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Sample records for human cervical mucus

  1. Antibacterial activity of human cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, H; Kahana, A; Carmel, S

    1975-01-01

    The antimicrobial property of human uterine cervical mucus was tested in three groups of women. Healthy women, using no contraception, women using an intrauterine device and women receiving hormonal treatment for contraception. Cervical mucus was taken on the 10th, 14th, 18th and 22nd day of the menstrual cycle. Cervical mucus had a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Micrococcus lysodeicticus in all three groups. The strength of the inhibitory effect on the other microorganisms were in the following order: Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus faecalis. Use of an intrauterine device did not affect the antimicrobial effect of cervical mucus. The use of hormonal contraceptive canceled the antimicrobial effect on the series of microorganisms, with the exception of M. lysodeicticus. The maximum inhibitory effect occurred on the 14th day and declined toward the end of the menstrual cycle.

  2. Imaging and tracking HIV viruses in human cervical mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Fatima; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Nossal, Ralph; Boukari, Hacène

    2016-09-01

    We describe a systematic approach to image, track, and quantify the movements of HIV viruses embedded in human cervical mucus. The underlying motivation for this study is that, in HIV-infected adults, women account for more than half of all new cases and most of these women acquire the infection through heterosexual contact. The endocervix is believed to be a susceptible site for HIV entry. Cervical mucus, which coats the endocervix, should play a protective role against the viruses. Thus, we developed a methodology to apply time-resolved confocal microscopy to examine the motion of HIV viruses that were added to samples of untreated cervical mucus. From the images, we identified the viruses, tracked them over time, and calculated changes of the statistical mean-squared displacement (MSD) of each virus. Approximately half of tracked viruses appear constrained while the others show mobility with MSDs that are proportional to τα+ν2τ2, over time range τ, depicting a combination of anomalous diffusion (0<α<0.4) and flow-like behavior. The MSD data also reveal plateaus attributable to possible stalling of the viruses. Although a more extensive study is warranted, these results support the assumption of mucus being a barrier against the motion of these viruses.

  3. The use of hens' egg white as a substitute for human cervical mucus in assessing human infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert-Kruse, W; Gerhard, I; Tilgen, W; Runnebaum, B

    1990-08-01

    Semen samples from 179 patients with longstanding infertility were allowed to penetrate capillaries filled with a fraction of fresh hens' egg white (HEW) as a substitute for cervical mucus (CM) for the in-vitro sperm-cervical mucus penetration test (SCPMT). Results were correlated with those obtained from human CM (HCM) used in parallel on the same semen sample, compared to results of sperm analysis and post-coital testing (PCT) and analysed for their prognostic value for a subsequent pregnancy in a prospective study. The overall pregnancy rate after 6 months was 26.3% (47/179). Whereas routine semen analysis (semen volume, pH, sperm count, progressive motility, morphology and fructose concentration) did not differentiate between patients who achieved pregnancy and those who did not, significant differences were found for the penetration distance (P less than 0.02) and the motility grade of sperm in HEW (P less than 0.02). Although the mean sperm velocity in HEW was reduced compared to HCM, a close positive correlation was found between the sperm density and the penetration distance (P less than 0.001). The percentage of samples with good HEW penetration increased significantly in parallel with better results of post-coital testing (P less than 0.001). The results indicate that, when fresh human CM is not available, HEW can be used as a medium for the SCPMT as a valuable adjunct to semen analysis which provides information about sperm functional capacity.

  4. Human sperm quality and lipid content after migration into normal ovulatory human cervical mucus containing low numbers of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nozha Chakroun-Feki; Patrice Therond; Martine Couturier; Florence Eustache; Gerard Limea; Alain Legrand; Pierre Jouannet; Jacques Auger

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between the presence of low number of leukocytes in normal ovulatory cervical mucus and sperm quality and lipid content after migration. The percentages of live, motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa, movement parameters assessed by computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), and ionophore-induced acrosome reaction measured by flow cytometry were determined before and after migration. High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was used to measure the sperm lipid content, including the various diacyl subspecies. The number of leukocytes found in solubilized mucus samples was counted using a haemocytometric method. Overall, the presence of leukocytes in the cervical mucus samples did not significantly influence sperm motility and morphology, sperm kinematic parameters, or the sperm content in sphingomyelin or cholesterol. In contrast, after migration, the decrease in various sperm diacyls and the level of induced acrosome reaction was significantly less pronounced in mucus samples containing ≥ 104 leukocytes than in mucus samples with no or rare leukocytes whereas the level of induced acrosome reaction was higher. The present data suggest that the low level of leukocytes found in normal ovulatory cervical mucus could influence the process of sperm lipid remodelling/capacitation.

  5. [Variation of the sialic acid-protein ratio in the human cervical mucus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesserü, E; Westphal, N

    1975-01-01

    Serial determinations of total protein and sialic acid concentrations were carried out in individual cervical mucus samples of normal women, throughout the menstrual cycle as well as under the influence of estrogen and progestagen steroids. Total protein was titrated by a modified micro-biuret method and sialic acid was determined using the "Direct Ehrlich" method. Both parameters diminished gradually during the follicular phase of the cycle with lowest values around the time of ovulation, and showed a strong increase during the luteal phase. Administration of ethinylestradiol yielded values significantly lower than those of normal ovulatory phase and under d-Nosgestrel treatment the values were significantly higher than in normal luteal phase. However the proportion of sialic acid as related to total protein showed an inverse behavior, i.e. increased under estrogenic and decreased under progestogenic influence. The cyclic and hormone-induced variations of this ratio were more specific than those of both separate components. Thus, estrogens produce an increase of the sialic acid containing fraction of cervical mucus proteins, while progestagens have an opposite effect. The role of these actions in reproductive physiology is discussed.

  6. Sperm counts in enzymatically liquefied cervical mucus: quantitative validation using donor cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agostini, A; Campana, A

    1996-02-01

    The post-coital test evaluates the penetration of spermatozoa into cervical mucus; it relies on subjective measurements and therefore lacks precision. Enzymatic liquefaction of cervical mucus allows sperm concentration to be measured in post-coital test samples, but the reliability of such measurements is not known. Donor cervical mucus was used as a model to test the accuracy and sensitivity of sperm quantification in liquefied cervical mucus. Donor cervical mucus was dissolved by enzymatic treatments in the presence of known numbers of spermatozoa and the recovery of sperm cells was assessed after liquefaction of the samples. Enzymatic treatment of cervical mucus with a combination of bromelin and glycosidases resulted in reliable and fast liquefaction of the samples. The accuracy of sperm concentration measurements was 89 +/- 10% (mean +/- SD, n = 50), and the sensitivity limits were 1 x 10(6) and 0.2 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml for quantitative concentration measurement and qualitative sperm detection respectively. This study demonstrates that liquefaction of cervical mucus by combined protease and glycosidases allows accurate and sensitive determination of sperm concentration in the sample. Therefore we believe that valuable data can be obtained for sperm concentration and total sperm counts in post-coital tests, that should help to improve the reliability of the post-coital test.

  7. Cervical mucus properties stratify risk for preterm birth.

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    Agatha S Critchfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction.

  8. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update

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    Manuel E. Cortés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus—a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline patterns observable in mucus at oestrus stage (some of them resembling ferns, palm leaves and stellar patterns, among others. Finally, it addresses the importance of the phenomenon of cervical mucus crystallization for the understanding of bovine reproductive physiology.

  9. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES FOR SPERM - CERVICAL-MUCUS INTERACTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KREMER, J; JAGER, S

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the effects of antisperm antibodies on the sperm - cervical mucus interaction. Antisperm IgA on spermatozoa or in cervical mucus can severely inhibit sperm penetration of cervical mucus and migration through it. Disturbance of the sperm - cervical mucus interaction is the

  10. Antisperm antibodies in cervical mucus in an unselected subfertile population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert-Kruse, W; Böckem-Hellwig, S; Doll, A; Rohr, G; Tilgen, W; Runnebaum, B

    1993-07-01

    To determine the incidence and the clinical significance of antisperm antibodies (ASA) in cervical secretions in an unselected subfertile population, cervical mucus samples of 192 patients with long-standing infertility were screened by means of the indirect mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) test allowing differentiation for immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG in a parallel test setting. In addition, the indirect MAR IgG test in cervical mucus was evaluated by means of IgG coated latex particles instead of sensitized erythrocytes as the indicator system. All cervical mucus samples were taken under standardized conditions. Results of ASA determination were related to microbial findings in the cervix and the outcome of sperm-mucus interaction testing in vivo and in vitro, and the subsequent fertility in a prospective study. The total incidence of cervical mucus ASA within this population was low (testing with latex microspheres as indicator particles. Results were not influenced by microbial colonization of the cervix and were not markedly related to lymphocytes subset testing. All ASA positive women had a negative outcome of the post-coital test, but the majority of negative post-coital tests was not caused by local mucus antibodies of the IgG and/or IgA class. In patients with positive indirect MAR testing in cervical mucus, there was no pregnancy within an observation period of > 12 months. In conclusion, the results indicate the ASA in cervical secretions are not frequent but nevertheless are a severe cause of infertility when present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. RESEARCHES ON THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF CERVICAL MUCUS IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZABELA MARTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To succeed in artificial insemination and to produce the fecundation in cows it isnecessary to have knowledge about optimal time of ovulation. Such possibilityappears using the values of electrical resistance of cervical mucus. The smallestvalues are obtained during the ovulation due to the pH modification influenced by theestrogens. The purpose of the paper was to determine the electrical resistance of thecervical mucus in cows with clinical signs of estrus, depending on females’ age. Also,the electrical resistance of the cervical mucus in cows in different physiologicalstages (pregnant, no pregnant was measured. The ovulation detector DRAMINSKIwas used. This equipment allows to obtained a quickly and precise rapport on thephysiological stage of the cow. It can be detected the cow with atypical ovulation,irregular ovulation. This method improve the insemination efficiency, allowsdetecting early gestation period or the moment of ovulation. All these have a positiveinfluence on the development strategy of the farm and improve the economicperformances.

  12. Selective filtration of abnormal spermatozoa by the cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundl, G; Grimm, H J; Hofmann, N

    1988-04-01

    The Düsseldorf classification of spermatozoal morphology in semen is based on the spermatogenesis in the testis. So it is possible in some cases to relate a pathological finding in semen to a special disorder in the testis. We have tested the filtering effect of the cervical mucus on the various spermatozoal forms by performing a post-coital test from the upper cervical region after artificial insemination from the husband (AIH). It was found that in addition to the motility of spermatozoa their outer shape is very important for their transport through the cervical canal. Pathological spermatozoa with a rather normal-shaped head like AI and AII forms will pass the cervix almost like normal spermatozoa. In a superficial post-coital test they can be classified as 'normal'. Still, they are not able to fertilize an egg.

  13. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara K.; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer;

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. DesignExperimental research. SettingDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Population/SampleSpontaneously shed CMPs from 18 healthy women in active...... labor. MethodsViscoelastic properties of CMPs were investigated with a dynamic oscillatory rheometer using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Main outcome measuresThe rheological variables obtained were as follows: elastic modulus (G), viscous modulus (G...

  14. 两种前处理方法对粘液型宫颈HPV分型结果的比较%Comparison of two different pretreatment methods in detecting genotypes of human papillomavirus in cervical epithelium samples with cervical mucus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍金华; 郑琰; 高月婵; 陈建勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of different pretreatment methods on the detection of genotypes of human papillomavirus in cervical epithelium samples with cervical mucus. Methods The 100 cervical epithelium samples with cervical mucus in gynecology department was pre-treated by traditional method (sodium chloride- concussion method )and proteinase K digestion method. The samples were checked for 21 types HPV by flow through hybridization and gene chip technology. The two different pretreatment methods were used to study the efficiency of HPV DNA extraction and genotyping. Results DNA purification aand concentration afrter extraction were 1.63 ±0.71 and(96.35 ± 13.15)μg/ml while that of HPV-DNA extraction( 105.14 ± 18.65 )μg/ml used by proteinase K digestion method were( 1.80 ± 0.52)and( 105.14 ± 18.65 )μg/ml markedly increased compared with those used by traditional method (P<0.01). PCR inhibitors were detected from 4 samples pre-treated by the traditional method,but no PCR reaction inhibitor was detected from the samples pre-treated by proteinase K digestion method. The rates of positive, single types of infection and multiple infection in the HPV types pre-treated by the traditional method and proteinase K digestion method were 28.0%,23.0%,5.0% and 32.0%, 26.0% ,6.0% .respectively. The value of Kappa was 0.888,showing a high degree of consistency. Conclusion The proteinase K digestion method is suitable for detection of HPV-DNA from cervical epithelium samples with cervical mucus, the pretreatment procedure using proteinase K digestion method is easier to get rid of the PCR reaction inhibitors ,which ensures the quality of HPV DNA. It is applicable in clinical laboratory.%目的 研究2种前处理方法对粘液型标本HPV DNA杂交结果的影响,为进一步提高临床检验质量和改进检测技术提供理论依据.方法 收集100例妇科门诊患者粘液型宫颈脱落细胞标本,分别采用常规方法(生理盐水

  15. In situ variation of cervical mucus pH during exposure to atmospheric air

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    Correa C.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if exposure of cervical mucus to air during specular examination could modify mucus pH. Detection of changes is justified because of their possible interference with sperm-mucus interaction, since an acidic pH is unfavorable to sperm penetration and is associated with infertility due to the cervical factor. Twenty women with good quality mucus were evaluated. pH measurements of ecto- and endocervical mucus were made in situ using a glass electrode after 0-, 5- and 10-min exposure to air. There was a progressive alkalinization of mucus pH. Mean values of ectocervical mucus pH were 6.91, 7.16 and 7.27, while mean values of endocervical mucus pH were 7.09, 7.34 and 7.46 at 0, 5 and 10 min, respectively. Significant differences were found between the mean values obtained at 0 and 5 min, and at 0 and 10 min (P<0.05, whereas the differences in mean values at 5 and 10 min were not significant at either site. We conclude that 5 to 10 min of exposure to atmospheric air affects cervical mucus pH in a significant way. Since tests used to evaluate sperm-mucus interaction generally have not considered this possibility, we suggest that they should be performed immediately after mucus collection in order to avoid misinterpretation of the results.

  16. Trefoil factor peptide 3 is positively correlated with the viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastholm, Sara Kjær; Samson, Mie Hesselund; Becher, Naja

    2017-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug are considered essential for the occlusion of the cervical canal and thereby for protection against ascending infections during pregnancy. Factors controlling this property are virtually unknown. This study explores a possible role of trefoil...

  17. Serum levonorgestrel concentration and cervical mucus viscosity after six months of monoplant® implantation

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    Eka R. Gunardi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of levonorgestrel implants as a contraceptive method have undergone changes in the number of implants used, beginning from six rods in the early methods to two rods in the present method and have been proven effective. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of single rod implant (Monoplant® by measuring serum levonorgestrel concentration and cervical mucus quality.Methods: Thirty healthy women, aged 20-40 year old, and have been proven fertile, underwent single rod implant insertion. Levonorgestrel serum levels was measured every month and cervical mucus viscosity was examined every three month, until six months.Results: Levonorgestrel serum concentration was consistently above minimum effective level (200 pg/mL, from month 3 to 6 respectively 338.9 pg/mL, 424.8 pg/mL, 320.3 pg/mL, and 337.5 pg/mL. Almost all of the acceptors (96.7% had good cervical mucus viscosity since three months following implant insertion. Conclusion: Levonorgestrel serum concentration in Monoplant® users was still above minimum contraceptive level until the sixth month. Viscosity of cervical mucus increased immediately following implant insertion. This indicates that single rod levonorgestrel implant is effective as a contraceptive method.Keywords: cervical mucus viscosity, implant monoplant®, serum levonorgestrel

  18. Quantitative post-coital test: sperm counts in cervical mucus after enzymatic liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agostini, A; Tawfik, E; Campana, A

    1996-02-01

    The post-coital test involves direct microscopic examination of sperm number and motility in cervical mucus. The results depend on the quality of the mucus and the distribution of spermatozoa within the sample. To progress from such qualitative data to quantitative measurements of the spermatozoa present in post-coital mucus, we have developed methods to measure sperm concentrations in enzymatically liquefied post-coital cervical mucus. The mucus score and sperm motility were measured prior to mucus liquefaction, and, together with sperm concentration, they allowed the calculation of the total number of motile spermatozoa present. A combination of bromelin and glycosidases proved to be more efficient in achieving reliable mucus liquefaction than treatment with bromelin alone, and was used to liquefy a series of 36 post-coital test samples. Total sperm numbers ranged between 19 x 10(3) and 16.8 x 10(6). Of the samples, 75% contained post-coital test, and to estimate the number of motile spermatozoa reaching the upper female genital tract.

  19. LIF analysis of cervical mucus and amniotic fluid for maturity monitoring in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, Aurelija; Auksorius, Egidijus; Ramasauskaite, Diana; Smilgeviciute, Ale; Tamasauskas, Oldas; Vanseviciute, Rasa; Veleckas, Doras

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of autoflorescence spectroscopy in the diagnosis of cervix maturity through cervical mucus florescence and foetal lung maturity through amniotic fluid fluorescence. LED and broadband Mercury light were used to induce fluorescence in cervical mucus and amniotic fluid respectively. Mature specimens compared to immature ones showed a significant decrease in cervical mucus fluorescence values measured at 420 nm (p = 0.0004) and in measured amniotic fluid fluorescence values at 410 nm (p = 0.0686). Probability-based classification algorithm was developed to identify samples 'maturity' through analysis of the fluorescence spectra. Employing fluorescence intensity at 420 nm for cervix maturity diagnosis rendered optimal sensitivity of 92.9%, specificity of 83.3% and area under the ROC curve of 91.1%.

  20. Ovulation Prediction by using Urine LH Rapid Determination Combinedwith Cervical Mucus Score

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇芬; 狄文; 桂彪; 张惠英; 金忆; 肖宇红; 丁青; 王寒正; 孙志达; 沈维雄

    1993-01-01

    Infertility may be induced by many causes. It is partly due to the inappropriate time of intercourse from ignorance of the date of ovulation by the infertile couples.Basal body temperature, cervical mucus, B-ultrasonography, blood LH ( luteinizing hormone ) and sex-steroid hormone assay are the common methods used for monitoring ovulation.

  1. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE REGULARITY OF CERVICAL MUCUS PEROXIDASE (CMPx) ACTIVITY IN REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHong; CAOZuan-Sun; WENGQi-Liang; MAOWen-Jun

    1989-01-01

    29 infertile women with normal menstrual cycles, aged 23-33, were closely observed for 30 cycles. Blood aamples and cervical mucus in follicular, periovulatory and mid lutcul phases were collected respectively for LH, E2 , P and CMPx activity measurement.B-ultrasnographic monitoring was applied during menstrual cycles. Modified Insler score

  2. Fetal cells in cervical mucus in the first trimester of pregnancy.

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    Cioni, Riccardo; Bussani, Cecilia; Scarselli, Benedetta; Bucciantini, Sandra; Barciulli, Francesco; Scarselli, Gianfranco

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to first evaluate the presence of fetal cells in cervical mucus samples collected in the first trimester of pregnancy and then to compare different laboratory methods for the detection of these cells. Mucus samples were collected by using a cytobrush before termination of pregnancy (TOP) from 143 pregnant women between 7 and 12 weeks of gestation. None of the women had undergone an invasive diagnostic procedure prior to cervical mucus sampling. Samples of placental tissue were collected from each patient at TOP. Slides from each sample were first observed under an inverted microscope to detect possible sperm contamination. In the first part of our experiments, 40 mucus samples were treated with a mucolytic solution containing N-acetylcysteine (AC) and were analysed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The second series, consisting of 71 mucus samples, was treated with a mucolytic solution containing dithiothreitol (DTT): all 71 samples were analysed by a PCR-based assay, and an aliquot for fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis was also obtained from 48 out of 71 samples. In the third part of our experiments, performed on 32 mucus samples, mucus trapped on the cytobrush was directly spread on two slides for FISH analysis without any mucolytic treatment. All placental tissue samples obtained at termination were analysed by FISH for fetal sexing. Overall, the use of PCR-based or FISH analyses on 143 mucus samples resulted in correct sex prediction in 92/143 (64.3%) samples [20/66 (30.3%) cases from known male pregnancies and 72/77 (93.5%) cases from known female pregnancies]. In the AC group, Y-derived sequences were found in 7/23 samples (30.4%) from known male pregnancies and in 1/17 cases from known female pregnancies, with an overall correct sex prediction in 23/40 cases (57.5%). In the DTT group, Y-derived sequences could be amplified in 10/30 samples (33.3%) from known male pregnancies and in 4/41 cases from known

  3. Human intestinal mucus proteins isolated by transanal irrigation and proctosigmoidoscopy

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    Paola Andrea Gómez Buitrago

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal mucus essentially consistsof a network of Mucin2 glycoproteinsembedded in many lower molecularweight proteins. This paper contributes tothe proteomic study of human intestinalmucus by comparing two sample collectionmethods (transanal irrigation and brushcytology during proctosigmoidoscopy andanalysis techniques (electrophoresis anddigestion in solution. The entire samplecollection and treatment process is explained,including protein extraction, digestion anddesalination and peptide characterisationusing a nanoAcquity UPLC chromatographcoupled to an HDMS spectrometer equippedwith a nanoESI source. Collecting mucus viatransanal irrigation provided a larger samplevolume and protein concentration from asingle patient. The proctosigmoidoscopysample could be analysed via digestion insolution after depleting albumin. The analysisindicates that a simple mucus lysis methodcan evaluate the electrophoresis and digestionin solution techniques. Studying humanintestinal mucus complexes is importantbecause they perform two essential survivalfunctions for humans as the first biochemicaland physical defences for the gastrointestinaltract and a habitat for intestinal microbiota,which are primarily hosted in the colon andexceeds the human genetic information andcell number 100- and 10-fold (1.

  4. The pH of cervical mucus, quality of semen, and outcome of the post-coital test.

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    Peek, J C; Matthews, C D

    1986-06-01

    In preliminary experiments, pH measurements were made with pH paper and with a pH electrode on cervical mucus in situ and after aspiration. Paper and electrode gave comparable results with aspirated mucus. Measurements made on mucus in situ and then after aspiration were concordant only when pH paper, but not the pH electrode, was used to measure pH in situ. All spermatozoa were immotile in the post-coital test when the pH of the mucus was below 6. A pH below 6 was found in 38% (23 out of 61) of post-coital tests in which there were fewer than 1% of motile spermatozoa (19% of all tests). The male partners of women who had a mucus pH greater than 6 but had less than 1% of spermatozoa motile in the post-coital test, had slightly poorer quality semen than the partners of women with mucus pH less than 6, or in which there were motile spermatozoa in the mucus.

  5. The pH of cervical mucus and the postcoital test.

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    Zavos, P M; Cohen, M R

    1980-09-01

    In this study, 25 women with 28-day cycles were considered for a total of 44 menstrual cycles. The women were subjected to the Sims-Huhner postcoital test at 6.2 hours after intercourse during the periovulatory period. Each couple was instructed to abstain from sexual intercourse for 4 days prior to the test. Samples of cervical mucus were obtained and evaluated for quantity, viscosity, elasticity, ferning, cellularity, pH, and the postcoital status of the spermatozoa (percentage motility and grade). The pH measurements were made by the use of phenaphthazine paper. After the establishment of the pH measurements the patients were divided into two groups (low and high pH) and statistically compared on the basis of the spermatozoal postcoital test results. The results obtained revealed significant differences (P 0.05).

  6. [Re-establishment of fertility in post-partum. Connections between the basal body temperature and the cervical mucus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, U; Bruno, G; Barbato, M; Bertolotti, G

    1986-01-01

    A temporary reduction of ovarian receptivity to gonadotropic stimuli occurs during post-partum; breast feeding is probably one of its most important modifying factors, possibly through endorphin-mediated gonadotropic hormone suppression. Suction of the nipple could stimulate endorphin release. 19 breast-feeding women were instructed to record their basal body temperatures, cervical mucus characteristics, type of breast feeding and weaning. The results clearly show that the longer the breast feeding, the longer the return of fertility is postponed. Specifically, no fertility was observed before the start of weaning, and in only 6 women was fertility observed during mixed breast and formula feeding. Finally, the majority of the women taking part in the study were able to predict the return of fertility based on changes in the cervical mucus, which demonstrates the utility of this family planning method, also in the post-partum period.

  7. In-vitro cervical mucus-sperm penetration tests and outcome of infertility treatments in couples with repeatedly negative post-coital tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, J; Valentine, A; Bahadur, G; Shenfield, F; Steele, S J; Jacobs, H S

    1995-01-01

    The results of in-vitro cervical mucus-sperm penetration tests and cross-hostility tests in 178 couples with repeatedly negative post-coital tests were recorded. Using a protocol of three cycles with intra-uterine inseminations (IUI) followed by three cycles with ovulation induction + IUI, the association between the cause of infertility, results of the in-vitro tests and the outcome of infertility treatment was investigated. We found that repeatedly negative post-coital tests are a good indicator of a cervical mucus-sperm penetration problem. The cross-hostility test clearly differentiates the abnormal factor in this interaction, and a good performance of the donors' spermatozoa in the cervical mucus correlates with increased pregnancy rate. In male factor infertility, failure of the husbands' spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus was not indicative of a deficient fertilization potential in vivo. In these patients a serious attempt should therefore be made to reverse the infertility by treatment with IUI or ovulation induction + IUI before attempting assisted reproduction. Women with polycystic ovaries and repeatedly negative post-coital tests should be investigated for sperm receptivity of the cervical mucus. Low receptivity of the cervical mucus may imply that endometrial receptivity and oocyte quality are also low. Ovulation induction and not IUI alone should therefore be used as the preferred mode of treatment to improve pregnancy rate.

  8. The influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies from cows sera and cervical mucus on bull sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies (ASA from the sera and cervical mucus of cows on bulls sperm motility. A total of 64 cows was included in the study and samples of sera and cervical mucus were collected on the day of artificial insemination. Cows were of Busha breed or mix breed with Simmental. The presence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence method and according to these results, cows were divided in groups as follows: cows with high or low ASA titer in their sera and cows with high or low ASA titer in the cervical mucus. Influence of antisperm antibodies on sperm motility was further estimated by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA. Results demonstrated a significant difference in the influence of antisperm antibodies depending on their origin and titer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molecular genetic and ecophysiological researches on the protection of autochthonous animal resources, sustaining domestic animals’ welfare, health and reproduction, and safe food production

  9. Tracing molecular and structural changes upon mucolysis with N-acetyl cysteine in human airway mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukosavljevic, Branko; Murgia, Xabier; Schwarzkopf, Konrad; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Windbergs, Maike

    2017-07-11

    The conducting airways of the human lungs are lined by mucus, which lubricates the lung epithelium and provides a first-line protection against airborne threats. As a novel approach for visualization of the human mucus microstructure, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a label-free and chemically selective technique. We were successfully able to chemically resolve the pulmonary surfactant from the mucus matrix and show its spatial distribution, as well as to visualize the structural changes within the freeze-dried mucus mesh upon chemical mucolysis. Subsequently, we performed rheological measurements before and after mucolysis and correlated morphology and chemical structure of the mucus with its rheological characteristics. These results do not only enrich the knowledge about the mucus microstructure, but can also, significantly contribute to rational development of future lung therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between Copper Ion Concentration in Cervical Mucus and Fllbrinolytic Activity in Menstrual Blood in Copper-releasiag IUD Users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建华; 潘家骧; 严隽鸿

    1993-01-01

    In the present study, 44 women using TCu220c-IUD or inert-IUD were asked to make follow-ups before insertion and at the 1st., 3rd., 6th, 9th and 12th month after insertion The mean menstrual blood loss, the fibrinalytic activity including the activation of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) and the amount of plasminogen PIG) and fibrinogen-fibrin degradation products (FDP) in menstrual blood and the copper ion concentration in cervical mucus were determined. The correlation between the copper ion concentration and the fibrinalytic activity was considered. It was found that the change of the copper ion concentration was positively correlated with that of the activition of t-PA and the amount of FDP. On the contrary, the change ofthe copper ion concentration was inversely related to the change of PLG value. It is concluded that the high copper ion level can enhance the activation of fibrinolytic system in human endometrium and induce the increase of menorrhagia.

  11. The inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 activity by crude and purified human pregnancy plug mucus and mucins in an inhibition assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeman Leann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female reproductive tract is amongst the main routes for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission. Cervical mucus however is known to protect the female reproductive tract from bacterial invasion and fluid loss and regulates and facilitates sperm transport to the upper reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize pregnancy plug mucins and determine their anti-HIV-1 activity in an HIV inhibition assay. Methods Pregnancy plug mucins were purified by caesium chloride density-gradient ultra-centrifugation and characterized by Western blotting analysis. The anti-HIV-1 activities of the crude pregnancy plug mucus and purified pregnancy plug mucins was determined by incubating them with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells. Results The pregnancy plug mucus had MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that while the purified pregnancy plug mucins inhibit HIV-1 activity by approximately 97.5%, the crude pregnancy plug mucus failed to inhibit HIV-1 activity. Conclusion Although it is not clear why the crude sample did not inhibit HIV-1 activity, it may be that the amount of mucins in the crude pregnancy plug mucus (which contains water, mucins, lipids, nucleic acids, lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins and ions, is insufficient to cause viral inhibition or aggregation.

  12. Analyses of human colonic mucus obtained by an in vivo sampling technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, H.M.; Jonkers, D.M.A.E.; Loof, A.; Houtvin, S.A.L.W. van; Troost, F.J.; Venema, K.; Kodde, A.; Koek, G.H.; Schipper, R.G.; Heerde, W.L. van; Brummer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The mucus layer is an important dynamic component of the epithelial barrier. It contains mucin glycoproteins and other compounds secreted by the intestinal epithelium, such as secretory IgA. However, a standardized in vivo sampling technique of mucus in humans is not yet available. Aim:

  13. Level of Copper Ion in Cervical Mucus of Various Duration after Inserting VCu200 IUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆喜; 黄祝姈; 潘琢如

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the effective period of VCu200 IUD. The concentration of copper ion was measured with non-flame atomic absorption s pectrophotometer HITACHI- 180. The average concentration of copper ion(x±sx) was 2.66±0.58 μg/g cervical mucus wet weight (μg/g · M·W·W) in the first year, then gradually decreasing to 0.91±0. 16 μg/g·M·W·W in the fifteenth-year group of VCu200 IUD. There was an average of 0.35±0.08~0. 56±0. 14 μg/g·M·W·W in the control group. It showed that the concentration of copper ion was decreasing with prolongation of use of VCu200 IUD and there was statistically significant difference between VCu200 IUD group, on the one hand, and the stainless steel ring group and the control group (P<0.05~0. 01) on the other hand. No difference was found between the stainless steel ring group and the control group (P>0. 05). It was reported in the literature that the concentration of copper ion in 1.0 μg/ml had the action of anti fertility, and it was found that the concentration of copper ion was higher than 1.0 μg/ml in the tenth year after insertion of VCu200 IUD. It suggested that effective period of VCu200 IUD was at least ten years.

  14. [Clinical study of the cervical mucus and the post-coital tests: its role in sterility (authors transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguer, C; Fai, R

    1979-12-01

    Cervical mucus and post-coital test abnormalities are the most frequently observed in infertile couples. In most cases, such disorders reflect a hormonal dysfunction in the woman and also an alteration of spermiogram. This simple clinical examination reflects the fertility of the moment: its positivity is necessary but not sufficient for fecundation. When the result of this examination is normal, one may generally skip the spermiogram. If the result is abnormal, the test must be performed again until a clear positivity is obtained. If it is repeatedly negative, a spermiogram must be done.

  15. Accuracy of sperm-cervical mucus penetration tests in evaluating sperm motility in semen: a systematic quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Bolarinde; Afnan, Masoud; Papaioannou, Spyros; Sharif, Khaldoun; Björndahl, Lars; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan

    2003-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the accuracy of in-vitro sperm penetration into cervical mucus or substitutes in evaluating sperm motility in semen. This was a systematic quantitative review of test accuracy studies. The Cochrane library (2000:4), Medline (1966-2001), Embase (1988-2001) and SciSearch (1981-2001) were searched, in addition to manual searches of conference papers and bibliographies of known primary and review articles. Primary studies measuring in-vitro sperm penetration into cervical mucus, or substitutes (i.e. sperm-mucus penetration test, SMPT) and comparing results with sperm motility in semen were included. There were 18 primary diagnostic studies published in 17 papers, involving a total of 2580 samples. Fourteen primary diagnostic tests used vanguard distance as diagnostic criteria (SMPT(vd)) and the pooled likelihood ratio (LR) for positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) tests were 2.29 (1.82-2.87) and 0.52 (0.44-0.63) respectively. Four studies used diagnostic criteria based directly or indirectly on swim-up sperm count per high power field (SMPT(sc)) instead. Their pooled LR+ and LR- were 5.24 (3.36-8.18) and 0.15 (0.06-0.39) respectively. SMPT(vd) has a low accuracy in the evaluation of sperm motility in semen. However, SMPT(sc) was found to be more accurate. This method of using sperm concentration, instead of vanguard distance, as diagnostic criteria of in-vitro SMPT has potential as a useful laboratory-based sperm function test.

  16. Relationship between physical characteristics and ionic content of cervical mucus pregnancy status to inseminate heifers detected in estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savia CL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of zeal tends to be one of them factors multiple that affect the rate of pregnancy in dairy farms; because females are inseminated outside the most appropriate time to reach fertilization. The objective of the present study was to analyze macroscopic characteristics(quantity, appearance and consistency, crystallization phenomenon, pH, level of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and chlorine in the cervical mucus of heifers in order to relatethese properties with the periovulatory period. Be used 20 Holstein heifers. Mucus was obtained prior to insemination and it was picked up by suction from the cervix. pH was determined using reactive tape (6-7,9 and the degree of crystallization (0-4 was evaluated according to typical and atypical fern leaf formations. It was determined pH test (6-7,9 tape and evaluate the degree of crystallization (0 - 4 according to the typical and atypical formations of fern leaves. Ionic content was determined using commercial kits (Wiener SAIC laboratories. Pregnancy was detected in 60 days post insemination. Each variable was described by its mean and deviation standard and by ANOVA established significant differences between means. It showed that the pregnancy was related to a mucus contains a concentration significantly less than K and Mg, compared with empty heifers (K, P:7,76 V: 12,97; Mg, P:2, 80 V:3,93; p<0,05 t=2,16. pH was significantly higher in the pregnant females, and the crystallization grade significantly lower (pH P:7, 60 V: 6, 23; crystallization P: 1,31 V2, 21; p<0,01 t=3,01. The results allow concluding that the optimum to inseminate was associated with cervical mucus observed macroscopically liquid, transparent and generous; with a pH above 7.0 and that it was forming atypical leaves of fern with an average of 1.31. Probably, the liquid consistency or liquid facilitates the transport of sperm and an osmotic active, responsible for the retention force is not related to content perhaps

  17. Interaction of Campylobacter spp. and human probiotics in chicken intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganan, M; Martinez-Rodriguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V; Vesterlund, S; Salminen, S; Satokari, R

    2013-03-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease throughout the world. The principal risk of human contamination is handling and consumption of contaminated poultry meat. To colonize poultry, Campylobacter adheres to and persists in the mucus layer that covers the intestinal epithelium. Inhibiting adhesion to the mucus could prevent colonization of the intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the protective effect of defined commercial human probiotic strains on the adhesion of Campylobacter spp. to chicken intestinal mucus, in a search for alternatives to antibiotics to control this food-borne pathogen. The probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and a starter culture strain Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis adhered well to chicken intestinal mucus and were able to reduce the binding of Campylobacter spp. when the mucus was colonized with the probiotic strain before contacting the pathogen. Human-intended probiotics could be useful as prophylactics in poultry feeding for controlling Campylobacter spp. colonization. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effects of mucokinetic drugs on rheological properties of reconstituted human nasal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, C S; Majima, Y; Cho, J S; Arima, S; Min, Y G; Sakakura, Y

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the effects of mucokinetic drugs on the rheological properties of human nasal mucus in patients with chronic sinusitis. We reconstituted human nasal mucus obtained from 74 patients with chronic sinusitis and determined the effects of 4 mucokinetic drugs, including acetylcysteine, deoxynuclease I, 2% sodium bicarbonate, and a combination product containing tyloxapol (Alevaire), on rheological properties of reconstituted human nasal mucus (RHNM). We used 5% RHNM dissolved in phosphate-buffered solution as the optimal buffer and concentration of RHNM for the study because it showed a viscoelastic response similar to that of freshly collected nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis. Four experiments were performed to determine the influence of each drug on dynamic viscosity and elasticity of 5% RHNM. Distilled water was used as a control. Acetylcysteine and deoxynuclease I significantly decreased both dynamic viscosity and elastic modulus, while distilled water had no effect on rheological properties of 5% RHNM in vitro. Alevaire significantly reduced both dynamic viscosity and elastic modulus. Sodium bicarbonate significantly reduced elastic modulus but not dynamic viscosity. Reduction of elastic modulus by Alevaire was significantly greater than that by sodium bicarbonate, while there was no difference in reduction of dynamic viscosity between them. Our results indicate that RHNM may be useful for studying the topical effects of various drugs on nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis.

  19. Dexamethasone and N-acetyl-cysteine attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced mucus expression in human airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Lisa; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Steffen, Armin; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter; Hauber, Hans-Peter

    2011-04-01

    Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) induces mucus hypersecretion in airways. Therapeutic options to attenuate excessive mucus expression are sparse. To investigate the effect of steroids and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) on PA-induced mucus expression. Calu-3 cells and explanted human mucosa from the upper airways were stimulated with either PA, lipopolysaccharide from alginate producing PA (smooth, sPA-LPS) or non-alginate producing PA (rough, rPA-LPS). Dexamethasone (DEX) and NAC were added in different concentrations. Expression of mucin (MUC5AC) gene and mucin protein expression was quantified using PAS (periodic acids Schiff) staining and real time PCR. PA, sPA-LPS or rPA-LPS significantly induced mucin protein and MUC5AC gene expression in Calu-3 cells and explanted mucosal tissue (P NAC significantly decreased PA-, sPA-LPS- and rPA-LPS-induced mucin protein expression both in vitro and ex vivo (P 0.05). Our data show that both an anti-inflammatory drug (DEX) and an anti-oxidative agent (NAC) can attenuate PA-induced mucus expression in human airways. These results support the use of steroids and NAC in clinical practice to treat PA-induced mucus hypersecretion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Microstructure and Bulk Rheology of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus are Remarkably Resistant to Changes in pH

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K.; Ensign, Laura; Zhong, Weixi; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The protective barrier, lubricant and clearance functions of mucus are intimately coupled to its microstructure and bulk rheology. Mucus gels consist of a network of mucin biopolymers along with lipids, salts and other proteins, and exhibit similar biochemical and physical properties across diverse mucosal surfaces. Nevertheless, mucus is exposed to a broad range of pH throughout the human body. Protein functions are typically sensitive to small changes in pH, and prior investigations using r...

  1. A simple cost-effective modification improves the quality of immunocytochemical staining in cervical scrape samples characterized by presence of excess mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sagar; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deodhar, Kedar; Teni, Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a very important tool in a diverse range of biomedical research as well as in diagnostic cytopathology. Smears prepared from cervical scrapes contain a large amount of overlying mucus that interferes with the standard immunocytochemical staining protocol. A modified ICC protocol is described, which involves pretreatment of these smears with 1 mg/ml solution of Ambroxol hydrochloride in methanol for 1 hour. Source of Ambroxol hydrochloride was a 30 mg Mucolite™ tablet, at a cost of 1.70 rupees (∼3·5 US cents) per tablet. This mucolytic solution effectively clears the mucus, facilitating the accessibility of the antibody to the antigenic determinants. This pretreatment resulted in the increased percentage of positively stained cells as well as staining intensity, leading to improved overall ICC staining and score. This is a novel modification that can be cost-effectively applied in ICC staining protocols for cytology samples characterized by the presence of excess mucus. PMID:25620823

  2. A simple cost-effective modification improves the quality of immunocytochemical staining in cervical scrape samples characterized by presence of excess mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Sagar; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deodhar, Kedar; Teni, Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a very important tool in a diverse range of biomedical research as well as in diagnostic cytopathology. Smears prepared from cervical scrapes contain a large amount of overlying mucus that interferes with the standard immunocytochemical staining protocol. A modified ICC protocol is described, which involves pretreatment of these smears with 1 mg/ml solution of Ambroxol hydrochloride in methanol for 1 hour. Source of Ambroxol hydrochloride was a 30 mg Mucolite™ tab...

  3. A simple cost-effective modification improves the quality of immunocytochemical staining in cervical scrape samples characterized by presence of excess mucus

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Sagar; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deodhar, Kedar; Teni, Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a very important tool in a diverse range of biomedical research as well as in diagnostic cytopathology. Smears prepared from cervical scrapes contain a large amount of overlying mucus that interferes with the standard immunocytochemical staining protocol. A modified ICC protocol is described, which involves pretreatment of these smears with 1 mg/ml solution of Ambroxol hydrochloride in methanol for 1 hour. Source of Ambroxol hydrochloride was a 30 mg Mucolite™ tab...

  4. Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauroy, Benjamin; Fausser, Christian; Pelca, Dominique; Merckx, Jacques; Flaud, Patrice

    2011-10-01

    Mucociliary clearance and cough are the two main natural mucus draining methods in the bronchial tree. If they are affected by a pathology, they can become insufficient or even ineffective, then therapeutic draining of mucus plays a critical role to keep mucus levels in the lungs acceptable. The manipulations of physical therapists are known to be very efficient clinically but they are mostly empirical since the biophysical mechanisms involved in these manipulations have never been studied. We develop in this work a model of mucus clearance in idealized rigid human bronchial trees and focus our study on the interaction between (1) tree geometry, (2) mucus physical properties and (3) amplitude of flow rate in the tree. The mucus is considered as a Bingham fluid (gel-like) which is moved upward in the tree thanks to its viscous interaction with air flow. Our studies point out the important roles played both by the geometry and by the physical properties of mucus (yield stress and viscosity). More particularly, the yield stress has to be overcome to make mucus flow. Air flow rate and yield stress determine the maximal possible mucus thickness in each branch of the tree at equilibrium. This forms a specific distribution of mucus in the tree whose characteristics are strongly related to the multi-scaled structure of the tree. The behavior of any mucus distribution is then dependent on this distribution. Finally, our results indicate that increasing air flow rates ought to be more efficient to drain mucus out of the bronchial tree while minimizing patient discomfort.

  5. The microstructure and bulk rheology of human cervicovaginal mucus are remarkably resistant to changes in pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K; Ensign, Laura M; Zhong, Weixi; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-12-09

    The protective barrier, lubricant, and clearance functions of mucus are intimately coupled to its microstructure and bulk rheology. Mucus gels consist of a network of mucin biopolymers along with lipids, salts, and other proteins and exhibit similar biochemical and physical properties across diverse mucosal surfaces. Nevertheless, mucus is exposed to a broad range of pH values throughout the human body. Protein functions are typically sensitive to small changes in pH, and prior investigations using reconstituted, purified mucin gels suggested mucus undergoes a transition from a low-viscosity liquid at neutral pH to a highly viscoelastic solid at low pH. We sought to determine whether those observations hold for fresh, minimally perturbed human mucus ex vivo by using different-sized muco-inert nanoparticles to probe microstructure and cone-and-plate rheometry to measure bulk rheology. We demonstrate that both the microstructure and bulk rheology of fresh, undiluted, and minimally perturbed cervicovaginal mucus exhibit relatively minor changes from pH 1-2 to 8-9, in marked contrast with the pH sensitivity of purified mucin gels. Our work also suggests additional components in mucus secretions, typically eliminated during mucin purification and reconstitution, may play an important role in maintaining the protective properties of mucus.

  6. Proteomic analysis of pure human airway gland mucus reveals a large component of protective proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Soo Joo

    Full Text Available Airway submucosal glands contribute to innate immunity and protect the lungs by secreting mucus, which is required for mucociliary clearance and which also contains antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proteolytic and anti-oxidant proteins. We stimulated glands in tracheal trimmings from three lung donors and collected droplets of uncontaminated mucus as they formed at the gland orifices under an oil layer. We analyzed the mucus using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Analysis identified 5486 peptides and 441 proteins from across the 3 samples (269-319 proteins per subject. We focused on 269 proteins common to at least 2 0f 3 subjects, of which 102 (38% had protective or innate immunity functions. While many of these have long been known to play such roles, for many others their cellular protective functions have only recently been appreciated in addition to their well-studied biologic functions (e.g. annexins, apolipoproteins, gelsolin, hemoglobin, histones, keratins, and lumican. A minority of the identified proteins are known to be secreted via conventional exocytosis, suggesting that glandular secretion occurs via multiple mechanisms. Two of the observed protective proteins, major vault protein and prohibitin, have not been observed in fluid from human epithelial cultures or in fluid from nasal or bronchoalveolar lavage. Further proteomic analysis of pure gland mucus may help clarify how healthy airways maintain a sterile environment.

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankainen, Matti; Paulin, Lars; Tynkkynen, Soile; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Partanen, Pasi; Satokari, Reetta; Vesterlund, Satu; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; Hämäläinen, Tuula; Laukkanen, Suvi; Salovuori, Noora; Ritari, Jarmo; Alatalo, Edward; Korpela, Riitta; Mattila-Sandholm, Tiina; Lassig, Anna; Hatakka, Katja; Kinnunen, Katri T; Karjalainen, Heli; Saxelin, Maija; Laakso, Kati; Surakka, Anu; Palva, Airi; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Auvinen, Petri; de Vos, Willem M

    2009-10-06

    To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence identity and synteny. However, for both strains, genomic islands, 5 in GG and 4 in LC705, punctuated the colinearity. A significant number of strain-specific genes were predicted in these islands (80 in GG and 72 in LC705). The GG-specific islands included genes coding for bacteriophage components, sugar metabolism and transport, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. One island only found in L. rhamnosus GG contained genes for 3 secreted LPXTG-like pilins (spaCBA) and a pilin-dedicated sortase. Using anti-SpaC antibodies, the physical presence of cell wall-bound pili was confirmed by immunoblotting. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the SpaC pilin is located at the pilus tip but also sporadically throughout the structure. Moreover, the adherence of strain GG to human intestinal mucus was blocked by SpaC antiserum and abolished in a mutant carrying an inactivated spaC gene. Similarly, binding to mucus was demonstrated for the purified SpaC protein. We conclude that the presence of SpaC is essential for the mucus interaction of L. rhamnosus GG and likely explains its ability to persist in the human intestinal tract longer than LC705 during an intervention trial. The presence of mucus-binding pili on the surface of a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterial strain reveals a previously undescribed mechanism for the interaction of selected probiotic lactobacilli with host tissues.

  8. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  9. Correlation Analysis between Cervical Mucus pH and Offspring Sex%奶牛宫颈粘液pH值与后代性别相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 马梦婷; 陈晓利; 王姗姗; 高庆华

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of cervical mucus pH on cow offspring sex. By collect cervical mucus from 200 cows, survey pH value of cervical mucus and record the number of cows and their offspring gender to speculate the relationship between cervical mucus pH value and gender of offspring. The results shows as the cervical mucus pH is higher the rate of male offspring is higher, on the contrary, the pH is lower the rate of female offspring is higher. When the cervical mucus pH≤6.7,offspring gender is mostly female, when pH≥7.6,offspring gender is mostly male, when the cervical mucus pH between 6.8―7.5, the number of male and female offspring is close to 1:1.%为了解子宫颈粘液对奶牛后代性别影响,采集200头奶牛的子宫颈粘液,测定子宫颈粘液的pH值并记录与其相应编号的母牛后代性别用以推测宫颈粘液pH值与后代性别的相关性。实验结果显示子宫颈粘液的pH值越高后代为雄性的几率越大,反之宫颈粘液pH值越低产雌性个体的几率越大。奶牛子宫颈粘液pH≤6.7的母牛,后代性别多为雌性,pH值≥7.6时,后代多为雄性,奶牛子宫颈粘液pH值在6.8~7.5之间时,雌雄后代数目较为均等,接近于1:1。

  10. Relationship between level of serum sperm immobilizing antibody and its inhibitory effect on sperm migration through cervical mucus in immunologically infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Hiroaki; Shiraishi, Yasuko; Hirano, Yuki; Kasumi, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Koji; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2007-02-01

    Sperm immobilizing antibodies often interfere with the penetration of sperm through the cervical mucus. However, the relationship between sperm immobilizing antibody titer and the result of the post-coital test (PCT) has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 50% sperm immobilization unit (SI50) titer, a quantitative measure of sperm immobilizing antibody, in patients' sera was correlated with the result of PCT. The sperm immobilization test (SIT) was performed for 2834 infertile women in two university hospitals. The SI50 titers were evaluated by quantitative SIT. In some cases with sperm immobilizing antibody, PCT was carried out before ovulation and assessed according to the criteria of World Health Organization (1992). Infertile couples with abnormal semen characteristics were excluded. Seventy-four of 2834 women had sperm immobilizing antibodies in their sera, giving a positive rate of 2.6%. Twenty-four (77.4%) of 31 women with sperm immobilizing antibodies and 28 (20.4%) of 137 women without the antibody had abnormal PCT results. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P10) SI50 titers, while that was 14 (66.7%) in 21 patients with low (10) SI50 titers. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.04). The SI50 titer in the serum can predict inhibitory effects on sperm migration through cervical mucus in immunologically infertile women. Evaluation of the SI50 titers in patients' sera seems to be useful for decision-making in infertile women with sperm immobilizing antibodies regarding whether they have the possibility of conceiving by timed intercourse.

  11. Detection of Immune Infertile Dairy Cows with ASA in Cervical Mucus by Indirect ELISA%间接ELISA检测奶牛宫颈黏液ASA免疫不孕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗; 马瑛; 马梦婷; 廉德平; 高庆华

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish an indirect ELISA method for detection of cervical mucus ASA immune infertility in dairy cows, this study was conducted using sperm membrane protein as coating antigen, and the optimization of indirect ELISA for dairy ASA of cervical mucus was tested. Totally 27 ASA positive infertile cows and 29 ASA positive pregnant cows were tested to determine indirect ELISA detection standard. The cervical mucus ASA from the 137 cows was detected using the indirect ELISA respectively. It was the indirect ELISA optimization condition for cervical mucus ASA in dairy cows that antigen coated amount was 5µg/mL, cervical mucus dilution was 1:5, cervical mucus reaction time was 1h, and reaction time of the enzyme-labeled second antibody was 1.5h. The criteria for cervical mucus ASA immune infertility in dairy cows was that the OD490nm values higher than 0.513 were determined as ASA positive immune infertility for the indirect ELISA and lower than 0.410 as negative fertility, and the OD490nmvaluesbetween0.410and0.513weredeterminedasASApositivesuspectedcases.Thecoefifcient of variation for the method was less than 10% in the repeated trials. The results of the 137 clinical samples of cervical mucus showed that the 13 ASA positive immune infertile cows could not conceive, and there were the 89 pregnancies among the 98 dairy cows with negative results. It can be concluded that the indirect ELISA was an effective method on investigation of ASA in cervical mucus of immune infertility dairy cows.%为建立检测奶牛宫颈黏液ASA免疫不孕的间接ELISA方法,以精子膜蛋白为包被抗原,进行奶牛宫颈黏液ASA的间接ELISA的优化试验。对27头ASA阳性不孕和29头ASA阳性可孕奶牛进行了间接ELISA检测标准的确定试验;对137头奶牛的宫颈黏液ASA免疫不孕进行间接ELISA临床检测。奶牛宫颈黏液ASA的间接ELISA优化条件为:抗原包被量为5µg/mL,宫颈黏液稀释度为1:5

  12. Oral contraceptives, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-03-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus is the key determinant of cervical cancer, but other risk factors interact with it to define individual risk. Among these, there is oral contraceptive (OC) use. A quantitative review of the link between OCs and cervical cancer was performed. Long-term (>5 year) current or recent OC use has been related to an about two-fold excess risk of cervical cancer. Such an excess risk, however, levels off after stopping use, and approaches unity 10 or more years after stopping. The public health implications of OC use for cervical cancer are limited. In any case, such implications are greater in middle-income and low-income countries, as well as in central and eastern Europe and Latin America, where cervical cancer screening and control remain inadequate.

  13. 无精子症配偶宫颈炎状况及其对宫颈黏液影响的临床研究%Status of Cervicitis and Its Effect on Cervical Mucus in Azoospermic Men's Wives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯苗; 李素春; 刘标英; 潘萍; 吴穗妹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨无精子症配偶官颈炎状况及宫颈炎对宫颈黏液的影响.方法:对在我院助孕的无精子症配偶500例,取阴道分泌物及宫颈管黏液行病原体检查、白细胞检测;同时抽静脉血行ELISA法抗精子抗体(AsAb)、单纯疱疹病毒(HSV)、巨细胞病毒(CMV)检测.围排卵期进行宫颈黏液评分,血AsAb升高者进一步行围排卵期宫颈黏液毛细管测试及精子-宫颈黏液接触试验.结果:①按照诊断标准,500例妇女分为宫颈炎组92例(18.4%),对照组408例(81.6%).②宫颈炎组宫颈黏液CT、UU、BV、HPV感染率较对照组明显增高,差异均有高度统计学意义(P<0.01).宫颈炎组血HSV、CMV感染率较对照组明显增高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0 05).③宫颈炎组围排卵期宫颈黏液评分较对照组(9.32±1.91分对12.67±2 14分)增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组宫颈黏液的量、成丝性、羊齿化结晶程度比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);而宫颈炎组较对照组宫颈黏液黏稠、黏液细胞数明显增多,差异均有高度统计学意义(P<0.01).④宫颈炎组血AsAb阳性检出率33.7% (31/92),明显高于对照组9.8% (40/408),差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01).宫颈炎组宫颈黏液毛细管测试及精子-宫颈黏液接触试验异常率分别为10.7% (10/92)、9.8% (9/92),均较对照组1.2% (5/408)、1.2%( 5/408)增加,差异有高度统计学意义(P<0 01).结论:宫颈炎可能造成宫颈黏液理化性状改变及宫颈免疫学功能异常,通过多个环节影响精子的存活、活动、储存和获能,从而导致不孕.育龄妇女应该积极治疗宫颈炎.%Objective:To investigate the status of cecviolis and its effect on cervical mucus in azoospermic men's wives. Methods;During June 2010 to October2010, 500 Azoospermic men's wives who were treated in Infertility Clinic of Guangdong Provincial Family Planning Research Institute were recruited and examined

  14. Mechanism of Human Influenza Virus RNA Persistence and Virion Survival in Feces: Mucus Protects Virions From Acid and Digestive Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Ryohei; Nakaya, Takaaki; Naito, Yuji; Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-07-01

    Although viral RNA or infectious virions have been detected in the feces of individuals infected with human influenza A and B viruses (IAV/IBV), the mechanism of viral survival in the gastrointestinal tract remains unclear. We developed a model that attempts to recapitulate the conditions encountered by a swallowed virus. While IAV/IBV are vulnerable to simulated digestive juices (gastric acid and bile/pancreatic juice), highly viscous mucus protects viral RNA and virions, allowing the virus to retain its infectivity. Our results suggest that virions and RNA present in swallowed mucus are not inactivated or degraded by the gastrointestinal environment, allowing their detection in feces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Paulin, L.; Tynkkynen, S.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Partanen, P.; Satokari, A.; Vesterlund, S.; Hendrickx, A.P.; Lebeer, S.; Keersmaecker, de S.C.; Vanderleyden, J.; Hämäläinen, T.; Laukkanen, S.; Salovuori, N.; Ritari, J.; Alatalo, E.; Korpela, R.; Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Lassig, A.; Hatakka, K.; Kinnunen, K.T.; Karjalainen, H.; Saxelin, M.; Laakso, K.; Surakka, A.; Palva, A.; Salusjärvi, T.; Auvinen, P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2009-01-01

    To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence

  16. Developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckley, David J; Linders, David R; Ching, Randal P

    2013-04-05

    Head and neck injuries, the leading cause of death for children in the U.S., are difficult to diagnose, treat, and prevent because of a critical void in our understanding of the biomechanical response of the immature cervical spine. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional and failure biomechanics of the cervical spine across multiple axes of loading throughout maturation. A correlational study design was used to examine the relationships governing spinal maturation and biomechanical flexibility curves and tolerance data using a cadaver human in vitro model. Eleven human cadaver cervical spines from across the developmental spectrum (2-28 years) were dissected into segments (C1-C2, C3-C5, and C6-C7) for biomechanical testing. Non-destructive flexibility tests were performed in tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. After measuring their intact biomechanical responses, each segment group was failed in different modes to measure the tissue tolerance in tension (C1-C2), compression (C3-C5), and extension (C5-C6). Classical injury patterns were observed in all of the specimens tested. Both the functional (pcervical spine throughout maturation and elucidated age, spinal level, and mode of loading specificity. These data support our understanding of the child cervical spine from a developmental perspective and facilitate the generation of injury prevention or management schema for the mitigation of child spine injuries and their deleterious effects.

