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Sample records for human cerebrovascular control

  1. Central and cerebrovascular effects of leg crossing in humans with sympathetic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Harms; W. Wieling; W.N. Colier; J.W. Lenders; N.H. Secher; J.J. van Lieshout

    2010-01-01

    Leg crossing increases arterial pressure and combats symptomatic orthostatic hypotension in patients with sympathetic failure This study compared the central and cerebrovascular effects of leg crossing in patients with sympathetic failure and healthy controls. We addressed the relationship between M

  2. Cerebrovascular response to acute metabolic acidosis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Kersten, B.T.P.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the cerebrovascular response (delta CBV/delta PaCO2) during baseline metabolic conditions and acute metabolic acidosis. METHODS: 15 healthy subjects, 5 m, 10 f, 56 +/- 10 yrs were investigated. For acidification, NH4Cl was given orally. CBV was measured using Near Infrared

  3. Pathobiology of human cerebrovascular malformations: basic mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Judith; Sarin, Hemant; Awadallah, Nabil A; Shenkar, Robert; Awad, Issam A

    2004-07-01

    Cerebrovascular malformations affect more than 3% of the population, exposing them to a lifetime risk of hemorrhagic stroke, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) exhibit an immature vessel wall, a brittle hemorrhagic tendency, and epileptogenesis, whereas arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) lack capillary beds and manifest apoplectic bleeding under high-flow conditions. There are also more benign venous anomalies, capillary malformations, and lesions with mixed and transitional features. Advances have been made toward understanding the natural history, radiological and pathological correlates, and clinical management. Yet, mechanisms of lesion genesis and clinical manifestations remain largely unknown, and the clinical behavior in individual patients is highly unpredictable. Lesion pathogenesis likely involves abnormal assembly or maintenance of blood vessels, resulting in dysmorphic vessel phenotypes. Familial CCM disease is in part caused by mutations in a cytoskeletal-related protein that is likely integral to interendothelial cell connectivity and maturation of the vascular wall. Rare familial forms of AVM disease have been correlated with two different transforming growth factor-beta receptor components, possibly causing disturbance in signaling during vascular assembly. Relevance of these mechanisms to the more common and otherwise identical sporadic CCM and AVM lesions is being explored. In this report, basic mechanisms of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and how they possibly relate to the common cerebrovascular malformation lesions are reviewed. Novel concepts are discussed related to the cellular, molecular, and genetic substrates in CCM and AVM as well as to how this knowledge can be applied to predict, explain, and possibly modify clinical disease manifestations.

  4. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems

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    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  5. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-13

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  6. Central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity: a rebreathing demonstration illustrating integrative human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Christina M; Skow, Rachel J; Tymko, Michael M; Boulet, Lindsey M; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D; Ainslie, Philip N; Lemieux, Chantelle C M; Day, Trevor A

    2016-03-01

    One of the most effective ways of engaging students of physiology and medicine is through laboratory demonstrations and case studies that combine 1) the use of equipment, 2) problem solving, 3) visual representations, and 4) manipulation and interpretation of data. Depending on the measurements made and the type of test, laboratory demonstrations have the added benefit of being able to show multiple organ system integration. Many research techniques can also serve as effective demonstrations of integrative human physiology. The "Duffin" hyperoxic rebreathing test is often used in research settings as a test of central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of the hyperoxic rebreathing test for both respiratory and cerebrovascular responses to increases in CO2 and illustrate the integration of the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems. In the present article, methods such as spirometry, respiratory gas analysis, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound are described, and raw data traces can be adopted for discussion in a tutorial setting. If educators have these instruments available, instructions on how to carry out the test are provided so students can collect their own data. In either case, data analysis and quantification are discussed, including principles of linear regression, calculation of slope, the coefficient of determination (R(2)), and differences between plotting absolute versus normalized data. Using the hyperoxic rebreathing test as a demonstration of the complex interaction and integration between the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems provides senior undergraduate, graduate, and medical students with an advanced understanding of the integrative nature of human physiology.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi-associated cerebrovascular disease: a case-control study in Eastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Mendoza, Eder; Torres-Hillera, Martin; Pinto, Neyla; Prada, Janette; Silva, Clara A; Vera, Silvia J; Castillo, Erwin; Valderrama, Vladimir; Prada, Didier G; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Garcia, Ingrid

    2004-01-15

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a common cause of cardiopathy in South America leading it eventually to an established stroke; however, the association between T. cruzi infection itself and cerebrovascular disease is still unknown. We did a case-control study at Eastern Colombia and found that T. cruzi infection was more frequent and statistically significant in stroke cases (24.4%) than controls (1.9%), (Chi square: 21.72; OR: 16.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.64-71.4; p<0.00001). After removing the seropositive patients with cardiological abnormalities, the significance still remained by multivariate analysis (p<0.05). This is the first case-control study that demonstrated a significant link between this infection and symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, mainly ischemic, regardless of cardiac abnormalities. Therefore, we recommend that patients with stroke must be screened for T. cruzi infection if they currently live or have lived in places where this parasite is considered endemic.

  8. Human skin hypoxia modulates cerebrovascular and autonomic functions.

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    Olivia Pucci

    Full Text Available Because the skin is an oxygen sensor in amphibians and mice, we thought to confirm this function also in humans. The human upright posture, however, introduces additional functional demands for the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis in which cerebral blood flow and autonomic nervous system (ANS function may also be involved. We examined nine males and three females. While subjects were breathing ambient air, at sea level, we changed gases in a plastic body-bag during two conditions of the experiment such as to induce skin hypoxia (with pure nitrogen or skin normoxia (with air. The subjects performed a test of hypoxic ventilatory drive during each condition of the experiment. We found no differences in the hypoxic ventilatory drive tests. However, ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities were modulated by skin hypoxia and the effect was significantly greater on the left than right middle cerebral arteries. We conclude that skin hypoxia modulates ANS function and cerebral blood flow velocities and this might impact life styles and tolerance to ambient hypoxia at altitude. Thus the skin in normal humans, in addition to its numerous other functions, is also an oxygen sensor.

  9. Subjective and objective knowledge and decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls

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    Riechel C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Christina Riechel,1,* Anna Christina Alegiani,1,* Sascha Köpke,2 Jürgen Kasper,3,4 Michael Rosenkranz,1,5 Götz Thomalla,1 Christoph Heesen1,4 1Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Nursing Research Unit, Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Institute of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 5Department of Neurology, Albertinen-Krankenhaus, Hamburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Risk knowledge and active role preferences are important for patient involvement in treatment decision-making and adherence. Although knowledge about stroke warning signs and risk factors has received considerable attention, objective knowledge on secondary prevention and further self-esteem subjective knowledge have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and treatment decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls. Methods: We performed a survey on subjective and objective stroke risk knowledge and autonomy preferences in cerebrovascular patients from our stroke outpatient clinic (n=262 and from pedestrians on the street taken as controls during a “World Stroke Day” (n=274. The questionnaire includes measures for knowledge and decisional role preferences from previously published questionnaires and newly developed measures, for example, subjective knowledge, revealed on a visual analog scale. Results: The overall stroke knowledge was low to moderate, with no differences between patients and controls. Knowledge about secondary prevention was particularly low. Only 10%–15% of participants correctly estimated the stroke absolute risk reduction potential of aspirin. The medical data

  10. Long-term effects of pioglitazone on first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes: A case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-08-01

    Long-term studies demonstrating the effect of pioglitazone use on primary prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between pioglitazone use and first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan.We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2359 type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years with newly diagnosed ischemic cerebrovascular disease from 2005 to 2011 as the case group and 4592 sex- and age-matched, randomly selected type 2 diabetic subjects aged ≥65 years without ischemic cerebrovascular disease as the control group. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with pioglitazone use was measured by the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model.After adjustment for confounding factors, the multivariable logistic regression analysis disclosed that the adjusted ORs of first attack of ischemic cerebrovascular disease associated with cumulative duration of using pioglitazone were 3.34 for pioglitazone use does not have a protective effect on primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease among older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus during the first 3 years of use. Whether using pioglitazone for >3 years would have primary prevention for ischemic cerebrovascular disease needs a long-term research to prove.

  11. Characterization of Peripheral Immune Cell Subsets in Patients with Acute and Chronic Cerebrovascular Disease: A Case-Control Study

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    Peter Kraft

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Immune cells (IC play a crucial role in murine stroke pathophysiology. However, data are limited on the role of these cells in ischemic stroke in humans. We therefore aimed to characterize and compare peripheral IC subsets in patients with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (AIS/TIA, chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD and healthy volunteers (HV. We conducted a case-control study of patients with AIS/TIA (n = 116 or CCD (n = 117, and HV (n = 104 who were enrolled at the University Hospital Würzburg from 2010 to 2013. We determined the expression and quantity of IC subsets in the three study groups and performed correlation analyses with demographic and clinical parameters. The quantity of several IC subsets differed between the AIS/TIA, CCD, and HV groups. Several clinical and demographic variables independently predicted the quantity of IC subsets in patients with AIS/TIA. No significant changes in the quantity of IC subsets occurred within the first three days after AIS/TIA. Overall, these findings strengthen the evidence for a pathophysiologic role of IC in human ischemic stroke and the potential use of IC-based biomarkers for the prediction of stroke risk. A comprehensive description of IC kinetics is crucial to enable the design of targeted treatment strategies.

  12. [Controlled multicenter study on the therapeutic effectiveness of mesoglycan in patients with cerebrovascular disease].

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    Abate, G; Berenga, A; Caione, F; Capodaglio, M; Cuzzupoli, M; Guido, A; Forestiero, G; Guizzardi, G; Mancini, G; Viscanti, G

    1991-03-01

    One hundred and forty-five elderly patients affected by cerebrovascular diseases were included in the study. Patients were divided into two age-, sex- and clinically matched groups: the first group included 103 patients who were treated for six months with mesoglycan (100 mg/day), whereas the second group, which numbered 42 patients, received standard anti-platelet treatment over the same period. The results of the study confirm the clinical efficacy of mesoglycan compared to standard treatment with antiplatelet drugs in terms of ischemic events and the "quality of life" of cerebrovasculopathic patients.

  13. Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from International Space Station (CCISS)- Heart Rate and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Blaber, A. P.; Arbeille, Ph.; Zuj, K. A.; Greaves, D. K.

    2008-06-01

    CCISS is a project to study the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses of astronauts before, during and after long-duration (>60-day) stays on the International Space Station. The CCISS experiments consist of three phases that are designed to achieve an integrated examination of components responsible for return of blood to the heart, the pumping of blood from the heart and the distribution to the vascular territories including the brain. In this report the data are obtained from the 24-h monitoring of physical activity (Actiwatch on wrist and ankle) and of heart rate (Holter monitor). The data show clear patterns of change in physical activity from predominantly leg-based on Earth to relatively little activity of the ankles with maintained or increased activity of the wrists on ISS. Both on Earth and on ISS the largest changes in heart rate occur during the periods of leg activity. Average heart rate was changed little during the periods of minimal activity or of sleep in comparisons of Earth with in-flight recording both within the first two weeks of flight and the last two weeks. These data clearly show the importance of monitoring heart rate and physical activity simultaneously and show that attempts to derive indicators of autonomic activity from spectral analysis of heart rate variability should not be performed in the absence of knowledge of both variables.

  14. Genetic risk factors for cerebrovascular disease in children with sickle cell disease: design of a case-control association study and genomewide screen

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    Brambilla Donald

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phenotypic heterogeneity of sickle cell disease is likely the result of multiple genetic factors and their interaction with the sickle mutation. High transcranial doppler (TCD velocities define a subgroup of children with sickle cell disease who are at increased risk for developing ischemic stroke. The genetic factors leading to the development of a high TCD velocity (i.e. cerebrovascular disease and ultimately to stroke are not well characterized. Methods We have designed a case-control association study to elucidate the role of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for cerebrovascular disease as measured by a high TCD velocity in children with sickle cell disease. The study will consist of two parts: a candidate gene study and a genomewide screen and will be performed in 230 cases and 400 controls. Cases will include 130 patients (TCD ≥ 200 cm/s randomized in the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP study as well as 100 other patients found to have high TCD in STOP II screening. Four hundred sickle cell disease patients with a normal TCD velocity (TCD Discussion It is expected that this study will yield important information on genetic risk factors for the cerebrovascular disease phenotype in sickle cell disease by clarifying the role of candidate genes in the development of high TCD. The genomewide screen for a large number of SNPs may uncover the association of novel polymorphisms with cerebrovascular disease and stroke in sickle cell disease.

  15. Cognitive impairments in patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease and neuropsychological performance by cognitive function assessment. Methods Using a case-control study,45 patients with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive lesions (patient group) and 59 control subjects without cerebrovascular

  16. Endocannabinoids in cerebrovascular regulation.

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    Benyó, Zoltán; Ruisanchez, Éva; Leszl-Ishiguro, Miriam; Sándor, Péter; Pacher, Pál

    2016-04-01

    The cerebral blood flow is tightly regulated by myogenic, endothelial, metabolic, and neural mechanisms under physiological conditions, and a large body of recent evidence indicates that inflammatory pathways have a major influence on the cerebral blood perfusion in certain central nervous system disorders, like hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and vascular dementia. All major cell types involved in cerebrovascular control pathways (i.e., smooth muscle, endothelium, neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and leukocytes) are capable of synthesizing endocannabinoids and/or express some or several of their target proteins [i.e., the cannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel]. Therefore, the endocannabinoid system may importantly modulate the regulation of cerebral circulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a very complex manner. Experimental data accumulated since the late 1990s indicate that the direct effect of cannabinoids on cerebral vessels is vasodilation mediated, at least in part, by CB1 receptors. Cannabinoid-induced cerebrovascular relaxation involves both a direct inhibition of smooth muscle contractility and a release of vasodilator mediator(s) from the endothelium. However, under stress conditions (e.g., in conscious restrained animals or during hypoxia and hypercapnia), cannabinoid receptor activation was shown to induce a reduction of the cerebral blood flow, probably via inhibition of the electrical and/or metabolic activity of neurons. Finally, in certain cerebrovascular pathologies (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as traumatic and ischemic brain injury), activation of CB2 (and probably yet unidentified non-CB1/non-CB2) receptors appear to improve the blood perfusion of the brain via attenuating vascular inflammation.

  17. Comparison of Nutech Functional Score with European Stroke Scale for Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident Treated with Human Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Shroff, Geeta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Stem cell therapy is a promising modality for treatment of patients with chronic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in whom treatment other than physiotherapy or occupational therapy does not address the repair or recovery of the lost function. In this study, the author aimed at evaluating CVA patients treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy and comparing their study outcomes with globally accepted European Stroke Scale (ESS) to that with novel scoring system, Nutech functional score (NFS), a 21-point positional and directional scoring system for assessing patients with CVA. Materials and Methods Patients diagnosed with CVA were assessed with NFS and ESS before and after hESC therapy. NFS assessed the patients in the direction of 1–5 (bad to good), where 5 was considered as the highest possible grade (HPG). The findings were obtained for the patients who scored HPG, and had shown improvement by at least one grade. Results Overall, 66.7% of patients scored HPG level on the NFS scale and about 62.5% of the patients scored HPG according to the ESS scale. Approximately, 52.2% patients showed an improvement of 100% (by at least one grade) on NFS scale. None of the patients showed 100% improvement in the alteration of the score by at least one grade when scored with ESS. Conclusion NFS and ESS scores show that a large population of CVA patients was benefitted with hESC therapy. NFS was found to give more convincing results than ESS, and overcomes the shortcomings of ESS. PMID:28702118

  18. Hemispheric asymmetry in cerebrovascular reactivity of the human primary motor cortex: an in vivo study at 7 T.

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    Driver, Ian D; Andoh, Jamila; Blockley, Nicholas P; Francis, Susan T; Gowland, Penny A; Paus, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    Current functional MRI (fMRI) approaches assess underlying neuronal activity through monitoring the related local variations in cerebral blood oxygenation, blood volume and blood flow. This vascular response is likely to vary across brain regions and across individuals, depending on the composition of the local vascular bed and on the vascular capacity to dilate. The most widely used technique uses the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal, which arises from a complex combination of all of these factors. The model of handedness provides a case where one brain region (dominant motor cortex) is known to have a stronger BOLD response over another (non-dominant motor cortex) during hand motor task performance. We predict that this is accompanied by a higher vascular reactivity in the dominant motor cortex, when compared with the non-dominant motor cortex. Precise measurement of end-tidal CO2 and a novel sinusoidal CO2 respiratory challenge were combined with the high sensitivity and finer spatial resolution available for fMRI at 7 T to measure BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in eight healthy male participants. BOLD CVR was compared between the left (dominant) and right (non-dominant) primary motor cortices of right-handed adults. Hemispheric asymmetry in vascular reactivity was predicted and observed in the primary motor cortex (left CVR = 0.60 ± 0.15%/mm Hg; right CVR = 0.47 ± 0.08%/mm Hg; left CVR > right CVR, P = 0.04), the first reported evidence of such a vascular difference. These findings demonstrate a cerebral vascular asymmetry between the left and right primary motor cortex. The origin of this asymmetry largely arises from the contribution of large draining veins. This work has implications for future motor laterality studies that use BOLD, and it is also suggestive of a vascular plasticity in the human primary motor cortex.

  19. Central and cerebrovascular effects of leg crossing in humans with sympathetic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Mark P M; Wieling, Wouter; Colier, Willy N J M;

    2010-01-01

    MCA Vmean (middle cerebral artery blood velocity; using transcranial Doppler ultrasound), frontal lobe oxygenation [O2Hb (oxyhaemoglobin)] and MAP (mean arterial pressure), CO (cardiac output) and TPR (total peripheral resistance) in six patients (aged 37-67 years; three women) and age- and gender.......12 (0.52-3.27)] in the patients compared with the controls [0.83 (-0.11 to 2.04) micromol/l]. In the control subjects, CO increased 11% (PTPR. By contrast, in the patients, CO increased 9% (PTPR increased by 13% (P... cerebral perfusion and oxygenation both in patients with sympathetic failure and in healthy subjects. However, in healthy subjects, cerebral perfusion and oxygenation were improved by a rise in CO without significant changes in TPR or MAP, whereas in patients with sympathetic failure, cerebral perfusion...

  20. Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent MRI Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Cerebrovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeeing, Diederik P J; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Petersen, Esben T

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) results of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI studies performed in patients with cerebrovascular disease (steno-occlusive vascular disease or stroke) were systematically reviewed. SUMMARY: Thirty-one articles...... found a significant lower ASL CVR in the ipsilateral hemispheres of patients compared to controls. KEY MESSAGES: This review brings support for a reduced BOLD and ASL CVR in the ipsilateral hemisphere of patients with cerebrovascular disease. We suggest that future studies will be performed in a uniform...... way so reference values can be established and could be used to guide treatment decisions in patients with cerebrovascular disease....

  1. Cerebrovascular disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930179 A study on senescence of red blood cellin patients with stroke.QIAN Caiyun(钱采韵),et al.Dept Neurol,1st Affili Hosp ZhongshanMed Univ,Guangzhou,510080.Chin J NervMent Dis 1992;18(3):146-148.Measurements of malonyldialdehyde(MDA)and superoxide dismutase(SOD)were per-formed on the patients with cerebral infarction(27 cases),cerebral hemorrhage(18 cases)and42 age-matched healthy controls.The resultsshowed that MDA content increased significant-

  2. Implementation assessment of the national program for the prevention and control of cerebro-vascular diseases in Cienfuegos. Period 2000-2004.

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    Rubén Bembibre Taboada

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The cerebrovascular deseases are the third cause of death and the leading cause of disability in Cuba. Due to the seriousness of this situation it was created the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Cerebrovascular Deseases. Objective: to evaluate the main achievements in the execution of this program, specifically in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: the prospective and descriptive study of a series of cases that engulfed all the patients with cerebrovascular deseases in the period of January the 1st,2000, to December 31st,2004 (n=3477. Data were obtained from the monthly and annually reports of the provincial comission; for the analysis of the deceased we counted on the reports of the Provincial Government of Health and of the State Commettee of Statistics. Results: we found a morbility rate of 192,26 per 100 000 inhabitants. The mortality rates decreased in 11,26 (from 82,51 to 71,25 per 100 000 inhabitants. The global lethality decreased in 13,74 (from 26,61 to 12,87 per 100 000 inhabitants: in infarcts, from 24,27 to 6,64; and in subarachnoid hemorrhage, from 39,21 to 24. An increment of favorable evolution in patients with brain attack and subarachnoid hemorrhage was notified, it did not happened with intracerebral hemorrhage. The evident outstanding results in the diminishing of progressive mortality and lethality during this five years support the correct decision of creating such a Program.

  3. Case-control study of platelet glycoprotein receptor Ib and IIb/IIIa expression in patients with acute and chronic cerebrovascular disease.

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    Peter Kraft

    Full Text Available Animal models have been instrumental in defining thrombus formation, including the role of platelet surface glycoprotein (GP receptors, in acute ischemic stroke (AIS. However, the involvement of GP receptors in human ischemic stroke pathophysiology and their utility as biomarkers for ischemic stroke risk and severity requires elucidation.To determine whether platelet GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptors are differentially expressed in patients with AIS and chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD compared with healthy volunteers (HV and to identify predictors of GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa expression.This was a case-control study of 116 patients with AIS or transient ischemic attack (TIA, 117 patients with CCD, and 104 HV who were enrolled at our University hospital from 2010 to 2013. Blood sampling was performed once in the CCD and HV groups, and at several time points in patients with AIS or TIA. Linear regression and analysis of variance were used to analyze correlations between platelet GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers and demographic and clinical parameters.GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers did not significantly differ between the AIS, CCD, and HV groups. GPIb receptor expression level correlated significantly with the magnitude of GPIIb/IIIa receptor expression and the neutrophil count. In contrast, GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers were not associated with peripheral immune-cell sub-population counts. C-reactive protein was an independent predictor of GPIIb/IIIa (not GPIb receptor numbers.Platelet GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa receptor numbers did not distinguish between patient or control groups in this study, negating their potential use as a biomarker for predicting stroke risk.

  4. Vinpocetine and Pyritinol: A New Model for Blood Rheological Modulation in Cerebrovascular Disorders—A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

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    Hayder M. Alkuraishy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood and plasma viscosity are the major factors affecting blood flow and normal circulation. Whole blood viscosity is mainly affected by plasma viscosity, red blood cell deformability/aggregation and hematocrit, and other physiological factors. Thirty patients (twenty males + ten females with age range 50–65 years, normotensive with history of cerebrovascular disorders, were selected according to the American Heart Stroke Association. Blood viscosity and other rheological parameters were measured after two-day abstinence from any medications. Dual effects of vinpocetine and pyritinol exhibit significant effects on all hemorheological parameters (P0.05. Therefore, joint effects of vinpocetine and pyritinol improve blood and plasma viscosity in patients with cerebrovascular disorders.

  5. Feasibility and precision of cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity MRI measurements using a computer-controlled gas delivery system in an anesthetised juvenile animal model.

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    Winter, Jeff D; Fierstra, Jorn; Dorner, Stephanie; Fisher, Joseph A; St Lawrence, Keith S; Kassner, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility and repeatability of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) imaging using a controlled CO(2) challenge in mechanically ventilated juvenile pigs. Precise end-tidal partial pressure CO(2) (PETCO(2)) control was achieved via a computer-controlled model-driven prospective end-tidal targeting (MPET) system integrated with mechanical ventilation using a custom-built secondary breathing circuit. Test-retest blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) CVR images were collected in nine juvenile pigs by quantifying the BOLD response to iso-oxic square-wave PETCO(2) changes. For comparison, test-retest baseline arterial spin labeling (ASL) cerebral blood flow (CBF) images were collected. Repeatability was quantified using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). The repeatability of the PETCO(2) (CV 0.94 and CV 0.96 and CV < 4%). This study demonstrates the feasibility and precision of CVR imaging with an MPET CO(2) challenge in mechanically ventilated subjects using an animal model. Translation of this method into clinical imaging protocols may enable CVR imaging in young children with cerebrovascular disease who require general anesthesia. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effects of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays and stretching on muscle tone in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Takezako, Nobuhiro; Shimonishi, Yuko; Usuda, Shigeru

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays (HI-LPNR) and stretching on hypertonia in cerebrovascular disease patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 cerebrovascular disease patients with hypertonia of the ankle joint plantar flexor muscle. The subjects were randomly allocated to groups undergoing treatment with HI-LPNR irradiation (HI-LPNR group), stretching (stretching group), HI-LPNR irradiation followed by stretching (combination group), and control group (10 subjects each). In all groups, the passive range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the specified intervention. [Results] The changes in passive range of motion, significant increase in the stretching and combination groups compared with that in the control group. The changes in passive resistive joint torque, significant decrease in HI-LPNR, stretching, and combination groups compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has effect of decrease muscle tone. However, combination of HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has no multiplier effect.

  7. Depression in cerebrovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Voskresenskaya, Tatyana

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the topical problem of depression in cerebrovascular diseases. It shows its possible causes, mechanisms of occurrence, clinical picture and negative impact on the course of cerebrovascular disease and recovery of neurological functions. There is a bilateral association between stroke and depression: on the one hand, stroke is a risk factor for the development of depression and, on the other, depression is a both direct and indirect risk factor for the development of stroke...

  8. Factors influencing ischemic cerebrovascular disease complicated by hyperhomocysteinemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongping An; Yonghong Xing; Sha Jin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia, as an important risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease is receiving increasing attention.OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether differences of gender, age, cerebrovascular disease typing, and disease conditions exist when ischemic cerebrovascular disease occurs together with hyperhomocysteinemia. DESIGN: A controlled observation. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 601 acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease inpatients, comprising 386 males and 215 females, aged 33-90 years old, were admitted to the Department of Stroke, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital between August 2005 and April 2007, and were recruited for this study. All included patients consisted of 342 aged patients (≥ 60 years old) and 92 middle-aged and young patients ( 0.05). No significant difference in incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia existed between mild, moderate, and severe cerebrovascular disease patients (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: There is a greater chance of ischemic cerebrovascular disease complicated by hyperhomocysteinemia in older, male patients.

  9. Implementation assessment of the national program for the prevention and control of cerebro-vascular diseases in Cienfuegos. Period 2000-2004. Evaluacion de la implementación del programa nacional para la prevención y control de las enfermedades cerebrovasculares en la Provincia Cienfuegos. Quinquenio 2000-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Iraola Ferrer

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundament: The cerebrovascular deseases are the third cause of death and the leading cause of disability in Cuba. Due to the seriousness of this situation it was created the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Cerebrovascular Deseases. Objective: to evaluate the main achievements in the execution of this program, specifically in the province of Cienfuegos. Methods: the prospective and descriptive study of a series of cases that engulfed all the patients with cerebrovascular deseases in the period of January the 1st,2000, to December 31st,2004 (n=3477. Data were obtained from the monthly and annually reports of the provincial comission; for the analysis of the deceased we counted on the reports of the Provincial Government of Health and of the State Commettee of Statistics. Results: we found a morbility rate of 192,26 per 100 000 inhabitants. The mortality rates decreased in 11,26 (from 82,51 to 71,25 per 100 000 inhabitants. The global lethality decreased in 13,74 (from 26,61 to 12,87 per 100 000 inhabitants: in infarcts, from 24,27 to 6,64; and in subarachnoid hemorrhage, from 39,21 to 24. An increment of favorable evolution in patients with brain attack and subarachnoid hemorrhage was notified, it did not happened with intracerebral hemorrhage. The evident outstanding results in the diminishing of progressive mortality and lethality during this five years support the correct decision of creating such a Program.

    Fundamento: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares constituyen la tercera causa de muerte y primera de discapacidad en Cuba. Dada la envergadura de este problema en nuestro país se implementó el Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de las mismas. Objetivo: Evaluar los principales resultados de la ejecución del

  10. Effect of an educational program in primary care: the case of lipid control in cardio-cerebrovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcoraci, V; Santoni, L; Ferrara, R; Furneri, G; Cannata, A; Sultana, J; Moretti, S; Di Luccio, A; Tari, D U; Pagliaro, C; Corrao, S; Tari, M

    2014-01-01

    Lowering blood cholesterol levels reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. However, the effect of interventions depends on the patients' adherence to treatment. Primary care plays an important role in the detection, treatment and monitoring of disease, therefore different educational programs (EP) have been implemented to improve disease management in general practice. The present study is aimed to assess whether a general practitioner auditing and feedback EP may improve dyslipidaemia management in a primary care setting and to evaluate patients' adherence to prescribed lipid-lowering treatment. The quality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease prevention before and after the implementation of an EP offered to 25 general practitioners (GPs), was evaluated. Clinical and prescription data on patients receiving at least one lipid-lowering treatment was collected. To evaluate the quality of the healthcare service provided, clinical and biochemical outcomes, and drug-utilization, process indicators were set up. Adherence was evaluated before and after the EP as the "Medication Possession Ratio" (MPR). A correlation analysis was carried out to estimate the effect of the MPR in achieving pre-defined clinical end-points. Prescription data for lipid-lowering drugs was collected in a sample of 839 patients. While no differences in the achievement of blood lipid targets were observed, a slight but significant improvement of the MPR was registered after the EP (MPR >0.8=64.2% vs 60.6%, p=0.0426). Moreover, high levels of statin adherence were associated with the achievement of total blood cholesterol target (OR=3.3 for MPR >0.8 vs MPR goal (OR=3.3 for MPR >0.8 vs MPR <0.5, 95% CI:1.5-7.2). The EP partially improved the defined clinical targets; probably, a more patient-based approach could be more appropriate to achieve the defined target. Further studies are needed to identify how healthcare services can be improved.

  11. Association of Fibrin Monomer Polymerization Function, Cerebrovascular Risk Factors and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease in Old People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪梅; 魏文宁; 李红戈; 杨锐; 杨焰

    2003-01-01

    Summary: In order to investigate the association of fibrin monomer polymerization function (FMPF)with traditional cerebrovascular risk factors and ischemic cerebrovascular disease in old people, 1 : 1paired case-control comparative study was performed for FMPF and traditional cerebrovascular riskfactors on 110 cases of old ischemic cerebrovascular disease and 110 controls matched on age, sex andliving condition. The results showed that cerebrovascular risk factors were more prevalent in casegroup than in control group. In the case group, FMPF was significantly higher than in controlgroup. There was a significant positive correlation between hypertension and fibrin monomer poly-merization velocity (FMPV), hypertension and fibrinogen (Fbg), alcohol consumption and Fbg, butno significant correlation between diabetic mellitus, smoking and FMPF was found. Among the pa-rameters of blood lipids, there were significant positive correlations between total cholesterol (TC)and parameters of FMPF to varying degrees, triglycerides (TG) and FMPV, TG and Fbg. Our re-sults also showed there were significant linear trends between TC and FMPV (P<0. 001), TC andFbg (P=0. 0087), TG and FMPV/Amax (maximum absorbance)(P=0. 0143) respectively. Multi-ple logistic regression analysis revealed that FMPF in case group remained significantly higher thancontrol group after adjustment of all risk factors that were significant in univariate analysis. It wasconcluded that there is a possible pathophysiological link between FMPF and cerebrovascular risk fac-tors. An elevated FMPF is associated with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and an independent riskfactor of this disease. In old people, detection of FMPF might be a useful screening to identify indi-viduals at increased cerebrothrombotic risk.

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae in elderly patients with stroke (C-PEPS): a case-control study on the seroprevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in elderly patients with acute cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeh, Joseph; Gupta, Sandeep; Goodbourn, Colin; Panayiotou, Barnabas; McElligott, Geraldine

    2003-01-01

    Multiple studies have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherosclerotic vascular disease. We investigated whether serological markers of C. pneumoniae infection were associated with acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), exclusively in elderly patients. One-hundred white patients aged over 65 years admitted with acute stroke or TIA, and 87 control patients admitted with acute non-cardiopulmonary, non-infective disorders were recruited prospectively. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, the presence of C. pneumoniae immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgM in patients' sera was determined. The seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae-specific IgA, IgG, IgM were 63, 71, and 14% in the stroke/TIA group (median age = 80), and 62, 65, and 17% in the control group (median age = 80), respectively. Using a logistic regression statistical model, adjusting for age and sex, history of hypertension, smoking, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), ischaemic electrocardiogram (ECG), the odds ratios (ORs) of having a stroke/TIA in relation to C. pneumoniae-specific IgA, IgG, IgM were 1.04, 1.24, 0.79 (p = NS). Further analysis identified 43 acute stroke/TIA cases and 44 controls without history of IHD or ischaemic ECG or both. After adjusting for history of hypertension, smoking, diabetes, age and sex, the ORs in this subgroup were 1.40 for IgA [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53-3.65; p = 0.49], 2.41 for IgG (95% CI 0.90-6.46; p = 0.08) and 1.55 for IgM (95% CI 0.45-5.40; p = 0.49). Although a high seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae in elderly patients was confirmed, no significant association between serological markers of C. pneumoniae infection and acute cerebrovascular events was found. There was, however, a weak trend towards increased ORs for acute cerebrovascular disease in a subgroup of C. pneumoniae seropositive elderly patients without any history of IHD or ischaemic ECG. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Systemic vascular function, measured with forearm flow mediated dilatation, in acute and stable cerebrovascular disease: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blacker David

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute ischaemic stroke is associated with alteration in systemic markers of vascular function. We measured forearm vascular function (using forearm flow mediated dilatation to clarify whether recent acute ischaemic stroke/TIA is associated with impaired systemic vascular function. Methods Prospective case control study enrolling 17 patients with recent acute ischaemic stroke/TIA and 17 sex matched controls with stroke more than two years previously. Forearm vascular function was measured using flow medicated dilatation (FMD. Results Flow mediated dilatation was 6.0 ± 1.1% in acute stroke/TIA patients and 4.7 ± 1.0% among control subjects (p = 0.18. The mean paired difference in FMD between subjects with recent acute stroke and controls was 1.25% (95% CI -0.65, 3.14; p = 0.18. Endothelium independent dilatation was measured in six pairs of participants and was similar in acute stroke/TIA patients (22.6 ± 4.3% and control subjects (19.1 ± 2.6%; p = 0.43. Conclusions Despite the small size of this study, these data indicate that recent acute stroke is not necessarily associated with a clinically important reduction in FMD.

  14. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...

  15. A mortalidade cárdio-cerebrovascular e os problemas da prática no controle da hipertensão arterial Cardiocerebrovascular mortality and problems of arterial hypertension control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Car

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão de literatura retoma-se a evolução da mortalidade cárdio-cerebrovascular e sua relação com os problemas da prática no controle da hipertensão arterial. Salienta-se a importância em dar continuidade a investigação das questões de acesso ao sistema de saúde, conhecimento do diagnóstico e adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão arterial.This article is a literature review of evolution of Cardiocerebrovascular mortality and the practical control of arterial hypertension. The importance of investigation is focalized on access to health system, knowledge of diagnosis and compliance to arterial hypertension treatment.

  16. MRI-based cerebrovascular reactivity using transfer function analysis reveals temporal group differences between patients with sickle cell disease and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Leung, MASc

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that conventional CVR analysis underestimates vessel reactivity and this effect is more prominent in patients with SCD. By using TFA, the resulting Gain and Phase measures more accurately characterize the BOLD response as it accounts for the temporal dynamics responsible for the CVR underestimation. We suggest that the additional information offered through TFA can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying CVR compromise in cerebrovascular diseases.

