesion to the intestinal surface but improved accumulation within intestinal villi. The in vivo pharmacokinetics indicated that the AUC0-t (586.37 ng/mL · h) of CVN nanomicelles was markedly enhanced compared with PTX solution. In summary, the novel multifunctional CVN nanomicelles appear to be a promising nanocarrier for insoluble and poorly permeable drugs due to their high bioadhesion and permeation-enhancing capability.

  16. Effect of oligosaccharides on the adhesion of gut bacteria to human HT-29 cells.

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    Altamimi, M; Abdelhay, O; Rastall, R A

    2016-06-01

    The influence of five oligosaccharides (cellobiose, stachyose, raffinose, lactulose and chito-oligosaccharides) on the adhesion of eight gut bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29148D-5, Clostridium leptum ATCC 29065, Blautia coccoides ATCC 29236, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ATCC 27766, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 23745, Clostridium difficile ATCC 43255 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393) to mucous secreting and non-mucous secreting HT-29 human epithelial cells, was investigated. In pure culture, the bacteria showed variations in their ability to adhere to epithelial cells. The effect of oligosaccharides diminished adhesion and the presence of mucus played a major factor in adhesion, likely due to high adhesiveness to mucins present in the native human mucus layer covering the whole cell surface. However, clostridia displayed almost the same level of adhesion either with or without mucus being present. Bl. coccoides adhesion was decreased by stachyose and cellobiose in non-mucus-secreting cells in pure culture, while in mixed faecal culture cellobiose displayed the highest antiadhesive activity with an overall average of 65% inhibition amongst tested oligomers and lactulose displayed the lowest with an average of 47.4%. Bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, lactobacilli and clostridia were inhibited within the following ranges 47-78%, 32-65%, 11.7-58% and 64-85% respectively. This means that clostridia were the most strongly influenced members of the microflora amongst the bacterial groups tested in mixed culture. In conclusion, introducing oligosaccharides which are candidate prebiotics into pure or mixed cultures has affected bacterial adhesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of the quality of cervical mucus among users of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system at different times of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Leticia G; Marchi, Nadia M; Pitoli, Ana C; Hidalgo, Maria M; Silveira, Carolina; Modesto, Waleska; Bahamondes, Luis

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cervical mucus (CM) among the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) users is controversial. The objectives were to assess CM compared to the levels of oestradiol (E2) and the frequency of cycles with luteal activity among users of the LNG-IUS. In total, 224 LNG-IUS users for between two months and five years were recruited at a Brazilian family planning clinic. For the cross-sectional part of the study, we enrolled 175 LNG-IUS users at 2, 6 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after insertion (25 women in each group), and we performed one evaluation. For the prospective part of the study, we enrolled 49 LNG-IUS users at the same lengths of use after insertion (7 women in each group), and we evaluated these women once a week for five consecutive weeks. . Mean (± SEM) CM scores of all evaluations among women with single and weekly evaluations were between 3.3 ± 0.9 and 8.5 ± 0.3, respectively independently of the length of use of the LNG-IUS. Mean E2 values ranged from 45.5 ± 6.8 to 472.5 ± 34.7 pg/ml and the maximum ovarian follicle diameter on the days of evaluation varied from 14.0 ± 1.3 to 31.2 ± 0.4 mm. The mean CM score of all evaluations, independent of the length of use of the LNG-IUS and normal levels of serum E2, was below 10 was according to the WHO is inadequate for sperm penetration.

  18. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial washing and vaginal mucus samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, B W; Devenish, J; Lutze-Wallace, C L; Milnes, D; Robertson, R H; Berlie-Surujballi, G

    2004-10-05

    A monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was described and evaluated for use as a presumptive screening test for detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine preputial washing and vaginal mucus samples. A total of 725 diagnostic samples collected in the field and submitted in Clark's transport enrichment medium (TEM) were analyzed. Cultural isolation of C. fetus was used as the standard for comparison. After incubation of the TEM vials for 4-5 days, fluid was removed for culture and ELISA testing. A sandwich ELISA format was used and the target antigen was C. fetus lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A rabbit anti-C. fetus polyclonal antiserum was used as the capture antibody. Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to C. fetus serotype A and B LPS core and O-polysaccharides and a goat anti-mouse horseradish peroxidase conjugate were used as detection antibodies. ELISA and culture results for the diagnostic samples were in complete agreement. Seven hundred and eight samples were negative by both tests. All 17 culture positive samples were positive by ELISA with a MAb to LPS core. The ELISA with MAbs to LPS O-polysaccharides detected all culture positive samples with the homologous C. fetus serotype. Sixty-six preputial wash samples from three known C. fetus culture positive bulls were also analyzed. Forty-nine of these samples were positive by both ELISA and culture, 16 were positive by ELISA only, and one was negative by both ELISA and culture. The results indicate that this ELISA is useful as a screening test for the detection of C. fetus in diagnostic samples.

  19. Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket

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    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG. Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna′s classification were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001 and motility (P = 0.004 between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention.

  20. ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN PROFILES IN SERUM AND MUCUS FROM DIFFERENT AQUATIC VERTEBRATES%不同水生脊椎动物的血清与黏液蛋白图谱分析

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