  17. Assessment of the quality of cervical mucus among users of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system at different times of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Leticia G; Marchi, Nadia M; Pitoli, Ana C; Hidalgo, Maria M; Silveira, Carolina; Modesto, Waleska; Bahamondes, Luis

    2016-08-01

    The quality of cervical mucus (CM) among the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) users is controversial. The objectives were to assess CM compared to the levels of oestradiol (E2) and the frequency of cycles with luteal activity among users of the LNG-IUS. In total, 224 LNG-IUS users for between two months and five years were recruited at a Brazilian family planning clinic. For the cross-sectional part of the study, we enrolled 175 LNG-IUS users at 2, 6 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after insertion (25 women in each group), and we performed one evaluation. For the prospective part of the study, we enrolled 49 LNG-IUS users at the same lengths of use after insertion (7 women in each group), and we evaluated these women once a week for five consecutive weeks. . Mean (± SEM) CM scores of all evaluations among women with single and weekly evaluations were between 3.3 ± 0.9 and 8.5 ± 0.3, respectively independently of the length of use of the LNG-IUS. Mean E2 values ranged from 45.5 ± 6.8 to 472.5 ± 34.7 pg/ml and the maximum ovarian follicle diameter on the days of evaluation varied from 14.0 ± 1.3 to 31.2 ± 0.4 mm. The mean CM score of all evaluations, independent of the length of use of the LNG-IUS and normal levels of serum E2, was below 10 was according to the WHO is inadequate for sperm penetration.

  18. Biomolecular and epidemiological aspects of human papillomavirus induced cervical carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine Frederike Wilhelmine

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women worldwide. Organised screening programmes aim to trace precursor lesions in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical carcinogenesis. Most HPV infections a

  19. SDS—PAGE分离不孕奶牛宫颈黏液AsAb%Separation of AsAb Cervical Mucus by SDS-PAGE in Infertility Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑛; 高庆华

    2011-01-01

    免疫不孕严重影响奶牛正常繁殖,相对于其他不孕类型不容易被确诊,准确对孕牛与不孕牛之间宫颈黏液AsAb的差异进行定性和定量分析,对奶牛免疫不孕的治疗研究有重要的意义。本试验将浅盘凝集检测和实际生产结果相结合确定的不孕奶牛和可孕奶牛作为研究对象,对宫颈黏液中蛋白进行SDS—PAGE电泳并对其分离条件进行优选。结果表明,本试验建立了一种在8%分离胶上,以15p~L上样量,100V,电泳3~4h的SDS—PAGE分离奶牛宫颈黏液的有效方法:对浅盘凝集检测和实际生产记录相结合确定AsAb免疫性不孕奶牛的宫颈黏液,用%Immune infertility can affect the normal reproduction of dairy cows, seriously and it is more difficult to diagnosis it than other types of infertility. It is very important that the quantitative and qualitative analysis for the difference of AsAb between fertility and infertility cows were researched. Proteins in cervical mucus of the infertility cows and fertility cows were determined by TAT test combining with actual production results, and separated by SDS-PAGE. All of conditions were optimized. Result showed that a kind of effective method of separation of protein in dairy eows's cervical mucus by SDS-PAGE was established. The optimizing conditions were 8% separation glue, 15p~L sample, 100V, electrnphoresis for 3-4h. A protein, with the molecular weight of 22-25kDa, which preliminarily determined is AsAb Light Chain, was gotten. Infertility cows contained AsAb Light Chain in cervical mucus with 100% (24/24), and the percentage of fertility cows containing AsAb Light Chain in cervical mucus was 14.3% (2/14), but the expression level of AsAb Light Chain was lower than that of infertility cows.

  20. Dried cervical spots for human papillomaviruses identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Valérie; Garrigue, Isabelle; Jaquet, Antoine; Horo, Apollinaire; Minga, Albert; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Dabis, François; Fleury, Hervé

    2013-07-01

    Financial and operational constraints limit low-resource countries in the screening of high-risk genital human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV), the etiological agents of cervical cancer. With its simple storage, conservation and shipping, dried cervical sample (DCS) could represent an efficient tool. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of HPV genotyping from DCS. Cervical samples were obtained from 50 women infected with HIV-1 in Côte d'Ivoire. After DNA extraction from both DCS and matched liquid cervical samples (LCS), HPV genotyping was performed and the concordance of genotyping results was evaluated. HPV prevalence was 88% in LCS and 78% in DCS. Kappa statistic was 0.51 for the presence of any genotype (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.77) and 0.73 for HR-HPV (0.45-0.99). Out of 50 samples, 45 were HPV-positive for DCS and/or LCS, and HR-HPV were detected in 37 samples (74%) with 36 HR-HPV multiple infections. Any genotype and HR genotype identification was concordant/compatible in 86% (43/50) and 88% (44/50) of samples, respectively. In most instances, kappa statistics for detection of type-specific HPV was over 0.6 (including HPV-16, -18, -31, -33). An excellent agreement (kappa statistic ≥ 0.81) was found for eight genotypes (HPV-6, -31, -35, -40, -56, -58, -66, and -82). In spite of interfering factors (multiple infections, different HPV loads, amplification competition, different inputs), DCS and LCS led to concordant/compatible results in most cases. DCS could represent an efficient tool for epidemiological field studies in resource-limited settings, and more importantly for improving the screening coverage and care management in women infected with HPV.

  1. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    2007-01-01

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of t

  2. Association of human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression with human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M J; Stanley, M W; Cruikshank, S; Carson, L

    1989-02-01

    Human papillomavirus infection plays an important causal role in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. The rate of infection with human papillomavirus as well as the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma are increased in immunosuppressed patients. We report a possible association between infection with human immunodeficiency virus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with human papillomavirus infection.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures - Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Paula A; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M Gregory

    2016-08-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number.

  4. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wang, Yong-Li; Zhu, Qing-An; Mao, Fang-Min; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported. To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans. Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs). Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD). The atlantoaxial (C1-2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute. Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  5. [Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, María Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article.

  6. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  7. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  8. Human Papillomavirus Cervical Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Region of Argentina With a High Incidence of Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tonon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.

  9. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Nepper-Christensen, Steen;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults.......To investigate if chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) can be used as a marker of asthma in young adults....

  10. Human Papillomavirus Testing in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wacholder, Sholom; Kinney, Walter; Gage, Julia C.; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence now supports the adoption of cervical cancer prevention strategies that explicitly focus on persistent infection with the causal agent, human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform an evidence-based transition to a new public health approach for cervical cancer screening, we summarize the natural history and cervical carcinogenicity of HPV and discuss the promise and uncertainties of currently available screening methods. New HPV infections acquired at any age are virtually always benign, but persistent infections with one of approximately 12 carcinogenic HPV types explain virtually all cases of cervical cancer. In the absence of an overtly persistent HPV infection, the risk of cervical cancer is extremely low. Thus, HPV test results predict the risk of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3) better and longer than cytological or colposcopic abnormalities, which are signs of HPV infection. The logical and inevitable move to HPV-based cervical cancer prevention strategies will require longer screening intervals that will disrupt current gynecologic and cytology laboratory practices built on frequent screening. A major challenge will be implementing programs that do not overtreat HPV-positive women who do not have obvious long-term persistence of HPV or treatable lesions at the time of initial evaluation. The greatest potential for reduction in cervical cancer rates from HPV screening is in low-resource regions that can implement infrequent rounds of low-cost HPV testing and treatment. PMID:21282563

  11. Papilomavírus humano e neoplasia cervical Human papillomavirus and cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês da Rosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O papilomavírus humano (HPV é um fator etiológico bem estabelecido para o câncer cervical. Esse vírus de DNA infecta primariamente o epitélio e pode induzir lesões benignas ou malignas na pele e na mucosa. Alguns HPVs são considerados de alto risco, responsáveis pela progressão das lesões precursoras até câncer cervical. A infecção genital pelo HPV é comum em mulheres jovens e geralmente é transitória. Uma pequena proporção de mulheres infectadas desenvolve câncer cervical, implicando o envolvimento de fatores ambientais e fatores genéticos na carcinogênese. Essa revisão aborda a estrutura viral, classificação e patologia do HPV, história natural e fatores de risco para neoplasia cervical e perspectivas futuras com a vacina anti-HPV.Human papillomavirus (HPV has been established as an important etiological factor for the development of cervical cancer. This DNA virus primarily infects the epithelium and can induce benign and malignant lesions of the mucous membranes and skin. Some HPVs are considered high risk due to their role in malignant progression of cervical tumors. Genital HPV infections are common and usually transient among young sexually active women. Only a small fraction of infected women develop cervical cancer, implying the involvement of environmental and genetic cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis. Classification, virology, pathology, natural history, epidemiological features of genital HPV infection, and future prospects for cervical cancer prevention with HPV vaccines will be reviewed here.

  12. A mucus adhesion promoting protein, MapA, mediates the adhesion of Lactobacillus reuteri to Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yukihiro; Okada, Sanae; Uchimura, Tai; Satoh, Eiichi

    2006-07-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is one of the dominant lactobacilli found in the gastrointestinal tract of various animals. A surface protein of L. reuteri 104R, mucus adhesion promoting protein (MapA), is considered to be an adhesion factor of this strain. We investigated the relation between MapA and adhesion of L. reuteri to human intestinal (Caco-2) cells. Quantitative analysis of the adhesion of L. reuteri strains to Caco-2 cells showed that various L. reuteri strains bind not only to mucus but also to intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, purified MapA bound to Caco-2 cells, and this binding inhibited the adhesion of L. reuteri in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on these observations, the adhesion of L. reuteri appears due to the binding of MapA to receptor-like molecules on Caco-2 cells. Further, far-western analysis indicated the existence of multiple receptor-like molecules in Caco-2 cells.

  13. The StcE metalloprotease of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli reduces the inner mucus layer and promotes adherence to human colonic epithelium ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hews, Claire L; Tran, Seav-Ly; Wegmann, Udo; Brett, Bernard; Walsham, Alistair D S; Kavanaugh, Devon; Ward, Nicole J; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2017-01-05

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a major foodborne pathogen and tightly adheres to human colonic epithelium by forming attaching/effacing lesions. To reach the epithelial surface, EHEC must penetrate the thick mucus layer protecting the colonic epithelium. In this study, we investigated how EHEC interacts with the intestinal mucus layer using mucin-producing LS174T colon carcinoma cells and human colonic mucosal biopsies. The level of EHEC binding and attaching/effacing lesion formation in LS174T cells was higher compared to mucin-deficient colon carcinoma cell lines, and initial adherence was independent of the presence of flagellin, Escherichia coli common pilus, or long polar fimbriae. Although EHEC infection did not affect gene expression of secreted mucins, it resulted in reduced MUC2 glycoprotein levels. This effect was dependent on the catalytic activity of the secreted metalloprotease StcE, which reduced the inner mucus layer and thereby promoted EHEC access and binding to the epithelium in vitro and ex vivo. Given the lack of efficient therapies against EHEC infection, StcE may represent a suitable target for future treatment and prevention strategies.

  14. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  15. Lactobacillus Adhesion to Mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell L. Van Tassell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucus provides protective functions in the gastrointestinal tract and plays an important role in the adhesion of microorganisms to host surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins polymerize, forming a framework to which certain microbial populations can adhere, including probiotic Lactobacillus species. Numerous mechanisms for adhesion to mucus have been discovered in lactobacilli, including partially characterized mucus binding proteins. These mechanisms vary in importance with the in vitro models studied, which could significantly affect the perceived probiotic potential of the organisms. Understanding the nature of mucus-microbe interactions could be the key to elucidating the mechanisms of probiotic adhesion within the host.

  16. Efeito da inserção de implante anticoncepcional contendo acetato de nomegestrol sobre a função ovariana, muco cervical e penetração espermática Effects of a contraceptive implant containing nomegestrol acetate on ovarian function, cervical mucus and sperm penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Cristina Barbosa

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar o efeito de um único implante de acetato de nomegestrol (Uniplant sobre função ovariana, produção do muco cervical e penetração espermática, quando inserido na fase pré-ovulatória. MÉTODOS: estudo clínico aberto, comparativo, incluindo 20 mulheres com ciclos menstruais regulares que foram estudadas durante um ciclo menstrual antes (controle e um ciclo menstrual depois da inserção do implante. Dosagens de hormônio luteinizante (LH, estradiol e progesterona, ultra-sonografia vaginal, coleta de muco cervical e teste de penetração espermática foram realizados. Para comparação estatística, foi utilizado o Student t-test para grupos pareados e o teste Wilcoxon não paramétrico. Os valores estão mostrados como médias ± erro padrão. RESULTADOS: todos os ciclos controles foram ovulatórios com parâmetros normais. Os níveis pré-ovulatórios de estradiol e LH diminuíram significativamente de 603,2 ± 78,0 pmol/l e 22,5 ± 6,5 UI/l na pré-inserção do implante para 380,7 ± 51,9 pmol/l e 4,9 ± 1,3 UI/l 48 horas após a inserção (p OBJECTIVE: to study the effect of a single contraceptive implant of nomegestrol acetate (Uniplant on the ovarian function, cervical mucus production and sperm penetration, when inserted in women in the preovulatory phase. METHODS: twenty women with regular menstrual cycles were included in an open comparative study. All participants were investigated during one menstrual cycle before (control and one menstrual cycle after implant insertion. Measurements of estradiol, LH, and progesterone, as well as transvaginal sonography, cervical mucus examination and sperm penetration test, were carried out. Statistical analysis was performed with the paired t-test and the non-parametric test of Wilcoxon. RESULTS: all control cycles were ovulatory and presented normal parameters. Preovulatory estradiol and LH peak decreased significantly from 603.2 ± 78.0 pmo/l and 22.5 ± 6.5 IU/l at pre

  17. Techniques to Bring Up Mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD: Lifestyle Management Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Techniques to Bring Up Mucus Make an Appointment Refer ... breathing may become difficult, and infection may occur. Techniques to remove mucus are often done after using ...

  18. Cervical human spine loads during traumatomechanical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallieris, D.; Rizzetti, A.; Mattern. R.; Thunnissen, J.G.M.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The last decade's improvements in automotive safety resulted into a significant decrease of fatal injuries. However, due to the use of belts and airbags it can be observed that cervical spine injuries, non-severe and severe, have become more important. It seems that inertial loading of the neck by

  19. Cervical human spine loads during traumatomechanical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallieris, D.; Rizzetti, A.; Mattern. R.; Thunnissen, J.G.M.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The last decade's improvements in automotive safety resulted into a significant decrease of fatal injuries. However, due to the use of belts and airbags it can be observed that cervical spine injuries, non-severe and severe, have become more important. It seems that inertial loading of the neck by t

  20. Cervical human spine loads during traumatomechanical investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallieris, D.; Rizzetti, A.; Mattern. R.; Thunnissen, J.G.M.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The last decade's improvements in automotive safety resulted into a significant decrease of fatal injuries. However, due to the use of belts and airbags it can be observed that cervical spine injuries, non-severe and severe, have become more important. It seems that inertial loading of the neck by t

  1. Active microrheology of Chaetopterus mucus determines three intrinsic lengthscales that govern material properties

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, W J; Deheyn, D D; Morales-Sanz, A; Blair, D L; Urbach, J S; Robertson-Anderson, R M

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the scale-dependent rheological properties of mucus from the Chaetopterus marine worm and determine the intrinsic lengthscales controlling distinct rheological and structural regimes. Mucus produced by this ubiquitous filter feeder serves a host of roles including filtration, protection and trapping nutrients. The ease of clean mucus extraction coupled with similarities to human mucus rheology also make Chaetopterus mucus a potential model system for elucidating human mucus mechanics. We use optically trapped microsphere probes of 2-10 microns, to induce oscillatory strains and measure mucus stress response. We show that viscoelastic properties are highly dependent on the strain scale (l) with three distinct regimes emerging: microscale: l_110 microns. While mucus response is similar to water for l_1 indicating that probes rarely contact the mucus mesh, for l_2 the response is distinctly more viscous and independent of probe size, demonstrating that the mucus behaves as a continuum. However, t...

  2. PCR analysis of the upstream regulatory region of human papillomavirus genomes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Y K; Arends, M. J.; Duvall, E.; Bird, C C

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To test whether human papillomavirus (HPV) variants with large scale sequence alterations to the upstream regulatory region are present in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) and cervical carcinomas. METHODS--New PCR based assays were designed specifically to detect large scale insertion/deletion alterations in the upstream regulatory region of HPV 16 and 18. The assays were applied to 24 cases of CIN and 34 cases of cervical carcinoma previously shown to contain these two high ri...

  3. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  4. A simple method for measuring thickness of the mucus gel layer adherent to rat, frog and human gastric mucosa: influence of feeding, prostaglandin, N-acetylcysteine and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerss, S; Allen, A; Garner, A

    1982-08-01

    1. A technique has been developed for measuring thickness of the gastric surface mucus gel layer. Mucosal sections (1.6 mm) were cut from frog and rat stomach and human antrum, mounted transversely and viewed by an inverse microscope (x 200 magnification) under dark field illumination or phase contrast. The mucus layer was readily distinguishable and its dimensions could be recorded by means of an eyepiece graticule. 2. Mean mucus gel thickness in rat, frog was 73, 76, 55 and 192 micrometer respectively. However, there was variation in the average thickness of the gel layer between individual mucosae from the same species (up to twofold). Mucus thickness between adjacent regions of the same mucosal section also varied markedly (up to tenfold). 3. Topical administration of 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2 by oral intubation caused a significant increase in thickness in both rat and frog at doses of 5 microgram/ml and 0.5 microgram/ml respectively. Feeding and exposure of the mucosa to N-acetylcysteine (10-20%, w/v) produced variable effects whereas pepsin (1 mg/ml) caused a marked reduction in thickness of the surface gel layer in both rat and frog. 4. The technique provides a rapid and simple method for determining gastrointestinal mucus thickness in relation to mucosal morphology. It is ideally suited for studying the control of mucus secretion and effect of drugs.

  5. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  6. MicroRNA expression variability in human cervical tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M Pereira

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short (approximately 22 nt non-coding regulatory RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Deregulation of miRNA expression has been discovered in a wide variety of tumours and it is now clear that they contribute to cancer development and progression. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and there is a strong need for a non-invasive, fast and efficient method to diagnose the disease. We investigated miRNA expression profiles in cervical cancer using a microarray platform containing probes for mature miRNAs. We have evaluated miRNA expression profiles of a heterogeneous set of cervical tissues from 25 different patients. This set included 19 normal cervical tissues, 4 squamous cell carcinoma, 5 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL and 9 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL samples. We observed high variability in miRNA expression especially among normal cervical samples, which prevented us from obtaining a unique miRNA expression signature for this tumour type. However, deregulated miRNAs were identified in malignant and pre-malignant cervical tissues after tackling the high expression variability observed. We were also able to identify putative target genes of relevant candidate miRNAs. Our results show that miRNA expression shows natural variability among human samples, which complicates miRNA data profiling analysis. However, such expression noise can be filtered and does not prevent the identification of deregulated miRNAs that play a role in the malignant transformation of cervical squamous cells. Deregulated miRNAs highlight new candidate gene targets allowing for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the development of this tumour type.

  7. Human papillomavirus vaccination in the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Astbury, Katharine

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. Although the introduction of comprehensive screening programs has reduced the disease incidence in developed countries, it remains a major problem in the developing world. The recent licensing of 2 vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and HPV-18, the viruses responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases, offers the hope of disease prevention. In this article, we review the role of HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer and the evidence to support the introduction of vaccination programs in young women and discuss the potential obstacles to widespread vaccination. In addition, we discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated, including the potential need for booster doses of the vaccine and the role of concomitant vaccination in men.

  8. Corneal mucus plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunfelder, F T; Wright, P; Tripathi, R C

    1977-02-01

    Corneal mucus plaques adhered to the anterior corneal surface in 17 of 67 advanced cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The plaques were translucent to opaque and varied in size and shape, from multiple isolated islands to bizarre patterns involving more than half the corneal surface. Ultrastructurally, they consisted of mucus mixed with desquamated degenerating epithelial cells and proteinaceous and lipoidal material. The condition may be symptomatic but can be controlled and prevented in most cases by topical ocular application of 10% acetylcysteine.

  9. Untypable human papillomavirus infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among women with abnormal cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Alberizzi, Paola; Silini, Enrico Maria; Dal Bello, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    The risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and/or invasive cervical cancer associated with untypable human papillomavirus (HPV) infections has been not investigated fully. HPV infection caused by 18 high-risk and 7 low-risk genotypes as detected by the INNO-LIPA genotyping system, was investigated in 4,258 women with abnormal Pap smear referred to a colposcopic service. The prevalence of HPV infection was 76.1%. Rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3+ were 0.88% (9/1,017) in HPV-negative subjects, 1.8% (7/380) in subjects with untypable HPV infection, 3.2% (11/343) in subjects with single/multiple low-risk types, 28.3% (201/709) in subjects with multiple low and high-risk types, 15.2% (162/1,069) in subjects with single high-risk types, and 31.2% (229/733) in those with multiple high-risk types. Compared to women without any HPV infection, the odds ratios of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ or grade 3+ in subjects with untypable or low-risk HPV genotypes were 5.73 (95% CI = 2.79-11.78) and 12.4 (95% CI = 6.31-24.5, P = 0.014 compared to untypable) and 3.1 (95% CI = 1.11-8.16) and 7.1 (95% CI = 2.9-17.2, P = 0.07 compared to untypable), respectively. In the subgroup of subjects with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or negative colposcopy/biopsy, the progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ at follow-up (median 25 months, range 6-70) was 2% (14/684), 3.4% (7/205), and 5.6% (11/195, P = 0.04 compared to negative) among negative, untypable, and low-risk HPV infection, respectively. The risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia associated with untypable HPV infection was higher than that recorded among uninfected women, but lower than the risk associated with low- or high-risk HPV genotypes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human Papilloma Virus 16 and 18 Association in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancers by In Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Manisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate the association of high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV 16, 18 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers by in-situ hybridization (ISH technique. Study Group: Cervical biopsy and hysterectomy specimen of 78 young and adult women, attending Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, who were clinically or cytologically suspected of cervical intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer were taken as source of target viral DNA. Material: Formalin 10% as fixative H & E stain as routine staining agent In-situ hybridization kit for HPV 16 and 18 DNA. Method: After following standard protocol for surgical grossing, HPV 16, 18 In-situ hybridization kit was used on paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results: The percentage of positive cases was highest in cervical cancer patients followed by cervical intraepithelial lesions, high grade, and low grade. Conclusion: This study has been carried out for the first in our state and our results show high degree of positivity of HPV 16/18 in females with cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers attending our tertiary care hospital.

  11. Detection of mucus glycoconjugates in human conjunctiva by using the lectin colloidal gold technique in TEM. I. A quantitative study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, P; Maltarello, M C; Bonvicini, F; Caramazza, R; Laschi, R

    1986-08-01

    We applied a specific cytochemical reaction to characterize the glycoconjugates produced by goblet and non-goblet epithelial cells of normal human conjunctiva. For this purpose we utilized the lectins, proteins of vegetal origin, which are extremely sensitive in binding glycosidic residues. In particular, we used WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA conjugated with colloidal gold as ultrastructural marker for Transmission Electron Microscopy. This technique allowed us also to perform a quantitative analysis, by counting colloidal gold particles present on mucus granules. In this way we analyzed the content both of goblet and non-goblet epithelial cells. In the former, WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA receptors, here reported in decreasing density, were present. In the latter WGA was always positive, SBA and PNA sometimes were negative, ConA was always negative. We speculate the different contribution to mucus production by these two sources may be important in evaluating tear film stability alterations occurring in those diseases in which non-goblet epithelial cell vesicles increase.

  12. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SH; Zali, MR; Raoufi, M; Nadji, M; Kowsarian, P; Nowroozi, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of HPV -16,18, and 33 in cases of cervical cancer from Iran. Material and Methods: This retrospective study covered 100 patients with uterine cervical carcinomas who were referred to two referral centers for cancer in Tehran-Iran. Pathological blocks were collected for these cases and initial review of the blocks showed poor specimens in 18 cases, which left 82 cases for the study. These samples were histologically examined to verify the presence and the type of carcinoma. The next step was in situ hybridzation for the detection of HPV common DNA. In Situ hybridization was preformed on all samples. Finally, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was preformed for the HPV types 16, 18, and 33. PCR amplification of exon 5 of the p53 gene was used as an internal control for the integrity of DNA. Takara PCR Human papilloma Detection method was used which includes primer for HPV 16, 18, and 33. Three primers were used alone, or in combination, in order to increase the sensitivity of the detection. Results: The majority of tumors were squamous cell carcinomas (87%). The rest were adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. None of the 82 different cervical carcinoma tissue samples were found to be positive by in situ hybridization. In the PCR samples, amplification of DNA was observed for 69 tumor specimens. In the remainning13 cases, the DNA in fixed tissue was degraded, as verified by the absence of an internal control band (p53). Out of the total 69 tumors (85.5%) with adequate DNA contained HPV band on PCR. The majority (73.9%) of HPV

  13. Nonlinear optical microscopy and ultrasound imaging of human cervical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Lisa M.; Feltovich, Helen; Carlson, Lindsey C.; Hall, Gunnsteinn; Campagnola, Paul J.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    The cervix softens and shortens as its collagen microstructure rearranges in preparation for birth, but premature change may lead to premature birth. The global preterm birth rate has not decreased despite decades of research, likely because cervical microstructure is poorly understood. Our group has developed a multilevel approach to evaluating the human cervix. We are developing quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques for noninvasive interrogation of cervical microstructure and corroborating those results with high-resolution images of microstructure from second harmonic generation imaging (SHG) microscopy. We obtain ultrasound measurements from hysterectomy specimens, prepare the tissue for SHG, and stitch together several hundred images to create a comprehensive view of large areas of cervix. The images are analyzed for collagen orientation and alignment with curvelet transform, and registered with QUS data, facilitating multiscale analysis in which the micron-scale SHG images and millimeter-scale ultrasound data interpretation inform each other. This novel combination of modalities allows comprehensive characterization of cervical microstructure in high resolution. Through a detailed comparative study, we demonstrate that SHG imaging both corroborates the quantitative ultrasound measurements and provides further insight. Ultimately, a comprehensive understanding of specific microstructural cervical change in pregnancy should lead to novel approaches to the prevention of preterm birth.

  14. Human Papillomavirus 16E6 Oncogene Mutation in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Xiao-qin Ha; Tong-de Lv; Chuan-ping Xing; Bin Liu; Xiao-zhe Cao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are considered to be the major causes of cervical cancer. HPV16 is the most common type of HR-HPVs and HPV16 E6 gene is one of the major oncogenes. Specific mutations are considered as dangerous factors causing CC. This study was designed to find mutations of HPV16 E6 and the relationship between the mutations and the happening of CC.Methods: The tissue DNA was extracted from 15 biopsies of CC. Part of HPV16 E6 gene (nucleotide 201-523) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the CC tissue DNA. The PCR fragments were sequenced and analyzed.Results: The result of PCR showed that the positive rate of HPV16 E6 was 93.33% (14/15). After sequencing and analyzing, in the 13 out of 14 PCR fragments, 4 maintained prototype (30.77%), 8 had a same 350G mutation (61.54%), and 1 had a 249G mutation (7.69%).Conclusion: This study suggest that there is a high infection rate of HPV in cervical cancer and most of the HPV16 E6 gene has mutations. Those mutations may have an association with the development of cervical cancer.

  15. Oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes and the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, with more than half a million new cases worldwide each year. In the majority of cervical cancers a persistent infection with high-risk (hr) Human papillomavirus (HPV) types has been proven to be the causative agent. Prevention of cervical ca

  16. Oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes and the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, with more than half a million new cases worldwide each year. In the majority of cervical cancers a persistent infection with high-risk (hr) Human papillomavirus (HPV) types has been proven to be the causative agent. Prevention of cervical ca

  17. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the α-Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species α5 (HPV51), α6 (HPV56), α7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59) and α9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58). Less evidence is available for a thirteenth type (HPV68, α7), which is classified as a 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic). Moreover, seven other phylogenetically related types (HPV26, HPV53, HPV66, HPV67, HPV68, HPV70 and HPV73) were identified as single HPV infections in certain rare cases of cervical cancer and were considered possibly carcinogenic (2B carcinogens). Recently, Halec et al [7] demonstrated that the molecular signature of HPV-induced carcinogenesis (presence of type-specific spliced E6*| mRNA; increased expression of p16; and decreased expression of cyclin D1, p53 and Rb) was similar in cervical cancers containing single infections with one of the eight afore-mentioned 2A or 2B carcinogens to those in cancers with single infections with group 1 carcinogens. Ninety six percent of cervical cancers are attributable to one of the 13 most common HPV types (groups 1 and 2A). Including the additional seven HPV types (group 2B) added 2.6%, to reach a total of 98.7% of all HPV-positive cervical cancers. From recently updated meta-analyses, it was shown that HPV68, HPV26, HPV66, HPV67, HPV73 and HPV82 were significantly more common in cancer cases than in women with normal cervical cytology, suggesting that for these HPV types, an upgrading of the carcinogen classification could be considered. However, there is no need to include them in HPV screening tests or vaccines, given their rarity in

  18. CERVICAL CANCER AND THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as Mexico, Columbia and many developed nations), the reduction in ..... detection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant Thai women: implications ... Moscicki A. Impact of HPV infection in adolescent populations. J Adolesc ...

  19. IL-13–induced airway mucus production is attenuated by MAPK13 inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevy, Yael G.; Patel, Anand C.; Romero, Arthur G.; Patel, Dhara A.; Tucker, Jennifer; Roswit, William T.; Miller, Chantel A.; Heier, Richard F.; Byers, Derek E.; Brett, Tom J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased mucus production is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms for pathogenic mucus production are largely undetermined. Accordingly, there are no specific and effective anti-mucus therapeutics. Here, we define a signaling pathway from chloride channel calcium-activated 1 (CLCA1) to MAPK13 that is responsible for IL-13–driven mucus production in human airway epithelial cells. The same pathway was also highly activated in the lungs of humans with excess mucus production due to COPD. We further validated the pathway by using structure-based drug design to develop a series of novel MAPK13 inhibitors with nanomolar potency that effectively reduced mucus production in human airway epithelial cells. These results uncover and validate a new pathway for regulating mucus production as well as a corresponding therapeutic approach to mucus overproduction in inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:23187130

  20. Molecular tests to detect human papillomavirus infection in patients with cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait KH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Khalid H Sait1, Faten S Gazzaz21Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, 2Medical Virology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the actual human papillomavirus (HPV subtype that presents in cervical dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in the Saudi population, and the feasibility of using Hybrid Capture 2 technique (HC2 on biopsy specimens to detect certain HPV subtypes.Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted from March 2007 to December 2008. The subjects studied were women with a mean age of 48.18 years, who attended the hospital for cervical biopsy due to the suspected diagnosis of cervical dysplasia or an invasive disease, based on previous suspicious Pap smear. HPV DNA hybridization by HC2 was performed on the cervical biopsies of these patients, to detect HPV infection.Results: During the period of this study, 45 patients had cervical biopsies taken for HPV testing. Seven patients had a negative HC2 result and were found to have no cervical dysplasia on the final pathology review. Seventeen cases with cervical dysplasia and 21 patients with invasive disease were presented; the mean age was 48 years. HC2 testing for HPV were found to be positive in patients with cervical dysplasia, invasive carcinoma, and all in 5 (29.4%, 13 (61.9% and 18 (47.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the test is 47% and specificity is 100%.Conclusion: The use of molecular detection of HPV DNA by HC2 in biopsy is feasible and effective. These results confirm the finding that HPV contributes to the etiology of cervical cancer in Muslim society.Keywords: HPV, subtyping, cervical neoplasia

  1. Mucus hypersecretion in the airway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; WEN Fu-qiang; XU Dan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mucus hypersecretion is a distinguishing feature of Chronic intlammation diseases,such as asthma,1chronic bronchitis.2 bronchiectasis3 and cystic fibrosis.4Mucus hypersecretion leads to impairment of mucociliary clearance,abnormal bacterial plantation,mucus plug in the airway,and dysfunction of gas exchange.5

  2. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions

  3. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    1999-01-01

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions ca

  4. Transport of particles in intestinal mucus under simulated infant and adult physiological conditions: impact of mucus structure and extracellular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macierzanka, Adam; Mackie, Alan R; Bajka, Balazs H; Rigby, Neil M; Nau, Françoise; Dupont, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The final boundary between digested food and the cells that take up nutrients in the small intestine is a protective layer of mucus. In this work, the microstructural organization and permeability of the intestinal mucus have been determined under conditions simulating those of infant and adult human small intestines. As a model, we used the mucus from the proximal (jejunal) small intestines of piglets and adult pigs. Confocal microscopy of both unfixed and fixed mucosal tissue showed mucus lining the entire jejunal epithelium. The mucus contained DNA from shed epithelial cells at different stages of degradation, with higher amounts of DNA found in the adult pig. The pig mucus comprised a coherent network of mucin and DNA with higher viscosity than the more heterogeneous piglet mucus, which resulted in increased permeability of the latter to 500-nm and 1-µm latex beads. Multiple-particle tracking experiments revealed that diffusion of the probe particles was considerably enhanced after treating mucus with DNase. The fraction of diffusive 500-nm probe particles increased in the pig mucus from 0.6% to 64% and in the piglet mucus from ca. 30% to 77% after the treatment. This suggests that extracellular DNA can significantly contribute to the microrheology and barrier properties of the intestinal mucus layer. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the structure and permeability of the small intestinal mucus have been compared between different age groups and the contribution of extracellular DNA highlighted. The results help to define rules governing colloidal transport in the developing small intestine. These are required for engineering orally administered pharmaceutical preparations with improved delivery, as well as for fabricating novel foods with enhanced nutritional quality or for controlled calorie uptake.

  5. Transport of particles in intestinal mucus under simulated infant and adult physiological conditions: impact of mucus structure and extracellular DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Macierzanka

    Full Text Available The final boundary between digested food and the cells that take up nutrients in the small intestine is a protective layer of mucus. In this work, the microstructural organization and permeability of the intestinal mucus have been determined under conditions simulating those of infant and adult human small intestines. As a model, we used the mucus from the proximal (jejunal small intestines of piglets and adult pigs. Confocal microscopy of both unfixed and fixed mucosal tissue showed mucus lining the entire jejunal epithelium. The mucus contained DNA from shed epithelial cells at different stages of degradation, with higher amounts of DNA found in the adult pig. The pig mucus comprised a coherent network of mucin and DNA with higher viscosity than the more heterogeneous piglet mucus, which resulted in increased permeability of the latter to 500-nm and 1-µm latex beads. Multiple-particle tracking experiments revealed that diffusion of the probe particles was considerably enhanced after treating mucus with DNase. The fraction of diffusive 500-nm probe particles increased in the pig mucus from 0.6% to 64% and in the piglet mucus from ca. 30% to 77% after the treatment. This suggests that extracellular DNA can significantly contribute to the microrheology and barrier properties of the intestinal mucus layer. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the structure and permeability of the small intestinal mucus have been compared between different age groups and the contribution of extracellular DNA highlighted. The results help to define rules governing colloidal transport in the developing small intestine. These are required for engineering orally administered pharmaceutical preparations with improved delivery, as well as for fabricating novel foods with enhanced nutritional quality or for controlled calorie uptake.

  6. Human papillomavirus genotypes and cervical cancer in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natphopsuk, Sitakan; Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa; Pientong, Chamsai; Sinawat, Supat; Yuenyao, Pissamai; Ishida, Takafumi; Settheetham, Dariwan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer. More than 100 HPV genotypes have been identified; however the distribution varies geographically and according to ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of HPV subtypes among Northeast Thai women. Subjects included 198 cases of SCCA and 198 age-matched, healthy controls. HPV-DNA was amplified by PCR using the consensus primers GP5+/6+ system followed by reverse line blot hybridization genotyping. The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 21 (10.1%) and 152 (76.8%) in the controls and in the cases, respectively. High-risk HPV significantly increased the risk for cervical cancer with an OR of 42.4 (95%CI: 22.4-81.4, p<0.001) and an adjusted OR of 40.7-fold (95%CI: 21.5-76.8, p <0.001). HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in the SCCA (56.2%) followed by HPV-58 (17.8%) and HPV-18 (13.6%); whereas HPV-58 (46.4%) was a prominent genotype in the controls followed by HPV-16 (39.3%) and unidentified HPV types (25.0%). These findings indicate that HPV infection remains a critical risk factor for SCCA; particularly, HPV-16, HPV-58 and HPV-18. In order to eradicate cervical cancer, sustained health education, promoted use of prophylactics and a HPV-58 vaccine should be introduced in this region.

  7. Cervical carcinoma in Southern Mexico: Human papillomavirus and cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc-Mariano; Antonio-Véjar, Verónica; Zamudio-López, Noelio; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del Carmen; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; Terán-Porcayo, Marco-Antonio; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with cervical cancer (CC) and normal cervical cytology in the Southern region of Mexico, and to know the contribution of HPV types and cofactors in cervical cancer etiology. A case-control study was performed in 133 women with CC and 256 controls. HPV detection was done by MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ PCR systems and typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism or DNA sequencing. HPV was found in 100% of CC and 35.5% of controls. The genotype distribution in CC was: HPV 16 (66.8%), 18 (9%), 31 (7.5%), 45 (4.5%), 58 (3.7%), 69 (3%), 52 (1.6%), 6, 11, 33, 56, and 67 (0.8% each). Among controls, HPV 33 followed by HPV 16 were the most frequent. Cervical cancer was associated with HPV 16 (OR=573.5), HPV 18 (OR=804.4), and undetermined risk HPV (types 67 and 69) (OR=434.3). Age at first intercourse or =3 births (OR=16) were significant risk factors for CC. HPV 16, by far, is the most frequent type in CC, HPV 16 and 18 are responsible for 75.8% of the CC cases and high-risk HPV for 94.7%, which is useful data to take into account in vaccination programs. HPV 33 is the most frequent type in controls and high-risk HPV are more common than low-risk HPV.

  8. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the -Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species 5 (HPV51), 6 (HPV56), 7 (H...

  9. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  10. Human papillomavirus detection from human immunodeficiency virus-infected Colombian women's paired urine and cervical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Munoz

    Full Text Available Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204 were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R. HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58 and two low-risk (LR-HPV (HPV-6/11 types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine followed by HPV-31(47.2% in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7% in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance.

  11. Ultrastructural localization of human papilloma virus by nonradioactive in situ hybridization on tissue of human cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Rafferty, P A; Warhol, M J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A nonradioactive in situ hybridization was developed to localize human papilloma virus (HPV) at the ultrastructural level. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cervical biopsies from human uterine cervices clinically suspicious of condyloma were embedded in Lowicryl K4M at low temperature...... confirmed the specificity of the HPV positive signals. CONCLUSIONS: This study helps define the subcellular compartmentalization of HPV DNA in infected human cells....

  12. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...... on cervical cancer prevention. More than 6,000 women diagnosed with HG-CIN or ICC from 17 European countries were enrolled in two parallel cross-sectional studies (108288/108290). Centralised histopathology review and standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical...... higher in ICC than in HG-CIN. The difference in age at diagnosis between CIN3 and squamous cervical cancer for HPV18 (9 years) was significantly less compared to HPV31/33/'other' (23/20/17 years), and for HPV45 (1 year) than HPV16/31/33/'other' (15/23/20/17 years). In Europe, HPV16 predominates in both...

  13. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-07-30

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0-91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7-83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9-73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9-71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9-15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3-21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7-19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases.

  14. Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruhuri, Bernadette; Tarivonda, Len; Tenet, Vanessa; Sinha, Rohit; Snijders, Peter J F; Clifford, Gary; Pang, James; McAdam, Margaret; Meijer, Chris J L M; Frazer, Ian H; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-05-01

    To provide information on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the distribution of individual HPV types in Pacific Islands, we conducted a population-based survey in Vanuatu, South Pacific. Nine hundred and eighty-seven women between 18 and 64 years of age were included. GP5(+)/6(+)-mediated PCR assay was used for HPV testing. The prevalence of 44 HPV types was 28.4% corresponding to an age (world)-standardized prevalence of 25.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.9%-28.0%]. The prevalence of high-risk (HR) HPV types was 21.7% (age-standardized prevalence of 19.2%; 95% CI, 16.4%-22.0%). Among 840 women with adequate cytologic results, 13.6% showed cervical abnormalities, including 3.6% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 0.8% with invasive cervical carcinoma. HPV prevalence declined from 46.1% in women aged ≤21 to 15.3% in those ≥45 years. Being single was significantly associated with HPV positivity. HR HPV findings by PCR assay and hybrid capture 2 (HC2; conducted in Vanuatu) were moderately correlated (κ test = 0.59). The positive predictive values of HR HPV positivity for HSIL or worse were 27.6% for PCR and 35.2% for HC2 among women aged ≥30. Nearly half of screening-positive women could not be reevaluated mainly on account of the difficulty to trace back women. The availability of a rapid HPV testing method that allows see-and-treat approaches at the same visit would be, therefore, essential. On account of their high cumulative burden of cervical lesions, also women older than 40 years should be included in at least the first screening round in unscreened populations.

  15. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Bhatla; Kriti Puri; Elizabeth Joseph; Alka Kriplani; Venkateswaran K. Iyer; Sreenivas, V

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is considered a potential cofactor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of CT infection with HPV, other risk factors for cervical cancer, and CIN in symptomatic women. Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, inter...

  16. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its relation with cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Idrees Muhammad; Khan Khalida; Zahra Amreen; Faridi Rabia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, t...

  17. INFECTION WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CERVICAL NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish if the infection with human papilloma virus (HPV presents a potential irreversible evolution towards malignancy. Materials and methods. The study was made on a number of 1885 patients that were suspected to have cervical neoplasia, which were monitored between 2001-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved that the risk of contacting a genital infection with HPV and cervical cancer is influenced by the sexual activity, the risk of getting infected with HPV during a person’ s lifetime is at least 50% for those sexually active. Conclusions. The patients benefited from colposcopy and biopsy only if the repeated cytology suggested more severe changes. The conservative conduct is represented by a repeated cytology when the patients are admitted into the lot (the initial cytology is performed before this moment

  18. Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: implications for modeling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C; Choong, W Y; Teh, W; Buxton, A J; Bolton, P S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioral postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n = 10) in the absence and presence of an intruder rat. Plain film radiographic examination of a subset of these rats (n = 5) in each of these postures allowed measurement of head and cervical vertebral column positions adopted by the rats. When single they were quadruped or crouched most (∼80%) of the time and bipedal either supported or free standing for only ∼10% of the time. The introduction of an intruder significantly (P cervical spine was orientated (median, 25-75 percentile) near vertical (18.8°, 4.2°-30.9°) when quadruped, crouched (15.4°, 7.6°-69.3°) and bipedal supported (10.5°, 4.8°-22.6°) but tended to be less vertical oriented when bipedal free standing (25.9°, 7.7°-39.3°). The range of head positions relative to the cervical spine was largest when crouched (73.4°) and smallest when erect free standing (17.7°). This study indicates that, like humans, rats have near vertical orientated cervical vertebral columns but, in contrast to humans, they displace their head in space by movements at both the cervico-thoracic junction and the cranio-cervical regions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  20. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  1. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem....

  2. Epidemiological evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia without the presence of human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; Hollema, H; Pieters, WJLM; Schroder, FP; Quint, WGV

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide epidemiological evidence to support the notion that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) without human papillomavirus (HPV) is a true entity. If a diagnosis of HPV-negative cervical neoplasia is erroneous, one would not expect there to be any differences in r

  3. Variation of neck muscle strength along the human cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Nelson; Pandy, Marcus G; Myers, Barry S; Nightingale, Roger W; Chancey, Valeta Carol

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and explain the variation of neck muscle strength along the cervical spine. A three-dimensional model of the head-neck complex was developed to test the hypothesis that the moment-generating capacity of the neck musculature is lower in the upper cervical spine than in the lower cervical spine. The model calculations suggest that the neck muscles can protect the lower cervical spine from injury during extension and lateral bending. The maximum flexor moment developed in the lower cervical spine was 2 times higher than that developed in the upper spine. The model also predicted that the neck musculature is 30% stronger in the lower cervical spine during lateral bending. Peak compressive forces (up to 3 times body weight) were higher in the lower cervical spine. These results are consistent with the clinical finding that extension loading of the neck often leads to injuries in the upper cervical spine. Analysis of the model results showed that neck flexor strength was greater in the lower cervical spine because of the relatively large size of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The hyoid muscles developed significant flexor moments about the joints of the upper cervical spine, as these muscles had relatively large flexor moment arms; however, this effect was offset by the action of the sternocleidomastoid, which exerted a large extensor moment in the upper spine. Lateral bending strength of the neck muscles was governed by geometry (i.e., moment arms) rather than by muscle size.

  4. Detection of mucus glycoconjugates in human conjunctiva by using the lectin-colloidal gold technique in TEM. III. A quantitative study in asymptomatic contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, P; Maltarello, M C; Cellini, M; Marinelli, F; Caramazza, R; Laschi, R

    1987-12-01

    We characterized the mucus glycoconjugates produced by goblet and non-goblet epithelial cells in asymptomatic contact lens (CL) wearers. We employed four lectins (proteins of vegetal origin which specifically recognize glycosidic residues: WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA) conjugated with colloidal gold as ultrastructural marker, at Transmission Electron Microscopy. A computerized quantitative analysis was carried out in order to compare the results from the CL wearers to those from the control patients. Goblet cells produce different amount of glycosidic residues, in particular, a significant decrease in the distribution of sialic acid, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose-N-acetylgalactosamine and mannose was observed. The content of glycosidic residues in the mucus vesicles of the non-goblet epithelial cells appeared unchanged as to the normal situation. We speculate that the CL could possibly contribute to the failure of the tear film stability by altering the production of mucus.

  5. Detection of mucus glycoconjugates in human conjunctiva by using the lectin-colloidal gold technique in TEM. II. A quantitative study in dry-eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, P; Maltarello, M C; Cellini, M; Caramazza, R; Laschi, R

    1986-08-01

    The mucus glycoconjugates produced by conjunctival goblet cells in dry-eye patients were studied by a specific cytochemical reaction in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Four lectins, proteins of vegetal origin which specifically bind glycosidic residues, (WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA) were used conjugated with colloidal gold as ultrastructural marker. We performed a quantitative analysis by counting the colloidal gold particles present on mucus granules. The results were compared with normal conditions. We found a decrease in sialic acid, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine and galactose-N-acetyl-galactosamine and an increase in mannose. The different content of glycoconjugates in goblet cells may reflect in the change of physical and functional properties of mucus. We think these data may be useful in the search for a therapeutic mucomimetic drug.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CYCLIN G1 AND HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS INFECTION IN CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA AND CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the overexpression of cyclin G1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical carcinoma, and the correlation between cyclin G1 and high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.Methods All of the specimens were obtained from the Department of Pathology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital from January 2000 to August 2004. We detected the expression of cyclin G1 with immunohistochemistry, HPV16/18infection with in situ hybridization, and high-risk HPV infection with Hybrid capture system Ⅱ (HC-Ⅱ) in normal group (25 cases), CIN Ⅰ (48 cases), CIN Ⅱ (56 cases), CIN Ⅲ (54 cases), and invasive cervical squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC, 31 cases).Results The positive rates of cyclin G1 expression in CIN (77. 85%) and SCC cervical tissues (87.10%) were significantly higher than normal (8.00%,P<0.01), and the intensities of cyclin G1 expression in CIN (40.60%)and SCC cervical tissues (61.51%) were significantly higher than normal (2.72%,P<0.05). The positive rates and intensities of cyclin G1 expression increased gradually with the grade of cervical lesions. High-risk HPV infection rates were higher in CIN and SCC than normal groups (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between cyclin G1 expression and high-risk HPV infection detected with HC-Ⅱ (Kendall's tau-b =0.316, 0.269, 0.352, and 0. 474 in CIN Ⅰ, CINⅡ, CIN Ⅲ, and SCC, respectively, P<0.05).Conclusions Cyclin G1 is overexpressed in CIN and SCC. Cyclin G1 may be a biomarker for detecting CIN and SCC. Cyclin G1 may play an important role in the oncogenesis of CIN and SCC by high-risk HPV infection.

  7. The Establishment and Development of Finite Element Model of Human Cervical Vertebra and Its Application Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xiao-wen; YU Hang-ping; ZOU Wei

    2008-01-01

    .The incidence rate of cervical spondylosis is high,and due to the complicacy of cervical vertebra structure, irregularity of shapes and non-uniformity of components, sometimes it's difficult to achieve planned objectives by experiments in vitro through stress and strain analysis. Besides, the biomechanical factors are of vital significance in the cause of spinal disorders. In this paper the author makes a summary of the present modeling of human cervical vertebra and describes the major methods of establishing the finite element model of human cervical vertebra through several self-constructed models. With the advance of computer technology, the finite element methods have been rapidly developed in cervical vertebra biomechanical researches and have became a major approach for biomechanical researches to simulate more and more clinical conditions.

  8. Relationship between the Expression of Telomerase and Human Papillomavirus Infection in Invasive Uterine Cervical Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIMA Ni; CAI Liping; ZHU Yuanfang; WANG Wei; WANG Shixuan; MA Ding

    2007-01-01

    Telomerase activity was examined in invasive cervical carcinoma to assess whether it is activated during cervical malignant transformation and to look for its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Histologically confirmed invasive cervical carcinomas and benign cervices were assayed for telomerase activity by using a modified telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). The same cases were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of HPV by using consensus primers and type-specific (HPV types 16 and 18) primers. Telomerase activity was detected in 40 of 45 (88.9%) invasive cervical carcinomas and 2 (all chronic cervicitis) of 50 (4%) benign cervical lesions. HPV was detected in 36 (24 HPV-16 and 4 HPV-18 cases) of 45 (80%) invasive cervical carcinomas and 20 (11 HPV-16 and 1 HPV-18 cases) of 50 (40%) benign cervical changes. There was a significant correlation between the expression of telomerase with histological grade (φ=0.44, P<0.005), but no correlation was found between telomerase expression and HPV-18 (P>0.05). Although larger sample studies are needed, there seems to be a clear association between telomerase upregulation and HPV status, mainly HPV-16 infection.

  9. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. METHODS During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. RESULTS Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. CONCLUSION The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  10. Multiple human papilloma virus infections predominant in squamous cell cervical carcinoma in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Persistent infection of high risk genotypes of human papilloma virus (hrHPV has been established as the etiological cause for cervical cancer, and the most prevalent genotypes that infect the cervical tissue are HPV-16 and HPV-18. However, HPV genotype profile has been shown to differ according to geographical distribution across the globe. The present study aimed to determine the HPV genotype distribution in cervical cancer patients from Bandung, Indonesia. Methods During the period of July – November 2010 viral DNA was extracted from randomly chosen cervical cancer biopsies and subjected to genotype determination using the diagnostic linear array genotyping test (Roche. The distribution of HPV genotypes was explored and the prevalence of HPV genotypes was mapped. Results Of 96 cervical cancer tissue samples, 76 (79.2% were histopathologically classified as squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Due to the high cost of HPV genotyping tests, only twenty-five samples were randomly genotyped. Almost 90% of the cervical cancer patients were multiply infected with HPV-16 in combination with HPV-18, HPV-45, or HPV-52. The HPV-16 genotype had the highest prevalence, all samples being infected with HPV-16. Conclusion The cervical cancer cases were predominantly infected by multiple hrHPVs with HPV-16 as the major genotype among other hrHPVs, supporting the carcinogenic role of this hrHPV. Therefore, screening for hrHPVs in the general population is urgently needed as a means of early detection of cervical cancer.

  11. Difference of histology and elemental composition of the cervical enamels among human permanent teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masashi TAKAHASHI; Shin-Ichi GOTO; Kazuhisa MORI; Izumi MATAGA

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the dif-ference of histology and elemental composition of the cer-vical enamels among the human permanent teeth. The re-ground surfaces at the cervical enamels of them were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contents of seven elements were analyzed quantita-tively with electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The widths of the rod sections at the cervical enamels were larger than those at the cuspal enamels. The rod sections at the mesial cervical enamels in the incisors were more obscure and more decayed by acid solution than those in the premolars and molars. The calcium and phosphorus contents of the cervical enamels were significantly lower than those of the cuspal enamels. The carbon content of the cervical enamels was significantly higher than that of the cuspal enamels. The calcium and phosphorus contents of the cervical enamels were the significantly highest in the premolars. The carbon and sodium contents of the cer-vical enamels were significantly highest in the premolars. It is thought that the calcification level is lower, while the content of organic matter is higher at the cervical enamels than those at the cuspal enamels. It is considered that the sodium causes high calcification.

  12. Requirement for estrogen receptor alpha in a mouse model for human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Wiedmeyer, Kerri; Shai, Anny; Korach, Kenneth S; Lambert, Paul F

    2008-12-01

    The majority of human cervical cancers are associated with the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), which encode the potent E6 and E7 oncogenes. On prolonged treatment with physiologic levels of exogenous estrogen, K14E7 transgenic mice expressing HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein in their squamous epithelia succumb to uterine cervical cancer. Furthermore, prolonged withdrawal of exogenous estrogen results in complete or partial regression of tumors in this mouse model. In the current study, we investigated whether estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is required for the development of cervical cancer in K14E7 transgenic mice. We show that exogenous estrogen fails to promote either dysplasia or cervical cancer in K14E7/ERalpha-/- mice despite the continued presence of the presumed cervical cancer precursor cell type, reserve cells, and evidence for E7 expression therein. We also observed that cervical cancers in our mouse models are strictly associated with atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM), which is believed to be the precursor for cervical cancer in women. Consistently, E7 and exogenous estrogen failed to promote ASM in the absence of ERalpha. We conclude that ERalpha plays a crucial role at an early stage of cervical carcinogenesis in this mouse model.