  17. Effects of Resveratrol on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Cerebrovascular Function in Post-Menopausal Women; A 14-Week Randomised Placebo-Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish M. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested whether chronic supplementation with resveratrol (a phytoestrogen could improve cerebrovascular function, cognition and mood in post-menopausal women. Eighty post-menopausal women aged 45–85 years were randomised to take trans-resveratrol or placebo for 14 weeks and the effects on cognitive performance, cerebral blood flow velocity and pulsatility index (a measure of arterial stiffness in the middle cerebral artery (using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, and cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR to both cognitive testing and hypercapnia were assessed. Mood questionnaires were also administered. Compared to placebo, resveratrol elicited 17% increases in CVR to both hypercapnic (p = 0.010 and cognitive stimuli (p = 0.002. Significant improvements were observed in the performance of cognitive tasks in the domain of verbal memory (p = 0.041 and in overall cognitive performance (p = 0.020, which correlated with the increase in CVR (r = 0.327; p = 0.048. Mood tended to improve in multiple measures, although not significantly. These results indicate that regular consumption of a modest dose of resveratrol can enhance both cerebrovascular function and cognition in post-menopausal women, potentially reducing their heightened risk of accelerated cognitive decline and offering a promising therapeutic treatment for menopause-related cognitive decline.

  18. Ocurrencia de enfermedad cerebrovascular en pacientes hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Concepción Orbay Araña

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para establecer la relación entre la hipertensión arterial esencial y la enfermedad cerebrovascular, en 19 consultorios del Médico de la Familia del Policlínico Plaza de la Revolución. Se aplicó una encuesta a pacientes reevaluados como hipertensos, confeccionándose una base de datos para tratamiento en el sistema FOXBASE versión 5.0. Aplicamos prueba de asociación entre variables cualitativas que se distribuyen en Chi cuadrado. Se identificó el comportamiento de la hipertensión arterial atendiendo a grados, los grupos etáreos, el sexo, la raza y los factores de riesgo asociados. Se estableció igualmente la relación entre el control de la hipertensión arterial y la aparición de la enfermedad cerebrovascular y encontramos un 15 % de población hipertensa, predominando la moderada (36,88 %, con mayor representación los grupos etáreos de 55 a 64 años (38,29 % y de 45 a 54 (23,16 %, del sexo femenino (55,02 % y de la raza blanca (54,04 %. La ocurrencia de enfermedad cerebrovascular estuvo representada por el 4, 35 %, correspondiente a 71 pacientes, con mayor asociación a la hipertensión arterial severa. No resultó significativamente estadística la relación entre enfermedad cerebrovascular e hipertensión arterial.A study was conducted to establish the relationship between essential arterial hypertension and cerebrovascular disease in 19 family physician offices of "Plaza de la Revolución" Polyclinic. Those patientes reevaluated as hypertensive were surveyed. A database for treatment was created in the FOXBASE system, version 5.0. A Chi square test of association among qualitative variables, which are distributed, was applied. The behavior of arterial hypertension was identified according to degrees, age groups, sex, race and the associated risk factors. The relation between the control of arterial hypertension and the appearance of cerebrovascular disease was also established. It was found a 15 % of

  19. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  20. Categorization of cerebrovascular intervention methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxin Zhao; Gelin Xu; Xinfeng Liu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular intervention is a medical strategy to diagnose and treat cerebrovascular disease by intravascular intervention techniques. With the continual developments of computer technology, imageology, and angiography, cerebrovascular intervention techniques have developed rapidly.OBJECTIVE: To summarize and to evaluate vascular imaging diagnostic techniques, vascular intra-arterial thrombolysis, vascular intra-arterial angioplasty, and vascular embolization in clinical applications.RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: An online search was conducted in PubMed for English language reports, published from January 2002 to January 2008, containing the key words: intervention therapy, cerebral vascular disease, endovascular intervention and angioplasty. A total of 57 publications were identified. Inclusion criteria: articles about cerebrovascular intervention for cerebrovascular disease; articles published either in high impact factor journals or in recent years. Exclusion criteria: duplicated articles.LITERATURE EVALUATION: 30 articles were identified concerning intravascular intervention techniques and arterial angioplasty. Of those, 7 articles were reviews and 23 were clinical or basic studies.DATA SYNTHESIS: Carotid artery and basilar artery stenosis were important etiological factors for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanism of stenosis induction included atherosclerotic plaque exfoliation and stenosis could cause hemodynamic changes to induce cerebral infarction. Therefore, the treatment of carotid artery and basilar artery stenosis played a key role in preventing ischemic cerebral infarction. The international organization for subarachnoid hemorrhage aneurysm has conclusively shown that both relative and absolute risk factors of intravascular embolotherapy were reduced compared to those of surgical occlusion, demonstrating the important role of vascular embolization for the treatment of intracranial aneurysm. Endovascular stents were placed into the

  1. Blunt cerebrovascular injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Stephen J; Bollo, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury in children is an uncommon occurrence that if missed and left untreated can result in devastating long-term neurologic consequences. Diagnosis can be readily obtained by a computed tomographic angiogram of the head and neck. If confirmed, treatment with antithrombotic therapy dramatically reduces the risk of a cerebrovascular accident. The difficulty lies in determining which child should be screened for such an injury. Several institutions have come up with criteria for screening. In this article, we review the nuances of the cerebrovascular system and its resulting injury. We present recent literature on the subject in an attempt to add clarity to this challenging situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of cerebrovascular disease in autopsy confirmed neurodegenerative disease cases in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Jon B; Arnold, Steven E; Raible, Kevin; Brettschneider, Johannes; Xie, Sharon X; Grossman, Murray; Monsell, Sarah E; Kukull, Walter A; Trojanowski, John Q

    2013-09-01

    Cerebrovascular disease and vascular risk factors are associated with Alzheimer's disease, but the evidence for their association with other neurodegenerative disorders is limited. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and correlate them with dementia severity. Presence of cerebrovascular disease, vascular pathology and vascular risk factors was studied in 5715 cases of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre database with a single neurodegenerative disease diagnosis (Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau, and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 immunoreactive deposits, α-synucleinopathies, hippocampal sclerosis and prion disease) based on a neuropathological examination with or without cerebrovascular disease, defined neuropathologically. In addition, 210 'unremarkable brain' cases without cognitive impairment, and 280 cases with pure cerebrovascular disease were included for comparison. Cases with cerebrovascular disease were older than those without cerebrovascular disease in all the groups except for those with hippocampal sclerosis. After controlling for age and gender as fixed effects and centre as a random effect, we observed that α-synucleinopathies, frontotemporal lobar degeneration due to tau and TAR DNA-binding protein 43, and prion disease showed a lower prevalence of coincident cerebrovascular disease than patients with Alzheimer's disease, and this was more significant in younger subjects. When cerebrovascular disease was also present, patients with Alzheimer's disease and patients with α-synucleinopathy showed relatively lower burdens of their respective lesions than those without cerebrovascular disease in the context of comparable severity of dementia at time of death. Concurrent cerebrovascular disease is a common neuropathological finding in aged subjects with dementia, is more common in Alzheimer

  3. Cerebrovascular manifestations following scorpion sting

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraja P; Naveen Prasad SV; Obulareddy G; Anil Ch; Naveen T; Vengamma B

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion sting is a common clinical problem in Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh State in India. Clilnical presentation of scorpion envenomation can range from mild local pain to systemic manifestations involving almost all systems. Cerebrovascular manifestations of scorpion sting have been sparsely documented. We report two cases who presented with ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke following scorpion sting.

  4. Enfermedad cerebrovascular en Colombia Cerebrovascular disease in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la enfermedad cerebrovascular constituye un problema de salud pública mundial. En Colombia es la cuarta causa de muerte en la población adulta y genera una alta discapacidad en estos pacientes. Objetivo: describir algunos resultados obtenidos por el grupo de Ciencias Neurovasculares de la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Desarrollo y conclusiones: la enfermedad cerebrovascular es una entidad con una alta prevalencia en la población colombiana y genera discapacidad mental, motora y del lenguaje. Es necesaria la implementación de unidades de cuidado neurovascular con personal entrenado, protocolos definidos, tratamientos adecuados y tecnología de punta. En Colombia deben imponerse este tipo de unidades dentro del cuidado básico de los pacientes para disminuir la morbilidad, mortalidad y discapacidad generada en estos pacientes. La Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia es pionera en la implementación de este tipo de cuidados.Introduction: cerebrovascular disease constitutes a worldwide public health problem. In Colombia, it is the fourth leading cause of death in the adult population and generates high disability in these patients. Objective: to describe some results obtained by the Neurovascular Sciences group from the Colombian Cardiovascular Foundation. Development and conclusions: cerebrovascular disease has a high prevalence in the Colombian population and generates mental, motor, and language disabilities. The implementation of neurovascular care units with trained personnel, defined protocols, adequate treatments and high technology, are necessary. This kind of units must be imposed in Colombia as a basic care for these patients in order to decrease morbidity, mortality and disability. The Colombian Cardiovascular Foundation is pioneer in the implementation of these care units.

  5. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En XU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, obesity, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle, alcoholism, metabolic syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, etc. Meanwhile, hypertension is the most important one in the above-mentioned risk factors. It would effectively reduce or postpone the onset of cerebrovascular diseases through proper intervention and management on those risk factors. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.006

  6. Effects of Dietary Nitrates on Systemic and Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow dysregulation is often associated with hypertension. We hypothesized that a beetroot juice (BRJ treatment could decrease blood pressure and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR. We subjected 12 healthy females to control and BRJ treatments. Cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, total vascular resistance (TVR, and the heart rate-systolic pressure product (RPP measured at rest and at two exercise workloads were lower after the BRJ treatment. CVRI, SBP, and RPP were lower without a lower TVR at the highest exercise level. These findings suggest improved systemic and cerebral hemodynamics that could translate into a dietary treatment for hypertension.

  7. A meta-analysis of cerebrovascular disease and hyperhomocysteinaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G M; Tvedegaard, K C; Andersen, Niels Trolle;

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia has been identified as a risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular disease in several studies. To evaluate the evidence we performed a meta-analysis. We found 21 studies searching Medline from 1966-July 1999 using the key words homocysteine, homocystine and cerebrovascular...... was used. The reports on 8 cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal studies gave data on the mean and standard deviations of plasma or serum homocysteine for both cases and controls, and these studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the 5 excluded studies all pointed to a positive relationship...

  8. 缺血性脑血管病患者Stroop测验病例对照研究%A case-control study on the indexes of Stroop color-word test in the patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂秋云; 丁斌蓉; 杨霞; 靳慧; 唐湘祁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the abilities of automatic processing,controlled processing,selective attention by Stroop color-word test in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease.Methods 124 patients (aged 60-90 years) with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and 126 cases with age and civilization matched healthy people were examined by Stoop color-word test (SCWT).The SCWT indexes were compared between two groups.Results Reading time of card 1,timeconsuming and error of card 2,4 and Stroop interference effects (SIE) in SCWT had significantly decreased in the patients than in the healthy people (all P<0.05).Conclusions The abilities of controlled processing and selective attention,but not automatic processing are damaged in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease.%目的 通过Stroop测验探讨缺血性脑血管病患者自动性加工、控制性加工、选择性注意功能的情况.方法 在124例年龄在60~90岁的缺血性脑血管病患者和126例年龄、文化程度与之相匹配的健康者中进行Stroop测验.通过对比两组人群Stroop测验各项指标,探讨缺血性脑血管病患者Stroop测验各指标的特点及与健康人群的区别.结果 两组比较,Stroop测验中卡片1的耗时数及卡片2、卡片4、字词反映干扰量(SIE)的耗时数及错误数的差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).结论 缺血性脑血管病患者的字词自动性加工能力无明显损害,而控制性加工能力及选择性注意能力受损.

  9. Movement disorders in cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.

  10. The average visual response in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostehuis, H.J.G.H.; Ponsen, E.J.; Jonkman, E.J.; Magnus, O.

    1969-01-01

    The average visual response (AVR) was recorded in thirty patients after a cerebrovascular accident and in fourteen control subjects from the same age group. The AVR was obtained with the aid of a 16-channel EEG machine, a Computer of Average Transients and a tape recorder with 13 FM channels. This

  11. Eagle syndrome revisited: cerebrovascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Tsuyoshi; Alexander, Michael; Stokol, Colin; Lyden, Patrick; Braunstein, Glenn; Gewertz, Bruce

    2012-07-01

    Cervical pain caused by the elongation of the styloid process (Eagle syndrome) is well known to otolaryngologists but is rarely considered by vascular surgeons. We report two patients with cerebrovascular symptoms of Eagle syndrome treated in our medical center in the past year. Case 1: an 80-year-old man with acromegaly presented with dizziness and syncope with neck rotation. The patient was noted to have bilateral elongated styloid processes impinging on the internal carotid arteries. After staged resections of the styloid processes through cervical approaches, the symptoms resolved completely. Case 2: a 57-year-old man presented with acute-onset left-sided neck pain radiating to his head immediately after a vigorous neck massage. Hospital course was complicated by a 15-minute transient ischemic attack resulting in aphasia. Angiography revealed bilateral dissections of his internal carotid arteries, with a dissecting aneurysm on the right. Both injuries were immediately adjacent to the bilateral elongated styloid processes. Despite immediate anticoagulation therapy, he experienced aphasia and right hemiparesis associated with an occlusion of his left carotid artery. He underwent emergent catheter thrombectomy and carotid stent placement, with near-complete resolution of his symptoms. Elongated styloid processes characteristic of Eagle syndrome can result in both temporary impingement and permanent injury to the extracranial carotid arteries. Although rare, Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with cerebrovascular symptoms, especially those induced by positional change.

  12. Genetic Causes of Cerebrovascular Disorders in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.C. Meuwissen (Marije)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cerebrovascular disorders in childhood comprise ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. This thesis comprises a escription of genetic causes of childhood cerebrovascular disorders. Two examples of genetic causes of ischemic stroke, comprising a case of ACTA2 mutation an

  13. Comparison of Nutech Functional Score with European Stroke Scale for Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident Treated with Human Embryonic Stem Cells: NFS for CVA Patients Treated with hESCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta

    2017-06-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising modality for treatment of patients with chronic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in whom treatment other than physiotherapy or occupational therapy does not address the repair or recovery of the lost function. In this study, the author aimed at evaluating CVA patients treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy and comparing their study outcomes with globally accepted European Stroke Scale (ESS) to that with novel scoring system, Nutech functional score (NFS), a 21-point positional and directional scoring system for assessing patients with CVA. Patients diagnosed with CVA were assessed with NFS and ESS before and after hESC therapy. NFS assessed the patients in the direction of 1-5 (bad to good), where 5 was considered as the highest possible grade (HPG). The findings were obtained for the patients who scored HPG, and had shown improvement by at least one grade. Overall, 66.7% of patients scored HPG level on the NFS scale and about 62.5% of the patients scored HPG according to the ESS scale. Approximately, 52.2% patients showed an improvement of 100% (by at least one grade) on NFS scale. None of the patients showed 100% improvement in the alteration of the score by at least one grade when scored with ESS. NFS and ESS scores show that a large population of CVA patients was benefitted with hESC therapy. NFS was found to give more convincing results than ESS, and overcomes the shortcomings of ESS.

  14. Cerebrovascular arteriopathy (arteriosclerosis) and ischemic childhood stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, S R; Bates, S; Lukin, R R; Benton, C; Third, J; Glueck, C J

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the intracranial cerebrovascular abnormalities and clinical status of 8 children who had familial lipoprotein disorders and evidence of thromboembolic cerebrovascular disease. Six of the 8 children had low levels of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol, two had high triglyceride levels, and all came from kindreds characterized by familial lipoprotein abnormalities and premature cardio- and/or cerebrovascular atherosclerosis. Vascular occlusion, irregularities of the arterial lumen, beading, tortuosity, and evidence of collateralization were consistently noted. We speculate that cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in pediatric ischemic stroke victims who have familial lipoprotein abnormalities may be related to lipoprotein-mediated endothelial damage and thrombosis formation, or to the failure to restore endothelial cells' integrity following damage. The apparent association of lipoproteins and strokes in children and their families merits further exploration, particularly when assessing cerebral angiograms in pediatric ischemic stroke victims. In children with unexplained ischemic cerebrovascular accidents, the diagnostic possibility of occlusive arteriosclerosis with thrombosis must be entertained.

  15. Gray Cerebrovascular Image Skeleton Extraction Algorithm Using Level Set Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguity and complexity of medical cerebrovascular image makes the skeleton gained by conventional skeleton algorithm discontinuous, which is sensitive at the weak edges, with poor robustness and too many burrs. This paper proposes a cerebrovascular image skeleton extraction algorithm based on Level Set model, using Euclidean distance field and improved gradient vector flow to obtain two different energy functions. The first energy function controls the  obtain of topological nodes for the beginning of skeleton curve. The second energy function controls the extraction of skeleton surface. This algorithm avoids the locating and classifying of the skeleton connection points which guide the skeleton extraction. Because all its parameters are gotten by the analysis and reasoning, no artificial interference is needed.

  16. Cerebrovascular reactivity among native-raised high altitude residents: an fMRI study

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    Zhang Jiaxing

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of long term residence on high altitude (HA on human brain has raised concern among researchers in recent years. This study investigated the cerebrovascular reactivity among native-born high altitude (HA residents as compared to native sea level (SL residents. The two groups were matched on the ancestral line, ages, gender ratios, and education levels. A visual cue guided maximum inspiration task with brief breath holding was performed by all the subjects while Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data were acquired from them. Results Compared to SL controls, the HA group showed generally decreased cerebrovascular reactivity and longer delay in hemodynamic response. Clusters showing significant differences in the former aspect were located at the bilateral primary motor cortex, the right somatosensory association cortex, the right thalamus and the right caudate, the bilateral precuneus, the right cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, as well as the left fusiform gyrus and the right lingual cortex; clusters showing significant differences in the latter aspect were located at the precuneus, the insula, the superior frontal and temporal gyrus, the somatosensory cortex (the postcentral gyrus and the cerebellar tonsil. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV, which is an important aspect of pulmonary function, demonstrated significant correlation with the amount of BOLD signal change in multiple brain regions, particularly at the bilateral insula among the HA group. Conclusions Native-born HA residents generally showed reduced cerebrovascular reactivity as demonstrated in the hemodynamic response during a visual cue guided maximum inspiration task conducted with BOLD-fMRI. This effect was particularly manifested among brain regions that are typically involved in cerebral modulation of respiration.

  17. FastStats: Cerebrovascular Disease or Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button NCHS Home Cerebrovascular Disease or Stroke Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Morbidity Number of adults who ever had a stroke: 6.5 million Percent of adults who ever ...

  18. Resveratrol preserves cerebrovascular density and cognitive function in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Oomen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol abundant in grapes and red wine, has been reported to exert numerous beneficial health effects. Among others, acute neuroprotective effects of resveratrol have been reported in several models of neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we examined the neuroprotective effects of long term dietary supplementation with resveratrol in mice on behavioral, neurochemical and cerebrovascular level. We report a preserved cognitive function in resveratrol treated aging mice, as shown by an enhanced acquisition of a spatial Y-maze task. This was paralleled by a higher microvascular density and a lower number of microvascular abnormalities in comparison to aging non-treated control animals. We found no effects of resveratrol supplementation on cholinergic cell number or fiber density. The present findings support the hypothesis that resveratrol exerts beneficial effects on the brain by maintaining cerebrovascular health. Via this mechanism resveratrol can contribute to the preservation of cognitive function during aging.

  19. Polyclonal light chains in cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Fiori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Patrizia Fiori1, Maria Giannetti Luigi2, Linda Iurato1, Carminantonio Tammaro3, Gigliola Esposito3, Antonio Monaco11Central Operative Unit of Neurology (Dir. A Monaco, 2Infantile Neuropsychiatry and Social Service (Dir. LM Giannetti, 3Laboratory (Dir. CA Tammaro, ASL AV, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, University of Naples, ItalyAbstract: Altered membrane permeability is a hallmark of inflammation and ischemia with systemic spreading. Renal dysfunction is a risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess proteinuria and urinary polyclonal light chains in acute stroke and chronic cerebrovascular disease compared with other neurologic diseases. Our results showed significantly increased levels of urinary polyclonal light chains in cerebrovascular disease compared with other neurologic diseases. The highest values of urinary polyclonal κ chains were found in acute stroke compared with chronic cerebrovascular disease and other neurologic diseases, while the level of λ chains was mainly increased in chronic cerebrovascular diseases. The shift to chronic renal failure seems to be signaled by a decreased polyclonal light chain/creatinemia ratio. The absence of a significant correlation with blood pressure and other seric parameters suggests that polyclonal light chains are an early marker of reversible vascular impairment with renal dysfunction before progression to irreversible renal failure and need for dialysis and/or intensive care.Keywords: polyclonal light chains, cerebrovascular disease, renal failure

  20. Evaluation of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders by RI angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumori, Kuniaki; Beppu, Toshio; Nakayama, Kenji; Saito, Motoyoshi; Aoki, Nobuo; Tokiwa, Kaichi; Tasei, Yukimitsu

    1984-11-01

    In evaluating the hemodynamic status of the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disorders, the use of an invasive method may occasionally be precluded by patient's old age and the presence of complications. In such an instance we electively use RI angiography with sup(99m)Tc-HSA as a less invasive method of evaluating cerebral hemodynamics. This procedure was performed in a total of 30 patients at our department, 22 inpatients with ischemic cerebrovascular disorders and 8 with headache who served as controls. Time activity curves constructed from RI angiograms thus obtained were classified into 5 types according to their pattern. The pattern of time activity curve had no correlation with the size of infarcted area but was found to correlate with the length of time elapsing from the onset (disease stage) and hence was thought to be of prognostic value. The mean transit time, half time and appearance time to peak time were estimated for each type of time activity curve. However, values of these parameters for any type of the curve were not significantly different from control values. It was thus considered that comparing the curves, as they were, from the healthy and affected sides of the patient's brain was the simplest and most useful method of understanding the existing status of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. (author).

  1. Caregiver awareness of cerebrovascular risk of patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Proper control of cerebrovascular risk is essential to prevent cognitive change in dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Objective To investigate whether caregiver awareness to control cerebrovascular risk impacts the lifestyles of patients with AD. Methods Consecutive outpatients with AD were assessed for demographic features, Clinical Dementia Rating scores, cerebrovascular risk, pharmacotherapy, dietary therapy and practice of physical activities. Patients and caregivers were inquired on awareness of the importance of measures to control cerebrovascular risk. Chi-square test was employed for statistics, significance at ρ < 0.05. Results A total of 217 patients were included; whereas 149 caregivers (68.7% were aware of the need to control cerebrovascular risk, only 11 patients (5.1% simultaneously practiced physical activities and received pharmacological treatment and dietary therapy. Patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more likely to receive dietary therapy (ρ = 0.007. Male patients were more engaged in physical activities (ρ = 0.018. Patients in earlier AD stages exercised (ρ = 0.0003 and received pharmacological treatment more often (ρ = 0.0072. Caregiver awareness of the need to control cerebrovascular risk was higher when patients had hypertension (ρ = 0.024 and/or hypercholesterolemia (ρ = 0.006, and influenced adherence to dietary therapy (ρ = 0.002 and to pharmacological treatment (ρ = 0.001. Discussion Caregiver awareness of the need to control cerebrovascular risk has positive impacts for patients with AD.

  2. Unemployment, government healthcare spending, and cerebrovascular mortality, worldwide 1981-2009: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph; Tariq, Zoon; Williams, Callum; Atun, Rifat; Davies, Alun H; Zeltner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with unemployment rises, reduced health spending, and worsened population health. This has raised the question of how economic variations affect health outcomes. We sought to determine the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality globally. Data were obtained from the World Bank and World Health Organization. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality. Country-specific differences in infrastructure and demographics were controlled for. One- to five-year lag analyses and robustness checks were conducted. Across 99 countries worldwide, between 1981 and 2009, every 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a significant increase in cerebrovascular mortality (coefficient 187, CI: 86.6-288, P = 0.0003). Every 1% rise in government healthcare expenditure, across both genders, was associated with significant decreases in cerebrovascular deaths (coefficient 869, CI: 383-1354, P = 0.0005). The association between unemployment and cerebrovascular mortality remained statistically significant for at least five years subsequent to the 1% unemployment rise, while the association between government healthcare expenditure and cerebrovascular mortality remained significant for two years. These relationships were both shown to be independent of changes in gross domestic product per capita, inflation, interest rates, urbanization, nutrition, education, and out-of-pocket spending. Rises in unemployment and reductions in government healthcare expenditure are associated with significant increases in cerebrovascular mortality globally. Clinicians may also need to consider unemployment as a possible risk factor for cerebrovascular disease mortality. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  3. Homocysteinemia control by cysteine in cerebral vascular patients after methionine loading test: evidences in physiological and pathological conditions in cerebro-vascular and multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulivelli, Monica; Priora, Raffaella; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Coppo, Lucia; Summa, Domenico; Margaritis, Antonios; Frosali, Simona; Bartalini, Sabina; Martini, Giuseppe; Cerase, Alfonso; Di Simplicio, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The toxicity risk of hyperhomocysteinemia is prevented through thiol drug administration which reduces plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations by activating thiol exchange reactions. Assuming that cysteine (Cys) is a homocysteinemia regulator, the hypothesis was verified in healthy and pathological individuals after the methionine loading test (MLT). The plasma variations of redox species of Cys, Hcy, cysteinylglycine, glutathione and albumin (reduced, HS-ALB, and at mixed disulfide, XSS-ALB) were compared in patients with cerebral small vessels disease (CSVD) (n = 11), multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 11) at 2-4-6 h after MLT. In MLT-treated subjects, the activation of thiol exchange reactions provoked significant changes over time in redox species concentrations of Cys, Hcy, and albumin. Significant differences between controls and pathological groups were also observed. In non-methionine-treated subjects, total Cys concentrations, tHcy and thiol-protein mixed disulfides (CSS-ALB, HSS-ALB) of CSVD patients were higher than controls. After MLT, all groups displayed significant cystine (CSSC) increases and CSS-ALB decreases, that in pathological groups were significantly higher than controls. These data would confirm the Cys regulatory role on the homocysteinemia; they also explain that the Cys-Hcy mixed disulfide excretion is an important point of hyperhomocysteinemia control. Moreover, in all groups after MLT, significant increases in albumin concentrations, named total albumin (tALB) and measured as sum of HS-ALB (spectrophometric), and XSS-ALB (assayed at HPLC) were observed. tALB increases, more pronounced in healthy than in the pathological subjects, could indicate alterations of albumin equilibria between plasma and other extracellular spaces, whose toxicological consequences deserve further studies.

  4. Controlled study on the effect of pentoxifylline and an ergot alkaloid derivative on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A.; Tsuda, Y.

    1988-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 90 patients with CBF decreased due to vascular diseases was studied by using the xenon 133 inhalation technique and a 32-detector setup. Whereas 30 patients received their standard basic therapy only and were regarded as controls, 30 others received 3 x 2 mg/day of an ergot alkaloid (co-dergocrine mesylate), and 30 others received 3 x 400 mg pentoxifylline (slow-release formulation)/day orally. Therapy was performed for eight weeks and CBF measured before start of treatment, after a four-week treatment period, and at the end of the study. CBF did not change significantly in the control group; both the pentoxifylline and the ergot alkaloid group presented with a significant increase in the CBF. This positive effect was significantly more pronounced in the pentoxifylline group and affected more ischemic than other brain tissues. In addition, symptoms like sleep disturbances, vertigo, and tinnitus improved significantly during the pentoxifylline observation period.

  5. Migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J Sinclair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is emerging that migraine is not solely a headache disorder. Observations that ischemic stroke could occur in the setting of a migraine attack, and that migraine headaches could be precipitated by cerebral ischemia, initially highlighted a possibly association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease. More recently, large population-based studies that have demonstrated that migraineurs are at increased risk of stroke outside the setting of a migraine attack have prompted the concept that migraine and cerebrovascular disease are comorbid conditions. Explanations for this association are numerous and widely debated, particularly as the comorbid association does not appear to be confined to the cerebral circulation as cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease also appear to be comorbid with migraine. A growing body of evidence has also suggested that migraineurs are more likely to be obese, hypertensive, hyperlipidemic and have impaired insulin sensitivity, all features of the metabolic syndrome. The comorbid association between migraine and cerebrovascular disease may consequently be explained by migraineurs having the metabolic syndrome and consequently being at increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. This review will summarise the salient evidence suggesting a comorbid association between migraine, cerebrovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Aortoiliac occlusive disease masquerading as cerebrovascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandeesh B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortoiliac occlusion is an unusual but potentially catastrophic condition causing acute limb ischemia and associated with early and high rates of mortality and morbidity. It is caused by either embolic occlusion of the infra renal aorta at the bifurcation or beyond or thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and its large terminal branches. Neurological symptoms are rare manifestation of acute aortoiliac occlusion and when neurological symptoms predominate, patients are mistakenly considered to have cerebrovascular event. We present a 60-year-old man with atherosclerotic thrombotic occlusion of the left common iliac artery causing acute painful monoplegia. We mistook the acute monoplegia due to acute limb ischemia for cerebrovascular accident. Pathologic examination revealed a firm thrombus occluding the origin of left common iliac artery and extending along the length of the vessel. Acute aortic iliac occlusion can masquerade as a cerebrovascular stroke and a thorough clinical evaluation and imaging studies allow early diagnosis and instituting life-saving treatment timely.

  7. [Primary antiphospholipid syndrome and cerebrovascular disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, L A

    2005-01-01

    Neurological, including cecbrovascular, disorders frequently emerge in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAS). Clinical peculiarities of PAS were studied in 113 patients with cerebrovascular disturbances. Its had mainly ischemic patogenesis. Structure of cerebrovascular disorders was as follows: stroke (33% cases), transient ischemic lesions (10%), its combination (57%), thrombosis of brain venous sinuses (3%), vascular dementia (27%). Besides it were found epileptic seizures, peripheral neuropathy, headache, chorea and some symptoms of myasthenia, parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis and psychotic disorders. In all cases antibodies to phospholipids have been detected. Secondary prophylaxis includes regular use of anticoagulants and small doses of aspiriny.

  8. Factors influencing return-to-work after cerebrovascular disease: the importance of previous cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel Angel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Cabrera-Sierra, Martha; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Ruiz-Moraga, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva

    2015-09-01

    The role of prior cardiovascular risk (CVR) in the multifactorial process of returning to work after a cerebrovascular event has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the association between previous CVR level, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and return-to-work (RTW) following cerebrovascular disease. This was a prospective observational study. We analysed a cohort of 348 patients who had experienced an episode of cerebrovascular disease-related work absence. These individuals were selected from the ICARIA study (Ibermutuamur CArdiovascular RIsk Assessment). Global CVR was assessed using the SCORE system. We investigated the association between demographics, work-related variables, CVRFs and RTW following a cerebrovascular event. We found that a total of 254 individuals (73.0%; 95% CI: 68.3-77.7) returned to work after cerebrovascular disease. Also, we observed a median loss of 12 working years due to disability. Moreover, adjusting for potential confounders revealed that low CVR level and the absence of the following CVRFs was associated with a higher likelihood of RTW: low vs moderate-to-high CVR level (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.42-4.57), no hypertension before stroke (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.11-3.41), non-smoker status (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.30-3.93) and no previous diabetes (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.26-4.79). Low CVR, along with the absence of several CVRFs, can be used to predict RTW rates following cerebrovascular events. Therefore, controlling hypertension, tobacco consumption and diabetes might contribute to the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation and/or secondary/tertiary prevention programs for cerebrovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  9. Dietary Curcumin Ameliorates Aging-Related Cerebrovascular Dysfunction through the AMPK/Uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Pu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. One pathogenic mechanism underlying this effect is increased oxidative stress. Up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 plays a crucial role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Dietary patterns are widely recognized as contributors to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary curcumin, which has an antioxidant effect, can improve aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via UCP2 up-regulation. Methods: The 24-month-old male rodents used in this study, including male Sprague Dawley (SD rats and UCP2 knockout (UCP2-/- and matched wild type mice, were given dietary curcumin (0.2%. The young control rodents were 6-month-old. Rodent cerebral artery vasorelaxation was detected by wire myograph. The AMPK/UCP2 pathway and p-eNOS in cerebrovascular and endothelial cells were observed by immunoblotting. Results: Dietary curcumin administration for one month remarkably restored the impaired cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aging SD rats. In cerebral arteries from aging SD rats and cultured endothelial cells, curcumin promoted eNOS and AMPK phosphorylation, up-regulated UCP2 and reduced ROS production. These effects of curcumin were abolished by either AMPK or UCP2 inhibition. Chronic dietary curcumin significantly reduced ROS production and improved cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent relaxation in aging wild type mice but not in aging UCP2-/- mice. Conclusions: Curcumin improves aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via the AMPK/UCP2 pathway.

  10. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  11. l-arginine and l-NMMA for assessing cerebral endothelial dysfunction in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, William K; Sørensen, Caspar G; Kruuse, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of l-arginine and NG -monomethyl-l-arginine (l......-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to l-arginine or l-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Seven studies (315 subjects) were eligible...... according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies investigated the effect of age (n=2), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=1), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) (n=1), leukoaraiosis (n=1), and prior ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic...

  12. 甘露醇联合人血白蛋白治疗重症脑血管病并发脑水肿35例%Effect of mannitol combined with human albumin on cerebrovascular disease complicated with severe cerebral edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王允琴; 戴秀珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and safety of mannitol combined with human albumin in the treatment of cerebro-vascular disease complicated with severe cerebral edema. Methods Seventy patients with severe cerebrovascular disease were divided into human albumin therapy group and routine therapy group. The patients in human albumin therapy group were treated with human albumin for 7 days based on the routine treatment. After treatment,the onset time of improved state of conscious-ness,neurologic impairment scores on the 1st and 14th day and the mortality in the two groups were compared. Results The on-set time of improved state of consciousness,neurologic impairment scores and the mortality in human albumin therapy group were better than those in the routine therapy group(P﹤0. 05). Conclusion Human albumin has better efficacy than routine therapy on sever cerebrovascular disease,and it has no obvious adverse reaction.%目的:观察甘露醇联合人血白蛋白治疗重症脑血管病并发的脑水肿患者的疗效性和安全性。方法将70例重症脑血管病患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组在常规治疗上辅助人血白蛋白治疗7d。比较两组患者意识状态好转的起效时间及第1、14天的神经功能评分和病死率。结果治疗组意识状态好转的起效时间、神经功能缺损评分、病死率均优于对照组( P﹤0.05)。结论人血白蛋白治疗重症脑血管病患者效果好,无明显不良反应。

  13. First translational 'Think Tank' on cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barone, Frank C.; Gustafson, Deborah; Crystal, Howard A.; Moreno, Herman; Adamski, Mateusz G.; Arai, Ken; Baird, Alison E.; Balucani, Clotilde; Brickman, Adam M.; Cechetto, David; Gorelick, Philip; Biessels, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; Kiliaan, Amanda; Launer, Lenore; Schneider, Julie; Sorond, Farzaneh A.; Whitmer, Rachel; Wright, Clinton; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2016-01-01

    As the human population continues to age, an increasing number of people will exhibit significant deficits in cognitive function and dementia. It is now recognized that cerebrovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases all play major roles in the evolution of cognitive impairment and dementi

  14. First translational 'Think Tank' on cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barone, F.C.; Gustafson, D.; Crystal, H.A.; Moreno, H.; Adamski, M.G.; Arai, K.; Baird, A.E.; Balucani, C.; Brickman, A.M.; Cechetto, D.; Gorelick, P.; Biessels, G.J.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Launer, L.; Schneider, J.; Sorond, F.A.; Whitmer, R.; Wright, C.; Zhang, Z.G.