  13. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in cervical carcinoma in Algerian women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khenchouche, Abdelhalim; Sadouki, Nabila; Boudriche, Arab; Houali, Karim; Graba, Abdelaziz; Ooka, Tadamasa; Bouguermouh, Abdelmadjid

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the implication of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis and prognosis of cervical cancer is well established, the impact of a co-infection with high risk HPV (HR-HPV...

  14. Prevalence of cervical enamel projection in human molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Lima de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : One of the developmental anomalies of dental enamel is cervical enamel projection (CEP. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CEP in maxillary and mandibular human teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 human molars obtained from the tooth bank of the State University of Amazonas were used in the present study. CEP was classified as Grade 0 (absence of projection, Grade I (discrete extension of cementoenamel junction toward the furcation, Grade II (closer to furcation without invasion, and Grade III (extending to the furcation area. The evaluation was performed using macroscopic inspection of teeth faces (buccal, lingual/palatal, mesial, and distal with at least one-third of the crown on each face. Results: It was found that 17.1% of the teeth evaluated had CEP, but neither of the projections occurred on the proximal faces. Higher prevalence of CEP was found on the buccal faces and the most commonly grade of CEP found was Grade I (10.3%. Conclusions: It may be concluded that CEP occurs more frequently in mandibular molars and its diagnosis is extremely important since these projections may difficult bacterial plaque removal, leading to an inflammatory process and unnecessary endodontic treatment.

  15. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with HPV16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Takako; Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Nishida, Noriyuki; Yamasaki, Kentaro; Miura, Kiyonori; Katamine, Shigeru; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The squamous cell carcinoma antigen is considered the most accurate serologic tumor marker for uterine cervical carcinoma. However, serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels were found to correlate significantly with clinical severity of atopic dermatitis and chronic renal failure. The present study was conducted in patients with human papillomavirus 16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer to determine the plasma level of human papillomavirus 16 DNA and the diagnostic values of...

  16. Oestrus synchronisation and superovulation alter the production and biochemical constituents of ovine cervicovaginal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Jessie W; Rickard, Jessica P; Mooney, Ethan; Bernecic, Naomi C; Soleilhavoup, Clement; Tsikis, Guillaume; Druart, Xavier; Leahy, Tamara; de Graaf, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Controlled breeding programmes utilising exogenous hormones are common in the Australian sheep industry, however the effects of such programmes on cervicovaginal mucus properties are lacking. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate cervicovaginal (CV) mucus from naturally cycling (NAT), progesterone synchronised (P4), prostaglandin synchronised (PGF2α), and superovulated (SOV) Merino ewes. Experiment 1; volume, colour, spinnbarkeit, chemical profile and protein concentration of mucus (NAT, P4, PGF2α and SOV; n=5 ewes/treatment) during the follicular (5 d) and luteal phases (8 d) was investigated. Experiment 2; in vivo mucus pH and in vitro mucus penetration by frozen-thawed spermatozoa (NAT, P4 and SOV; n=11 ewes/treatment) was investigated over oestrus (2 d) and the mid-luteal phase (pH only, 2 d). Oestrus mucus was more abundant, clearer in colour and less proteinaceous than luteal phase mucus (p0.05). Results indicate that exogenous hormones used for controlled breeding affect cervicovaginal mucus production, but few other tested characteristics. Further research is required to explain fertility differences between synchronised and naturally cycling animals following cervical AI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Meta-analysis of type-specific human papillomavirus prevalence in Iranian women with normal cytology, precancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer: Implications for screening and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilvand, Somayeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Tohidi, Hamid Reza; Hamkar, Rasool

    2015-02-01

    To predict the impact of current vaccines on cervical cancer and for the improvement of screening programs, regional data on distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with or without cervical cancer is crucial. The present meta-analysis intend to comprehensively evaluate the HPV burden in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology, as these data will help decision making in regards with screening programs and HPV vaccination in Iran. To determine the HPV prevalence and type distribution in Iranian women with or without cervical cancer, 20 published studies were included in this meta-analysis. In total, 713, 124, 104, 60, and 2577 women invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal were reviewed, respectively. Overall HPV prevalence in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology were 77.4%, 71.8%, 65.3%, 61.7%, and 8.4%, respectively. The six most common types were HPV 16, 18, 6/11, 31, and 33; among them HPV 16 was the most frequent type in all five different groups. According to this study, it was estimated that HPV vaccines could have a great impact on prevention of cervical cancer in Iran. In conclusion, this meta-analysis highlights the necessity of introducing vaccination program in Iran.

  18. Analysis of human papillomavirus E7 protein status in C-33A cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Jenewein, Brigitte; Pircher, Haymo; Rostek, Ursula; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Zwerschke, Werner

    2015-02-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the main etiologic factor for the development of cervical cancer. Infections by these viruses have been detected in virtually all cervical cancers. C-33A is one of the rare cervical cancer derived cell lines considered as HPV-negative. Employing monoclonal antibodies raised against a conformational epitope of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein, we present evidence suggesting that E7-positive cells can be sporadically and transiently detected in C-33A cell cultures. Immunoblotting with affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal anti-HPV 16 E7 antisera and q-RT-PCR analysis suggest that these cells do probably not express HPV-16 E7. Moreover, we show that the HPV E7 protein level differs considerably between individual cells in cultures of several established cervical cancer cell lines. Our data suggest that expression of the E7 protein is variable in established cervical cancer cell lines including C-33A cells.

  19. Mucus as a Barrier to Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic mucus lines all mucosal surfaces of the body and forms a potential barrier to mucosal drug delivery. Mucus is mainly composed of water and mucins; high-molecular weight glycoproteins forming an entangled network. Consequently, mucus forms a steric barrier and due to its negative charge...... and hydrophobic domains, the overall hydrophilic mucus also presents an interactive barrier limiting the free diffusion of components within and through the mucus. Furthermore, mucus is a dynamic barrier due to its continuous secretion and shedding from the mucosal surfaces. Mucus is thus a highly complex gel......, studies of peptide and protein drug diffusion in and through mucus and studies of mucus-penetrating nanoparticles are included to illustrate the mucus as a potentially important barrier to obtain sufficient bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and thus an important parameter to address...

  20. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective.

  2. Correlation analysis of high-risk human papillomavirus viral load and cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xing MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV viral load and pathological grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer. Methods  A total of 1248 patients from General Hospital of PLA, who underwent colposcopy and surgery due to cervical lesions between Jan. 2006 and Aug. 2011 were enrolled in this study, and they were divided five groups: cervicitis, CIN Ⅰ, CIN Ⅱ-Ⅲ, stage Ⅰ cervical cancer and stage Ⅱ cervical cancer. HR-HPV viral load (RLU/CO was determined by the Hybrid Capture Ⅱ (HCⅡ system, and they were categorized into five groups: 0-0.99, 1.00-9.99, 10.00-99.99, 100.00-999.99, ≥1000.00. The mean value and standard deviation of different HR-HPV viral load in the patients with cervicitis or with CIN Ⅰ, CINⅡ-Ⅲ, stage Ⅰ cervical cancer or stage Ⅱ cervical cancer were compared, and the correlation of HR-HPV viral load and pathogenesis of cervical lesions was analyzed. Results  HPV viral loads were significantly higher in CINⅠ(842.1±983.9, CINⅡ-Ⅲ (690.1±795.0, stage Ⅰ cervical cancer (893.1±974.2 and stage Ⅱ cervical cancer (699.5±908.3 patients than in cervicitis patients (274.2±613.6, P < 0.05, and the HPV viral loads in CINⅠ(842.1±983.9 and stage Ⅰ cervical cancer patients were higher than those in CINⅡ-Ⅲ patients (P < 0.05. When HR-HPV viral load was ≥100RLU/CO, the risk of CIN and cervical cancer increased with the increase in viral load, but there was no correlation between the viral load and pathological grades of cervical lesions. In the patients with stage ⅠB-Ⅱ cervical squamous cell carcinoma, when the HR-HPV viral load was ≥100RLU/CO, the risk of lymph node metastasis increased (P < 0.05, and the number of patients with maximum diameter of the cervical tumor ≥4cm also increased (P < 0.05. However, the HR-HPV viral load was not correlated with patient age, pathological type of the lesion, depth of cancer

  3. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravud Narin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is a crucial etiological factor for cervical cancer (CC development. From a diagnostic view-point, the consistent presence of HPV in CC allows the viral DNA to be used as a genetic marker. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence, physical status and clinical significant of HPV DNA in circulation of CC patients. Results Whereas 6 out of 50 (12% HPV positive CC patients revealed plasma HPV DNA, it was detected in none of 20 normal controls or 13 HPV negative CC cases. The plasma DNA exhibited an HPV type identical to the HPV in the primary tumors and the DNA from both sources was integrated into host genome. Interestingly, several findings suggested an association between plasma HPV DNA and metastasis. First, three of the HPV DNA positive cases were CC patients with clinical stage IVB or recurrence with distance metastases (P = 0.001, RR = 15.67. Second, the amount of plasma HPV DNA from metastatic patients to be three times more than three other patients without metastases. Finally, the later cases had tendency to develop recurrence distant metastases within one year after complete treatment when compared with other HPV associated CC patients with the same stage but without the present of plasma HPV DNA. Conclusions The plasma HPV DNA originated from the CC, was associated with metastasis and could be used as a marker representing the circulating free CC DNA.

  4. GENERAL AWARNANCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFILA NAVEED

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a survey program on the awarnance of HPV vaccine of cervical cancer in common people. Methods: For this survey we perform 2 steps. First we made a questionnaires in which we ask to female of different belongs to different education field either they are married or not. Secondly we gone in the different hospitals of Karachi and observe treatment, diagnosis, vaccination availability and frequency of cervical cancer. Results:From questionnaire we observed that only 1 % female are aware about cervical cancer and its vaccine i.e. HPV, even female belongs medical field are not aware about it. Form hospital survey we observed that frequency of cervical cancer is very less but in Shaukat Khanum hospital 90 cases reported out of 1803 cancer. The given treatment is radiology, chemotherapy and surgery.

  5. Analysis of human serum from women affected by cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia Y; Briones-Cerecero, Erika P; Chagolla-López, Alicia; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Santos, Leticia; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the first causes of death in Mexican women population. The plasma proteome has a wide dynamic range concentrations of different protein and their alterations reflect the physiological state of the individual's health. The aim of this study was to characterize the 2D-PAGE serum patterns from healthy women and with different levels of cervical lesions. Changes in haptoglobin, apolipoproteins, and transthyretin, when comparing the serum from healthy women and serum from patients with different levels of cervical lesion were found. The Western blot analysis showed increasing concentrations of metalloproteinases (MMP's), proteins with important biological roles in tumor development and metastasis. Protein profiles in conjunction with MS, bioinformatics, and Western blot analysis, allow us to compile information for the acquisition of results to proposed candidates biomarkers of cervical cancer among Mexican women population.

  6. Human Vagus Nerve Branching in the Cervical Region

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Hammer; Juliane Glätzner; Christine Feja; Christian Kühne; Jürgen Meixensberger; Uwe Planitzer; Stefan Schleifenbaum; Tillmann, Bernhard N.; Dirk Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve...

  7. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT GENE EXPRESSION OF HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER SUBCLONE CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the main cause of death inwomen.The influence of HPV plays an i mportantrole incervial cancer.It has been provedthat humanpapillomavirus(HPV)infectionis ani mportant fac-tor in cervical carcinogenesis.Multiple HPVinfec-tion was associated less frequently with cervical car-cinoma and with precancerous lesions compared withnor mal cytology[1].The activation of oncogene,in-activition of tumor suppressor gene and instabilityof genome are also majority reason.We establisheda cell line of human...

  8. Mucus Rupture in A Collapsed airway: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingying; Bian, Shiyao; Grotberg, James B.

    2011-11-01

    Mucus plugs can completely obstruct an airway. Difficulty in mucus clearance results in lost gas exchange and inflammation. Non-Newtonian properties of mucus, yielding stress and shear-thinning, play significant roles in mucus clearance. We use aqueous carbopol 940 as a mucus stimulant to study clearance of a mucus plug with properties of yielding stress and shear-thinning in a bench-top experiment. A collapsed airway of the 12th generation in a human lung is simulated in a two-dimensional PDMS channel. A stable pressure drop is set along the plug to drive rupture. A micro-PIV technique is used to acquire velocity fields during the rupture process. A yielding pressure drop (initiating plug yielding) is nearly independent of initial plug length. Plug rupture can occur by focused deformation along the centerline or by total plug propagation where the trailing film is thicker than the precursor film. Maximum velocity appears at the rupture moment, and increases at higher pressure drop or smaller plug length. The wall shear gradient can undergo a rapid reversal when rupture occurs, possibly an injurious event to underlying airway epithelial cells. This work is supported by NIH: HL84370 and HL85156.

  9. Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda NKONWA INNOCENT H 1,2,3* , MICHAEL J...Human Papilloma virus (HPV) strains 16 and 18. While cervical cancer is widely understood as a fatal disease, knowledge and awareness of cervical...capture assay of self – collected virginal swabs in rural Uganda for detection of human papilloma virus . J Infect Disease, 1999 1999.180; p. 1316.1319. 19

  10. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bing; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  11. Molecular diagnosis of human papillomavirus in the development of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl; Tanya Plett-Torres; Claudia L Madrid-González; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a major public health problem in developing countries and its most significant etiological risk factor is infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The main approach to date for the prevention of CC has been through screening programs, using the cervical smear (PAP test) to detect precursory lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of the PAP smear depend on the skills of the observer to recognize and classify a variety of cellular abnormalities. The development of ...

  12. Progression of cervical dilatation in normal human labor is unpredictable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Enrico; Milani, Silvano; Cirillo, Federico; Livio, Stefania; Piola, Cinzia; Brusati, Valentina; Paganelli, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze how the progression of cervical dilatation in active labor can be predicted by digital assessment in low-risk pregnant women, in spontaneous labor at term. This prospective observational study was performed on 328 women with singleton term gestations experiencing midwife-led labor according to local protocols, progressing to full dilatation and spontaneous delivery without any medical intervention. Mixed nonlinear models were adopted to (i) model individual cervical data into centile curves and (ii) calculate the time needed to gain 1 cm in cervical dilatation (TNG1cm ) modeled as a function of current dilatation. We correlated the first and the last TNG1cm on parturients with at least four cervical data points. TNG1cm showed large variations, both before and after 6 cm. This variability of natural progression of cervical curves described by the 10th and 90th centiles exceeded the differences observed in published curves from cohorts homogeneous for parity, weight and ethnicity. There was no significant correlation between the first and the last TNG1cm . Neonatal base excess was not significantly different in women with TNG1cm 90th centile. The rate of cervical dilatation, traced by parsimonious nonlinear mixed models, is largely unpredictable in the case of spontaneous naturally progressing labor, even when possible larger individual variability is excluded by prudent clinical rules. Future research in labor and delivery should be focused on the diagnosis of the causes that lie behind apparently erratic cervical changes. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Condom use in prevention of Human Papillomavirus infections and cervical neoplasia: systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Rebolj, Matejka; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Bonde, Jesper; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-03-01

    Based on cross-sectional studies, the data on protection from Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections related to using male condoms appear inconsistent. Longitudinal studies are more informative for this purpose. We undertook a systematic review of longitudinal studies on the effectiveness of male condoms in preventing HPV infection and cervical neoplasia. We searched PubMed using MeSH terms for articles published until May 2013. Articles were included if they studied a change in non-immunocompromized women's cervical HPV infection or cervical lesion status along with the frequency of condom use. In total, 384 abstracts were retrieved. Eight studies reported in 10 articles met the inclusion criteria for the final review. Four studies showed a statistically significantly protective effect of consistent condom use on HPV infection and on regression of cervical neoplasia. In the remaining four studies, a protective effect was also observed for these outcomes, although it was not statistically significant. Consistent condom use appears to offer a relatively good protection from HPV infections and associated cervical neoplasia. Advice to use condoms might be used as an additional instrument to prevent unnecessary colposcopies and neoplasia treatments in cervical screening, and to reduce the risk of cervical cancer.

  14. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Massad, L.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Weber, Kathleen M.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Hessol, Nancy A.; Wright, Rodney L.; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe changes in knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination among women at high risk for cervical cancer in the first five years after introduction of HPV vaccination. Methods In 2007, 2008–9, and 2011, women in a multicenter U.S. cohort study completed 44-item self-report questionnaires assessing knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination. Results across time were assessed for individuals, and three study enrollment cohorts were compared. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic variables, measures of education and attention, and medical factors. Associations were assessed in multivariable models. Results In all, 974 women completed three serial questionnaires; most were minority, low income, and current or former smokers. The group included 652 (67%) HIV infected and 322 (33%) uninfected. Summary knowledge scores (possible range 0–24) increased from 2007 (12.8, S.D. 5.8) to 2008–9 (13.9, S.D. 5.3, P < 0.001) and to 2011 (14.3, S.D. 5.2, P < 0.0001 vs 2007 and < 0.04 vs 2008–9). Higher knowledge scores at first and follow-up administration of questionnaires, higher income, and higher education level were associated with improved knowledge score at third administration. Women not previously surveyed had scores similar to those of the longitudinal group at baseline. Conclusion Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding. PMID:25870859

  15. Defense and adaptation: The complex inter-relationship between Campylobacter jejuni and mucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abofu eAlemka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucus colonization is the first step towards the establishment of infection and disease by mucosal pathogens. There is an emerging literature implicating specific mucin subtypes and mucin modifications in protecting the host from Campylobacter jejuni infection. However, mucosal pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to breach the mucus layer and C. jejuni in particular appears to harbor specific adaptations to better colonize intestinal mucus. For example, components of mucus are chemotactic for C. jejuni and the rheological properties of mucus promote motility of the organism. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrate that mucins modulate the pathogenicity of C. jejuni in a species-specific manner and likely help determine whether these bacteria become pathogenic (as in humans, or adopt a commensal mode of existence (as in chickens and other animals. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the complex interplay between C. jejuni and components of the mucus layer.

  16. Anatomical evaluation of the cervical vertebrae of Wistar rats by means of digital radiographs and its correlation with the maturation stages of human cervical vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Hiroshi Matsui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Biological age is an important parameter for growth and development assessment. It can be evaluated through the observation of radiographic changes in skeletal maturation of cervical vertebrae. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to: a verify if there is correlation between growth curve and the stages of bone age of animals used in laboratories, by evaluating radiographs of the cervical vertebrae; b correlate these stages with their correspondents in humans. METHODS: 35 Wistar rats were evaluated for a period of 160 days, starting at day 22nd (weaning, with cross sections for periodic weighing, length measurement and digital radiography. Radiographs of the cervical vertebrae (C2 and C3 were measured by means of a computer program (Radio IMP. Data were submitted to statistical analysis (ANOVA and Pearson correlation. RESULTS: Growth spurt was characterized by fast increasing in weight and length. Through ANOVA, differences were observed in the cervical measurements between days 22, 97, 127, 157, 187 and 217 (p <0.001. A high correlation was found between increasing in body length and weight, as well as in cervical vertebrae height (r = 0.86. Increments in concavities of vertebrae were also observed, similar to humans. CONCLUSIONS: There is correlation between body growth and maturation of cervical vertebrae in rats. Despite the continuous development of concavities, it was not possible to clearly identify the 5/6 stages as in studies of cervical vertebrae maturation in humans.

  17. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  18. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  19. Biochemical characterization, antimicrobial and hemolytic studies on skin mucus of fresh water spiny eel Mastacembelus armatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkatachalam Uthayakumar; Venkatachalam Ramasubramanian; Dhanabalan Senthilkumar; Ramasamy Harikrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the biochemical, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of Mastacembalus armatus skin mucus. Methods: Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of mucus extractions against human and fish pathogens were tested along with ampicillin as control. Hemolytic activity of the extraction was evaluated against sheep and cow blood cells. Amino acid and fatty acid profiles were analyzed by HPLC and gas chromatography in the mucus of fish. SDS-PAGE analysis of mucus and muscle tissue was done. Oneway-ANOVA was performed against all extraction and pathogens, amino acids and fatty acids. Result: All the mucus extracts exhibited higher inhibitory activity than antibiotic ampicillin against bacterial and fungal pathogens. The hemolytic activity was increased with higher mucus concentrations in both sheep and cow blood cells. The protein content soluble and insoluble fractions of mucus were 63.22 μg/g and 55.79μg/g, respectively. Out of 17 amino acids leucine was higher (8.54 mole %) in soluble gel, and glutamic acid was higher (6.92 mole %) in the insoluble gel, Histidine was very low (i.e. 0.20 mole%) both in soluble and (0.30 mole %) insoluble gel. In SDS-PAGE analysis, 6 bands of mucus and 9 bands of muscle were observed. Conclusions: The soluble and insoluble proteins are responsible for antimicrobial and hemolytic activity, these results indicate that mucus gel was prospective applications in fish and human therapeutics.

  20. A biophysical basis for mucus solids concentration as a candidate biomarker for airways disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Hill

    Full Text Available In human airways diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, host defense is compromised and airways inflammation and infection often result. Mucus clearance and trapping of inhaled pathogens constitute key elements of host defense. Clearance rates are governed by mucus viscous and elastic moduli at physiological driving frequencies, whereas transport of trapped pathogens in mucus layers is governed by diffusivity. There is a clear need for simple and effective clinical biomarkers of airways disease that correlate with these properties. We tested the hypothesis that mucus solids concentration, indexed as weight percent solids (wt%, is such a biomarker. Passive microbead rheology was employed to determine both diffusive and viscoelastic properties of mucus harvested from human bronchial epithelial (HBE cultures. Guided by sputum from healthy (1.5-2.5 wt% and diseased (COPD, CF; 5 wt% subjects, mucus samples were generated in vitro to mimic in vivo physiology, including intermediate range wt% to represent disease progression. Analyses of microbead datasets showed mucus diffusive properties and viscoelastic moduli scale robustly with wt%. Importantly, prominent changes in both biophysical properties arose at ∼4 wt%, consistent with a gel transition (from a more viscous-dominated solution to a more elastic-dominated gel. These findings have significant implications for: (1 penetration of cilia into the mucus layer and effectiveness of mucus transport; and (2 diffusion vs. immobilization of micro-scale particles relevant to mucus barrier properties. These data provide compelling evidence for mucus solids concentration as a baseline clinical biomarker of mucus barrier and clearance functions.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and human papillomavirus in women with cervical neoplasia in Pernambuco-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mayara Costa Mansur; de Macêdo, Jamilly Lopes; de Lima Júnior, Sérgio Ferreira; de Andrade Heráclio, Sandra; Amorim, Melânia Maria Ramos; de Mascena Diniz Maia, Maria; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted disease. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is considered the main etiological agent for cervical neoplasia. Evidences showed that the presence of co-infection of CT and HR-HPV plays a central role in the etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. The goals of this study were: evaluate the human papillomavirus (HPV) and CT prevalence among Brazilian women with abnormal cytology and provide the effect of this association on the severity of cervical neoplasia. The population of this study was composed by 142 women with incident histological incidence of CIN grades I, II, III or cervical cancer from Recife, Northeast of Brazil. The polymerase chain reaction method on a cervical brush specimen was used to detect both agents and the automatic sequencing method was used for HPV genotyping assay. The prevalence of HPV and CT was 100 and 24.65 %, respectively. Thirteen types of HPV were detected; HPV 16, 18, 31 and 33 were the most common. The most prevalent HPV types were HPV 16 and 18. A significant association between CT positive and HPV 16 infection was found (p infections, with high-risk types being the most common. Also, the data collected suggest that CT infection may play an important role in the natural history of HPV infection.

  2. CIGARETTE-SMOKING AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS IN PATIENTS WITH REPORTED CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BURGER, MPM; HOLLEMA, H; GOUW, ASH; PIETERS, WJLM; QUINT, WGV

    1993-01-01

    Objective-To assess the relation between two risk factors for cervical neoplasia: smoking and infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus. It has been suggested that smoking causes a local immunological defect, which could facilitate the infection and persistence of human papillomavirus. Design-Cr

  3. THE CONSTRUCTION AND EXPRESSION OF THE MURINE SCFV GENE IN E. COLI AGAINST HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying; Chen Wei; Li Xu

    2006-01-01

    Objective To obtain the gene of murine Single chain Fv fragment (ScFv) against human cervical cancer and to express it in E. coli. Methods The variable region gene fragments of the heavy and light chains, which were amplified respectively using recombinant DNA techniques from CsA125 hybridoma cells, were spliced together through a flexible linker to ScFv against human cervical cancer. The ScFv genes were then cloned into expression vector pCANTAB 5E and expressed in E. coli HB2151 and TG1 respectively. The soluble ScFv were characterized by SDS PAGE and Western blot. The antigen-binding activities of the soluble and phage displayed ScFv were assayed by ELISA and cell immunohistochemical analysis. Results The expressed ScFv antibodies were soluble and phage displayed. The soluble ScFv secreted and expressed in E. coli HB2151 induced by IPTG were confirmed with SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. The specific binding capacity of the soluble and phage displayed ScFv to the surface associated antigen of human cervical cancer cell line was further confirmed with immunohistochemical studies. Conclusion The soluble and phage displayed ScFv expressed in E. coli against human cervical cancer showed high, specific affinity for the cervical cancer cell line surface associated antigen.

  4. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    is a global public health issue as it is the second most common ... HPV infection and its relation to cervical cancer. Some previous ..... obtained their knowledge mostly from the media ... findings from a study carried out in India where. 82% of ...

  5. Role of papillomavirus oncogenes in human cervical cancer: Transgenic animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griep, A.E.; Lambert, P.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin School of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Human papillomaviruses are believed to be etiologic agents for the majority of human cervical carcinoma, a common cancer that is a leading cause of death by cancer among women worldwide. In cervical carcinoma, a subset of papillomaviral genes, namely E6 and E7, are expressed. In vitro tissue culture studies indicate that HPV E6 and E7 are oncogenes, and that their oncogenicity is due in part to their capacity to inactivate cellular tumor suppressor genes. The behavior of E6 and E7 in vitro and the genetic evidence from analysis of human cancers suggest that the E6 and E7 genes play a significant role in the development of cervical cancer. This hypothesis is now being tested using animal models. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the oncogenicity of papillomavirus genes that has been generated through their study in transgenic mice. 82 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with cervical lesions in Bioko, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carro-Campos Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HVP vaccine is a useful tool for preventing cervical cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine the most frequent HPV genotypes in Equatorial Guinea in order to develop future vaccination strategies to apply in this country. Methods A campaign against cervical cancer was carried out in the area on a total of 1,680 women. 26 of the women, following cytological screening, were treated surgically with a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP. Cases were studied histologically and were genotyped from paraffin blocks by applying a commercial kit that recognized 35 HPV types. Results Cytological diagnoses included 17 HSIL, 1 LSIL, 5 ASC-H and 3 AGUS. Histological diagnosis resulted in 3 cases of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma stage IA of FIGO, 9 CIN-3, 8 CIN-2, 2 CIN-1, 3 flat condylomas and mild dysplasia of the endocervical epithelium. Fifteen of twenty-five cases genotyped were positive for HPV (60%. HPV 16 and 33 were identified in four cases each, HPV 58 in two other cases, and HPV 18, 31, 52, and 82 in one case, with one HPV 16 and 58 coinfection. Conclusion The frequency of HPV types in the African area varies in comparison to other regions, particularly in Europe and USA. Vaccination against the five most common HPV types (16, 33, 58, 18, and 31 should be considered in the geographic region of West Africa and specifically in Equatorial Guinea.

  7. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.

  8. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As2O3 induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As2O3 on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As2O3 than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As2O3 than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As2O3 treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As2O3 is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  9. Evaluation of Antiproliferative Potential of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on HeLa Human Cervical Tumor Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 nanoparticles as nanomaterials have promising biomedical applications. In this paper, the cytotoxicity induced by CONPs human cervical tumor cells was investigated. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using the precipitation method. The nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferation of HeLa human cervical tumor cells in a dose dependent manner but did not showed to be cytotoxic as analyzed by MTT assay. The administrated treatment decreased the HeLa cell viability cells from 100% to 65% at the dose of 100 μg/mL.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Allie K. [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wise-Draper, Trisha M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wells, Susanne I., E-mail: Susanne.Wells@cchmc.org [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  11. Human papilloma virus identification in breast cancer patients with previous cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women with human papilloma virus (HPV associated cervical neoplasia have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general female population. The purpose of this study was to (i identify high risk for cancer HPVs in cervical neoplasia and subsequent HPV positive breast cancers which developed in the same patients and (ii determine if these HPVs were biologically active.Methods: A range of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of cervical precancers and subsequent breast cancers in the same patients. Results: The same high risk HPV types were identified in both the cervical and breast specimens in 13 (46% of 28 patients. HPV type 18 was the most prevalent. HPVs appeared to be biologically active as demonstrated by the expression of HPV E7 proteins and the presence of HPV associated koilocytes. The average age of these patients diagnosed with breast cancer following prior cervical precancer was 51 years, as compared to 60 years for all women with breast cancer (p for difference = 0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate that high risk HPVs can be associated with cervical neoplasia and subsequent young age breast cancer. However these associations are unusual and are a very small proportion of breast cancers. These outcomes confirm and extend the observations of 2 similar previous studies and offer one explanation for the increased prevalence of serious invasive breast cancer among young women.

  12. A comprehensive review on host genetic susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection and progression to cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Chattopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. This is caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Although large numbers of young sexually active women get HPV-infected, only a small fraction develop cervical cancer. This points to different co-factors for regression of HPV infection or progression to cervical cancer. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases such as cervical cancer and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. The aim of this review is to compile the advances in the field of host genetics of cervical cancer. MEDLINE database was searched using the terms, ′HPV′, ′cervical′, ′CIN′, ′polymorphism(s′, ′cervical′ + FNx01the name of the geneFNx01 and ′HPV′ + FNx01the name of the geneFNx01. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to cervical cancer in HPV infected individuals.

  13. Activation of miR-9 by human papillomavirus in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijun; Gao, Ge; Hu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yuhui; Schwarz, Julie K; Chen, Jason J; Grigsby, Perry W; Wang, Xiaowei

    2014-11-30

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, leading to about 300,000 deaths each year. Most cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, persistent transcriptional activity of HPV oncogenes, which indicates active roles of HPV in cervical cancer maintenance and progression, has not been well characterized. Using our recently developed assays for comprehensive profiling of HPV E6/E7 transcripts, we have detected transcriptional activities of 10 high-risk HPV strains from 87 of the 101 cervical tumors included in the analysis. These HPV-positive patients had significantly better survival outcome compared with HPV-negative patients, indicating HPV transcriptional activity as a favorable prognostic marker for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we have determined microRNA (miRNA) expression changes that were correlated with tumor HPV status. Our profiling and functional analyses identified miR-9 as the most activated miRNA by HPV E6 in a p53-independent manner. Further target validation and functional studies showed that HPV-induced miR-9 activation led to significantly increased cell motility by downregulating multiple gene targets involved in cell migration. Thus, our work helps to understand the molecular mechanisms as well as identify potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer and other HPV-induced cancers.

  14. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  15. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Iyanda, Abiodun; Osundare, Folakemi; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  16. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  17. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie K. Adams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  18. Anatomical evaluation of the cervical vertebrae of Wistar rats by means of digital radiographs and its correlation with the maturation stages of human cervical vertebrae

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Hiroshi Matsui; Julio Cezar de Melo Castilho; Luiz César de Moraes; Mônica Fernandes Gomes; Kurt Faltin Júnior; Miriam Yumi Matsui

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Biological age is an important parameter for growth and development assessment. It can be evaluated through the observation of radiographic changes in skeletal maturation of cervical vertebrae. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to: a) verify if there is correlation between growth curve and the stages of bone age of animals used in laboratories, by evaluating radiographs of the cervical vertebrae; b) correlate these stages with their correspondents in humans. METHODS: 35 Wistar rats wer...

  19. Association between FOXM1 and hedgehog signaling pathway in human cervical carcinoma by tissue microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Hong; Chen, Dan; Li, Panpan

    2016-10-01

    Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are implicated in the formation and development of human tumors, including cervical cancer. Previous studies have indicated that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway, but their association in cervical cancer is largely unknown. In the present study, the expression of FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray that contained 70 cervical cancer tissues and 10 normal cervical tissues. In addition, the association of these molecules with clinicopathological parameters, and the association between FOXM1 and various molecules involved in the Hh signaling pathway was investigated. The results indicated that FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues. The protein expression levels of FOXM1, glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) and smoothened (SMO) correlated with the clinical stage of the tumors, while the protein expression levels of Sonic Hh (SHh), patched 1 (PTCH1) and GLI1 correlated with the pathological grade of the tumors. The expression levels of GLI1 were lower in tissues without lymph node metastasis than in tissues with lymph node metastasis. In addition, FOXM1 expression correlated with GLI1, SHh and PTCH1 expression in cancer tissues. These findings confirmed the participation of FOXM1 and the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer. Furthermore, the finding that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer provides a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

  20. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by cervical cytology among women in Brasov, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Irimie, Marius; Oanta, Alexandru; Pascu, Alina; Burtea, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in triggering cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, is well established. Romania ranks in first place in Europe in terms of the incidence of cervical cancer. Geographical widespread data on HPV type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening programmes. In this study we aimed to identify the prevalence of HPV genotypes and to establish correlations with abnormal cervical cytology among the female population of Brasov County, Romania. A total of 1,000 women aged 17.3-57 years, attending routine cervical examination in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Brasov, Romania, and undergoing both cytological examination and HPV genotyping were screened. Infection with 35 different HPV genotypes was detected in 39.6% of cytological specimens. Overall HPV infections were highest in young women under 25 years (p<0.0001), in which cervical cytological abnormalities also reached the highest prevalence. Patients infected by HPV-16 or HPV-18 showed the highest prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities. Some 48.2% of women with abnormal cytology were infected with high-risk HPV types whereas less than 3% of them were infected only with low-risk HPV types. Our study showed that the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection among Romanian women is higher compared to other studies in other geographic areas. Thus, we consider that in areas where there is an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV infections, HPV genotyping should be performed in all women aged between 18 and 45 years, and Pap test should be performed every 6 months in women with high-risk HPV infection, even those with previous normal cervical cytology.

  1. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, Cornelis Peter van der

    1991-01-01

    The use of physiotherapeutic techniques may increase mucus transport in patients with airways disease including COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. The most effective parts of the treatment are probably forced expirations with open glottis and coughing. However, in patients

  2. Improving the Utilization of Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cytology Co-testing for Cervical Cancer Screening in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kurt; Karimoto, Maxine; Marzo, Christina; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Hiraoka, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing in combination with cervical cytology (HPV co-testing) has been recommended for cervical cancer screening for women 30 to 65 years of age. In several studies, HPV co-testing increased sensitivity for detecting high grade dysplasia and resulted in cost-savings. This retrospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of HPV co-testing in an obstetrics and gynecology resident clinic before and after a brief educational intervention which was designed to reinforce current cervical cancer screening recommendations. The intervention consisted of a short presentation that was given to all residents and medical assistants in October 2011. The proportion of women age 30-65 years of age who had cervical cancer screening with HPV co-testing as compared to cervical cytology alone was compared before and after the intervention using chi-square tests. The goal of the intervention was to increase the percentage of patients receiving co-testing from 0.5% to 7.8%. Each arm (pre- and post-intervention) required 130 subjects to achieve 80% power with a significance of P = .05. No significant differences in demographics including age, insurance type, and cytology were noted. HPV co-testing increased from 0% to 55% (P cervical cancer screening for another 5 years. HPV co-testing represents an underutilized cervical cancer screening modality for women 30 years and older. This brief educational intervention, adaptable to any clinical setting, significatnly increased co-testing at the clinical site.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical carcinoma with squamous cells has many of the characteristics of avenereal disease: high incidence (over 500.000 cases every year, an increased frequency for the women with multiple sex partners and the presence of one of the papillomavirus genotypes with a high carcinogenic risk (HPV 16, 18, 31 and 45 in 100% of the cases. Material and methods.In the period of time 2001-2012, in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology belonging to “Sf. Apostol Andrei” Emergency Hospital in Galaţi, 5047 women were hospitalized under the suspicion of having cervical neoplasia.As part of the screening programme, the women belonging to the high risk group are tested for HPV by using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2.Results and discussions.The seropositive women’s risk of having a persistent HPV infection is 7 times higher than in the case of the seronegative ones, with the same age. This risk is double for the women with CD4 lymphocytes below 200/mmc.Infection with cancer-causing HPV types is limited to the epithelium of the uterine exocervix and it does not spread to other parts of the body. Conclusions. Cervical cancer is caused by the oncogenic types of HPV, types 16 and 18 being responsible for over 70% of the cases. It represents the second cause of mortality by cancer for the women between 15 and 44 years old. Anti-HPV vaccination comes as a partner of the screening programmes aiming to reduce the incidence and mortality by cervical cancer.

  4. Fracture and Viscoelastic Characteristics of the Human Cervical Spine,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    flexion moments ranging from -800 N-mm to - 4r 9000 N-mm with no dependence on cervical spinal level. In future testing, the angles of rotation should...loaded in compression while controlling the anterior-posterior shear load at zero and the flexion - extension angle at a constant setting. The final...specimen, tests were performed at fixed flexion -extension angles of 0 degrees, 2 degrees extension and 2 degrees flexion in sequence. The test lasted 1

  5. Validation of the Turkish Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Awareness Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, E; Kısa, S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the 'Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Awareness Questionnaire' among fertility age women by adapting the scale into Turkish. Cervical cancer is the fourth most commonly form seen among women. Death from cervical cancer ranks third among causes and is one of the most preventable forms of cancer. This cross-sectional study included 360 women from three family health centres between January 5 and June 25, 2014. Internal consistency showed that the Kuder-Richardson 21 reliability coefficient in the first part was 0.60, Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.61 in the second part. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value of the items on the scale was 0.712. The Barlett test was significant. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the model matched the data adequately. This study shows that the Turkish version of the instrument is a valid and reliable tool to evaluate knowledge, perceptions and preventive behaviours of women regarding human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. Nurses who work in the clinical and primary care settings need to screen, detect and refer women who may be at risk from cervical cancer. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  6. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaldi, Thomas G; Almstead, Laura L; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G; Santin, Alessandro D; DiMaio, Daniel

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L. [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Bellone, Stefania [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States); Prevatt, Edward G. [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Santin, Alessandro D. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States); Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028 (United States); DiMaio, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dimaio@yale.edu [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208040, New Haven, CT 06520-8040 (United States); Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208024 (United States); Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028 (United States)

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells.

  8. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongtao [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Gao, Peng [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zheng, Jie, E-mail: jiezheng54@126.com [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} inhibits growth of cervical cancer cells and expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. • HPV-negative cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. • HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-16 positive cancer cells. • Down-regulation of HPV oncogenes by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is partially due to the diminished AP-1 binding. - Abstract: Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  9. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Hu, Mengcai

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  10. Patterns of cervical coinfection with multiple human papilloma virus types in a screening population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Bryan; Rebolj, Matejka; Rygaard, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection suggest that HPV genotypes are not independent of each other. This may be explained by risk factors common to all HPV infections, but type-specific biological factors may also play a role. This raises the question of whether widespread use...

  11. Evaluation of Human Papilloma Virus Communicative Education Strategies: A Pilot Screening Study for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Clavijo, Lizeth K.; Wiesner-Ceballos, Carolina; Rincón-Martínez, Lina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) is highly prevalent in sexually active men and women; HR-HPV has been classified as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and as a necessary, but not sufficient, causal agent for cervical cancer. Women who test positive for HPV often experience serious psychosocial consequences such as fear,…

  12. Attribution of 12 High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes to Infection and Cervical Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joura, Elmar A.; Ault, Kevin A.; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and incidence of 14 human papillomavirus (HPV) types (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59) in cervicovaginal swabs, and the attribution of these HPV types in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), using predefined a...

  13. The state of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes in human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffner, M.; Muenger, K.; Byrne, J.C.; Howley, P.M. (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-07-01

    Human cervical carcinoma cell lines that were either positive or negative for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences were analyzed for evidence of mutation of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes. Each of five HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines expressed normal pRB and low levels of wild-type p53 proteins, which are presumed to be altered in function as a consequence of association with HPV E7 and E6 oncoproteins, respectively. In contrast, mutations were identified in the p53 and RB genes expressed in the C-33A and HT-3 cervical cancer cell lines, which lack HPV DNA sequences. Mutations in the p53 genes mapped to codon 273 and codon 245 in the C33-A and HT-3 cell lines, respectively, located in the highly conserved regions of p53, where mutations appear in a variety of human cancers. Mutations in RB occurred at splice junctions, resulting in in-frame deletions, affecting exons 13 and 20 in the HT-3 and C-33A cell lines, respectively. These mutations resulted in aberrant proteins that were not phosphorylated and were unable to complex with the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. These results support the hypothesis that the inactivation of the normal functions of the tumor-suppressor proteins pRB and p53 are important steps in human cervical carcinogenesis, either by mutation or from complex formation with the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: Cytology versus human papillomavirus DNA testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the most cost-effective screening programme for cervical cancer. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Setting The Netherlands. Population Dutch women who have not been invited for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods We calibra

  15. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: Cytology versus human papillomavirus DNA testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the most cost-effective screening programme for cervical cancer. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Setting The Netherlands. Population Dutch women who have not been invited for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods We calibra

  16. Evaluation of Human Papilloma Virus Communicative Education Strategies: A Pilot Screening Study for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Clavijo, Lizeth K.; Wiesner-Ceballos, Carolina; Rincón-Martínez, Lina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) is highly prevalent in sexually active men and women; HR-HPV has been classified as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and as a necessary, but not sufficient, causal agent for cervical cancer. Women who test positive for HPV often experience serious psychosocial consequences such as fear,…

  17. Physical status of multiple human papillomavirus genotypes in flow-sorted cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine F. W.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Szuhai, Karoly; Kolkman-Uljee, Sandra; Vrede, M. Albert; Peters, Alexander A. W.; Schtturing, Ed; Fleuren, Gert Jan

    2007-01-01

    Multiple human papilloma virus (HPV) infections have been detected in cervical cancer. To investigate the significance of multiple HPV infections, we studied their prevalence in cancer samples from a low-risk (Dutch) and a high-risk (Surinamese) population and the correlation of HPV infection with t

  18. Immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes by various human papillomavirus DNAs corresponds to their association with cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, C.D.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Normal human foreskin keratinocytes cotransfected with the neomycin resistance gene and recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) that have a high or moderate association with cervical malignancy acquired immortality and contained integrated and transcriptionally active viral genomes. Only transcripts from the intact E6 and E7 genes were detected in at least one cell line, suggesting that one or both of these genes are responsible for immortalization. Recombinant HPV DNAs with low or no oncogenic potential for cervical cancer (HPV1a, -5, -6b, and -11) induced small G418-resistant colonies that senesced as did the nontransfected cells. These colonies contained only episomal virus DNA; therefore, integration of HPV sequences is important for immortalization of keratinocytes. This study suggests that the virus-encoded immortalization function contributes to the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  19. Merkel cell polyomavirus and human papillomavirus infections in cervical disease in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Sadeghi, Farzin; Alamsi-Hashiani, Amir; Haeri, Hayedeh; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Keyvani, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause of cervical neoplasia. Concomitant infection with other infectious agents has been demonstrated to be a cofactor for HPV-related cervical carcinogenesis. The present investigation aimed to determine the prevalence of HPV and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) infections and to evaluate the role of MCPyV as a co-factor for HPV-related cervical carcinogenesis in Iranian women. From 2011 to 2013, a total of 112 cervical samples were examined. Forty-five samples (40.2 %) were positive for HPV. MCPyV was found in 37 samples (33 %). Both HPV and MCPyV were present in 14 samples (12.5 %). MCPyV was seen in 30 % of squamous cell carcinomas, 37.5 % of adenocarcinomas, and 16.7 % of undifferentiated carcinomas. The MCPyV large T antigen (LT-Ag) DNA load was determined as the viral copy number per cell. The median MCPyV LT-Ag copy number in positive women was 0.049 × 10(-3) per cell (range 0.0006 × 10(-3)-4.558 × 10(-3) copies per cell). In comparison with other types of cervical cancer, the MCPyV LT-Ag load was higher in adenocarcinomas (0.1024 × 10(-3) copies per cell). A logistic regression model adjusted to HPV positivity and age revealed no statistically significant association between MCPyV infection and cervical cancer (OR, 1.12; 95 % CI, 0.07-16.83). More studies should be conducted to clarify the role of MCPyV in cervical carcinogenesis.

  20. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and the correlation of HPV infection with cervical disease in Weihai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; He, Z; Huang, X Y; Liu, H N; Tao, J Y

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rate in female genital tracts, as well as the HPV genotype distribution and HPV correlation with cervical disease in Weihai, Shandong Province, China. A random sample of 9,460 volunteers was simultaneously screened using gene chips and examined by ThinPrep liquid-based cytology test (TCT). Cervical biopsy samples were collected from women with positive HPV-DNA and abnormal TCT for pathological diagnosis. The overall HPV prevalence was 6.93% (656 of 9,460). A total of 753 subjects were infected with HPV subtypes (including multiple HPV infections). Of those with infections, 688 were infected with high-risk (HR) types (91.37%), and 65 were infected with low-risk subtypes (8.63%). The single-infection rate was 63.1%.The prevalence rates of HPV in women aged 20 to 39 years and 40 to 59 years were 7.29% and 6.71%, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV16. The HR genotypes were associated with cervical diseases such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (37.9%), atypical squamous cells high grade (ASC-H) (42.5%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (50%), and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion HSIL (66.7%). Cervical biopsy results show that the HPV detection rate increased in the following biopsy samples: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (74.11%), CIN II (84.31%), CIN III (90.32%), and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) (100%). The HPV infection rate with associated cervical disease in Weihai is equal to those in foreign countries but is lower than the average rate in China. The prevalence of HPV was higher in young people. The most common HPV genotype was 16, followed by 52 and 58. HR HPV is the most probable infection factor for cervical diseases.

  1. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.

  2. Characterization of human cervical remodeling throughout pregnancy using in vivo Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine M.; Vargis, Elizabeth; Slaughter, Chris; Rudin, Amy P.; Herington, Jennifer L.; Bennett, Kelly A.; Reese, Jeff; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2015-02-01

    Globally, fifteen million babies are born preterm each year, affecting 1 in 8 pregnancies in the US alone. Cervical remodeling includes a biochemical cascade of changes that ultimately result in the thinning and dilation of the cervix for passage of a fetus. This process is poorly understood and is the focus of this study. Our group is utilizing Raman spectroscopy to evaluate biochemical changes occurring in the human cervix throughout pregnancy. This technique has high molecular specificity and can be performed in vivo, with the potential to unveil new molecular dynamics essential for cervical remodeling.

  3. Differential detection of Human Papillomavirus genotypes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by four commercial assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories can nowadays choose from >100 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays for cervical screening. Our previous analysis based on the data from the Danish Horizon study, however, showed that four widely used assays, Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART and APTIMA, frequently do not detect...... the same HPV infections. Here, we determined the characteristics of the concordant (all four assays returning a positive HPV test result) and discordant samples (all other HPV-positive samples) in primary cervical screening at 30-65 years (n=2859) and in a concurrent referral population from the same...... catchment area (n=885). HPV testing followed the manufacturers' protocols. Women with abnormal cytology were managed according to the routine recommendations. Cytology-normal/HPV-positive women were invited for repeated testing in 18 months. Screening history and histologically confirmed cervical...

  4. BOLD MRI of the human cervical spinal cord at 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, P W; Nance, P W; Ryner, L N

    1999-09-01

    The feasibility of functional MRI of the spinal cord was investigated by carrying out blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging of the human cervical spinal cord at a field of 3 T. BOLD imaging of the cervical spinal cord showed an average intensity increase of 7.0% during repeated exercise with the dominant hand with a return to baseline during rest periods. The areas of activation were predominantly on the same side of the spinal cord as the hand performing the exercise, between the levels of the sixth cervical and first thoracic spinal cord segments. The direct correspondence between these areas and those involved with the transmission of motor impulses to the hand, and reception of sensory information from the hand, demonstrates that spinal functional magnetic resonance imaging is feasible. Magn Reson Med 42:571-576, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV and its relation with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, teenage pregnancies, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, having multiple sex partners, hormone replacement therapies and various other unknown factors lead to the onset of the disease. Awareness for various diagnostic procedures such as Pap smears screening prove to be an effective way in eradicating the oncogenic potential of HPV.

  6. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    On profile radiographs of adults, an association between fusions of cervical vertebrae, deviations in the cranial base and mandibular retrognathia has been documented radiographically. An elaboration of this association on a histological level is needed. In human triploid fetuses severe mandibular...... and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....... retrognathia and deviations in the cranial base have previously been described radiographically (without cephalometry) and cervical column fusions radiographically as well as histologically. Therefore, triploid fetuses were chosen to elucidate the cranial base cephalomterically and histologically...

  7. Prevalence of human papillomavirus cervical infection in an Italian asymptomatic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirito Rodolfo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade many studies have definitely shown that human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the major cause of cervical carcinogenesis and, in the last few years, HPV testing has been proposed as a new and more powerful tool for cervical cancer screening. This issue is now receiving considerable attention in scientific and non scientific press and HPV testing could be considered the most important change in this field since the introduction of cervical cytology. This paper reports our prevalence data of HPV infection collected in the '90s, while a follow up of these patients is ongoing. Methods For this study we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR to search HPV DNA sequences in cervical cell scrapings obtained from 503 asymptomatic women attending regular cervical cancer screening program in the city of Genova, Italy. All patients were also submitted to a self-administered, standardized, questionnaire regarding their life style and sexual activity. On the basis of the presence of HPV DNA sequences women were separated into two groups: "infected" and "non infected" and a statistical analysis of the factors potentially associated with the infection group membership was carried out. Results The infection rate was 15.9% and the most frequent viral type was HPV 16. Conclusion Our HPV positivity rate (15.9% was consistent to that reported by other studies on European populations.

  8. Evidence of disrupted high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in morphologically normal cervices of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah M; Pereira, Merlin; Roberts, Sally; Cuschieri, Kate; Nuovo, Gerard; Athavale, Ramanand; Young, Lawrence; Ganesan, Raji; Woodman, Ciarán B

    2016-02-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes nearly 100% of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear whether HPV can establish a latent infection, one which may be responsible for the second peak in incidence of cervical carcinoma seen in older women. Therefore, using Ventana in situ hybridisation (ISH), quantitative PCR assays and biomarkers of productive and transforming viral infection, we set out to provide the first robust estimate of the prevalence and characteristics of HPV genomes in FFPE tissue from the cervices of 99 women undergoing hysterectomy for reasons unrelated to epithelial abnormality. Our ISH assay detected HR-HPV in 42% of our study population. The majority of ISH positive samples also tested HPV16 positive using sensitive PCR based assays and were more likely to have a history of preceding cytological abnormality. Analysis of subsets of this population revealed HR-HPV to be transcriptionally inactive as there was no evidence of a productive or transforming infection. Critically, the E2 gene was always disrupted in those HPV16 positive cases which were assessed. These findings point to a reservoir of transcriptionally silent, disrupted HPV16 DNA in morphologically normal cervices, re-expression of which could explain the increase in incidence of cervical cancer observed in later life.

  9. Human papillomavirus genotyping by multiplex pyrosequencing in cervical cancer patients from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheryl M Travasso; Mona Anand Mansi; Mansi Samarth; Aditi Deshpande; Chandan Kumar-Sinha

    2008-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in India. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the causative agent of cervical cancer; and infection with the high-risk genotypes, predominantly HPV16 and 18, is the biggest risk factor. Vaccines targeting HPV16 and 18 have been found to confer protection in large-scale clinical trials. HPV genotyping has traditionally been carried out to screen the population “at risk” using indirect methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus primers combined with various DNA hybridization techniques, and often followed by the sequencing of candidate products. Recently, a high-throughput and direct method based on DNA sequencing has been described for HPV genotyping using multiplex pyrosequencing. We present a pilot study on HPV genotyping of cervical cancer and non-malignant cervical samples using multiplex pyrosequencing. Using genomic DNA from cell lines, cervical biopsies, surgical tissues or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, we could successfully resolve 6 different HPV types out of the 7 tested, with their prevalence found to be in agreement with earlier reports. We also resolved coinfections with two different HPV types in several samples. An HPV16 genotype with a specific and recurrent sequence variation was observed in 8 cancer samples and one non-malignant sample. We find this technique eminently suited for high-throughput applications, which can be easily extended to large sample cohorts to determine a robust benchmark for HPV genotypes prevalent in India.

  10. Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and oropharyngeal cancer: One cause, two diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Tara A; Schiller, John T

    2017-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes greater than 5% of cancers worldwide, including all cervical cancers and an alarmingly increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). Despite markedly reduced cervical cancer incidence in industrialized nations with organized screening programs, cervical cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, as developing countries lack resources for universal, high-quality screening. In the United States, HPV-related OPC is only 1 of 5 cancers with a rising incidence since 1975 and now has taken over the cervix as the most common site of HPV-related cancer. Similar trends follow throughout North America and Europe. The need for early detection and prevention is paramount. Despite the common etiologic role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC, great disparity exists between incidence, screening modalities (or lack thereof), treatment, and prevention in these 2 very distinct cohorts. These differences in cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC and their impact are discussed here. Cancer 2017;123:2219-2229. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Immunotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated disease and cervical cancer: review of clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Jong; Yang, Andrew; Wu, T C; Hung, Chien Fu

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally. However, even though the commercially available prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil (Merck) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), are effective in blocking the entry of HPV into the epithelium of cervix through generation of HPV-specific neutralizing antibodies, they cannot eliminate the pre-existing HPV infection. For these reason, other immunotherapeutic options against HPV-associated diseases, including therapeutic vaccines, have been continuously explored. Therapeutic HPV vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity targeting HPV E6 and E7 antigens by modulating primarily dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been adopted and tested for their treatment efficacy against HPV-induced cervical cancer.

  12. Long-term absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse following human papillomavirus infection: role of persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Susanne K; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk;

    2010-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. It has been suggested that information about high-risk HPV type-specific infection might make cervical cancer screening more effective. Persistent HPV infection...

  13. Risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in relation to smoking among women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Schmiedel, Sven; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with cervical cancer. We examined whether smoking increases the risk for high-grade cervical lesions in women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study, 8,656 women underwent a structured interview, and...

  14. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT GENE EXPRESSION OF HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER SUBCLONE CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Li Xu; Wang Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the differentially expressed invasion-related genes in two anchorage-independent uterine cervical carcinoma cell lines derived from the same patient using a cDNA array. Methods Two human uterine cervical carcinoma subclonal cell lines CS03 and CS07 derived from a single donor line CS1213 were established by limited dilution procedure. The two cDNA samples retro-transcribed from total RNA derived from CS03 and CS07 cells were screened by a cDNA microarray carrying 234 human cell-cycle related genes and 1011 human signal transduction and membrane receptor -associated genes, scanned with a ScanArray 3000 laser scanner. Results The cDNA microarray analysis showed that 12 genes in CS03 were up-regulated compared to CS07, and 24 genes in CS07 were up-regulated. The function of a number of differentially expressed genes was consistently associated with cell-cycle, cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, signal transduction and tumor metastasis, including p34cdc2, TSC22, plasminogen activator inhibitor I (PAI-1)and desmosome associated protein(Pinin). Conclusion Multiple genes are differentially expressed in uterine cervical carcinoma cell lines even came from the same patient. It is suggested that these genes are involved in the different phenotypic characteristics and development of cervical carcinoma.

  15. Estradiol increases mucus synthesis in bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tam

    Full Text Available Airway epithelial mucus hypersecretion and mucus plugging are prominent pathologic features of chronic inflammatory conditions of the airway (e.g. asthma and cystic fibrosis and in most of these conditions, women have worse prognosis compared with male patients. We thus investigated the effects of estradiol on mucus expression in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells from female donors grown at an air liquid interface (ALI. Treatment with estradiol in physiological ranges for 2 weeks caused a concentration-dependent increase in the number of PAS-positive cells (confirmed to be goblet cells by MUC5AC immunostaining in ALI cultures, and this action was attenuated by estrogen receptor beta (ER-β antagonist. Protein microarray data showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT in the nuclear fraction of NHBE cells was increased with estradiol treatment. Estradiol increased NFATc1 mRNA and protein in ALI cultures. In a human airway epithelial (1HAE0 cell line, NFATc1 was required for the regulation of MUC5AC mRNA and protein. Estradiol also induced post-translational modification of mucins by increasing total fucose residues and fucosyltransferase (FUT-4, -5, -6 mRNA expression. Together, these data indicate a novel mechanism by which estradiol increases mucus synthesis in the human bronchial epithelium.

  16. Human Papillomavirus Genotyping and p16(INK4a) Expression in Cervical Lesions: A Combined Test to Avoid Cervical Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouheir, Yassine; Fechtali, Taoufiq; Elgnaoui, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Morocco. The cervical cancer has a long precancerous period that provides an opportunity for the screening and treatment. Improving screening tests is a priority goal for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the combination of p16(INK4a) protein expression, human papillomavirus (HPV) typing, and histopathology for the identification of cervical lesions with high risk to progress to cervical cancer among Moroccan women. A total of 96 cervical biopsies were included in this study. Signal amplification in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes was used to detect HPV. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of p16(INK4a) protein. HPV DNA was detected in 74.0% of the biopsies (71/96). Of the seventy-one positive HPV cases, we detected 67.6% (48/71) of high risk (HR)-HPV (HPV 16 and 18), 24% of low risk-HPV (HPV 6 and 11), 1.4% intermediate risk-HPV (HPV 31, 33, and 35), and 7% coinfections (HPV 6/11 and 16/18). Overexpression of p16(INK4a) protein was observed in 72.9% (70/96) of the biopsies. In addition, p16(INK4a) protein detection was closely correlated with recovery of HR HPV. Our result showed that p16(INK4a) expression level is correlated with HR-HPV status.

  17. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  18. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes About Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED -13- 17. Asiimwe, s. Predictors of high - risk human papillomavirus infection, a Population based study in rural, Uganda...1- Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda Authors...Oncogenic Human Papilloma virus (HPV) strains 16 and 18. While cervical cancer is widely understood as a fatal disease, knowledge and awareness of

  20. Human papillomavirus in invasive cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3 in Venezuela: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lander, Jorge; Cortiñas, Paula; Loureiro, Carmen Luisa; Pujol, Flor Helene; Medina, Francisco; Capote-Negrín, Luis; Bianchi, Gino; García-Barriola, Victoria; Ruiz-Benni, Angela; Avilán-Rovira, José; Acosta, Humberto

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in invasive cervical cancer (ICC), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 (CIN2) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) in Venezuela. Paraffin-embedded samples from 329 women from 29 medical centers of the 24 states of Venezuela were analyzed to determine the distribution of HPV types for ICC, CIN2, and CIN3, the prevalence of single and multiple infection, and the association of HPV types with severity of lesion, comparing CIN2 versus CIN3+ (CIN3 and ICC). The samples were analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by reverse hybridization for the identification of HPV types. HPV was identified in 95/96 ICC specimens (98.9%), in 142/149 CIN3 (95.3%) and in 78/84 CIN2 samples (92.8%). The most common types for ICC and CIN3 were: HPV16, 18, 31, and 33, and for CIN2 were HPV16, 31, 51, 52, and 18. HPV single infection was found in 82.1% of ICC cases, in 79.4% of CIN2 cases, and in 77.4% of CIN3 cases. HPV16 was identified as a single infection more frequently in women with CIN3+ than in those with CIN2 (68.6% versus 46.7%, P=0.002), and HPV16 or HPV18 types were more prevalent in CIN3+ than in CIN2 (73.4% versus 50%, P=0.0006). this is the first study of the distribution of HPV types in ICC, CIN2, and CIN3 conducted throughout the territory of Venezuela. HPV16 and HPV18 were the most frequent HPV types identified in single and multiple infections in both ICC and CIN3 groups, and are associated with severity of lesion. The knowledge of the distribution of HPV types would allow organization of an HPV-DNA-based screening test, and consideration of the implementation of prophylactic vaccination in Venezuela. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MicroRNA-125a-5p modulates human cervical carcinoma proliferation and migration by targeting ABL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin X

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xian Qin,1 Yajun Wan,1 Saiying Wang,2 Min Xue1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Background: In this study, we intended to understand the regulatory mechanisms of microRNA-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p in human cervical carcinoma.Methods: The gene expressions of miR-125a-5p in seven cervical carcinoma cell lines and 12 human cervical carcinoma samples were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ca-Ski and HeLa cells were transduced with lentivirus carrying miR-125a-5p mimics, and the effects of lentivirus-induced miR-125a-5p upregulation on cervical carcinoma proliferation and migration were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and transwell assays, respectively. In additional, HeLa cells were inoculated into null mice to evaluate the effect of miR-125a-5p upregulation on in vivo cervical carcinoma growth. The direct regulation of miR-125a-5p on its target gene, ABL proto-oncogene 2 (ABL2, in cervical carcinoma was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and luciferase reporter assays, respectively. ABL2 was then downregulated by small interfering RNA to examine its effect on cervical carcinoma proliferation and migration.Results: miR-125a-5p was downregulated in both cervical carcinoma cell lines and human cervical carcinomas. In Ca-Ski and HeLa cells, lentivirus-mediated miR-125a-5p upregulation inhibited cancer proliferation and migration in vitro and cervical carcinoma transplantation in vivo. ABL2 was shown to be directly targeted by miR-125a-5p. In cervical carcinoma, ABL2 gene and protein levels were both downregulated by miR-125a-5p. Small interfering RNA-mediated ABL2 downregulation also had tumor-suppressive effects on cervical carcinoma proliferation and migration

  2. Functional Characterization of a Mucus-Specific LPXTG Surface Adhesin from Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M.; Palva, Airi

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic. PMID:21602388

  3. Functional characterization of a mucus-specific LPXTG surface adhesin from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ossowski, Ingemar; Satokari, Reetta; Reunanen, Justus; Lebeer, Sarah; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; de Vos, Willem M; Palva, Airi

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the wealth of clinical evidence supporting the health benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in humans, there is still a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its probiosis. Current knowledge suggests that the health-promoting effects of this probiotic strain might be partly dependent on its persistence in the intestine and adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Moreover, L. rhamnosus GG contains mucus-binding pili that might also explain the occupation of its ecological niche as a comparatively less stringent allochthonous intestine-dwelling bacterium. To uncover additional surface proteins involved in mucosal adhesion, we investigated the adherence properties of the only predicted protein (LGG_02337) in L. rhamnosus GG that exhibits homology with a known mucus-binding domain. We cloned a recombinant form of the gene for this putative mucus adhesin and established that the purified protein readily adheres to human intestinal mucus. We also showed that this mucus adhesin is visibly distributed throughout the cell surface and participates in the adhesive interaction between L. rhamnosus GG and mucus, although less prominently than the mucus-binding pili in this strain. Based on primary structural comparisons, we concluded that the current annotation of the LGG_02337 protein likely does not accurately reflect its predicted properties, and we propose that this mucus-specific adhesin be called the mucus-binding factor (MBF). Finally, we interpret our results to mean that L. rhamnosus GG MBF, as an active mucus-specific surface adhesin with a presumed ancillary involvement in pilus-mediated mucosal adhesion, plays a part in the adherent mechanisms during intestinal colonization by this probiotic.

  4. Epidemiological data of different human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical specimens of HIV-1-infected women without history of cervical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videla, Sebastian; Darwich, Laila; Cañadas, Maria Paz; Paredes, Roger; Tarrats, Antoni; Castella, Eva; Llatjos, Mariona; Bofill, Margarita; Clotet, Bonaventura; Sirera, Guillem

    2009-02-01

    To study the epidemiology of different human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in cervical samples of HIV-1-infected women with normal Papanicolau smears. : Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort. We selected HIV-1-infected women with 2 consecutive normal Papanicolau smears at baseline and at least 1 baseline and 1 follow-up cervical sample. HPV infection was assessed by second-generation hybrid capture (HC-2) and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). HPV genotypes were determined by mPCR. From a cohort of 139 women followed up to 4 years, 93 women meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The mean period between samples was 20 months (range, 6-44 months). HPV baseline prevalence was 63% [59/93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 53% to 73%] using polymerase chain reaction and 41% (38/93; 95% CI, 31% to 51%) using HC-2, P = 0.007 (kappa, 0.45; P = 0.001). The most prevalent high oncogenic risk genotypes (HR-HPV) were HPV-16 (28%), HPV-33 (18%), HPV-52 (12%), HPV-58 (11%), and HPV-39 (11%). Infection with multiple HPV genotypes was detected in >40% of women. HPV infection persisted at follow-up in 86% (51/59; 95% CI, 77% to 95%) by polymerase chain reaction and 76% (29/38; 95% CI, 62% to 90%) by HC-2. HPV infection persisted in 55% of women with samples available beyond 3 years. The actuarial probabilities of clearance and incidence of HPV infection at 36 months were 16% and 45%, respectively. HPV infection is highly prevalent and persistent among HIV-1-infected women with normal Papanicolau smears. HR-HPV genotypes other than HPV-16 (HPV-33, HPV-52) are frequently detected in HIV-infected women. mPCR provides better surveillance of HPV infection than HC-2 methods.

  5. Establishment of a novel method for primary culture of normal human cervical keratinocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-zhen; L(U) Xiu-ping; PAN Zi-xuan; ZHANG Wei; CHEN Zhao-ri; WANG Hui; LIU Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical keratinocytes are recovered at a low numbers and frequently associated with contaminating human fibroblasts which rapidly overgrow the epithelial cells in culture with medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS).However,it is difficult to initiate keratinocyte cultures with serum-free keratinocyte growth medium alone because cell attachment can be poor.Therefore,the culture of these cells is extremely difficult.In this study,we described a modified culture medium and coated culture plastics for growing normal human cervical epithelial cells in vitro.Methods Normal cervical epithelial tissue pieces were obtained and digested with type Ⅰ collagenase to dissociate the cells and a single cell suspension produced.The cells were cultured on plastic tissue culture substrate alone or substrate coated with collagen type Ⅰ from rat tail,with modified keratinocyte serum-free medium (K-SFM) supplemented with 5% FBS.After attachment,the medium were replaced with K-SFM without FBS.The expression of basal keratins of the ectocervical epithelium,K5,K14 and K19 were assayed by immunofiuorescence with monoclonal antibodies to identify the cell purity.Results Our results indicate that cells attached to the culture plastic more quickly in K-SFM supplemented with 5%FBS than in K-SFM alone,as well as to tissue culture plastic coated with collagen type Ⅰ than plastic alone.The modified medium composed of K-SFM and 5% FBS combined with a specific tissue culture plastic coated with collagen type Ⅰ from rat tail was the best method for culture of normal cervical epithelial cells.K5,K14 and K19 were assayed and keratinocyte purity was nearly 100%.Conclusion A novel,simple and effective method can be used to rapidly obtain highly purified keratinocytes from normal human cervical epithelium.

  6. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution in 175 invasive cervical cancer cases from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive cervical cancer is the second most common malignant tumor affecting Brazilian women. Knowledge on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer cases is crucial to guide the introduction and further evaluate the impact of new preventive strategies based on HPV. We aimed to provide updated comprehensive data about the HPV types’ distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer. Methods Fresh tumor tissue samples of histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer were collected from 175 women attending two cancer reference hospitals from São Paulo State: ICESP and Hospital de Câncer de Barretos. HPV detection and genotyping were performed by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton,USA). Results 170 out of 172 valid samples (99%) were HPV DNA positive. The most frequent types were HPV16 (77.6%), HPV18 (12.3%), HPV31 (8.8%), HPV33 (7.1%) and HPV35 (5.9%). Most infections (75%) were caused by individual HPV types. Women with adenocarcinoma were not younger than those with squamous cell carcinoma, as well, as women infected with HPV33 were older than those infected by other HPV types. Some differences between results obtained in the two hospitals were observed: higher overall prevalence of HPV16, absence of single infection by HPV31 and HPV45 was verified in HC-Barretos in comparison to ICESP patients. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is one of the largest studies made with fresh tumor tissues of invasive cervical cancer cases in Brazil. This study depicted a distinct HPV genotype distribution between two centers that may reflect the local epidemiology of HPV transmission among these populations. Due to the impact of these findings on cervical cancer preventive strategies, extension of this investigation to routine screening populations is warranted. PMID:23883423

  7. Prevalence of adeno-associated virus and human papillomavirus DNA in Iranian women with and without cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei-Jandaghi, Nazanin Zahra; Yavarian, Jila; Faghihloo, Ebrahim; Ghavami, Nastaran; Yousefi Ghalejoogh, Zohreh; Kiani, Seyed Jalal; Shatizadeh Malekshahi, Somayeh; Shahsiah, Reza; Jahanzad, Eisa; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mokhtari Azad, Talat

    2017-02-24

    There is plenty of substantial evidence to support anti-tumor activity of viruses. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) may interact with human papillomavirus (HPV) to modify the risk of cervical neoplasia. The seroprevalence of AAV among women with cervical cancer has been reported to be lower than healthy ones. In spite of this finding, detection of AAV DNA in cervical biopsies does not entirely support the inverse association between AAV seropositivity and cervical cancer. This association is still controversial and requires more thorough evaluation in different countries. The aim of this case-control study was to find the prevalence of AAV and HPV DNA sequences in Iranian women with and without cervical cancer to assess the probable association of AAV infection and cervical cancer. In this study, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 61 cervical cancer cases and 50 healthy controls (HCs) were investigated for AAV and HPV DNA by semi-nested and nested PCRs respectively. AAV DNA was detected in 7 cases (14%) of HCs and 9 specimens (14.8%) of case group. According to the branching in the phylogenetic tree, AAV2 was the only type detected in this study. Moreover, HPV DNA was detected in 8 cases (16%) of HCs and 44 specimens (72.13%) of case group. In conclusion, a low proportion of cervical biopsies from Iranian women contained AAV-2 genome. No significant difference in correlation between HPV and cervical cancer in presence or absence of AAV genome in cervix was found.

  8. Antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of fish epidermal mucus Cynoglossus arel andArius caelatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran; Selvam Priyadharshini; Kolandhasamy Prabhu; Solomon Raj Sophia Rani

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the antimicrobial, hemolytic activity and immunomodulatory activity of fish epidermal mucus and their chemical constituents fromCynoglossus arel (C. arel) and Arius caelatus (A. caelatus). Mucus plays an important role in the prevention of colonization by parasites, bacteria and fungi.Methods: Epidermal mucus was obtained from two marine fishes, lyophilized and the chemical composition of epidermal mucus was analysed byFT-IR analysis. Thein vitro antimicrobial activity against human pathogens (fungi, gram positive and gram-negative bacteria) and also the hemolytic activity and immunomodulatory activity were determined.Results:Totally ten human pathogens were tested against the fish mucus. Out of the ten pathogens, five pathogens have proved to be sensitive to the mucus. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed againstVibrio cholera (V. cholera) (9 mm and2 mm in diameter), followed byStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with a inhibition zone of (6 mm and3 mm),Streptococcus areus (S. areus) (5 mm and4 mm),Vibrio parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) (4mm and5 mm) respectively.Conclusions: The present investigation has revealed that positive progresses in the fish mucus extracts against human pathogens and hemolytic activity. But further efforts are required for the purification and isolation of the active antimicrobial compounds in order to establish their possible applications.

  9. Discovery of low mucus adhesion surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Minghao; Yildiz, Hasan; Carrier, Rebecca; Belfort, Georges

    2013-02-01

    Mucus secretion from the body is ubiquitous, and finding materials that resist mucus adhesion is a major technological challenge. Here, using a high throughput platform with photo-induced graft polymerization, we first rapidly synthesized, screened and tested a library of 55 different surfaces from six functional monomer classes to discover porcine intestinal low mucus adhesion surfaces using a 1h static mucus adsorption protocol. From this preliminary screen, two chemistries, a zwitterionic ([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride) and a multiple hydroxyl (N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide) surface, exhibited significantly low mucus adhesion from a Langmuir-type isotherm when exposed to increasing concentrations of mucus for 24 h. Apolar or hydrophobic interactions were likely the dominant attractive forces during mucus binding since many polar or hydrophilic monomers reduced mucus adhesion. Hansen solubility parameters were used to illustrate the importance of monomer polarity and hydrogen bonding in reducing mucus adsorption. For a series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) monomers with changing molecular weight from 144 g mol⁻¹ to 1100 g mol⁻¹, we observed an excellent linear correlation (R²=0.998) between relative amount adsorbed and the distance from a water point in a specialized Hansen solubility parameter plot, emphasizing the role of surface-water interactions for PEG modified surfaces.

  10. Prevalence and genotyping of high risk human papillomavirus in cervical cancer samples from Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Abida; Zainab, Maidah; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Parish, Joanna L

    2014-07-17

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is established as the cause of cervical carcinoma, therefore, high risk HPV detection may have prognostic significance for the women who are at increased risk of disease progression. The paucity of data on the incidence of cervical cancer in Pakistan makes it difficult to determine disease burden. Even less information is available regarding the prevalent HPV strains in cervical specimens collected from this region. Cervical cancer is a neglected disease in Pakistan in terms of screening, prevention, and vaccination. Identification and accurate genotyping of the virus burden in cancer specimens is important to inform intervention policies for future management of HPV associated disease and to potentially stratify patients dependent on HPV status. In this study, detection and genotyping of HPV types 16 and 18 from 77 cervical specimens were carried out. Consensus primers GP5+/GP6+, which detect 44 genital HPV types, and type specific primers (TS16 and TS18) were used in conjunction with newly designed type specific primers. Using a combination of these methods of detection, a total of 94.81% (95% CI ±4.95) of cervical lesions were positive for HPV. Single infections of HPV16 were detected in 24.68% (95% CI ±9.63) of total samples and HPV18 was found in 25.97% (95% CI ±9.79) samples. Interestingly, a high proportion of samples (40.26%, 95% CI ±10.95) was positive for both HPV16 and 18, indicating a higher incidence of co-infection than previously reported for similar ethnic regions. The HPV genotype of 3.90% of HPV positive samples remained undetected, although these samples were positive with the GP5+/GP6+ primer set indicating infection with an HPV type other than 16 or 18. These data indicate that the overall incidence of high risk HPV infection in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia specimens in Punjab

  11. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Dlamini, Xolisile; Östensson, Ellinor

    2017-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC), and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden. Materials and methods A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI) methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($). Results The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million). Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million). Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million). Conclusion According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV

  12. Cost-Utility Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Patient in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Dolk, Franklin Christiaan; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Westra, Tjalke Arend; WIlschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, the clinical and economic burdens of cervical cancer are still substantial issues in Indonesia. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to model the costs, clinical benefits, and cost-utility of both visual inspection with acetic

  13. Cost-Utility Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Patient in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Dolk, Franklin Christiaan; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Westra, Tjalke Arend; WIlschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, the clinical and economic burdens of cervical cancer are still substantial issues in Indonesia. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to model the costs, clinical benefits, and cost-utility of both visual inspection with acetic

  14. Distribution of Human Papillomavirus 52 and 58 Genotypes, and Their Expression of p16 and p53 in Cervical Neoplasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Tae Eun; Kim, Hwal Woong; Lee, Kyung Eun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 52 and 58 genotypes among women residing in Busan, and the expression of p16 and p53 proteins in cervical neoplasia with HPV 52 and 58 infections...

  15. Combining metformin and nelfinavir exhibits synergistic effects against the growth of human cervical cancer cells and xenograft in nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenglai; Chen, Ruihong; Chen, Jinman; Qi, Qianqian; Pan, Yanbin; Du, Lanying; Xiao, Guohong; Jiang, Shibo

    2017-01-01

    Human cervical cancer is the fourth most common carcinoma in women worldwide. However, the emergence of drug resistance calls for continuously developing new anticancer drugs and combination chemotherapy regimens. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cervical cancer effects of metformin, a first-line therapeutic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and nelfinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, when used alone or in combination. We found that both metformin and nelfinavir, when used alone, were moderately effective in inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and suppressing migration and invasion of human cervical cell lines HeLa, SiHa and CaSki. When used in combination, these two drugs acted synergistically to inhibit the growth of human cervical cancer cells in vitro and cervical cancer cell xenograft in vivo in nude mice, and suppress cervical cancer cell migration and invasion. The protein expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit PI3K(p110α), which can promote tumor growth, was remarkably downregulated, while the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p21 were substantially upregulated following the combinational treatment in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that clinical use of metformin and nelfinavir in combination is expected to have synergistic antitumor efficacy and significant potential for the treatment of human cervical cancer. PMID:28252027

  16. Cell membrane softening in human breast and cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Chris; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Schiller, Jürgen; Dietrich, Undine; Möhn, Till; Kießling, Tobias R.; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Horn, Lars-Christian; Briest, Susanne; Höckel, Michael; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical properties are key to many cellular functions such as cell division and cell motility and thus are crucial in the development and understanding of several diseases, for instance cancer. The mechanics of the cellular cytoskeleton have been extensively characterized in cells and artificial systems. The rigidity of the plasma membrane, with the exception of red blood cells, is unknown and membrane rigidity measurements only exist for vesicles composed of a few synthetic lipids. In this study, thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells, as well as breast cell lines, are analyzed. Cell blebs or GPMVs were studied via thermal membrane fluctuations and mass spectrometry. It will be shown that cancer cell membranes are significantly softer than their non-malignant counterparts. This can be attributed to a loss of fluid raft forming lipids in malignant cells. These results indicate that the reduction of membrane rigidity promotes aggressive blebbing motion in invasive cancer cells.

  17. A statistical shape model of the human second cervical vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clogenson, Marine; Duff, John M; Luethi, Marcel; Levivier, Marc; Meuli, Reto; Baur, Charles; Henein, Simon

    2015-07-01

    Statistical shape and appearance models play an important role in reducing the segmentation processing time of a vertebra and in improving results for 3D model development. Here, we describe the different steps in generating a statistical shape model (SSM) of the second cervical vertebra (C2) and provide the shape model for general use by the scientific community. The main difficulties in its construction are the morphological complexity of the C2 and its variability in the population. The input dataset is composed of manually segmented anonymized patient computerized tomography (CT) scans. The alignment of the different datasets is done with the procrustes alignment on surface models, and then, the registration is cast as a model-fitting problem using a Gaussian process. A principal component analysis (PCA)-based model is generated which includes the variability of the C2. The SSM was generated using 92 CT scans. The resulting SSM was evaluated for specificity, compactness and generalization ability. The SSM of the C2 is freely available to the scientific community in Slicer (an open source software for image analysis and scientific visualization) with a module created to visualize the SSM using Statismo, a framework for statistical shape modeling. The SSM of the vertebra allows the shape variability of the C2 to be represented. Moreover, the SSM will enable semi-automatic segmentation and 3D model generation of the vertebra, which would greatly benefit surgery planning.

  18. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of high-risk-human papillomavirus types in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini P Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting high-risk-human papillomavirus (HPV types has become an integral part of the cervical cancer screening programmes. This study aimed to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for identification of HPV types 16 and 18 along with the beta globin gene in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical biopsy specimens. A total of 59 samples from patients with cervical abnormalities were tested. HPV 16 positivity was 50% in cervical cancers and 52.9% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Our multiplex PCR protocol can be used as a simple and cost-effective tool for high-risk-HPV detection in cervical cancer screening programmes.

  19. Cervical and crown outline analysis of worn Neanderthal and modern human lower second deciduous molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Fornai, Cinzia; Buti, Laura; Toussaint, Michel; Mallegni, Francesco; Ricci, Stefano; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Weber, Gerhard W; Condemi, Silvana; Ronchitelli, Annamaria

    2012-12-01

    Despite the general increase in digital techniques for dental morphometric analyses, only a few methods are available to study worn teeth. Moreover, permanent dentitions are studied much more frequently than deciduous teeth. In this study, we address both issues by providing a taxonomic classification of Neanderthal and modern human (MH) lower second deciduous molars (dm(2) s) through the analysis of crown and cervical outlines. Crown and cervical outlines were obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) digital sample of uniformly oriented dm(2) s. Both outlines were centered on the centroid of their area and represented by 16 pseudolandmarks obtained by equiangularly spaced radial vectors out of the centroid. We removed size information from the oriented and centered outlines with a uniform scaling of the pseudolandmark configurations to unit Centroid Size. Group shape variation was evaluated separately for the dm(2) crown and cervical outlines through a shape-space principal component (PC) analysis. Finally, quadratic discriminant analysis of a subset of PCs was used to classify the specimens. Our results demonstrate that both outlines successfully separate the two groups. Neanderthals showed a buccodistal expansion and convex lingual outline shape, whilst MHs have buccodistal reduction and straight lingual outline shape. Therefore, we confirmed that the cervical outline represents an effective parameter for distinguishing between the two taxa when dealing with worn or damaged dm(2) s.

  20. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin Hang, E-mail: shlee01@snet.net; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William [Department of Pathology, Milford Hospital, 300 Seaside Ave., Milford, CT 06460 (United States)

    2014-10-02

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  1. Human Papillomavirus Types 52 and 58 Are Prevalent in Uterine Cervical Squamous Lesions from Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Takehara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the prevalence and genotypes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV focusing HPV 16, 18, 52, and 58 in Japan. Methods. Liquid-base cytology specimens were collected from Japanese women (n=11022, aged 14–98. After classifying cytodiagnosis, specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by the multiplex polymerase chain reaction method, where 1195 specimens were positive for cervical smear, except adenomatous lesions. Result. HPV genotypes were detected in 9.5% of NILM and 72.2% of ASC-US or more cervical lesions. In positive cervical smears, HPV genotypes were HPV 52 at 26.6%, HPV 16 at 25.2%, HPV 58 at 21.8%, and HPV 18 at 7.1%. Most patients infected with HPV 16 were between 20–29 years old, decreasing with age thereafter. As for HPV 52 and 58, although the detection rate was high in 30- to 39-year-olds, it also was significant in the 50s and 60s age groups. Conclusion. In Japan, as a cause of abnormal cervical cytology, HPV52 and 58 are detected frequently in addition to HPV 16. In older age groups, HPV 52 and 58 detection rates were higher than that observed for HPV 16. After widespread current HPV vaccination, we still must be aware of HPV 52 and 58 infections.

  2. Developing a prognostic micro-RNA signature for human cervical carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine How

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains the third most frequently diagnosed and fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. We sought to develop a micro-RNA signature that was prognostic for disease-free survival, which could potentially allow tailoring of treatment for cervical cancer patients. A candidate prognostic 9-micro-RNA signature set was identified in the training set of 79 frozen specimens. However, three different approaches to validate this signature in an independent cohort of 87 patients with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE specimens, were unsuccessful. There are several challenges and considerations associated with developing a prognostic micro-RNA signature for cervical cancer, namely: tumour heterogeneity, lack of concordance between frozen and FFPE specimens, and platform selection for global micro-RNA expression profiling in this disease. Our observations provide an important cautionary tale for future miRNA signature studies for cervical cancer, which can also be potentially applicable to miRNA profiling studies involving other types of human malignancies.

  3. Prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in female cervical lesions from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. B. Cavalcanti

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A hundred-sixty paraffin-embedded specimens from female cervical lesions were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 infections by non-isotopic in situ hybridization. The data were compared with histologic diagnosis. Eighty-eight (55 biopsies contained HPV DNA sequences. In low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN I, HPV infection was detected in 78.7 of the cases, the benign HPV 6 was the most prevalent type. HPV DNA was detected in 58 of CIN II and CIN III cases and in 41.8 of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. Histologically normal women presented 20 of HPV infection. Oncogenic HPV was found in 10 of these cases, what may indicate a higher risk of developing CINs and cancer. Twenty-five percent of the infected tissues contained mixed infections. HPV 16 was the most common type infecting the cervix and its prevalence raised significantly with the severity of the lesions, pointing its role in cancer pathogenesis. White women presented twice the cervical lesions of mulatto and African origin women, although HPV infection rates were nearly the same for the three groups (approximately 50. Our results showed that HPV typing by in situ hybridization is a useful tool for distinguishing between low and high risk cervical lesions. Further studies are required to elucidate risk factors associated with HPV infection and progression to malignancy in Brazilian population.

  4. Global Variation of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Selected Genes Involved in Cervical Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, R S Akram; Ramakrishnan, V

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of the cervix is ranked second among the top 5 cancers affecting women globally. Parallel to other cancers, it is also a complex disease involving numerous factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection followed by the activity of oncogenes and environmental factors. The incidence rate of the disease remains high in developing countries due to lack of awareness, followed by mass screening programs, various socioeconomic issues, and low usage of preventive vaccines. Over the past 3 decades, extensive research has taken place in cervical malignancy to elucidate the role of host genes in the pathogenesis of the disease, yet it remains one of the most prevalent diseases. It is imperative that recent genome-wide techniques be used to determine whether carcinogenesis of oncogenes is associated with cervical cancer at the molecular level and to translate that knowledge into developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The aim of this study was to discuss HPV predominance with their genotype distribution worldwide, and in India, as well as to discuss the newly identified oncogenes related to cervical cancer in current scenario. Using data from various databases and robust technologies, oncogenes associated with cervical malignancies were identified and are explained in concise manner. Due to the advent of recent technologies, new candidate genes are explored and can be used as precise biomarkers for screening and developing drug targets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing a prognostic micro-RNA signature for human cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Christine; Pintilie, Melania; Bruce, Jeff P; Hui, Angela B Y; Clarke, Blaise A; Wong, Philip; Yin, Shaoming; Yan, Rui; Waggott, Daryl; Boutros, Paul C; Fyles, Anthony; Hedley, David W; Hill, Richard P; Milosevic, Michael; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains the third most frequently diagnosed and fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. We sought to develop a micro-RNA signature that was prognostic for disease-free survival, which could potentially allow tailoring of treatment for cervical cancer patients. A candidate prognostic 9-micro-RNA signature set was identified in the training set of 79 frozen specimens. However, three different approaches to validate this signature in an independent cohort of 87 patients with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, were unsuccessful. There are several challenges and considerations associated with developing a prognostic micro-RNA signature for cervical cancer, namely: tumour heterogeneity, lack of concordance between frozen and FFPE specimens, and platform selection for global micro-RNA expression profiling in this disease. Our observations provide an important cautionary tale for future miRNA signature studies for cervical cancer, which can also be potentially applicable to miRNA profiling studies involving other types of human malignancies.

  6. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  7. Cervical Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the cervix When doctors cannot insert an instrument into the cervix to obtain a sample of tissue from the cervix for a Papanicolaou (Pap) or human papilloma virus (HPV) test (called cervical cytology testing) or a sample ...

  8. Azithromycin Inhibits Mucus Hypersecretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Shimizu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the in vivo effects of the 15-member macrolide, azithromycin (AZM, on mucus hypersecretion, we induced hypertrophic and metaplastic changes of goblet cells in rat nasal epithelium by intranasal instillation of ovalbumin (OVA in OVA-sensitized rats, or by intranasal lipopolysaccharides (LPS instillation. Oral administration of AZM (5–10 mg/kg or clarithromycin (CAM, 5–10 mg/kg significantly inhibited OVA- and LPS-induced mucus production, whereas josamycin (JM or ampicillin (ABPC showed no effect. In vitro effects of AZM on airway epithelial cells were examined using NCI-H292 cells and human nasal epithelial cells cultured in air-liquid interface. Mucus secretion was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using an anti-MUC5AC monoclonal antibody. AZM or CAM significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α (20 ng/mL-induced MUC5AC secretion from NCI-H292 cells at 10−6–10−7 M, whereas JM or ABPC showed no effect. AZM significantly inhibited TNF- (20 ng/mL-induced MUC5AC secretion from human nasal epithelial cells at 10−4 M. MUC5AC mRNA expression was also significantly inhibited. These results indicate that the 15-member macrolide, AZM, exerts direct inhibitory effects on mucus secretion from airway epithelial cells and that it may be useful for the treatment of mucus hypersecretion caused by allergic inflammation and LPS stimulation.

  9. Marijuana use is not associated with cervical human papillomavirus natural history or cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Palefsky, Joel M; Zhong, Ye; Minkoff, Howard; Massad, L Stewart; Anastos, Kathy; Levine, Alexandra M; Moxley, Michael; Xue, Xiao N; Burk, Robert D; Strickler, Howard D

    2010-03-01

    Marijuana use was recently reported to have a positive cross-sectional association with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. Laboratory data suggest that marijuana could have an immunomodulatory effect. Little is known, however, regarding the effects of marijuana use on cervical HPV or neoplasia. Therefore, we studied the natural history (i.e., prevalence, incident detection, clearance/persistence) of cervical HPV and cervical neoplasia (i.e., squamous intraepithelial lesions; SIL) in a large prospective cohort of 2,584 HIV-seropositive and 915 HIV-seronegative women. Marijuana use was classified as ever/never, current/not current, and by frequency and duration of use. No positive associations were observed between use of marijuana, and either cervical HPV infection or SIL. The findings were similar among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women, and in tobacco smokers and nonsmokers. These data suggest that marijuana use does not increase the burden of cervical HPV infection or SIL.

  10. Pegylated Polyaspartamide-Polylactide-Based Nanoparticles Penetrating Cystic Fibrosis Artificial Mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Porsio, Barbara; Sardo, Carla; Giammona, Gaetano; Cavallaro, Gennara

    2016-03-14

    Here, the preparation of mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for pulmonary administration of ibuprofen in patients with cystic fibrosis is described. A fluorescent derivative of α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-D,L-aspartamide is synthesized by derivatization with rhodamine, polylactide, and poly(ethylene glycol), to obtain polyaspartamide-polylactide derivatives with different degrees of pegylation. Starting from these copolymers, fluorescent nanoparticles with different poly(ethylene glycol) content, empty and loaded with ibuprofen, showed spherical shape, colloidal size, slightly negative ζ potential, and biocompatibility toward human bronchial epithelial cells. The high surface poly(ethylene glycol) density of fluorescent nanoparticles and poly(ethylene glycol) brush-like conformation assumed on their surface, conferred to pegylated nanoparticles the mucus-penetrating properties, properly demonstrated by assessing their ability to avoid interactions with mucus components and to penetrate cystic fibrosis artificial mucus. Finally, ibuprofen release profile and uptake capacity within human bronchial epithelial cells in the presence of cystic fibrosis artificial mucus showed how these mucus-penetrating nanoparticles could rapidly diffuse through the mucus barrier reaching the mucosal surface, where they could offer a sustained delivery of ibuprofen at the site of disease.

  11. [Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in México: a constant struggle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Given that human papillomavirus and cervical cancer are a health problem in México, since they affect women of reproductive age and have a negative impact on our society, it is crucial to prevent those diseases and to raise awareness among physicians who deal with their clinical and therapeutic management. That is the reason why we show three Original contributions and 13 Current themes in this supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

  12. High-Risk and Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus and the Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid......-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark, during 2002-2005. Samples were tested with a clinical test for 13 high-risk and five low-risk HPV types. The cohort (N=35,539; aged 14-90 years) was monitored in a nationwide pathology register for up...... cytology. Detection of low-risk HPV does not predict CIN 3 or worse. Cervical cancer screening should not include testing for low-risk HPV types. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II....

  13. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...... with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order...... to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias...

  14. Lack of association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cervical human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carrasco, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; Munguía-Realpozo, P; Rodríguez-Gallegos, A; Vallejo-Ruiz, V; Muñoz-Guarneros, M; Méndez-Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; Pezzat-Said, E; Reyes-Leyva, J; López-Colombo, A; Ruiz-Argüelles, A; Cervera, R

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in women with SLE. This is a cross-sectional study of 67 women with SLE. A structured questionnaire was administered to ascertain the possible risk factors associated with cervical HPV infection. A gynaecological evaluation and cervical cytology screening were made. HPV detection and genotyping was made by PCR and linear array assay. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels were quantified by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Mean age and disease duration were 44.8 ± 10.6 and 42.5 ± 11.8 years, respectively. Demographic characteristics were similar in patients with and without deficiency (vitamin D deficiency and cervical HPV infection. However, we found no association between vitamin D deficiency and cervical HPV.

  15. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  16. The dissolution of urinary mucus after cystoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, G; Mundy, A R

    1989-04-01

    Three agents have been tested for mucolytic activity to prevent or treat difficulties in bladder emptying following augmentation and substitution cystoplasty, particularly in patients emptying by intermittent self-catheterisation. Carbocysteine produced precipitation of mucus, which was found not to be helpful. N-acetylcysteine and urea both dissolved mucus, but urea proved to be more effective.

  17. Doxycycline inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of both human papillomavirus positive and negative cervical cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Lei; Li, Changzhong

    2016-05-01

    The clinical management of cervical cancer remains a challenge and the development of new treatment strategies merits attention. However, the discovery and development of novel compounds can be a long and labourious process. Drug repositioning may circumvent this process and facilitate the rapid translation of hypothesis-driven science into the clinics. In this work, we show that a FDA-approved antibiotic, doxycycline, effectively targets human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and negative cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Doxycycline significantly inhibits proliferation of a panel of cervical cancer cell lines. It also induces apoptosis of cervical cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, the apoptosis induced by doxycycline is through caspase-dependent pathway. Mechanism studies demonstrate that doxycycline affects oxygen consumption rate, glycolysis, and reduces ATP levels in cervical cancer cells. In HeLa xenograft mouse model, doxycycline significantly inhibits growth of tumour. Our in vitro and in vivo data clearly demonstrate the inhibitory effects of doxycycline on the growth and survival of cervical cancer cells. Our work provides the evidence that doxycycline can be repurposed for the treatment of cervical cancer and targeting energy metabolism may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

  18. Curcumin and emodin down-regulate TGF-β signaling pathway in human cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chandrakant Thacker

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-β signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-β signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β on β-catenin (an important player in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-β signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-β Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β by inhibiting the TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-β activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting β-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  19. Antibodies against high-risk human papillomavirus proteins as markers for invasive cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Jean-Damien; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Hammouda, Doudja; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Vanhems, Philippe; Snijders, Peter; Herrero, Rolando; Franceschi, Silvia; Clifford, Gary

    2014-11-15

    Different human papillomavirus (HPV) genes are expressed during the various phases of the HPV life cycle and may elicit immune responses in the process towards malignancy. To evaluate their association with cervical cancer, antibodies against proteins from HPV16 (L1, E1, E2, E4, E6 and E7) and HPV18/31/33/35/45/52/58 (L1, E6 and E7) were measured in serum of 307 invasive cervical cancer cases and 327 controls from Algeria and India. Antibody response was evaluated using a glutathione S-transferase-based multiplex serology assay and HPV DNA detected from exfoliated cervical cells using a GP5+/6+-mediated PCR assay. Among HPV16 DNA-positive cases, seroprevalence of HPV16 antibodies ranged from 16% for HPV16 E1 to 50% for HPV16 E6 and all were significantly higher than controls. Seroprevalence of E6, E7 and L1 antibodies for HPV18 and for at least one of HPV31/33/35/45/52/58 were also higher in cases positive for DNA of the corresponding type (50% and 30% for E6 of HPV18 and HPV31/33/35/45/52/58 combined, respectively). E6 and E7 antibodies were rarely found in controls, but cross-reactivity was evident among cancer cases positive for DNA of closely phylogenetically-related HPV types. E6 or E7 antibodies against any of the eight HPV types were detected in 66.1% of all cervical cancer cases, as compared to 10.1% of controls. E6, and to a lesser extent E7, antibodies appear to be specific markers of HPV-related malignancy. However, even among cases positive for the same type of HPV DNA, approximately one-third of cervical cancer cases show no detectable immune response to either E6 or E7.

  20. Genotypes of human papilloma virus in Sudanese women with cervical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Khater

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes among women with cervical lesion and in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. There is no published data concerning HPV and cervical abnormalities in Sudan. This study aimed to define the prevalence of HPV and its subtypes in the cervical smears of women presenting with gynecological complains at Omdurman Military Hospital, Sudan. During the period between March 2003 and April 2004, 135 cervical smears collected from these women, were screened using cytological techniques, and analysed by PCR for (beta-globin and HPV DNA using gel electrophoresis and ELISA. Results Of these 135 smears, there were 94 (69.3% negative, 22 (16.3% positive for inflammation, 12(8.9 mild dyskaryosis, 5 (3.7 moderate dyskaryosis and 2 (1.8 severe dyskaryosis. There were 60.7% ß. globin positive samples for HPV indicating DNA integrity. HPV DNA was identified in three samples (2.2% by gel electrophoresis and. was positive in four samples (2.9% as single and multiple infections by PCR-ELISA. The high risk HPV types 16 and 58 were identified in one sample as a mixed infection. The low risk HPV types 40 and 42 were also found as a mixed infection in another patient. HPV types 58 and 42 were identified in the other two patients. Conclusion HPV type distribution in Sudan appears to differ from that in other countries. The HPV genotypes identified were not associated with cancer.

  1. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in rheumatic diseases: a systematic review.

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    Ana Raposo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An association between immune-mediated diseases and cervical pre-malignant and malignant lesions is described, having the human papillomavirus (HPV infection a causal role. Related studies have been generally focused on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients, but relatively to other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Sjögren's syndrome (SS and systemic sclerosis (SSc, data has not been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review analysis of the literature in PubMed, including articles published until March of 2015, in patients with RA, SS, SLE and SSc, to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer, and associated factors, with particular interest on the role of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive treatment. Moreover, safety and efficacy of HPV vaccines in these patients was investigated. Of 476 articles identified, 27 were finally included. The studies showed an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia and cancer, with the HPV infection being an important associated factor, in particular in SLE patients. The data relatively to other rheumatic diseases was very scarse, but an increased prevalence of smear abnormalities was also found in RA. Patients exposed to glucocorticoids and to long-term immunosuppression, particularly cyclophosphamide, have increased risk of presenting more pre-malignant lesions than the general population. The available vaccines seem to be generally safe and immunogenic in the short- period evaluation, but long-term follow-up is required to evaluate the impact of the vaccine in the protection against HPV infection and occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions.

  2. The expression of Fas, FasL and their biological behavior in human cervical carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suxia Han; Qing Zhu; Mingzhong Li; Baoshan Su; Jinlu Ma

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) and its biological behavior in human cervix carcinoma. Methods: Immunohistochemisty technique was used to detect the expression of Fas and FasL in 47 cases of cervical carcinoma, 16 cases of cervical interaepithelial neoplasia, 10 cases of chronic cervicitis and 10cases of normal cervix. TUNEL technique was used to observe the apoptic cells in 47 cases of cervical carcinoma. Retrospective study was carried out to find the relationship between the expression of Fas and FasL and cell apoptosis, clinical stage, pathological classification, lymph node metastasis, prognosis and age. Results: The expression of Fas and FasL was significantly different in different cervix (P < 0.01 ), and also related to the degree of differentiation, lymph node metastasis and prognosis (P < 0.05).But had no relation with clinical stage or age (P > 0.05); Cervix carcinoma cells apoptosis in different pathological classification appeared negative relation (Rs=-0.35, P < 0.05). Cervix carcinoma cell apoptosis was significantly higher in Fas-positive and FasLpositive than that in Fas-negative and FasL-negative (P < 0.05). By retrospective investigation, Fas-negative and FasL-positive were related to poor prognoses of the patients with cervical carcinoma (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The development of apoptosis in cervix carcinoma has a promoting regulation function in Fas and FasL expression. Gene treatment can alter apoptosis abnormality,thus induce apoptosis in cancerous cell expressing Fas and FasL. Fas or FasL may be taken as a marker in the prognostic characterization.

  3. Modeling human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in the United States for analyses of screening and vaccination

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    Ortendahl Jesse

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To provide quantitative insight into current U.S. policy choices for cervical cancer prevention, we developed a model of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, explicitly incorporating uncertainty about the natural history of disease. Methods We developed a stochastic microsimulation of cervical cancer that distinguishes different HPV types by their incidence, clearance, persistence, and progression. Input parameter sets were sampled randomly from uniform distributions, and simulations undertaken with each set. Through systematic reviews and formal data synthesis, we established multiple epidemiologic targets for model calibration, including age-specific prevalence of HPV by type, age-specific prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, HPV type distribution within CIN and cancer, and age-specific cancer incidence. For each set of sampled input parameters, likelihood-based goodness-of-fit (GOF scores were computed based on comparisons between model-predicted outcomes and calibration targets. Using 50 randomly resampled, good-fitting parameter sets, we assessed the external consistency and face validity of the model, comparing predicted screening outcomes to independent data. To illustrate the advantage of this approach in reflecting parameter uncertainty, we used the 50 sets to project the distribution of health outcomes in U.S. women under different cervical cancer prevention strategies. Results Approximately 200 good-fitting parameter sets were identified from 1,000,000 simulated sets. Modeled screening outcomes were externally consistent with results from multiple independent data sources. Based on 50 good-fitting parameter sets, the expected reductions in lifetime risk of cancer with annual or biennial screening were 76% (range across 50 sets: 69–82% and 69% (60–77%, respectively. The reduction from vaccination alone was 75%, although it ranged from 60% to 88%, reflecting considerable parameter

  4. Beta-catenin accelerates human papilloma virus type-16 mediated cervical carcinogenesis in transgenic mice.

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    Gülay Bulut

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV is the principal etiological agent of cervical cancer in women, and its DNA is present in virtually all of these tumors. However, exposure to the high-risk HPV types alone is insufficient for tumor development. Identifying specific collaborating factors that will lead to cervical cancer remains an unanswered question, especially because millions of women are exposed to HPV. Our earlier work using an in vitro model indicated that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway in HPV-positive epithelial cells was sufficient to induce anchorage independent growth. We therefore hypothesized that constitutive activation of this pathway might function as the "second hit." To address this possibility, we developed two double-transgenic (DT mouse models, K14-E7/ΔN87βcat and K14-HPV16/ΔN87βcat that express either the proteins encoded by the E7 oncogene or the HPV16 early region along with constitutively active β-catenin, which was expressed by linking it to the keratin-14 (K14 promoter. We initiated tumor formation by treating all groups with estrogen for six months. Invasive cervical cancer was observed in 11% of the K14-ΔN87βcat mice, expressing activated β-catenin and in 50% of the animals expressing the HPV16 E7 oncogene. In double-transgenic mice, coexpression of β-catenin and HPV16 E7 induced invasive cervical cancer at about 7 months in 94% of the cases. We did not observe cervical cancer in any group unless the mice were treated with estrogen. In the second model, K14-HPV16 mice suffered cervical dysplasias, but this phenotype was not augmented in HPV16/ΔN87βcat mice. In summary, the phenotypes of the K14-E7/ΔN87βcat mice support the hypothesis that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in HPV-associated premalignant lesions plays a functional role in accelerating cervical carcinogenesis.

  5. Frequency of Human papillomavirus in women attending cervical cancer screening program in Chile.

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    Brebi, Priscilla; Ili, Carmen Gloria; Andana, Alejandra; Menzel, Doris; Lopez, Jaime; Guzman, Pablo; Melo, Angelica; Buchegger, Kurt; Roa, Juan C

    2017-08-03

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiological factor for cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. The characterization of HPV genotypes in preneoplastic lesions and cervical cancer could establishes the effectiveness of vaccination plan in Chilean population. The aim of this study was to determine HPV frequency in a group of women including in a cervical screening program in the public health care system in Chile. We analyzed 985 cervical smears samples from women with different histological diagnosis, attending to public health care in Temuco-Chile between 2004 and 2012, to detect HPV genotypes, through PCR followed by reverse line blotting assay. HPV was found present in 80.8% (n = 796) of samples. Only a 5.6% of 985 samples were infected with a low-risk HPV, considering multiple infections. 10.5% (n = 8/76) of normal cervical epithelia, 83.5% (n = 208/249) and 87.6% (n = 557/636) of low and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, respectively, and 95.8% (n = 23/24) of squamous cervical carcinomas tested positive for HPV. HPV 16 was the most frequent genotype found (Overall 44.9%, n = 442/985; SCC: 62.5%, n = 15/24). A high variability of HPV types was also found in preneoplastic lesions, whereas there was a selection of genotypes in neoplasia. Also, there was a higher risk of infection with HPV 16 in women ≤26 years and 34-41 years old (p < 0.05), meanwhile infections with HPV 16 or HPV 18 have related with cancer development (p < 0.01). These data provide further information about the frequency of HPV genotypes in women with cervical lesions in Chile, and the introduction of new targeted vaccines against a wider spectrum of HPV is suggested.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan

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    Chow Song-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been shown to be a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Vaccines against HPV-16 and HPV-18 are highly effective in preventing type-specific HPV infections and related cervical lesions. There is, however, limited data available describing the health and economic impacts of HPV vaccination in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan. Methods We developed a Markov model to compare the health and economic outcomes of vaccinating preadolescent girls (at the age of 12 years for the prevention of cervical cancer with current practice, including cervical cytological screening. Data were synthesized from published papers or reports, and whenever possible, those specific to Taiwan were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for important uncertainties and different vaccination scenarios. Results Under the assumption that the HPV vaccine could provide lifelong protection, the massive vaccination among preadolescent girls in Taiwan would lead to reduction in 73.3% of the total incident cervical cancer cases and would result in a life expectancy gain of 4.9 days or 8.7 quality-adjusted life days at a cost of US$324 as compared to the current practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was US$23,939 per life year gained or US$13,674 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained given the discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses showed that this ICER would remain below US$30,000 per QALY under most conditions, even when vaccine efficacy was suboptimal or when vaccine-induced immunity required booster shots every 13 years. Conclusions Although gains in life expectancy may be modest at the individual level, the results indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls in Taiwan would result in substantial population benefits with a favorable cost

  7. Diffusion-sensitive optical coherence tomography for real-time monitoring of mucus thinning treatments

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    Blackmon, Richard L.; Kreda, Silvia M.; Sears, Patrick R.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.; Hill, David B.; Chapman, Brian S.; Tracy, Joseph B.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-03-01

    Mucus hydration (wt%) has become an increasingly useful metric in real-time assessment of respiratory health in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD, with higher wt% indicative of diseased states. However, available in vivo rheological techniques are lacking. Gold nanorods (GNRs) are attractive biological probes whose diffusion through tissue is sensitive to the correlation length of comprising biopolymers. Through employment of dynamic light scattering theory on OCT signals from GNRs, we find that weakly-constrained GNR diffusion predictably decreases with increasing wt% (more disease-like) mucus. Previously, we determined this method is robust against mucus transport on human bronchial epithelial (hBE) air-liquid interface cultures (R2=0.976). Here we introduce diffusion-sensitive OCT (DS-OCT), where we collect M-mode image ensembles, from which we derive depth- and temporally-resolved GNR diffusion rates. DS-OCT allows for real-time monitoring of changing GNR diffusion as a result of topically applied mucus-thinning agents, enabling monitoring of the dynamics of mucus hydration never before seen. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cell) with a layer of endogenous mucus were doped with topically deposited GNRs (80x22nm), and subsequently treated with hypertonic saline (HS) or isotonic saline (IS). DS-OCT provided imaging of the mucus thinning response up to a depth of 600μm with 4.65μm resolution, over a total of 8 minutes in increments of >=3 seconds. For both IS and HS conditions, DS-OCT captured changes in the pattern of mucus hydration over time. DS-OCT opens a new window into understanding mechanisms of mucus thinning during treatment, enabling real-time efficacy feedback needed to optimize and tailor treatments for individual patients.

  8. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

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    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  9. An investigation into the role of mucus thickness on mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract of pig.

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    Varum, Felipe J O; Veiga, Francisco; Sousa, João S; Basit, Abdul W

    2010-07-11

    Mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract is a complex phenomenon and both formulation and physiological features need to be well understood and considered. Mucus thickness has been inferred to play a role in this process; however no definitive influence has been established. This study aimed to investigate the influence of mucus thickness on the mucoadhesion process, using a large animal (pig) as a model to closely resemble the human physiological features. The mucus thickness of different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of pig was fully measured by means of a histochemical method (hematoxilin/eosin) employing cryostat sections. Mucoadhesion was evaluated ex vivo on porcine mucosa by tensiometry using a polyacrylic acid polymer (Carbopol 974P NF) as a mucoadhesive model material, both in a dry and swollen state. Mucus was thickest in the stomach (body 67.9+/-54.7 microm) and mucus thickness increased from proximal to distal segments in both the small intestine (duodenum 25.9+/-11.8 microm, ileum 31.0+/-15.7 microm) and large intestine (caecum 19.4+/-8.7 microm, ascending colon 31.9+/-17.2 microm, descending colon 35.1+/-16.0 microm and rectum 40.8+/-12.5 microm). Swollen polymer exhibited lower mucoadhesion than the dry form in all sections analysed. Mucus thickness plays a role on the mucoadhesion, as thicker mucus provides deeper polymer chain diffusion and entanglements; however, other factors are also involved in this complex process.

  10. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

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    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  11. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention

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    Bosch F. Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  12. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    : 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared...... to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority......Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...

  13. Implication of HLA-C and KIR alleles in human papillomavirus infection and associated cervical lesions.

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    Rizzo, Roberta; Gentili, Valentina; Rotola, Antonella; Bortolotti, Daria; Cassai, Enzo; Di Luca, Dario

    2014-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) regulation of host immune response leads to cervical lesions. In particular, natural killer (NK) cells are crucial for HPV control. Since specific HLA-I/KIR interactions modify NK cell activation, we analyzed HLA-C and KIR alleles in HPV infection and lesion development in 150 controls, 33 condyloma acuminatum, and 111 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) patients. We showed an increase in HLA-C1/KIR2DL2 and HLA-C1/KIR2DL3 pairs in HPV high-risk infected patients (OR 3.05, 3.24) with ICC (OR 1.33, 3.68). These data suggest HLA-C and KIR typing as risk marker for HPV infection and lesion evolution.