    2016-01-01

    As the human population continues to age, an increasing number of people will exhibit significant deficits in cognitive function and dementia. It is now recognized that cerebrovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases all play major roles in the evolution of cognitive impairment and dementi

  15. Pioglitazone improves reversal learning and exerts mixed cerebrovascular effects in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with combined amyloid-β and cerebrovascular pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiota Papadopoulos

    Full Text Available Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD are invaluable in dissecting the pathogenic mechanisms and assessing the efficacy of potential new therapies. Here, we used the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone in an attempt to rescue the pathogenic phenotype in adult (12 months and aged (>18 months bitransgenic A/T mice that overexpress a mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe,Ind and a constitutively active form of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. A/T mice recapitulate the AD-related cognitive deficits, amyloid beta (Aβ and cerebrovascular pathologies, as well as the altered metabolic and vascular coupling responses to increased neuronal activity. Pioglitazone normalized neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling responses to sensory stimulation, and reduced cortical astroglial and hippocampal microglial activation in both age groups. Spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze were not rescued by pioglitazone, but reversal learning was improved in the adult cohort notwithstanding a progressing Aβ pathology. While pioglitazone preserved the constitutive nitric oxide synthesis in the vessel wall, it unexpectedly failed to restore cerebrovascular reactivity in A/T mice and even exacerbated the dilatory deficits. These data demonstrate pioglitazone's efficacy on selective AD hallmarks in a complex AD mouse model of comorbid amyloidosis and cerebrovascular pathology. They further suggest a potential benefit of pioglitazone in managing neuroinflammation, cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism in AD patients devoid of cerebrovascular pathology.

  16. The Cerebrovascular Disease and Nutritional State. Enfermedad cerebrovascular y estado nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayelin Blanco Suárez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is recognized the importance of malnutrition as a cause of morbidity and mortality in medical and surgical affections. The nutritional assessment of the patient should be based on a correct evaluation of different aspects. Objective: To assess the nutritional state of patients affected by cerebrovascular diseases in its ischemic form and the incidence of complications and deaths. Methods: A randomized simple and open clinical trial which is also prospective and longitudinal, not controlled by placebos that included 80 patients with a tomographed-clinical diagnosis of cerebral infarction admitted at the Higher Institute of Military Medicine during 2005. Clinical and dietary record, weight, size, daily assessments of the immunological performance by means of peripheral count of lymphocytes were analyzed. Results: Out of the total, 90 per cent of the patients had a weight loss lesser than 10 % of the ideal weight and, the 10% made evident a discrete increasing of weight. Patients with complications presented higher per cent of loss of weight and higher figures of urinary nitrogen. The higher per cent of loss of weight and the lowest lymphocytes count were found in patients with septic complications. An abbaissement in adequate nutritional parameters was found in deceased patients. Significant differences in the report of the initial malnourished patient’s complication existed. Conclusions: It was evident the relationship between the evolution of the cerebrovascular disease and the nutritional state which is conditioned by the appearance of complications with emphasis on sepsis. That’s why it is necessary to pay special attention to the nutrition of patients with neuroictus.
    Fundamento: Se reconoce la trascendencia de la desnutrición como causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en afecciones médicas y quir

  17. Human Operator Control Strategy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    fashion. HOPE reflects the two-store theory of memory current in the psycho- logical literature ( Atkinson & Shiffrin , 1968; Broadbent, 1971). Two...uncertainty. In P.M.A. Rabbit & S. Dornic (Eds.), Attention and performance V. New York: Academic Press, 1975. Atkinson , R. C., & Shiffrin , R. M. Human...48 2. The Perception Process ... ............... 50 3. The Command Memory and Command Selection Process

  18. Fetal cerebrovascular circulation: a review of prenatal ultrasound assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, S

    2008-01-01

    Antenatal intrauterine cerebrovascular events were found to play an important role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage. Changes in placental vascular resistance, cardiac contractibility, vessel compliance, and blood viscosity alter the normal dynamics of fetal cerebral circulation. The circulatory mechanisms described in animal fetuses also operate in the human fetus. The isthmus of the aorta represents a watershed area reflecting the redistribution of blood during increased peripheral resistance and hypoxia. The fetal cerebrovascular system acts locally within the skull and interacts with the other components of fetal circulation to compensate by redistribution of blood in case of shortage in resources. The introduction of various sonographic techniques and the collection of data from the arterial and venous cerebral circulation have improved our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in fetal cerebral hemodynamic events. Anatomical and physiological considerations of cerebral vasculature in health and disease are relevant in the research of variations in fetal brain blood perfusion. Changes in flow characteristics in fetal cerebral vasculature can be used for clinical decisions. However, caution is advised before applying research data into practice. The clinical utility is well established in situations of fetal compromise such as growth restriction and anemia.

  19. Role of transcranial Doppler in cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit A Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Doppler (TCD is the only noninvasive modality for the assessment of real-time cerebral blood flow. It complements various anatomic imaging modalities by providing physiological-flow related information. It is relatively cheap, easily available, and can be performed at the bedside. It has been suggested as an essential component of a comprehensive stroke centre. In addition to its importance in acute cerebrovascular ischemia, its role is expanding in the evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in various disorders of the brain. The “established” clinical indications for the use of TCD include cerebral ischemia, sickle cell disease, detection of right-to-left shunts, subarachnoid hemorrhage, periprocedural or surgical monitoring, and brain death. We present the role of TCD in acute cerebrovascular ischemia, sonothrombolysis, and intracranial stenosis.

  20. Aspirin Allergy Desensitization in Cerebrovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization. PMID:24556294

  1. EMPREGO DE STENTS CEREBRAIS NAS PATOLOGIAS CEREBROVASCULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Rocha Lopes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the applicability and characteristics of the stents for the treatment of cerebrovascular pathologies in order to understand its viability for the therapy. Methods: Scientific articles were used based on electronic search as PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, Intechopen, Medscape. An international and up to date source of articles was used. Results: Cerebrovascular diseases have emerged as the second most important cause of mortality worldwide, from this principle we observe the importance of this study. Recently, as a solution form, stents have become a major treatment option for difficult and not feasible cerebral aneurysms single winding. Intracranial stents serve as a bridge to the neo-endothelialization by providing a reduction in blood flow into the aneurysm. The use of stents for treatment should be seriously analyzed according to their feasibility, the knowledge of the professional about their brands, features and deployment techniques, and theoretical part of the professional needs to have dexterity to the application of an intracranial stent. Conclusions: This review raises an awareness of this subject, starts from the concept of cerebrovascular disease and aneurysms as well as the genesis of the stents, progressing to elucidate all product brands and specific characteristics of each, ending with its applicability, as well as making clear the purpose and mechanism of stents.

  2. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaharu Tabuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked.

  3. Cerebrovascular risk factors and subsequent depression in older general practice patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyen, Jasper; Spreeuwenberg, Peter M.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Bos, Geertrudis A.M. van den; Schellevis, Francois G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This general practice-based case-control study tested the association between cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and the development of later-life depression by focusing on the impact of exposure duration to CVRFs and the modifying influence of age at depression onset. Methods: Cases w

  4. Cerebrovascular risk factors and subsequent depression in older general practice patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyen, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bos, G.A.M. van den; Schellevis, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This general practice-based case-control study tested the association between cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and the development of later-life depression by focusing on the impact of exposure duration to CVRFs and the modifying influence of age at depression onset. Methods: Cases w

  5. Nonlinear-dynamical arrhythmia control in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christini, D J; Stein, K M; Markowitz, S M; Mittal, S; Slotwiner, D J; Scheiner, M A; Iwai, S; Lerman, B B

    2001-05-08

    Nonlinear-dynamical control techniques, also known as chaos control, have been used with great success to control a wide range of physical systems. Such techniques have been used to control the behavior of in vitro excitable biological tissue, suggesting their potential for clinical utility. However, the feasibility of using such techniques to control physiological processes has not been demonstrated in humans. Here we show that nonlinear-dynamical control can modulate human cardiac electrophysiological dynamics by rapidly stabilizing an unstable target rhythm. Specifically, in 52/54 control attempts in five patients, we successfully terminated pacing-induced period-2 atrioventricular-nodal conduction alternans by stabilizing the underlying unstable steady-state conduction. This proof-of-concept demonstration shows that nonlinear-dynamical control techniques are clinically feasible and provides a foundation for developing such techniques for more complex forms of clinical arrhythmia.

  6. Human/computer control of undersea teleoperators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, T. B.; Verplank, W. L.; Brooks, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of supervisory controlled teleoperators for accomplishment of manipulation and sensory tasks in deep ocean environments is discussed. Teleoperators and supervisory control are defined, the current problems of human divers are reviewed, and some assertions are made about why supervisory control has potential use to replace and extend human diver capabilities. The relative roles of man and computer and the variables involved in man-computer interaction are next discussed. Finally, a detailed description of a supervisory controlled teleoperator system, SUPERMAN, is presented.

  7. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  8. Cerebrovascular reactivity in migraineurs as measured by transcranial Doppler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T.D.; Harpold, G.J. (Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (USA). School of Medicine); Troost, B.T. (Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasound is a relatively new diagnostic modality which allows the non-invasive assessment of intracranial circulation. A total of 10 migraine patients were studied and compared to healthy controls without headaches. Migraineurs during the headache-free interval demonstrated excessive cerebrovascular reactivity to CO{sub 2}, evidenced by an increase in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity of 47% {plus minus} 15% compared to 28% {plus minus} 14% in controls. Differences between the two study groups revealed no significant decrease in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity with hypocapnia. However, the differences between middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during hyperventilation and CO{sub 2} inhalation were significantly different comparing migraineurs and controls. Instability of the baseline blood flow velocities was also noted in migraineurs during the interictal period. Characteristics which may allow differentiation of migraineurs from other headache populations could possibly be obtained from transcranial Doppler ultrasound flow studies. 24 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Endovascular external carotid artery occlusion for brain selective targeting: a cerebrovascular swine model

    OpenAIRE

    Mangla, Sundeep; Choi, Jae H.; Barone, Frank C.; Novotney, Carol; Libien, Jenny; Lin, Erwin; Pile-Spellman, John

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice of an animal model for cerebrovascular research is often determined by the disease subtype to be studied (e.g. ischemic stroke, hemorrhage, trauma), as well as the nature of the intervention to be tested (i.e. medical device or pharmaceutical). Many initial studies are performed in smaller animals, as they are cost-effective and their encephalic vasculature closely models that of humans. Non-human primates are also utilized when confirmation or validation is required on ...

  10. Control of human trophoblast function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondi Carla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trophoblast, i.e. the peripheral part of the human conceptus, exerts a crucial role in implantation and placentation. Both processes properly occur as a consequence of an intimate dialogue between fetal and maternal tissues, fulfilled by membrane ligands and receptors, as well as by hormone and local factor release. During blastocyst implantation, generation of distinct trophoblast cell types begins, namely the villous and the extravillous trophoblast, the former of which is devoted to fetal-maternal exchanges and the latter binds the placental body to the uterine wall. Physiological placentation is characterized by the invasion of the uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells arising from anchoring villi. Due to this invasion, the arterial structure is replaced by amorphous fibrinoid material and endovascular trophoblastic cells. This transformation establishes a low-resistance, high-capacity perfusion system from the radial arteries to the intervillous space, in which the villous tree is embedded. The physiology of pregnancy depends upon the orderly progress of structural and functional changes of villous and extravillous trophoblast, whereas a derangement of such processes can lead to different types of complications of varying degrees of gravity, including possible pregnancy loss and maternal life-threatening diseases. In this review we describe the mechanisms which regulate trophoblast differentiation, proliferation, migration and invasiveness, and the alterations in these mechanisms which lead to pathological conditions. Furthermore, based on the growing evidence that proper inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are needed for successful gestation, we explain the mechanisms by which agents able to influence such processes may be useful in the prevention and treatment of pregnancy disorders.

  11. Neuroimaging of Cerebrovascular Disease in the Aging Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ajay; Nair, Sreejit; Andrew D Schweitzer; Kishore, Sirish; Johnson, Carl E.; Comunale, Joseph P.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease remains a significant public health burden with its greatest impact on the elderly population. Advances in neuroimaging techniques allow detailed and sophisticated evaluation of many manifestations of cerebrovascular disease in the brain parenchyma as well as in the intracranial and extracranial vasculature. These tools continue to contribute to our understanding of the multifactorial processes that occur in the age-dependent development of cerebrovascular disease. Str...

  12. Allometric control of human gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lori Ann

    The purpose of the study was to extract the information contained in the fluctuations in the stride interval time series and the correlation properties of walking. To determine if the time series had memory or long-time correlation properties, the decay (loss) of correlation of the data across time was studied. The information acquired was to determine if control of walking could be better understood, by studying statistics of stride intervals. Furthermore, it was determined if the time series for walking was stable enough to establish a baseline for future studies. Allometric analysis was done on relaxed walking for 10 individuals. The data obtained during the experiments consisted of the time interval for a given stride and the number of strides in the sequence of steps. The maximal extension of the right leg, the ``stride interval'' versus the stride number, yielded a graph that has all the characteristics of a time series. Insight into the stride interval time series was obtained using relative dispersion, also know as the coefficient of variation, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. The results indicated memory in the control of walking for all subjects. Furthermore, memory was not maintained once the data was randomized suggesting the order of strides is important. The amount of memory differed for each subject, whereby some subjects had significant memory (high correlation coefficients = 0.693) while others showed low correlation coefficients. The relative dispersion for all subjects decreased with increasing aggregation number. This straight line with a negative slope depicted an inverse power-law relation between the relative dispersion and the aggregation number. The data does not have a dominant scale and can be evaluated on many scales without information lost. Although these data alone do not establish a baseline, the data analyzed using allometric analysis appears sufficiently stable to establish a baseline norm for walking. Finally, the

  13. HUMAN-SIMULATING VEHICLE STEERING CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Youchun; LI Keqiang; CHANG Ming; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    A new vehicle steering control algorithm is presented. Unlike the traditional methods do,the algorithm uses a sigmoid function to describe the principle of the human driver's steering strategy.Based on this function, a human simulating vehicle steering model, human-simulating steering control(HS) algorithm is designed. In order to improve the adaptability to different environments, a parameter adaptive adjustment algorithm is presented. This algorithm can online modify the value of the key parameters of the HS real time. HS controller is used on a vehicle equipped with computer vision system and computer controlled steering actuator system, the result from the automatic vehicle steering experiment shows that the HS algorithm gives good performance at different speed, even at the maximum speed of 172 km/h.

  14. Human right to water and conventionality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces the challenge of achieving the sustainability of water resources supply for the satisfaction of human needs and ofensuring the sustainability of the natural ecosystems for the achievement of sustainable human development and the quality of life of present and future generations. For this reason the recognition of access to water as a Human Right has fundamental significance. We proceed to analyze the international instruments that provide content and legal basis to the human right to water and the obligations of States. In this context, we deal with the constitutional reception of human right to water in Argentina in the constitutional reform of 1994 and the control of conventionality as guarantor of access to water, which has led to different domestic courts to consider cases in which a violation ofthe right to water was proved.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain in patients with Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shao-qiong; KANG Zhuang; HU Xi-quan; HU Bing; ZOU Yan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Recent autopsy study showed a high incidence ofcerebrovascular lesions in Alzheimer's disease (AD).To assess the impact of cerebrovascular pathology in AD, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study AD patients with and without cerebrovascular lesions. Materials and Methods: Conventional and DTI scans were obtained from 10 patients with probable AD, 10 AD/V patients (probable AD with cerebrovascular lesions) and ten normal controls. Mean diffusivity (D) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of some structures involved with AD pathology were measured. Results: D value was higher in AD patients than in controls in hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus. In AD/V patients, increased D value was found in the same structures and also in the thalamus and basal ganglia compared to controls. There was a significant difference of D value between AD and AD/V patients. FA value reduced in the white matter of left inferior temporal gyrus and in the bilateral middle cingulate gyrus in patients with AD/V compared with controls. The MMSE (mini-mental state examination) score significantly correlated with FA value in the right hippocampus (r=0.639, P<0.019), in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (r=0.587, P<0.035) and in left parahippocampal gyrus (r=0.559, P<0.047). Conclusion: Cerebrovascular pathology had stronger impact on the D value than the AD pathology alone did. Elevated D value in thalamic and basal ganglia may contribute to cognitive decline in AD/V patients.Reduced FA values in AD/V patients may indicate that cerebrovascular pathology induced more severe white matter damage than the AD pathology alone did.

  16. Reduction of the cerebrovascular volume in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourasset, Fanchon; Ouellet, Mélissa; Tremblay, Cyntia; Julien, Carl; Do, Tuan Minh; Oddo, Salvatore; LaFerla, Frank; Calon, Frédéric

    2009-03-01

    Combined evidence from neuroimaging and neuropathological studies shows that signs of vascular pathology and brain hypoperfusion develop early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the functional implication of these abnormalities, we have studied the cerebrovascular volume and selected markers of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in 11-month-old 3 x Tg-AD mice, using the in situ brain perfusion technique. The cerebrovascular volume of distribution of two vascular space markers, [3H]-inulin and [14C]-sucrose, was significantly lower (-26% and -27%, respectively; p diazepam was similar between 3xTg-AD mice and controls, suggesting no difference in the functional integrity of the BBB. We also report a 32% increase (p < 0.001) in the thickness of basement membranes surrounding cortical microvessels along with a 20% increase (p < 0.05) of brain collagen content in 3xTg-AD mice compared to controls. The present data indicate that the cerebrovascular space is reduced in a mouse model of Abeta and tau accumulation, an observation consistent with the presence of cerebrovascular pathology in AD.

  17. Significance of ultrasound evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque for diagnosing ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid artery is the main source for craniocerebral blood supply. Its intimal plaque formation and arterial stenosis degree both are the risk factors for ischemic cerebrovascular disease.Therefore, the close relationship of carotid atherosclerotic plaque and ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and ultrasound evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque have become the hot spot in studying ischemic cerebrovascular disease.OBJECTIVE: This study was to detect the degree of carotid atherosclerosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients by ultrasonography, and to analyze the situation of carotid atherosclerosis and its relationship with clinic.DESIGN: Clinical randomized concurrent control experiment.SETTING: Lintong Convalescent Hospital of Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 60 outpatients and inpatients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, 42 males and 18 females, admitted to Lintong Convalescent Hospital of Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA between January 2006 and December 2006 were involved in the patient group. They met the diagnosis criteria of ischemic cerebrovascular disease constituted by the 4th Cerebrovascular Disease Conference in 1996, and were confirmed to suffer from ischemic cerebrovascular disease by skull CT and MRI. Another 20 subjects who received healthy examination concurrently in the same hospital, 12 males and 8 females, were involved in the control group. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from involved subjects.METHODS: The plaque thickness of mid portion, distal end and crotch of common carotid artery (CCA),internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) and vertebral artery (VA) of involved subjects,who received health examination was separately detected with color Doppler ultrasonograph (HDI-5000).Then, total integral of plaque was calculated. The intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured with two-dimensional ultrasonography. The inner diameter

  18. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition and cerebrovascular regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iadecola, C; Pelligrino, D A; Moskowitz, M A;

    1994-01-01

    tone and may play an important role in selected vasodilator responses of the cerebral circulation. Furthermore, evidence has been presented suggesting that NO participates in the mechanisms of cerebral ischemic damage. Despite the widespread attention that NO has captured in recent years and the large......There is increasing evidence that nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecular messenger involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Recent data suggest that NO is also involved in the regulation of the cerebral circulation. Thus, NO participants in the maintenance of resting cerebrovascular...

  19. Enfermedad cerebrovascular: incidencia y tratamiento actual

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Fernández-Travieso

    2014-01-01

    La enfermedad cerebrovascular o ictus representa la tercera causa de mortalidad de la población adulta y la primera de discapacidad result ante, por lo cual constituye un importante problema de salud a nivel mundial. El tratamiento del ictus en la fase aguda depende, además de la exitosa aplicación de la terapia adecuada, de una cadena de emergencia que permita su diagnóstico y manejo adecuad o y rápido, y aú n cuando se logre la supervivencia, muchos pacientes sobreviven con importantes limi...

  20. Cerebrovascular resistance: effects on cognitive decline, cortical atrophy, and progression to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Belinda; Nation, Daniel A

    2017-07-01

    See Markus (doi:10.1093/awx161) for a scientific commentary on this article.Evidence for vascular contributions to Alzheimer's disease has been increasingly identified, with increased blood pressure and decreased cerebral blood flow both linked to in vivo biomarkers and clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease. We therefore hypothesized that an elevated ratio of blood pressure to cerebral blood flow, indicative of cerebrovascular resistance, would exhibit earlier and more widespread associations with Alzheimer's disease than cerebral blood flow alone. Further, we predicted that increased cerebrovascular resistance and amyloid retention would synergistically influence cognitive performance trajectories, independent of neuronal metabolism. Lastly, we anticipated associations between cerebrovascular resistance and later brain atrophy, prior to amyloid accumulation. To evaluate these hypotheses, we investigated associations between cerebrovascular resistance and amyloid retention, cognitive decline, and brain atrophy, controlling for neuronal metabolism. North American older adults (n = 232) underwent arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions susceptible to ageing and Alzheimer's disease. An estimated cerebrovascular resistance index was then calculated as the ratio of mean arterial pressure to regional cerebral blood flow. Positron emission tomography with 18F-florbetapir and fludeoxyglucose was used to quantify amyloid retention and neuronal metabolism, respectively. Cognitive performance was evaluated via annual assessments of global cognition, memory, and executive function. Results indicated diminished inferior parietal and temporal cerebral blood flow for patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 33) relative to both non-demented groups, but no cerebral blood flow differences between non-demented amyloid-positive (n = 87) and amyloid-negative (n = 112) cases. In contrast, the cerebrovascular

  1. Shared resource control between human and computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, James; Wilson, Reid

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of an AI system of actively monitoring human control of a shared resource (such as a telerobotic manipulator) are presented. A system is described in which a simple AI planning program gains efficiency by monitoring human actions and recognizing when the actions cause a change in the system's assumed state of the world. This enables the planner to recognize when an interaction occurs between human actions and system goals, and allows maintenance of an up-to-date knowledge of the state of the world and thus informs the operator when human action would undo a goal achieved by the system, when an action would render a system goal unachievable, and efficiently replans the establishment of goals after human intervention.

  2. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  3. Passive Control Architecture for Virtual Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Rennuit, Antoine; Merlhiot, Xavier; Andriot, Claude; Guillaume, François; Chevassus, Nicolas; Chablat, Damien; Chedmail, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we introduce a new control architecture aimed at driving virtual humans in interaction with virtual environments, by motion capture. It brings decoupling of functionalities, and also of stability thanks to passivity. We show projections can break passivity, and thus must be used carefully. Our control scheme enables task space and internal control, contact, and joint limits management. Thanks to passivity, it can be easily extended. Besides, we introduce a new tool as for manikin's control, which makes it able to build passive projections, so as to guide the virtual manikin when sharp movements are needed.

  4. Meta-analysis of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism as a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in a Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Bai

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism(-genotype or T allele) is a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD).DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and PubMed databases from September 1997 to December 2009 were searched for case-control studies that examined MTHFR genotype in human ICVD using "MTHFR, gene, polymorphism, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease" as search kev words.J I UU T JCLCU I 1Urv: cigmeen associatea stuaies were identified.1 he methods used to collect relevant information factors were similar between case and control groups, and diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular disease was in accordance with Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria classification, with some referring to European Stroke Diagnostic Criteria.Quality of all included studies was evaluated, and meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan4.2 software (Cochrane Collaboration, http://www.cochrane-handbook.orq) following strict screenina.MAIN UU r UUMt MLAJUrrts: I ne correlation Detween M 1 Hi-H gene I I genotype or T allele and ICVD was determined.RESULTS: Eighteen studies involving 4 295 patients with ICVD and 6 169 control subjects were included for this meta-analysis.There was a significant difference in MTHFR gene TT aenotvoe or T auele frequency(X2=15.31, 9.156, P U.U5) in the Uhinese Han population.CONCLUSION: Results from the present meta-analysis suggested that the MTHFR gene TT genotype or T allele is a risk factor for ICVD.However, the-genotype or T allele is not a risk factor for ICVD in the Chinese Han population.

  5. Dichotic auditory-verbal memory in adults with cerebro-vascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yekta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cerebrovascular accident is a neurological disorder involves central nervous system. Studies have shown that it affects the outputs of behavioral auditory tests such as dichotic auditory verbal memory test. The purpose of this study was to compare this memory test results between patients with cerebrovascular accident and normal subjects.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident aged 50-70 years and 20 controls matched for age and gender in Emam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Dichotic auditory verbal memory test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean score in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.0001. The results indicated that the right-ear score was significantly greater than the left-ear score in normal subjects (p<0.0001 and in patients with right hemisphere lesion (p<0.0001. The right-ear and left-ear scores were not significantly different in patients with left hemisphere lesion (p=0.0860.Conclusion: Among other methods, Dichotic auditory verbal memory test is a beneficial test in assessing the central auditory nervous system of patients with cerebrovascular accident. It seems that it is sensitive to the damages occur following temporal lobe strokes.

  6. Rethinking optimal control of human movements

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Dongsung

    2012-01-01

    The complex bio-mechanics of human body is capable of generating an unlimited repertoire of movements, which on one hand yields highly versatile motor behavior but on the other hand presents a formidable control problem for the brain. Understanding the computational process that allows us to easily perform various motor tasks with a high degree of coordination is of central interest to both neuroscience and robotics control. In recent decades, it became widely accepted that the observed movem...

  7. Increased serum C-reactive protein level in Japanese patients of psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Iinuma, Shin; Honma, Masaru; Iizuka, Hajime

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which may be associated with metabolic syndrome accompanied by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated the relation between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in Japanese psoriasis vulgaris patients. Ninety-seven psoriasis vulgaris patients and 79 healthy controls were assessed for serum CRP levels by immunoturbidimetry. The data were analyzed in terms of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores, and comorbidity of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Serum CRP levels in psoriasis vulgaris patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls. There was no significant difference between male and female CRP levels in either psoriasis or healthy controls. No correlation was detected between PASI scores and serum CRP levels, either. Psoriasis with cardio- and cerebrovascular disease showed significantly higher CRP levels compared with those without the diseases. Furthermore, psoriasis with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher serum CRP levels than those without the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, serum CRP level is increased in psoriasis, and may be a useful marker for the prediction of the future risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease.

  8. HOW TO SELECT APPROPRIATE HUMAN RESOURCE CONTROLLING INDICATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Dugelova; Mariana Strenitzerova

    2015-01-01

    Human resource controlling represents a company’s strategic method to support its role is planning, checking, and managing—including information supplement for human resources department. Human resource controlling helps with optimization and transformation of human resource functions and with general human resource management. Our survey deals with the implementation of human resource controlling in information technology companies. The selection of appropriate human resource controlling too...

  9. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis on herpes zoster and the risk of cardiac and cerebrovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nathaniel; Tran, Hoang; Levin, Leonard; Ulbricht, Christine; Fingeroth, Joyce; Kiefe, Catarina; Goldberg, Robert J; Singh, Sonal

    2017-01-01

    Patients who develop herpes zoster or herpes zoster ophthalmicus may be at risk for cerebrovascular and cardiac complications. We systematically reviewed the published literature to determine the association between herpes zoster and its subtypes with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events. Systematic searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), SCOPUS (Embase) and Google Scholar were performed in December 2016. Eligible studies were cohort, case-control, and self-controlled case-series examining the association between herpes zoster or subtypes of herpes zoster with the occurrence of cerebrovascular and cardiac events including stroke, transient ischemic attack, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Data on the occurrence of the examined events were abstracted. Odds ratios and their accompanying confidence intervals were estimated using random and fixed effects models with statistical heterogeneity estimated with the I2 statistic. Twelve studies examining 7.9 million patients up to 28 years after the onset of herpes zoster met our pre-defined eligibility criteria. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses showed that herpes zoster, type unspecified, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus were associated with a significantly increased risk of cerebrovascular events, without any evidence of statistical heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis also found a significantly increased risk of cardiac events associated with herpes zoster, type unspecified. Our results are consistent with the accumulating body of evidence that herpes zoster and herpes zoster ophthalmicus are significantly associated with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events.

  11. Consciousness Disorders after Elective Surgery in Patients with Cerebrovascular Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Likhvantsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the impact of cerebral hypoxemia on the indicators of neuroinjury, by relying on the diagnosis of post- operative cognitive impairments, and the neuroinjury marker S100b protein and to examine the relationship of postoperative cognitive mpairments. Subjects and methods. Forty-eight non-cardiac surgical and non-neurosurgical patients with verified cerebrovascular disease, who had been operated on under total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and total myoplegia, were examined. Blood S100b protein levels were determined after cerebral hypoxemia detectable by transcranial oximetry. Postoperative delirium was diagnosed by the ICU-CAM test; postoperative cognitive dysfunction was diagnosed according to the Montreal cognitive assessment scale in the periods: 7 days, 1, 3, and 6 months, and 1 year, by using the control group, the Z scores of these indicators were standardized. Results. Cerebral desaturation led to early postoperative disorders, such as delirium and dysfunctions, in 72.7% of the cases. Cerebral saturation parameters correlated moderately, but significantly with neuropsychological indicators at 30 days of the study and 3 months after surgery and just stronger with S100b protein level. The risk of postoperative cognitive impairments in relation to the values of S100b protein was validly predicted in the models of logistic regression and ROC analysis. The rate of early and persistent cognitive dysfunction differed statistically significantly in patients with prior delirium; the logistic regression model validly predicted a relationship between this event and the neuropsychological indicators on 7 days postsurgery. Conclusion. In the patients with cerebrovascular diseases, cerebral hypoxemic episodes are dangerous. When they occur, there is an increased risk of postoperative cognitive impairments, including long-term problems. The above-threshold S100b protein concentration of 0.26 ng/mg is an early predictor of

  12. Have humans lost control: The elusive X-controlling element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Samantha B; Yang, Christine; Brown, Carolyn J

    2016-08-01

    The process of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) randomly silences one of two X chromosomes in normal female cells. The ability to predict if there is a preference for one of the two Xs to be chosen (and survive) more often as the active X has important repercussions in human health and X-linked disease. Mice have a genetic component that modulates non-random skewing called the X-controlling element (Xce). Although the nature of the locus and its mechanisms of action are still under investigation, it is clear that different mouse strains carry unique Xce alleles on their X chromosomes, resulting in distinct skewing phenotypes in the F1 progeny of hybrid crosses. Whether a similar mechanism exists in humans is unclear, and challenges to identifying such a locus include the complexity and diversity of the human genome, the restricted time points and tissue(s) of examination in human subjects, and the lack of a model system recapitulating XCI in early development. In this review we consider the evidence for such a controlling locus in humans, in addition to discussing if we have the power to recognize it given the contribution of selective growth in causing skewed patterns of XCI.

  13. Dysphagia in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarilis Barbié Rubiera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An important number of patients with cerebrovascular disease also present dysphagia as a result of damage in cerebral hemispheres or brainstem, which contributes to negative morbility and functional rehabilitation prognosis due to the complications liked with this condition. It is a significant cause of nutritional dysfunctions, including increased in-hospital undernourishment, increased per patient expenditure and longer in-hospital stay. One of the objectives of the Nutritional Support Team of the Neuroscience and Neurology Institute is to reduce undernourishment causes in patients with neurological diseases. A wide review of the subject was performed including experts´ opinions, from the above mentioned institutions, in order to gather an updated report related with the significance of early diagnosis of dysphagia in patients with ictus and the opportune and correct use of therapeutic measures to reduce complication risk.

  14. SYSTOLIC HYPERTENSION. IMPACT ON CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eloy Cruz Quesada

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La aterosclerosis es un proceso multifactorial sobre el cual actúan varios factores de riesgo. Constituye la principal causa de muerte y de morbilidad en ingresados hospitalarios, y puede ocasionar una acentuada disminución del flujo sanguíneo hacia todos los órganos del cuerpo humano Objetivo: Determinar el impacto de la hipertensión arterial sistólica sobre la enfermedad cerebrovascular. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, observacional y analítico, en 59 fallecidos hipertensos. Se analizaron las arterias cerebrales y se cuantificó la lesión aterosclerótica y su variedad, aplicándose el sistema aterométrico, teniendo en cuenta los tipos de hipertensión arterial. Se emplearon procedimientos estadísticos (medidas de tendencia central y comparativos (prueba de comparación de media aritmética basadas en el test “t” de student. Resultados: Los infartos cerebrales recientes fueron más frecuentes en hipertensos sistodiastólicos. No hubo diferencia significativa en cuanto a la edad en el momento de aparición de las lesiones para ambos sexos, pero las mujeres con hipertensión sistólica, fueron significativamente más dañadas desde el punto de vista morfométrico. Se observó correlación significativa para ambos grupos de hipertensos entre tipo de accidente cerebrovascular y variables del sistema aterométrico. Conclusiones: La hipertensión arterial sistólica es un factor importante en la génesis de la enfermedad vasculocerebral y está asociada con la progresión de la placa de ateroma.

  15. Impact of Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality on Life Expectancy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo Qi; LI Yan; ZHAO Dong; FAN Jie; LIU Jing; WANG Wei; WANG Miao; QI Yue; XIE Wu Xiang; LIU Jun; ZHAO Fan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of cerebrovascular disease mortality on life expectancy (LE) in China in 2010 compared with 2005, and to identify the high-risk population (age, sex, and region) where cerebrovascular disease mortality has had a major impact on LE. Methods LE and cause-eliminated LE were calculated by using standard life tables which used adjusted mortality data from the Death Surveillance Data Sets in 2005 and 2010 from the National Disease Surveillance System. Decomposition was used to quantitate the impact of cerebrovascular disease in different age groups. Results LE in China was 73.24 years in 2010, which was higher in women and urban residents compared with men and rural residents. The loss of LE caused by cerebrovascular disease mortality was 2.26 years, which was higher in men and rural residents compared with women and urban residents. More than 30%of the loss of LE were attributed to premature death from cerebrovascular disease in people aged Conclusion Cerebrovascular disease mortality had a major impact on LE in China, with a significant difference between urban and rural residents. LE is likely to be further increased by reducing cerebrovascular disease mortality, and special attention should be paid to reducing premature deaths in people aged<65 years.

  16. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans.

  17. Murine cerebrovascular cells as a cell culture model for cerebral amyloid angiopathy: isolation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells from mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Sebastien A; Sahoo, Susmita; Jung, Sonia S; Levy, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    The use of murine cerebrovascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells has not been widely employed as a cell culture model for the investigation of cellular mechanisms involved in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Difficulties in isolation and propagation of murine cerebrovascular cells and insufficient yields for molecular and cell culture studies have deterred investigators from using mice as a source for cerebrovascular cells in culture. Instead, cerebrovascular cells from larger mammals are preferred and several methods describing the isolation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells from human, canine, rat, and guinea pig have been published. In recent years, several transgenic mouse lines showing CAA pathology have been established; consequently murine cerebrovascular cells derived from these animals can serve as a key cellular model to study CAA. Here, we describe a procedure for isolating murine microvessels that yields healthy smooth muscle and endothelial cell populations and produce sufficient material for experimental purposes. Murine smooth muscle cells isolated using this protocol exhibit the classic "hill and valley" morphology and are immunoreactive for the smooth muscle cell marker α-actin. Endothelial cells display a "cobblestone" pattern phenotype and show the characteristic immunostaining for the von Willebrand factor and the factor VIII-related antigen. In addition, we describe methods designed to preserve these cells by storage in liquid nitrogen and reestablishing viable cell cultures. Finally, we compare our methods with protocols designed to isolate and maintain human cerebrovascular cell cultures.