  14. Localisation of glycine receptors in the human forebrain, brainstem, and cervical spinal cord: an immunohistochemical review

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    Kristin Baer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors for glycine (GlyR are heteropentameric chloride ion channels that are comprised of four functional subunits, alpha1-3 and beta and that facilitate fast-response, inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian brain and spinal cord. We have investigated the distribution of GlyRs in the human forebrain, brainstem, and cervical spinal cord using immunohistochemistry at light and confocal laser scanning microscopy levels. This review will summarize the present knowledge on the GlyR distribution in the human brain using our established immunohistochemical techniques. The results of our immunohistochemical labeling studies demonstrated GlyR immunoreactivity (IR throughout the human basal ganglia, substantia nigra, various pontine regions, rostral medulla oblongata and the cervical spinal cord present as intense and abundant punctate IR along the membranes of the neuronal soma and dendrites. This work is part of a systematic study of inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor distribution in the human CNS, and provides a basis for additional detailed physiological and pharmacological studies on the inter-relationship of GlyR, GABAAR and gephyrin in the human brain. This basic mapping exercise, we believe, will provide important baselines for the testing of future pharmacotherapies and drug regimes that modulate neuroinhibitory systems. These findings provide new information for understanding the complexity of glycinergic functions in the human brain, which will translate into the contribution of inhibitory mechanisms in paroxysmal disorders and neurodegenerative diseases such as Epilepsy, Huntington's and Parkinson’s Disease and Motor Neuron Disease.

  15. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina;

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway....

  16. Expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor and antiproliferative effects of MIS on human cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Yen; Jo, Hyun Hee; Kim, Mee Ran; Lew, Young Oak; Ryu, Ki Sung; Cha, Jung Ho; Kang, Chang Suk; Donahoe, Patricia K; MacLaughlin, David T; Kim, Jang Heub

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor (MISRII) protein and mRNA in cervical neoplasia, to demonstrate the growth inhibition of cervical cancer cells by administration of highly purified recombinant human Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) and, furthermore, to evaluate the clinical significance of MIS as a biological modifier for MIS receptor expressing tumors. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for MISRII mRNA expression, and in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to observe expression, location of MISRII mRNA and protein, respectively. To demonstrate the effect of MIS on the viability of cervical cancer cells, methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assay was performed. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the cell cycle distribution after exposure to MIS in cervical cancer cells, and the annexin-V-FITC staining method was performed to demonstrate apoptosis by MIS in cervical cancer cells. Expression of MISRII protein and mRNA were observed in all normal cervical and cervical carcinoma tissues. There was no significant difference in expression of MISRII protein and MISRII mRNA between normal cervical and cervical carcinoma tissues. MTT assay showed negative correlation between MIS exposure time and the viability of cervical cells (P=0.008). The changes in cell cycle distribution after MIS exposure suggest that MIS plays an important role in inducing cellular apoptosis by causing arrest at the G1 phase and increasing cells at sub-G0G1 phase. Annexin-V-FITC staining methods showed that cellular apoptosis was, respectively, 10.44 and 12.89% after 24 and 48 h of MIS exposure in cervical carcinoma cells. There was a negative correlation between cellular survival and MIS exposure time. This study demonstrates that MISRII is present on normal cervical and cervical carcinoma tissues, and MIS shows receptor-mediated antiproliferative effect on cervical cells in vitro. These

  17. Mucoactive agents for airway mucus hypersecretory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Duncan F

    2007-09-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a feature of a number of severe respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). However, each disease has a different airway inflammatory response, with consequent, and presumably linked, mucus hypersecretory phenotype. Thus, it is possible that optimal treatment of the mucus hypersecretory element of each disease should be disease-specific. Nevertheless, mucoactive drugs are a longstanding and popular therapeutic option, and numerous compounds (eg, N-acetylcysteine, erdosteine, and ambroxol) are available for clinical use worldwide. However, rational recommendation of these drugs in guidelines for management of asthma, COPD, or CF has been hampered by lack of information from well-designed clinical trials. In addition, the mechanism of action of most of these drugs is unknown. Consequently, although it is possible to categorize them according to putative mechanisms of action, as expectorants (aid and/or induce cough), mucolytics (thin mucus), mucokinetics (facilitate cough transportability), and mucoregulators (suppress mechanisms underlying chronic mucus hypersecretion, such as glucocorticosteroids), it is likely that any beneficial effects are due to activities other than, or in addition to, effects on mucus. It is also noteworthy that the mucus factors that favor mucociliary transport (eg, thin mucus gel layer, "ideal" sol depth, and elasticity greater than viscosity) are opposite to those that favor cough effectiveness (thick mucus layer, excessive sol height, and viscosity greater than elasticity), which indicates that different mucoactive drugs would be required for treatment of mucus obstruction in proximal versus distal airways, or in patients with an impaired cough reflex. With the exception of mucoregulatory agents, whose primary action is unlikely to be directed against mucus, well-designed clinical trials are required to unequivocally determine the

  18. Human Papillomavirus Genotype as a Major Determinant of the Course of Cervical Cancer

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    Niakan M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Certain types of human papillomavrus (HPV are associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. The aim of theobservations reported here was to determine whether the prognosis for invasive cancers of the uterine cervix is related to the type of human papillomavirus asociated with the tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty Patients with invasive cervical cancer were prospectively registered from 2000 to 2001. HPV typing was performed by insitu hybridization(ISH on DNA extracted from frozen, formal in-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens. The specimens mostly represented classifications SCC Stage 1 and Stage 2 of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Table 1. HPV- DNA was detected by insituhybridization, using three different DNA Probes: types 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33/51. Results: HPV DNA was detected in the nuclei of SCC tumor cells in 13(65% of 20 cases. Of the 13 HPV-DNA positive cases three reacted only with the HPV 31/33/51 probe, two reacted only with the 16/18 probe, three showed strong hybridization for both 31/33/51 and 6/11probes, four showed 6/11 and 16/18 genotypes and one case reacted with 31/33/51,6/11and16/18probes. Conclusion: The prognosis for invasive cancers of the uterine cervix is dependent on the oncogenic potential of the associated HPV type. HPV typing may provide a prognostic indicator for individual patients and is of potential use in defining specific therapies against HPV harboring tumor cells. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that HPV infection is the primary cause of cervical neoplasia. Furthermore, they support HPV vaccine research to prevent cervical cancer and efforts to develop HPV DNA diagnostic tests.

  19. Human papillomavirus infection, vaccination, and cervical cancer communication: the protection dilemma faced by women in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Duvall, Kathryn L; Garrett, Linda H

    2011-11-30

    Human papillomavirus is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection and has been recognized as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Understanding the shift in public awareness caused by recent changes to cervical prevention is critical to addressing cervical cancer disparities in Appalachia. Since the human papillomavirus vaccine was approved for prevention, little data have been collected regarding human papillomavirus risk assessment and vaccine perceptions among Appalachian women. The purpose of the authors in this study was to investigate communication and cultural issues via a social scripting framework that could influence human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women; and explore participants' perceptions of human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the vaccine. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed to examine these issues in eight counties in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Thirty-nine women aged 18-49 years participated in a single individual interview or focus group session from October 2007 through August 2008. Interview and focus group data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Two major themes emerged from the data: the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma and spheres of silence surrounding the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma. Study findings suggested areas for future research and may assist healthcare professionals in approaching southern Appalachian women as they make decisions regarding cervical cancer prevention.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Group Knowledge, Perceptions and Behaviors about Human Papillomavirus, Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, and Cervical Cancer among Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Sharon M; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Lopez, Cristina M; Ford, Marvella E; Brandt, Heather M; Gore, Elena I; Zapka, Jane G; Alberg, Anthony J

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. Although there has been improvement in uptake, there are notable ethnic/racial disparities. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand factors related to vaccine uptake among female adolescents from 3 racial/ethnic groups: African American (AA), Hispanic, and Caucasian. Findings can inform the development of optimal messages and strategies for clinical and population-based interventions. This mixed-methods descriptive study included completion of a brief structured survey and focus group discussion. Six focus groups were conducted with female adolescents, 2 each in the AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian groups. Brief structured survey questions and the focus group protocol addressed knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors related to HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Participants were 60 female adolescents (ages 13-19, mean age = 16.6 years) recruited from high schools, public health clinics, and churches. Themes across questions were remarkably similar among AA, Hispanic, and Caucasian participants. Each group had high awareness of the terms HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer, but with little in-depth knowledge about these topics. There was a high acceptance of HPV vaccination. Misperceptions about optimal cervical cancer prevention strategies such as simply knowing one's partner and good hygiene were most common among Hispanic adolescents. Awareness about Pap testing was most common among Caucasian adolescents. Predominantly uniform perceptions of HPV vaccines across racial/ethnic groups suggest a "one size fits all" approach will likely have greater reach with cervical cancer prevention messaging than culturally tailored interventions. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene (hTERC associated with human papillomavirus is related to the progression of uterine cervical dysplasia to invasive cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongqian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection plays an etiological role in the development of cervical dysplasia and cancer. Amplification of human telomerase gene (hTERC and over expression of telomerase were found to be associated with cervical tumorigenesis. This study was performed to analyze genomic amplification of hTERC gene, telomerase activity in association with HPV infection in different stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer. We were studying the role of hTERC in the progression of uterine cervical dysplasia to invasive cancer, and proposed an adjunct method for cervical cancer screening. Methods Exfoliated cervical cells were collected from 114 patients with non neoplastic lesion (NNL, n=27, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1, n=26, CIN2, n=16, CIN3, n=24 and cervical carcinoma (CA, n=21, and analyzed for amplification of hTERC with two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH probe and HPV-DNA with Hybrid Capture 2. From these patients, 53 were taken biopsy to analyze telomerase activity by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP and expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT, with immunohistochemistry (IHC. All biopsies were clinically confirmed by phathologists. Results Amplification of hTERC was significantly associated with the histologic diagnoses (p Conclusions hTERC ampliffication can be detected with FISH technique on exfoliated cervical cells. Amplification of hTERC and HPV infection are associated with more progressive CIN3 and CA. The testing of hTERC amplification might be a supplementary to cytology screening and HPV test, especially high-risk patients. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1857134686755648.

  2. Factors associated to cervical lesions or presence of human papiloma virus in two populations of students from Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrama C, María; Unidad de Epidemiología ETS y VIH, Facultad de Salud Pública, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Obstetriz.; Campos, Francisco E.; Hospital Nacional Docente Madre Niño San Bartolomé. Lima, Perú. médico infectólogo pediatra.; Cárcamo, César P; Unidad de Epidemiología ETS y VIH, Facultad de Salud Pública, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Médico Epidemiólogo. Médico Infectólogo.; García, Patricia J; Unidad de Epidemiología ETS y VIH, Facultad de Salud Pública, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico Epidemiólogo. Médico Infectólogo.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with cervical lesions or presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in women students with higher education from 18 to 26 years. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study in students from two universities and a technical institute in Lima were carried out from August through December 2001. We surveyed women and collected cervical samples for PAP smear and HPV DNA detection for the 6, 11, 16 and 18 strains using polymerase ch...

  3. Myelin water fraction in human cervical spinal cord in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijing; Alexander, Andrew L; Fleming, John O; Duncan, Ian D; Field, Aaron S

    2006-01-01

    The noninvasive discrimination of myelin disease from axonal loss and other pathologic confounds remains an unsolved problem in multiple sclerosis but may be possible through magnetic resonance quantitation of the intramyelinic water compartment. Technical challenges have limited the study of this approach in the spinal cord, a common site of involvement in multiple sclerosis. This technical note reports the test-retest reproducibility of a short T2-based estimate of myelin content in human spinal cord in vivo.

  4. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  5. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase promotes cervical cancer tumorigenesis through human papillomaviruses E6 and E7 oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjun; Kim, Yoon Sook; Kim, Hwajin; Kang, Min Young; Park, Jeongsook; Lee, Dong Hoon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Park, Ji Kwon; Cho, Jin Won; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Choi, Wan Sung

    2016-07-12

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) increases O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation), and transcriptional co-regulator host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) is one of OGT targets. High-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) encode E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which promote cervical cancer. Here, we tested whether O-GlcNAc modification of HCF-1 affects HPV E6 and E7 expressions and tumorigenesis of cervical cancer. We found that depleting OGT with OGT-specific shRNA significantly decreased levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins, and cervical cancer tumorigenesis, while OGT overexpression greatly increased levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Notably, OGT overexpression caused dose-dependent increases in the transcriptional activity of E6 and E7, and this activity was decreased when HCF-1 was depleted with HCF-1-specific siRNA. Moreover, OGT depletion reduced proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in cervical cancer cells. Further, high glucose enhanced the interaction between OGT and HCF-1, paralleling increased levels of E6 and E7 in cervical cancer cells. Most importantly, we found that reducing OGT in HeLa cells caused decreased tumor growth in vivo. These findings identify OGT as a novel cellular factor involved in E6 and E7 expressions and cervical cancer tumorigenesis, suggesting that targeting OGT in cervical cancer may have potential therapeutic benefit.

  6. The human papillomavirus vaccine: A powerful tool for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine is the most promissory public health tool for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Immunization of females before the acquisition of HPV infection has the greatest impact in preventing pre-neoplasic lesions and cervical cancer. Current HPV vaccines do not eliminate cervical cancer risk, therefore, screening should continue covering vaccinated as well as women that do not get the vaccine. The strategies that include combination of high-coverage vaccination of HPV-unexposed adolescents with screening using methods with higher sensitivity than cytology as HPV test may be more cost-effective than the strategies currently used. The cytology-based screening programs of Latin America countries including Colombia are very ineffective. The evidence in favor of the cost-effectiveness of other screening strategies such as HPV tests and visual inspection followed by immediate treatment for women with difficult access to health care services in developing countries warrants the immediate revision of the current strategies.

  7. Changes in human cervical and lumbar spine curves while bicycling with different handlebar heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lang; He, Kuo-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is a daily activity that needs a high demand of human-bicycle fitness. However, studies into the fitness or ergonomic aspects are very little. In this study, the simulated 20 min bicycling test were performed by 26 male participants under 5 handle height conditions. Body joint angles and external cervical/lumbar spine lordosis were measured at the initial and cycling after 20 min. Results show that different handle heights did cause various trunk inclinations. Trunk inclination was negatively and positively correlated with lumbosacral angle (r = -0.620, p < 0.001) and cervical angle (r = 0.510, p < 0.001), respectively. In this study, regression models were also developed to predict the internal cervical and lumbar spine movements by external trunk inclination and head extension, respectively. The explanatory abilities for the variance of the models were 67.2% for LSA and 82.8% for CE prediction. This can be used to understand the cyclist's spine movements while field study of bicycling.

  8. Human papilloma virus genotypes in women from Nayarit, Mexico, with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; León, David Cantú-De; Hernández, Yael Yvette Bernal; Jáuregui-Martínez, Armando; Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha

    2016-07-01

    In Mexico cervical cancer (CC) is the most common cause of death from neoplasia in women. Study aimed to analyze the current distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women from Nayarit, Mexico, with Squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and Cervical cancer (CC). Between January 2011 and July 2013, cervical samples were collected from female residents of the Mexican state of Nayarit and were analyzed by means of a LINEAR ARRAY® HPV genotyping test. Data analyses were performed using Stata ver. 8.0 statistical software. Of the samples analyzed, 91.2%, HPV DNA was detected. Of these positive samples, 82% were High-risk (HR) viral types. The most prevalent HPV genotypes identified were 16, 58, 31, 18, and 70. Forty two percent of participants had a single infection, while 23 and 26% of participants were infected with two or more HPV genotypes, respectively. HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype identified and was frequently present as a co-infection with HPV types 18, 51, 52, 59, 66, or 70. Women Mexico, no confers protection against a subset of the HPV genotypes identified in the present study (58, 31, 70, and 35). Thus, it is important evaluate the geographical distribution of specific HPV genotypes in all health of center across Mexico in order to implement a successful vaccination program and to diagnose CC in its early stages.

  9. Switch from cytology-based to human papillomavirus test-based cervical screening: implications for colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Carolina; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Rodríguez, Ana C; Morales, Jorge; Burk, Robert D; Alfaro, Mario; Hutchinson, Martha; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Sherman, Mark E; Wacholder, Sholom; Solomon, Diane; Schiffman, Mark

    2012-04-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology; some cervical cancer prevention programs will switch from cytology to carcinogenic HPV test-based screening. The objective of our study is to evaluate the clinical implications of a switch to HPV test-based screening on performance and workload of colposcopy. Women in the population-based, 7-year Guanacaste cohort study were screened at enrollment using cytology. We also took another specimen for HPV DNA testing and collected magnified cervical photographic images (cervigrams). A final case diagnosis (≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 3, CIN2, lesions at referral to colposcopy and the sensitivity versus specificity trade-off of the colposcopic impressions would be similar to programs using cytology (≥ atypical squamous cells of unknown significance [ASCUS]) for referral. The major concern with switching from cytology to more sensitive HPV screening is management of the many HPV-positive women, including those with still nonvisible ≥CIN2 lesions. Our data support the need for a nonvisual diagnostic method to guide management and treatment of HPV-positive women. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  10. The Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus(HPV in Malignant Cervical Lesion, Using Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Keyhkhaee

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. In this cancer, the effects of prevention, early diagnosis and treatment more than other cancers decrease the mortality rate. In 1970 human papilloma virus (HPV was introduction as major etiologic factor of cervical cancer. Different studies throughout the world revealed strong correlation between HPV and cancerous & precancerous changes in epithelial cells. Since cell culture and serological methods can not recognize the virus and its subtypes, the importance of the molecular methods including polymerase chain reaction (PCR in early and definite diagnosis of virus is obvious. Methods: In this study, after patient selection using the related protocol and completion of the questionnaires, 100 samples from cancer lesions of cervix selected. Then DNA extraction from paraffin blocks performed using standard method. Multiplex PCR with two pairs of primer (one as internal control performed and the PCR product run on 8% polyacrylamid gel. Results: The results showed that 73% of the tissues were infected by HPV. Conclusion: This finding confirm the previous results based of correlation between HPV,and cervical cancer.

  11. Amygdalin induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ma, Jinshu; Wang, Fang; Hu, Jie; Cui, Ai; Wei, Chengguo; Yang, Qing; Li, Fan

    2013-02-01

    Amygdalin, a naturally occurring substance, has been suggested to be efficacious as an anticancer substance. The effect of amygdalin on cervical cancer cells has never been studied. In this study, we found that the viability of human cervical cancer HeLa cell line was significantly inhibited by amygdalin. 4,6-Diamino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) staining showed that amygdalin-treated HeLa cells developed typical apoptotic changes. The development of apoptosis in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells were confirmed by double staining of amygdalin-treated HeLa cells with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) along with increase in caspase-3 activity in these cells. Further studies indicated that antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was downregulated whereas proapoptotic Bax protein was upregulated in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells implying involvement of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In vivo, amygdalin administration inhibited the growth of HeLa cell xenografts through a mechanism of apoptosis. The results in the present study suggest that amygdalin may offer a new therapeutic option for patients with cervical cancer.

  12. Effects of drugs on mucus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtmeyers, E; Gosselink, R; Gayan-Ramirez, G; Decramer, M

    1999-08-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC), the process in which airway mucus together with substances trapped within are moved out of the lungs, is an important defence mechanism of the human body. Drugs may alter this process, such that it is necessary to know the effect of the drugs on MCC. Indeed, agents stimulating MCC may be used therapeutically in respiratory medicine, especially in patients suspected of having an impairment of their mucociliary transport system. In contrast, caution should be taken with drugs depressing MCC as an undesired side-effect, independently of their therapeutic indication. Since cough clearance (CC) serves as a back-up system when MCC fails, the influence of drugs must be examined not only on MCC but also on CC. Ultimately, the clinical repercussions of alterations in mucus transport induced by drug administration must be studied. Tertiary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), aspirin, anaesthetic agents and benzodiazepines have been shown to be capable of depressing the mucociliary transport system. Cholinergics, methylxanthines, sodium cromoglycate, hypertonic saline, saline as well as water aerosol have been shown to increase MCC. Adrenergic antagonists, guaifenesin, S-carboxymethylcysteine, sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulphonate and frusemide have been reported not to alter the mucociliary transport significantly. Amiloride, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), quaternary ammonium compounds (anticholinergics), adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase), N-acetylcysteine, bromhexine and ambroxol have been reported either not to change or to augment MCC. Indirect data suggest that surfactant as well as antibiotics may improve the mucociliary transport system. As for the influence of drugs on CC, amiloride and rhDNase have been demonstrated to increase the effectiveness of cough. A trend towards an improved CC was noted after treatment with adrenergic agonists. The anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide, which

  13. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor expression in patients with cervical human papillomavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacilda Tezelli Junqueira Padovani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The progression of human papillomavirus (HPV infection in the anogenital tract has been associated with the involvement of cells with regulatory properties. Evidence has shown that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR is an important surface molecule for the characterization of these cells and proposes that GITR ligand may constitute a rational treatment for many cancer types. We aimed to detect the presence of GITR and CD25 in cervical stroma cells with and without pathological changes or HPV infection to better understand the immune response in the infected tissue microenvironment. Methods We subjected 49 paraffin-embedded cervical tissue samples to HPV DNA detection and histopathological analysis, and subsequently immunohistochemistry to detect GITR and CD25 in lymphocytes. Results We observed that 76.9% of all samples with high GITR expression were HPV-positive regardless of histopathological findings. High GITR expression (77.8% was predominant in samples with ≥1,000 RLU/PCB. Of the HPV-positive samples negative for intraepithelial lesion and malignancy, 62.5% had high GITR expression. High GITR expression was observed in both carcinoma and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL samples (p = 0.16. CD25 was present in great quantities in all samples. Conclusions The predominance of high GITR expression in samples with high viral load that were classified as HSIL and carcinoma suggests that GITR+ cells can exhibit regulatory properties and may contribute to the progression of HPV-induced cervical neoplasia, emphasizing the importance of GITR as a potential target for immune therapy of cervical cancer and as a disease evolution biomarker.

  14. Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13 inhibitor, Ubenimex, enhances radiation sensitivity in human cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawa Akihiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy can be used to treat all stages of cervical cancer. For improving local control via radiotherapy, it is important to use additional antitumor agents. Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13, a 150-kDa metalloproteinase, is a multifunctional cell surface aminopeptidase with ubiquitous expression. Recent studies have suggested that APN/CD13 plays an important role in tumor progression in several human malignancies. Methods We investigated whether the suppression of APN/CD13 using Ubenimex, an inhibitor of APN/CD13 activity, may affect tumor radiosensitivity in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell surface APN/CD13 activity in HeLa cells was calculated using alanine-p-nitroanilido as a substrate. For colony formation assays, single-dose radiation and/or Ubenimex were administered to each dish of HeLa cells, and these dishes were cultured for 14 days. Molecular changes of apoptosis were determined by Western blot. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin-V PI staining (flow cytometry analysis and the Tunel method. Moreover, we investigated the effect of combining Ubenimex and low-dose radiation on tumor growth using nude mice. Results We demonstrated that Ubenimex enhanced the effectiveness of radiotherapy, acting as a radiosensitizer both in vitro and in vivo. In colony formation assays, a significant decline in clonogenic survival was observed in Ubenimex-treated cells. Mice treated with a combination of radiation and Ubenimex showed a significant prolongation of the tumor-doubling time compared with the control, Ubenimex, or radiation-alone groups. We also showed that ubenimex enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Although further studies are needed, this report suggests that Ubeniemx acts as a radiosensitizer in cervical cancer treatment, and that the inhibition of APN/CD13 activity may represent a new approach for improving the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy for uterine

  15. Comparison of two commercial assays for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical scrape specimens: validation of the Roche AMPLICOR HPV test as a means to screen for HPV genotypes associated with a higher risk of cervical disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.A. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Harbers, G.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Certain high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical disorders. Women with persistent HR HPV infections have an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions, compared with those who have no or low-risk HPV infections. Therefore, im

  16. A Dietary Fiber-Deprived Gut Microbiota Degrades the Colonic Mucus Barrier and Enhances Pathogen Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mahesh S; Seekatz, Anna M; Koropatkin, Nicole M; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Hickey, Christina A; Wolter, Mathis; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Kitamoto, Sho; Terrapon, Nicolas; Muller, Arnaud; Young, Vincent B; Henrissat, Bernard; Wilmes, Paul; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Núñez, Gabriel; Martens, Eric C

    2016-11-17

    Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier. Dietary fiber deprivation, together with a fiber-deprived, mucus-eroding microbiota, promotes greater epithelial access and lethal colitis by the mucosal pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. Our work reveals intricate pathways linking diet, the gut microbiome, and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which could be exploited to improve health using dietary therapeutics.

  17. 人乳头瘤病毒与宫颈癌%Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守真; 夏和霞; 张炜

    2016-01-01

    宫颈癌是常见的妇科三大恶性肿瘤之一,严重威胁着女性的生命和健康。研究发现,人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomaviruses, HPV)感染与宫颈癌的发生、发展关系密切。HPV致癌是一个多步骤的、渐进的复杂过程,其中早期基因编码的E6、E7蛋白起着关键作用,早期基因编码的E2蛋白和晚期基因编码的L1蛋白也参与了致癌过程。阐明HPV致癌的机制有助于临床工作者加深对宫颈癌的认识、积极筛查和治疗HPV感染以减少宫颈癌的发生,有利于对已确诊为宫颈癌或癌前病变患者的治疗评估和风险分析。%Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignant tumors and can seriously threaten the health of women. There are many studies which conifrmed that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was an essential condition for the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Carcinogenesis of HPV is a gradual complex process with multiple steps, in which protein E6 and E7 encoded by early genes are thought to play a key role, while protein E2 and L1 are also involved in the carcinogenesis. Elucidation of the mechanism of carcinogenic HPV is helpful for gynecologists to deepen the awareness of cervical cancer and to actively screen and treat HPV infection so as to reduce the occurrence of cervical cancer, which is of beneift to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cervical cancer or precancerous lesions.

  18. Methylated Host Cell Gene Promoters and Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and 18 Predicting Cervical Lesions and Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Milutin Gašperov

    Full Text Available Change in the host and/or human papillomavirus (HPV DNA methylation profile is probably one of the main factors responsible for the malignant progression of cervical lesions to cancer. To investigate those changes we studied 173 cervical samples with different grades of cervical lesion, from normal to cervical cancer. The methylation status of nine cellular gene promoters, CCNA1, CDH1, C13ORF18, DAPK1, HIC1, RARβ2, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1, was investigated by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP. The methylation of HPV18 L1-gene was also investigated by MSP, while the methylated cytosines within four regions, L1, 5'LCR, enhancer, and promoter of the HPV16 genome covering 19 CpG sites were evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. Statistically significant methylation biomarkers distinguishing between cervical precursor lesions from normal cervix were primarily C13ORF18 and secondly CCNA1, and those distinguishing cervical cancer from normal or cervical precursor lesions were CCNA1, C13ORF18, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1. In addition, the methylation analysis of individual CpG sites of the HPV16 genome in different sample groups, notably the 7455 and 7694 sites, proved to be more important than the overall methylation frequency. The majority of HPV18 positive samples contained both methylated and unmethylated L1 gene, and samples with L1-gene methylated forms alone had better prognosis when correlated with the host cell gene promoters' methylation profiles. In conclusion, both cellular and viral methylation biomarkers should be used for monitoring cervical lesion progression to prevent invasive cervical cancer.

  19. Adverse effects associated with high-dose recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 use in anterior cervical spine fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Raque, George H; Glassman, Steven D; Campbell, Mitchell; Vitaz, Todd; Harpring, John; Shields, Christopher B

    2006-03-01

    A retrospective review of patients who underwent an anterior cervical fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with an absorbable collagen sponge (INFUSE; Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Minneapolis, MN). To ascertain the complication rate after the use of high-dose INFUSE in anterior cervical fusions. The rhBMP-2 has been primarily investigated in lumbar spine fusions, where it has significantly enhanced the fusion rate and decreased the length of surgery, blood loss, and hospital stay. We present 151 patients who underwent either an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (n = 138) or anterior cervical vertebrectomy and fusion (n = 13) augmented with high-dose INFUSE between July 2003 and March 2004. The rhBMP-2 (up to 2.1 mg/level) was used in the anterior cervical discectomy and fusions. A total of 35 (23.2%) patients had complications after the use of high-dose INFUSE in the cervical spine. There were 15 patients diagnosed with a hematoma, including 11 on postoperative day 4 or 5, of whom 8 were surgically evacuated. Thirteen individuals had either a prolonged hospital stay (> 48 hours) or hospital readmission because of swallowing/breathing difficulties or dramatic swelling without hematoma. A significant rate of complications resulted after the use of a high dose of INFUSE in anterior cervical fusions. We hypothesize that in the cervical area, the putative inflammatory effect that contributes to the effectiveness of INFUSE in inducing fusion may spread to adjacent critical structures and lead to increased postoperative morbidity. A thorough investigation is warranted to determine the optimal dose of rhBMP-2 that will promote cervical fusion and minimize complications.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven;

    2014-01-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in women with prevalent HPV infection and in a subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection. METHODS: Participants in this population-based cohort study underwent a structured interview, including history of CT infection, and subsequently cervical exfoliated......OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical...... cells were obtained for HPV DNA and CT DNA testing. Women with high-risk HPV DNA infection and no prevalent cervical disease constituted the overall study population (n=1390). A subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection (n=320) was also identified. All women were passively followed for development...

  1. CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Felding, C; Skouby, S O

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade...... I were randomized to either a treatment or a control group. The cervical swabs were obtained every 3 months in both groups and examined for HPV type 16 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After a follow-up period of 12 months no significant differences were found between the laser treatment...... and the control groups in relation to the disappearance of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear. Two patients in the treatment group and 3 in the control group had a conization because of development of CIN I or aggravation of the concomitant CIN found at the initial visit. The percentage of women who demonstrated HPV...

  2. [Human papillomavirus and public health: cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Angela Adamski da Silva; Monteiro, Caroline Dias; Paula, Leonardo Barcelos de; Santos, Rodrigo da Silva; Saddi, Vera Aparecida; Cruz, Aparecido Divino da

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of an educational booklet that contained information for the general population about promotion and prevention of infections and neoplasic process caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The study was arranged in two phases. First, the booklet was given to 200 volunteers in the city of Goiânia, Goiás State. The applicability of the booklet was evaluated without the necessity of proving former knowledge. In the second phase, a detailed analysis of the data was made and the booklet revealed applicable. Then, the educational material was published and 2000 copies were distributed in a social event held by the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Góias in the city of Goiânia. In the event, the booklet raised the interest of the general public and gave the volunteers a chance to participate in a study that investigated the presence of the HPV in the genital microbiote. The booklet proved to be applicable and reached its objective to inform and prevent. However, it's necessary to promote and improve campaigns to the population about the HPV and its relations with the neoplasic process.

  3. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Downregulates Human Papillomavirus-16 Oncogene Expression and Inhibits the Proliferation of Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Bay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitutive proliferation and resistance to differentiation and apoptosis of neoplastic cervical cells depend on sustained expression of human papillomavirus oncogenes. Inhibition of these oncogenes is a goal for the prevention of progression of HPV-induced neoplasias to cervical cancer. SiHa cervical cancer cells were transfected with an HPV-16 promoter reporter construct and treated with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, a human cytokine of the interleukin 6 superfamily. SiHa and CaSki cervical cancer cells were also assessed for proliferation by MTT precipitation, programmed cell death by flow cytometry, and HPV E6 and E7 expression by real-time PCR. LIF-treated cervical cancer cells showed significantly reduced HPV LCR activation, reduced levels of E6 and E7 mRNA, and reduced proliferation. We report the novel use of LIF to inhibit viral oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells, with concomitant reduction in proliferation suggesting re-engagement of cell-cycle regulation.

  4. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2...... (HC2) and other assays. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies of primary screening with HC2 and ≥one more assay, with cross-tabulated testing results for the assays. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and three authors extracted data from included studies. For each inter...

  5. The incidence of human papillomavirus infection following treatment for cervical neoplasia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rositch, Anne F; Soeters, Heidi M; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha N; Wheeler, Bradford S; Taylor, Sylvia M; Smith, Jennifer S

    2014-03-01

    To systematically review the published literature in order to estimate the incidence and describe the variability of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women following treatment for cervical neoplasia. Several scientific literature databases (e.g. PubMed, ISI Web of Science) were searched through January 31, 2012. Eligible articles provided data on (i) baseline HPV infection status within 6 months prior to or at time of treatment (pre-treatment); and (ii) HPV test results for women's first visit after treatment occurring within 36 months (post-treatment). We abstracted and summarized the post-treatment incidence of newly detected HPV genotypes that were not present at pre-treatment, overall and stratified by study and other population characteristics. A total of 25 studies were included, reporting post-treatment HPV incidence in nearly 2000 women. Mean patient age ranged from 31 to 43 years (median 36). Most studies used cervical exfoliated cell specimens to test for HPV DNA (n=20; 80%), using polymerase chain reaction (n=21; 84%). Cervical neoplasia treatment included loop electrical excision procedure (n=11; 44%); laser conization (n=2; 8%); laser ablation, surgical conization, cryotherapy, alpha-interferon (n=1; 4% each); or multiple treatment regimens (n=8; 32%). Follow-up times post-treatment ranged from 1.5 to 36 months (median 6). More than half of studies (n=17; 68%) estimated the incidence of any HPV type following treatment, while 7 (28%) focused specifically on high-risk (HR) HPV. HPV incidence after treatment varied widely, ranging from 0 to 47% (interquartile range: 0%-15%) in up to 3 years of follow-up after treatment. Lower HPV incidence was observed among studies that included relatively younger women, used laser conization, focused on HR-HPV rather than overall HPV infection, and had a lower proportion of recurrent cervical disease. These modest summary incidence estimates from the published literature can guide clinicians, epidemiologists and

  6. Factors involved in the inflammatory events of cervical ripening in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hong

    2004-10-01

    decrease in GR levels in human cervix at parturition. Concomitantly there is an increase of factors such as NFkappaB, PAF-R, COX-1 and COX-2, suggesting that they may participate in the sequence of events leading to the final cervical ripening.

  7. Incidence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pinto, C; García-Carrasco, M; Vallejo-Ruiz, V; Méndez-Martínez, S; Taboada-Cole, A; Etchegaray-Morales, I; Muñóz-Guarneros, M; Reyes-Leyva, J; López-Colombo, A

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Our objective was to study the incidence, persistence and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women and assess risk factors for persistence of human papillomavirus infection. Methods We carried out a prospective, observational cohort study of 127 systemic lupus erythematosus women. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at three years. Traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus women-related disease risk factors were collected. Gynaecological evaluations and cervical cytology screening were made. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping were made by polymerase chain reaction and linear array. Results The cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection increased from 22.8% at baseline to 33.8% at three years; p = systemic lupus erythematosus women, the cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, including high risk-human papillomavirus and multiple human papillomavirus infections, may increase over time. Most persistent infections were low risk-human papillomavirus. The number of lifetime sexual partners and the cumulative cyclophosphamide dose were independently associated with incident human papillomavirus infection.

  8. Time trends of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer, from 1940 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Tous, Sara; Quint, Wim; Vallejos, Carlos; Shin, Hai-Rim; Bravo, Luis E; Alonso, Patricia; Lima, Marcus A; Guimerà, Núria; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Kasamatsu, Elena; Tatti, Silvio A; Felix, Ana; Molina, Carla; Velasco, Julio; Lloveras, Belen; Clavero, Omar; Lerma, Enrique; Laco, Jan; Bravo, Ignacio G; Guarch, Rosa; Pelayo, Adela; Ordi, Jaume; Andújar, Miguel; Sanchez, Gloria I; Castellsagué, Xavier; Muñoz, Nubia; Bosch, F Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Contribution over time of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in human cancers has been poorly documented. Such data is fundamental to measure current HPV vaccines impact in the years to come. We estimated the HPV type-specific distribution in a large international series of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over 70 years prior to vaccination. Paraffin embedded ICC cases diagnosed between 1940 and 2007 were retrieved from eleven countries in Central-South America, Asia and Europe. Included countries reported to have low-medium cervical cancer screening uptake. Information on age at and year of diagnosis was collected from medical records. After histological confirmation, HPV DNA detection was performed by SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 (version1). Logistic regression models were used for estimating the adjusted relative contributions (RC) of HPV16 and of HPV18 over time. Among 4,771 HPV DNA positive ICC cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the two most common HPVs in all the decades with no statistically significant variations of their adjusted-RC from 1940-59 to 2000-07 (HPV16-from 61.5 to 62.1%, and HPV18-from 6.9 to 7.2%). As well, the RC of other HPV types did not varied over time. In the stratified analysis by histology, HPV16 adjusted-RC significantly increased across decades in adenocarcinomas. Regarding age, cases associated to either HPV16, 18 or 45 were younger than those with other HPV types in all the evaluated decades. The observed stability on the HPV type distribution predicts a high and stable impact of HPV vaccination in reducing the cervical cancer burden in future vaccinated generations.

  9. Inhibition of antiviral drug cidofovir on proliferation of human papillomavirus-infected cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Dai, Lv-Xia; Chen, Ming; Li, Bei; Ding, Nana; Li, Gang; Liu, Yan-Qing; Li, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Bao-Ning; Shi, Xin-Li; Tan, Hua-Bing

    2016-11-01

    In order to evaluate the potential application value of cidofovir (CDV) in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and treatment of cervical cancer, the inhibitory effect of CDV on the proliferation of HPV 18-positive HeLa cells in cervical cancer was preliminarily investigated, using cisplatin (DDP) as a positive control. An MTT assay was used to analyze the effects of CDV and DDP on HeLa cell proliferation. In addition, clone formation assay and Giemsa staining were used to examine the extent of HeLa cell apoptosis caused by CDV and DDP. Flow cytometry was also used to detect the shape and size of apoptotic cells following propidium iodide staining, while western blot analysis identified the expression levels of of E6 and p53 proteins in HeLa cells. A cell climbing immunofluorescence technique was used to locate the subcellular position of p53 in HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that CDV and DDP inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that CDV and DDP treatments resulted in cell arrest in the S-phase, and triggered programmed cell death. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that CDV and DDP inhibited E6 protein expression and activated p53 expression in HeLa cells. Finally, the immunofluorescence results indicated that CDV and DDP inhibited the nuclear export of p53 by E6 protein, which is required for degradation of endogenous p53 by MDM2 and human papilloma virus E6. In conclusion, CDV and DDP inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, reduced the expression of E6 protein, and reinstated p53 protein activity. Thus, CDV regulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and may be a potential cervical cancer therapeutic strategy.

  10. Structural and Ultrastructural Analysis of the Cervical Discs of Young and Elderly Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Braganca de Vasconcellos Fontes

    Full Text Available Several studies describing the ultrastructure and extracellular matrix (ECM of intervertebral discs (IVDs involve animal models and specimens obtained from symptomatic individuals during surgery for degenerative disease or scoliosis, which may not necessarily correlate to changes secondary to normal aging in humans. These changes may also be segment-specific based on different load patterns throughout life. Our objective was to describe the ECM and collagen profile of cervical IVDs in young (G1 - 65 years presumably-asymptomatic individuals. Thirty cervical discs per group were obtained during autopsies of presumably-asymptomatic individuals. IVDs were analyzed with MRI, a morphological grading scale, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and immunohistochemistry (IHC for collagen types I, II, III, IV, V, VI, IX and X. Macroscopic degenerative features such as loss of annulus-nucleus distinction and fissures were found in both groups and significantly more severe in G2 as expected. MRI could not detect all morphological changes when compared even with simple morphological inspection. The loose fibrocartilaginous G1 matrix was replaced by a denser ECM in G2 with predominantly cartilaginous characteristics, chondrocyte clusters and absent elastic fibers. SEM demonstrated persistence of an identifiable nucleus and Sharpey-type insertion of cervical annulus fibers even in highly-degenerated G2 specimens. All collagen types were detected in every disc sector except for collagen X, with the largest area stained by collagens II and IV. Collagen detection was significantly decreased in G2: although significant intradiscal differences were rare, changes may occur faster or earlier in the posterior annulus. These results demonstrate an extensive modification of the ECM with maintenance of basic ultrastructural features despite severe macroscopic degeneration. Collagen analysis supports there is not a "pathologic" collagen type and changes

  11. Inhibition of antiviral drug cidofovir on proliferation of human papillomavirus-infected cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Dai, Lv-Xia; Chen, Ming; Li, Bei; Ding, Nana; Li, Gang; Liu, Yan-Qing; Li, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Bao-Ning; Shi, Xin-Li; Tan, Hua-Bing

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential application value of cidofovir (CDV) in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and treatment of cervical cancer, the inhibitory effect of CDV on the proliferation of HPV 18-positive HeLa cells in cervical cancer was preliminarily investigated, using cisplatin (DDP) as a positive control. An MTT assay was used to analyze the effects of CDV and DDP on HeLa cell proliferation. In addition, clone formation assay and Giemsa staining were used to examine the extent of HeLa cell apoptosis caused by CDV and DDP. Flow cytometry was also used to detect the shape and size of apoptotic cells following propidium iodide staining, while western blot analysis identified the expression levels of of E6 and p53 proteins in HeLa cells. A cell climbing immunofluorescence technique was used to locate the subcellular position of p53 in HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that CDV and DDP inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that CDV and DDP treatments resulted in cell arrest in the S-phase, and triggered programmed cell death. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that CDV and DDP inhibited E6 protein expression and activated p53 expression in HeLa cells. Finally, the immunofluorescence results indicated that CDV and DDP inhibited the nuclear export of p53 by E6 protein, which is required for degradation of endogenous p53 by MDM2 and human papilloma virus E6. In conclusion, CDV and DDP inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, reduced the expression of E6 protein, and reinstated p53 protein activity. Thus, CDV regulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and may be a potential cervical cancer therapeutic strategy. PMID:27882102

  12. HLA-DP is the cervical cancer susceptibility loci among women infected by high-risk human papillomavirus: potential implication for triage of human papillomavirus-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Meiqun; Han, Jing; Hang, Dong; Jiang, Jie; Wang, Minjie; Wei, Baojun; Dai, Juncheng; Zhang, Kai; Guo, Lanwei; Qi, Jun; Ma, Hongxia; Shi, Jufang; Ren, Jiansong; Hu, Zhibin; Dai, Min; Li, Ni

    2016-06-01

    Given that only a small proportion of women infected by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) develop cervical cancer, it's important to identify biomarkers for distinguishing women with hrHPV positivity who might develop cervical cancer from the transient infections. In this study, we hypothesized that human leukocyte antigens (HLA) susceptibility alleles might contribute to cervical cancer risk among females infected by hrHPV, and interact with hrHPV types. A case-control study with 593 cervical cancer cases and 407 controls (all hrHPV positive) was conducted to evaluate the effect of eight HLA-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their interactions with hrHPV types on the risk of cervical cancer. Three HLA-DP SNPs (rs4282438, rs3117027, and rs3077) were found to be significantly associated with risk of cervical cancer (rs4282438: odds ratio (OR) = 0.72, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.56-0.93; rs3117027: OR = 1.41, 95 % CI = 1.10-1.83; and rs3077: OR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.80) among women infected with hrHPV. An additive interaction between HPV16 and rs4282438 for cervical cancer risk was also found (P for interaction = 0.002). Compared with subjects carrying variant genotypes (GG/TG) and non-HPV16 infections, those carrying wild-type genotype (TT) of rs4282438 and HPV16 positive had a 5.22-fold increased risk of cervical cancer (95 % CI = 3.39-8.04). Our study supported that certain HLA-DP alleles in concert with HPV16 could have a predisposition for cervical cancer development, which may be translated for triage of hrHPV-positive women.

  13. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  14. TMEM16A mediates the hypersecretion of mucus induced by Interleukin-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiachen; Jiang, Youfan; Li, Li; Liu, Yanan; Tang, Hui; Jiang, Depeng

    2015-06-10

    Previous studies showed that the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) was involved in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion induced by Interleukin-13 (IL-13). However, the mechanisms underlying the process were unknown. Recently, transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was identified as the channel underlying the CaCC current. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the TMEM16A channel is part of the mechanism underlying IL-13-induced mucus hypersecretion. We observed that both TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated after treatment with IL-13 in human bronchial epithelial 16 (HBE 16) cells, which correlated with an increase in mucus production. Additionally, mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intratracheal instillation of IL-13 and similar increases were observed in the expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in the bronchial epithelium. Niflumic acid (NA), a selective antagonist of CaCC, markedly blocked IL-13-induced mucin (MUC) 5AC mRNA and protein production in vivo and in vitro. Further investigation with HBE16 cells revealed that TMEM16A overexpression clearly promoted mucus production, IκBα phosphorylation, and p65 accumulation in the nucleus. The loss of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of mucus production, and the TMEM16A-mediated production of MUC5AC was significantly blocked by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor. Therefore, the TMEM16A channel acts upstream of NF-κB in the regulation of mucus production. This is the first demonstration that the TMEM16A-NF-κB pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced mucus production, which provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism of mucin overproduction.

  15. Oxidative Stress Triggered by Apigenin Induces Apoptosis in a Comprehensive Panel of Human Cervical Cancer-Derived Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel P; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de S; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Ratti, Bianca A; Kaplum, Vanessa; Bruschi, Marcos L; Nakamura, Celso V; Silva, Sueli O; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the cytotoxic effects of apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), particularly its marked inhibition of cancer cell viability both in vitro and in vivo, have attracted the attention of the anticancer drug discovery field. Despite this, there are few studies of apigenin in cervical cancer, and these studies have mostly been conducted using HeLa cells. To evaluate the possibility of apigenin as a new therapeutic candidate for cervical cancer, we evaluated its cytotoxic effects in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (human papillomavirus/HPV 18-positive), SiHa (HPV 16-positive), CaSki (HPV 16 and HPV 18-positive), and C33A (HPV-negative) cells in comparison to a nontumorigenic spontaneously immortalized human epithelial cell line (HaCaT). Our results demonstrated that apigenin had a selective cytotoxic effect and could induce apoptosis in all cervical cancer cell lines which were positively marked with Annexin V, but not in HaCaT (control cells). Additionally, apigenin was able to induce mitochondrial redox impairment, once it increased ROS levels and H2O2, decreased the Δψm, and increased LPO. Still, apigenin was able to inhibit migration and invasion of cancer cells. Thus, apigenin appears to be a promising new candidate as an anticancer drug for cervical cancer induced by different HPV genotypes.

  16. Oxidative Stress Triggered by Apigenin Induces Apoptosis in a Comprehensive Panel of Human Cervical Cancer-Derived Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P. Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the cytotoxic effects of apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, particularly its marked inhibition of cancer cell viability both in vitro and in vivo, have attracted the attention of the anticancer drug discovery field. Despite this, there are few studies of apigenin in cervical cancer, and these studies have mostly been conducted using HeLa cells. To evaluate the possibility of apigenin as a new therapeutic candidate for cervical cancer, we evaluated its cytotoxic effects in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (human papillomavirus/HPV 18-positive, SiHa (HPV 16-positive, CaSki (HPV 16 and HPV 18-positive, and C33A (HPV-negative cells in comparison to a nontumorigenic spontaneously immortalized human epithelial cell line (HaCaT. Our results demonstrated that apigenin had a selective cytotoxic effect and could induce apoptosis in all cervical cancer cell lines which were positively marked with Annexin V, but not in HaCaT (control cells. Additionally, apigenin was able to induce mitochondrial redox impairment, once it increased ROS levels and H2O2, decreased the Δψm, and increased LPO. Still, apigenin was able to inhibit migration and invasion of cancer cells. Thus, apigenin appears to be a promising new candidate as an anticancer drug for cervical cancer induced by different HPV genotypes.

  17. Oxidative Stress Triggered by Apigenin Induces Apoptosis in a Comprehensive Panel of Human Cervical Cancer-Derived Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Raquel P.; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Ratti, Bianca A.; Kaplum, Vanessa; Bruschi, Marcos L.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Maria-Engler, Silvya S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the cytotoxic effects of apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), particularly its marked inhibition of cancer cell viability both in vitro and in vivo, have attracted the attention of the anticancer drug discovery field. Despite this, there are few studies of apigenin in cervical cancer, and these studies have mostly been conducted using HeLa cells. To evaluate the possibility of apigenin as a new therapeutic candidate for cervical cancer, we evaluated its cytotoxic effects in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (human papillomavirus/HPV 18-positive), SiHa (HPV 16-positive), CaSki (HPV 16 and HPV 18-positive), and C33A (HPV-negative) cells in comparison to a nontumorigenic spontaneously immortalized human epithelial cell line (HaCaT). Our results demonstrated that apigenin had a selective cytotoxic effect and could induce apoptosis in all cervical cancer cell lines which were positively marked with Annexin V, but not in HaCaT (control cells). Additionally, apigenin was able to induce mitochondrial redox impairment, once it increased ROS levels and H2O2, decreased the Δψm, and increased LPO. Still, apigenin was able to inhibit migration and invasion of cancer cells. Thus, apigenin appears to be a promising new candidate as an anticancer drug for cervical cancer induced by different HPV genotypes. PMID:28191273

  18. RNA interference targeting CD147 inhibits the invasion of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells by downregulating MMP-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobin; Wu, Weiguang; Shi, Haixia; Han, Jianqiu

    2013-07-01

    Cervical squamous carcinoma is a highly invasive tumour that has a great capacity to metastasise. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN or CD147), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein. It is highly expressed on malignant tumour cell surfaces, including human cervical squamous carcinoma. It also plays a critical role in the invasive and metastatic activity of malignant cells by stimulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The anti-invasive effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against CD147 on human cervical squamous carcinoma cells and its possible pathways has been investigated. The downregulation of CD147 by transfection with siRNA resulted in MMP-9 expression and decreased activity in the cervical squamous carcinoma cell line SiHa. In vitro analysis showed that the invasive capacity of SiHa cells decreased. Thus CD147 inhibition and subsequent MMP-9 deletion may have anti-tumour effects by inhibiting the invasiveness of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells.

  19. The Mucus of Actinia equina (Anthozoa, Cnidaria: An Unexplored Resource for Potential Applicative Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mucus produced by many marine organisms is a complex mixture of proteins and polysaccharides forming a weak watery gel. It is essential for vital processes including locomotion, navigation, structural support, heterotrophic feeding and defence against a multitude of environmental stresses, predators, parasites, and pathogens. In the present study we focused on mucus produced by a benthic cnidarian, the sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 for preventing burial by excess sedimentation and for protection. We investigated some of the physico-chemical properties of this matrix such as viscosity, osmolarity, electrical conductivity, protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents. Some biological activities such as hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial lysozyme-like activities were also studied. The A. equina mucus is mainly composed by water (96.2% ± 0.3%, whereas its dry weight is made of 24.2% ± 1.3% proteins and 7.8% ± 0.2% carbohydrates, with the smallest and largest components referable to lipids (0.9% and inorganic matter (67.1%. The A. equina mucus matrix exhibited hemolytic activity on rabbit erythrocytes, cytotoxic activity against the tumor cell line K562 (human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia and antibacterial lysozyme-like activity. The findings from this study improve the available information on the mucus composition in invertebrates and have implications for future investigations related to exploitation of A. equina and other sea anemones’ mucus as a source of bioactive compounds of high pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest.

  20. Bioactive potency of epidermal mucus extracts from greasy grouper, Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal, 1775

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Manikantan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the bio-potency of epidermal mucus from Epinephelus tauvina. Methods: Mucus was extracted with acidic, organic and aqueous solvents. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid content of mucus extracts were quantified by UV-spectrophotometer, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometer, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five human and fish pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The molecular weight of peptides was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The haemolytic activity of extracts was tested against chick, goat, cow and human red blood cell. Results: Protein contributed with maximum of 26.25% in crude mucus. Arginine was recorded maximum of (133.9 nmol/mL in crude mucus. 2,4,6-Decatrienoic acid and bis (a-chloroethyl sulfone were confirmed in organic extract. The antimicrobial activity of acidic extract was significant. Among the human pathogens, maximum zone of inhibition [(26.0 ± 0.3 mm] was observed against Proteus mirabilis. Whereas, among fish pathogens maximum zone of inhibition [(25.0 ± 0.1 mm] was observed against Vibrio parahemolyticus. The activity of other two extracts was not remarkable. The molecular weight of peptides ranged from 115.5– 37.1 kDa in acidic extract was determined. Chicken and goat blood were found to be highly vulnerable to the lysis. Conclusions: The whole mucus could be a promising source with numerous bioactivepotency. Consequently, this preliminary information suggested that mucus is a source of novel antimicrobial agents for fish and human health related applications.

  1. Bioactive potency of epidermal mucus extracts from greasy grouper,Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskal, 1775)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganesh Manikantan; Somasundarannair Lyla; Syed Ajmal Khan; Packiaraj Vijayanand; George Edward Gnana Jothi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the bio-potency of epidermal mucus fromEpinephelus tauvina. Methods: Mucus was extracted with acidic, organic and aqueous solvents. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and fatty acid content of mucus extracts were quantified by UV-spectrophotometer, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five human and fish pathogens by using agar well diffusion method. The molecular weight of peptides was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The haemolytic activity of extracts was tested against chick, goat, cow and human red blood cell. Results:Protein contributed with maximum of 26.25% in crude mucus. Arginine was recorded maximum of (133.9 nmol/mL) in crude mucus. 2,4,6-Decatrienoic acid and bis (a-chloroethyl) sulfone were confirmed in organic extract. The antimicrobial activity of acidic extract was significant. Among the human pathogens, maximum zone of inhibition [(26.0 ± 0.3) mm] was observed againstProteus mirabilis. Whereas, among fish pathogens maximum zone of inhibition [(25.0 ± 0.1) mm] was observed againstVibrio parahemolyticus. The activity of other two extracts was not remarkable. The molecular weight of peptides ranged from 115.5–37.1 kDa in acidic extract was determined. Chicken and goat blood were found to be highly vulnerable to the lysis. Conclusions: The whole mucus could be a promising source with numerous bioactive- potency. Consequently, this preliminary information suggested that mucus is a source of novel antimicrobial agents for fish and human health related applications.

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV detected in restored plasma DNA from women diagnosed with pre-invasive lesions and invasive cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Rocío Arias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To improve the sensitivity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV detection in plasma from high-grade cervical neoplasia patients (CIN III and cervical cancer (CC evaluating any likely correlation with disease stage. Method: We subjected plasma DNA isolates from 112 patients (CIN and ICC to a pre-PCR restoration treatment to improve detection sensitivity. HPV-specific sequences were detected by conventional PCR both in cervical scrapes and plasma DNA obtained from each patient. For every single DNA sample, both non-restored and restored isolates were PCR analyzed. Results: We detected HPV in plasma DNA isolates with significantly higher efficiency on restored plasma-DNA as compared to each non-restored equivalent, still maintaining close correlation with the clinical stage of the cases. By analyzing plasma-DNA isolates we could classify as HPV positive >50.0% of the cases that were previously known to be positive from the cervical scrape based assay. Interestingly, 100% of the cases in which subtype HPV18 was detected in cervical scrapes were also positive in plasma DNA. Conclusions: Restoration of plasma DNA from cervical cancer patients allows a more sensitive PCR-based HPV detection, maintaining the correlation to disease stage traditionally observed.

  3. Human papillomavirus (HPV detected in restored plasma DNA from women diagnosed with pre-invasive lesions and invasive cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Fabián Carrillo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To improve the sensitivity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV detection in plasma from high-grade cervical neoplasia patients (CIN III and cervical cancer (CC evaluating any likely correlation with disease stage.Method: We subjected plasma DNA isolates from 112 patients (CIN and ICC to a pre-PCR restoration treatment to improve detection sensitivity. HPV-specific sequences were detected by conventional PCR both in cervical scrapes and plasma DNA obtained from each patient. For every single DNA sample, both non-restored and restored isolates were PCR analyzed.Results: We detected HPV in plasma DNA isolates with significantly higher efficiency on restored plasma-DNA as compared to each non-restored equivalent, still maintaining close correlation with the clinical stage of the cases. By analyzing plasma-DNA isolates we could classify as HPV positive >50.0% of the cases that were previously known to be positive from the cervical scrape based assay. Interestingly, 100% of the cases in which subtype HPV18 was detected in cervical scrapes were also positive in plasma DNA.Conclusions: Restoration of plasma DNA from cervical cancer patients allows a more sensitive PCR-based HPV detection, maintaining the correlation to disease stage traditionally observed.

  4. [Changes in genotype prevalence of human papillomavirus over 10-year follow-up of a cervical cancer screening cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L; Hu, S Y; Zhang, Q; Feng, R M; Zhang, L; Zhao, X L; Ma, J F; Shi, S D; Zhang, X; Pan, Q J; Zhang, W H; Qiao, Y L; Zhao, F H

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the dynamic variation of genotypes distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) over 10-year follow-up in a cervical cancer screening cohort. Methods: Based on the Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study Ⅰ cohort, we detected HPV genotypes on the well-preserved exfoliated cervical cells from women who were tested HPV positive from year 2005 to year 2014 using reverse linear probe hybridization assay. The changes of prevalence of type-specific HPV over time among the overall population were estimated using linear mixed models. The association between the type-specific HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2 +) was calculated by linear Chi-square test. Finally, the trends of multiple infections of HPV with the increase of the age were analyzed. Results: During the cervical cancer screening of the overall population from 2005 to 2014, the most common genotypes among the population were HPV16 and 52. The prevalence of HPV16 decreased over time from 4.6% in 2005 to 2.2% in 2010 and 2014 (F=8.125, Pcervical cancer screening in the context of regular screening combining with immediate treatment for those CIN2 + women. HPV16 prevalence significantly decreased over time, which indicated that the variation of type-specific HPV prevalence should be considered when regular cervical cancer screening was organized using HPV technique.

  5. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV L1 CAPSID PROTEIN IN CERVICAL SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Raluca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the immunohistochemical pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs in correlation with L1 HPV capsid protein, in order to determine the relationship between EGFR expression and the infection status of human papillomavirus (HPV. The study included 40 cases, 24 LSIL (low grade SIL (CIN1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 16 HSIL (high grade SIL (6 cases of CIN2 and 10 cases of CIN3. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV protein was assessed on conventional cervico-vaginal smears and EGFR was immunohistochemically evaluated on the corresponding cervical biopsies. The HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 45.83% of LSIL and 25% of HSIL. EGFR was overexpressed in 62,4% of HSIL (58,4% CIN2 and 41,6% CIN3 and 37,6% LSIL. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV has clinical application in the progression assessment of the cervical precancerous lesions without a correlation to the grade of the cervical SIL. EGFR is expressed by all proliferating squamous epithelial cells, thus corresponding with the grade of SIL. The evaluation of EGFR status, correlated with L1 HPV protein expression, can provide useful data of progression risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions

  6. Effects of curcumin on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism

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    Aixue LIU

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the effects of curcumin (Cur on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism. The nude mice modeled with human cervical cancer HeLa cell xenograft were treated with normal saline (control, 3 mg/kg Cisplatin, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur, respectively. The animal body weight and growth of tumor were measured. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, p21, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue were determined. Results showed that, after treatment for 20 days, the tumor mass and tumor volume in 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. The expressions of Bax, p53 and p21 protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05, and the expressions of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. Cur can inhibit the growth of HeLa cell xenograft in nude mice. The possible mechanism may be related to its up-regulation of Bax, p53 and p21 protein expression in tumor tissue, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein expression.

  7. Vaccines against human papillomavirus and perspectives for the prevention and control of cervical cancer

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    García-Carrancá Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, "persistent" infections by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV are considered necessary for developing cervical cancer. Producing efficient vaccines against these viruses may eventually lead to a great reduction in incidence and mortality rates of this cancer. In the case of HPV, the production of traditional vaccines usually based in dead or attenuated viruses is not possible due in part to the lack of systems where large quantities of viral particles could be obtained. Fortunately, the expression of the late L1 protein alone, or in combination with L2, leads to the generation of structures resembling true virions that have been called virus-like particles (VLPs and constitute excellent candidates as prophylactic vaccines. VLPs have shown to be very immunogenic, and have prevented development of natural or challenged infections in both animal systems and humans. Recently, HPV16 VLPs were shown to be very efficient to prevent the development of "persistent" infections, as determined by PCR assays, in a large group of vaccinated women. Therapeutic vaccines, on the other hand, are expected to have an impact on advanced lesions and residual illness, by taking advantaje of the fact that early E6 and E7 genes are thought to be constitutively expressed in cervical tumors and precursor lesions. Finally, DNA-based vaccines could represent a useful alternative for preventing infections by genital HPV.

  8. Human cervical spinal cord funiculi: investigation with magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Onu, Mihaela; Gervai, Patricia; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Lawrence, Jane; Kornelsen, Jennifer; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta Nicola

    2010-04-01

    To use spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for investigating human cervical funiculi, acquire axial diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data with an in-plane resolution sufficient to delineate subquadrants within the spinal cord, obtain corresponding DTI metrics, and assess potential regional differences. Healthy volunteers were studied with a 3 T Siemens Trio MRI scanner. DTI data were acquired using a single-shot spin echo EPI sequence. The spatial resolution allowed for the delineation of regions of interest (ROIs) in the ventral, dorsal, and lateral spinal cord funiculi. ROI-based and tractography-based analyses were performed. Significant fractional anisotropy (FA) differences were found between ROIs in the dorsal and ventral funiculi (P = 0.0001), dorsal and lateral funiculi (P = 0.015), and lateral and ventral funiculi (P = 0.0002). Transverse diffusivity was significantly different between ROIs in the ventral and dorsal funiculi (P = 0.003) and the ventral and lateral funiculi (P = 0.004). Tractography-based quantifications revealed DTI parameter regional differences that were generally consistent with the ROI-based analysis. Original contributions are: 1) the use of a tractography-based method to quantify DTI metrics in the human cervical spinal cord, and 2) reported DTI values in various funiculi at 3 T. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Infrastructure requirements for human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa.

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    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Anorlu, Rose; Sangwa-Lugoma, Ghislain; Denny, Lynette A

    2013-12-29

    The availability of both human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and alternative screening tests has greatly improved the prospects of cervical cancer prevention in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The inclusion of HPV vaccine in the portfolio of new vaccines offered by the Gobal Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) to GAVI-eligible countries has vastly improved the chances of introducing HPV vaccination. Further investments to improve vaccine storage, distribution and delivery infrastructure and human resources of the Extended Programme of Immunization will substantially contribute to the faster introduction of HPV vaccination in SSA countries through both school- and campaign-based approaches. Alternative methods to cytology for the prevention of cervical cancer through the early detection and treatment of cervical cancer precursors have been extensively evaluated in the past 15 years, in Africa as well as in other low-resource settings. Visual inspection with 3-5% dilute acetic acid (VIA) and HPV testing are the two alternative screening methods that have been most studied, in both cross-sectional and randomised clinical trials. VIA is particularly suitable to low-resource settings; however, its efficacy in reducing cervical cancer is likely to be significantly lower than HPV testing. The introduction of VIA screening programmes will help develop the infrastructure that will, in turn, facilitate the introduction of affordable HPV testing in future. Links with the existing HIV/AIDS control programmes is another strategy to improve the infrastructure and screening services in SSA. Infrastructural requirements for an integrated approach aiming to vaccinate single-year cohorts of girls in the 9-13 years age-range and to screen women over 30 years of age using VIA or affordable rapid HPV tests are outlined in this manuscript. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub

  10. Clinician and Patient Acceptability of Self-Collected Human Papillomavirus Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening.

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    Mao, Constance; Kulasingam, Shalini L; Whitham, Hilary K; Hawes, Stephen E; Lin, John; Kiviat, Nancy B

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate clinician and patient attitudes toward home self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical cancer screening. Women aged 21-65 years were recruited for a randomized trial comparing home self-collected HPV testing to standard clinician-collected Pap screening. Participants were surveyed about their attitudes toward self-collected HPV testing. Clinicians performing cervical cancer screening in University of Washington medical clinics were also surveyed to determine their acceptability of self-collected HPV testing. Over half (59.1%) of the 1,769 women surveyed preferred self-collected HPV testing to clinician-collected tests. Reasons most often cited were convenience or time saving (82.7%), and avoiding embarrassment or discomfort associated with pelvic exam (38.1%). Women who did not prefer self-collected HPV testing reported greater faith in clinician-collected samples (56.7%) or a desire for a clinic visit to address other issues (42.4%). One hundred eighteen (49.6%) of 238 physicians and midlevel providers surveyed completed the survey. The majority (78.0%) reported that they would recommend a self-collected HPV test if the test had qualities such as high sensitivity and cost effectiveness. Provider concerns mirrored those of patients, namely ensuring adequate sample collection and the opportunity to address other health concerns. Patients and clinicians are supportive of self-collected HPV testing. However, concerns regarding adequacy of samples that are self collected and the desire to see a provider in a clinic setting for other health needs highlight areas that need to be addressed if self collection proves to be a viable option for cervical cancer screening.

  11. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection in Italian women with cervical cytological abnormalities

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    Angelo Meloni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection and high-risk HPV types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical cancer. The present study investigated the HPV-type specific prevalence in 650 women, aged 15-76 years, with cytological abnormalities and the association between HPV infection and cervical disease in a subset of 160 women for whom cytological results for Pap-Test were available, during the period 2008-2011 in Cagliari (Southern Italy.Design and Methods. HPV-DNA extraction was performed by lysis and digestion with proteinase K and it was typed by using the INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping Assay.Results. Overall the HPV prevalence was 52.6%; high-risk genotypes were found in 68.9% of women and multiple-type infection in 36.1% of HPV-positive women. The commonest types were HPV-52 (23.4%, HPV-53 (15.7%, HPV-16 (15.4% and HPV-6 (12.4%. Among the women with cytological diagnosis, any-type of HPV DNA was found in 49.4% of the samples and out of these 93.7% were high-risk genotypes. Genotype HPV 53 was the commonest type among women affected by ASCUS lesions (21.4%, genotype 52 in positive L-SIL cases (22.5%, genotype 16 H-SIL (27.3%.Conclusions. This study confirmed the high prevalence of HPV infection and high-risk genotypes among women with cervical abnormalities while, unlike previously published data, genotype HPV-52 was the most common type in our series. These data may contribute to increase the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and designing adequate vaccination strategies.

  12. Primary human papillomavirus DNA screening for cervical cancer prevention: Can the screening interval be safely extended?

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    Vink, Margaretha A; Bogaards, Johannes A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2015-07-15

    Cytological screening has substantially decreased the cervical cancer incidence, but even better protection may be achieved by primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening. In the Netherlands, five-yearly cytological screening for women aged 30-60 years will be replaced by primary hrHPV screening in 2016. The new screening guidelines involve an extension of the screening interval from 5 to 10 years for hrHPV-negative women aged 40 or 50 years. We investigated the impact of this program change on the lifetime cancer risks in women without an hrHPV infection at age 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 years. The time to cancer was estimated using 14-year follow-up data from a population-based screening intervention trial and the nationwide database of histopathology reports. The new screening guidelines are expected to lead to a reduced cervical cancer risk for all age groups. The average risk reduction was 34% and was smallest (25%) among women aged 35 years. The impact of hrHPV screening on the cancer risk was sensitive to the duration from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) to cancer; a small increase in the cancer risk was estimated for women aged 35 or 40 years in case a substantial proportion of CIN2/3 showed fast progression to cancer. Our results indicate that primary hrHPV screening with a ten-yearly interval for hrHPV-negative women of age 40 and beyond will lead to a further reduction in lifetime cancer risk compared to five-yearly cytology, provided that precancerous lesions progress slowly to cancer.

  13. Detection of Human Papillomavirus 18 in Cervical Cancer Samples Using PCR-ELISA (DIAPOPS

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    KN Tafreshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection is a major risk factor for adenocarcinoma of the cervix. The high-risk types of the virus such as HPV16 and HPV18, which possess the E6 and E7 oncogenes, are responsible for approximately 50% of all cervical cancers. A rapid, sensitive and specific test has been proposed for detection of HPV to improve cervical cancer screening programs.Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a fast PCR-ELISA assay designated as DIAPOPS (Detection of Immobilized Amplified Products in a One Phase Systemfor detection of HPV16 and HPV18 types in SCC samples and Pap smears. The type specific primers and probes were designed for PCR and PCR-ELISA. The amplified products were hybridized with a specific biotin-labeled probe for HPV18 inner amplicons. The hybrids were detected with peroxidase conjugated avidin. The test was performed on the paraffin block and Pap smear samples from the cervical cancer patients, and the results of DIAPOPS were compared with conventional PCR assay.Results: The 70 samples (SCC and Pap smear samples were collected from Imam Khomeini and Mirzakoochak Khan Hospitals in Tehran. The PCR-based method detected six HPV16 positive, three HPV18 positive and Two HPV33 positive samples. DIAPOPS results were compared with the conventional PCR results and they showed an increase in sensitivity of the DIAPOPS test. Not only all of them were confirmed by PCR-ELISA but also three samples that conventional PCR showed negative for HPV18, were demonstrated positive by the PCR-ELISA method.Conclusion: The results of the study show that modified PCR-ELISA assay is more sensitive to detect HPV types and can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  14. Human papillomavirus genotype-specific prevalence across the continuum of cervical neoplasia and cancer.

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    Joste, Nancy E; Ronnett, Brigitte M; Hunt, William C; Pearse, Amanda; Langsfeld, Erika; Leete, Thomas; Jaramillo, MaryAnn; Stoler, Mark H; Castle, Philip E; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2015-01-01

    The New Mexico HPV Pap Registry was established to measure the impact of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the United States. Before widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine implementation, we established the baseline prevalence for a broad spectrum of HPV genotypes across the continuum of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. A population-based sample of 6,272 tissue specimens was tested for 37 HPV genotypes. The number of specimens tested within each diagnostic category was: 541 negative, 1,411 CIN grade 1 (CIN1), 2,226 CIN grade 2 (CIN2), and 2,094 CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or greater. Age-specific HPV prevalence was estimated within categories for HPV genotypes targeted by HPV vaccines. The combined prevalence of HPV genotypes included in the quadrivalent and nonavalent vaccines increased from 15.3% and 29.3% in CIN1 to 58.4% and 83.7% in CIN3, respectively. Prevalence of HPV types included in both vaccines tended to decrease with increasing age for CIN1, CIN2, CIN3, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), most notably for CIN3 and SCC. The six most common HPV types in descending order of prevalence were HPV-16, -31, -52, -58, -33, and -39 for CIN3 and HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, -52, and -33 for invasive cancers. Health economic modeling of HPV vaccine impact should consider age-specific differences in HPV prevalence. Population-based HPV prevalence in CIN is not well described, but is requisite for longitudinal assessment of vaccine impact and to understand the effectiveness and performance of various cervical screening strategies in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Mexican Cervical Cancer Screening Study II: acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampler.

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    Arriba, Lucybeth Nieves; Enerson, Christine L; Belinson, Suzanne; Novick, Loyd; Belinson, Jerome

    2010-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. In countries like Mexico, cervical cancer early detection programs have had a minimal impact on the incidence and death rates from cervical cancer. Self-sampling for the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus is potentially a more effective screening tool to reach women who have limited access to community healthcare resources. The objective of this phase 2 trial was to establish if the fourth generation Preventive Oncology International/National Institutes of Health self-sampler device is well accepted by women of all socioeconomic levels in Michoacán, Mexico. This is a prospective phase 2 trial. The patients used the self-sampler, and then the acceptability questionnaire (14 multiple choice questions) was completed with the assistance of nursing staff. Two thousand five hundred seventeen patients completed the questionnaire. The mean age of our patient population was 39 years. Eighty-six percent of patients reported being comfortable when using the self-test, and 76% preferred to do the test at the clinic. Ninety-one percent of patients said that if their only choice was to perform the test at home they would perform it rather than not perform the test. The major barriers for the use of self-sampler identified by the women in the study were fear (75%), woman might not perform the test because she does not feel ill (70%), women felt that husbands may stand in women's way of performing the test (66%), and lack of time (61%). Results differed by location but not by history of Papanicolaou test. Most patients reported being comfortable when using the Preventive Oncology International/National Institutes of Health fourth generation self-test. Most influential barriers identified by the acceptability questionnaire were fear, lack of signs or symptoms of illness, husbands' influence, cost, lack of time, being unable to read, and lack of trust in the medical community.

  16. Human papillomavirus vaccines and cervical cancer: awareness, knowledge, and risk perception among Turkish undergraduate students.

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    Rathfisch, Gülay; Güngör, İlkay; Uzun, Ece; Keskin, Özlem; Tencere, Zeliha

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness, knowledge, and risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer, and HPV vaccines among undergraduate students in Turkey. The convenience sample of this descriptive cross-sectional study consisted of 605 undergraduate students in Istanbul University during a semester. Demographic characteristics of students, their reproductive health and lifestyle behaviors, and knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine were questioned using self-administered forms. The overall proportion of students who had heard about HPV infection was 48.8%, while the proportion of students who had heard of the HPV vaccine was 44.5%. Forty eight percent of females and 60% of males reported never having heard of the HPV. Only 45.7% of females had knowledge about HPV as a cause of genital warts, and 58.1% correctly indicated that HPV caused cervical cancer. The majority of students in both genders (>80%) knew that the infection is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse. Females were more concerned than males about having cervical/penile cancer associated with HPV in the future. Only 46.4% of females and 39% of males reported having heard of the HPV vaccine. The majority of the female and male students did not know who should get the HPV vaccine and when to get vaccinated. Among males, 25.8% reported that they would consider getting vaccinated (if available) and 38.4% intended to vaccinate their children. Turkish undergraduate students had a low to moderate level of knowledge regarding HPV infection and HPV vaccine. In order to increase awareness about HPV and develop positive behaviors, young people should be provided with accurate information through educational activities in the community and health care services.

  17. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

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    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  18. Human papilloma virus genotypes in women from Nayarit, Mexico, with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer

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    Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; León, David Cantú-De; Hernández, Yael Yvette Bernal; Jáuregui-Martínez, Armando; Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Mexico cervical cancer (CC) is the most common cause of death from neoplasia in women. Study aimed to analyze the current distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women from Nayarit, Mexico, with Squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and Cervical cancer (CC). Methodology Between January 2011 and July 2013, cervical samples were collected from female residents of the Mexican state of Nayarit and were analyzed by means of a LINEAR ARRAY® HPV genotyping test. Data analyses were performed using Stata ver. 8.0 statistical software. Results Of the samples analyzed, 91.2%, HPV DNA was detected. Of these positive samples, 82% were High-risk (HR) viral types. The most prevalent HPV genotypes identified were 16, 58, 31, 18, and 70. Forty two percent of participants had a single infection, while 23 and 26% of participants were infected with two or more HPV genotypes, respectively. HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype identified and was frequently present as a co-infection with HPV types 18, 51, 52, 59, 66, or 70. Conclusion Women <20 years of age were most often infected with HPV, and the HPV Quadrivalent vaccine (types 16, 18, 6, and 11), currently available in Mexico, no confers protection against a subset of the HPV genotypes identified in the present study (58, 31, 70, and 35). Thus, it is important evaluate the geographical distribution of specific HPV genotypes in all health of center across Mexico in order to implement a successful vaccination program and to diagnose CC in its early stages. PMID:27610056

  19. A risk evaluation model of cervical cancer based on etiology and human leukocyte antigen allele susceptibility

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    Bicheng Hu

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: This model, based on etiology and HLA allele susceptibility, can estimate the risk of cervical cancer in chronic cervicitis patients after HPV infection. It combines genetic and environmental factors and significantly enhances the accuracy of risk evaluation for cervical cancer. This model could be used to select patients for intervention therapy and to guide patient classification management.

  20. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer Screening among Riverside Women of the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Duarte, Daniel Valim; Vieira, Rodrigo Covre; Brito, Elza Baía de; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Monteiro, Jeniffer do Socorro Valente; Valente, Mário Diego Rocha; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Sousa, Maísa Silva de

    2017-07-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall and type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among females living in riverside communities in the state of Pará, in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. These communities are inhabited by low-income people, and are accessible only by small boats. Cervical cytology and risk factors for HPV infection were also assessed. Methods Cervical samples from 353 women of selected communities were collected both for Papanicolau (Pap) test and HPV detection. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR were used to assess the overall and type-specific prevalence of HPV-16 and HPV-18, the main oncogenic types worldwide. Epidemiological questionnaires were used for the assessment of the risk factors for HPV infection. Results The mean age of the participants was 37 years (standard deviation [SD] ± 13.7). Most were married or with a fixed sexual partner (79%), and had a low educational level (80%) and family monthly income (< U$ 250; 53%). Overall, HPV prevalence was 16.4% (n = 58), with 8 cases of HPV-16 (2.3%) and 5 of HPV-18 (1.4%). Almost 70% of the women surveyed had never undergone the Pap test. Abnormal cytology results were found in 27.5% (n = 97) of the samples, with higher rates of HPV infection according to the severity of the lesions (p = 0.026). Conclusions The infections by HPV-16 and HPV-18 were not predominant in our study, despite the high prevalence of overall HPV infection. Nevertheless, the oncogenic potential of these types and the low coverage of the Pap test among women from riverside communities demonstrate a potential risk for the development of cervical lesions and their progression to cervical cancer, since the access to these communities is difficult and, in most cases, these women do not have access to primary care and public health services. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India.

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    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  2. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

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    Jaya Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85% were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9% were of high-risk (HR HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%; non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR, 2.56 (1.26-5.19], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33% patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM cytology, three (1.60% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 32 (17.11% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, 10 (5.35% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and three (1.60% had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors inducing human cervical cancer cell apoptosis by decreasing DNA-methyltransferase 3B

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    LIU Ning; ZHAO Li-jun; LI Xiao-ping; WANG Jian-liu; CHAI Guo-lin; WEI Li-hui

    2012-01-01

    Background Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a group of small chemical molecules that inhibit histone deacetylase.At cell level,HDAC inhibitors have multiple biological effects such as cell cycle arrest,apoptosis,cell differentiation and auotophagy.At molecular level,HDAC inhibitors cause histone and nonhistone acetylation and induce gene expression.HDAC inhibitors are widely used in cancer therapy because of its function of inducing apoptosis.However,the mechanisms of apoptosis effect are not fully understood.TSA is a classical HDAC inhibitor and widely used in epigenetic and anti-cancer research.In this study,we selected Trichostatin A (TSA) to investigate the mechanisms of HDAC inhibitors apoptotic effect on cancer cells.Methods Cervical cancer cell lines such as Hela,Caski and normal human keratinocyte line HaCaT were treated with various concentrations of TSA.Crystal violent assay and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were performed to determine cell number.PARP cleavage and FITC-AnexinV were performed to determine apoptosis.DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT)1,DNMT3A and DNMT3B were determined by regular PCR,qPCR and Western Blotting.Small interfering RNA (SiRNAi) was used to knock down DNMT3B.Results HDAC inhibitors only induce cervical cancer cell apoptosis.At 1 μmol/L of TSA,86% of Hela cell and 76% of Caski went apoptosis.For normal cells,HDAC inhibitors have no cytotoxic effect at therapeutic dosage,(90.0±8.4)% of normal cell survive after treated with 1 μmol/L of TSA.We compared 1 μmol/L group with untreated control with t-test.There was no significance between 1 μmol/L group and untreated control for normal cell (P >0.05).HDAC inhibitors decreased DNMT3B in cancer cell but not in normal cell.Manually knock-down of DNMT3B induced Hela and Caski cell apoptosis.More than 99% of Hela and Caski cell went apoptosis after deprived of DNMT3B.Conclusions DNMT3B was essential to cervical cancer cell survival

  4. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

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    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women. PMID:26997018

  5. RBBP6: a potential biomarker of apoptosis induction in human cervical cancer cell lines

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    Moela P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pontsho Moela, Lesetja Raymond Motadi Department of Biochemistry, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa Abstract: Overexpression of RBBP6 in cancers of the colon, lung, and esophagus makes it a potential target in anticancer therapy. This is especially important because RBBP6 associates with the tumor suppressor gene p53, the inactivation of which has been linked to over 50% of all cancer types. However, the expression of RBBP6 in cancer and its interaction with p53 are yet to be understood in order to determine whether or not RBBP6 is cancer promoting and therefore a potential biomarker. In this study, we manipulated RBBP6 expression levels followed by treatment with either camptothecin or γ-aminobutyric acid in cervical cancer cells to induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. We began by staining human cervical cancer tissue sections with anti-RBBP6 monoclonal antibody to evaluate the extent of expression of RBBP6 in patients’ specimens. We followed on with silencing the overexpression of RBBP6 and treatment with anticancer agents to evaluate how the specimens respond to combinational therapy. Apoptosis induction was evaluated through confocal microscope, and flow cytometry using annexin V staining, and also by checking the mitochondrial and caspase-3/7 activity. Cell cycle arrest was evaluated using flow cytometry through staining with propidium iodide. RBBP6 was highly expressed in cervical cancer tissue sections that were in stage II or III of development. Silencing RBBP6 followed by treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid and camptothecin seems to sensitize cells to apoptosis induction rather than cell cycle arrest. Overexpression of RBBP6 seems to promote S-phase in cell cycle and cell proliferation. These results predict a proliferative role of RBBP6 in cancer progression rather than as a cancer-causing gene. Furthermore, sensitization of cells to camptothecin-induced apoptosis by RBBP6 targeting suggests a promising tool for

  6. BCL3 exerts an oncogenic function by regulating STAT3 in human cervical cancer

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    Zhao H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hu Zhao,1 Wuliang Wang,1 Qinghe Zhao,1 Guiming Hu,2 Kehong Deng,1 Yuling Liu1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Pathology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Aberrant expression of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors play a fundamental effect on the pathogenesis and tumorigenicity of cervical cancer (CC. B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL3 was previously found to be a putative proto-oncogene in human cancers and regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, a critical oncogene, in CC cell line. However, its expression status, clinical significance and biological functions in CC remain largely unclear. The expressions of BCL3 and STAT3 in CC specimens were determined by immunohistochemistry. MTT, colony formation assays and flow cytometry analysis were carried out to test proliferation and cell cycle of CC cells. Here, the levels of BCL3 were overexpressed in CC compared to adjacent cervical tissues. Furthermore, high levels of BCL3 protein were confirmed by immunoblotting in CC cells as compared with normal cervical epithelial cells. The positive expression of BCL3 was correlated with adverse prognostic features and reduced survival rate. In addition, BCL3 regulated STAT3 abundance in CC cells. STAT3 was found to be upregulated and positively correlated with BCL3 expression in CC specimens. BCL3 overexpression resulted in prominent increased proliferation and cell cycle progression in Hela cells. By contrast, inhibition of BCL3 in CaSki cells remarkably suppressed proliferative ability and cell cycle progression. In vivo studies showed that knockdown of BCL3 inhibited tumor growth of CC in mice xenograft model. Notably, we confirmed that STAT3 mediated the oncogenic roles of BCL3 in CC. In conclusion, we suggest that BCL3 serves as an oncogene in CC by modulating proliferation and cell cycle progression, and its oncogenic effect is

  7. ARTISTIC: a randomised trial of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening.

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    Kitchener, H C; Almonte, M; Gilham, C; Dowie, R; Stoykova, B; Sargent, A; Roberts, C; Desai, M; Peto, J

    2009-11-01

    Primary cervical screening uses cytology to detect cancer precursor lesions [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 3 or beyond (CIN3+)]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could add sensitivity as an adjunct to cytology or as a first test, reserving cytology for HPV-positive women. This study addresses the questions: Does the combination of cytology and HPV testing achieve a reduction in incident CIN3+?; Is HPV testing cost-effective in primary cervical screening?; Is its use associated with adverse psychosocial or psychosexual effects?; and How would it perform as an initial screening test followed by cytology for HPV positivity? ARTISTIC was a randomised trial of cervical cytology versus cervical cytology plus HPV testing, evaluated over two screening rounds, 3 years apart. Round 1 would detect prevalent disease and round 2 a combination of incident and undetected disease from round 1. Women undergoing routine cervical screening in the NHS programme in Greater Manchester. In total 24,510 women aged 20-64 years were enrolled between July 2001 and September 2003. HPV testing was performed on the liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample obtained at screening. Women were randomised in a ratio of 3:1 to have the HPV test result revealed and acted upon if persistently positive in cytology-negative cases or concealed. A detailed health economic evaluation and a psychosocial and psychosexual assessment were also performed. The primary outcome was CIN3+ in round 2. Secondary outcomes included an economic assessment and psychosocial effects. A large HPV genotyping study was also conducted. In round 1 there were 313 CIN3+ lesions, representing a prevalence in the revealed and concealed arms of 1.27% and 1.31% respectively (p = 0.81). Round 2 (30-48 months) involved 14,230 (58.1%) of the women screened in round 1 and only 31 CIN3+ were detected; the CIN3 rate was not significantly different between the revealed and concealed arms. A less restrictive definition of round 2 (26

  8. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression via human papillomavirus oncogene E7 in HPV-18-positive cervical cancer cells.

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    Li, Fang; Cui, Jinquan

    2015-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection induces chronic and precancerous lesions and results in invasive cervical cancer. Human telomerase as well as inflammatory and angiogenic factors such as telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could play a role in regulating HPV-induced cervical cancer. This study investigated underlying molecular events in HPV-induced HPV-positive cervical cancer through hTERT and VEGF in vitro. Expressions of hTERT, a rate-limiting subunit of telomerase, and VEGF mRNA and proteins were, respectively, assessed by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and TRAP-ELISA in HPV-positive tissue samples and cervical cancer cell lines. To assess hTERT and VEGF secretion, hTERT overexpression and knockdown were conducted in HPV-18-positive Hela cells by hTERT cDNA and shRNA transfection, respectively. Then, the effect of HPV E6 and E7 on VEGF expressions was assessed in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data have shown that VEGF expression levels are associated with hTERT expressions and telomerase activity in HPV-positive cervical cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of hTERT expression down-regulated VEGF expressions, whereas overexpression of hTERT up-regulated VEGF expressions in HPV-18-positive Hela cells. Furthermore, HPV E7 oncoprotein was necessary for hTERT to up-regulate VEGF expressions in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data from this current study indicate that HPV oncoproteins up-regulated hTERT and telomerase activity and in turn promoted VEGF expressions, which could be a key mechanism for HPV-induced cervical cancer development and progression.

  9. Human papillomavirus vaccination: the policy debate over the prevention of cervical cancer--a commentary.

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    Hoops, Katherine E M; Twiggs, Leo B

    2008-07-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) family causes a variety of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions in men and women. HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for causing 70% of all cases of cervical cancer each year. Recently, a vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer by protecting women from infection with the most common types of HPV has been made available. Following Food and Drug Administration approval and endorsement by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the right and the duty of the state legislatures to implement vaccination programs. This vaccine, a vaccine for a sexually transmitted disease, has stirred a fierce debate. Religion and sexuality have dominated the discussion, and political calculations are inherent to the process; nonetheless, epidemiological analyses are also essential to the decision to mandate the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccine program implementation processes are at many stages in many states, and programs vary widely. Some provide information to families, whereas others allot a range of funding for voluntary vaccination. Virginia is, thus far, the only state to have enacted a mandate. This article discusses the various programs in place, the proposed legislation, and the debate surrounding the political process.

  10. Anticancer studies of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles against human cervical carcinoma cells.

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    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-05-01

    A metal oxide nanoparticle has been widely investigated for its potential use in the biomedical application. The present study investigates the cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticle in human cervical carcinoma cells. Cell viability was determined, and it showed the possible cytotoxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles. The characteristic apoptotic features such as rounding and loss of adherence were observed in the treated cells. Fluorescence and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) studies have showed reduced nuclear volume and condensed cytoplasm. The mRNA expression of apoptotic gene p53 and caspase 3 was up-regulated following ZnO nanoparticle exposure, which confirms the occurrence of apoptosis at the transcriptional level. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in a dose-dependent manner, and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, which in turn regulate several signaling pathways and influencing the cytokinetic movements of cells. ZnO nanoparticles showed a dynamic cytotoxic effect in cervical carcinoma cells. ZnO nanoparticle might induce the apoptosis through increased intracellular ROS level. Moreover, up-regulated apoptotic gene expression confirms the occurrence of apoptosis. Taking all these data together, it may be concluded that ZnO nanoparticle may exert cytotoxicity on HeLa cell through the apoptotic pathway, implies the probable utility of ZnO nanoparticle in the cancer treatment and therapy.

  11. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus in women screened for cervical cancer in Labrador, Canada

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    Alberto Severini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. A higher incidence of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been reported in northern Canada and in First Nation, Métis and Inuit women, with some evidence to suggest that the HPV type distribution in these populations may be different from the rest of Canada. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the HPV type prevalence in Labrador women to determine if significant differences in HPV types could reduce the effectiveness of HPV vaccination. Design. The prevalence of HPV types was determined in 1,370 women presenting for routine pap screening in Labrador between February and November 2010. Cervical cytology and HPV genotyping were performed on the same liquid-based cytology specimens. Results. The overall prevalence of HPV was 21.4%; cytological abnormalities were found in 8.8% of the participants. HPV 16 and 18 were the most common high-risk HPV types. These two types were found in 52.4% of high-grade lesions. The prevalence in HPV infections was comparable across the Labrador regions. Conclusions. The present results support the potential effectiveness of the HPV immunization program in Labrador.

  12. Human Papillomavirus types distribution among women with cervical preneoplastic, lesions and cancer in Luanda, Angola

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    Damião, Paciência de Almeida; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Moreira, Miguel Ângelo; Poliakova, Natalia; de Lima, Maria Emilia RT; Chiovo, José; Nicol, Alcina Frederica

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Angola and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for the development of pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions. The diversity and frequency of HPV types in Angola has yet to be reported. Aim To determine the frequency of HPV among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions from women in Luanda, Angola. Methods Study participants included women diagnosed with cytological abnormalities that voluntarily provided Pap smears (n = 64). Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples for use as templates in the PCR amplification of HPV sequences. PCR products were sequenced to determine HPV type. Results HPV DNA was detected in 71.9% (46/64) in the samples. A higher diversity of HPV types was found in the cytological lesions, such as ASCUS and LSIL (HPV16, 6, 18, 31, 58, 66, 70 and 82, in order of frequency) than that detected for HSIL and SSC (HPV16, 18, 6 and 33). The most prevalent HPV type were: HPV16, HPV6 and HPV18. Conclusion This is the first report on HPV type diversity and frequency in woman of Angola. The results suggest that large-scale studies across Africa would improve our understanding of interrelationship between HPV infections and cervical cancer. More directly, the identification of the HPV types most prevalent suggests that women in Angola would benefit from currently available HPV vaccines. PMID:28154623

  13. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical scrapes from women attended in the Family Health Program

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    Everton Faccini Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to survey the prevalence of human papillomavirus, associated risk factors and genotype distribution in women who were referred to cervical cancer screening when attended in a Family Health Program. METHOD: we conducted a cross-sectional survey, investigating 351 women. Polymerase chain reaction for DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to detect and typify the papillomavirus. RESULTS: virus infection was detected in 8.8% of the samples. Among the 21 different genotypes identified in this study, 14 were high risk for cervical cancer, and the type 16 was the most prevalent type. The infection was associated with women who had non-stable sexual partners. Low risk types were associated with younger women, while the high risk group was linked to altered cytology. CONCLUSION: in this sample attended a Family Health Program, we found a low rate of papillomavirus infection. Virus frequency was associated to sexual behavior. However, the broad range of genotypes detected deserves attention regarding the vaccine coverage, which includes only HPV prevalent types.

  14. Infection with human papillomaviruses of sexual partners of women having cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

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    Rombaldi R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies show that human papillomaviruses (HPV are strongly related to cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN. Unlike the case for women, there are no consistent data on the natural history of HPV in the male population even though these viruses are prevalent in males. We carried out a prospective study to assess the prevalence of HPV in males as well as the factors that determine such infections in 99 male sexual partners of women with CIN. The genitalia of the males were physically examined and subjected to peniscopy for the collection of scrapings which were subjected to the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect HPV. Of the 99 males sampled, 54 (54.5% were positive for HPV DNA, 24% of whom presented normal peniscopy, 28% presented evident clinical lesions and 48% isolated lesions consistent with subclinical infection. In the HPV-negative group, 53% showed normal peniscopy, 4% presented evident clinical lesions and 42% isolated lesions consistent with subclinical infection. The study detected a statistically significant association (P < 0.02, Pearson chi-square test between HPV infection and both the mean number of sexual partners which a male had during his life and the mean number of sexual partners in the year prior to testing. Viral types 6 and 11 were most frequently encountered. The study shows that infection with HPV was frequent in male sexual partners of women with CIN.

  15. Human Papillomavirus: Current and Future RNAi Therapeutic Strategies for Cervical Cancer

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    Jung, Hun Soon; Rajasekaran, Nirmal; Ju, Woong; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses; some oncogenic ones can cause different types of cancer, in particular cervical cancer. HPV-associated carcinogenesis provides a classical model system for RNA interference (RNAi) based cancer therapies, because the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 that cause cervical cancer are expressed only in cancerous cells. Previous studies on the development of therapeutic RNAi facilitated the advancement of therapeutic siRNAs and demonstrated its versatility by siRNA-mediated depletion of single or multiple cellular/viral targets. Sequence-specific gene silencing using RNAi shows promise as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of a variety of diseases that currently lack effective treatments. However, siRNA-based targeting requires further validation of its efficacy in vitro and in vivo, for its potential off-target effects, and of the design of conventional therapies to be used in combination with siRNAs and their drug delivery vehicles. In this review we discuss what is currently known about HPV-associated carcinogenesis and the potential for combining siRNA with other treatment strategies for the development of future therapies. Finally, we present our assessment of the most promising path to the development of RNAi therapeutic strategies for clinical settings. PMID:26239469

  16. Long-term results of treatment for benign cervical epithelial changes associated with human papillomavirus

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    A. G. Kedrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPV and innate immune control responses made it possible to lookfor ways of reducing the replication load of viral proteins and to activate the mechanisms of innate immunity for rapid viral elimination. This is extremely important since persistent infection mainly with papillomavirus types 16, 18, 35, 45, and 52 is the major cause of cervical cancer. Over 3 years, the screening program proposed by the World Health Organization in 2001 could reveal about 10 % of the 30 000 women who had moderate and severe or more cervical epithelial lesion and other 14 % had a HPV positive test showing mainly the presence of several strains. The level of persistent infection (the presence of one type of the virus within 12 months was significantly higher among smokers and women older than 35 years of age. In our trial, the use of Isoprinosine in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 28 days contributed to rapid viral elimination persisting longer than 12 months in 91.8 % of the patients.

  17. Human Papillomavirus: Current and Future RNAi Therapeutic Strategies for Cervical Cancer

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    Hun Soon Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses; some oncogenic ones can cause different types of cancer, in particular cervical cancer. HPV-associated carcinogenesis provides a classical model system for RNA interference (RNAi based cancer therapies, because the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 that cause cervical cancer are expressed only in cancerous cells. Previous studies on the development of therapeutic RNAi facilitated the advancement of therapeutic siRNAs and demonstrated its versatility by siRNA-mediated depletion of single or multiple cellular/viral targets. Sequence-specific gene silencing using RNAi shows promise as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of a variety of diseases that currently lack effective treatments. However, siRNA-based targeting requires further validation of its efficacy in vitro and in vivo, for its potential off-target effects, and of the design of conventional therapies to be used in combination with siRNAs and their drug delivery vehicles. In this review we discuss what is currently known about HPV-associated carcinogenesis and the potential for combining siRNA with other treatment strategies for the development of future therapies. Finally, we present our assessment of the most promising path to the development of RNAi therapeutic strategies for clinical settings.

  18. Human papillomavirus related cervical cancer and anticipated vaccination challenges in Ethiopia.

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    Gebremariam, TeweldeTesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Ethiopia. This may be due to the high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) genotypes in the population. So far, few studies have been done that showed the presence of HR-HPV genotypes. The HR-HPV-16, -18, -52, -56, -31 and -58 were the most common genotypes reported in Ethiopia. The introduction of HPV vaccines in Ethiopia is likely to go a long way in reducing cervical cancer deaths. However, there are few challenges to the introduction of the vaccines. The target population for HPV vaccination is at the moment not well-defined. Besides, the current HPV vaccines confer only type-specific (HPV-16 and -18) immunity, leaving a small proportion of Ethiopian women unprotected against other HR-HPV genotypes such as 52, 56, 31 and 58. Thus, future HPV vaccines such as the nanovalent vaccine may be more useful to Ethiopia as they will protect women against more genotypes.

  19. Inhibitory effect of Trolox on the migration and invasion of human lung and cervical cancer cells.

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    Sung, Ho Joong; Kim, Yoonseo; Kang, Hyereen; Sull, Jae Woong; Kim, Yoon Suk; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Ko, Jesang

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) is implicated in migration and invasion of metastatic tumors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of Trolox on metastatic cancer cells is not known. We found that a non-cytotoxic dose of Trolox decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion and migration of both A549 and HeLa cancer cells. We also found that Trolox suppressed both the expression and the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and that the promoter activity of PMA-induced MMP-9 was inhibited by Trolox. Our results show that Trolox inhibits the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppression of NF-κB transactivation. These results indicate that Trolox inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, leading to the suppression of migration and invasion in lung and cervical cancer cells. Trolox is a potential agent for clinical use in preventing the invasion and metastasis of human malignant lung and cervical cancers.

  20. Implication of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in cervical carcinogenesis and cancer recurrence.

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    Wang, P-H; Ko, J-L

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the implication of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in cervical carcinogenesis and cancer recurrence. One hundred three cases of uterine cervix, including 20 normal, 13 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 30 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and 40 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues, were evaluated for hTERT immunoreactivity. The expressions of hTERT in normal, LSIL, HSIL, and SCC tissues were compared by Fisher exact or Chi-square test. The relationships between hTERT and clinicopathologic variables of SCC were also assessed. Furthermore, SCC patients were subdivided into negative and positive hTERT expression subgroups, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to plot the cumulative recurrence hazard for 5 years. There was a significant difference for hTERT expression between LSIL and HSIL subgroups (P recurrence hazard for 5 years was about 29% in positive hTERT expression subgroup compared to 0% in negative hTERT subgroup (P = 0.2866). In conclusion, a point stage of HSIL exists in the progression of cervical carcinogenesis when the hTERT expression increases significantly. Moreover, SCC patients with positive hTERT expression may have higher cumulative recurrence hazard.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in cervical cancerous and precancerous lesions of Ecuadorian women.

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    Mejía, Lorena; Muñoz, Diana; Trueba, Gabriel; Tinoco, Leopoldo; Zapata, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of uterine cancer. In Ecuador there is limited information about HPV types (and variants) in cancerous lesions; however, identifying the type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical lesions of women living in Ecuador is important to better predict the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccination in this country. We studied the prevalence of HPV types in cervical cancerous or precancerous lesions from 164 Ecuadorian women and found that 86.0% were HPV positive. The most common types were HPV16 (41.8%) and HPV58 (30.5%). Interestingly, HPV18 was detected only in 2.8% of the HPV-positive samples. Fifteen DNA sequences (genes E6 and L1) from 16 samples positive for HPV16 belonged to the European lineage, considered one of the least carcinogenic lineages, and 1 (6.25%) to the Asian-American lineage. Similar analysis in 12 HPV58 positive samples showed that 10 (83.3%) sequences grouped in sublineage A2, which belongs to the oldest HPV58 lineage, 1 belonged to A3 and 1 to lineage C. This study suggests that the currently used HPV vaccines (bivalent and tetravalent) may have lower effectiveness in Ecuador than in other geographic locations where HPV18 is more prevalent.

  2. Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

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    Kenneth Ndebele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous estrogens have dramatic and differential effects on classical endocrine organ and proliferation. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as both estrogen agonists and antagonists, but whose effects are not well characterized. In this investigation we sought to delineate effects of xenoestrogens. Using human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens (Coumestrol-a phytoestrogen, tetrachlorodioxin (TCDD-a herbicide and DDT-a pesticide on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. These xenoestrogens and estrogen inhibited the proliferation of Hela cells in a dose dependent manner from 20 to 120 nM suggesting, that 17-β-estrtadiol and xenoestrogens induced cytotoxic effects. Coumestrol produced accumulation of HeLa cells in G2/M phase, and subsequently induced apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in estrogen treated cells. These changes were associated with suppressed bcl-2 protein and augmented Cyclins A and D proteins. DDT and TCDD exposure did not induce apoptosis. These preliminary data taken together, suggest that xenoestrogens have direct, compound-specific effects on HeLa cells. This study further enhances our understanding of environmental modulation of cervical cancer.

  3. CLINICAL IMPACT AND IMPLICATION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV IN CERVICAL CANCER

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    Lilian Pustan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The social and economic evolution of the world’s population in the last years has brought changes also in the prevalence of some diseases. Lately, viral infections have attracted specialists’ interest due to the unexpected complications they cause. Until not so long ago incriminated only for the development of warts, the Human papillomavirus infections have been found also to induce cellular abnormalities, such as the koilocytes, which in their turn indicate low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. According to the latest assessments worldwide, the HPV is responsible for 70% of the cervical cancer cases. The extensive research studies conducted by specialists came to know success when the HPV vaccines were launched on the market. In the summer of 2006, the first vaccine able to stop the expansion of HPV-induced cervical cancer came out, GARDASILTM, produced by Merck and Co., Whitehouse Station, New Jersey. It is a tetravalent vaccine (generates immunity against the oncogenic viral types 16 and 18, and the nononcogenic types 6 and 11. In our drugstores, one can find SILGARD, efficient and safe, providing 5-year protection, but not eradicating the effects of the viral infections acquired prior to vaccination. Apparition of the vaccine does not exclude cytological screening, which remains the most effective way to detect early a potential cancer of the cervix.

  4. Diagnostic tests for the detection of human papillomavirus-associated cervical lesions.

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    Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Current diagnostic approaches for primary cervical cancer screening, work-up of equivocal or positive screening results or follow- up after treatment of precancerous lesions primarily rely on the morphologic interpretation of squamous epithelial cells (Pap cytology), in some setting accompanied by the detection of human papillomavirus DNA and have largely contributed to remarkable reduction of disease incidence in countries with implemented screening programs. However, these approaches are limited by a poor sensitivity and reproducibility of Pap cytology and low specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of HPV DNA detection assays. Early detection might be improved by complementing or even replacing these tests by markers which are more directly related to molecular events triggering HPV-induced carcinogenesis and thereby might deliver more accurate diagnostic performance. The delineation of molecular changes which occur during different stages of HPV infections and the identification of changes which induce neoplastic alterations allow for the detection of markers that specifically highlight the transforming stage of the infection where viral oncogenes are overexpressed and therefore allow for a more specific diagnosis of lesions that require treatment. The evaluation of such markers in clinical studies revealed that some indeed show an improved diagnostic performance compared to Pap cytology or HPV DNA tests only.

  5. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in women with cervical alterations from north Argentina

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    G D Deluca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health problem in northern Argentina, showing the highest mortality rate in the country (approximately 22 cases/100000 women. Objective: The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV in women with pre-neoplastic lesions before the massive introduction of HPV vaccination in the country. Materials and Methods: Exfoliated cervical cells were collected to screen for HPV using the widely known MY09/11 PCR, followed by the restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP technique from a total of 714 women with previously diagnosed atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL. Results: Overall HPV prevalence was 48.2% in ASCUS (24 different HPV types detected, 66.5% in LG-SIL (37 HPV types detected and 82.6% in HG-SIL (16 HPV types detected. HPV-16 was the most prevalent type among all cases. With respect to multiple HPV infections, 9.6% were observed in ASCUS, 14.3% in LG-SIL and 11.4% in HG-SIL. Conclusion: The major strength of our study is the assessment of a large series of women with cytological alterations in this region. The information attained will be useful as a regional baseline for future epidemiological vigilance, in the context of the national HPV vaccination program.

  6. [Presence of high risk human papilomaviruses (HPV) in the low grade cervical lesion].

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    Iljazović, Ermina; Mustadenagić-Mujanović, Jasminka; Karasalihović, Zinaida; Cickusić, E; Avdić, S

    2006-01-01

    Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) and atypical squamous cells undetermined significance (ASCUS) are the most frequent verified cellular abnormalities. Their management are still highly controversial mostly caused by uncertainty about their histology and nature of originate. Detection of HPV DNA in the absence of cytological abnormalities can also indicate presence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of this study was to show the association of the benign cellular changes, ASCUS and LGSIL with oncogenic types of HPV and to prove the necessity of more intensive screening of this group of patients. Cytology and pathomorphology analyses were performed first. Identification of the presence of human papiloma virus was carried out by the Digene Hybride Capture II test for all patients. Identification of different HPV types for the particular number of patients was carried out by RFLP (Rsetriction Fragments Length of Polymorphism). Out of the 101 patients in the first group 92 (91,08%) were HPV positive, and 41, 58% had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. Out of 509 patients of the second group 26.92% were positive for HRHPV, and 78,97% of them had no cellular abnormalities, ASCUS or LGSIL. HPV 16 was detected in 27.36% (ASCUS/LGSIL) of low risk cervical lesion of the first examined period. The combination of smears with the detection of high risk HPV types increases the triage sensitivity especially at patients with mild.

  7. Characterization of metastasis formation and virotherapy in the human C33A cervical cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Donat

    Full Text Available More than 90% of cancer mortalities are due to cancer that has metastasized. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify research on metastasis formation and therapy. Here, we describe for the first time the metastasizing ability of the human cervical cancer cell line C33A in athymic nude mice after subcutaneous implantation of tumor cells. In this model, we demonstrated a steady progression of lumbar and renal lymph node metastases during tumor development. Besides predominantly occurring lymphatic metastases, we visualized the formation of hematogenous metastases utilizing red fluorescent protein (RFP expressing C33A-RFP cells. RFP positive cancer cells were found migrating in blood vessels and forming micrometastases in lungs of tumor-bearing mice. Next, we set out to analyze the influence of oncolytic virotherapy in the C33A-RFP model and demonstrated an efficient virus-mediated reduction of tumor size and metastatic burden. These results suggest the C33A-RFP cervical cancer model as a new platform to analyze cancer metastases as well as to test novel treatment options to combat metastases.

  8. TCT联合HPV检测在宫颈病变筛查中的意义%Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology Combined Human Papillomavirus Testing in Cervical Lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴一菲; 田荣华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the significance of combination of cervical liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus detection in cervical lesion screening. Methods From March 2010 to December 2011,3,028 patients were detected with nipple shaped tumor virus ( HPV) and cervical liquid base cytology (TCT) ,TCT was used by 2001 International Cancer Association TBS diagnosis system report way,to the patients with positive results of TCT check for ASCIIS and the above lesions and (or) HPV detection, cervical organization biopsy under electronic vaginal mirror were performed. Results The sensitivity of TCT check was 56.72% ,with the specificity of 28. 19% ;the sensitivity of HPV check was 86.03% ,with specific for 46.38% ;among 408 cases of CIN and cervical cancer pathology ,28 cases were single TCT positive (6. 86% ) ;with TCT and HPV positive 203 ca-ses(49. 75% ) ,there was significant difference in diagnosis of cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasm ( CIN) and cervical cancer(x2 = 184.926,P=0.000) between single TCT check and combination of TCT and HPV examination. Conclusion TCT combined with HPV check can improve the detection rate of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions, improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening,effectively reduce the TCT in detection of false-negative rates,and avoid excessive colposcopy and biopsy in low-risk populations and over-treatment.%目的 探讨宫颈液基细胞学检查与人乳头状瘤病毒检测联合应用在宫颈病变筛查中的意义.方法 选取2010年3月-2011年12月孝感市中心医院病理科同时进行了宫颈液基细胞学(TCT)检查及人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)检测的患者3028人,TCT采用2001年国际癌症协会TBS诊断系统报告方式,对TCT检查结果为ASCUS及以上病变和(或)HPV检测结果为阳性的患者在电子阴道镜下取宫颈组织活检.结果 TCT检查敏感度为56.72%,特异度为28.19%;HPV检查敏感度为86.03%,特异度为46.38%;病

  9. Cell culture model predicts human disease: Altered expression of junction proteins and matrix metalloproteinases in cervical dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivi Niina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is necessarily caused by human papillomaviruses, which encode three oncogenes manifesting their functions by interfering with a number of cellular proteins and pathways: the E5, E6, and E7 proteins. We have earlier found in our microarray studies that the E5 oncogene crucially affects the expression of cellular genes involved in adhesion and motility of epithelial cells. Methods In order to biologically validate our previous experimental findings we performed immunohistochemical staining of a representative set of tissue samples from different grades of high-risk human papillomavirus associated cervical disease as well as normal squamous and columnar cervical epithelium. Three-dimensional collagen raft cultures established from E5-expressing and control epithelial cells were also examined. The expression of p16, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -7, MMP-16, cytokeratin (CK 8/18, laminin, E-cadherin and beta-catenin was studied. Results In agreement with our previous microarray studies, we found intense staining for E-cadherin and beta-catenin in adherens junctions even in high-grade cervical lesions. Staining for MMP-16 was increased in severe disease as well. No significant change in staining for MMP-7 and cytokeratin 8/18 along with the grade of cervical squamous epithelial disease was observed. Conclusions Here we have confirmed, using tissue material from human papillomavirus associated lesions, some of the cellular gene expression modifications that we earlier reported in an experimental system studying specifically the E5 oncogene of papillomaviruses. These findings were partially surprising in the context of cervical carcinogenesis and emphasize that the complexity of carcinogenesis is not yet fully understood. Microarray approaches provide a wide overwiev of gene expression in experimental settings, which may yield biologically valid biomarkers for disease diagnostics, prognosis, and follow-up.