  18. Voluntary control of human jaw stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Houle, Guillaume; Ostry, David J

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies of human arm movement have suggested that the control of stiffness may be important both for maintaining stability and for achieving differences in movement accuracy. In the present study, we have examined the voluntary control of postural stiffness in 3D in the human jaw. The goal is to address the possible role of stiffness control in both stabilizing the jaw and in achieving the differential precision requirements of speech sounds. We previously showed that patterns of kinematic variability in speech are systematically related to the stiffness of the jaw. If the nervous system uses stiffness control as a means to regulate kinematic variation in speech, it should also be possible to show that subjects can voluntarily modify jaw stiffness. Using a robotic device, a series of force pulses was applied to the jaw to elicit changes in stiffness to resist displacement. Three orthogonal directions and three magnitudes of forces were tested. In all conditions, subjects increased the magnitude of jaw stiffness to resist the effects of the applied forces. Apart from the horizontal direction, greater increases in stiffness were observed when larger forces were applied. Moreover, subjects differentially increased jaw stiffness along a vertical axis to counteract disturbances in this direction. The observed changes in the magnitude of stiffness in different directions suggest an ability to control the pattern of stiffness of the jaw. The results are interpreted as evidence that jaw stiffness can be adjusted voluntarily, and thus may play a role in stabilizing the jaw and in controlling movement variation in the orofacial system.

  19. Control and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, it appeared that human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) could be effectively controlled, but by the beginning of the twenty-first century several decades of neglect had led to alarming numbers of reported new cases, with an estimated 300 000 people infected. The World Health Organization (WHO) responded with a series of initiatives aimed at bringing HAT under control again. Since 2001, the pharmaceutical companies that produce drugs for HAT have committed themselves to providing them free of charge to WHO for distribution for the treatment of patients. In addition, funds have been provided to WHO to support national sleeping sickness control programmes to boost control and surveillance of the disease. That, coupled with bilateral cooperation and the work of nongovernmental organizations, helped reverse the upward trend in HAT prevalence. By 2012, the number of reported cases was fewer than 8000. This success in bringing HAT under control led to its inclusion in the WHO Roadmap for eradication, elimination and control of neglected tropical diseases, with a target set to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020. A further target has been set, by countries in which HAT is endemic, to eliminate gambiense HAT by reducing the incidence of infection to zero in a defined geographical area. This report provides information about new diagnostic approaches, new therapeutic regimens and better understanding of the distribution of the disease with high-quality mapping. The roles of human and animal reservoirs and the tsetse fly vectors that transmit the parasites are emphasized. The new information has formed the basis for an integrated strategy with which it is hoped that elimination of gambiense HAT will be achieved. The report also contains recommendations on the approaches that will lead to elimination of the disease.

  20. Función pulmonar en sujetos con hemiparesia crónica secundaria a un accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Gómez, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: las Enfermedades Cerebrovasculares se sitúan como la primera causa de muerte entre las mujeres y la tercera en hombres a nivel nacional. Son numerosas las secuelas que pueden sufrir los supervivientes, entre las que se encuentran las alteraciones del control motor y del tono muscular. Estas son las que hacen plantearse el grado de afectación de la musculatura implicada en la ventilación tras un Accidente Cerebrovascular, ya sea de manera directa o mediante la alteración de las c...

  1. Signos Vitales de los CDC–Prevención de muertes por accidentes cerebrovasculares (Preventing Stroke Deaths)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-06

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de septiembre del 2017 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Cada año, más de 140 000 personas mueren y muchos sobrevivientes quedan con discapacidades. El ochenta por ciento de los accidentes cerebrovasculares son prevenibles. Conozca los signos de un accidente cerebrovascular y sepa cómo prevenirlo.  Created: 9/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  2. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  3. Obesity Paradox in the Course of Cerebrovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzecka, Anna; Ejma, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Obesity remains an important risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it has been observed that increased body fat and body mass index predicted longer survival after the occurrence of a cardiovascular event. This observation has been named the obesity paradox. Initially, the term obesity paradox referred to the observation of the better outcome of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and coronary heart disease, in obese patients as compared to underweight and normal-weight patients. Recently, similar, although fewer, observations confirm the occurrence of the obesity paradox in patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases. The underlying reasons for the protective effects of excessive body fat tissue against the consequences of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are poorly understood. The effect of preconditioning may be associated with the obesity paradox. The issue of the correlation between obesity and better survival of patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases still remains largely unexplored. Debates for and against the obesity paradox continue.

  4. A cerebrovascular stroke following endoscopy for an elderly patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed Gado

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... for an elderly patient with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. ... Peer review under responsibility of Alexandria University Faculty of. Medicine. ... endoscopy, the patient suffered an ischemic-cerebrovascular stroke leaving ...

  5. Elderly woman with cerebrovascular accident and refractory arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, S K; Sarm, P S A

    2009-11-01

    Fatal bilateral cerebro-vascular accident with variable atrio-ventricular blocks, atrial fibrillation and refractory tachy-arrhythmias in a previously healthy 75-years-old hypertensive female is presented.

  6. Cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in normotensive and hypertensive man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tominaga, S; Strandgaard, S; Uemura, K

    1976-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 inhalation and voluntary hyperventilation was studied in seven normotensive subjects and nine hypertensive patients without clinical or angiographical signs of arteriosclerosis. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by the intracarotid 133Xe clearance method and...

  7. Change of blood rheology in newborn and its cerebrovascular damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Ming Chen; Chun-Hua Lai; Jun-Feng Lv; Bing-Yan Yang; Li Xing-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage in newborn whose hematocritg (HCT) are among 60%-65%.Methods:A total of 100 cases newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% with blood routine examination were set as observation group, 100 cases newborn whose HCT <60% were set as control group, compared the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage between two groups.Results:The HCT, whole blood viscosity (high), whole blood viscosity (low shear), erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, aspertate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, Vs, Vs and the abnormal rate of aEEG examination in observation group were significantly higher than the control group, the difference had statistical significance, RI in observation group were significantly lower than the control group, the difference had statistical significance.Conclusions:newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% but not with polycythemia have appeared and cerebrovascular lesions, it should cause clinical positive value.

  8. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis.......The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  9. Cerebral blood flow, oxidative metabolism and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Thomsen, Gerda

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)CO(2)) in patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is unknown and controversial. The objective of this study was to measure global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity (CO(2)R), and cerebral metabolic rates...... (CMR) of oxygen (O(2)), glucose (glu), and lactate (lac), in patients with ABM and compare the results to those obtained in healthy volunteers. METHODS: We studied 19 patients (17 of whom were sedated) with ABM and eight healthy volunteers (controls). CBF was measured during baseline ventilation...... to baseline ventilation, whereas CMR(glu) increased. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute bacterial meningitis, we found variable levels of CBF and cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity, a low a-v DO(2), low cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose, and a cerebral lactate efflux. In these patients...

  10. Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents in transitional Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Harizi (Shemsi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: i in a case-control design, to determine the relationship between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and cerebrovascular accidents; ii to assess the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and aneurisms among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Albania in 2013-2014, including 100 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 100 controls (individuals without cerebrovascular accidents. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent a CT angiography procedure, whereas individuals in the control group underwent a magnetic resonance angiography procedure. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Conversely, Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the prevalence of aneurisms between subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with and without anatomical variations of the circle of Willis. Results: Among patients, there were 22 (22% cases with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with 10 (10% individuals in the control group (P=0.033. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in the types of the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis between patients and controls (P=0.402. In age- and-sex adjusted logistic regression models, there was evidence of a significant positive association between cerebrovascular accidents and the anatomical variations of the circle of Willis (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.03-4.68, P=0.048. Within the patients’ group, of the 52 cases with aneurisms, there were 22 (42.3% individuals with anatomical variations of the circle of Willis compared with no individuals with anatomical variations among the 48 patients without aneurisms (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study provides useful evidence on the association between anatomical variations of the circle of Willis and

  11. Prothrombotic Gene Polymorphisms in Young Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyaþ Hekimler Öztürk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cerebrovascular diseases are complex multifactorial disorders showing an increased incidence with increasing age and affected by genetic and environmental factors. Although risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases include age, sex, lineage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia; in young cerebrovascular patients below age 45, genetic factors may also contribute to the etiology. In this retrospective study, prothrombotic gene polymorphisms which are thought to be related with formation of disease in young adults with cerebrovascular accident (CVA were investigated. Material and Method: In the current study, Methylenetetrahydropholate Reductase (MTHFR C677T and A129C; Prothrombin (Factor II G20210A; Factor V Leiden G1691A prothrombotic gene polymorphisms were evaluated for 43 young patients under the age of 45 with cerebrovascular accident history. Result: For 43 young patients with cerebrovascular incident history, the frequency of following polymorphisms were determined as follows; MTHFR C677T polymorphism heterozygous frequency is 46.1%, homozygous frequency is 9.3%; MTHFR A1298C polymorphism heterozygous frequency is 39.47%, homozygous frequency is 26.31%; Prothrombin polymorphism heterozygous and homozygous frequency is 2.3%; FactorV Leiden polymorphism heterozygous frequency is 9.3%. Discussion: After evaluation the experimental results, we believe that MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms might be risk factors in CVAs. It was observed that cigarette usage, hypertension and existence of family story in addition to these polymorphisms increase the available risk.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms and cerebrovascular disease in children with sickle cell anemia from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Lima da Silva Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to examine possible genetic risk factors related to the occurrence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD in Brazilian population, the frequency of βS-globin gene haplotypes and co-inheritance with α-thalassemia (-α3.7kb and single nucleotide polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR-C677T, Factor V Leiden (FV-G1691A and prothrombin (PT-G20210A genes in children from Rio de Janeiro. Ninety four children with sickle cell anemia (SCA were included, 24 patients with cerebrovascular involvement and 70 patients without CVD as control group. The mean age of children at the time of the cerebrovascular event was similar to the control group. The frequency of -α3.7kb thalassemia was similar in both groups (p=0.751. Children with Bantu/Atypical βS-globin gene haplotype presented 15 times more chance (OR=15.4 CI 95% 2.9-81.6 of CVD than the other βS-globin gene haplotypes. The C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene was similar in both groups (p=0.085. No mutation in the FV Leiden or PT genes was found. A large study seems necessary to establish the role of these genetic polymorphisms in Brazilian miscegenated population.

  13. Symptomatic Epilepsies due to Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakaj, Nazim; Shatri, Nexhat; Isaku, Enver; Zeqiraj, Kamber

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cerebro-vascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of symptomatic epilepsies. This study aims to investigate: a) Frequency of epilepsy in patients with CVD; b) Correlation of epilepsy with the type of CVD (ischemic and hemorrhage) and with age. Methodology: It is analyzed medical documentation of 816 hospitalized patients with CVD in the clinic of Neurology in University Clinical Center (UCC) during the period January - December 2010. The study included data on patients presenting with epileptic seizures after CVD, and those with previously diagnosed epilepsy, are not included in the study. The diagnosis of CVD, are established in clinical neurological examination and the brain imaging (computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging). The diagnosis of epilepsy is established by the criteria of ILAE (International League against Epilepsy) 1983, and epileptic seizures are classified according to the ILAE classification, of 1981. Results: Out of 816 patients with CVD, 692 were with ischemic stroke and 124 with hemorrhage. From 816 patients, epileptic seizures had 81 (10%), of which 9 patients had been diagnosed with epilepsy earlier and they are not included in the study. From 72 (99%) patients with seizures after CVD 25 (33%) have been with ischemia, whereas 47 (67%) with hemorrhage. Conclusion: CVD present fairly frequent cause of symptomatic epilepsies among patients treated in the clinic of Neurology at UCC (about 10%). The biggest number of patients with epilepsy after CVD was with intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:25685086

  14. Current therapy for chronic cerebrovascular attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shmonin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cerebrovascular attack (CCVA is a brain lesion caused by vascular factors. CCVA appears as cognitive impairments (CIs, affective (emotional disorders and focal syndromes. Treatment for CCVA requires a comprehensive approach. Effective combination therapy for CCVA involves secondary prevention of stroke and CIs; treatment of CIs; treatment of depression and other affective disorders; and neuroprotective therapy. Basic therapy for CCVA includes modification of risk factors, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, and antithrombotic therapies. Central acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (galantamine, rivastigmine, donepezil and a reversible NMDA receptor blocker (memantine are symptomatically used at a stage of vascular and mixed dementia. There are no unique guidelines for the therapy of mild and moderate vascular nondementia-related CIs. Drug use, based on the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the development of vascular CIs, is substantiated. When choosing psychotropic agents, it is necessary to take into account the causes and clinical manifestations of neuromediator deficiency. Antidepressants are used as essential drugs. Neuroleptics and tranquilizers are additionally administered in complex-pattern syndromes, such as depression with marked anxiety. Prescription of neuroprotectors may be effective in treating both stroke and CCVA. These medicaments are most effective when a damaging factor acts, i.e. neuroprotectors should be given in a risk situation and to reduce damage. Citicoline is one of the most test drugs in a group of neuroprotectors. 

  15. Audiological profile in cases with cerebrovascular accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matlapudi Venkata Subbarao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past decades there has been increase demand of audiological complaints coinciding with neurological impairments due to cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs. Most of the cases represent inconsistent responses to acoustic stimuli or total lack of response to sound, documented as auditory agnosia. Aim: The present investigation aims at understanding of potential anatomical co-relates to the involvement of the cortical structure and the processing of auditory stimuli. Materials and Methods: A case series with convenient sampling method included eight cases (six male and two female with age range 45-55 years with CVA, were taken for this study. Of them two cases were found with lesion in right middle cerebral artery, four cases with left middle cerebral artery and two cases with left posterior cerebral artery lesion confirmed from magnetic resonance imaging scan. Audiological test battery including otoscopy, tuning fork test, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, immittance audiometry, dichotic-diotic listening test, auditory brainstem responses, otoacoustic emissions and gap detection tests were carried out including routine ENT evaluation. Results and Conclusion: Result suggests; there is a significant difference in hearing threshold and speech perception in all the eight subjects. The findings and compromised vascular anatomy in all these cases were discussed in this article.

  16. Human Homeostatic Control Matrix in Norm

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    Alexander G. Kruglov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We undertook our research to study and systemize the relationship between hemodynamics and biochemical parameters of arterial and venous blood in healthy people. Hemodynamic and biochemical characteristics were obtained through a probe by using catheterization in various vascular areas (aorta, brain, heart, lungs, and liver. Correlation and factor analyses were conducted to study the relationship between the obtained characteristics of the regional and systemic blood flow. Due to the nature of the correlation analysis, the significant (p<0.05 relation signs (+, 0, - without regard to their power were considered. The obtained results suggested that there are sets of both intra-organ and system regulatory relationships between metabolic and hemodynamic characteristics. The complex of relationships among the studied parameters makes it possible to maintain the homeostatic equilibrium in the body. The psychophysiological control system includes the subsystems we described: 1 the cardiac-hepatic-pulmonary complex having properties of the metabolic and hemodynamic information field providing biological stability of the homeostasis; any significant imbalance of its elements triggers afferent information flows actualizing an afferent synthesis; 2 the mind forming gradient patterns of targeted behavior to eliminate metabolic imbalance, to achieve goals both as coded biological parameters and as the highest forms of behavior, to reach the ultimate goal: parametric, homeostatic equilibrium in the “biosphere” of the human body. By using the results of our research and the complex of dynamic relationships in human homeostasis, we built a homeostatic control matrix (HCM.

  17. Cerebrovascular mental stress reactivity is impaired in hypertension

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    Naqvi Tasneem Z

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachial artery reactivity in response to shear stress is altered in subjects with hypertension. Since endothelial dysfunction is generalized, we hypothesized that carotid artery (CA reactivity would also be altered in hypertension. Purpose To compare (CA endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to mental stress in normal and hypertensive subjects. Methods We evaluated CA reactivity to mental stress in 10 young healthy human volunteers (aged 23 ± 4 years, 20 older healthy volunteers (aged 49 ± 11 years and in 28 patients with essential hypertension (aged 51 ± 13 years. In 10 healthy volunteers and 12 hypertensive subjects, middle cerebral artery (MCA PW transcranial Doppler was performed before and 3 minutes after mental stress. Results Mental stress by Stroop color word conflict, math or anger recall tests caused CA vasodilation in young healthy subjects (0.61 ± 0.06 to 0.65 ± 0.07 cm, p Conclusion Mental stress produces CA vasodilation and is accompanied by an increase in CA and MCA blood flow in healthy subjects. This mental stress induced CA vasodilation and flow reserve is attenuated in subjects with hypertension and may reflect cerebral vascular endothelial dysfunction. Assessment of mental stress induced CA reactivity by ultrasound is a novel method for assessing the impact of hypertension on cerebrovascular endothelial function and blood flow reserve.

  18. Potential Linkage Between Cerebrovascular Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Firoz, Chelapram Kandy; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Tabrez, Shams

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease (CD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are two devastating health dilemma that continues to be a potential contributor to disability and mortality in human population all across the world. Scientific data clearly shows several mechanistic similarities between these two co-existing and interlinked conditions. The linkage exacerbates ongoing patho-physiological condition towards more lethal events. In view of the presence of modifiable risk factors in both CD and MetS, their management holds potential therapeutic value. Hence, developing common treatment strategies for these diseases could involve common molecular agents. In this communication, we have summarized some of the common pathological conditions viz. abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction that further deteriorate existing homeostasis in CD and MetS. Based on our article, it is advocated that substantial improvements in novel multi-targeted drug discovery could provide the effective treatment methods in order to avoid the fatal complications related with CD and MetS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Influence of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Lu; Ning-Ning Cui; Bin-Cheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods:A total of 58 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease in our hospital from April 2015 to January 2016 were selected as the study object, and 58 patients were randomly divided into two groups, 29 patients in control group were treated with routine treatment, 29 patients in observation group were treated with remote ischemic preconditioning on the basic treatment of control group, then the cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of two groups before the treatment and at first, third and sixth month after the treatment were respectively detected and compared.Results:The cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of two groups before the treatment all showed no significant differences (allP>0.05), while the cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of observation group at first, third and sixth month after the treatment were all significantly better than those before the treatment, and the results were all significantly better than those of control group at the same time too (allP>0.05).Conclusions: The influence of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease are better, and its application value for the patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease is higher.

  20. Competing Sentence Test (CST Results in Patients With Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoreh Jalaei

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the cerebrovascular diseases (CVD are among the most common anomalies that are directly or indirectly affecting the auditory cortex, studying in this area is important. We tried to evaluate the function of CANS in a group of 50-70 years old cerebrovascular accident (CVA patients with no hearing complaint by competing sentences test (CST as a dichotic speech test. Method and Material: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at Loghman-e-Hakim hospital between 22, august 1999 and 20, July 2000 in a group of 30 normal 50-70 years old persons and a group of 40 patients with CVA including 30 patients with abnormal CT scan and 10 patients with normal CT scan. Results: The results point out the mean scores of CST in the normal group were at normal range (80-100% in both ears. And mean scores of CST decreased in the patients groups. There were significant difference between mean scores of CST in the patients with CVA and control groups. Conclusion: CST seems to be a valuable test in the CANS test batteries for the cerebrovascular diseases.

  1. Fuzzy Control Strategies in Human Operator and Sport Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana T; Markovic, Sasa

    2009-01-01

    The motivation behind mathematically modeling the human operator is to help explain the response characteristics of the complex dynamical system including the human manual controller. In this paper, we present two different fuzzy logic strategies for human operator and sport modeling: fixed fuzzy-logic inference control and adaptive fuzzy-logic control, including neuro-fuzzy-fractal control. As an application of the presented fuzzy strategies, we present a fuzzy-control based tennis simulator.

  2. HIGH SENSITIVE C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN CEREBROVASCULAR ISCHEMIA

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    Padmalatha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cerebrovascular ischemia is recognized as a major health problem, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. The main pathophysiology of ischemic stroke is atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels. Hs-CRP is a sensitive marker of inflammation tissue injury in the arterial wall, which contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we aim to investigate the association of hs-CRP in patients with ischemic stroke and to correlate hs-CRP levels with possible risk factors of ischemic stroke and to assess the prognostic value of hs-CRP in ischemic stroke. METHODS In the present case control study after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria, 50 patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted in the medical ward, King George Hospital, during the period between April 2014 and October 2014 and 40 asymptomatic age and sex matched control subjects were included. RESULTS The mean hs-CRP value in cases is 3.78+5.28mg/dl and in controls is 0.425+0.305mg/dl. Mean hs-CRP value is higher (3.78mg/dl in cases when compared to controls (0.425mg/dl, which is statistically significant. P admitted with severe degree of weakness (0-1/5 power with mean hs-CRP value of 4.28+4.07 without significant improvement in the power at the time of discharge; 8(16%> with mean hs-CRP value of 10.43+7.74 were expired. CONCLUSION Acute ischemic patients had higher mean hs-CRP values when compared to healthy asymptomatic control subjects P0.05. Higher mean hs-CRP values were associated with poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke. P<0.001.

  3. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.

    2016-03-01

    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and 10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  4. Reflex control of human jaw muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Kemal S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss what is known about the reflex control of the human masticatory system and to propose a method for standardized investigation. Literature regarding the current knowledge of activation of jaw muscles, receptors involved in the feedback control, and reflex pathways is discussed. The reflexes are discussed under the headings of the stimulation conditions. This was deliberately done to remind the reader that under each stimulation condition, several receptor systems are activated, and that it is not yet possible to stimulate only one afferent system in isolation in human mastication experiments. To achieve a method for uniform investigation, we need to set a method for stimulation of the afferent pathway under study with minimal simultaneous activation of other receptor systems. This stimulation should also be done in an efficient and reproducible way. To substantiate our conviction to standardize the stimulus type and parameters, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical and electrical stimuli. For mechanical stimulus to be delivered in a reproducible way, the following precautions are suggested: The stimulus delivery system (often a probe attached to a vibrator) should be brought into secure contact with the area of stimulation. To minimize the slack between the probe, the area to be stimulated should be taken up by the application of pre-load, and the delivered force should be recorded in series. Electrical stimulus has advantages in that it can be delivered in a reproducible way, though its physiological relevance can be questioned. It is also necessary to standardize the method for recording and analyzing the responses of the motoneurons to the stimulation. For that, a new technique is introduced, and its advantages over the currently used methods are discussed. The new method can illustrate the synaptic potential that is induced in the motoneurons without the errors that are unavoidable in the current

  5. Mimicking of cerebral autoregulation by flow-dependent cerebrovascular resistance: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Tim A S; Wong, Kai C; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Understanding circulatory autoregulation is essential for improving physiological control of rotary blood pumps and support conditions during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Cerebral autoregulation (CAR), arguably the most critical, is the body's intrinsic ability to maintain sufficient cerebral blood flow (CBF) despite changes in aortic perfusion pressure. It is therefore imperative to include this mechanism into computational fluid dynamics (CFD), particle image velocimetry (PIV), or mock circulation loop (MCL) studies. Without such inclusions, potential losses of CBF are overestimated. In this study, a mathematical model to mimic CAR is implemented in a MCL- and PIV-validated CFD model. A three-dimensional model of the human vascular system was created from magnetic resonance imaging records. Numerical flow simulations were performed for physiological conditions and CPB. The inlet flow was varied between 4.5 and 6 L/min. Arterial outlets were modeled using vessel-specific, flow-dependent cerebrovascular resistances (CVRs), resulting in a variation of the pressure drop between 0 and 80mmHg. CBF is highly dependent on the level of CAR during CPB. By varying the CVR parameters up to the beginning of plateau phase, it can be regulated between 0 and 80% of physiological CBF. So while implementing autoregulation, CBF remains unchanged during a simulated native cardiac output of 5L/min or CPB support of 6L/min. Neglecting CAR, constant backflow from the brain occurs for some cannula positions. Using flow-dependent CVR, CBF returns to its baseline at a rate of recovery of 0.25s. Results demonstrate that modeling of CAR by flow-dependent CVR delivers feasible results. The presented method can be used to optimize physiological control of assist devices dependent upon different levels of CAR representing different patients.

  6. HOW TO SELECT APPROPRIATE HUMAN RESOURCE CONTROLLING INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dugelova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human resource controlling represents a company’s strategic method to support its role is planning, checking, and managing—including information supplement for human resources department. Human resource controlling helps with optimization and transformation of human resource functions and with general human resource management. Our survey deals with the implementation of human resource controlling in information technology companies. The selection of appropriate human resource controlling tools is the most important part of implementation. This article deals with the problem of human resource indicators selection as the most frequently used human resource controlling tool. Many international authors have solved the problem of performance appraisal measurement, and there are numerous demonstrations on how to choose key performance indicators. Our motivation to draft the complex methodology of human resource indicators selection is based on non-existing solution among the authors. To solve the problem and find appropriate methodology, we use the methods comparison, abstraction, and concretization. The result is a creation of the right human resource indicators selection in line with human resource controlling aim. We use the Balanced Scorecard, Deloitte human resource strategy framework, and partial solution of Kleinhempel (2010. These results constitute the basis for our future research and for drafting the whole methodology of human resource controlling implementation in information technology companies.

  7. Atención primaria de salud en la Enfermedad Cerebrovascular

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    Keidy Sabater Bueno

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio retrospectivo-descriptivo para evaluar las acciones de salud que el Médico de la Familia realizó sobre los pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular y que fallecieron por ese motivo en el Área de Salud "Carlos Verdugo", Matanzas, durante los años 1994 y 1995. Se estudiaron 50 fallecidos en entrevista médico-familiar; se obtuvieron los datos de, edad, sexo y antecedentes patológicos personales que recogieron: enfermedades crónicas y factores de riesgo; dispensarización, que recogió número de controles realizados en los últimos 12 meses que precedieron a la defunción ya fueran en consultas, visitas de terreno y visitas integrales, así como el cumplimiento del tratamiento indicado. Se encontró que se dispensarizaron en el 100 % de los fallecidos la hipertensión arterial, la cardiopatía isquémica, la obesidad y la hiperlipidemia. El 72,4 % (12 fallecidos recibió entre 1 y 3 controles en consultas. El 79,3 % (16 fallecidos recibió entre 1 y 3 controles en visitas de terreno y el 100 % se controló entre 1 y 3 ocasiones en visitas integrales a la familia. Se concluyó que el cumplimiento del tratamiento indicado para la enfermedad cerebrovascular, los factores de riesgo y enfermedades crónicas no fue satisfactorio en el grupo estudiado. Se recomienda realizar un mayor número de controles en la atención primaria a los pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular sobre todo cuando en la dispensarización se encuentra la asociación hipertensión arterial, hábito de fumar y mayores de 65 años.A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the health actions taken by the family physician in connection with those patients that suffered from cerebrovascular disease and died due to this cause in the "Carlos Verdugo" health area, Matanzas, during 1994 and 1995. 50 dead patients were studied through doctor relative interviews. The following data were obtained: age, sex, personal pathological history

  8. Metric Selection for Evaluation of Human Supervisory Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Conceptual model of human-supervisory control (modified from Pina , Cummings et al. (2008...42  4 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Human supervisory control metric classes ( Pina , Donmez...literature in terms of human- autonomous vehicle interaction (Crandall & Cummings, 2007; Olsen & Goodrich, 2003; Pina , Cummings, Crandall, & Della Penna

  9. Controlled toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronets, J; Jaeggi, T; Buergin, W; Lussi, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare toothbrush abrasion of softened enamel after brushing with two (soft and hard) toothbrushes. One hundred and fifty-six human enamel specimens were indented with a Knoop diamond. Salivary pellicle was formed in vitro over a period of 3 h. Erosive lesions were produced by means of 1% citric acid. A force-measuring device allowed a controlled toothbrushing force of 1.5 N. The specimens were brushed either in toothpaste slurry or with toothpaste in artificial saliva for 15 s. Enamel loss was calculated from the change in indentation depth of the same indent before and after abrasion. Mean surface losses (95% CI) were recorded in ten treatment groups: (1) soft toothbrush only [28 (17-39) nm]; (2) hard toothbrush only [25 (16-34) nm]; (3) soft toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [46 (27-65) nm]; (4) hard toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [45 (24-66) nm]; (5) soft toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [71 (55-87) nm]; (6) hard toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [85 (60-110) nm]; (7) soft toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [48 (39-57) nm]; (8) hard toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [40 (29-51) nm]; (9) soft toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [51 (37-65) nm]; (10) hard toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [52 (36-68) nm]. Neither soft nor hard toothbrushes produced significantly different toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel in this model (p > 0.05). Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  11. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  12. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  13. Evento cerebrovascular isquémico en el adulto joven

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Leandro-Sandí; Miguel Barboza-Elizondo; Gustavo Vindas-Angulo

    2013-01-01

    El evento cerebrovascular isquémico es un desorden multifactorial, en el que contribuyen factores genéticos y ambientales. A pesar de que se reconoce un aumento del riesgo de eventos cerebrovasculares cuando existe una historia familiar positiva (de hasta un 75% en ciertos estudios), no se conoce la contribución exacta que tiene la genética en el desarrollo de eventos cerebrales isquémicos en el paciente joven. El papel que desempeña la predisposición genética sobre la ocurrencia de estos eve...

  14. Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Complex Diagnostics of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goydenko V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity parameters due to transcranial Doppler sonography in 104 patients (62 women and 42 men with spondilogenic vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Mean age of patients was 42.9±12.2 years. It was found that the assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity and type of response to functional loading tests allows to confirm vertebrobasilar stage insufficiency, to determine the activity of various regulatory mechanisms of compensation of cerebral circulation and adaptation reserve of the cerebral vascular system.

  15. [Prevalence, morbidity, and mortality in cerebrovascular diseases in Mariupol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurov, I V

    2002-01-01

    A comparative analysis was done of prevalence, incidence rates, and mortality from cerebrovascular disorders (CVD), including cerebral insults, in Mariupol over the period 1999-2000. Submitted in the paper are CVD epidemiological findings from the Donetsk region, Ukraine. Of much interest to us was studying prevalence, risk factors for CVD development among those workers occupied in labour at large industrial enterprises in Mariupol, with which purpose sampling population studies were made among workers occupied in labour at the Illyich Integrated Iron-and-Steel Works and seaport. During the course of the above studies epidemiological indices were examined together with risk factors for development of cerebrovascular disorders.

  16. l-arginine and l-NMMA for assessing cerebral endothelial dysfunction in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, William K; Sørensen, Caspar G; Kruuse, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of l-arginine and N(G) -monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to l-arginine or l-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Seven studies (315 subjects) were eligible according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies investigated the effect of age (n=2), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=1), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) (n=1), leukoaraiosis (n=1), and prior ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) (n=2) on cerebral ED. Most studies applied transcranial Doppler to quantify cerebral ED. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) induced by l-arginine was impaired in elderly and subjects with leukoaraiosis, but enhanced in CADASIL patients. Studies including subjects with prior ischaemic stroke or TIA reported both enhanced and impaired EDV to l-arginine. Responses to l-NMMA deviated between subjects with type 2 DM and the elderly. We found only few studies investigating cerebral endothelial responses to l-arginine and l-NMMA in subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Inconsistencies in results were most likely due to variations in methods and included subject populations. In order to use cerebral ED as a prognostic marker, further studies are required to evaluate the association to cerebrovascular disease.

  17. Genetic relationship between serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene polymorphism and ischemic cerebrovascular disease in a Northern Han Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiping Wang; Yan Song; Chen Zhang; Jingjing Zhan; Rui Zhang; Haiji Wang

    2012-01-01

    The present study recruited 193 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease from Inpatient and Outpatient Departments at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, China from August 2008 to May 2010, as well as 120 healthy volunteers from the Medical Examination Center at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, China, who served as controls for this study.Patients and control subjects were from the Han population in northern China.Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed increased levels of serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients compared with healthy controls.In addition, the patients exhibited greater frequency of genotype CC and C alleles in a missense A/C (Tyr/Ser) polymorphism (dbSNP: rs7020782) of exon 14 in the PAPP-A gene.Multiple-factor logistic regression analysis on correction of age, gender, history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesteremia, and ischemic stroke family history showed that the risk for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in the population without the A allele at the A/C genetic locus in exon 14 of the PAPP-A was 2-folds greater than the population expressing the A allele.These experimental findings suggested that ischemic cerebrovascular disease correlated with the C allele in exon 14 of PAPP-A.In addition, the A allele is likely a protective gene; individuals carrying the A allele were less prone to ischemic cerebrovascular disease compared with individuals without the A allele.

  18. Translational neuroendocrinology: control of human growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, P E; Gill, M S; Tillmann, V; Westwood, M

    2014-06-01

    Human growth is driven by both basic cell processes as well as hormones, in particular the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis. Understanding how these mechanisms are coordinated is not only critical to achieving a normal growth rate, but also to recognising potential new causes of disordered growth and how they might be treated. We have demonstrated in healthy children that height is gained by periods of rapid growth interspersed by periods of very slow growth or even stasis. We have also shown that a lower order organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, grows in a similar manner. By contrast, secretion of GH from somatotrophs occurs on a daily basis in discrete pulses over a 24-h period. We have used the measurement of GH in urine as a surrogate marker of GH secretion to show that there are rhythms of GH output with frequencies of several days. We then assessed which attributes of these GH profiles were related to growth and found that disorderliness in the GH profile (as measured by approximate entropy) was related to better growth rate. This feature was then tested in the dwarf rat using different GH regimens to introduce variation into the administration of daily GH injections. Better long bone growth was associated with week-to-week or even random dose variation compared to the same amount of GH delivered as a standard daily dose. Understanding the control of growth has implications in clinical practice for modelling GH treatment regimens based on physiological principles.

  19. 7-T MRI in Cerebrovascular Diseases : Challenges to Overcome and Initial Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, Anita A; van der Kolk, Anja G; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Luijten, Peter R; Hendrikse, J

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the investigation of cerebrovascular diseases. Compared with computed tomography (CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), its advantages in diagnosing cerebrovascular pathology include its superior tissue contrast, its ability to visualize

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila in elderly patients with stroke (C-PEPS, M-PEPS, L-PEPS): a case-control study on the infectious burden of atypical respiratory pathogens in elderly patients with acute cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeh, Joseph; Goodbourn, Colin

    2005-02-01

    Multiple studies have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether the risk of cerebrovascular disease is associated with Legionella pneumophila infection and the aggregate number/infectious burden of these atypical respiratory pathogens. One hundred patients aged >65 years admitted with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 87 control patients admitted concurrently with acute noncardiopulmonary, noninfective conditions were recruited prospectively. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, we previously reported the seroprevalences of C pneumoniae and M pneumoniae in these patients. We have now determined the seroprevalences of L pneumophila IgG and IgM in this cohort of patients using ELISA. The seroprevalences of L pneumophila IgG and IgM were 29% (n=91) and 12% (n=81) in the stroke/TIA group and 22% (n=86) and 10% (n=72) in the controls, respectively. Using logistic regression to adjust for age, sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic ECG, the odds ratios for stroke/TIA in relation to L pneumophila IgG and IgM were 1.52 (95% CI, 0.70 to 3.28; P=0.29) and 1.49 (95% CI, 0.45 to 4.90; P=0.51), respectively. The odds ratios in relation to IgG seropositivity for 1, 2, or 3 atypical respiratory pathogens after adjustment were 3.89 (95% CI, 1.13 to 13.33), 2.00 (95% CI, 0.64 to 6.21), and 6.67 (95% CI, 1.22 to 37.04), respectively (P=0.06). L pneumophila seropositivity is not significantly associated with stroke/TIA. However, the risk of stroke/TIA appears to be associated with the aggregate number of chronic infectious burden of atypical respiratory pathogens such as C pneumoniae, M pneumoniae, and L pneumophila.