  10. Recurrent integration of human papillomaviruses 16, 45, and 67 near translocation breakpoints in new cervical cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, L A; Szuhai, K; van Eendenburg, J D; Bezrookove, V; Kenter, G G; Schuuring, E; Tanke, H; Fleuren, G J

    1999-01-01

    Progressive chromosomal changes and integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences mark the development of invasive cervical cancer. Chromosomal localization of HPV integration is essential to the study of genomic regions involved in HPV-induced pathogenesis. Yet, the available information abou

  11. ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE-16 E7 RELATED TO CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL-CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAAY, MFD; DUK, JM; BURGER, MPM; WALBOOMERS, J; TERSCHEGGET, J; GROENIER, KH; DEBRUIJN, HWA; STOLZ, E; HERBRINK, P

    1995-01-01

    Aims-To investigate the correlation between antibodies to the transforming protein E7 of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and clinicopathological indices in women with cervical squamous carcinoma. Methods-A synthetic peptide of the HPV type 16 E7 protein (amino acids 6 to 35) was used to screen se

  12. Antibodies to human papillomavirus type 16 E7 related to clinicopathological data in patients with cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.D. Baay (Marc); J.M. Duk; M.P.M. Burger; J. Walboomers; J. ter Schegget; K.H. Groenier; H.W. de Bruijn; E. Stolz (Ernst); P. Herbrink (Paul)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAIMS--To investigate the correlation between antibodies to the transforming protein E7 of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and clinicopathological indices in women with cervical squamous carcinoma. METHODS--A synthetic peptide of the HPV type 16 E7 protein (amino acid

  13. ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE-16 E7 RELATED TO CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL DATA IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL-CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAAY, MFD; DUK, JM; BURGER, MPM; WALBOOMERS, J; TERSCHEGGET, J; GROENIER, KH; DEBRUIJN, HWA; STOLZ, E; HERBRINK, P

    1995-01-01

    Aims-To investigate the correlation between antibodies to the transforming protein E7 of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and clinicopathological indices in women with cervical squamous carcinoma. Methods-A synthetic peptide of the HPV type 16 E7 protein (amino acids 6 to 35) was used to screen se

  14. Notch1 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells : involvement of nuclear factor kappa B inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, J.; Duan, L.; Fan, M.; Yuan, J.; Wu, X.

    2007-01-01

    Notch signaling can serve as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter in the same kind of cancer, such as human papillomavirus-positive cervical cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Our studies demonstrated that constitutively overexpressed active Notch1 via stable tr

  15. Human papillomavirus type influences the extent of chromosomal lag during mitosis in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; VanLeeuwen, AM; Hollema, H; Quint, WGV; Pieters, WJLM

    1997-01-01

    The level of risk for carcinoma in the uterine cervix depends on the type of human papillomavirus (HPV) present. We examined whether the HPV type influences the proliferation rate and occurrence of mitotic figures with lagging chromosomes in the precursor of cervical carcinoma. The study group compr

  16. Notch1 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells : involvement of nuclear factor kappa B inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, J.; Duan, L.; Fan, M.; Yuan, J.; Wu, X.

    2007-01-01

    Notch signaling can serve as a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter in the same kind of cancer, such as human papillomavirus-positive cervical cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Our studies demonstrated that constitutively overexpressed active Notch1 via stable tr

  17. Human papillomavirus type influences the extent of chromosomal lag during mitosis in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, MPM; VanLeeuwen, AM; Hollema, H; Quint, WGV; Pieters, WJLM

    The level of risk for carcinoma in the uterine cervix depends on the type of human papillomavirus (HPV) present. We examined whether the HPV type influences the proliferation rate and occurrence of mitotic figures with lagging chromosomes in the precursor of cervical carcinoma. The study group

  18. Antibodies to human papillomavirus type 16 E7 related to clinicopathological data in patients with cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.D. Baay (Marc); J.M. Duk; M.P.M. Burger; J. Walboomers; J. ter Schegget; K.H. Groenier; H.W. de Bruijn; E. Stolz (Ernst); P. Herbrink (Paul)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAIMS--To investigate the correlation between antibodies to the transforming protein E7 of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and clinicopathological indices in women with cervical squamous carcinoma. METHODS--A synthetic peptide of the HPV type 16 E7 protein (amino acid

  19. Human Papillomavirus-mediated cervical cancer awareness and Gardasil vaccination: a pilot survey among North Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Saumya; Chandravati

    2013-10-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide, including Indian women. Cervical cancer control and prevention strategies are being adopted in developing nations to reduce the increasing burden of HPV infection in the vaccine era. The present study, therefore, aimed to evaluate cervical cancer awareness and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination in North Indian women. A pilot survey was conducted among 103 women of North Indian ethnicity residing in Lucknow/adjoining areas in state of Uttar Pradesh, during routine screening/clinic visits from June 2012 to December 2012. The study subjects were interviewed in either Hindi or English; subsequently the awareness of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination was assessed in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response". The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was taken from the participants. Overall, the response of participants (n = 103) in our single-centre survey-based pilot study was well-defined. The response regarding HPV-mediated cervical cancer awareness in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response" among the study subjects was 43.7, 44.7 and 11.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, in response to knowledge of HPV vaccine Gardasil, out of 103 subjects, 28.1 % answered "yes" while 37.9 and 34.0 % stated "no" and "no response", respectively. Our pilot survey may help in assessing knowledge of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and Gardasil vaccination awareness in women, and accordingly develop cost-effective cervical cancer control and prevention/public health counseling sessions in a clinical setting.

  20. Reduced rate of human papillomavirus infection and genetic overtransmission of TP53 72C polymorphic variant lower cervical cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsbeih, Ghazi A; Al-Harbi, Najla M; Bin Judia, Sara S; Khoja, Hatim A; Shoukri, Mohamed M; Tulbah, Asma M

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is a predominantly human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven disease worldwide. However, its incidence is unexplainably low in western Asia, including Saudi Arabia. Using this paradigm, we investigated the role of HPV infection rate and host genetic predisposition in TP53 G72C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) presumed to affect cancer incidence. Patients treated between 1990 and 2012 were reviewed, and a series of 232 invasive cervical cancer cases were studied and compared with 313 matched controls without cancer. SNP was genotyped by way of direct sequencing. HPV linear array analysis was used to detect and genotype HPV in tumor samples. The incidence of cervical cancer revealed bimodal peaks at 42.5 years, with a slighter rebound at 60.8 years. Among all cases, 77% were HPV-positive and 16 HPV genotypes were detected-mostly genotypes 16 (75%) and 18 (9%)-with no difference by age, histology, or geographical region. Although the TP53 G72C genotype was not associated with overall cervical cancer risk, it was significantly associated with HPV positivity (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.90; P = .016). Furthermore, the variant C allele was significantly overtransmitted in the population (P Cervical cancer incidence displays bimodal curve peaking at a young age with secondary rebound at older age. The combination of relative low HPV infection and variant TP53 72C allele overtransmission provide a plausible explanation for the low incidence of cervical cancer in our population. Therefore, HPV screening and host SNP genotyping may provide more relevant biomarkers to gauge the risk of developing cervical cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2459-66. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  1. Cervical Spine Muscle-Tendon Unit Length Differences Between Neutral and Forward Head Postures: Biomechanical Study Using Human Cadaveric Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh, Saeed; Kalmanson, Olivia A; Schuit, Dale; Havey, Robert M; Voronov, Leonard I; Ghanayem, Alexander J; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2017-07-01

    Forward head posture (FHP) may be associated with neck pain and poor health-related quality of life. Literature describes only qualitative muscle length changes associated with FHP. The purpose of this study was to quantify how muscle-tendon unit lengths are altered when human cadaveric specimens are placed in alignments representing different severities of FHP. This biomechanical study used 13 fresh-frozen cadaveric cervical spine specimens (Occiput-T1, 54±15 y). Specimens' postural changes simulating increasing FHP severity while maintaining horizontal gaze were assessed. Specimen-specific anatomic models derived from computed tomography-based anatomic data were combined with postural data and specimen-specific anatomy of muscle attachment points to estimate the muscle length changes associated with FHP. Forward head posture was associated with flexion of the mid-lower cervical spine and extension of the upper cervical (sub-occipital) spine. Muscles that insert on the cervical spine and function as flexors (termed "cervical flexors") as well as muscles that insert on the cranium and function as extensors ("occipital extensors") shortened in FHP when compared to neutral posture. In contrast, muscles that insert on the cervical spine and function as extensors ("cervical extensors") as well as muscles that insert on the cranium and function as flexors ("occipital flexors") lengthened. The greatest shortening was seen in the major and minor rectus capitis posterior muscles. These muscles cross the Occiput-C2 segments, which exhibited extension to maintain horizontal gaze. The greatest lengthening was seen in posterior muscles crossing the C4-C6 segments, which exhibited the most flexion. This cadaver study did not incorporate the biomechanical influence of active musculature. This study offers a novel way to quantify postural alignment and muscle length changes associated with FHP. Model predictions are consistent with qualitative descriptions in the literature.

  2. Viral DNA load of high-risk human papilloma virus is closely associated with the grade of cervical lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Guqun; Cheng, Jingxin; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    This study is to explore the correlation between the viral load of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and the degree of cervical lesions, as well as the follow-up monitoring role of high-risk HPV measurements in the treatment of patients with cervical lesions. Hybrid capture-2 method was used to measure the amount of high-risk HPV load of 361 patients who were enrolled from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, including 76 cases of ...

  3. Parity as a cofactor for high-grade cervical disease among women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Schmiedel, S; Norrild, B

    2013-01-01

    human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.METHODS:A population-based cohort of women participated in a personal interview and underwent a gynaecological examination at which cervical specimens were obtained for HPV DNA testing. Follow-up information (~13 years) on cervical lesions was obtained from...... a decreased risk for CIN3+ with any use of oral contraceptives (HR=0.54; 95% CI: 0.29-1.00).CONCLUSION:Childbirth increases the risk for subsequent CIN3+ among women with persistent HPV infection.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.513 www.bjcancer.com....

  4. TMEM16A mediates the hypersecretion of mucus induced by Interleukin-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiachen; Jiang, Youfan; Li, Li; Liu, Yanan; Tang, Hui; Jiang, Depeng, E-mail: depengjiang@163.com

    2015-06-10

    Previous studies showed that the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel (CaCC) was involved in the pathogenesis of mucus hypersecretion induced by Interleukin-13 (IL-13). However, the mechanisms underlying the process were unknown. Recently, transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was identified as the channel underlying the CaCC current. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the TMEM16A channel is part of the mechanism underlying IL-13-induced mucus hypersecretion. We observed that both TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated after treatment with IL-13 in human bronchial epithelial 16 (HBE 16) cells, which correlated with an increase in mucus production. Additionally, mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intratracheal instillation of IL-13 and similar increases were observed in the expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in the bronchial epithelium. Niflumic acid (NA), a selective antagonist of CaCC, markedly blocked IL-13-induced mucin (MUC) 5AC mRNA and protein production in vivo and in vitro. Further investigation with HBE16 cells revealed that TMEM16A overexpression clearly promoted mucus production, IκBα phosphorylation, and p65 accumulation in the nucleus. The loss of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of mucus production, and the TMEM16A-mediated production of MUC5AC was significantly blocked by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor. Therefore, the TMEM16A channel acts upstream of NF-κB in the regulation of mucus production. This is the first demonstration that the TMEM16A-NF-κB pathway is positively involved in IL-13-induced mucus production, which provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism of mucin overproduction. - Highlights: • TMEM16A acts as downstream events of IL-13 signaling pathway. • Established the link between TMEM16A and mucus hypersecretion. • NF-κB activation might be responsible for TMEM16A mediated mucus secretion.

  5. Physical state & copy number of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in progression of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV infection and its integration in host genome is a key event in malignant transformation of cervical cells. HPV16 being a dominant HR-HPV type, we undertook this study to analyze if viral load and physical state of the virus correlated with each other in the absence of other confounding variables and examined their potential as predictors of progressive cervical lesions. Methods: Both, viral load and integration status of HPV16 were determined by real time URR PCR and estimation of E2:E6 ratio in a total of 130 PGMY-RLB -confirmed, monotypic HPV16-infected cervical DNA samples from biopsies of cytology-confirmed low grade (LSIL, 30 and high grade (HSIL, 30, and invasive carcinoma, (squamous cell carcinoma SCC, 70 cases. Results: Investigation of DNA samples revealed a gradual increase in HPV16 viral load over several magnitudes and increased frequency of integration from LSIL to HSIL and HSIL to invasive cancer in relation to the severity of lesions in monotypic HPV16-infected cervical tissues. In a substantial number of precancer (11/60 and cancer cases (29/70, HPV16 was detected in concomitant mixed form. The concomitant form of HPV16 genome carried significantly higher viral load. Interpretation & conclusions: Overall, viral load and integration increased with disease severity and could be useful biomarkers in disease progression, at least, in HPV16-infected cervical pre-cancer and cancer lesions.

  6. Processing of long-stored archival cervical smears for human papillomavirus detection by the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roda Husman, A M; Snijders, P J; Stel, H V; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Walboomers, J M

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of a freeze-thaw method, a proteinase K/Tween 20 lysis method and a guanidinium isothiocyanate/silica beads method for DNA extraction from fixed and Papanicolaou-stained cells from the cervical cancer cell line Siha was measured by beta-globin polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The GTC/silica beads method, which appeared superior, revealed a human papillomavirus (HPV) general primer-mediated PCR sensitivity of 50-500 copies of HPV 16 per sample using dilutions of fixed and stained Siha cells. Application to archival cervical smears (n = 116) revealed that the yield and size of amplifiable DNA decreases with storage time. The longer the storage time, the more repetitions of the whole procedure, including the lysis step, were required to extract sufficient amplifiable DNA. In this way, an overall beta-globin PCR positivity for 98% of the smears was reached. Further analysis revealed that a maximum size of 200 bp could be amplified from smears stored for up to 9 years. The method was validated by demonstrating by PCR the same HPV types in archival smears and corresponding cervical biopsies of cervical cancer patients. In conclusion, the GTC/silica beads method appears suitable to process archival cervical smears for HPV detection by PCR. provided that stepwise adjustments are made until beta-globin PCR positivity is obtained and primers are chosen which amplify a maximum of about 200 bp.

  7. The vaginal microbiota, human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: what do we know and where are we going next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anita; MacIntyre, David A; Marchesi, Julian R; Lee, Yun S; Bennett, Phillip R; Kyrgiou, Maria

    2016-11-01

    The vaginal microbiota plays a significant role in health and disease of the female reproductive tract. Next-generation sequencing techniques based upon the analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes permit in-depth study of vaginal microbial community structure to a level of detail not possible with standard culture-based microbiological techniques. The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes both cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Although the virus is highly prevalent, only a small number of women have a persistent HPV infection and subsequently develop clinically significant disease. There is emerging evidence which leads us to conclude that increased diversity of vaginal microbiota combined with reduced relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. is involved in HPV acquisition and persistence and the development of cervical precancer and cancer. In this review, we summarise the current literature and discuss potential mechanisms for the involvement of vaginal microbiota in the evolution of CIN and cervical cancer. The concept of manipulation of vaginal bacterial communities using pre- and probiotics is also discussed as an exciting prospect for the field of cervical pathology.

  8. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Copper Oxide Nanorods Against Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Nagajyothi, P C; Shim, Jaesool; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles have been widely investigated for its use in the pharmacological field. The present study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of copper oxide nanorods in human cervical carcinoma cells. The effect of copper oxide nanorods on cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay. The fluorescence and confocal microscopy analyzes showed the cell rounding and nuclear fragmentation following exposure of copper oxide nanorods. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased and could initiate membrane lipid peroxidation, which in turn regulate cytokinetic movements of cells. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of p53 and caspase 3 was increased, which further confirms the occurrence of apoptosis at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, caspase-3 enzyme activity was increased, which also confirms the occurrence of apoptosis in tumor cells at the translational level. Taking all our experimental results together, it may suggest that the copper oxide nanorods could be a potential anti-tumor agent to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

  9. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for staining human cervical cancer cells and DNA binding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Swati; Kundu, Rikta; Ghorai, Atanu; Mandal, Ranju Prasad; Ghosh, Utpal

    2014-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been functionalized by non-ionic surfactants (polysorbates) used in pharmaceutical formulations. This results in the formation of more well-dispersed gold nanoparticles (GNPs) than the GNPs formed in neat water. The synthesized GNPs show good temporal stability. The synthesis conditions are mild and environmentally benign. The GNPs can bind to ct-DNA and displace bound dye molecules. The DNA-binding assay is significant as it preliminarily indicated that DNA-GNP conjugates can be formed. Such conjugates are extremely promising for applications in nanobiotechnology. The GNPs can also stain the human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells over a wide concentration range while remaining non-cytotoxic, thus providing a non invasive cell staining method. This result is very promising as we observe staining of HeLa cells at very low GNP concentrations (1 μM) while the cell viability is retained even at 10-fold higher GNP concentrations.

  10. Emerging of fractal geometry on surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokukin, M. E.; Guz, N. V.; Woodworth, C.D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation. PMID:25844044

  11. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  12. Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals and coral mucus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Balasubramanian, R.

    Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals, fresh coral mucus and floating and attached mucus detritus from the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea was studied. Corallochytrium limacisporum Raghukumar, Thraustochytrium motivum Goldstein...

  13. The clearance of oral high-risk human papillomavirus infection is impaired by long-term persistence of cervical human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvanto, K; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Grénman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2014-11-01

    Persistence of high-risk (HR-) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the uterine cervix increases the risk of cervical cancer. Oral HPV infections are among potential covariates of long-term genotype-specific persistent cervical HR-HPV infections. It is not known whether this persistence reflects inability of the host to reject HPV infections in general. A case-control setting was designed to estimate the covariates of long-term persistent cervical HR-HPV infections using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. HPV was detected with PCR using GP05+/GP06+-primers and genotyped for 24 HPVs with a Multimetrix-kit. The cases (n=43) included women who had genotype-specific persistent cervical HR-HPV infection for at least 24 months (24M+) and controls were women who tested repeatedly HPV-negative in their cervical samples (n=52). These women represent a sub-cohort of the Finnish Family HPV Study. The cases differed significantly from the HPV-negative controls in several aspects: they were younger, had a longer mean time to incident oral HPV infection (40.7 versus 23.6 months), longer duration of oral HPV persistence (38.4 versus 14.1 months), and longer time to clearance of their oral HPV infection (50.0 versus 28.2 months). In multivariate GEE analysis, the second pregnancy during the follow up was the only independent predictor with significant protective effect against 24M+ persistent cervical HR-HPV infections, OR of 0.15 (95% CI 0.07-0.34). To conclude, long-term persistent cervical HR-HPV infections are associated with a prolonged clearance of oral HR-HPV infections while new pregnancy protects against persistent cervical HR-HPV infections. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND THE 3-GROUP METAPHASE FIGURE AS MARKERS OF AN INCREASED RISK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CERVICAL-CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CLAAS, ECJ; QUINT, WGV; PIETERS, WJLM; BURGER, MPM; OOSTERHUIS, WJW; LINDEMAN, J

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the presence of atypical mitotic figures and human papilloma virus (HPV) genomes was related to the degree of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or microinvasive carcinoma (MIC) as found in 94 paraffin-embedded biopsies from cervical lesions. The results showed that the frequenc

  15. A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján; Iversen, Ole-Erik;

    2009-01-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to provide protection from HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease through 3 years. We provide an update on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions bas...

  16. Effects of Curcumin on Invasion and Metastasis in the Human Cervical Cancer Cells Caski

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang XU; Xiao-ling MU; Jing ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of curcumin on invasion and metastasis in the human cervical cancer cells Caski.Methods: Caski cells were treated with 10, 25, 50μmol/L curcumin for 24, 48, 72 h. Proliferation of Caski cells was measured with MTT assay. When treated with 50μmol/L curcumin for 72 h, the expressions of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB of cells were detected by Western-blot, and invasion and metastasis of Caski cells were evaluated with transwell chamber.Results: After being treated with 10μmol/L, 25μmol/L, 50μmol/L curcumin for 24, 48 and 72 h, the proliferation of Caski cells was inhibited in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB were decreased when being treated with 50μmol/L curcumin for 72 h. After treatment with 50μmol/L curcumin, in invasion assay, the number of cells in curcumin treated group to migrate to filter coated with Matrigel was reduced compared with control group(P<0.05). Meanwhile, in migration assay, the number of cells in curcumin treated group to migrate to filter was also decreased compared with control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: Curcumin could affect the invasion and metastasis of the human cervical cancer cells Caski. Inhibiting the expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB was probably one of its molecular mechanisms.

  17. Human and feline invasive cervical resorptions: the missing link?--Presentation of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Thomas; Schawalder, Peter; Ackermann, Mathias; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2009-06-01

    This report describes 4 patients presenting with multiple teeth affected by invasive cervical resorption (ICR). The cases came to our attention between 2006 and 2008; previously, no cases of multiple ICR (mICR) had been reported in Switzerland. Characteristics common to all 4 cases included progression of disease over time, similar clinical and radiographic appearance of lesions, and obscure etiology. The histologically assessed teeth showed a similar pattern of tooth destruction, with resorptive lesions being confined to the cervical region. Howship's lacunae and multinucleated, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive odontoclasts were detected. None of the teeth presented with internal resorption. The positive pulp sensitivity corresponded to the histologic findings, indicating that the pulp tissue resisted degradation even in advanced stages of resorptive lesions. Although mICR is rare in humans, a similar disease known as feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL) is common in domestic, captive, and wild cats. The etiology of FORL, like that of mICR, remains largely unknown. Because FORL has been associated with feline viruses, we asked our mICR patients whether they had had contact with cats, and interestingly, all patients reported having had direct (2 cases) or indirect (2 cases) contact. In addition, blood samples were taken from all patients for neutralization testing of feline herpes virus type 1 (FeHV-1). Indeed, the sera obtained were able to neutralize (2 cases) or partly inhibit (2 cases) replication of FeHV-1, indicating transmission of feline viruses to humans. Future studies on mICR (and FORL) should evaluate the possible role of a (feline) virus as an etiologic (co-)factor in this disease.

  18. FURTHER DETAILS ON SEQUELAE AT THE CERVICAL AND TUBAL LEVEL OF CHLAMYDIA-TRACHOMATIS INFECTION IN INFERTILE WOMEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RUIJS, GJ; KAUER, FM; JAGER, S; SCHRODER, FP; SCHIRM, J; KREMER, J

    Objective: Relationships were studied between correlates of sexually transmitted diseases and chlamydial antibodies versus cervical mucus abnormalities and tubal abnormalities. An estimate was also attempted of the baseline prevalence of endogenous tubal abnormalities. Design: Prospective,

  19. In vitro platinum drug chemosensitivity of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma cell lines with intrinsic and acquired resistance to cisplatin.

    OpenAIRE

    Mellish, K. J.; Kelland, L R; Harrap, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    The platinum drug chemosensitivity of five human cervical squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HX/151, HX/155, HX/156, HX/160 and HX/171) derived from previously untreated patients has been determined. Compared to our data obtained previously using human ovarian carcinoma cell lines, all five lines were relatively resistant to cisplatin, carboplatin, iproplatin and tetraplatin. One of the lines (HX/156) was exceptionally sensitive to the novel platinum (IV) ammine/amine dicarboxylates JM216 [b...

  20. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Cervical Cap KidsHealth > For Teens > Cervical Cap Print A A ... and a female's egg. How Does a Cervical Cap Work? The cervical cap keeps sperm from entering ...

  1. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 vaccination on prevalent infections and rates of cervical lesions after excisional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula; Kreimer, Aimee R; Wacholder, Sholom; Schussler, John; Rodriguez, Ana C; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Sidawy, Mary; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Herrero, Rolando

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus vaccines prevent human papillomavirus infection and cervical precancers. The impact of vaccinating women with a current infection or after treatment for an human papillomavirus-associated lesion is not fully understood. To determine whether human papillomavirus-16/18 vaccination influences the outcome of infections present at vaccination and the rate of infection and disease after treatment of lesions. We included 1711 women (18-25 years) with carcinogenic human papillomavirus infection and 311 women of similar age who underwent treatment for cervical precancer and who participated in a community-based trial of the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus-16/18 virus-like particle vaccine. Participants were randomized (human papillomavirus or hepatitis A vaccine) and offered 3 vaccinations over 6 months. Follow-up included annual visits (more frequently if clinically indicated), referral to colposcopy of high-grade and persistent low-grade lesions, treatment by loop electrosurgical excisional procedure when clinically indicated, and cytologic and virologic follow-up after treatment. Among women with human papillomavirus infection at the time of vaccination, we considered type-specific viral clearance, and development of cytologic (squamous intraepithelial lesions) and histologic (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) lesions. Among treated women, we considered single-time and persistent human papillomavirus infection, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater. Outcomes associated with infections absent before treatment also were evaluated. Infection-level analyses were performed and vaccine efficacy estimated. Median follow-up was 56.7 months (women with human papillomavirus infection) and 27.3 months (treated women). There was no evidence of vaccine efficacy to increase clearance of human papillomavirus infections or decrease incidence of cytologic/histologic abnormalities associated with human

  2. Conjunctival mucus ferning in hypovitaminosis A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocular ferning test was used to qualitatively assess mucus function in early stages of xerophthalmia. The results indicate that inspite of histological evidence of loss of goblet cells in the early stages, mucous function and production is sufficient to produce ferning. It is suggested that such derangements in mucous ferning may occur in more advanced stages of xerophthalmia.

  3. Trace minerals profile of blood serum and estrual mucus in repeat breeder Kankrej cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N F Chaudhari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with an idea to ascertain involvement of trace minerals in failure of conception in Knakrej cow. Materials and Methods: The animals under study were comprised of 10 normal (Group-I and 20 repeat breeder (Group-II Kankrej cows. Blood samples of each repeat breeding and normally cycling cows was collected before Artificial insemination. The mucus samples were collected aseptically before breeding. The cervical mucus was diluted with triple glass distilled water at the rate of 1: 3 using vertex machine. The diluted mucus and serum was used for the trace minerals estimation. Results: The values observed for copper, iron, zinc and manganese in blood serum of normal and repeat breeding animals was 2.27 ± 0.05 vs 0.87 ± 0.02, 1.41 ± 0.02 vs 0.65 ± 0.01, 1.94 ± 0.01 vs 1.78 ± 0.02 and 0.43 ± 0.02 vs 0.18 ± 0.01 ppm, respectively and in estrual mucus it was 1.37 ± 0.10 vs 0.44 ± 0.06, 0.74 ± 0.07 vs 0.33 ± 0.05, 1.47 ± 0.10 vs 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.29 ± 0.04 vs 0.23 ± 0.03 ppm, respectively. All the values in blood serum and estrual mucus were significantly (p<0.01 higher in normal than repeat breeder cows except manganese in estrual mucus, which was non significantly higher in normal as compared to repeat breeder Kankrej cows. Conclusion: All trace minerals was higher in blood serum of normal animals as compared to repeat breeder. In estrual mucus except manganese, all trace minerals was higher in normal cows than repeat breeder. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 143-146

  4. Age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by grade of cervical cytology in Tibetan women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qiong; SHEN Keng; LI Hui; ZHOU Xian-rong; HUANG Hui-fang; LENG Jin-hua

    2010-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is believed to be the most common sexually transmitted infection. However,little is known about the prevalence and distribution of HPV types in China. We aimed to assess the prevalence and the distribution of HPV types as well as risks for abnormal cervical cytology in women who reside in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed involving a sample of 3036 women. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection. Statistical analysis included chi-square and Logistic regression model.Results In this population, 3.66% (111/3036) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS),1.45% (44/3036) low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 1.09% (33/3036) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Tibetan women (5.74%, 137/2387) exhibited lower abnormal cytology rates than non-Tibetan women (8.01%, 52/649, P=0.03). The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 9.19% (279/3036). We failed to identify any differences in HPV prevalence by age. In the groups with normal, ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL, the overall HPV prevalences were 7.41% (211/2847), 24.32% (27/111), 56.82% (25/44) and 45.45% (15/33), respectively. HPV 16 (1.52%,46/3036) was the most common type, and was also the most prevalent in women with ASCUS (8.11%, 9/111) and HSIL (15.15%, 5/33). The most common HPV type for Tibetan women was HPV 16 (1.42%, 34/2387), whereas for non-Tibetan individuals it was HPV 33 (2.31%, 15/649). Of the 279 HPV-infected women, 40 individuals (14.34%) presented with multiple HPV positivity. Women who had two pregnancies were more likely to have abnormal cytology smear (OR=1.67;95% CI: 1.07-2.61).Conclusions A low prevalence of HPV positivity was observed in women who reside in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. The prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology and HPV type distributions were

  5. Doxycycline Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion of Human Cervical Carcinoma Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binlie Yang

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are proposed to be responsible for high recurrence rate in cervical carcinoma. Reagents that can suppress the proliferation and differentiation of CSCs would provide new opportunities to fight against tumor recurrence. Doxycycline has been reported as a potential anti-cancer compound. However, few studies investigated its inhibitory effect against cervical cancer stem cells.HeLa cells were cultured in cancer stem cell conditional media in a poly-hema-treated dish. In this non-adhesive culture system, HeLa cells were treated with cisplatin until some cells survived and formed spheroids, which were then collected and injected into the immunodeficient mice. Cisplatin was administered every three days for five times. The tumor xenografts with CSC enrichment were cultured in cancer stem cell specific medium again to form tumorsphere, which we called HeLa-CSCs. Expression of cancer stem cell markers in HeLa-CSCs was measured by flow cytometry and qPCR. HeLa-CSCs were then treated with doxycycline. Proliferation and differentiation rates were determined by the size of spheres formed in vitro and tumor formed in vivo.We developed a new strategy to selectively enrich CSCs from human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa, and these HeLa-CSCs are CD133+/CD49f+ cell populations with significantly enhanced expression of stem cell markers. When these HeLa-CSCs were treated with doxycycline, the colony formation, proliferation, migration and invasion, and differentiation were all suppressed. Meanwhile, stem cell markers SOX-2, OCT-4, NANOG, NOTCH and BMI-1 decreased in doxycycline treated cells, so as the surface markers CD133 and CD49f. Furthermore, proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA were also decreased by doxycycline treatment in the in vivo xenograft mouse model.Cancer stem cells are enriched from sphere-forming and chemoresistant HeLa-derived tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Doxycycline inhibits proliferation, invasion, and

  6. Human papillomavirus infection in women with and without cervical cancer in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Follen Michele

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised that the proportion of cervical cancer preventable by human papillomavirus (HPV 16/18 vaccines might be lower in sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere. Method In order to study the relative carcinogenicity of HPV types in Nigeria, as well as to estimate the vaccine-preventable proportion of invasive cervical cancer (ICC in the country, we compared HPV type prevalence among 932 women from the general population of Ibadan, Nigeria, with that among a series of 75 ICC cases diagnosed in the same city. For all samples, a GP5+/6+ PCR based assay was used for the detection of 44 genital HPV types. Results In the general population, 245 (26.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 23.5% - 29.2% women were HPV-positive, among whom the prevalence of HPV35 and HPV16 were equally frequent (12.2%, 95% CI 8.4% - 17.0%. In ICC, however, HPV16 predominated strongly (67.6% of 68 HPV-positive cases, with the next most common types being 18 (10.3%, 95% CI 4.2% - 20.1%, 35, 45 and 56 (each 5.9%, 95% CI 1.6% - 14.4%. Comparing among HPV-positive women only, HPV16 and 18 were over-represented in ICC versus the general population (prevalence ratios 5.52, 95% CI 3.7 - 8.3 and 1.4, 95% CI 0.6 - 3.3, respectively. Other high-risk HPV types, as well as low-risk and multiple HPV infections were less common in HPV-positive women with ICC than from the general population. Conclusions Our study confirms that in Nigeria, as elsewhere, women infected with HPV16 and 18 are at higher risk of developing ICC than those infected with other high-risk types, and that current HPV16/18 vaccines have enormous potential to reduce cervical cancer in the region.

  7. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in the cervical cancer screening population of Czech women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Tachezy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVtypes has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. METHODS: Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2 and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB. RESULTS: Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393 of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393 by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393 by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%. HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.

  8. Ski protein levels increase during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi; Pirisi, Lucia [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Creek, Kim E., E-mail: creekk@sccp.sc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We compared the levels of the Ski oncoprotein, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling, in normal human keratinocytes (HKc), HPV16 immortalized HKc (HKc/HPV16), and differentiation resistant HKc/HPV16 (HKc/DR) in the absence and presence of TGF-β. Steady-state Ski protein levels increased in HKc/HPV16 and even further in HKc/DR, compared to HKc. TGF-β treatment of HKc, HKc/HPV16, and HKc/DR dramatically decreased Ski. TGF-β-induced Ski degradation was delayed in HKc/DR. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent with maximal Ski expression and localization to centrosomes and mitotic spindles during G2/M. ShRNA knock down of Ski in HKc/DR inhibited cell proliferation. More intense nuclear and cytoplasmic Ski staining and altered Ski localization were found in cervical cancer samples compared to adjacent normal tissue in a cervical cancer tissue array. Overall, these studies demonstrate altered Ski protein levels, degradation and localization in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • Ski oncoprotein levels increase during progression of HPV16-transformed cells. • Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent. • Ski knock-down in HPV16-transformed keratinocytes inhibited cell proliferation. • Cervical cancer samples overexpress Ski.

  9. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  10. Effect of HIV Infection on Human Papillomavirus Types Causing Invasive Cervical Cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Gary M; de Vuyst, Hugo; Tenet, Vanessa; Plummer, Martyn; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    HIV infection is known to worsen the outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may do so differentially by HPV type. Twenty-one studies were included in a meta-analysis of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) among women infected with HIV in Africa. Type-specific HPV DNA prevalence was compared with data from a similar meta-analysis of HIV-negative ICC using prevalence ratios (PR). HPV detection was similar in 770 HIV-positive (91.2%) and 3846 HIV-negative (89.6%) ICC, but HIV-positive ICC harbored significantly more multiple HPV infections (PR = 1.75, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18 to 2.58), which were significantly more prevalent in ICC tested from cells than from biopsies. HPV16 was the most frequently detected type in HIV-positive ICC (42.5%), followed by HPV18 (22.2%), HPV45 (14.4%), and HPV35 (7.1%). Nevertheless, HIV-positive ICC were significantly less frequently infected with HPV16 than HIV-negative ICC (PR = 0.88, 95% confidence intervals: 0.79 to 0.99). Other high-risk types were significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive ICC, but only for HPV18 was there a significantly higher prevalence of both single and multiple infections in HIV-positive ICC. Increases for other high-risk types were primarily accounted for by multiple infections. The proportion of HPV-positive ICC estimated attributable to HPV16/18 (71.8% in HIV positive, 73.4% in HIV negative) or HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 (88.8%, 89.5%) was not affected by HIV. HIV alters the relative carcinogenicity of HPV types, but prophylactic HPV16/18 vaccines may nevertheless prevent a similar proportion of ICC, irrespective of HIV infection.

  11. Cervical Infection of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Huang, Ke; Ji, Pei Li; Song, Lei; Liu, Hong Tu

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical infections in Beijing, China, and to investigate the odds ratio (OR) of HPV single and multiple infections in abnormal cytology. A total of 19,018 specimens from outpatients in the department of obstetric and gynecology were collected. They were detected using high-risk HPV genotyping real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit and analyzed by ThinPrep cytology test for cervical pathological diagnosis. HPV prevalence, age-specific prevalence, and OR of each type of HPV in abnormal cytology were analyzed. Overall, 19.1% (3,623/19,018) of the individuals were positive for HPV infection, 14.9% (2,833/19,018) were positive for a single HPV type, and 4.2% (790/19,018) were positive for multiple types. Among the 3,623 HPV-positive individuals, the most predominant HPV types were HPV52 (4.4%, 834/19,018), HPV16 (3.7%, 710/19,018), and HPV58 (3.4%, 644/19,018). The OR of multiple infections and single infection differed significantly among disease severities. The OR of dual infection was higher than that of each of the two single infection types, respectively. HPV prevalence in the outpatients was 19.1%, and the most predominant HPV types in the study were HPV52, HPV16, and HPV58. Women with multiple infectionswere more likely to have abnormal cytology. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  12. Cervical Infection of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; HUANG Ke; JI Pei Li; SONG Lei; LIU Hong Tu

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to determine the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical infections in Beijing, China, and to investigate the odds ratio (OR) of HPV single and multiple infections in abnormal cytology. MethodsA total of 19,018 specimens from outpatients in thedepartment ofobstetric andgynecology were collected. They were detected usinghigh-risk HPV genotyping real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit and analyzed by ThinPrep cytology test for cervical pathological diagnosis. HPV prevalence, age-specific prevalence, andOR of each type of HPV in abnormal cytology were analyzed. ResultsOverall, 19.1% (3,623/19,018) of the individuals were positive for HPV infection, 14.9%(2,833/19,018) were positive for a single HPV type, and 4.2% (790/19,018) were positive for multiple types. Among the 3,623 HPV-positive individuals, the most predominant HPV types were HPV52 (4.4%, 834/19,018), HPV16 (3.7%, 710/19,018), and HPV58 (3.4%, 644/19,018). TheOR of multiple infections and single infection differed significantly among disease severities. TheOR of dual infection was higher than that of each of the two single infection types, respectively. ConclusionHPV prevalence in the outpatients was 19.1%, and the most predominant HPV types in the study were HPV52, HPV16, and HPV58. Women with multiple infectionswere more likely to have abnormal cytology.

  13. A spectral phenotype of oncogenic human papillomavirus-infected exfoliative cervical cytology distinguishes women based on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jemma G; Cheung, Karen T; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John J; Prendiville, Walter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Martin, Francis L

    2010-08-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually-transmitted infection associated with cervical cancer. Of over 100 HPV types identified, 13 are high-risk oncogenic. In unvaccinated women worldwide, the incidence of cervical cancer from HPV16 and HPV18 will remain. Cervical cytology can be graded from normal (atypia-free) to low-grade to high-grade. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive technique that allows the acquisition of a biochemical-cell fingerprint based on vibrational states of chemical bonds. Exfoliative cervical cytology specimens (n=147) were retrieved, graded by a cytologist and HPV-tested/genotyped using hybrid capture 2 and the Roche HPV Linear Array. Additionally, the spectral signatures of cervical cell lines C33A, HeLa and SiHa were examined. After washing, cellular material was transferred to low-E glass slides and interrogated using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Given the complex nature of the dataset consisting of thousands of variables (wavenumbers), we used multivariate analysis for data reduction and information retrieval. Principal component analysis coupled with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) generated a visual representation of the data (scores plot) and, identification of the wavenumbers and consequent biochemical entities responsible for segregation (loadings plot). Immortalised cell lines were readily distinguishable from each other. It was difficult to segregate categories of cytology associated with HPV infection types. However, in low-grade cytology infected with high-risk oncogenic HPV16 or HPV18, it was possible to segregate women based on whether they were aged 20-29years vs. 30-39years. Our findings suggest a spectral phenotype in exfoliative cervical cytology associated with transient vs. persistent HPV infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human papillomavirus types distribution in eastern Sicilian females with cervical lesions. A correlation with colposcopic and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Maria; Giuffrè, Giuseppe; Caruso, Carmela; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Alibrandi, Angela; Scalisi, Rosalba; Simone, Angela; Chiofalo, Benito; Triolo, Onofrio

    2013-07-01

    To determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical lesions in a Southern Italian female population in Messina and their relationship between HPV type and grade of colposcopic and histopathological abnormality, a total of 253 women aged 17-68 years, with previous cytological abnormalities, were included in this study. HPV-DNA testing, colposcopy and biopsy were performed. For each sample, cervical cells were collected by centrifugation and DNA was extracted, followed by a PCR-based HPV-DNA assay and reverse dot blot genotyping. HPV-16 was found the most common type (46.6 %) followed by HPV-31 (26.9 %), -6 (18.6 %), -58 (8.8 %), -18 (6.7 %), -66 (5.7 %), -52 and -53 (4.7 %). Out of 62 women with abnormal transformation zone (ATZ) area compatible with squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) or cervical cancer (CC), 64.5 % was found high risk (HR) HPV-positive. Moreover the severity of the colposcopic diagnosis was positively correlated with the higher HPV oncogenicity risk (HPV-16 P = 0.023; and HPV-53 P = 0.047). The HPV-16 was found the most prevalent type within each histological category: 66.7 %, 31.2 %, 44 % and 37.2 % of CC, high grade (H)SIL, low grade (L)SIL and chronic cervicitis respectively; followed by HPV-31 present in 25 %, 8 %, and 13.3 % of HSIL, LSIL and chronic cervicitis respectively. A higher HPV incidence than the rest of Italy was found, in agreement with that detected by other authors for the South of the country. These data provide further information about the types prevalence in women with cervical lesions living in Eastern Sicily, suggesting the introduction of new targeted vaccines against a wider spectrum of HPV.

  15. Cross-talk between Human Papillomavirus Oncoproteins and Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Promotes Stemness in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, Kanchan; Mahata, Sutapa; Tyagi, Abhishek; Pandey, Arvind; Verma, Gaurav; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Tejveer; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Bharti, Alok C

    2016-09-28

    Viral oncoproteins E6/E7 play key oncogenic role in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis in conjunction with aberrant activation of cellular signaling events. GLI-signaling has been implicated in metastasis and tumor recurrence of cervical cancer. However, the interaction of GLI-signaling with HPV oncogenes is unknown. We examined this relationship in established HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines using specific GLI inhibitor, cyclopamine and HPVE6/E7 siRNAs. Cervical cancer cell lines showed variable expression of GLI-signaling components. HPV16-positive SiHa cells, overexpressed GLI1, Smo and Patch. Inhibition by cyclopamine resulted in dose-dependent reduction of Smo and GLI1 and loss of cell viability with a higher magnitude in HPV-positive cells. Cyclopamine selectively downregulated HPVE6 expression and resulted in p53 accumulation, whereas HPVE7 and pRb level remained unaffected. siRNA-mediated silencing of HPV16E6 demonstrated reduced GLI1 transcripts in SiHa cells. Cervical cancer stem-like cells isolated by side population analysis, displayed retention of E6 and GLI1 expression. Fraction of SP cells was reduced in cyclopamine-treated cultures. When combined with E6-silencing cyclopamine resulted in loss of SP cell's sphere-forming ability. Co-inhibition of GLI1 and E6 in cervical cancer cells showed additive anti-cancer effects. Overall, our data show existence of a cooperative interaction between GLI signaling and HPVE6.

  16. Cross-talk between Human Papillomavirus Oncoproteins and Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Promotes Stemness in Cervical Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, Kanchan; Mahata, Sutapa; Tyagi, Abhishek; Pandey, Arvind; Verma, Gaurav; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Tejveer; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Bharti, Alok C.

    2016-01-01

    Viral oncoproteins E6/E7 play key oncogenic role in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis in conjunction with aberrant activation of cellular signaling events. GLI-signaling has been implicated in metastasis and tumor recurrence of cervical cancer. However, the interaction of GLI-signaling with HPV oncogenes is unknown. We examined this relationship in established HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines using specific GLI inhibitor, cyclopamine and HPVE6/E7 siRNAs. Cervical cancer cell lines showed variable expression of GLI-signaling components. HPV16-positive SiHa cells, overexpressed GLI1, Smo and Patch. Inhibition by cyclopamine resulted in dose-dependent reduction of Smo and GLI1 and loss of cell viability with a higher magnitude in HPV-positive cells. Cyclopamine selectively downregulated HPVE6 expression and resulted in p53 accumulation, whereas HPVE7 and pRb level remained unaffected. siRNA-mediated silencing of HPV16E6 demonstrated reduced GLI1 transcripts in SiHa cells. Cervical cancer stem-like cells isolated by side population analysis, displayed retention of E6 and GLI1 expression. Fraction of SP cells was reduced in cyclopamine-treated cultures. When combined with E6-silencing cyclopamine resulted in loss of SP cell’s sphere-forming ability. Co-inhibition of GLI1 and E6 in cervical cancer cells showed additive anti-cancer effects. Overall, our data show existence of a cooperative interaction between GLI signaling and HPVE6. PMID:27678330

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in Chile, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanda, Monserrat; Quiero, Andrea; Vergara, Nicolás; Espinoza, Gloria; Martín, Héctor San; Rojas, Giovanna; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide. In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, causing more than 600 deaths annually. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in public health services in Chile. Women aged 18-64 years residing in the north and central areas covered by six primary care centers of Santiago, Chile, were invited to participate from March 2014 to August 2015. Cervical swabs were examined both HPV genotyping by PCR and Reverse Line Blot, and cervical cytology by Pap testing. A total of 1738 women were included in this study: 11.1 % were HPV positive, 9.7 % were high-risk types positive, 3.2 % were low-risk types positive, 1.4 % were Pap positive and 0.9 % were positive by both tests. The four most predominant genotypes were 16, 66, 51 and 59, with prevalence of 2.8, 1.4, 1.2 and 1.2 %, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 3.8 % participants. Age-specific prevalence of HPV showed a peak in HPV infection at younger ages (≤30 years), declining to a plateau in middle age. Among women with normal cytology, the 9.4 % were HPV positive, while 58.3 % of women with abnormal cytology were HPV positive. These findings show new epidemiological data confirming HPV 16 and 66 as the most predominant genotypes in Chile. These data are important for design successful strategies for prevention of cervical cancer in Chile.

  18. In vitro and in vivo growth suppression of human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Shuai, E-mail: usa_2002@163.com [Baoji Maternal and Child Health Hospital, 2 Xinjian Road East, WeiBin District, Baoji City, 721000, Shanxi Province (China); Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hua, Ling [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Takahashi, Y.; Narita, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Liu, Yun-Hui [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Li, Yan [Baoji Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No 43, BaoFu Road, Baoji City, Shanxi Province (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 and targeting E6, E7 transcript. • CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21, reduced the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. • Finding inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9. • CRISPR/Cas9 will be a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. - Abstract: Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. In the hope of developing a gene-specific therapy for HPV-related cancer, we established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 E6/E7 and targeting E6, E7 transcript, transduced the CRISPR/Cas9 into cervical HPV-16-positive cell line SiHa. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 and E7 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9 targeting (promoter+E6+E7)-transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy.

  19. Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-1 infected women in Catalonia (Spain: implications for prevention of cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Stuardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-risk human Papillomavirus infection is a necessary factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. In HIV-1-infected women, HPV infection is more prevalent and a higher risk of cervical cancer has been identified. We aimed to calculate the prevalence of infection by HR-HPV, determine the factors associated with this infection and abnormal cytology findings and to describe the history of cervical cancer screening in HIV-1-infected women. METHODS: We enrolled 479 HIV-1-infected women from the PISCIS cohort. Each patient underwent a gynecological check-up, PAP smear, HPV AND Hybrid capture, HPV genotyping, and colposcopy and biopsy, if necessary. We applied questionnaires to obtain information on sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and cervical screening variables. We present a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS: Median age was 42 years. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 33.2% and that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL was 3.8%. The most common genotypes were 16(23%, 53(20.3%, and 52(16.2%. The factor associated with HR-HPV infection was age 500 cells/mm(3 (OR,8.4; 95%CI,3.7-19.2, HIV-1 viral load >10,000 copies/mL versus <400 copies/mL (OR,2.1; 95%CI,1.0-4.4, and use of oral contraceptives (OR,2.0; 95%CI,1.0-3.9. Sixty percent of HIV-1-infected women had had one Pap smear within the last 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical lesions in the HIV-1-infected population in Catalonia, as well as the low coverage and frequency of screening in this group, means that better preventive efforts are necessary and should include vaccination against HPV, better accessibility to screening programs, training of health care professionals, and specific health education for HIV-1-infected women.

  20. Cathelicidin stimulates colonic mucus synthesis by up-regulating MUC1 and MUC2 expression through a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHO Chi-hin

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mucus forms the physical barrier along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It plays an important role to prevent mucosal damage and inflammation. Our previous finding showed that antibacterial peptide 'cathelicidin' increased mucus thickness and prevented inflammation in the colon. In the current study, we examined the protective mechanisms by which the peptide increased mucus synthesis in vitro. Methods Human colonic cell line (HT-29) was used to assess the stimulatory action of cathelicidin on mucus synthesis which was measured by the D-[6-3H] glucosamine incorporation assay. Results Human cathelicidin (LL-37) dose-dependently (10-40 μg·mL-1) and significantly stimulated mucus synthesis. Real-time PCR data showed that addition of LL-37 induced more than 50 % increase in MUC1 and MUC2 mRNA levels. Treatment with MUC1 and MUC2 siRNAs normalized the stimulatory action of LL-37 on mucus synthesis. LL-37 also activated the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in the cells. A specific inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway, U0126, completely blocked the increase of MUC1 and MUC2 expression as well as mucus synthesis by LL-37. Conclusions Taken together LL-37 stimulates mucus synthesis through the activation of MUC1 and MUC2 expression and the MAP kinase pathway in human colonic cells.

  1. Resveratrol inhibits mucus overproduction and MUC5AC expression in a murine model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhen-Hua; Tang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Guo; Lai, Yi-Min; Chen, Qing-Ge; Li, Zao; Yang, Wei; Luo, Xu-Min; Wang, Xiong-Biao

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that resveratrol is able to significantly inhibit the upregulation of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), a major component of mucus; thus indicating that resveratrol may have potential in regulating mucus overproduction. However, there have been few studies regarding the resveratrol‑mediated prevention of MUC5AC overproduction in vivo, and the mechanisms by which resveratrol regulates MUC5AC expression have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, an ovalbumin (OVA)‑challenged murine model of asthma was used to assess the effects of resveratrol treatment on mucus production in vivo. The results demonstrated that resveratrol significantly inhibited OVA‑induced airway inflammation and mucus production. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of MUC5AC were increased in the OVA‑challenged mice, whereas treatment with resveratrol significantly inhibited this effect. The expression levels of murine calcium‑activated chloride channel (mCLCA)3, an important key mediator of MUC5AC production, were also reduced following resveratrol treatment. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrated that resveratrol significantly inhibited human (h)CLCA1 and MUC5AC expression in a dose‑dependent manner. These results indicated that resveratrol was effective in preventing mucus overproduction and MUC5AC expression in vivo, and its underlying mechanism may be associated with regulation of the mCLCA3/hCLCA1 signaling pathway.

  2. Human papillomavirus testing versus cytology in primary cervical cancer screening: End-of-study and extended follow-up results from the Canadian cervical cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidean, Sandra D; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Gilbert, Laura; Reid, Stephanie L; Rodrigues, Isabel; Ferenczy, Alex; Ratnam, Sam; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial was a randomized controlled trial comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and Papanicolaou cytology to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women aged 30-69 years attending routine cervical cancer screening in Montreal and St. John's, Canada (n = 10,154). We examined screening and prognostic values of enrollment cytologic and HPV testing results. Extended follow-up data were available for St. John's participants (n = 5,754; 501,682.6 person-months). HPV testing detected more CIN2+ than cytology during protocol-defined (82.9 vs. 44.4%) and extended (54.2 vs. 19.3%) follow-up periods, respectively. Three-year risks ranged from 0.87% (95% CI: 0.37-2.05) for HPV-/Pap- women to 35.77% (95% CI: 25.88-48.04) for HPV+/Pap+ women. Genotype-specific risks ranged from 0.90% (95% CI: 0.40-2.01) to 43.84% (95% CI: 32.42-57.24) among HPV- and HPV16+ women, respectively, exceeding those associated with Pap+ or HPV+ results taken individually or jointly. Ten-year risks ranged from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.60-2.19) for HPV-/Pap- women to 26.05% (95% CI: 15.34-42.13) for HPV+/Pap+ women and genotype-specific risks ranged from 1.13% (95% CI: 0.59-2.14) to 32.78% (95% CI: 21.15-48.51) among women testing HPV- and HPV16+, respectively. Abnormal cytology stratified risks most meaningfully for HPV+ women. Primary HPV testing every 3 years provided a similar or greater level of reassurance against disease risks as currently recommended screening strategies. HPV-based cervical screening may allow for greater disease detection than cytology-based screening and permit safe extensions of screening intervals; genotype-specific testing could provide further improvement in the positive predictive value of such screening.

  3. Human Papilloma Virus 16 E6 RNA Interference Enhances Cisplatin and Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Shinta; Hougardy, Brigitte M. T.; Meersma, Gert J.; Schaap, Bessel; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; de Jong, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In cervical cancer, the p53 and retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressor pathways are disrupted by the human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, because E6 targets p53 and E7 targets pRb for rapid proteasome-mediated degradation. We have investigated whether E6 suppression with small interfer

  4. Long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse according to high-risk human papillomavirus genotype and semi-quantitative viral load among 33,288 women with normal cervical cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we estimated the long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) genotype and semi-quantitative viral load at baseline among 33,288 women aged 14-90 years with normal baseline cytology. During...... 2002-2005, residual liquid-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark. Samples were HPV-tested with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and genotyped with INNO-LiPA. Semi-quantitative viral load was measured by HC2 relative light units in women......HPV genotyping during cervical cancer screening may help identify women at highest risk of CIN3+....

  5. Decreased colonic mucus in rats with loperamide-induced constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotoyodome, A; Meguro, S; Hase, T; Tokimitsu, I; Sakata, T

    2000-06-01

    Constipation is a risk factor of colorectal cancer. Mucin is a major component of lumenal mucus, which protects the colorectal mucosa against mechanical and chemical damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate mucus production and to quantitate lumen mucus in a rat model of spastic constipation. We induced constipation with loperamide (1.5 mg/kg), and histochemically evaluated mucus production and the thickness of the mucus layer at the fecal surface. We quantitated the mucus attached to the mucosal surface using colonic perfusion with N-acetylcysteine. While more feces remained in the colon, there was less fecal excretion and lower fecal water content in loperamide-administered rats than in control rats. Crypt epithelial cells contained less mucus in constipated rats than in control rats. The mucus layer at the fecal surface was thinner and less mucus was recovered from the mucosal surface in constipated rats than in control rats. Mucus production of crypt epithelial cells and mucus at the fecal and mucosal surface were reduced by loperamide-induced constipation.

  6. Assessment of mucus thickness and production in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Lena; Phillipson, Mia

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the mucus gel layer covering the gastrointestinal tract makes it difficult to study outside its natural site attached to the mucosa. Here, we describe a technique for intravital microscopy studies of the mucus gel layer from the stomach down to the colon in anesthetized rats and mice. Mucus thickness and accumulation rate in each segment of the gastrointestinal tract is measured with a micropipette technique under observation through a stereomicroscope. In this way, the nature of the mucus gel in vivo is readily studied, and effects of interventions or disease on the mucus can be determined in longitudinal studies or by comparing animals. Using this technique, we have been able to demonstrate that there are two forms of mucus gel adherent to the stomach and colon mucosa: one layer which is removable by suction and an underlying firm adherent gel layer, while in the small intestine, all mucus adhering to the mucosa can easily be removed.

  7. Determinants of human papillomavirus load among women with histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3: dominant impact of surrounding low-grade lesions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman, Mark E; Wang, Sophia S; Wheeler, Cosette M; Rich, Laurie; Gravitt, Patti E; Tarone, Robert; Schiffman, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA load has been suggested as a means for improving the positive predictive value of HPV testing for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and cancer (CIN3...

  8. High-risk human papillomavirus and cervical lesions among women living with HIV/AIDS in Brazilian Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection infection and cervical lesions and its associated factors among HIV infected women attending an AIDS clinic in Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Women attending an AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus between March and December 2011 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a standardized interview including demographical, behavioral, and clinical data. Additionally, patients underwent a gynecological evaluation with collection of cervical samples for cytological analysis and high-risk human papillomavirus infection hybrid capture. A blood sample was also obtained to determine CD4 and viral load levels. RESULTS: A total of 310 (82.9% women participated in the study. High-risk human papillomavirus infection was detected in 191 (61.6% cases; 24 (13.5% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL and 4 (2.2% high-grade SIL. No invasive cervical cancer was diagnosed. Median age was 32 (interquartile range (IQR: 27-38 years and median of education was 8.5 (IQR 4-11 years of schooling and 56.1% had a monthly income up to US$180. In multivariate analysis, being less than 30 years old [OR = 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2-2.4,p = 0.005], high-grade SIL [OR = 6.5 (95% CI: 1.6-23.0, p = 0.009], and CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 [OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0, p < 0.001] were associated with high risk human papillomavirus infection infection. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study high-risk human papillomavirus infection was frequent and it was associated to high-SIL. These results show the importance of gynecologic examinations in routine care and follow-up required by those who present with cervical lesions.