  1. Influencing factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with stroke history following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Ming; Jia, Shijie; Wan, Jiuhe; Zhou, Xiao; Luo, Zhimin; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Jianqun

    2014-06-01

    To analyse risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with stroke history, and to propose preventive measures to reduce the incidence of these events. A total of 468 patients with a history of stroke underwent OPCAB surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital of China from January 2010 to September 2012. They were retrospectively divided into two groups according to the occurrence of early acute cerebrovascular accidents within 48 hours following OPCAB. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find risk or protective factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following the OPCAB. Fifty-two patients (11.1%) suffered from early acute cerebrovascular accidents in 468 patients, including 39 cases of cerebral infarction, two cases of cerebral haemorrhage, 11 cases of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). There were significant differences between the two groups in preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, severe bilateral carotid artery stenosis, poorly controlled hypertension, intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device, postoperative acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, hypotension, ventilation time > 48h, ICU duration >48h and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative severe bilateral carotid stenosis (OR=6.378, 95%CI: 2.278-20.987) and preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% (OR=2.737, 95%CI: 1.267-6.389), postoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR=3.644, 95%CI: 1.928-6.876), postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR=3.104, 95%CI:1.135∼8.016) and postoperative hypotension (OR=4.173, 95%CI: 1.836∼9.701) were independent risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with a history of stroke following OPCAB procedures, while intraoperative application of Enclose® II proximal anastomotic device was protective factor (OR=0.556, 95%CI: 0.337-0.925). This

  2. Muertes por enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares prevenibles - (Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease and Stroke)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de septiembre del 2013 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Más de 800,000 personas en los Estados Unidos mueren cada año a causa de enfermedades cardiacas y accidentes cerebrovasculares. Aprenda cómo controlar todos los principales factores de riesgo.  Created: 9/3/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/3/2013.

  3. Cerebrovascular contributions to aging and Alzheimer's disease in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, Donna M; Schmitt, Frederick A; Head, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a common cause of intellectual disability and is also associated with early age of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to an extra copy of chromosome 21, most adults over 40years old with DS have beta-amyloid plaques as a result of overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein. Cerebrovascular pathology may also be a significant contributor to neuropathology observed in the brains of adults with DS. This review describes the features of cardiovascular dysfunction and cerebrovascular pathology in DS that may be modifiable risk factors and thus targets for interventions. We will describe cerebrovascular pathology, the role of co-morbidities, imaging studies indicating vascular pathology and the possible consequences. It is clear that our understanding of aging and AD in people with DS will benefit from further studies to determine the role that cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to cognitive health. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock.

  4. Evento cerebrovascular isquémico en el adulto joven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Leandro-Sandí

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El evento cerebrovascular isquémico es un desorden multifactorial, en el que contribuyen factores genéticos y ambientales. A pesar de que se reconoce un aumento del riesgo de eventos cerebrovasculares cuando existe una historia familiar positiva (de hasta un 75% en ciertos estudios, no se conoce la contribución exacta que tiene la genética en el desarrollo de eventos cerebrales isquémicos en el paciente joven. El papel que desempeña la predisposición genética sobre la ocurrencia de estos eventos, difiere según la edad y el tipo de evento. Los factores genéticos se conjugan con los factores de riesgo convencionales, como hipertensión arterial, diabetes y niveles de homocisteína, que a su vez interactúan con el ambiente en el desarrollo de aterosclerosis. La homocisteína por sí sola, ha sido considerada un factor aterogénico en enfermedades cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares. Se refiere el caso de un paciente de 49 años conocido sano, quien presenta un evento cerebrovascular isquémico de la circulación cerebral anterior, con un valor en la escala para derrame del Instituto Nacional de Salud de 7 puntos al ingreso y una mutación heterocigota del gen de la metiltetrahidrofolato reductasa (región de mutación C677T.

  5. Depression as the cause and consequence of cerebrovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi-Žikić Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inbtroduction: Recent epidemiological, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological studies have reported substantial evidence on the complex interactive relationships between depression and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in older populations, and plausible explanations of the etiopathogenetic mechanisms in both directions have been proposed. Poststroke depression Although there is no general consensus regarding its prevalence, it is widely accepted that major depression after stroke is common and that it should be recognized as a key factor in rehabilitation and outcome following stroke. Vascular depression The "vascular depression" hypothesis presupposes that late-onset depression may often result from vascular damage to frontal-subcortical circuits implicated in mood regulation. This concept has stimulated many researches and the obtained results support the proposed hypothesis. Depression as a stroke risk factor Recent large studies have emphasized the role of depression per se in the development of subsequent stroke. Mechanisms proposed to explain the increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases in depressed patients There are a number of plausible mechanisms that could explain why depression may increase the risk of subsequent cerebrovascular disease, the most important being sympathoadrenal hyperactivity, platelet activation, an increase in inflammatory cytokines and an increased risk of arrhythmias. Conclusion: Thorough clinical examinations determining the conventional stroke risk factors in the population with depression, as well as management of depression as part of the overall measures for the reduction of cerebrovascular risk factors are of utmost importance.

  6. Cerebrovascular angiotensin AT1 receptor regulation in cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism behind the positive response to the inhibition of the angiotensin II receptor AT(1) in conjunction with stroke is elusive. Here we demonstrate that cerebrovascular AT(1) receptors show increased expression (upregulation) after cerebral ischemia via enhanced translation. This enhanced...

  7. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christian M; Fischer Hansen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Signs of myocardial involvement are common in patients with acute cerebrovascular events. ST segment deviations, abnormal left ventricular function, increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), prolonged QT interval, and/or raised troponins are observed in up to one third...

  8. NSAIDs and cardiovascular drugs in neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D.M. Haag (Mendel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractNeurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases are frequent in elderly populations and comprise primarily of dementia (mainly Alzheimer disease (AD)), Parkinson disease (PD) and stroke. The prevalence of these neurological disorders rises with older age. From 55 years to 90 years and abo

  9. SICK SINUS SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Kazakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a clinical case of 2 patients with heart arrhythmias of the sick sinus syndrome type, who were implanted electriccardiac pacemakers in the acute period of cerebrovascular accidents. There were no cardiac complaints in the clinical manifestation, however, a comprehensive assessment confirmed the diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome.

  10. 干预高血压、高血脂、高黏滞血症对心脑血管疾患发生率的影响%Impact of intervened hypertension,hyperlipemia ,hyperviscosity syndrome in incidence of card-iovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建文; 王清; 徐培清

    2002-01-01

    Background:According to American Heart Association's report,death composition of cerebrovascular and cerebrovascular disease was increased to 29% in 1996,and now 33% from 25% in 1992.Now,atherosclerosis seriously endanger human's health.Hypertension,hyperlipemia and hyperviscosity syndrome are main risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.There conditions often existed simultaneously in elders.Intervention to these diseases can prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events,which is feasible. Objective:To investigate impact of hypertension,hyperlipemia and hyperviscosity syndrome on incidence of cardiovascular and cereborvascular events. Design:Random,controlled study. Unit:Department of Senile Diseases, Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong. Subjects:In study group, 52 senile subjects with complete hospitalizing data were recruited from 1995~ 2000.Patients with hypertension,hyperlipemia ,hyperviscosity syndrome were included in the current study.13 subjects asked medical help due to hypertension,25 due to hyperlipemia and 14 due to hyperviscosity syndrome.Sometimes blood pressure of hypertension patients was 140~ 160/90~ 100 mmHg.Patients' mean age was 65.21.Ratio of male to female was 13:1.In control group,50 outpatients were included who had similar diseases those in study group.Mean age was 62.34 and ratio of male to female was 17.33:1. Intervention:In study group,calcium antagonist such as adalatcc, nitrendipine, plendil and/or ASCE inhibitor such as perindopril and captopril were given o.s.Blood pressure was con trolled to normal level.Blood lipid regulating drugs such as pravastatin, ticlopidine,and lipanthy were given for hyperlipemia patients.For patients with hyperviscosity syndrome,enteral aspirin or persantine was given,50~ 75 mg/day.Interval of drugs was 1 day to 2 months.Detailed data was unavailable.Red sage root or its compound form injecto was given i.v.,70 mg/day,pueraria root was given i.v.300~ 500 mg

  11. ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS IN PREGNANCY, LABOR AND POSTPARTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Arustamyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute cerebrovascular accidents are rare and serious complication of pregnancy, labor and puerperium, leading to an increase in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. More than 12% of maternal mortality is related to stroke. Aim: To assess the impact of pregnancy on the incidence of stroke, as well as the impact of cerebrovascular disorders on pregnancy, labor and puerperium. Materials and methods: We retrospectively and prospectively analyzed the course of pregnancy, labor and puerperium in 136 female patients with strokes of various etiologies. The diagnosis of stroke and cerebrovascular disorders was verified with magnetic resonance imaging, angiography, conventional and multiaxial computerized tomography, ophthalmoscopy, electroencephalography, electrocardiography and echocardiography (trans-thoracic and trans-esophageal, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and electrocardiogram monitoring, ultrasound assessment of extra and intracranial vasculature with duplex scanning, cerebral angiography and laboratory assessments. Results: The analysis of 92 strokes that occurred during pregnancy, labor and postpartum showed that 38% of the cases (n=35 were caused by various cerebrovascular abnormalities. In 18.5% of the cases (n=17, acute cerebrovascular accidents occurred in patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia. Most often (84.8%, or 78/97 of cases strokes or other cerebrovascular accidents developed in II and III trimesters. The most severe cases were patients with intracranial hemorrhages (n=31. In this group, there were 5  deaths of mothers, 1  antenatal and 1  neonatal fetal deaths. In 90% of these cases (28/31, intracranial hemorrhage in pregnancy was related to manifestation of intracerebral vascular abnormality (arteriovenous malformations, arterial aneurysms, cavernomas. We observed a 4-fold rate of arteriovenous malformation ruptures during pregnancy (21 cases vs. 5. The rates of arterial aneurysm and cavernoma ruptures

  12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae in elderly patients with stroke. a case-control study on the seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae in elderly patients with acute cerebrovascular disease - the M-PEPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeh, Joseph; Gupta, Sandeep; Goodbourn, Colin; McElligott, Geraldine

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested certain infections as potential risk factors for stroke. Chlamydia pneumoniae, an atypical respiratory pathogen, has been linked to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, another atypical respiratory micro-organism, can rarely cause stroke. We investigated whether serological markers of M. pneumoniae infection were associated with acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in elderly patients. This case-control study was nested within the C-PEPS study - a case-control study on the seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae in elderly stroke and medical patients. Ninety-five incident cases of patients admitted consecutively with acute stroke or TIA, and 82 control subjects admitted concurrently with acute non-cardiopulmonary, non-infective disorders, were included in this study (both groups aged 65 years or older). Using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, the presence of M. pneumoniae immunoglobulins IgA, IgG and IgM in patients' sera was determined. The seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgA, IgG and IgM in the stroke or TIA group (median age = 80) were 79, 61 and 6%, respectively. In the control group (median age = 80), the seroprevalence of respective M. pneumoniae IgA, IgG and IgM were 84, 50 and 11%. Using a logistic regression statistical model, adjusting for history of hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, age and sex, history of ischaemic heart disease, and ischaemic electrocardiogram, the odds ratios of having a stroke or TIA in relation to M. pneumoniae IgA, IgG and IgM were 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26-1.52, p = 0.31), 1.32 (95% CI = 0.66-2.64, p = 0.43) and 0.52 (95% CI = 0.14-1.92, p = 0.32), respectively. The study showed a high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae in an elderly hospital population, using ELISA. Although the study ruled out M. pneumoniae seropositivity as a major risk factor for stroke in this elderly population, a smaller effect could not be excluded due to

  13. Fuzzy Simulation Human Intelligent Control System Design on Gyratory Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen,Ruchun; Zhao,Shuling; Zhu,Jianwu; Wang,Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    In order to deal with the complex process that incurs serious time delay, enormous inertia and nonlinear problems,fuzzy simulation human intelligent control algorithm rules are established. The fuzzy simulation human intelligent controller and the hardware with the single-chip microcomputer are designed and the anti-interference measures to the whole system are provided.

  14. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  15. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  16. Human control of an inverted pendulum: is continuous control necessary? Is intermittent control effective? Is intermittent control physiological?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Ian D; Gollee, Henrik; Lakie, Martin; Gawthrop, Peter J

    2011-01-15

    Human motor control is often explained in terms of engineering 'servo' theory. Recently, continuous, optimal control using internal models has emerged as a leading paradigm for voluntary movement. However, these engineering paradigms are designed for high band-width, inflexible, consistent systems whereas human control is low bandwidth and flexible using noisy sensors and actuators. By contrast, engineering intermittent control was designed for bandwidth-limited applications. Our general interest is whether intermittent rather than continuous control is generic to human motor control. Currently, it would be assumed that continuous control is the superior and physiologically natural choice for controlling unstable loads, for example as required for maintaining human balance. Using visuo-manual tracking of an unstable load, we show that control using gentle, intermittent taps is entirely natural and effective. The gentle tapping method resulted in slightly superior position control and velocity minimisation, a reduced feedback time delay, greater robustness to changing actuator gain and equal or greater linearity with respect to the external disturbance. Control was possible with a median contact rate of 0.8±0.3 s(-1). However, when optimising position or velocity regulation, a modal contact rate of 2 s(-1) was observed. This modal rate was consistent with insignificant disturbance-joystick coherence beyond 1-2 Hz in both tapping and continuous contact methods. For this load, these results demonstrate a motor control process of serial ballistic trajectories limited to an optimum rate of 2 s(-1). Consistent with theoretical reasoning, our results suggest that intermittent open loop action is a natural consequence of human physiology.

  17. Comparison of Human and Humanoid Robot Control of Upright Stance

    OpenAIRE

    Peterka, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable recent interest in developing humanoid robots. An important substrate for many motor actions in both humans and biped robots is the ability to maintain a statically or dynamically stable posture. Given the success of the human design, one would expect there are lessons to be learned in formulating a postural control mechanism for robots. In this study we limit ourselves to considering the problem of maintaining upright stance. Human stance control is compared to a sugges...

  18. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  19. Adaptive Human Control Gains During Precision Grip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Engeberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight human test subjects attempted to track a desired position trajectory with an instrumented manipulandum (MN. The test subjects used the MN with three different levels of stiffness. A transfer function was developed to represent the human application of a precision grip from the data when the test subjects initially displaced the MN so as to learn the position mapping from the MN onto the display. Another transfer function was formed from the data of the remainder of the experiments, after significant displacement of the MN occurred. Both of these transfer functions accurately modelled the system dynamics for a portion of the experiments, but neither was accurate for the duration of the experiments because the human grip dynamics changed while learning the position mapping. Thus, an adaptive system model was developed to describe the learning process of the human test subjects as they displaced the MN in order to gain knowledge of the position mapping. The adaptive system model was subsequently validated following comparison with the human test subject data. An examination of the average absolute error between the position predicted by the adaptive model and the actual experimental data yielded an overall average error of 0.34mm for all three levels of stiffness.

  20. Clinical significance of carotid and ocular bruits in cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Yoshikiyo; Yanagi, Tsutomu; Ito, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Takeshi (Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    We investigated the clinical significance of carotid and ocular bruits (CB and OB) in 250 consecutive patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The incidence of bruits was compared with that in 100 age- and sex-matched neurological controls without CVD. In the CVD group, CB alone were found in 12 patients, both carotid and ocular bruits in 7, and OB alone in 2. CB were found only in 3 controls. We then evaluated CVD in the 25 patients (16 men and 9 women) who had bruits. The patients ranged from 55 to 81 years in age (mean: 70.6 years). The patients with CB alone constituted the largest group, and those with OB alone were the smallest group. CB were heard and abnormal blood flow was observed in 19/28 arteries of the 21 patients who underwent echo-flow studies. Carotid artery stenosis/occlusion was detected in 24/31 arteries (77%) in 23 patients who underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Thus, the sensitivity was 0.77 and specificity of a CB 0.91. In 9/10 patients with unilateral OB, ipsilateral or contralateral carotid artery stenosis/occlusion was detected. Diminished cerebral blood flow was observed in 10/15 patients with bruits who underwent SPECT. Of these 8 had reduced cerebral blood flow ipsilaterally to the bruit. Blood flow was reduced in the carotid artery territory in all of the patients, and watershed reductions were commonnest. Among the 25 patients, some showed neurological semiology of the vertebrobasilar territory in addition to that of the carotid territory. There were recurrences in 92% of the patients who had possible lesion in the territory of carotid artery. In 11 patients infarcts in the area of the cortical branch were shown using CT scans. Since bruits are more often audible in patients with CVD disease than in controls and since vascular stenosis and occlusion are detectable more frequently in these patients, bruits can serve as an important sign indicating CVD. (author).

  1. Issues in human/computer control of dexterous remote hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, K.

    1987-01-01

    Much research on dexterous robot hands has been aimed at the design and control problems associated with their autonomous operation, while relatively little research has addressed the problem of direct human control. It is likely that these two modes can be combined in a complementary manner yielding more capability than either alone could provide. While many of the issues in mixed computer/human control of dexterous hands parallel those found in supervisory control of traditional remote manipulators, the unique geometry and capabilities of dexterous hands pose many new problems. Among these are the control of redundant degrees of freedom, grasp stabilization and specification of non-anthropomorphic behavior. An overview is given of progress made at the MIT AI Laboratory in control of the Salisbury 3 finger hand, including experiments in grasp planning and manipulation via controlled slip. It is also suggested how we might introduce human control into the process at a variety of functional levels.

  2. Comparison of human and humanoid robot control of upright stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable recent interest in developing humanoid robots. An important substrate for many motor actions in both humans and biped robots is the ability to maintain a statically or dynamically stable posture. Given the success of the human design, one would expect there are lessons to be learned in formulating a postural control mechanism for robots. In this study we limit ourselves to considering the problem of maintaining upright stance. Human stance control is compared to a suggested method for robot stance control called zero moment point (ZMP) compensation. Results from experimental and modeling studies suggest there are two important subsystems that account for the low- and mid-frequency (DC to approximately 1Hz) dynamic characteristics of human stance control. These subsystems are (1) a "sensory integration" mechanism whereby orientation information from multiple sensory systems encoding body kinematics (i.e. position, velocity) is flexibly combined to provide an overall estimate of body orientation while allowing adjustments (sensory re-weighting) that compensate for changing environmental conditions and (2) an "effort control" mechanism that uses kinetic-related (i.e., force-related) sensory information to reduce the mean deviation of body orientation from upright. Functionally, ZMP compensation is directly analogous to how humans appear to use kinetic feedback to modify the main sensory integration feedback loop controlling body orientation. However, a flexible sensory integration mechanism is missing from robot control leaving the robot vulnerable to instability in conditions where humans are able to maintain stance. We suggest the addition of a simple form of sensory integration to improve robot stance control. We also investigate how the biological constraint of feedback time delay influences the human stance control design. The human system may serve as a guide for improved robot control, but should not be directly copied because the

  3. Electrocardiographic changes and myocardial damage in patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimant, J; Grob, D

    1977-01-01

    In 100 consecutive patients with acute cerebrovascular accident, due to cerebral thrombosis in 72, cerebral hemorrhage in 12, embolus in 6, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 10, there were 90 who had electrocardiographic abnormalities during the first three days after admission, compared to 50% in a control group. The patients with cerebrovascular accident had a 7- to 10-fold higher incidence of ST segment depression, prolonged Q-Tc interval and atrial fibrillation, and a 2- to 4-fold higher incidence of T wave inversion, conduction defects, premature ventricular beats and left ventricular hypetrophy. Patients who died had a 2-, 3- and 5-fold higher incidence of electrocardiographic evidence of recent myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and conduction defects than those who survived, but these changes occurred in only 5, 21 and 14% of all patients, and other electrocardiographic changes could not be correlated with mortality. During the first three days after admission 29 patients had elevation of serum enzymes which may be derived from cardiac muscle, particularly CPK, which was increased 6-fold, compared to 2-fold increases in HBDH, GOT, and LDH. Only 5 of these patients had electrocardiographic evidence of recent myocardial infarction. Patients with elevated serum CPK had a 2-fold higher incidence of ST segment depression, T wave inversion, conduction defects and atrial fibrillation than those with normal CPK, and a mortality of 66%, compared to 30%. Of 41 patients who died, 49% had elevated serum CPK, compared to 15% of 59 patients who survived. These differences were significant (P less than 0.01). Serum CPK was more frequently helpful than the electrocardiogram in evaluating the extent of cardiac damage and in predicting mortality. Patients with acute cerebrovascular accident should have repeated evaluation of serum CPK and the ECG, and be monitored for arrhythmias.

  4. Effects of yokukansan on anxiety-like behavior in a rat model of cerebrovascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Ai; Sakata, Yuri; Uchida, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Kazuko; Kawasaki, Chihiro; Shindo, Taro; Kubota, Kaori; Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Takasaki, Kotaro; Mishima, Kenichi; Nishimura, Ryoji; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Katsunori

    2011-04-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly seen in patients with dementia. Current pharmacological approaches to treatment are inadequate, despite the availability of serotonergic agents to ameliorate anxiety, one of the symptoms of BPSD. The herbal medicine yokukansan has been demonstrated to improve BPSD in a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. However, the mechanisms of the anxiolytic effect of yokukansan have not been clarified. There are also no reports on the anxiolytic effect of yokukansan in cerebrovascular ischemia models. In this study, we examined whether rats subjected to repeated cerebral ischemia exhibited anxiety-like behavior in a plus-maze task, a light/dark box test and an open-field task. We then investigated the effect of yokukansan on anxiety-like behavior in ischemic rats. Repeated ischemia was induced by the four-vessel occlusion method in which a 10-min ischemic episode was repeated once after 60 min. Yokukansan was orally administered once a day for 14 days from 7 days before ischemia induction. The last administration was performed 1 h before the behavioral experiments. The ischemic rats showed anxiety-like behavior in all three tasks, suggesting that this rat may be a good model for anxiety in cerebrovascular dementia. Yokukansan exhibited anxiolytic effects on the anxiety-like behavior in rats subjected to repeated cerebral ischemia, and exerted antagonistic effects on the wet-dog shakes induced by 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-indophenyl)-2-amino propane, a serotonin receptor (5-HT(2A)) agonist. This study revealed that yokukansan shows anxiolytic effects not only in normal animals but also in cerebrovascular model rats.

  5. Human response to an individually controlled microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Knudsen, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    The response of 48 subjects to an individually controlled microenvironment was studied at room air temperatures of 20 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 26 degrees C An individually controlled system (ICS) comprising personalized ventilation, an under-desk air terminal device supplying cool air, a chair...... who are comfortable with their microenvironment....

  6. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation.

  7. Cerebrovascular and corticomotor function during progressive passive hyperthermia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Emma Z; Cotter, James D; Wilson, Luke; Fan, Jui-Lin; Lucas, Samuel J E; Ainslie, Philip N

    2012-03-01

    The present study examined the integrative effects of passive heating on cerebral perfusion and alterations in central motor drive. Eight participants underwent passive hyperthermia [0.5°C increments in core temperature (Tc) from normothermia (37 ± 0.3°C) to their limit of thermal tolerance (T-LIM; 39.0 ± 0.4°C)]. Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (CBFv) and respiratory responses were measured continuously. Arterial blood gases and blood pressure were obtained intermittently. At baseline and each Tc level, supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were performed to assess neuromuscular and cortical function, respectively. At T-LIM, measures were (in a randomized order) also made during a period of breathing 5% CO(2) gas to restore eucapnia (+5% CO(2)). Mean heating time was 179 ± 51 min, with each 0.5°C increment in Tc taking 40 ± 10 min. CBFv was reduced by ∼20% below baseline from +0.5°C until T-LIM. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors was decreased at T-LIM (-9 ± 10%; P ventilation (Ve; R(2) = 0.76; P < 0.05) and partial pressure of end-tidal CO(2) (Pet(CO(2)); R(2) = 0.63; P < 0.05) and to changes in CBFv (R(2) = 0.61; P = 0.067). Interestingly, although CBFv was not fully restored, MVC and cortical VA were restored towards baseline values during inhalation of 5% CO(2). These results indicate that descending voluntary drive becomes progressively impaired as Tc is increased, presumably due, in part, to reductions in CBFv and to hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation and subsequent hypocapnia.

  8. Cerebrovascular risk factors and clinical classification of strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Antonio; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Fernandez, Paola; Licata, Giuseppe

    2004-08-01

    Cerebrovascular risk represents a progressive and evolving concept owing to the particular distribution of risk factors in patients with ischemic stroke and in light of the newest stroke subtype classifications that account for pathophysiological, instrumental, and clinical criteria. Age represents the strongest nonmodifiable risk factor associated with ischemic stroke, while hypertension constitutes the most important modifiable cerebrovascular risk factor, confirmed by a host of epidemiological data and by more recent intervention trials of primary (HOT, Syst-Eur, LIFE) and secondary (PROGRESS) prevention of stroke in hypertensive patients. To be sure, a curious relationship exists between stroke and diabetes. Although the Framingham Study, The Honolulu Heart Program, and a series of Finnish studies reported a linear relationship between improved glucose metabolism and cerebral ischemia, the clinical and prognostic profile of diabetic patients with ischemic stroke remains to be fully understood. Our group, on the basis of TOAST classification--a diagnostic classification of ischemic stroke developed in 1993 that distinguishes five different clinical subtypes of ischemic stroke: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS), cardioembolic infarct (CEI), lacunar infarct (LAC), stroke of other determined origin (ODE), and stroke of undetermined origin (UDE), and now extensively used in clinical and scientific context--analysed the prevalence of cerebrovascular risk factors and the distribution of TOAST subtypes in more 300 patients with acute ischemic stroke in two consecutives studies that reported the significant association between diabetes and the lacunar subtype and a better clinical outcome for diabetic patients, most likely related to the higher prevalence of the lacunar subtype. Well-confirmed are the roles of cigarette smoking, atrial fibrillation, and asymptomatic carotid stenosis as cerebrovascular risk factors. Particularly interesting seems to be the function of

  9. How chaosity and randomness control human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, Renat M.; Yulmetyeva, Dinara; Gafarov, Fail M.

    2005-08-01

    We discuss the fundamental role that chaosity and randomness play in the determination of quality and efficiency of medical treatment. The statistical parameter of non-Markovity from non-equilibrium statistical physics of condensed matters is offered as a quantitative information measure of chaosity and randomness. The role of chaosity and randomness is determined by the phenomenological property, which includes quantitative informational measures of chaosity and randomness and pathology (disease) in a covariant form. Manifestations of the statistical informational behavior of chaosity and randomness are examined while analyzing the chaotic dynamics of RR intervals from human ECG's, the electric signals of a human muscle's tremor of legs in a normal state and at Parkinson disease, the electric potentials of the human brain core from EEG's during epileptic seizure and a human hand finger tremor in Parkinson's disease. The existence of the above stated informational measure allows to introduce the quantitative factor of the quality of treatment. The above-stated examples confirm the existence of new phenomenological property, which is important not only for the decision of medical problems, but also for the analysis of the wide range of problems of physics of complex systems of life and lifeless nature.

  10. Alternative Control Technologies: Human Factors Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    vertical vibration to the 29,4, 1980, pp 462-466. head and shoulders of seated men", Royal Aircraft Lee, J. M.; Chartier , V. L.; Hartmann, D. P.; Lee, G...Suarez, P. F., Rogers , S., K., Ruck, D. W., for Effective Human-Computer Interaction", 2nd edition, Arndt, C., and Kabrisky, M., "A facial feature

  11. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan O. Hampton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife populations has been the source of much research. Techniques targeting wildlife fertility have been diverse. Most research into fertility control methods has focused upon efficacy, with few studies rigorously assessing animal welfare beyond opportunistic anecdote. However, fertility control techniques represent several very different mechanisms of action (modalities, each with their own different animal welfare risks. We provide a review of the mechanisms of action for fertility control methods, and consider the role of manipulation of reproductive hormones (“endocrine suppression” for the long-term ability of animals to behave normally. We consider the potential welfare costs of animal manipulation techniques that are required to administer fertility treatments, including capture, restraint, surgery and drug delivery, and the requirement for repeated administration within the lifetime of an animal. We challenge the assumption that fertility control modalities generate similar and desirable animal welfare outcomes, and we argue that knowledge of reproductive physiology and behaviour should be more adeptly applied to wild animal management decisions. We encourage wildlife managers to carefully assess long-term behavioural risks, associated animal handling techniques, and the importance of positive welfare states when selecting fertility control methods as a means of population control.

  12. The complex contribution of NOS interneurons in the physiology of cerebrovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eDuchemin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of the vasorelaxant properties of nitric oxide (NO by Furchgott and Ignarro, the finding by Bredt and coll. of a constitutively expressed NO synthase in neurons (nNOS led to the presumption that neuronal NO may control cerebrovascular functions. Consequently, numerous studies have sought to determine whether neuraly-derived NO is involved in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. Anatomically, axons, dendrites or somata of NO neurons have been found to contact the basement membrane of blood vessels or perivascular astrocytes in all segments of the cortical microcirculation. Functionally, various experimental approaches support a role of neuronal NO in the maintenance of resting cerebral blood flow as well as in the vascular response to neuronal activity. Since decades, it has been assumed that neuronal NO simply diffuses to the local blood vessels and produce vasodilation through a cGMP-PKG dependent mechanism. However, NO is not the sole mediator of vasodilation in the cerebral microcirculation and is known to interact with a myriad of signaling pathways also involved in vascular control. In addition, cerebrovascular regulation is the result of a complex orchestration between all components of the neurovascular unit (i.e. neuronal, glial and vascular cells also known to produce NO. In this review article, the role of NO interneuron in the regulation of cortical microcirculation will be discussed in the context of the neurovascular unit.

  13. Clinical study on magnetic resonance imaging of lacunar infarcts and cerebrovascular high-risk group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hironaka, Masatoshi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was performed in 32 patients with recent lacunar stroke. T2-weighted images showed ischemic lesions more clearly than T1-weighted images. Sixty-six percent of 32 patients had periventricular lesions. Eighty-four percent had subcortical white matter lesions. Sixty-nine percent had lesions in basal ganglia. Twenty-eight percent had lesions in brainstem. Periventricular lesions were revealed symmetrically. On the other hand, lesions in other areas were not detected symmetrically. Severe periventricular lesions on MRI were similar to those of Binswanger's disease. Patients with severe periventricular lesions had often hypertension. Moreover, two of them had dementia. Twenty-three patients with transient ischemic attack had less remarkable lesions than patients with lacunar stroke. Thirty-seven patients with a history of cerebrovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus) had severer lesions compared with normal controls. Sixty-one percent of controls, who had no cerebrovascular symptoms and signs, had MRI lesions. These results suggest that MRI is useful for detection of cerebral ischemic lesions with no associated clinical symptoms or signs. (author).

  14. Human response to an individually controlled microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Knudsen, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    The response of 48 subjects to an individually controlled microenvironment was studied at room air temperatures of 20 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 26 degrees C An individually controlled system (ICS) comprising personalized ventilation, an under-desk air terminal device supplying cool air, a chair...... with convectively heated backrest, an under-desk radiant heating panel, and a floor-heating panel were used. The temperature of the air supplied from the personalized ventilation and the under-desk device was 20 degrees C The subjects were provided with control of the flow rate and direction of the personalized air...... at a room temperature of 22 degrees C without ICS. Thus, ICS will increase the number of satisfied occupants when applied in practice. The design and control of the ICS, as well as the background air distribution in a room, should be carefully considered in order to obtain the maximum number of occupants...

  15. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jordan O.; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Barnes, Anne; Collins, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary There are various fertility control methods (modalities) currently available that aim to reduce the abundance of problematic free-ranging mammalian wildlife. Here, we propose that dissimilarities in the mechanism of action indicate these methods produce great variation in animal welfare outcomes. We present a framework to assist managers in minimising animal welfare risks. Abstract Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife populations has been the source of much research. Techniques targeting wildlife fertility have been diverse. Most research into fertility control methods has focused upon efficacy, with few studies rigorously assessing animal welfare beyond opportunistic anecdote. However, fertility control techniques represent several very different mechanisms of action (modalities), each with their own different animal welfare risks. We provide a review of the mechanisms of action for fertility control methods, and consider the role of manipulation of reproductive hormones (“endocrine suppression”) for the long-term ability of animals to behave normally. We consider the potential welfare costs of animal manipulation techniques that are required to administer fertility treatments, including capture, restraint, surgery and drug delivery, and the requirement for repeated administration within the lifetime of an animal. We challenge the assumption that fertility control modalities generate similar and desirable animal welfare outcomes, and we argue that knowledge of reproductive physiology and behaviour should be more adeptly applied to wild animal management decisions. We encourage wildlife managers to carefully assess long-term behavioural risks, associated animal handling techniques, and the importance of positive welfare states when selecting fertility control methods as a means of population control. PMID:26506395

  16. Plant Modeling for Human Supervisory Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of multilevel flow modelling (MFM) and its application for design of displays for the supervisory control of industrial plant. The problem of designing the inforrrzatian content of sacpervisory displays is discussed and plant representations like MFM using levels...... is also provided by an analysis of the relations between levels of abstraction. It is also described how MFM supparts reazsonin about control actions by defining levels of intervention and by modal distinctions between function enablement and initiation....

  17. Etiological and clinical analysis on 220 children with cerebrovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hong TANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Etiological and clinical analyses of 220 children with cerebrovascular diseases were retrospectively analyzed. One hundred and forty-nine cases (67.73% were male, and 71 cases (32.27% were female. There were 186 cases (84.55% of patients to be found with clear causes, most of which were arteriovenous malformation (80/220, 36.36%, traumatic brain injury (38/220, 17.27%, intracranial infection (15/220, 6.82% , intracranial aneurysm (13/220, 5.91% , delayed vitamin K deficiency (12/220, 5.45% , congenital heart disease (9/220, 4.09% and cavernous malformation (7/220, 3.18%. The etiological and clinical features of children cerebrovascular diseases are distinct, and timely diagnosis and treatment will help to improve patients' prognosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.017

  18. Diamox-enhanced brain SPECT in cerebrovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Acute event in cerebrovascular disease is the second most common cause of death in Korea following cancer, and it can also cause serious neurologic deficits. Understanding of perfusion status is important for clinical applications in management of patients with cerebrovascular diseases, and then the attacks of ischemic neurologic symptoms and the risk of acute events can be reduced. Therefore, the normal vascular anatomy of brain, various clinical applications of acetazolamide-enhanced brain perfusion SPECT, including meaning and role of assessment of vascular reserve in carotid stenosis before procedure, in pediatric Moyamoya disease before and after operation, in prediction of development of hyperperfusion syndrome before procedure, and in prediction of vasospasm and of prognosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage were reviewed in this paper.

  19. Prolongation of bleeding time and inhibition of platelet aggregation by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, G; Boss, A H; Ødum, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Platelet aggregation and bleeding time was measured in 43 cerebrovascular patients participating in a controlled double-blind study of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. In 19 patients with satisfactory inhibition of the platelet aggregation obtained by 50 to 70 mg acetylsalicylic acid per day...... the bleeding time averaged 11.2 minutes in contrast to 7.0 minutes in the placebo group, p less than 0.001. This study confirms our previous findings of platelet inhibition by low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in patients with cerebrovascular disease. The prolongation of the bleeding time demonstrates that we...... are dealing not merely with an in vitro phenomenon but with a significant in vivo effect. The study provides the rationale for clinical evaluations of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid in stroke prophylaxis....

  20. Coincidence of cerebrovascular accident and silent myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badui, E; Estañol, B; Garcia-Rubi, D

    1982-11-01

    Although it is well known that a myocardial and a cerebral infarction may be coincident, the nature of this association is not clear. The problem is further complicated because the myocardial infarction may be silent. This is a report of 3 patients with cerebral infarct in whom a silent recent myocardial infarction was found. All patients with cerebrovascular disease should be screened for a possible myocardial lesion.

  1. Intermittent hypoxia training protects cerebrovascular function in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Manukhina, Eugenia B; Downey, H. Fred; Shi, Xiangrong; Mallet, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of death and disability among older adults. Modifiable vascular risk factors for AD (VRF) include obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, and metabolic syndrome. Here, interactions between cerebrovascular function and development of AD are reviewed, as are interventions to improve cerebral blood flow and reduce VRF. Atherosclerosis and small vessel cerebral disease impair metabolic regulation of cerebral blood flow and, along w...

  2. Digital subtraction angiography in pediatric cerebrovascular occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faerber, E.N.; Griska, L.A.B.; Swartz, J.D.; Capitanio, M.A.; Popky, G.L.

    1984-08-01

    While conventional angiography has been used to demonstrate cerebrovascular occlusive disease in the past, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is capable of showing progressive vascular involvement with ease, simplicity, and extremely low morbidity, making it particularly well suited for children and outpatients either alone or coordinated with computed tomography. The authors discuss the usefulness and advantages of DSA as demonstrated in 7 infants and children with hemiplegia, 4 of whom had sickle-cell disease.

  3. Microbubbles as drug delivery systems in cerebrovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Mariacarmela; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Bacigaluppi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Corea, Francesco

    2009-11-01

    The field of neurovascular ultrasound is growing rapidly with new applications. While ultrasound contrast agents were initially used to overcome poor transcranial bone windows for identification of cerebral arteries, newgeneration microbubbles in combination with innovative contrast-specific ultrasound techniques now enable potential therapeutic procedures. This article will provide a review of recent and emerging developments along with patents in ultrasound technology and contrast-specific therapeutic techniques for cerebrovascular patients.

  4. HIGH SENSITIVE C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN CEREBROVASCULAR ISCHEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Padmalatha; Neeraja

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cerebrovascular ischemia is recognized as a major health problem, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. The main pathophysiology of ischemic stroke is atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels. Hs-CRP is a sensitive marker of inflammation tissue injury in the arterial wall, which contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we aim to investigate the association of hs-CRP in patients with ischemic stroke and to correlate hs-CRP levels with possible risk facto...

  5. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON THE INTELLIGENCE OF CEREBROVASCULAR DEMENTIA PATIENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈邦国

    2000-01-01

    Cerebrovascular dementia is a common disese in the old and medium-aged people. Its morbidity constitutes about 10-20% of all the dementia patients and results mainly from all-round decline of the brain function due to cerebral atheroscleorsis and cerebral infarction. The author of the present paper adopted acupuncture therapy to; treat this kind of disease and observed its effect on dementia patient's intelligence. Here is the report.

  6. Cerebrovascular disturbances in children with Arnold-Kiary anomaly I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlitina T.N.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Data of diagnostics of cerebrovascular disorders in craniovertebral passage due to Arnold — Kiary anomaly I have been considered. Clinical picture of the disease in different age groups has been represented. Condition of extra- and intracranial part of vertebral arteries and venous plexuses of the cervical part of vertebral column and craniovertebral passage, pathological asymmetry of the blood flow have been estimated. Efficacy of conservative and surgical treatment has been compared.

  7. Static cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation remains intact during deep hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dheeraj; McLeod, Katherine; Leonard, Samantha; Kibler, Kathleen; Easley, Ronald Blaine; Fraser, Charles D; Andropoulos, Dean; Brady, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Clinical studies measuring cerebral blood flow in infants during deep hypothermia have demonstrated diminished cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. The coexistence of hypotension in these cohorts confounds the conclusion that deep hypothermia impairs cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation. We sought to compare the lower limit of autoregulation and the static rate of autoregulation between normothermic and hypothermic piglets. Twenty anesthetized neonatal piglets (5-7 days old; 10 normothermic and 10 hypothermic to 20°C) had continuous measurements of cortical red cell flux using laser Doppler flowmetry, while hemorrhagic hypotension was induced without cardiopulmonary bypass. Lower limit of autoregulation was determined for each subject using piecewise regression and SRoR was determined above and below each lower limit of autoregulation as (%change cerebrovascular resistance/%change cerebral perfusion pressure). The estimated difference in lower limit of autoregulation was 1.4 mm Hg (lower in the hypothermic piglets; 95% C.I. -10 to 14 mm Hg; P=0.6). The median lower limit of autoregulation in the normothermic group was 39 mm Hg [IQR 38-51] vs 35 mm Hg [31-50] in the hypothermic group. Intact steady-state pressure autoregulation was defined as static rate of autoregulation >0.5 and was demonstrated in all normothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.72 [0.65-0.87]) and in 9/10 of the hypothermic subjects (static rate of autoregulation=0.65 [0.52-0.87]). This difference in static rate of autoregulation of 0.06 (95% C.I. -0.3 to 0.1) was not significant (P=0.4). Intact steady-state cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation is demonstrated in a swine model of profound hypothermia. Lower limit of autoregulation and static rate of autoregulation were similar in hypothermic and normothermic subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Antioxidants and Dementia Risk: Consideration through a Cerebrovascular Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Lam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects on cognition and dementia are still unclear. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the integrity of the cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB is centrally involved in the onset and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. While recent studies revealed that some anti-oxidative agents appear to be protective against the disruption of BBB integrity and structure, few studies considered the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the context of cerebrovascular integrity. Therefore, in this review, we examine the mechanistic insights of antioxidants as a pleiotropic agent for cognitive impairment and dementia through a cerebrovascular axis by primarily focusing on the current available data from physiological studies. Conclusively, there is a compelling body of evidence that suggest antioxidants may prevent cognitive decline and dementia by protecting the integrity and function of BBB and, indeed, further studies are needed to directly examine these effects in addition to underlying molecular mechanisms.

  9. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the /sup 133/Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The /sup 133/Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke.

  10. Antioxidants and Dementia Risk: Consideration through a Cerebrovascular Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Virginie; Hackett, Mark; Takechi, Ryusuke

    2016-12-20

    A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects on cognition and dementia are still unclear. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the integrity of the cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) is centrally involved in the onset and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. While recent studies revealed that some anti-oxidative agents appear to be protective against the disruption of BBB integrity and structure, few studies considered the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the context of cerebrovascular integrity. Therefore, in this review, we examine the mechanistic insights of antioxidants as a pleiotropic agent for cognitive impairment and dementia through a cerebrovascular axis by primarily focusing on the current available data from physiological studies. Conclusively, there is a compelling body of evidence that suggest antioxidants may prevent cognitive decline and dementia by protecting the integrity and function of BBB and, indeed, further studies are needed to directly examine these effects in addition to underlying molecular mechanisms.

  11. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  12. β-FIBRINOGEN PROMOTER-455 G/A (HaeⅢ) POLYMORPHISM PREDICTION OF PLASMA FIBRINOGEN BUT NOT OF ISCHEMIC CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕胜; 王德生; 李国忠; 温世荣; 潘尚哈

    2004-01-01

    Objective The-455 G/A (HaeⅢ) polymorphism of β-fibrinogen gene influences levels of plasma fibrinogen. We further investigated whether it influences the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods We accumulated 134 acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) cases and compared their -455 G/A status with a control group (n = 166). The β-fibrinogen gene -455 G/A polymorphism was analyzed for all subjects by PCR-RFLP with the restrictive enzyme HaeⅢ. Results Plasma fibrinogen was higher in AA homozygous participants (341 mg/dL) than in participants carrying the G allele: GA (290 mg/dL), GG (298 mg/dL) in the control group. Plasma fibrinogen was also higher in AA homozygous patients (353 mg/dL) than in cases carrying the G allele: GA (287mg/dL), GG (302 mg/dL) in the ICVD group. However, there was no significant association between β-fibrinogen gene -455 G/A polymorphism and ICVD group. Conclusions Although a small effect cannot be excluded, β-fibrinogen gene -455 G/A polymorphism is an independent predictor of plasma fibrinogen, but not of ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  13. Wolbachia endosymbionts and human disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatko, Barton E; Luck, Ashley N; Dobson, Stephen L; Foster, Jeremy M

    2014-07-01

    Most human filarial nematode parasites and arthropods are hosts for a bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia. In filaria, Wolbachia are required for normal development, fertility and survival, whereas in arthropods, they are largely parasitic and can influence development and reproduction, but are generally not required for host survival. Due to their obligate nature in filarial parasites, Wolbachia have been a target for drug discovery initiatives using several approaches including diversity and focused library screening and genomic sequence analysis. In vitro and in vivo anti-Wolbachia antibiotic treatments have been shown to have adulticidal activity, a long sought goal of filarial parasite drug discovery. In mosquitoes, it has been shown that the presence of Wolbachia can inhibit the transmission of certain viruses, such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Yellow Fever, West Nile, as well as the infectivity of the malaria-causing protozoan, Plasmodium and filarial nematodes. Furthermore, Wolbachia can cause a form of conditional sterility that can be used to suppress populations of mosquitoes and additional medically important insects. Thus Wolbachia, a pandemic endosymbiont offers great potential for elimination of a wide-variety of devastating human diseases.

  14. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan prevents and rescues cerebrovascular, neuropathological and cognitive deficits in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongali, Brice; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Tong, Xin-Kang; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Lecrux, Clotilde; Imboden, Hans; Hamel, Edith

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) receptor blockers that bind selectively AngII type 1 (AT1) receptors may protect from Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the ability of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan to cure or prevent AD hallmarks in aged (~18months at endpoint, 3months treatment) or adult (~12months at endpoint, 10months treatment) human amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. We tested learning and memory with the Morris water maze, and evaluated neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling using [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-PET and laser Doppler flowmetry responses to whisker stimulation. Cerebrovascular reactivity was assessed with on-line videomicroscopy. We measured protein levels of oxidative stress enzymes (superoxide dismutases SOD1, SOD2 and NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox), and quantified soluble and deposited amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), AngII receptors AT1 and AT2, angiotensin IV receptor AT4, and cortical cholinergic innervation. In aged APP mice, losartan did not improve learning but it consolidated memory acquisition and recall, and rescued neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling and cerebrovascular dilatory capacity. Losartan normalized cerebrovascular p67phox and SOD2 protein levels and up-regulated those of SOD1. Losartan attenuated astrogliosis, normalized AT1 and AT4 receptor levels, but failed to rescue the cholinergic deficit and the Aβ pathology. Given preventively, losartan protected cognitive function, cerebrovascular reactivity, and AT4 receptor levels. Like in aged APP mice, these benefits occurred without a decrease in soluble Aβ species or plaque load. We conclude that losartan exerts potent preventive and restorative effects on AD hallmarks, possibly by mitigating AT1-initiated oxidative stress and normalizing memory-related AT4 receptors.

  15. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jong-Hag Choi Joonil Lee Catherine Heyjung Sonu

    2013-01-01

    Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who...

  16. Differential properties of Van der Pol — Duffing mathematical model of cerebrovascular haemodynamics based on clinical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, D. V.; Ufimtseva, I. V.; Cherevko, A. A.; Khe, A. K.; Orlov, K. Yu; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Chupakhin, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The present paper discusses the method of identification (diseased/healthy) human cerebral vessels by using of mathematical model. Human cerebral circulation as a single tuned circuit, which consists of blood flow, elastic vessels and elastic brain gel tissue is under consideration. Non linear Van der Pol-Duffing equation is assumed as mathematical model of cerebrovascular circulation. Hypothesis of vascular pathology existence in some position of blood vessel, based on mathematical model properties for this position is formulated. Good reliability of hypothesis is proved statistically for 7 patients with arterial aneurysms.

  17. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  18. Situation awareness in process control; designing the human interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passenier, P.O.; Delft, J.H. van

    1999-01-01

    Through the introduction of process automation, the supervision of multiple functions becomes more and more the role of a single human operator, the 'process manager', assisted by a process information and control system. Consequently, the level of direct involvement of the human operator with the a

  19. Model of the human controller of a dynamic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    In de last two decades considerable research effort has been devoted to the study of human involvement in dynamic systems. Especially human control behavior has been investigated, but in the restricted sense of continuous regulating against random disturbances, so as to minimize the system state dev

  20. Autonomic Circulatory Control during Pregnancy in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with dramatic alterations in maternal hemodynamics, which begin early (i.e., following conception, 4 to 5 weeks of gestation) and are accompanied by changing levels of various pressor hormones and vasoactive metabolites. It has been proposed that these changes occur through autonomic control mechanisms, but the actual role of the autonomic nervous system in pregnancy is poorly understood. New research has shed more light on the links between pregnancy and cardiovascula...

  1. Air Traffic Control automation: for humans or people?

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Are air traffic controllers humans or people? At first sight, this seems a very odd question, given that ‘humans’ and ‘people’ are near-synonyms in the dictionary and everyday usage. However, in research on air traffic control (ATC) automation the phrase ‘human-centred’ is used to mean particular aspects of people: for example, it does not usually address their motivations for embracing change or cover organisational behaviour issues. The objective here is to try to understa...

  2. Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-02-01

    Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke, the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association convened a writing committee to evaluate existing evidence, to discuss clinical considerations, and to offer suggestions for future research on stroke prevention in patients with 3 cardinal manifestations of silent cerebrovascular disease: silent brain infarcts, magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, and cerebral microbleeds. The writing committee found strong evidence that silent cerebrovascular disease is a common problem of aging and that silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities are associated with future symptomatic stroke risk independently of other vascular risk factors. In patients with cerebral microbleeds, there was evidence of a modestly increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke but little prospective evidence on the risk of symptomatic hemorrhage in patients on anticoagulation. There were no randomized controlled trials targeted specifically to participants with silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke. Primary stroke prevention is indicated in patients with silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, or microbleeds. Adoption of standard terms and definitions for silent cerebrovascular disease, as provided by prior American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statements and by a consensus group, may facilitate diagnosis and communication of findings from radiologists to clinicians. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Mechanics of human voice production and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-01-01

    As the primary means of communication, voice plays an important role in daily life. Voice also conveys personal information such as social status, personal traits, and the emotional state of the speaker. Mechanically, voice production involves complex fluid-structure interaction within the glottis and its control by laryngeal muscle activation. An important goal of voice research is to establish a causal theory linking voice physiology and biomechanics to how speakers use and control voice to communicate meaning and personal information. Establishing such a causal theory has important implications for clinical voice management, voice training, and many speech technology applications. This paper provides a review of voice physiology and biomechanics, the physics of vocal fold vibration and sound production, and laryngeal muscular control of the fundamental frequency of voice, vocal intensity, and voice quality. Current efforts to develop mechanical and computational models of voice production are also critically reviewed. Finally, issues and future challenges in developing a causal theory of voice production and perception are discussed. PMID:27794319

  4. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  5. Human response to an individually controlled environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, G.L.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2005-01-01

    -desk air terminal device supplying cool air, a chair with convectively heated backrest, an under-desk radiant heating panel and a floor-heating panel. The temperature of the PV air and the under-desk air was kept at 20 degrees C. The subjects were provided with control of the flow rate and direction...... of the personalized air and under-desk airflow rate, the temperature of the convection flow from the chair, and the surface temperature of the heating panels. The results reveal that the thermal and air quality acceptability was significantly higher with the ICS at all room temperatures compared to the reference...... condition. The ICS could satisfy more than 85% of the subjects in regard to both thermal comfort and inhaled air quality....

  6. Phytocompounds for the control of human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Doris H

    2014-02-01

    Plant extracts and associated polyphenols are known for their varied health benefits that include antioxidant effects and antimicrobial properties. The increasing consumer demand for cost-effective and natural alternatives to chemically-synthesized antimicrobials and therapeutics that are also sustainable makes the field of phytochemical research rather intriguing and challenging. Human enteric viruses are increasingly recognized worldwide as significant causes of human disease in adults and children, alike. In the absence of available vaccines for the human noroviruses, plant extracts are gaining popularity for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. Research on plant extracts (particularly polyphenols derived from fruits) for human enteric virus control will be briefly summarized in this article.

  7. Neuropilin-1 modulates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase leading to reduced cerebrovascular apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Lilli; Hörmann, Mareike; Schleicher, Nadine; Reuter, Peter; Dönges, Simone; Kinscherf, Ralf; Gassmann, Max; Gerriets, Tibo; Al-Fakhri, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia is encompassed by cerebrovascular apoptosis, yet the mechanisms behind apoptosis regulation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated inhibition of endothelial apoptosis by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) expression. However, PARP overactivation through oxidative stress can lead to necrosis. This study tested the hypothesis that neuropilin-1 (NP-1), an alternative VEGF receptor, regulates the response to cerebral ischemia by modulating PARP expression and, in turn, apoptosis inhibition by VEGF. In endothelial cell culture, NP-1 colocalized with VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and acted as its coreceptor. This significantly enhanced VEGF-induced PARP mRNA and protein expression demonstrated by receptor-specific inhibitors and VEGF-A isoforms. NP-1 augmented the inhibitory effect of VEGF/VEGFR-2 interaction on apoptosis induced by adhesion inhibition through the αV-integrin inhibitor cRGDfV. NP-1/VEGFR-2 signal transduction involved JNK and Akt. In rat models of permanent and temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, the ischemic cerebral hemispheres displayed endothelial and neuronal apoptosis next to increased endothelial NP-1 and VEGFR-2 expression compared to non-ischemic cerebral hemispheres, sham-operated or untreated controls. Increased vascular superoxide dismutase-1 and catalase expression as well as decreased glycogen reserves indicated oxidative stress in the ischemic brain. Of note, protein levels of intact PARP remained stable despite pro-apoptotic conditions through increased PARP mRNA production during cerebral ischemia. In conclusion, NP-1 is upregulated in conditions of imminent cerebrovascular apoptosis to reinforce apoptosis inhibition and modulate VEGF-dependent PARP expression and activation. We propose that NP-1 is a key modulator of VEGF maintaining cerebrovascular integrity during ischemia. Modulating the function of NP-1 to target PARP could help to

  8. Delayed Random Walks: Modeling Human Posture Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Toru

    1998-03-01

    We consider a phenomenological description of a noisy trajectory which appears on a stabiliogram platform during human postural sway. We hypothesize that this trajectory arises due to a mixture of uncontrollable noise and a corrective delayed feedback to an upright position. Based on this hypothesis, we model the process with a biased random walk whose transition probability depends on its position at a fixed time delay in the past, which we call a delayed random walk. We first introduce a very simple model (T. Ohira and J. G. Milton, Phys.Rev.E. 52), 3277, (1995), which can nevertheless capture the rough qualitative features of the two--point mean square displacement of experimental data with reasonable estimation of delay time. Then, we discuss two approaches toward better capturing and understanding of the experimental data. The first approach is an extension of the model to include a spatial displacement threshold from the upright position below which no or only weak corrective feedback motion takes place. This can be incorporated into an extended delayed random walk model. Numerical simulations show that this extended model can better capture the three scaling region which appears in the two--point mean square displacement. The other approach studied the autocorrelation function of the experimental data, which shows oscillatory behavior. We recently investigated a delayed random walk model whose autocorrelation function has analytically tractable oscillatory behavior (T. Ohira, Phys.Rev.E. 55), R1255, (1997). We discuss how this analytical understanding and its application to delay estimation (T. Ohira and R. Sawatari, Phys.Rev.E. 55), R2077, (1997) could possibly be used to further understand the postural sway data.

  9. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Promotor polymorphisms in leukotriene C4 synthase and risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Sillesen, H.

    2008-01-01

    genotyped 10 592 individuals from the Danish general population, the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During 24 years of follow-up, 557 individuals developed ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The allele frequency was 0.07 for -1072 A and 0.29 for -444 C. Cumulative incidence for ischemic cerebrovascular disease...... atherosclerosis, or with levels of platelets and coagulation factors. CONCLUSIONS: Leukotriene C(4) synthase -1072 AA genotype predict increased risk, whereas -444 CC genotype predict decreased risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease....

  11. Quantification of sensory information in human balance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der Herman; Koopman, Bart; Jacobs, Ron; Mergner, Thomas; Grootenboer, Henk

    1998-01-01

    A human balance control model is developed, which includes the different sensory systems as well as neural time delays. The model is based on optimal control theory. Platform perturbation experiments were done to quantify the precision of the different sensory systems by matching model predictions w

  12. Correlation between serum fructosamine and hyperglycemia in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiqiu Chu; Pengpeng Liu; Lijuan Tan; Shuhua Zhou; Lisheng Ren

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in patients with acute cerebral disease, and always leads to stroke or get it worse. There is often a high level of blood glucose in those patients with diabetes mellitus and cerebral disease, but it is hard to distinguish from both kinds of hyperglycemia. Serum fructosamine is said to be correlated with blood glucose.OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between serum fructosamine and blood glucose in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease.DESTGN: A case-controlled study.SETTINGS: Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Department for Cadres and Department of Neurology of Affiliated Hospital, Qingdao University Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Forty-eight inpatients and outpatients with cerebrovascular diseases were selected from the Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College from December 2004 to April 2005. All the patients were confirmed with CT and MRI. There were 25 patients with diabetes mellitus secondary cerebrovascular diseases, who met the diagnostic standards of diabetes mellitus set by WHO,including 12 males and 13 females with an average of (60±8) years old, the course of diabetes mellitus ranged from 1 to 21 years.. The other 23 patients had no diabetes mellitus (without diabetes mellitus group), including 14 males and 9 females with an average of (62±6) years old. Meanwhile, another 50 healthy physical examinees in the hospital were selected as control group, including 26 males and 24 females with the average age of (62±5) years old. Informed content was obtained from all the participants.METHODS: Venous blood was drawn from all the participants, and content of blood glucose was assayed by means of glucose oxidase, and the concentration of serum fructosamine was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium colorimetric method. Comparison between groups was performed by the analysis of variance and q test, and the correlation was tested by linear

  13. Dog population management for the control of human echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachani, Malika; Heath, David

    2014-11-01

    Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly.

  14. The TCM-Combined Treatment for Aphasia Due to Cerebrovascular Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of scalp acupuncture (with the cluster needling, a long needle-retention and an intermittent manipulation) combined with the Schuell's stimulation and psychological care for treatment of aphasia due to cerebrovascular disorders. Method: 36 eligible cases of aphasia were randomly assigned into a treatment group and a control group. The scoring system for assessment of aphasia in speaking Chinese set by CMA Neurological Branch and that of BADE were adopted for grading the severity/degree of aphasia before and after the treatment. Results: The total effective rate in the treatment group was 84.21%, and that in the control group was 70.59%, with a very statistically significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: The combined scheme produced a better therapeutic effect.

  15. Cerebrovascular hemodynamics in patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo Yang; Changcong Cui; Chengbin Wu

    2011-01-01

    The present study observed hemodynamic changes in 26 patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis using a cerebral circulation dynamics detector and transcranial Doppler.In patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis the blood supply and flow rate in the bilateral carotid arteries and the blood flow rate in the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries were similar to normal controls, but the cerebral vascular resistance, critical pressure and pulsatility index were increased, and cerebral arterial elasticity and cerebral blood flow autoregulation were decreased.Compared with the lesioned hemisphere of patients with cerebral infarction, the total blood supply and blood flow rate of patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis were higher.Compared with normal subjects, patients with cerebral arteriosclerosis exhibited cognitive disturbances, mainly in short-term memory, attention, abstract capability, and spatial and executive dysfunction.Results showed that cerebral arteriosclerosis does not directly affect the blood supply of a cerebral hemisphere, but affects cognitive function.The increased cerebral vascular resistance and reduced autoregulation of cerebral blood vessels may be important hemodynamic mechanisms of arteriosclerosis-induced cerebral infarction.

  16. Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Controlling Office is (insert controlling DoD office). NUREG /CR-6635 BNL- NUREG -52565 Soft Controls: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance...DC 20555-0001 AVAILABILITY NOTICE Availability of Reference Materials Cited in NRC Publications NRC publications in the NUREG series, NRC regu...Technical Information Service Springfield, VA 22161 -0002 <http://www.ntis.gov> 1 -800-553-6847 or locally 703-605-6000 The NUREG series

  17. Impaired cerebrovascular function in coronary artery disease patients and recovery following cardiac rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udunna C Anazodo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD poses a risk to the cerebrovascular function of older adults and has been linked to impaired cognitive abilities. Using magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we investigated changes in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR to hypercapnia in 34 coronary artery disease (CAD patients and 21 age-matched controls. Gray matter volume images were acquired and used as a confounding variable to separate changes in structure from function. Compared to healthy controls, CAD patients demonstrated reduced CBF in the superior frontal, anterior cingulate, insular, pre- and post-central gyri, middle temporal and superior temporal regions. Subsequent analysis of these regions demonstrated decreased CVR in the anterior cingulate, insula, postcentral and superior frontal regions. Except in the superior frontal and precentral regions, regional reductions in CBF and CVR were identified in brain areas where no detectable reductions in gray matter volume were observed, demonstrating that these vascular changes were independent of brain atrophy. Because aerobic fitness training can improve brain function, potential changes in regional CBF were investigated in the CAD patients after completion of a 6-month exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program. Increased CBF was observed in the bilateral anterior cingulate, as well as recovery of CBF in the dorsal aspect of the right anterior cingulate, where the magnitude of increased CBF was roughly equal to the reduction in CBF at baseline compared to controls. These exercise-related improvements in CBF in the anterior cingulate is intriguing given the role of this area in cognitive processing and regulation of cardiovascular autonomic control.

  18. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects in response to red bull consumption combined with mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Erik Konrad; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-15

    The sale of energy drinks is often accompanied by a comprehensive and intense marketing with claims of benefits during periods of mental stress. As it has been shown that Red Bull negatively impacts human hemodynamics at rest, we investigated the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular consequences when Red Bull is combined with mental stress. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 young healthy humans ingested either 355 ml of a can Red Bull or water and underwent 80 minutes after the respective drink a mental arithmetic test for 5 minutes. Continuous cardiovascular and cerebrovascular recordings were performed for 20 minutes before and up to 90 minutes after drink ingestion. Measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP), heart rate, stroke volume, and cerebral blood flow velocity. Red Bull increased systolic BP (+7 mm Hg), diastolic BP (+4 mm Hg), and heart rate (+7 beats/min), whereas water drinking had no significant effects. Cerebral blood flow velocity decreased more in response to Red Bull than to water (-9 vs -3 cm/s, p <0.005). Additional mental stress further increased both systolic BP and diastolic BP (+3 mm Hg, p <0.05) and heart rate (+13 beats/min, p <0.005) in response to Red Bull; similar increases were also observed after water ingestion. In combination, Red Bull and mental stress increased systolic BP by about 10 mm Hg, diastolic BP by 7 mm Hg, and heart rate by 20 beats/min and decreased cerebral blood flow velocity by -7 cm/s. In conclusion, the combination of Red Bull and mental stress impose a cumulative cardiovascular load and reduces cerebral blood flow even under a mental challenge.

  19. Evaluation of computer tomography in cerebro-vascular disease (Strokes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sik; Baek, Seung Yon; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seup [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    Most of cerebrovascular disease are composed of vascular occulusive changes and hemorrhage. Now a day, the computed tomography is the best way for evaluation of cerebrovascular disease including detection of nature, location, and associated changes. This study includes evaluation of computed tomography of 70 patients with cerebrovascular disease during the period of 10 months from April. 1983 to Feb. 1984 in Department of Radiology, Ewha Womans University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Age distribution of the total 70 patients was broad ranging from 25 years to 79 years. 78.6% of patients were over the age of 50. The male and female sex ratio was 1.4:1. 2. 4 out of 70 patients were normal and 66 patients revealed abnormal on C.T. findings; those were intracranial hemorrhage (28 patients), cerebral infarction (34 patients) and brain atrophy (4 patients). 3. In cases of cerebral infarction, the cerebral hemisphere was most common site of lesion (28 cases), and next was basal ganglia (2 cases). Most of the infarcts in cerebral hemisphere were located in the parietal and temporal lobes. 4. In cases of intracranial hemorrhage, the basal ganglia was most common site of lesion (15 cases). The next common site was cerebral hemisphere (9 cases). 6 patients of all intracranial hemorrhage were combined with intraventricular hemorrhage. Ratio of right and left was 2:3. 5. In patients with motor weakness or hemiparesis, more common findings on CT scan were cerebral infarction. In case with hemiplegia, more common CT findings were intracerebral hemorrhage. 6. Of the 40 cases thought to be cerebral infarction initially by clinical findings and spinal tap. 8 cases (20.0%) were proved to be cerebral hemorrhage by the CT scan. However, of the 22 cases thought to be cerebral hemorrhage, initially, only two cases (9.0%) were cerebral infarction.

  20. Everyday robotic action: Lessons from human action control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eDe Kleijn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally-extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  1. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo García, AM

    2006-01-01

    RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas ...

  2. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques; Clefton, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  3. Teleoperator hand controllers: A contextual human factors assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides a human factors assessment of controllers for use with remotely controlled manipulators deployed to remove hazardous waste from underground storage tanks. The analysis concentrates on controller technique (i.e., the broad class of hand controller) and not on details of controller ergonomics. Examples of controller techniques include, for example, direct rate control, resolved unilateral position control, and direct bilateral position control. Using an existing concept, the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System, as a reference, two basic types of manipulators may be identified for this application. A long reach, gross-positioning manipulator (LRM) may be used to position a smaller manipulator or an end-effector within a work site. For a Long Reach Manipulator, which will have an enormous motion range and be capable of high end-effector velocity, it will be safest and most efficient to use a resolved rate control system. A smaller, dexterous manipulator may be used to perform handling work within a relatively small work site, (i.e., to complete tasks requiring near-human dexterity). For a Dexterous Manipulator, which will have a smaller motion range than the LRM and be required to perform more difficult tasks, a resolved bilateral position control system will be safest and most efficient. However, during some waste recovery tasks it may be important to support the users by restricting movements to a single plane or axis. This can be done with a resolved bilateral position control system by (1) using the master controller force output to restrict controller inputs or (2) switching the controller to a multiaxis rate control mode and using the force output to provide a spring return to center functionality.

  4. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  5. Sensing human hand motions for controlling dexterous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth A.; Churchill, Philip J.; Little, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dexterous Hand Master (DHM) system is designed to control dexterous robot hands such as the UTAH/MIT and Stanford/JPL hands. It is the first commercially available device which makes it possible to accurately and confortably track the complex motion of the human finger joints. The DHM is adaptable to a wide variety of human hand sizes and shapes, throughout their full range of motion.

  6. Distributed Air Traffic Control : A Human Safety Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nikumbh, Sarvesh; Vartak, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The issues in air traffic control have so far been addressed with the intent to improve resource utilization and achieve an optimized solution with respect to fuel comsumption of aircrafts, efficient usage of the available airspace with minimal congestion related losses under various dynamic constraints. So the focus has almost always been more on smarter management of traffic to increase profits while human safety, though achieved in the process, we believe, has remained less seriously attended. This has become all the more important given that we have overburdened and overstressed air traffic controllers managing hundreds of airports and thousands of aircrafts per day. We propose a multiagent system based distributed approach to handle air traffic ensuring complete human (passenger) safety without removing any humans (ground controllers) from the loop thereby also retaining the earlier advantages in the new solution. The detailed design of the agent system, which will be easily interfacable with the existin...

  7. Study on the cerebrovascular reserve capacity by MR perfusion weighted imaging in SHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Dong, Yang; Chen, WenLi; Lin, Xueying; Xing, Da; Huang, Li

    2007-05-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death, and approximately 50% of survivors have a residual neurologic deficit and greater than 25% require chronic care. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) describes how far cerebral perfusion can increase from a baseline value after stimulation. High blood pressure is the most important independent risk factor for stroke and other vascular diseases. The incidence of stroke in the hypertensive is six times higher than in the patient with normal blood pressure. CVRC in the hypertensive was even lower than in control patients. MR perfusion weighted imaging (MR PWI) with the well-established acetazolamide (ACZ) stimulation test has been used for assessing brain function. The aim of this work is to assess the cerebrovascular reserve capacity by MR PWI with "ACZ" tolerance test in spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) and to identify its value in evaluating the CVRC. Experimental animal including 3 groups: Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) (12-week-old) as control group, SHR (12-week-old and 20-week-old) as experimental group. MR PWI was performed respectively before and after acetazolamide administrated orally in 3 groups on a clinical 1.5 Tesla GE Signa MR fx/i whole-body MR system. The ROI was chosen in the bilateral frontal lobe to measure the value of rCBV, rCBF and MTT. The results showed that before ACZ-test, there was statistic differences between the WKY and SHR(12-week-old), and between SHR(12-week-old) and SHR(20-week-old) in the values of rCBV and rCBF (P>0.05), and after ACZ-test, there were statistic differences between WKY and SHR (20-week-old), and between SHR(12-week-old) and SHR(20-week-old) in the rCBV value (P<0.05). It is concluded that the method of MRI PWI combined with the "ACZ stress test" can provide more qualitative and half-quantitative information on the cerebral perfusion to evaluate the CVRC in SHR.

  8. Evolution of Neural Controllers for Robot Navigation in Human Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genci Capi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, we presented a novel vision-based learning approach for autonomous robot navigation. Approach: In our method, we converted the captured image in a binary one, which after the partition is used as the input of the neural controller. Results: The neural control system, which maps the visual information to motor commands, is evolved online using real robots. Conclusion/Recommendations: We showed that evolved neural networks performed well in indoor human environments. Furthermore, we compared the performance of neural controllers with an algorithmic vision based control method.

  9. Characterization of (/sup 3/H)5-hydroxytryptamine uptake within rat cerebrovascular tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amenta, F.; Rossi, M. de; Mione, M.C.; Geppetti, P.

    1985-06-07

    The in vitro uptake of tritiated serotonin ((/sup 3/H)5HT) was studied in a preparation of rat extracerebral arteries. The uptake of (/sup 3/H)5HT was time- and temperature-dependent and of high affinity; linear regression analysis gave a Ksub(m) value of 6.48 X 10/sup 7/ M for the specific uptake. Histoautoradiographic studies showed the highest density of silver grains at the level of the adventitial-medial border of the basilar artery. Fluoxetine inhibited the accumulation of silver grains within the adventitial-medial border in the blood vessel studied. The present data further support the view that a neuronal serotonergic system may play a role in the control of blood flow in the cerebrovascular tree.