  9. Gliotoxin Isolated from Marine Fungus Aspergillus sp. Induces Apoptosis of Human Cervical Cancer and Chondrosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Tinh Nguyen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gliotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by marine fungus Aspergillus sp., possesses various biological activities including anticancer activity. However, the mechanism underlying gliotoxin-induced cytotoxicity on human cervical cancer (Hela and human chondrosarcoma (SW1353 cells remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the effect of gliotoxin induction on apoptosis, the activating expressions of caspase family enzymes in the cells. Apoptotic cell levels were measured through DAPI and Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI double staining analysis. The apoptotic protein expression of Bcl-2 and caspase family was detected by Western blot in Hela and SW1353 cells. Our results showed that gliotoxin treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced significant morphological changes. Gliotoxin induced apoptosis was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation and disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential. Gliotoxin-induced activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and cytochromec (cyt c release showed evidence for the gliotoxin activity on apoptosis. These findings suggest that gliotoxin isolated from marine fungus Aspergillus sp. induced apoptosis in Hela and SW1353 cells via the mitochondrial pathway followed by downstream events leading to apoptotic mode of cell death.

  10. Deregulation of the miRNAs Expression in Cervical Cancer: Human Papillomavirus Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Gómez-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non coding RNAs of 18–25 nucleotides in length. The temporal or short-lived expression of the miRNAs modulates gene expression post transcriptionally. Studies have revealed that miRNAs deregulation correlates and is involved with the initiation and progression of human tumors. Cervical cancer (CC displays notably increased or decreased expression of a large number of cellular oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs, respectively. However, understanding the potential role of miRNAs in CC is still limited. In CC, the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs infection can affect the miRNAs expression through oncoprotein E6 and E7 that contribute to viral pathogenesis, although other viral proteins might also be involved. This deregulation in the miRNAs expression has an important role in the hallmarks of CC. Interestingly, the miRNA expression profile in CC can discriminate between normal and tumor tissue and the extraordinary stability of miRNAs makes it suitable to serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancer. In this review, we will summarize the role of the HR-HPVs in miRNA expression, the role of miRNAs in the hallmarks of CC, and the use of miRNAs as potential prognostic biomarkers in CC.

  11. Adherence of clinically isolated lactobacilli to human cervical cells in competition with Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielfort, Katarina; Sjölinder, Hong; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Aro, Helena

    2008-10-01

    Lactobacilli are normal inhabitants of our microbiota and are known to protect against pathogens. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a human specific pathogenic bacterium that colonises the urogenital tract where it causes gonorrhoea. In this study we analysed early interactions between lactobacilli and gonococci and investigated how they compete for adherence to human epithelial cervical cells. We show that lactobacilli adhere at various levels and that the number of adherent bacteria does not correlate to the level of protection against gonococcal infection. Protection against gonococcal adhesion varied between Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus reuteri were capable of reducing gonococcal adherence while Lactobacillus rhamnosus was not. Lactobacillus strains of vaginal origin had the best capacity to remain attached to the host cell during gonococcal adherence. Further, we show that gonococci and lactobacilli interact with each other with resultant lactobacilli incorporation into the gonococcal microcolony. Hence, gonococci bind to colonised lactobacilli and this complex frequently detaches from the epithelial cell surface, resulting in reduced bacterial colonisation. Also, purified gonococcal pili are capable of removing adherent lactobacilli from the cell surface. Taken together, we reveal novel data regarding gonococcal and lactobacilli competition for adherence that will benefit future gonococcal prevention and treatments.

  12. Incidence of cervical disease associated to HPV in human immunodeficiency infected women under highly active antiretroviral therapy

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    Mogtomo Martin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV may be at higher risk of developing cervical cancer than non infected women. In a pilot study, we assessed the relationships among cervical cytology abnormalities associated to Human Papillomavirus (HPV, HIV infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on the development of Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (SILs. Out of the 70 HIV infected women from Douala -Cameroon (Central Africa that we included in the study, half (35 were under HAART. After obtaining information related to their lifestyle and sexual behaviour, cervicovaginal samples for Pap smears and venous blood for CD4 count were collected and further divided into two groups based upon the presence or absence of cervical cytology abnormalities i.e. those with normal cervical cytology and those with low and high Squamous Intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL. Results Assessment was done according to current antiretroviral regimens available nationwide and CD4 count. It was revealed that 44.3% of HIV-infected women had normal cytology. The overall prevalence of LSIL and HSIL associated to HPV in the studied groups was 24.3% (17/70 and 31.4% (22/70 respectively. Among the 22 HSIL-positive women, 63.6% (14/22 were not on antiretroviral therapy, while 36.4% (8/22 were under HAART. HIV infected women under HAART with positive HSIL, showed a median CD4+ T cell count of 253.7 +/- 31.7 higher than those without therapy (164.7 +/- 26.1. The incidence of HSIL related to HPV infection within the study group independently of HAART initiation was high. Conclusion These results suggest the need for extension and expansion of the current study in order to evaluate the incidence of HPV infection and cervical cancer among HIV-infected and non HIV- infected women in Cameroon.

  13. Perceived Risk of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer among Adolescent Women in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jung Lin, MSN, RN

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Participants lacked a comprehensive understanding of cervical cancer prevention and were not aware of their susceptibility to HPV infection. Adolescent women rarely obtained HPV-related information from healthcare professionals. Appropriate education strategies should be developed and conducted by healthcare professionals to reduce the risk of cervical cancer threat from adolescence.

  14. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine Drugs Approved to Treat Cervical Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Hycamtin (Topotecan ...

  15. Human telomerase gene amplification and high-risk human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takac, Iztok; Arko, D; Kodric, T; Poljak, M; Zagorac, A; Erjavec-Skerget, A; Kokalj-Vokac, N

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether a correlation exists between amplification of the human telomerase gene (human telomerase RNA component [TERC]) and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in 101 women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Eight patients (7.9%) had CIN 1, 24 (23.8%) had CIN 2 and 69 (68.3%) had CIN 3. TERC was amplified in 31.7% of all CIN patients. The difference in frequency of TERC amplification between patients with low-grade CIN (CIN 1) and those with high-grade CIN (CIN 2 and CIN 3) was not significant. HR-HPV infection was detected in 88.1% of all CIN cases and was significantly more frequent in patients with CIN 2 and CIN 3 than in patients with CIN 1. There was no significant difference in the frequency of HR-HPV infection between groups of patients with and without TERC amplification. In conclusion, this study found no correlation between TERC amplification and HR-HPV infection in patients with CIN.

  16. Cryptomoschatone D2 from Cryptocarya mandioccana: cytotoxicity against human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Pienna Soares

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Among the substances isolated from Cryptocarya sp, some styrylpyrones, such as goniothalamin, demonstrate antiproliferative activity in a broad range of human cell lines. In the present study, we assessed the cytotoxicity of a styrylpyrone (cryptomoschatone D2, isolated from Cryptocarya mandiocanna, in HPV-infected (HeLa and SiHa and uninfected (C33A human cervical carcinoma cell lines and a human lung fibroblast line (MRC-5. The cytotoxicity was tested by the MTT assay. In this assay, cells were treated with cryptomoschatone D2 at 15, 30, 60 or 90 μM for 6, 24 or 48 hours, as well as for 6 hours followed by a post-treatment recovery period of 24, 48 or 72 hours. High cytotoxicity (dose- and timedependent was observed in HeLa, SiHa, C33A and MRC-5 cell lines. Although in general the styrylpyrone cytotoxicity was not significantly different among the cell lines tested, it was apparently stronger in HeLa and C33A than in MRC-5 and SiHa in the 24 or 48-hour treatments. Moreover, HeLa and SiHa were able to recover their ability to proliferate, in direct proportion to the post-treatment recovery time. On the other hand, C33A did not demonstrate a similar post-treatment recovery. We can conclude that cryptomoschatone D2 possesses high dose-dependent or time-dependent cytotoxicity. Keywords: Cell culture. Antiproliferative activity. Styrylpyrone, Cryptomoschatone D2. RESUMO Cryptomoscatona D2 de Cryptocarya mandioccana: atividade citotóxica contra linhagem celular de carcinoma cervical humano Dentre as substâncias isoladas de Cryptocarya sp, algumas estirilpironas, como a goniotalamina, apresentam atividade antiproliferativa em diferentes linhagens celulares. No presente estudo, foram avaliadas as atividades citotóxica de uma estirilpirona (criptomoscatona D2 isolada de Cryptocarya mandiocanna, em linhagens celulares de carcinoma cervical humano infectada por HPV (HeLa e SiHa, não infectada (C33A e fibroblasto pulmonar humano

  17. Physical status of human papillomavirus integration in cervical cancer is associated with treatment outcome of the patients treated with radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Shin

    Full Text Available Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA into the host genome is a critical aetiological event in the progression from normal cervix to intraepithelial neoplasm, and finally to invasive cervical cancer. However, there has been little work on how HPV integration status relates to treatment outcome for cervical carcinomas. In the current study, HPV E2 and E6 gene copy numbers were measured in 111 cervical cancer tissues using real-time QPCR. Integration patterns were divided into four groups: single copy-integrated with episomal components (group 1, single copy-integrated without episomal components (group 2, multicopy tandem repetition-integrated (group 3, and low HPV (group 4 groups. A relapse-predicting model was constructed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to classify patients into different risk groups for disease-free survival (DFS. The model was internally validated using bootstrap resampling. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed to evaluate gene expression patterns in relation to the different integration groups. DFS rate was inferior in the order of the patients in group 4, group 2/3, and group 1. Multivariate analysis showed that histologic grade, clinical stage group, and integration pattern were significant prognostic factors for poor DFS. The current prognostic model accurately predicted the risk of relapse, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.74 (bootstrap corrected, 0.71. In conclusion, these data suggest that HPV integration pattern is a potent prognostic factor for tailored treatment of cervical cancer.

  18. Detection of high risk human papillomavirus cervical infections by the hybrid capture in Asunción, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mendoza Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most frequent malignant tumour of women in Latin America being human papillomavirus (HPV the main cause. The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about the cervical infections with oncogenic HPV types (HR-HPV in Asuncion, Paraguay. Two hundred and seventy-two cervical samples were analyzed using hybrid capture II assay (HCA II for HR-HPV. The frequency of HR-HPV in the study group was 44%. HR-HPV was detected in 25% of the women negative for squamous intraepithelial lesions (NSIL, 72% with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 68% with low SIL and 78% with high SIL. A moderate concordance was observed between HCA II assay and cytology (kappa: 0.43 IC95% 0.3 - 0.5. It was detected a high frequency of HR-HPV in women from 11 to 30 years old and in those over 60 years old. The data obtained in this study showed a high frequency of HR-HPV in woman with NSIL and ASCUS, which corroborate that the use of cytology together with HCA II assay for HR-HPV could improve remarkably the efficiency of screening programs of cervical cancer in Paraguay. Furthermore, these findings point out the need for the periodical follow-up of HR-HPV infections in older women.

  19. Detection of high risk human papillomavirus cervical infections by the hybrid capture in Asunción, Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Laura Mendoza; Páez, Malvina; Insaurralde, Ariel; Rodriguez, María Isabel; Castro, Amalia; Kasamatsu, Elena

    2009-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent malignant tumour of women in Latin America being human papillomavirus (HPV) the main cause. The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about the cervical infections with oncogenic HPV types (HR-HPV) in Asuncion, Paraguay. Two hundred and seventy-two cervical samples were analyzed using hybrid capture II assay (HCA II) for HR-HPV. The frequency of HR-HPV in the study group was 44%. HR-HPV was detected in 25% of the women negative for squamous intraepithelial lesions (NSIL), 72% with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 68% with low SIL and 78% with high SIL. A moderate concordance was observed between HCA II assay and cytology (kappa: 0.43 IC(95% 0.3-0.5)). It was detected a high frequency of HR-HPV in women from 11 to 30 years old and in those over 60 years old. The data obtained in this study showed a high frequency of HR-HPV in woman with NSIL and ASCUS, which corroborate that the use of cytology together with HCA II assay for HR-HPV could improve remarkably the efficiency of screening programs of cervical cancer in Paraguay. Furthermore, these findings point out the need for the periodical follow-up of HR-HPV infections in older women.

  20. Human papillomavirus infection is principally found with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia-III in Toluca, State of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; de León-Escobedo, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection (HPV) in cases of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN), micro-invasive carcinoma and invasive carcinoma in Toluca, State of Mexico. Cross-sectional study analysing slides with the diagnosis of CIN I to invasive carcinoma for one year and reporting the presence of HPV; also identifying these cervical-uterine cancer stages noted during one semester in the registery of histopathological studies, at the Department of Pathology, General Regional Hospital 220, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). In one year, from a total of 5755 studies, 731 (13%) were of cervical-uterine cancer, 112 (16%) of these were positive for some stage of cervical cancer and 46.43% had HPV infection. In one semester, 2918 histopathological studies were done, 341 (11.68%) of these were cervix uterine biopsies, colposcopies and hysterectomies. 62 women (18.18%) diagnosed with CIN II-III, carcinoma in situ (CIS), micro-invasive carcinoma or invasive carcinoma and finding HPV infection in 51.92% of total cases. The prevalence of HPV was higher than that reported in developed world and CIN II-III are the most common stages in Toluca, State of Mexico.

  1. A poly(ethylene glycol)-based surfactant for formulation of drug-loaded mucus penetrating particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Olcay; Lai, Samuel K; Ensign, Laura; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ying-Ying; Wood, Joseph; Hanes, Justin

    2012-02-10

    Mucosal surfaces are protected by a highly viscoelastic and adhesive mucus layer that traps most foreign particles, including conventional drug and gene carriers. Trapped particles are eliminated on the order of seconds to hours by mucus clearance mechanisms, precluding sustained and targeted drug and nucleic acid delivery to mucosal tissues. We have previously shown that polymeric coatings that minimize adhesive interactions with mucus constituents lead to particles that rapidly penetrate human mucus secretions. Nevertheless, a particular challenge in formulating drug-loaded mucus penetrating particles (MPP) is that many commonly used surfactants are either mucoadhesive, or do not facilitate efficient drug encapsulation. We tested a novel surfactant molecule for particle formulation composed of Vitamin E conjugated to 5 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (VP5k). We show that VP5k-coated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus, whereas PLGA nanoparticles coated with polyvinyl alcohol or Vitamin E conjugated to 1 kDa PEG were trapped. Importantly, VP5k facilitated high loading of paclitaxel, a frontline chemo drug, into PLGA MPP, with controlled release for at least 4 days and negligible burst release. Our results offer a promising new method for engineering biodegradable, drug-loaded MPP for sustained and targeted delivery of therapeutics at mucosal surfaces.

  2. [Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. An historical review on the development of research on cancer of the cervix uteri in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    The history on the relationship of VPH infection and cervical cancer was examined. Findings were initially reported in Maracaibo(1971), later in Mexico(1973) and thereafter several studies on the ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of VPH infection and its role on cervical cancer were described. The ultrastructural findings of viral particles of HPV and their proteins, as well as their role in the incorporation of the viral genome to the human cervical cells were also described. Glycoproteins on the surface of cervical cells were reviewed and their importance on HPV infection was related to p16, blood group antigens and early genetic changes in the cell cycle with loss of heterozigocity, all of which, stimulated by the high risk HPV infection lead to cervical cancer.

  3. Utilisation of co-testing 
(human papillomavirus DNA testing and cervical cytology) after treatment of CIN: - a survey of GPs' awareness and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Aime; Codde, Jim; Semmens, James; Leung, Yee; Spilsbury, Katrina; Williams, Vincent; Steel, Nerida; Cohen, Paul; Pavicic, Heidi; Westoby, Vicki; O'Leary, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Patients have an increased risk of persistent/recurrent cervical disease if they received treatment for a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Consequently, understanding whether co-testing (human papillomavirus [HPV] DNA testing and cervical cytology) is fully utilised by general practitioners (GPs) is paramount. After consultation with key stakeholders, an anonymous, self-completion questionnaire was developed and disseminated to GPs who had provided cervical cytology. Responses were received from 745 GPs (30.9% response rate). A significant number (34.3%) of GPs were unaware of the use of co-testing (HPV DNA testing and cervical cytology) for the management of patients after HSIL treatment. Additionally, the majority of GPs reported they did not 'always' receive a clear follow-up plan for patients after treatment of an HSIL. GPs require further support and education to ensure successful adoption of co-testing (HPV DNA testing and cervical cytology), specifically, for patients treated for an HSIL.

  4. Skin mucus proteins of lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus

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    Deepti Manjari Patel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin mucus serves as a first line of defense against pathogens and external stressors. In this study the proteomic profile of lumpsucker skin mucus was characterized using 2D gels coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Mucosal proteins were identified by homology searches across the databases SwissProt, NCBInr and vertebrate EST. The identified proteins were clustered into ten groups based on their gene ontology biological process in PANTHER (www.patherdb.org. Calmodulin, cystatin-B, histone H2B, peroxiredoxin1, apolipoprotein A1, natterin-2, 14-3-3 protein, alfa enolase, pentraxin, warm temperature acclimation 65 kDa (WAP65kDa and heat shock proteins were identified. Several of the proteins are known to be involved in immune and/or stress responses. Proteomic profile established in this study could be a benchmark for differential proteomics studies.

  5. Suppressing effect of resveratrol on the migration and invasion of human metastatic lung and cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Suk; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong

    2012-09-01

    The antioxidant 3,4',5 tri-hydroxystilbene (resveratrol), a phytoalexin found in grapes, shows cancer preventive activities, including inhibition of migration and invasion of metastatic tumors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of resveratrol on tumor metastasis, especially in human metastatic lung and cervical cancers is not clear. A non-cytotoxic dosage of resveratrol causes a reduction in the generation of reactive oxygen species, and suppresses phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion and migration in both A549 and HeLa cells. Resveratrol also decreases both the expression and the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and the promoter activity of PMA-stimulated MMP-9 is also inhibited. However, resveratrol does not affect either the expression or the proteolytic activity of MMP-2. Our results also show that resveratrol suppresses the transcription of MMP-9 by the inhibition of both NF-κB and AP-1 transactivation. These results indicate that resveratrol inhibits both NF-κB and AP-1 mediated MMP-9 expression, leading to suppression of migration and invasion of human metastatic lung and cervical cancer cells. Resveratrol has potential for clinical use in preventing invasion by human metastatic lung and cervical cancers.

  6. S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis and inhibits metastasis of CasKi human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fengjin; Song, Yao; Li, Zijian; Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Youyi; Geng, Li

    2010-09-01

    S100 proteins, a family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins, have been linked to several human diseases in recent years. Deregulated expression of S100 proteins, including S100A9 and its partner S100A8, was reported to be associated with neoplastic disorders. In our previous study using serial analysis of gene expression, we identified decreased expressions of S100A9 and S100A8 in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma. To investigate the functions of S100A8 and S100A9 in cervical cancer, we purified recombinant S100A8 and S100A9 proteins and treated CaSki human cervical cancer cells with these proteins. We found that S100A8/A9 induced apoptosis and inhibited migration of CaSki cells; S100A8/A9 also reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in CaSki cells. In summary, this study suggests that S100A8 and S100A9 have inhibitory effects on the proliferation of CaSki carcinoma cells by inducing cell apoptosis and on the invasiveness of CaSki cells.

  7. Proteomic investigation into betulinic acid-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Pang, Qiuying; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Aiqin; Luo, Shaman; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells in uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Maria A; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Seoane, Samuel; Eiro, Noemi; Gonzalez, Francisco; Saa, Jorge; Vizoso, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESCs) in uveitis. To do that, uveitis was induced in rats after footpad injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells after LPS challenge were used to test anti-inflammatory effect of CM-hUCESCs 'ìn vitro'. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interkeukin-6, interkeukin-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and the anti-inflammatory interkeukin-10. Leucocytes from aqueous humor (AqH) were quantified in a Neubauer chamber, and eye histopathological analysis was done with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Additionally, using a human cytokine antibody array we evaluated CM-hUCESCs to determine mediating proteins. Results showed that administration of CM-hUCESCs significantly reduced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines both 'in vitro' and 'in vivo', and decreased leucocytes in AqH and ocular tissues. High levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory effects were found in CM-hUCESCs, suggesting a possible role of these factors in reducing intraocular inflammation. In summary, treatment with CM-hUCESCs significantly reduces inflammation in uveitis. Our data indicate that CM-hUCESCs could be regarded as a potential therapeutic agent for patients suffering from ocular inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Computed tomography in endobronchial mucus accumulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, M; Barone, M; Loria, G; Minutoli, F; Stroscio, S

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the value of CT in depicting endobronchial mucoid collections, the authors retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 22 patients, 14 with mucous plugs, 7 with mucoid pseudotumors, and one with a bronchocele due to bronchial atresia. Atelectasis could be seen in 11 of 14 patients with mucous plugs. In 12 of 14 patients with mucous plugs CT showed the involved bronchi filled by fluid representing abnormal mucus accumulation. In the patients with atelectasis CT showed mucus-filled bronchi as low-attenuation branching structures (mucoid bronchogram). All the mucoid pseudotumors appeared as low-attenuation (< 20 HU) polypoid wall lesions with no involvement of the bronchial walls. In a patient with bronchial atresia CT showed a solitary pulmonary nodule (representing the obstructed and dilated bronchus filled by mucus) surrounded by peripheral pulmonary hyperinflation. Characteristically, the endobronchial mucoid collections never enhanced after bolus contrast medium. Endobronchial mucoid collections had to be differentiated from endobronchial neoplasms. In some cases bronchoscopy was necessary to make the differential diagnosis. In conclusion, CT is a valuable tool with good sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing endobronchial mucoid collections.

  10. Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osadnik CR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Christian R Osadnik,1,2 Christine F McDonald,2,3 Anne E Holland2,4,51Department of Physiotherapy, Monash University, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Health, 4Department of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, 5Department of Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaWe wish to thank Ramos et al for presenting a succinct and up-to-date synthesis of the evidence relating to the important issue of mucus hypersecretion in COPD.1 The authors highlight the association of mucus hypersecretion with poor outcomes, including increased risk of exacerbations, hospitalization and mortality. These associations have led to interest in the potential benefits of mucus clearance techniques in COPD. As Ramos et al1 point out, although the physiological rationale for airway clearance techniques (ACTs in COPD is strong, clinical efficacy has historically been difficult to establish, perhaps due to the variety of techniques and outcomes that have been employed in small studies. We have recently synthesized this body of evidence in a Cochrane systematic review of ACTs for individuals with COPD. The review demonstrated ACTs are safe and meta-analysis showed they confer small beneficial effects on a limited range of important clinical outcomes, such as the need for and duration of ventilatory assistance during an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD.2View original paper by Ramos and colleagues.

  11. The human papillomavirus E6 oncogene dysregulates the cell cycle and contributes to cervical carcinogenesis through two independent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, Anny; Brake, Tiffany; Somoza, Chamorro; Lambert, Paul F

    2007-02-15

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death due to cancer among women worldwide. Using transgenic mice to dissect the contributions of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 oncogenes in cervical cancer, E7 was identified previously to be the dominant oncogene. Specifically, when treated with exogenous estrogen for 6 months, E7 transgenic mice developed cancer throughout the reproductive tract, but E6 transgenic mice did not. E6 contributed to carcinogenesis of the reproductive tract, as E6/E7 double transgenic mice treated for 6 months with estrogen developed larger cancers than E7 transgenic mice. In the current study, we investigated whether the E6 oncogene alone could cooperate with estrogen to induce cervical cancer after an extended estrogen treatment period of 9 months. We found that the E6 oncogene synergizes with estrogen to induce cervical cancer after 9 months, indicating that E6 has a weaker but detectable oncogenic potential in the reproductive tract compared with the E7 oncogene. Using transgenic mice that express mutant forms of HPV16 E6, we determined that the interactions of E6 with cellular alpha-helix and PDZ partners correlate with its ability to induce cervical carcinogenesis. In analyzing the tumors arising in E6 transgenic mice, we learned that E6 induces expression of the E2F-responsive genes, Mcm7 and cyclin E, in the absence of the E7 oncogene. E6 also prevented the expression of p16 in tumors of the reproductive tract through a mechanism mediated by the interaction of E6 with alpha-helix partners.

  12. 3-(2-Chloropropyl amide)-4-methoxy-N-phenylbenzamide inhibits expression of HPV oncogenes in human cervical cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Li, Yanping; Lu, Qiaoni; Ma, Linlin; Wang, Huiqiang; Jiang, Jiandong; Li, Zhuorong; Li, Yuhuan

    2017-07-28

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the primary causative agents for cervical cancer, and HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 are known to be the main reason for the onset and maintenance of the malignancies. Therefore, inhibition of viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins expression represents a viable strategy to cervical cancer therapies. This study is to evaluate the antiviral effect of a novel N-Phenylbenzamide derivative, 3-(2-Chloropropyl amide)-4-methoxy-N-phenylbenzamide (L17), against HPV16 in vitro and identify its associated mechanism of action in cervical cancer cells. The cytotoxic effect of L17 was assessed by MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels of E6 and E7 oncogenes were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. p53 and Rb protein levels were also detected by Western blot. The effect of L17 on cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The cytotoxic effect of L17 was greater in cervical carcinoma cells than in normal cells. L17 significantly reduced the expression of HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNA and protein, at least partly by enhancing degradation of HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNA. Moreover, reduced expression of E6 and E7 induced by L17 resulted in the up-regulation of p53 and Rb expression, which subsequently induced CaSki cells arrest at G0/G1 phase. L17 has antiviral activity through suppressing E6 and E7 oncogene expression and could inhibit CaSki cell proliferating by inducing cells arrest at G0/G1 phase at nontoxic concentration, implying that L17 might be exploited as a candidate agent for HPV-associated cervical cancer prevention and treatment.

  13. Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection of women with cervical lesions and their partners: new data from Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ana Elizia Mascarenhas; Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; de Resende Oyama, Ceres Nunes; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2015-07-01

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) has been intensely investigated, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential of communicability are still unclear. This study aimed at assessing the presence of oropharyngeal HPV infection in women with cervical lesions and in their current sexual partners in a Brazilian population. It included a total of 65 patients, 43 women and 22 male partners. Medical history and the sociobehavioral profile were assessed through interviews that included the association of oropharyngeal HPV and the sexual behavior of patients, and also extra and intra-oral examinations were performed. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. HPV DNA was checked through nested PCR with primers PGMY09/11 and GP5+/6+, and Pappilocheck to genotyping. Oropharyngeal HPV infection was detected in four of 65 (6.15%) cases, with one of 43 (2.3%) women, and three of 22 (13.6%) male partners. Clinically no patient showed HPV-related oral lesions. Pappilocheck assay showed the absence of HPV genotype commonly found in cervical mucosa. Moreover, there was no correlation between the presence of oropharyngeal HPV and sexual behavior risk factors. The results suggest that the presence of cervical lesions does not lead to HPV oropharyngeal infection. It also highlights the low rate of HPV infection in the oropharyngeal mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their partners in a researched sample. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 Photodynamic Therapy Against Human Cervical Cancer Cells In Vitro and in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzinski, Jill A; Guo, Jianxia; Philips, Brian J; Basse, Per; Craig, Ethan K; Bailey, Lisa; Comerci, John T; Eiseman, Julie L

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide [1]. Photodynamic therapy has been used for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with good responses, but few studies have used newer phototherapeutics. We evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using Pc 4 in vitro and in vivo against human cervical cancer cells. CaSki and ME-180 cancer cells were grown as monolayers and spheroids. Cell growth and cytotoxicity were measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. Pc 4 cellular uptake and intracellular distrubtion were determined. For in vitro Pc 4 photodynamic therapy cells were irradiated at 667nm at a fluence of 2.5 J/cm(2) at 48 h. SCID mice were implanted with CaSki and ME-180 cells both subcutaneously and intracervically. Forty-eight h after Pc 4 photodynamic therapy was administered at 75 and 150 J/cm(2). The IC50s for Pc 4 and Pc 4 photodynamic therapy for CaSki and ME-180 cells as monolayers were, 7.6μM and 0.016μM and >10μM and 0.026μM; as spheroids, IC50s of Pc 4 photodynamic therapy were, 0.26μM and 0.01μM. Pc 4 was taken up within cells and widely distributed in tumors and tissues. Intracervical photodynamic therapy resulted in tumor death, however mice died due to gastrointestinal toxicity. Photodynamic therapy resulted in subcutaneous tumor death and growth delay. Pc 4 photodynamic therapy caused death within cervical cancer cells and xenografts, supporting development of Pc 4 photodynamic therapy for treatment of cervical cancer. Support: P30-CA47904, CTSI BaCCoR Pilot Program.

  15. Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-1 infected women in Catalonia (Spain): implications for prevention of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuardo, Valeria; Agustí, Cristina; Godinez, José Manuel; Montoliu, Alexandra; Torné, Aureli; Tarrats, Antoni; Alcalde, Carmen; Martín, Dolores; Fernández-Montoli, Eulalia; Vanrell, Cristina; Solé, Josefa; Canet, Yolanda; Marqueta, José Manuel; Mohamed, Jadiyettu; Cuenca, Isabel; Lonca, Montserrat; Sirera, Guillem; Ferrer, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Lloveras, Belen; Miro, Josep María; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Casabona, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human Papillomavirus infection is a necessary factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. In HIV-1-infected women, HPV infection is more prevalent and a higher risk of cervical cancer has been identified. We aimed to calculate the prevalence of infection by HR-HPV, determine the factors associated with this infection and abnormal cytology findings and to describe the history of cervical cancer screening in HIV-1-infected women. We enrolled 479 HIV-1-infected women from the PISCIS cohort. Each patient underwent a gynecological check-up, PAP smear, HPV AND Hybrid capture, HPV genotyping, and colposcopy and biopsy, if necessary. We applied questionnaires to obtain information on sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and cervical screening variables. We present a cross-sectional analysis. Median age was 42 years. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 33.2% and that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) was 3.8%. The most common genotypes were 16(23%), 53(20.3%), and 52(16.2%). The factor associated with HR-HPV infection was age 500 cells/mm(3) (OR,8.4; 95%CI,3.7-19.2), HIV-1 viral load >10,000 copies/mL versus Catalonia, as well as the low coverage and frequency of screening in this group, means that better preventive efforts are necessary and should include vaccination against HPV, better accessibility to screening programs, training of health care professionals, and specific health education for HIV-1-infected women.

  16. Knowledge and awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among women in two distinct Nepali communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek Christopher; Bhatta, Madhav Prasad; Gurung, Santosh; Aryal, Shilu; Lhaki, Pema; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine knowledge and awareness among women in two sub-populations in Nepal - Khokana, a traditional Newari village in the Lalitpur District about eight kilometers south of Kathmandu, and Sanphebagar, a village development committee within Achham District in rural Far-Western Nepal. Study participants were recruited during health camps conducted by Nepal Fertility Care Center, a Nepali non-governmental organization. Experienced staff administered a Nepali language survey instrument that included questions on socio-demographics, reproductive health and knowledge on HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. Of the 749 participants, 387 (51.7%) were from Khokana and 362 (48.3%) were from Sanphebagar. Overall, 53.3% (n=372) of women were aware of cervical cancer with a significant difference between Khokana and Sanphebagar (63.3% vs 43.0%; p=0.001). Overall, 15.4% (n=107) of women had heard of HPV and 32% (n=34) of these women reported having heard of the HPV vaccine. If freely available, 77.5% of the women reported willingness to have their children vaccinated against HPV. Factors associated with cervical cancer awareness included knowledge of HPV (Khokana: Odds Ratio (OR)=24.5; (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-190.2, Sanphebagar: OR=14.8; 95% CI: 3.7-58.4)) and sexually transmitted infections (Khokana: OR=6.18; 95% CI: 3.1-12.4; Sanphebagar: OR=17.0; 95% CI: 7.3- 39.7) among other risk factors. Knowledge and awareness of HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine remains low among women in Khokana and Sanphebagar. Acceptance of a freely available HPV vaccine for children was high, indicating potentially high uptake rates in these communities.

  17. Effect of glacial acetic acid treatment of liquid-based cytology collections on performance of Cervista HPV HR for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus.

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    Munson, Erik; Du Chateau, Brian K; Nelson, Bridget E; Griep, Judith; Czarnecka, Jolanta; Amrhein, Robert D; Schroeder, Elizabeth R

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate cervical cytological analysis can be facilitated by glacial acetic acid (GAA) treatment of primary liquid-based collections to remove mucus, erythrocytes, inflammatory cells, and cellular debris. In the context of a commercial human papillomavirus (HPV) hybridization assay performed on 465 tandem specimens with and without GAA treatment, we show that GAA treatment significantly reduces genomic DNA content (P cytological workflow, laboratories should consider providing a specimen aliquot for HPV DNA detection prior to GAA treatment.

  18. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus cervical infection in female kidney graft recipients: an observational study

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    Pietrzak Bronislawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosuppressive therapy protects the transplanted organ but predisposes the recipient to chronic infections and malignancies. Transplant patients are at risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer resulting from an impaired immune response in the case of primary infection or of reactivation of a latent infection with human papillomavirus of high oncogenic potential (HR-HPV. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HR-HPV cervical infections and CIN in 60 female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age in comparison to that in healthy controls. Cervical swabs were analyzed for the presence of HR-HPV DNA. HR-HPV-positive women remained under strict observation and were re-examined after 24 months for the presence of transforming HR-HPV infection by testing for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA. All the HR-HPV-positive patients were scheduled for further diagnostic tests including exfoliative cytology, colposcopy and cervical biopsy. Results The prevalence of HR-HPV did not differ significantly between the study group and the healthy controls (18% vs 25%, p = 0.37. There was no correlation between HR-HPV presence and the immunosuppresive regimen, underlying disease, graft function or time interval from transplantation. A higher prevalence of HR-HPV was observed in females who had had ≥2 sexual partners in the past. Among HR-HPV-positive patients, two cases of CIN2+ were diagnosed in each group. In the course of follow-up, transforming HR-HPV infections were detected in two kidney recipients and in one healthy female. Histologic examination confirmed another two cases of CIN2+ developing in the cervical canal. Conclusions Female kidney graft recipients of reproductive age are as exposed to HR-HPV infection as are healthy individuals. Tests detecting the presence of HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA offer a novel diagnostic opportunity in those patients, especially in those cases where lesions have

  19. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV Vaccine Among HPV-Infected Chinese Women.

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    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yasmeen, Nafeesa; Li, Yuanyue; Zhang, Wenhui; Lu, Hongyu; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan; Yang, Shihua

    2017-09-04

    BACKGROUND It is important to understand the knowledge that various groups of a population have about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and their attitudes toward HPV vaccination, as it will ultimately influence their decision-making for or against the acceptability of vaccines and other preventive methods. This study was designed to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine among Chinese women in Yunnan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS A survey was conducted in Yunnan province by the Laboratory of Molecular Virology in collaboration with the Yunnan First People's Hospital in Feb 2015. A total of 388 women were recruited and asked to participate in a questionnaire-based interview that collected information related to their awareness and knowledge about: (1) cervical cancer, (2) HPV and HPV vaccine and willingness to have their children receive vaccination, and (3) demographic characteristics. RESULTS A total of 388 HPV-positive women were included; 300/388 (73.3%) were Han, and 88/388 (22.7%) were other ethnicities. Overall, 204/388 (52.6%) of the women were aware of cervical cancer, with a significant difference between Han women and women of other ethnic groups (168/388, 56.0% and 36/88, 40.9%; P=0.015). Overall, 26.5% of the women were aware of the role of HPV in cervical cancer; 29.0% of the Han women and 18.2% of women of other ethnic groups were aware of this role of HPV (P=0.05). The knowledge that HPV infection leads to cervical cancer was higher among Han women (29.0%) compared to women of other ethnicities (18.2%). Knowledge about the HPV vaccine was very low in all ethnic groups, but the Han women were more willing to allow their children to be vaccinated before they become sexually active. A similar difference has also been found in women from various regions. CONCLUSIONS Although level of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer was moderate, knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV

  20. Induction of apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma Hela cells with active components of Menispermum dauricum.

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    Wang, J Y; Sun, S; Liu, L; Yang, W S

    2014-02-13

    Menispermum dauricum DC possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects. In this study, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by active components of M. dauricum was investigated in the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line. HeLa cells were treated with different M. dauricum concentrations over different time periods. The proliferation-inhibitory rate and cytotoxic effect of HeLa cells were measured by using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the apoptotic rate was detected by flow cytometry. Expressions of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Fas proteins, in the apoptotic pathway, and the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were detected by SP immunocytochemistry. The MTT assay showed that active components of M. dauricum could significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (Pdauricum, the expressions of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, Fas protein, and NF-κB all increased, and the expression of the Bcl-2 protein decreased, with significant differences relative to the control group (Pdauricum through the NF-κB signal transduction pathway and the caspase pathway, which was related to the downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and the upregulation of Fas expression.

  1. Temporal proteomic profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 human cervical epithelial cells.

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    Tan, Grace Min Yi; Lim, Hui Jing; Yeow, Tee Cian; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Gupta, Rishein; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Chang, Li-Yen; Wong, Won Fen

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading causative agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide which can lead to female pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. A greater understanding of host response during chlamydial infection is essential to design intervention technique to reduce the increasing incidence rate of genital chlamydial infection. In this study, we investigated proteome changes in epithelial cells during C. trachomatis infection by using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technique coupled with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ) analysis. C. trachomatis (serovar D, MOI 1)-infected HeLa-229 human cervical carcinoma epithelial cells (at 2, 4 and 8 h) showed profound modifications of proteome profile which involved 606 host proteins. MGST1, SUGP2 and ATXN10 were among the top in the list of the differentially upregulated protein. Through pathway analysis, we suggested the involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in host cells upon C. trachomatis infection. Network analysis underscored the participation of DNA repair mechanism during C. trachomatis infection. In summary, intense modifications of proteome profile in C. trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 cells indicate complex host-pathogen interactions at early phase of chlamydial infection.

  2. Fibronectin-integrin mediated signaling in human cervical cancer cells (SiHa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Gargi; Fahreen, Shabana; Banerji, Aniruddha; Roy Choudhury, Paromita; Sen, Triparna; Dutta, Anindita; Chatterjee, Amitava

    2010-03-01

    Interaction between cell surface integrin receptors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components plays an important role in cell survival, proliferation, and migration, including tumor development and invasion of tumor cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of metalloproteinases capable of digesting ECM components and are important molecules for cell migration. Binding of ECM to integrins initiates cascades of cell signaling events modulating expression and activity of different MMPs. The aim of this study is to investigate fibronectin-integrin-mediated signaling and modulation of MMPs. Our findings indicated that culture of human cervical cancer cell (SiHa) on fibronectin-coated surface perhaps sends signals via fibronectin-integrin-mediated signaling pathways recruiting focal adhesion kinase (FAK) extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI-3K), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and modulates expression and activation of mainly pro-MMP-9, and moderately pro-MMP-2 in serum-free culture medium.

  3. A Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion Injury Model in Non-Human Primates (Macaca mulatta).

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    Salegio, Ernesto A; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Camisa, William; Fischer, Jason; Leasure, Jeremi; Buckley, Jennifer; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S; Rosenzweig, Ephron S; Moseanko, Rod; Strand, Sarah; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Haefeli, Jenny; Ma, Xiaokui; Nielson, Jessica L; Edgerton, V R; Ferguson, Adam R; Tuszynski, Mark H; Beattie, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    The development of a non-human primate (NHP) model of spinal cord injury (SCI) based on mechanical and computational modeling is described. We scaled up from a rodent model to a larger primate model using a highly controllable, friction-free, electronically-driven actuator to generate unilateral C6-C7 spinal cord injuries. Graded contusion lesions with varying degrees of functional recovery, depending upon pre-set impact parameters, were produced in nine NHPs. Protocols and pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to optimize the predictability of outcomes by matching impact protocols to the size of each animal's spinal canal, cord, and cerebrospinal fluid space. Post-operative MRI confirmed lesion placement and provided information on lesion volume and spread for comparison with histological measures. We evaluated the relationships between impact parameters, lesion measures, and behavioral outcomes, and confirmed that these relationships were consistent with our previous studies in the rat. In addition to providing multiple univariate outcome measures, we also developed an integrated outcome metric describing the multivariate cervical SCI syndrome. Impacts at the higher ranges of peak force produced highly lateralized and enduring deficits in multiple measures of forelimb and hand function, while lower energy impacts produced early weakness followed by substantial recovery but enduring deficits in fine digital control (e.g., pincer grasp). This model provides a clinically relevant system in which to evaluate the safety and, potentially, the efficacy of candidate translational therapies.

  4. Synergistic effect of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and cisplatin in human cervical carcinoma.

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    Zheng, Xiaodong; Lv, Jieqiang; Shen, Qi; Chen, Yumei; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to delineate how pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) affects nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and to determine its antitumor activity alone and in combination with cisplatin in human cervical cancer SiHa cells. The SiHa cells were treated with various concentrations of PDTC and/or cisplatin at various time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt 8 assay and flow cytometry. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to assess NF-κB activity. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (2.5-100 µmol/L) was found to inhibit the growth of SiHa cell lines. Cisplatin (0.01-20.0 μg/mL) and PDTC (2.5-20.0 µmol/L) combined demonstrated additive inhibitive effects on cell growth and increased the level of apoptosis. In addition, PDTC blocked cisplatin-induced activation of NF-κB, leading to enhanced apoptosis and increased chemosensitivity to cisplatin. Taken together, PDTC has significant potential as a chemotherapy agent, alone or in combination with cisplatin.

  5. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus recombinant vaccine: The first vaccine for cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardasil ® is the first quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV- types 6, 11, 16, 18 recombinant vaccine approved by the FDA on June 8, 2006. It induces genotype-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies and prevents infection with HPV. Various clinical trials demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of vaccine-type-specific persistent infections and of associated moderate- and high-grade cervical dysplasias and carcinomas in situ after its use. Gardasil is currently approved by FDA for prevention of genital warts, cancers and precancerous conditions of cervix and vulva in 9-26 years old females. Three doses of 0.5 ml of gardasil each at 0, 2 and 6 months are given intramuscularly. It is contraindicated in individuals who are hypersensitive to the active substances or to any of the excipients of the vaccine, patients with bleeding abnormalities or patients on anticoagulant therapy and during pregnancy. However, the vaccine, at an estimated $300-500 per course, is too expensive for many women in developing countries. Moreover, question regarding the longevity of the protection by vaccine is still unsolved. Hence, longer studies are required to establish its real status in cancer prevention.

  6. Anticarcinogenic effects of glycoalkaloids from potatoes against human cervical, liver, lymphoma, and stomach cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Lee, Kap-Rang; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, In-Seon; Kozukue, Nobuyuke

    2005-07-27

    Methods were devised for the isolation of large amounts of pure alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine from Dejima potatoes and for the extraction and analysis of total glycoalkaloids from five fresh potato varieties (Dejima, Jowon, Sumi, Toya, and Vora Valley). These compounds were then evaluated in experiments using a tetrazolium microculture (MTT) assay to assess the anticarcinogenic effects of (a) the isolated pure glycoalkaloids separately, (b) artificial mixtures of the two glycoalkaloids, and (c) the total glycoalkaloids isolated from each of the five potato varieties. All samples tested reduced the numbers of the following human cell lines: cervical (HeLa), liver (HepG2), lymphoma (U937), stomach (AGS and KATO III) cancer cells and normal liver (Chang) cells. The results show that (a) the effects of the glycoalkaloids were concentration dependent in the range of 0.1-10 mug/mL (0.117-11.7 nmol/mL); (b) alpha-chaconine was more active than was alpha-solanine; (c) some mixtures exhibited synergistic effects, whereas other produced additive ones; (d) the different cancer cells varied in their susceptibilities to destruction; and (e) the destruction of normal liver cells was generally lower than that of cancer liver cells. The decreases in cell populations were also observed visually by reversed-phase microscopy. The results complement related observations on the anticarcinogenic potential of food ingredients.

  7. Baicalein induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro.

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    Peng, Yong; Guo, Congshan; Yang, Yanhong; Li, Fenglin; Zhang, Yanxia; Jiang, Bin; Li, Qingwang

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that baicalein shows high antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the inhibitory effect of baicalein on human cervical cancer HeLa cells was studied in vitro. HeLa cells were treated with high (100 µg/ml) and low (50 µg/ml) doses of baicalein, and cell growth inhibition rates were examined by the MTT assay. The morphological changes of apoptotic cells were observed under the light and electron microscope, while the rate of cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was analyzed by western blot, and caspase-3 activation was examined by a caspase-3 activity assay and spectrophotometry. The results demonstrated that baicalein inhibits the proliferation of HeLa cells and induces apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent pathway, through downregulation of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and upregulation of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), Fas, Fas ligand (FasL) and caspase-8. Thus, we conclude that baicalein induces apoptosis of HeLa cells via the mitochondrial and the death receptor pathways. Cell apoptosis in HeLa cells was most likely promoted by the activation of the proteolytic enzyme caspase-3 in both pathways.

  8. Cervical cancer epidemiology in foreign women in Northern Italy: role of human papillomavirus prevalence in country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Enza; Caroli, Stefania; Paterlini, Luisa; Campari, Cinzia; Prandi, Sonia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    This study compares the incidence and treatments of cervical neoplasia in foreigners from high migration countries and Italians in the Reggio Emilia province (Northern Italy) in 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and cancer were calculated for foreigners versus Italian women; foreigners were also classified according to the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in their country of origin. The proportion of hysterectomies is presented as an indicator of inappropriate surgery in CIN3 and microinvasive cancers. A higher risk was observed in women from high human papillomavirus prevalence countries (HHPVC) both for cancer and for CIN3 (SIR=4.1, 95% CI=2.2-6.9; SIR=2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.5, respectively), whereas in those from low human papillomavirus prevalence countries (LHPVC), no difference for cancer and a lower risk for CIN3 were observed (SIR=1.0, 95% CI 0.2-2.2; SIR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, respectively). A lower CIN3/cancer ratio was found in women from HHPVC (2.6) and in women from LHPVC (3.6) than in Italians (7.4). The percentage of hysterectomies for CIN3 or microinvasive cancers was 3.4 in foreigners and 4.7 in Italians. A higher risk of cervical cancer was found in women from HHPVC compared with Italians and women from LHPVC, suggesting a role of HPV prevalence in the country of origin in the excess risk. The CIN3/cancer ratio was lower for both women from HHPVC and women from LHPVC, also suggesting a role of low screening uptake for cervical cancer incidence in immigrants.

  9. Estimate of the attenuation coefficient using a clinical array transducer for the detection of cervical ripening in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labyed, Yassin; Bigelow, Timothy A; McFarlin, Barbara L

    2011-01-01

    Premature delivery is the leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Currently, premature delivery cannot be prevented and new treatments are difficult to develop due to the inability to diagnose symptoms prior to uterine contractions. Cervical ripening is a long period that precedes the active phase of uterine contractions and cervical dilation. The changes in the microstructure of the cervix during cervical ripening suggest that the ultrasonic attenuation should decrease. The objective of this study is to use the reference phantom algorithm to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in the cervix of pregnant human patients. Prior to applying the algorithm to in vivo human data, two homogeneous phantoms with known attenuation coefficients were used to validate the algorithm and to find the length and the width of the region of interest (ROI) that achieves the smallest error in the attenuation coefficient estimates. In the phantom data, we found that the errors in the attenuation coefficients estimates are less than 12% for ROIs that contain 40 wavelengths or more axially and 30 echo lines or more laterally. The reference phantom algorithm was then used to obtain attenuation maps of the echoes from two human pregnant cervices at different gestational ages. It was observed that the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at a more advanced gestational age is smaller than the mean of the attenuation coefficient estimates in the cervix of the patient at an earlier gestational age which suggests that ultrasonic attenuation decreases with increasing gestational age. We also observed a large variance between the attenuation coefficient estimates in the different regions of the cervix due to the natural variation in tissue micro-structures across the cervix. The preliminary results indicate that the algorithm could potentially provide an important diagnostic tool for diagnosing the risk of premature delivery. Copyright © 2010

  10. Disruption of human papillomavirus 16 E6 gene by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas system in human cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lan Yu, Xiaoli Wang, Da Zhu, Wencheng Ding, Liming Wang, Changlin Zhang, Xiaohui Jiang, Hui Shen, Shujie Liao, Ding Ma, Zheng Hu, Hui Wang Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China Abstract: High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV, especially HPV16, is considered a main causative agent of cervical cancer. Upon HPV infection, the viral oncoprotein E6 disrupts the host tumor-suppressor protein p53, thus promoting malignant transformation of normal cervical cells. Here, we used the newly developed programmable ribonucleic acid-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas system to disrupt the HPV16 E6 gene. We showed that HPV16 E6 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at specific sites, leading to apoptosis and growth inhibition of HPV16-positive SiHa and CaSki cells, but not HPV-negative C33A or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We also observed downregulation of the E6 protein and restoration of the p53 protein. These data proved that the HPV16 E6 ribonucleic acid-guided CRISPR/Cas system might be an effective therapeutic agent in treating HPV infection-related cervical malignancy. Keywords: CRISPR/Cas system, E6, p53, SiHa, CaSki, cervical cancer

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes associated with cervical and breast cancers in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Rassi; Behzad, Salehi; Tahar, Mohammadian; Azadeh, Nahavandi Araghi

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is a multi-step disease, and infection with a DNA virus could play a role in one or more of the steps in this pathogenic process. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agent of several cancers. In this study, we determined the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection among Iranian patients with cervix lesions (CL) and breast cancer (BC). The study group consisted of postoperative tissues from patients diagnosed with cervix lesions and breast cancer. We analyzed 250 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 100 cervix lesions and 150 breast cancer samples. Verification of each cancer reported in a relative was sought through the pathology reports of the hospital records. Cervix lesions were collected from 100 patients with squamous metaplasia (SM, n=50), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINI, n=18, CINII or III, n=8), and cervical carcinoma (CC, n=24). In this study we evaluated the prevalence of HPV by multiplex PCR in cervix lesions and breast cancer. For paraffin-embedded tissues, DNA extracted by the simple boiling method yielded higher proportions of successful gene amplification (99%) for b-actin gene. Overall prevalence of HPV infection was 6% in the SM group, 34.61% in the CIN group, 75% in the CC group, and 34.66% in the BC group. Furthermore, MY09/11 consensus PCR failed to detect 44 (55.69%) of all HPV infections and interestingly, the predominant genotype detected in all cancers was the oncogenic variant HPV16/18; about 34% of women aged 24 to 54 were infected with at least one type of HPV. Our results demonstrate that DNA derived from archival tissues that archived for less than 8 years could be used successfully for HPV genotyping by multiplex PCR. Infection with HPV was prevalent among Iranian women with CC and BC. The results indicate a likely causal role for high-risk HPV in CC and BC, and also offer the possibility of primary prevention of these cancers by vaccination against HPV in Iran.

  12. Prognostic implication of human papillomavirus types and species in cervical cancer patients undergoing primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yat Ming; Cheung, Tak Hong; Yeo, Winnie; Mo, Frankie; Yu, Mei Yung; Lee, Kun Min; Ho, Wendy C S; Yeung, Apple C M; Law, Priscilla T Y; Chan, Paul K S

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with cervical cancer. It is well established that individual HPV types vary in oncogenicity, but current data on their prognostic implication remain controversial. We examined the association between HPV types/species and the survival of 236 Chinese women aged 26-87 (mean 54.4) years after receiving primary treatment for cervical cancer. Overall, 45.8% were of FIGO stage I, 41.9% stage II, and 12.3% stage III. The four most prevalent types found were HPV-16 (60.2%), HPV-18 (21.6%), HPV-52 (11.9%), and HPV-58 (9.3%). Overall, 19.5% of patients had multiple-type infections, 78.4% harboured one or more alpha-9 species, and 28.8% harboured one or more alpha-7 species. After a median follow-up of 8.0 years, 156 (66.1%) patients survived. The 3-year overall survival rate was 75.5%. Factors independently associated with a poorer 3-year overall survival were age >60 years, tumour size >4 cm, lymph node involvement and treatment with radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy. Univariate analysis showed HPV-16 single-type infection was associated with a marginally poorer disease-specific survival (71.6% vs. 87.0%, HR: 1.71, 95% CI = 1.01-2.90), whereas non-HPV-16 alpha-9 species was associated with a better disease-specific survival (90.0% vs. 76.2%, HR: 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16-0.79). However, on multivariate analysis, HPV infection status irrespective of different grouping methods, including individual types, species, single-type or co-infection, did not carry any significant prognostic significance. In conclusion, we did not observe any association between infection with a particular HPV type/species and survival. An HPV type-based stratification in treatment and follow-up plan could not be recommended.

  13. Prognostic implication of human papillomavirus types and species in cervical cancer patients undergoing primary treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yat Ming Lau

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types are associated with cervical cancer. It is well established that individual HPV types vary in oncogenicity, but current data on their prognostic implication remain controversial. We examined the association between HPV types/species and the survival of 236 Chinese women aged 26-87 (mean 54.4 years after receiving primary treatment for cervical cancer. Overall, 45.8% were of FIGO stage I, 41.9% stage II, and 12.3% stage III. The four most prevalent types found were HPV-16 (60.2%, HPV-18 (21.6%, HPV-52 (11.9%, and HPV-58 (9.3%. Overall, 19.5% of patients had multiple-type infections, 78.4% harboured one or more alpha-9 species, and 28.8% harboured one or more alpha-7 species. After a median follow-up of 8.0 years, 156 (66.1% patients survived. The 3-year overall survival rate was 75.5%. Factors independently associated with a poorer 3-year overall survival were age >60 years, tumour size >4 cm, lymph node involvement and treatment with radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy. Univariate analysis showed HPV-16 single-type infection was associated with a marginally poorer disease-specific survival (71.6% vs. 87.0%, HR: 1.71, 95% CI = 1.01-2.90, whereas non-HPV-16 alpha-9 species was associated with a better disease-specific survival (90.0% vs. 76.2%, HR: 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16-0.79. However, on multivariate analysis, HPV infection status irrespective of different grouping methods, including individual types, species, single-type or co-infection, did not carry any significant prognostic significance. In conclusion, we did not observe any association between infection with a particular HPV type/species and survival. An HPV type-based stratification in treatment and follow-up plan could not be recommended.

  14. Geometrical properties of the human child cervical spine with a focus on the C1 vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Lew, Sean M; Rao, Raj D

    2014-01-01

    Child dummies and injury criteria used in automotive crashworthiness environments are based on scaling from the adult and/or between children of different ages. Cartilage-to-bone ossification, spinal canal and joint developments of the spine, and strength attainments do not grow linearly from birth to maturity. Though this is known to medical professionals, age-based quantitative analyses are needed to accurately model the pediatric spine. The objective of this study was to quantify longitudinal growths of various regions of the first cervical vertebrae, responsible for transmitting the axial load from