  10. Colour Doppler evaluation of extracranial carotid artery in patients presenting with features of cerebrovascular disease: A clinical and radiological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sehrawat

    2012-01-01

    atheromatous plaque was found to be carotid bifurcation (33.3%. Significant stenosis, i.e., >50% was found in 12 (60% of the cases. Peak systolic velocity ratio showed significant stenosis in 12 (60% of symptomatic cases and in 4 (20% of asymptomatic controls. Plaque characteristics showed 9 hyperechogenic, 8 calcific, 4 low echogenic and 5 moderate or heterogeneous plaques. Conclusion: The role of carotid Doppler in detecting the site and morphology of atherosclerotic plaque with quantifying the amount of stenosis is very well-justified. In addition carotid Doppler can also be used to assess the prognosis in potential symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with one or the other risk factors for cerebrovascular disease.

  11. Randomized controlled trials for influenza drugs and vaccines: a review of controlled human infection studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobana Balasingam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Controlled human infection studies are an important research tool in assessing promising influenza vaccines and antivirals. These studies are performed quickly and are cost-effective and safe, with a low incidence of serious adverse events.

  12. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  13. Effects of Retinal Eccentricity on Human Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Alexandru; Zaal, Peter M. T.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of viewing a primary flight display at different retinal eccentricities on human manual control behavior and performance. Ten participants performed a pitch tracking task while looking at a simplified primary flight display at different horizontal and vertical retinal eccentricities, and with two different controlled dynamics. Tracking performance declined at higher eccentricity angles and participants behaved more nonlinearly. The visual error rate gain increased with eccentricity for single-integrator-like controlled dynamics, but decreased for double-integrator-like dynamics. Participants' visual time delay was up to 100 ms higher at the highest horizontal eccentricity compared to foveal viewing. Overall, vertical eccentricity had a larger impact than horizontal eccentricity on most of the human manual control parameters and performance. Results might be useful in the design of displays and procedures for critical flight conditions such as in an aerodynamic stall.

  14. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  15. Correlation of cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety: The Kecskemet study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Kornel; Bodo, Michael; Szalay, Piroska; Szucs, Attila

    2010-04-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that anxiety is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, specifically stroke, we simultaneously measured anxiety and cerebral vascular alternation, using a computer-based system, "Cerberus." Sixty nine psychiatric patients (including an alcoholic subgroup) were selected as subjects for measurements conducted in Kecskemet, Hungary. The five-item short form of anxiety test (STAI) was administered twice during the same session. Between each test, brain pulse waves were recorded by rheoencephalogram (REG). A REG peak time above 180 milliseconds was considered a cerebrovascular alteration (modified after Jenkner). Data were sorted into two groups: low anxiety (N=10) and high anxiety (N=10). Significant differences were found between cardiovascular risk factors (panxiety group, and two in the low anxiety group. For the two anxiety groups, there were no significant differences in body mass index, cardiovascular sympathetic-parasympathetic balance, age and symptoms of transient ischemic attack. The correlation of REG and age was significantly different only for the alcoholic subgroup (Szalay et al, 2007). These data support the hypothesis that a correlation exists between cerebrovascular disorder and anxiety in the studied population.

  16. Anton's syndrome due to cerebrovascular disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddula Mohana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anton's syndrome describes the condition in which patients deny their blindness despite objective evidence of visual loss, and moreover confabulate to support their stance. It is a rare extension of cortical blindness in which, in addition to the injury to the occipital cortex, other cortical centres are also affected, with patients typically behaving as if they were sighted. Case presentation We present a case report of an 83-year-old white woman with cortical blindness as a result of bilateral occipital lobe infarcts. Despite her obvious blindness, illustrated by her walking into objects, the patient expressed denial of visual loss and demonstrated confabulation in her accounts of her surroundings, consistent with a diagnosis of Anton's syndrome. Conclusions A suspicion of cortical blindness and Anton's syndrome should be considered in patients with atypical visual loss and evidence of occipital lobe injury. Cerebrovascular disease is the most common cause of Anton's syndrome, as in our patient. However, any condition that may result in cortical blindness can potentially lead to Anton's syndrome. Recovery of visual function will depend on the underlying aetiology, with cases due to occipital lobe infarction after cerebrovascular events being less likely to result in complete recovery. Management in these circumstances should accordingly focus on secondary prevention and rehabilitation.

  17. Cerebrovascular Disease in Children: Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Karen J.; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Roach, E. Steve; Vexler, Zinaida S.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease in children manifests in many forms, all of which have devastating and long-lasting effects. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging have revealed that this condition is much more common in the pediatric population than previously believed, affecting as many as 1 in 1500 neonates and 1 in 3000 children. The underlying mechanisms that cause stroke—ischemic stroke, sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke—are only beginning to be understood; however, progress has been made toward better understanding the mechanisms of disease, particularly in the fields of genetics, inflammation, and thrombus formation. Furthermore, new imaging techniques, and better understanding of how to use imaging in managing stroke, have enabled practitioners to more quickly and accurately identify cerebrovascular disease type in children, which is key to mitigation of negative outcomes. The 2010 Neurobiology of Disease in Children symposium, held in conjunction with the 39th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, aimed to (1) describe clinical issues surrounding childhood stroke, including diagnosis and acute care; (2) discuss recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of childhood stroke; (3) review current management of and therapies for childhood stroke, including controversial therapies; and (4) establish research directions for investigators. This article summarizes the speakers’ presentations and includes an edited transcript of question-and-answer sessions. PMID:21778188

  18. ROLE OF SMOKING AND ALCOHOLISM IN CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Indira,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Though previously stroke was considered an old man disease, it is increasing among the young and middle aged people are not likely to die of stroke as they are of heart attack, but they are likely to be disabled for rest of their lives. As the cases of stroke admitted to medical wards, formed nearly 1/10th to 1/8th of total bed strength at any time, and their prolonged stay at hospital attracted our attention. To study the etiological factors for the present study we have thoroughly evaluated 50 pts, with acute cerebrovascular disease and focused more attention in the revaluation of physiological variants of clinical importance by examining the blood for complete blood picture, which may help a long way in near future to predict the risk group in developing an acute cerebrovascular stroke and to avoid risk factors and to take measures to rectify the variations so as to minimize the mortality due to stroke.

  19. Knee joint dysfunctions that influence gait in cerebrovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is still no consensus among different specialists on the subject of kinematic variation during the hemiparetic gait, including the main changes that take place during the gait cycle and whether the gait velocity changes the patterns of joint mobility. One of the most frequently discussed joints is the knee. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the variables found in the angular kinematics of knee joint, and to describe the alterations found in the hemiparetic gait resulting from cerebrovascular injury. METHODS: This study included 66 adult patients of both genders with a diagnosis of either right or left hemiparesis resulting from ischemic cerebrovascular injury. All the participants underwent three-dimensional gait evaluation, an the angular kinematics of the joint knee were selected for analysis. RESULTS: The results were distributed into four groups formed based on the median of the gait speed and the side of hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS: The relevant clinical characteristics included the important mechanisms of loading response in the stance, knee hyperextension in single stance, and reduction of the peak flexion and movement amplitude of the knee in the swing phase. These mechanisms should be taken into account when choosing the best treatment. We believe that the findings presented here may aid in preventing the occurrence of the problems found, and also in identifying the origin of these problems.

  20. Knee Joint Dysfunctions That Influence Gait in Cerebrovascular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Greve, Julia Maria D’Andrea

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is still no consensus among different specialists on the subject of kinematic variation during the hemiparetic gait, including the main changes that take place during the gait cycle and whether the gait velocity changes the patterns of joint mobility. One of the most frequently discussed joints is the knee. OBJECTIVES This study aims to evaluate the variables found in the angular kinematics of knee joint, and to describe the alterations found in the hemiparetic gait resulting from cerebrovascular injury. METHODS This study included 66 adult patients of both genders with a diagnosis of either right or left hemiparesis resulting from ischemic cerebrovascular injury. All the participants underwent three-dimensional gait evaluation, an the angular kinematics of the joint knee were selected for analysis. RESULTS The results were distributed into four groups formed based on the median of the gait speed and the side of hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS The relevant clinical characteristics included the important mechanisms of loading response in the stance, knee hyperextension in single stance, and reduction of the peak flexion and movement amplitude of the knee in the swing phase. These mechanisms should be taken into account when choosing the best treatment. We believe that the findings presented here may aid in preventing the occurrence of the problems found, and also in identifying the origin of these problems. PMID:18719753

  1. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

  2. Tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial en accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Vela, Fredy Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Revisión sistemática de la literatura en la que se discuten las controversias del manejo de la presión arterial en las emergencias neurológicas agudas cerebrovasculares como accidente cerebrovascular isquémico, hemorrágico y hemorragia subaracnoidea.

  3. 灾害事件后群体心理应激与脑血管病发病的相关性%Relationships between metal stress and cerebrovascular diseases of colony after disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新华; 崔红波; 赵艳丽; 彭化生; 朱明

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Natural calamity is a great threat against human society. The colony mental stress and social supports play a positive role in relieving the psychological hurt and disease of survivors. Whereas, report on the relationship between nental stress and cerebrovascular disease after flood is scarce.OBJECTIVE: To study the relationships between mental stress, social support and cerebrovascular diseases of survivors after floods.DESIGN: Parts of small towns of two counties, which seriously destroyed by floods, were selected to assist the investigation, and randomized into a slight disaster group and a serous disaster group according to the damaging degree. A control groap was established at the same time. A diagnosis-based prospective study was carried out in the form of follow-up observation by case control.SETTING and PARTICIPANTS: A disastrous flood happened in Heze.Shandong Province in Augusl. 1996. The most serious stricken areas were chosen: liulou Country of Dongmiug County, Dayan Country of Juancheng Counly, which are about l0 km away from the beach of the Yellow River as iuvestigating spots.INTERVENTIONS: lnterventions from families. neighbourhoods. communities and government snpplies. immediate assistant and reconstruction aid after the disaster.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The contents of investigation: the general social demographic data, the damaging status and experience, life event scale, SCL-90. rating scale of social support, history of cerebrovascular diseases risk factors and the acute cerebrovascular diseases episode after disaster, etc.RESULTS: After the disaster, victims' mental health level descended,which indicated significant difference in both groups compared with the control group( P < 0.01 ): the incidence of acute cerebrovascular diseases in the disaster population went up obviously after disaster, with significant difference( P < 0.01) compared with the control group, moreover, the incidence in the slight disaster group was higher

  4. The impact of ambient particulate matter (PM10) on the population mortality for cerebrovascular diseasesa case-crossover study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between the concentration of ambient inhalable particulate matter(PM10) and population mortality for cerebrovascular diseases and to explore the impact of PM10 on cerebrovascular

  5. MORTALITY FROM CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES AT THE TERRITORY OF DOLJEVAC MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Antic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to establish the basic descriptive epidemiological characteristics of the individuals having died of cerebrovascular diseases, at the territory of Doljevac Municipality. The data about the deceased were obtained after the population registration, as well as by the physician on duty. The research included all of them who died of cerebrovascular diseases at the territory of Doljevac Municipality, in the period from 2002 to 2006. The descriptive epidemiological study was applied. Specific and general rates of mortality were being calculated, and the population data were obtained from the 2002 census. The rates were calculated per 100,000 residents. The total registered number was: 306 deceased, 180 females (59% and 126 males (41%. Average annual specific rate of mortality based on cerebrovascular diseases was 311.2 per 100,000 residents (251.3 in men and 368.1 in women. Average annual rate of mortality in the population over 30 years of age in the same period was higher and reached 484,0 (389.7 in men and 577.2 in women. Women died 1.5 times more than men. The mortality rate was 1.3 times higher in the upland area of the municipality (349.3 than in the plain area (276.4. Cerebrovascular diseases-based death was reported in both sexes after 30 years of age. The youngest man was 32, and the youngest woman was 48. After 59 years of age, the death-rate abruptly increased and reached the maximum after 70 years of age. The highest number of the deceased women was reported in the age group 70-79 years , while the highest number of the deceased men was noted in the age group 80-89 years . The lowest mortality rates in both sexes were registered in the 30-39 years age group (m/w rate – 44.9:16.3, and the highest in 80-89 years age group (m/w rate – 2138.7:1921.5. Almost 1/3 of the deceased was under 65 years of age. The mean age was 70.3 years in men and 76.1 years in women. In younger population, under 65 years of age, the

  6. First translational 'Think Tank' on cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Frank C; Gustafson, Deborah; Crystal, Howard A; Moreno, Herman; Adamski, Mateusz G; Arai, Ken; Baird, Alison E; Balucani, Clotilde; Brickman, Adam M; Cechetto, David; Gorelick, Philip; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kiliaan, Amanda; Launer, Lenore; Schneider, Julie; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Whitmer, Rachel; Wright, Clinton; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2016-02-13

    As the human population continues to age, an increasing number of people will exhibit significant deficits in cognitive function and dementia. It is now recognized that cerebrovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases all play major roles in the evolution of cognitive impairment and dementia. Thus with our more recent recognition of these relationships and our need to understand and more positively impact on this world health problem, "The Leo and Anne Albert Charitable Trust" (Gene Pranzo, Trustee with significant support from Susan Brogan, Meeting Planner) provided generous support for this inaugural international workshop that was held from April 13-16, 2015 at the beautiful Ritz Carlton Golf Resort in North Naples, Florida. Researchers from SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY organized the event by selecting the present group of translationally inclined preclinical, clinical and population scientists focused on cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk and its progression to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia. Participants at the workshop addressed important issues related to aging, cognition and dementia by: (1) sharing new data, information and perspectives that intersect vascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, (2) discussing gaps in translating population risk, clinical and preclinical information to the progression of cognitive loss, and (3) debating new approaches and methods to fill these gaps that can translate into future therapeutic interventions. Participants agreed on topics for group discussion prior to the meeting and focused on specific translational goals that included promoting better understanding of dementia mechanisms, the identification of potential therapeutic targets for intervention, and discussed/debated the potential utility of diagnostic/prognostic markers. Below summarizes the new data-presentations, concepts, novel directions and specific discussion topics addressed by this international

  7. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  8. Intelligent (Autonomous) Power Controller Development for Human Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeder, James; Raitano, Paul; McNelis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    As NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign and other exploration initiatives continue to mature they have identified the need for more autonomous operations of the power system. For current human space operations such as the International Space Station, the paradigm is to perform the planning, operation and fault diagnosis from the ground. However, the dual problems of communication lag as well as limited communication bandwidth beyond GEO synchronous orbit, underscore the need to change the operation methodology for human operation in deep space. To address this need, for the past several years the Glenn Research Center has had an effort to develop an autonomous power controller for human deep space vehicles. This presentation discusses the present roadmap for deep space exploration along with a description of conceptual power system architecture for exploration modules. It then contrasts the present ground centric control and management architecture with limited autonomy on-board the spacecraft with an advanced autonomous power control system that features ground based monitoring with a spacecraft mission manager with autonomous control of all core systems, including power. It then presents a functional breakdown of the autonomous power control system and examines its operation in both normal and fault modes. Finally, it discusses progress made in the development of a real-time power system model and how it is being used to evaluate the performance of the controller and well as using it for verification of the overall operation.

  9. Clinical Characteristics of Cerebrovascular Pathology with Patients Suffering from Ph-Negative Myeloproliferative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine M. Tanashyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disturbances of microcirculation play a significant role in the development and progression of both acute and chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD and may be associated with different hemogram abnormalities. One of the reasons of the prothrombogenic state of the endothelium is the increase in the number of blood corpuscles leading to (non-Ph myeloproliferative disorders (MPD including essential thrombocythemia (ET, polycythemia vera (PV, and primary myelofibrosis (PM. Materials and Methods: The study included 167 patients: 102 patients with Ph-MPD and the control group comprising 65 patients with CVD. According to MPD subtype, the patients were divided into three groups: patients with ET (37%, n = 38, male/female 7/31, age 52 ± 7 years, those with PV (40%, n = 41, male/female 20/21, age 50 ± 6 years and those with PM (23%, n = 23, male/female 5/18, age 54 ± 4 years. Results: In 79% (n = 81 of cases in the study group (with Ph-MPD, patients had chronic CVD, with the most frequently identified symptoms being asthenia (92% and headache (72%. Headache in Ph-MPD patients was more frequently (86% associated with PM, while in patients with PV and ET it was equally distributed (70%. Neurological symptoms in 53% of cases were associated with focal changes of the brain on MRI localized in the subcortical area of the frontal and parietal lobes. Twenty-one (21% patients suffered an acute cerebrovascular accident, 8 of them had thrombotic occlusion of one of the internal carotid arteries leading to hemispheric infarcts. Endothelial function (as measured by flow-dependent dilation of the brachial artery was severely impaired in all study groups (median 5% with normal cut-off at 10%, the lowest degree of vasodilator activity being specific for patients with a history of stroke (p = 0.011. Conclusion: Patients suffering from MPD had asymptomatic focal changes in the brain in the absence of concomitant vascular disease (hypertension

  10. Evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity by ultrasonography in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Zhao; Yuxiang Chen; Zhen Zhao; Qingchun Zhao; Dongmei Hao; Shanshan Tang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects cerebrovascular reserve capacity, and cerebrovascular reactivity damage prognosticates a very high risk of stroke.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate CVR by detecting the increase rate of blood flow volume of middle cerebral artery (MCA) before and after breathholding in diabetic patients with hypertension, and observe the effects of hypertension on cerebrovascular reserve capacity of diabetic patients. DESIGN: Controlled observation.SETTINGS: Department of Function, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University; Department of Special Diagnosis, the 202 Hospital of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Inpatients or outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or primary hypertension admitted to Departments of Gastroenterology and Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University and the 202 Hospital of Chinese PLA from April to December 2004 were involved in this experiment. Inclusive criteria: type 2 DM met the criteria of the report on diabetes diagnosis announced in 1999 by WHO expert committee, totally 88 patients were involved. Primary hypertension met the diagnosis criteria announced in 1999 by WHO/1SH, totally 42 patients were involved. Another group of 43 concurrent subjects who received physical examination served as controls. According to the disease condition, the involved patients were assigned into 3 groups: DM group (only diabetic patients), hypertension group (only hypertension patients) and DM complicated with hypertension group (diabetic patients with hypertension). Informed consent for the examination was obtained from all the involved subjects.METHODS: Before MCA of subjects was detected, bilateral carotid artery was routinely detected by high-frequency ultrasonography. Subjects were rejected when stenosis rate of unilateral internal carotid artery or common carotid artery≥70%. Vessels were expanded with transcranial color Duplex Doppler by breath holding test for detecting vascular reactivity. Hypercapnia was

  11. The collaterome: A novel conceptual framework of systems biology in cerebrovascular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Liebeskind

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The collaterome is the elaborate neurovascular architecture within the brain that regulates and determines the compensatory ability, response, and outcome of cerebrovascular pathophysiology. Based on the fundamental aspects of the cerebral collateral circulation, this model provides a conceptual framework or novel approach to cerebrovascular disorders that endorses systems biology rather than traditional reductionism. The nature of this holistic approach mirrors the innate or endogenous compensatory ability of collaterals, extending this concept to reconsider current approaches to cerebrovascular disorders. The distinction of asymptomatic and symptomatic physiology, and normal brain health versus cerebrovascular disease and the management of cerebrovascular disorders from diagnosis to therapeutic strategies may be reconsidered from this conceptual framework that builds upon established knowledge in the stroke literature.

  12. Effect of intermittent feedback control on robustness of human-like postural control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2016-03-01

    Humans have to acquire postural robustness to maintain stability against internal and external perturbations. Human standing has been recently modelled using an intermittent feedback control. However, the causality inside of the closed-loop postural control system associated with the neural control strategy is still unknown. Here, we examined the effect of intermittent feedback control on postural robustness and of changes in active/passive components on joint coordinative structure. We implemented computer simulation of a quadruple inverted pendulum that is mechanically close to human tiptoe standing. We simulated three pairs of joint viscoelasticity and three choices of neural control strategies for each joint: intermittent, continuous, or passive control. We examined postural robustness for each parameter set by analysing the region of active feedback gain. We found intermittent control at the hip joint was necessary for model stabilisation and model parameters affected the robustness of the pendulum. Joint sways of the pendulum model were partially smaller than or similar to those of experimental data. In conclusion, intermittent feedback control was necessary for the stabilisation of the quadruple inverted pendulum. Also, postural robustness of human-like multi-link standing would be achieved by both passive joint viscoelasticity and neural joint control strategies.

  13. Endogenous control of waking brain rhythms induces neuroplasticity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, T.; Munneke, M.; Ruge, D.; Gruzelier, J.H.; Rothwell, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of noninvasively inducing long-term changes in human corticomotor excitability by means of a brain-computer interface, which enables users to exert internal control over the cortical rhythms recorded from the scalp. We demonstrate that self-regulation of electroen

  14. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D.; Martin, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection. PMID:27746585

  15. Embedded human control of robots using myoelectric interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuvan, Chris Wilson; Ison, Mark; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-07-01

    Myoelectric controlled interfaces have become a research interest for use in advanced prostheses, exoskeletons, and robot teleoperation. Current research focuses on improving a user's initial performance, either by training a decoding function for a specific user or implementing "intuitive" mapping functions as decoders. However, both approaches are limiting, with the former being subject specific, and the latter task specific. This paper proposes a paradigm shift on myoelectric interfaces by embedding the human as controller of the system to be operated. Using abstract mapping functions between myoelectric activity and control actions for a task, this study shows that human subjects are able to control an artificial system with increasing efficiency by just learning how to control it. The method efficacy is tested by using two different control tasks and four different abstract mappings relating upper limb muscle activity to control actions for those tasks. The results show that all subjects were able to learn the mappings and improve their performance over time. More interestingly, a chronological evaluation across trials reveals that the learning curves transfer across subsequent trials having the same mapping, independent of the tasks to be executed. This implies that new muscle synergies are developed and refined relative to the mapping used by the control task, suggesting that maximal performance may be achieved by learning a constant, arbitrary mapping function rather than dynamic subject- or task-specific functions. Moreover, the results indicate that the method may extend to the neural control of any device or robot, without limitations for anthropomorphism or human-related counterparts.

  16. Endogenous neurogenesis in the human brain following cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minger, Stephen L; Ekonomou, Antigoni; Carta, Eloisa M; Chinoy, Amish; Perry, Robert H; Ballard, Clive G

    2007-01-01

    Increased endogenous neurogenesis has a significant regenerative role in many experimental models of cerebrovascular diseases, but there have been very few studies in humans. We therefore examined whether there was evidence of altered endogenous neurogenesis in an 84-year-old patient who suffered a cerebrovascular accident 1 week prior to death. Using antibodies that specifically label neural stem/neural progenitor cells, we examined the presence of immunopositive cells around and distant from the infarcted area, and compared this with a control, age-matched individual. Interestingly, a large number of neural stem cells, vascular endothelial growth factor-immunopositive cells and new blood vessels were observed only around the region of infarction, and none in the corresponding brain areas of the healthy control. In addition, an increased number of neural stem cells was observed in the neurogenic region of the lateral ventricle wall. Our results suggest increased endogenous neurogenesis associated with neovascularization and migration of newly-formed cells towards a region of cerebrovascular damage in the adult human brain and highlight possible mechanisms underlying this process.

  17. Doença cerebrovascular: aquisição de linguagem em pré-escolares Cerebrovascular disease: language acquisition in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Tamarozzi de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available São descritos 10 casos de crianças com idade cronológica entre 5 anos e 1 mês e 5 anos e 11 meses, divididas em grupo de doença cerebrovascular, (G-DCV e grupo controle (Gc. As crianças do G-DCV apresentaram DCV confirmada na fase aguda através de exame neurológico clínico e de imagem na UNICAMP. Nas avaliações utilizou-se triagem audiológica, protocolo de avaliação da linguagem infantil, teste de vocabulário por imagens Peabody, com o objetivo de avaliar os diversos subsistemas lingüísticos e as noções perceptivo-cognitivas. Na análise qualitativa do G-DCV, do ponto de vista fonoaudiológico e neurológico, quando comparado ao Gc, mostrou recuperação completa do distúrbio adquirido de linguagem (DAL em 2 crianças e alterações de linguagem em 3. O estudo dos casos revelou que os diversos aspectos que constituem a linguagem em desenvolvimento na criança pré-escolar devem ser analisados de forma individual, quantitativa e qualitativamente para achados conclusivos.We describe ten children, aging 5 years and 1 month until 5 years and 11 months, when the phonoaudiological assessment was conducted. They are divided according to cerebrovascular disease, in CVD group (CVD-G and control group (cG. Children were seen and CVD was confirmed in the acute phase at UNICAMP hospital. Audiologic assessment, protocol for Infant language assessment, and Peabody picture vocabulary test were used in the evaluations. The qualitative analysis of the subjects from a phonoaudiological and neurological point of view has shown the recovery of acquired language desorder (ALD with no influence whatsoever in the development of 2 subjects and subtle language and/or learning process alterations for 3 subjects. The cases study has revealed that all aspects of language development in preschool children should be analyzed in an individual, quantitative, and qualitative basis to lead to conclusive findings.

  18. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hag Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who are in charge of internal control-related tasks (IC personnel from 2005 to 2008. We find that the number of IC personnel within a firm and several key departments increase with firm size, number of employees, complexity and for Chaebols, and decrease in rapidly growing firms. Additional analysis reveals that the factors influencing internal control systems have an accentuated effect on firms with relatively larger firm size.

  19. Electric Wheelchair Controlled by Human Body Motion Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Sho; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua

    This research studies the possibility of an intuitive interface for an electric wheelchair by using human body except hands. For this purpose, we focused on the human body motion which has relation to actions or behavior. This motion comes from the human stabilization function for holding expectable collapsing caused by voluntary motion. Thus this motion is considered as a kind of characteristics of human motion, and is linked to intentions unconsciously. Therefore, the interface which does not require conscious and complex motion is realized by applying this human body motion to the interface of electric wheelchair. In this paper, first, we did experiment to search a part which vividly shows the pressure change on the seat. As a result, it was confirmed that pressure change of the seat back vividly shows the human body motion. Next, we designed the prototype based on this evidence. Finally, experiment was conducted by using 10 subjects and SD method to evaluate feeling of operation. For this result, it was turned out that all subjects feel that proposed interface was intuitive, or to control at their direction. Therefore it was confirmed that human body motion interface has a possibility to be used for an interface of electric wheelchair.

  20. Human interface, automatic planning, and control of a humanoid robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kang, S.C.; Lee, S.; Cho, K.R.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, C.W. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.M. [Jeonju Technical Coll. (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents an integrated robotic system consisting of human interfaces, motion- and grasp-planning algorithms, a controller, a graphical simulator, and a humanoid robot with over 60 joints. All of these subsystems are integrated in a coordinated fashion to enable the robot to perform a commanded task with as much autonomy as possible. The highest level of the system is the human interfaces, which enable a user to specify tasks conveniently and efficiently. At the mid-level, several planning algorithms generate motions of the robot body, arms, and hands automatically. At the lowest level, the motor controllers are equipped with both a position controller and a compliant motion controller to execute gross motions and contact motions, respectively. The main contributions of the work are the large-scale integration and the development of the motion planners for a humanoid robot. A hierarchical integration scheme that preserves the modularities of the human interfaces, the motion planners, and the controller has been the key for the successful integration. The set of motion planners is developed systematically so as to coordinate the motions of the body, arms, and hands to perform a large variety of tasks.

  1. International Guidelines on Human Rights and Drug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Discrimination and inequality shape women’s experiences of drug use and in the drug trade and the impact of drug control efforts on them, with disproportionate burdens faced by poor and otherwise marginalized women. In recent years, UN member states and UN drug control and human rights entities have recognized this issue and made commitments to integrate a ‘gender perspective’ into drug control policies, with ‘gender’ limited to those conventionally deemed women. But the concept of gender in international law is broader, rooted in socially constructed and culturally determined norms and expectations around gender roles, sex, and sexuality. Also, drug control policies often fail to meaningfully address the specific needs and circumstances of women (inclusively defined), leaving them at risk of recurrent violations of their rights in the context of drugs. This article explores what it means to ‘mainstream’ this narrower version of gender into drug control efforts, using as examples various women’s experiences as people who use drugs, in the drug trade, and in the criminal justice system. It points to international guidelines on human rights and drug control as an important tool to ensure attention to women’s rights in drug control policy design and implementation. PMID:28630557

  2. Controlled human malaria infection trials: How tandems of trust and control construct scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Else M; Sauerwein, Robert W; Bijker, Wiebe E

    2016-02-01

    Controlled human malaria infections are clinical trials in which healthy volunteers are deliberately infected with malaria under controlled conditions. Controlled human malaria infections are complex clinical trials: many different groups and institutions are involved, and several complex technologies are required to function together. This functioning together of technologies, people, and institutions is under special pressure because of potential risks to the volunteers. In this article, the authors use controlled human malaria infections as a strategic research site to study the use of control, the role of trust, and the interactions between trust and control in the construction of scientific knowledge. The authors argue that tandems of trust and control play a central role in the successful execution of clinical trials and the construction of scientific knowledge. More specifically, two aspects of tandems of trust and control will be highlighted: tandems are sites where trust and control coproduce each other, and tandems link the personal, the technical, and the institutional domains. Understanding tandems of trust and control results in setting some agendas for both clinical trial research and science and technology studies.

  3. Spatial analysis of the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and drinking water hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandiz, Juan; Abellan, Juan J; Gomez-Rubio, Virgilio; Lopez-Quilez, Antonio; Sanmartin, Pilar; Abellan, Carlos; Martinez-Beneito, Miguel A; Melchor, Inmaculada; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Zurriaga, Oscar; Ballester, Ferran; Gil, Jose M; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Ocana, Ricardo

    2004-06-01

    Previously published scientific papers have reported a negative correlation between drinking water hardness and cardiovascular mortality. Some ecologic and case-control studies suggest the protective effect of calcium and magnesium concentration in drinking water. In this article we present an analysis of this protective relationship in 538 municipalities of Comunidad Valenciana (Spain) from 1991-1998. We used the Spanish version of the Rapid Inquiry Facility (RIF) developed under the European Environment and Health Information System (EUROHEIS) research project. The strategy of analysis used in our study conforms to the exploratory nature of the RIF that is used as a tool to obtain quick and flexible insight into epidemiologic surveillance problems. This article describes the use of the RIF to explore possible associations between disease indicators and environmental factors. We used exposure analysis to assess the effect of both protective factors--calcium and magnesium--on mortality from cerebrovascular (ICD-9 430-438) and ischemic heart (ICD-9 410-414) diseases. This study provides statistical evidence of the relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of drinking water. This relationship is stronger in cerebrovascular disease than in ischemic heart disease, is more pronounced for women than for men, and is more apparent with magnesium than with calcium concentration levels. Nevertheless, the protective nature of these two factors is not clearly established. Our results suggest the possibility of protectiveness but cannot be claimed as conclusive. The weak effects of these covariates make it difficult to separate them from the influence of socioeconomic and environmental factors. We have also performed disease mapping of standardized mortality ratios to detect clusters of municipalities with high risk. Further standardization by levels of calcium and magnesium in drinking water shows changes in the maps when we remove the effect of

  4. PET in cerebrovascular disease; PET bei zerebrovaskulaeren Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik der Univ. Koeln (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Tissue viability is of particular interest in acute cerebral ischemia because it may be preserved if reperfusion can be achieved rapidly, e.g. by acute thrombolysis. Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen consumption by PET can assess tissue viability, and they have substantially increased our knowledge of th pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and the associated penumbra. Widerspread clinical application in acute stroke, however, is unlikely because of the large logistic and personnel resources required. In chronic cerebrovascular disease, measurement of regional CBF and glucose metabolism, which is usually coupled, provide detailed insights in disturbance of cortical function, e.g. due to deafferentiation, and contribute to differentiation of dementia types. Chronic misery perfusion, i.e. reduced perfusion that does not match the metabolic demand of the tissue, can be demonstrated by PET. It may be found in some patients with high-grade arterial stenoses. Less severe impairment of brain perfusion can be demonstrated by measurement of the cerebrovascular reserve capacity. The most frequent clinical situations can be assessed by less demanding procedures, e.g. by SPECT. In conclusion, PET has its role in cerebrovascular disease primarily within scientific studies, where high resolution and absolute quantitation of physiological variables are essential. (orig.). 65 refs. [Deutsch] Beim akuten ischaemischen Insult ist die Vitalitaet des Gewebes von besonderem Interesse, da sie durch rasche Reperfusion, z.B. durch Thrombolyse, erhalten bleiben kann. Messungen der zerebralen Durchblutung und des Sauerstoffumsatzes mittels PET geben darueber wesentliche Aufschluesse, und sie sind wichtig fuer das Verstaendnis der Pathophysiologie ischaemischer Infarkte und der Penumbra mit kritischer Perfusion beim Menschen. Ihre breitere Anwendung in der klinischen Patientenversorgung kommt allerdings wegen des hohen Aufwandes derzeit kaum in Betracht. Bei

  5. Molecular mechanism of size control in development and human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolong Yang; Tian Xu

    2011-01-01

    How multicellular organisms control their size is a fundamental question that fascinated generations of biologists.In the past 10 years, tremendous progress has been made toward our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying size control. Original studies from Drosophila showed that in addition to extrinsic nutritional and hormonal cues, intrinsic mechanisms also play important roles in the control of organ size during development. Several novel signaling pathways such as insulin and Hippo-LATS signaling pathways have been identified that control organ size by regulating cell size and/or cell number through modulation of cell growth, cell division, and cell death. Later studies using mammalian cell and mouse models also demonstrated that the signaling pathways identified in flies are also conserved in mammals. Significantly, recent studies showed that dysregulation of size control plays important roles in the development of many human diseases sucha as cancer,diabetes,and hypertrophy.

  6. Relationships of Self-Esteem among Duration of Disease, Impairments and Activity Limitation in Cerebrovascular Accident and Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Mizuho; Nishioka, Eriko; Abe, Kazuo; 藤原, 瑞穂; 西岡, 江理子; 阿部, 和夫

    1999-01-01

    The relationships of self-esteem among the duration of illness, impairments and activities limitation were studied in cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-four CVD patients (aged 43-83) and 41 PD patients (aged 49-78) were examined. The duration of illness was 12 to 132 months for CVD patients and 1 to 211 months for PD patients. Seventy healthy old subjects (aged 48-80) also served as normal controls. Self-esteem was scored with Rosenberg's scale. Activity of dai...

  7. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  8. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  9. Modeling human decision making behavior in supervisory control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulga, M. K.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision control model was developed, which is based primarily on a dynamic programming algorithm which looks at all the available task possibilities, charts an optimal trajectory, and commits itself to do the first step (i.e., follow the optimal trajectory during the next time period), and then iterates the calculation. A Bayesian estimator was included which estimates the tasks which might occur in the immediate future and provides this information to the dynamic programming routine. Preliminary trials comparing the human subject's performance to that of the optimal model show a great similarity, but indicate that the human skips certain movements which require quick change in strategy.

  10. Reflex control of robotic gait using human walking data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Macleod

    Full Text Available Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation.

  11. Effects of Hyul-Bu-Chuke-Tang on Erythrocyte Deformability and Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Sang Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyul-bu-chuke-tang (HCEt is a well-known traditional herbal medicine that is used for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the acute effects of HCEt on erythrocyte deformability and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (CVR in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods. We examined erythrocyte deformability in an HCEt group (n=14 and a control group (n=10. CVR was measured using hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the middle cerebral artery and transcranial Doppler (TCD in the HCEt group (n=11. A historical control group (n=10 of CVR measurements was also created from our previous study. All measurements were performed prior to and 1, 2, and 3 hours after HCEt administration. Results. HCEt significantly improved erythrocyte deformability 1 hour after administration compared to the control group (2.9±1.1% versus -0.6±1.0%, P=0.034. HCEt significantly improved the CVR 2 hours after administration compared to the historical control group (9.1±4.0% versus -8.1±4.1%, P=0.007. The mean blood pressure and pulse rate did not vary from baseline values in either group. Conclusions. We demonstrated that HCEt improved erythrocyte deformability and CVR. Our findings suggest that an improvement in erythrocyte deformability contributes to HCEt’s effect on cerebral microcirculation.

  12. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics.

  13. Social movements and human rights rhetoric in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, P D; Banerjee, A

    2005-08-01

    After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use human rights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of human rights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using human rights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission.

  14. Expressional changes in cerebrovascular receptors after experimental transient forebrain ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sara; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Edvinsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    of vasoconstrictive endothelin and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in cerebral arteries. Experimental transient forebrain ischemia of varying durations was induced in male wistar rats, followed by reperfusion for 48 hours. Neurological function was assessed daily by three different tests and cerebrovascular expression......Global ischemic stroke is one of the most prominent consequences of cardiac arrest, since the diminished blood flow to the brain results in cell damage and sometimes permanently impaired neurological function. The post-arrest period is often characterised by cerebral hypoperfusion due to subacute...... the insult, a phenomenon that leads to increased contraction of cerebral arteries, reduced perfusion of the affected area and worsened ischemic damage. Based on these findings, the aim of the present study was to investigate if transient global cerebral ischemia is associated with upregulation...

  15. [PECULIARITIES OF THE CEREBROVASCULAR EFFECTS OF GLUTAMIC ACID].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan'shina, T S; Kurza, E V; Kurdyumov, I N; Maslennikov, D V; Mirzoyan, R S

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on nonlinear rats subjected to global transient cerebral ischemia revealed the ability of glutamic acid to improve cerebral circulation. Consequently, the excitatory amino acid can produce adverse (neurotoxic) and positive (anti-ischemic) effects in cerebral ischemia. The cerebrovascular effect of glutamic acid in cerebral ischemia is attenuated on the background action of the MNDA receptor blocker MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg intravenously) and eliminated by bicuculline. When glutamic acid is combined with the non-competitive MNDA receptor antagonist MK-801, neither one nor another drug shows its vasodilator effect. The results are indicative of the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory systems on the level of cerebral vessels and once again confirm our previous conclusion about the decisive role of GABA(A) receptors in brain vessels in the implementation of anti-ischemic activity of endogenous compounds (melatonin) and well-known pharmacological substances (mexidol, afobazole), and new chemical compounds based on GABA-containing lipid derivatives.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic cerebrovascular disease, use of pentoxifylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Parfenov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCVD is one of the most common  iagnoses in Russian neurology, by which is meant vascular cognitive impairment (VCI in modern foreign literature. There are data available in the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of CCVD (VCI. Theresults of the author’s studies show that CCVD often masks other diseases (anxiety and depressive disorders, primary headache, peripheral vestibulopathy, and Alzheimer's disease that are unfortunately poorly diagnosed in our country, so patients do not receive effective treatment. To modify risk factors for stroke (smoking and alcohol cessation, sufficient exercise, to normalize blood pressure (the use of antihypertensivemedications, to reduce blood cholesterol levels (statins, to perform antithrombotic therapy (antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and to use cognitive enhancers are of key importance when treating patients with CCVD (VCI. There are data on the use of pentoxifylline in patients with CCVD, vascular dementia.

  17. Clinical and angiographic comparison of asymptomatic occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, P B; Caplan, L R; Langenberg, P; Hier, D B; Pessin, M; Patel, D; Taber, J

    1988-06-01

    We compared clinical and arteriographic features in 106 patients with symptomatic unilateral carotid territory occlusive disease to determine the frequency and distribution of occlusive arterial lesions in asymptomatic vessels. Among black patients who were predominantly from Chicago, young, and female, there were fewer transient ischemic attacks and myocardial infarcts, less claudication, and more asymptomatic lesions of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery stem, and the middle cerebral artery stem. Among white patients predominantly from New England, elderly, and male, there was more frequent and severe occlusive asymptomatic disease at extracranial carotid and vertebral artery sites. Knowledge of the distribution of asymptomatic lesions will help guide evaluation and treatment strategies for patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease.

  18. Cerebrovascular Diseases and Risk Factors: a Strategy of Primary Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Buergo Zuaznábar

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases constitute a health problem worldwide and have the tendency to grow up. Chronic diseases sometimes are considered transmissible diseases at a level of risk factors. The alimentary habits and the levels of physical activity at present are risk behaviors which are spread all over the world passing from one population to another as an infectious disease with incidence in the morbidity profiles worldwide. While age and sex as well as genetic vulnerability are no modifiable elements, great part of the risks associated to age and sex can be reduced. In such risks, behavior factors (alimentary habits, physical inactivity, smoking habit and alcoholism, biological factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, overweight, and hyperinsulinemia and finally the social factors which cover a complex combination of socio-economic, cultural parameters, and other elements of the environment that interact among them. This work covers risk factors and the behavior to be followed for its modification.

  19. /sup 111/In platelet scintigraphy in cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, W.J.; Siegel, B.A.; Davis, H.H.; Mathias, C.J.; Clark, H.B.; Welch, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    We obtained scintigraphic images of the neck from 100 patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease after injecting /sup 111/In-labeled autologous platelets. One or more focuses of increased activity, implying local platelet accumulation, were seen along the course of the cervical carotid arteries in 52 patients. In 64 patients, there was a highly significant correlation between the results of scintigraphy and carotid arteriography (p . 10(6)). There was no significant correlation between the scintigraphic findings and the previous or subsequent occurrence of transient ischemic attack or cerebral infarction in the carotid circulation. These data suggest that factors other than the simple formation of platlet thrombi in the cervical carotid arteries are of primary importance in the pathogenesis of stroke.

  20. Cerebrovascular Accident Incidence in the NASA Astronaut Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPelusa, Michael B.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Lesley R.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is strongly associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Certain unique occupational exposures that individuals in the NASA astronaut corps face, specifically high-performance aircraft training, SCUBA training, and spaceflight, are hypothesized to cause changes to the cardiovascular system. These changes, which include (but are not limited to) oxidative damage as a result of radiation exposure and circadian rhythm disturbance, increased arterial stiffness, and increased carotid-intima-media thickness (CIMT), may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent CVA. The purpose of this study was to review cases of CVA in the NASA astronaut corps and describe the comorbidities and occupational exposures associated with CVA.

  1. Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) in captive, group-housed, female chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Sherrie M; Preuss, Todd M; Sharma, Prachi; Anderson, Daniel C; Provenzale, James M; Strobert, Elizabeth; Ross, Stephen R; Stroud, Fawn C

    2012-08-01

    Over a 5-y period, 3 chimpanzees at our institution experienced cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). In light of the increasing population of aged captive chimpanzees and lack of literature documenting the prevalence and effectiveness of various treatments for stroke in chimpanzees, we performed a retrospective review of the medical records and necropsy reports from our institution. A survey was sent to other facilities housing chimpanzees that participate in the Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan to inquire about their experience with diagnosing and treating stroke. This case report describes the presentation, clinical signs, and diagnosis of stroke in 3 recent cases and in historical cases at our institution. Predisposing factors, diagnosis, and treatment options of cerebral vascular accident in the captive chimpanzee population are discussed also.

  2. 叶酸、维生素B12和B6联合使用对心脑血管病发生风险影响随机对照试验的Meta分析%Meta-analysis on effect of combined supplementation of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 on risk of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in randomized control trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰欣; 党少农; 赵亚玲; 颜虹; 严惠

    2016-01-01

    目的 评价联合补充叶酸、维生素B12和B6对心脑血管疾病发生风险的影响.方法 检索1980-2014年有关补充叶酸、维生素B12和B6与心脑血管疾病发生关系的随机对照试验文献,筛选符合条件的研究.研究指标包括心脑血管疾病事件、心肌梗死及中风,效应指标为反映发生风险的相对危险度(RR)及其95%CI.运用Meta分析方法进行效应综合,并做亚组分析和敏感性分析.采用Jadad评分对文献质量进行评价.结果 共纳入11项随机对照试验研究,包含26 395名研究对象.有8项研究综合显示3种B族维生素联合使用对心脑血管疾病事件的发生无显著影响(RR=1.00,95%CI:0.94~ 1.07);9项研究综合显示3种B族维生素联合使用对心肌梗死的发生无显著影响(RR=1.03,95%CI:0.94~ 1.13).9项研究综合显示3种B族维生素联合使用可使中风的发生风险降低14%(RR=0.86,95%CI:0.78 ~ 0.95).维生素B合剂组与对照组同型半胱氨酸水平比较,联合服用叶酸、维生素B12和B6能使同型半胱氨酸水平降低2.53 μtmol/L(95%CI:-3.93 ~-1.12);亚组分析显示,随访时间、维生素剂量、疾病史均对心脑血管疾病事件的研究结论无显著影响;而中风的亚组分析显示,随着随访时间延长,补充B族维生素能降低中风的发生风险,叶酸和维生素B12在小剂量下预防中风的作用更为显著,而维生素B6随着剂量的增加效果显著,有心脑血管病史者联合补充B族维生素降低中风风险的效果较好.结论 联合补充叶酸、维生素B12和B6对心脑血管疾病事件、心肌梗死的发生无显著影响,但可以降低中风发生的风险和同型半胱氨酸的水平.%Objective To evaluate the effect of the combined supplementation of folic acid,vitamin B12 and B6 on the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases.Methods The literatures of randomized control trials about the relationship between the combined supplementation

  3. Dopamine does not limit fetal cerebrovascular responses to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayock, Dennis E; Bennett, Rachel; Robinson, Roderick D; Gleason, Christine A

    2007-01-01

    Dopamine is used clinically to stabilize mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in sick infants. One goal of this therapeutic intervention is to maintain adequate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and perfusion pressure. High-dose intravenous dopamine has been previously demonstrated to increase cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) in near-term fetal sheep. We hypothesized that this vascular response might limit cerebral vasodilatation during acute isocapnic hypoxia. We studied nine near-term chronically catheterized unanesthetized fetal sheep. Using radiolabeled microspheres to measure fetal CBF, we calculated CVR at baseline, during fetal hypoxia, and then with the addition of an intravenous dopamine infusion at 2.5, 7.5, and 25 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) while hypoxia continued. During acute isocapnic fetal hypoxia, CBF increased 73.0 +/- 14.1% and CVR decreased 38.9 +/- 4.9% from baseline. Dopamine infusion at 2.5 and 7.5 microg.kg(-1).min(-1), begun during hypoxia, did not alter CVR or MAP, but MAP increased when dopamine infusion was increased to 25 microg.kg(-1).min(-1). Dopamine did not alter CBF or affect the CBF response to hypoxia at any dose. However, CVR increased at a dopamine infusion rate of 25 microg.kg(-1).min(-1). This increase in CVR at the highest dopamine infusion rate is likely an autoregulatory response to the increase in MAP, similar to our previous findings. Therefore, in chronically catheterized unanesthetized near-term fetal sheep, dopamine does not alter the expected cerebrovascular responses to hypoxia.

  4. Pharmacoepidemiological Study on Cerebrovascular Accident in Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathyusha GR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States (US and a leading cause of serious, long-term disability. Incidence of ischemic stroke is higher than hemorrhagic stroke. The aim is to conduct pharmacoepidemiology study on cerebrovascular accident patient by evaluating the use and the effects of drugs, and quantification of adverse drug reactions, drug utilization studies to improve the quality and use of medicines. A prospective observational study was conducted in department of general medicine and ICU at Mallareddy hospital, data was collected from 130 patients and it was proposed to be conducted for 6 months. Among 130 patients 78(60% are males and 52(40% are females. Among all age groups major number of CVA patients was seen in 60-69 years (30%. Among them 92% of strokes are Ischemic majorly seen in both males and females and8% strokes are hemorrhagic. Ischemic stroke (94.87% is majorly seen in 60-69 yr age group. Among various risk factors Hypertension (36.43% is the major risk factor found in males (60% and females (40%.Antiplatelet drugs (25.75% are the highest number of drugs given in patients 71.27% in males and 28.72% in females. Highest numbers of drugs are given in 50-59yrs age group and are antiplatelets. As a clinical pharmacist 16 adverse drug reactions and 25 drug interactions are reported. Proper patient counselling is needed to reduce hypertension and to reduce the risk for cerebrovascular accident. Among all antiplatelet drugs are majorly given in males and lipid lowering drugs in females.

  5. Human eye visual hyperacuity: Controlled diffraction for image resolution improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunas, A.; Domínguez, O.; Martinez-Conde, S.; Macknik, S. L.; Del-Río, C.

    2017-09-01

    The Human Visual System appears to be using a low number of sensors for image capturing, and furthermore, regarding the physical dimensions of cones—photoreceptors responsible for the sharp central vision—we may realize that these sensors are of a relatively small size and area. Nonetheless, the human eye is capable of resolving fine details thanks to visual hyperacuity and presents an impressive sensitivity and dynamic range when set against conventional digital cameras of similar characteristics. This article is based on the hypothesis that the human eye may be benefiting from diffraction to improve both image resolution and acquisition process. The developed method involves the introduction of a controlled diffraction pattern at an initial stage that enables the use of a limited number of sensors for capturing the image and makes possible a subsequent post-processing to improve the final image resolution.

  6. A control theory model for human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The optimal control model for pilot-vehicle systems has been extended to handle certain types of human decision tasks. The model for decision making incorporates the observation noise, optimal estimation, and prediction concepts that form the basis of the model for control behavior. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (1) single decision tasks; (2) two decision tasks; and (3) simultaneous manual control and decision tasks. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance scores to within an accuracy of 10 percent can be predicted. The experiment on simultaneous control and decision indicates the presence of task interference in this situation, but the results are not adequate to allow a conclusive test of the predictive capability of the model.

  7. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels and gene deficiency in Chinese patients with cardio-cerebrovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄一义; 汪俊军; 张宏娟; 李勇; 刘小传; 李露言; 陈光辉

    2002-01-01

    Objective To detect cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) levels, frequencies of CETP D442G and Ⅰ14A mutations and characteristics of abnormal lipids in patients with cardio-cerebro vascular diseases. Methods Ninety-four myocardial infarction (MI) patients,110 stroke patients and 335 healthy controls were selected. The CETP concentration was determined using ELISA. The CETP activity was measured using a substrate of 14 C-radiolabeled discoidal bilayer particles. The CETP gene mutations were detected by PCR-RFLP. Results The CETP concentrations in the MI and stroke group, were higher than those in the controls. The gene mutation frequencies of D442G in the MI, stroke and control group were 3.5%, 3.6% and 5%, respectively, and the frequencies of Ⅰ14A were 1.05%, 0.91% and 1%, respectively. One case of D442G homozygote was detected in the healthy group. The frequency of two CETP gene mutations showed no significant difference among the patients and controls. The CETP concentration and activity in subjects with CETP mutations were one-third of those in the control group. The level of HDL-C, apo-A1 increased in the mutation subjects, while the TG level decreased. Conclusions The CETP level increased significantly in patients with cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. The carriers of CETP deficiency had CETP and lipid abnormalities.

  8. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung...... function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions.......0007), “irritative body perceptions” (p = 0.0127), “psychological/neurological effects” (p = 0.0075) and “weak inflammatory responses” (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating...

  9. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Hag; Choi; Joonil; Lee; Catherine; Heyjung; Sonu

    2013-01-01

    Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who are in charge of internal controlrelated tasks(IC personnel) from 2005 to 2008. We find that the number of IC personnel within a firm and several key departments increase with firm size,number of employees, complexity and for Chaebols, and decrease in rapidly growing firms. Additional analysis reveals that the factors influencing internal control systems have an accentuated effect on firms with relatively larger firm size.

  10. Circulating vitamin D, calcium and risk of cerebrovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rajiv; Stevens, Sarah; Ward, Heather; Chowdhury, Susmita; Sajjad, Ayesha; Franco, Oscar H

    2012-08-01

    Available literature suggests that both vitamin D and calcium may be associated with a wide range of non-skeletal outcomes. However, epidemiological evidence supporting their individual associations with incident cerebrovascular disease is scarce. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, published before February 2012 and sought from MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and the Science Citation Index databases, and reported cerebrovascular disease (defined as any fatal or non-fatal ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack) by circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] as active metabolite) and calcium levels. Two independent investigators abstracted information on 25(OH)D and calcium, cerebrovascular outcomes and other characteristics from selected studies. Relative risks (RRs) were pooled by both random and fixed effects meta-analyses and were further examined under different study-level characteristics. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Egger's asymmetry test. From 5,778 initial references, nine unique prospective cohort studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies (involving 47,809 participants and 926 cerebrovascular events) focused on circulating 25(OH)D and 3 reported on circulating calcium (22,577 participants and 727 events). For 25(OH)D, in a comparison of individuals in the top third versus those in the bottom third at baseline, the combined RR for cerebrovascular disease, adjusted for several conventional risk factors, was 0.60 (95 % CI 0.48, 0.72). The corresponding RR in the prospective studies that reported on baseline circulating calcium levels for cerebrovascular disease was 1.40 (95 % CI 1.19, 1.64). There was no apparent evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias among included studies. Available data indicate that higher circulating level of vitamin D is associated with a decreased risk of cerebrovascular disease. Conversely

  11. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  12. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare.

  13. Human ECG signal parameters estimation during controlled physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Marcin; Surtel, Wojciech; Dzida, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    ECG signal parameters are commonly used indicators of human health condition. In most cases the patient should remain stationary during the examination to decrease the influence of muscle artifacts. During physical activity, the noise level increases significantly. The ECG signals were acquired during controlled physical activity on a stationary bicycle and during rest. Afterwards, the signals were processed using a method based on Pan-Tompkins algorithms to estimate their parameters and to test the method.

  14. Controlled English to facilitate human/machine analytical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braines, Dave; Mott, David; Laws, Simon; de Mel, Geeth; Pham, Tien

    2013-06-01

    Controlled English is a human-readable information representation format that is implemented using a restricted subset of the English language, but which is unambiguous and directly accessible by simple machine processes. We have been researching the capabilities of CE in a number of contexts, and exploring the degree to which a flexible and more human-friendly information representation format could aid the intelligence analyst in a multi-agent collaborative operational environment; especially in cases where the agents are a mixture of other human users and machine processes aimed at assisting the human users. CE itself is built upon a formal logic basis, but allows users to easily specify models for a domain of interest in a human-friendly language. In our research we have been developing an experimental component known as the "CE Store" in which CE information can be quickly and flexibly processed and shared between human and machine agents. The CE Store environment contains a number of specialized machine agents for common processing tasks and also supports execution of logical inference rules that can be defined in the same CE language. This paper outlines the basic architecture of this approach, discusses some of the example machine agents that have been developed, and provides some typical examples of the CE language and the way in which it has been used to support complex analytical tasks on synthetic data sources. We highlight the fusion of human and machine processing supported through the use of the CE language and CE Store environment, and show this environment with examples of highly dynamic extensions to the model(s) and integration between different user-defined models in a collaborative setting.

  15. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  16. Studies on the effect of administration of DDAVP in patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases from the viewpoint of blood coagulation-fibrinolysis in vessel walls

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Hiroyuki; Miyakawa, Teruo; Sakuragawa, Nobuo

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the pathogenesis of cerebral thrombosis and to estimate the effectiveness of fibrinolytic treatment by administration of urokinase from the viewpoint of coagulation-fibrinolysis in vessel walls, changes of blood coagulation were investigated by intravenous administration of 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) to 10 healthy volunteers and to 14 patients with cerebrovascular occlusive diseases. Results were as follows: 1) After the administration of DDAVP to normal controls, a...

  17. Risk of Cerebrovascular Events in Elderly Patients After Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery for Early-Stage Glottic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Julian C.; Kruser, Tim J. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Mohindra, Pranshu; Cannon, Donald M.; Harari, Paul M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bentzen, Søren M., E-mail: bentzen@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Comprehensive neck radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to increase cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk in advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer. We assessed whether more limited neck RT used for early-stage (T1-T2 N0) glottic cancer is associated with increased CVD risk, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: We identified patients ≥66 years of age with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer from SEER diagnosed from 1992 to 2007. Patients treated with combined surgery and RT were excluded. Medicare CPT codes for carotid interventions, Medicare ICD-9 codes for cerebrovascular events, and SEER data for stroke as the cause of death were collected. Similarly, Medicare CPT and ICD-9 codes for peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were assessed to serve as an internal control between treatment groups. Results: A total of 1413 assessable patients (RT, n=1055; surgery, n=358) were analyzed. The actuarial 10-year risk of CVD was 56.5% (95% confidence interval 51.5%-61.5%) for the RT cohort versus 48.7% (41.1%-56.3%) in the surgery cohort (P=.27). The actuarial 10-year risk of PVD did not differ between the RT (52.7% [48.1%-57.3%]) and surgery cohorts (52.6% [45.2%-60.0%]) (P=.89). Univariate analysis showed an increased association of CVD with more recent diagnosis (P=.001) and increasing age (P=.001). On multivariate Cox analysis, increasing age (P<.001) and recent diagnosis (P=.002) remained significantly associated with a higher CVD risk, whereas the association of RT and CVD remained not statistically significant (HR=1.11 [0.91-1.37,] P=.31). Conclusions: Elderly patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer have a high burden of cerebrovascular events after surgical management or RT. RT and surgery are associated with comparable risk for subsequent CVD development after treatment in elderly patients.

  18. The national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in Spain: a population-based study using disability-adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Díaz-Guzmán, Jaime; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard

    2015-04-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the national burden of cerebrovascular diseases in the adult population of Spain. Cross-sectional, descriptive population-based study. We calculated the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) metric using country-specific data from national statistics and epidemiological studies to obtain representative outcomes for the Spanish population. DALYs were divided into years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were estimated for the year 2008 by applying demographic structure by sex and age-groups, cause-specific mortality, morbidity data and new disability weights proposed in the recent Global Burden of Disease study. In the base case, neither YLLs nor YLDs were discounted or age-weighted. Uncertainty around DALYs was tested using sensitivity analyses. In Spain, cerebrovascular diseases generated 418,052 DALYs, comprising 337,000 (80.6%) YLLs and 81,052 (19.4%) YLDs. This accounts for 1,113 DALYs per 100,000 population (men: 1,197 and women: 1,033) and 3,912 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (men: 4,427 and women: 2,033). Depending on the standard life table and choice of social values used for calculation, total DALYs varied by 15.3% and 59.9% below the main estimate. Estimates provided here represent a comprehensive analysis of the burden of cerebrovascular diseases at a national level. Prevention and control programmes aimed at reducing the disease burden merit further priority in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between fear of falling and human postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Justin R; Campbell, Adam D; Adkin, Allan L; Carpenter, Mark G

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to improve the understanding of how standing at elevated surface heights and the associated changes in the visual field affect human balance control. Healthy young adults stood at four different surface heights (ground, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 m) under three different visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed and eyes open with peripheral vision occluded). Mean position, Mean Power Frequency (MPF) and Root Mean Square (RMS) of centre of pressure (COP) displacements were calculated from 60s standing trials, and psychosocial and physiological measures of fear and anxiety were also collected. When standing at a height of 3.2 m, 10 of 36 participants reported an increase in anxiety and a robust fear response while the remaining 26 participants experienced only an increase in anxiety and no fear response. A between subjects analysis of the effect of surface height on postural control revealed that fearful and non-fearful participants adopted different postural control strategies with increased heights. Non-fearful participants demonstrated a postural response characterized by increased MPF and decreased RMS of COP displacements with increasing heights. In contrast, fearful participants demonstrated both increasing MPF and RMS of COP displacements with increasing heights. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, a direct relationship between fear of falling and the strategies used for human postural control.

  20. Human regulatory B cells control the TFH cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Achouak; Simon, Quentin; Mohr, Audrey; Séité, Jean-François; Youinou, Pierre; Bendaoud, Boutahar; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Follicular helper T (TFH) cells support terminal B-cell differentiation. Human regulatory B (Breg) cells modulate cellular responses, but their control of TFH cell-dependent humoral immune responses is unknown. We sought to assess the role of Breg cells on TFH cell development and function. Human T cells were polyclonally stimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IL-21 to generate TFH cells. They were cocultured with B cells to induce their terminal differentiation. Breg cells were included in these cultures, and their effects were evaluated by using flow cytometry and ELISA. B-cell lymphoma 6, IL-21, inducible costimulator, CXCR5, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions increased on stimulated human T cells, characterizing TFH cell maturation. In cocultures they differentiated B cells into CD138(+) plasma and IgD(-)CD27(+) memory cells and triggered immunoglobulin secretions. Breg cells obtained by Toll-like receptor 9 and CD40 activation of B cells prevented TFH cell development. Added to TFH cell and B-cell cocultures, they inhibited B-cell differentiation, impeded immunoglobulin secretions, and expanded Foxp3(+)CXCR5(+)PD-1(+) follicular regulatory T cells. Breg cells modulated IL-21 receptor expressions on TFH cells and B cells, and their suppressive activities involved CD40, CD80, CD86, and intercellular adhesion molecule interactions and required production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Human Breg cells control TFH cell maturation, expand follicular regulatory T cells, and inhibit the TFH cell-mediated antibody secretion. These novel observations demonstrate a role for the Breg cell in germinal center reactions and suggest that deficient activities might impair the TFH cell-dependent control of humoral immunity and might lead to the development of aberrant autoimmune responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizing the human postural control system using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Blázquez, M.; Anguiano, Marta; de Saavedra, Fernando Arias; Lallena, Antonio M.; Carpena, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the behaviour of the time series of the position of the center of pressure, output from the activity of a human postural control system. The results suggest that these trajectories present a crossover in their scaling properties from persistent (for high frequencies, short-range time scale) to anti-persistent (for low frequencies, long-range time scale) behaviours. The values of the scaling exponent found for the persistent parts of the trajectories are very similar for all the cases analysed. The similarity of the results obtained for the measurements done with both eyes open and both eyes closed indicate either that the visual system may be disregarded by the postural control system, while maintaining quiet standing, or that the control mechanisms associated with each type of information (visual, vestibular and somatosensory) cannot be disentangled with this technique.

  2. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  3. [Technical guideline for human rabies prevention and control (2016)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Li, Y; Chen, R F; Tao, X Y; Yu, P C; Cao, S C; Li, L; Chen, Z H; Zhu, W Y; Yin, W W; Li, Y H; Wang, C L; Yu, H J

    2016-02-01

    In order to promote the prevention and control programs on rabies in our country, to regulate the prevention and disposition of rabies and to reduce the deaths caused by rabies, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has organized a panel of experts, in the reference with Guidelines issued by WHO, American Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and the latest research progress from home and abroad, and compiled this document-"Technical Guidelines for Human Rabies Prevention and Control (2016)". The Guidelines conducted a systematic review on the etiology, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology of rabies and provided evidence on varieties, mechanisms, effects, side-effects and security of rabies vaccine, as well as on other preparations on passive immunity of its kind, on methods related to prevention and disposition of exposure etc, finally to have come up with the recommendation on the above mentioned various techniques. The guidelines will be used by staff working on prevention and control of rabies from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels, from the departments of outpatient and divisions of infection and emergency control in all the medical institutions. The guideline will be updated and revised, following the research progress from home and abroad.

  4. Hibernation Control Mechanism and Possible Applications to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.

    Mammalian hibernation, characterized by the ability to survive temporarily at low body temperatures close to 0oC, has been reported to increase resistance to various lethal events such as low body temperature, severe ischemia, bacterial infection and irradiation, and to prolong the life span. The application of this physiological phenomenon to space life has been dreamed of. However, realization of this dream has been prevented by a poor understanding of the control mechanisms of hibernation. Recent findings of a novel and unique protein complex (HP) in the blood of chipmunks, a rodent hibernator, which is controlled by the endogenous circannual rhythm of hibernation, allowed new developments in understanding the molecular mechanism of hibernation and its physiological significance. From these studies, two hormones regulated by the brain were identified as promising candidate molecules controlling HP production in the liver, assuming that hibernation is controlled via the neuroendocrine system and regulated by the endogenous circannual rhythm in the brain. A circannual HP rhythm was observed in chipmunks maintaining euthermia under conditions of constant warmth, suggesting that the physiological control of hibernation progresses without a lowering of body temperature. Furthermore, the study of HP rhythm on longevity revealed that a circannual rhythm plays an essential role in the much longer life span of hibernators. The present progress in hibernation research may open a new pathway for manipulating a circannual rhythm controlling hibernation in humans. In the future, this will make it feasible to take advantage of hibernation in space life.

  5. Asymptomatic cerebrovascular lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus lacking a history of neuropsychiatric events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Kumiko; Yamano, Shigeru; Ikeda, Yukiko [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)] (and others)

    1999-10-01

    To clarify the extent of asymptomatic cerebrovascular involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and ultrasonography findings of 100 patients with SLE lacking present or past clinical neurologic deficits were compared with 66 age-matched volunteers to determine the combined intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery, and tests for anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL). Thirty-eight patients, but only 2 controls, showed imaging abnormalities. Among 23 SLE patients with cerebrovascular lesions by MRI who underwent single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), 14 showed hypoperfusion of the lesion. The IMT value and prevalence of aCL did not differ between the 55 SLE patients tested and controls. SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) as assessed by a quantitative clinical index was significantly greater in patients with brain lesions than in those without. The prevalence of asymptomatic brain lesions in SLE patients is high, and shows a relationship to disease activity. (author)

  6. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  7. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  8. Clinical study of model-based blood flow quantification on cerebrovascular data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groth, A.; Wächter-Stehle, I.; Brina, O.; Perren. F.; Rüfenacht, D.; Bruijns, T.; Bertram, M.; Weese, J.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment decisions of cerebrovascular diseases are currently based on structural information like the endovascular lumen. In future, clinical diagnosis will increasingly be based on functional information which gives direct information about the physiological parameters and, hence, is

  9. Mapping white matter diffusion and cerebrovascular reactivity in carotid occlusive disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conklin, J.; Fierstra, J.; Crawley, A. P.; Han, J. S.; Poublanc, J.; Silver, F. L.; Tymianski, M.; Fisher, J. A.; Mandell, D. M.; Mikulis, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the relationship between cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and white matter (WM) diffusion in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. Methods: In this exploratory observational study, 41 patients with severe stenosis or occlusion of the extracranial I

  10. A cohort study on the relationship between cerebrovascular hemodynamic changing and risk of strok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭吉平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the role of cerebrovascular hemodynamic indexes(CVHI)changing in stroke and to provide reference for stroke prevention and risk factor study.Methods From 2003 to 2004,participants aged 40 years

  11. Normal aging and cognition: the unacknowledged contribution of cerebrovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, L; Zade, D; McGlinchey, R E; Milberg, W P

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that cognitive decline is an inherent part of the normal aging process, research suggests that part of the variance in age-related cognitive decline is attributable to modifiable factors common in geriatric populations such as cerebrovascular risk factors. We completed a literature search using Science Citation Index and evaluated the most cited articles from the last 10 years to determine the extent to which investigations of normal aging and cognition account for the influence of cerebrovascular risk factors. We found that the majority of the most frequently cited literature does not adequately account for the contribution of cerebrovascular risk factors and therefore, it is possible that many conclusions about normal aging and cognition are flawed or incomplete. Further investigation of the role of cerebrovascular risk factors in age-related cognitive decline is imperative to more accurately understand the effect of aging on cognition.

  12. Mapping white matter diffusion and cerebrovascular reactivity in carotid occlusive disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conklin, J.; Fierstra, J.; Crawley, A. P.; Han, J. S.; Poublanc, J.; Silver, F. L.; Tymianski, M.; Fisher, J. A.; Mandell, D. M.; Mikulis, D. J.

    Objective: To characterize the relationship between cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and white matter (WM) diffusion in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. Methods: In this exploratory observational study, 41 patients with severe stenosis or occlusion of the extracranial

  13. Mapping white matter diffusion and cerebrovascular reactivity in carotid occlusive disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conklin, J.; Fierstra, J.; Crawley, A. P.; Han, J. S.; Poublanc, J.; Silver, F. L.; Tymianski, M.; Fisher, J. A.; Mandell, D. M.; Mikulis, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the relationship between cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and white matter (WM) diffusion in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. Methods: In this exploratory observational study, 41 patients with severe stenosis or occlusion of the extracranial I

  14. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review...... was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using...... the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate...

  15. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cerebrovascular Disease Treatment Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento de la enfermedad cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pérez Ramos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cerebrovascular Disease Treatment. Even when this term makes reference to the whole process affecting part of cerebral vessel system and cerebral tissue, this document focuses on the cerebrovascular or acute neurological event abruptly affecting the cerebral tissue and the neurological condition of the patient. This condition is usually cause by an abrupt vessel occlusion, of thrombotic or embolic origin, or by subarachnoid or intraventricular intraparenchymatous hemorrhage, of aneurism origin, related with hypertension or with a tumour or arteriovenous defects. The main concepts, classification and conduct are reviewed, stressing the cerebrovascular accident. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.Guía de práctica clínica para el tratamiento del paciente con enfermedad cerebrovascular. Aunque el término se refiere a todo el proceso que afecta a parte de la vasculatura cerebral y al tejido cerebral que irriga, el documento se centraliza en el accidente cerebrovascular o evento neurológico agudo que afecta en forma súbita al tejido cerebral y compromete el estado neurológico del paciente, causado por una oclusión súbita de un vaso, de origen trombótico o embólico (isquémico o por una hemorragia intraparenquimatosa, subaracnoidea o intraventricular, de origen aneurismático, hipertensivo o secundario a un tumor o malformación arteriovenosa (hemorrágico. Se revisan los conceptos, clasificación y conducta con énfasis en el tratamiento de accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. Concluye con su guía de evaluación, enfocada en los aspectos más importantes a cumplir.

  16. Genetic control of human brain transcript expression in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennifer A; Gibbs, J Raphael; Clarke, Jennifer; Ray, Monika; Zhang, Weixiong; Holmans, Peter; Rohrer, Kristen; Zhao, Alice; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; McCorquodale, Donald S; Cuello, Cindy; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Nath, Priti; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta; Huentelman, Matthew J; Hu-Lince, Diane; Coon, Keith D; Craig, David W; Pearson, John V; Heward, Christopher B; Reiman, Eric M; Stephan, Dietrich; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda J

    2009-04-01

    We recently surveyed the relationship between the human brain transcriptome and genome in a series of neuropathologically normal postmortem samples. We have now analyzed additional samples with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD; final n = 188 controls, 176 cases). Nine percent of the cortical transcripts that we analyzed had expression profiles correlated with their genotypes in the combined cohort, and approximately 5% of transcripts had SNP-transcript relationships that could distinguish LOAD samples. Two of these transcripts have been previously implicated in LOAD candidate-gene SNP-expression screens. This study shows how the relationship between common inherited genetic variants and brain transcript expression can be used in the study of human brain disorders. We suggest that studying the transcriptome as a quantitative endo-phenotype has greater power for discovering risk SNPs influencing expression than the use of discrete diagnostic categories such as presence or absence of disease.

  17. Significance of Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Cerebrovascular Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumnima Acharya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA is defined as abrupt onset of a neurological deficit that is attributable to a focal vascular cause. CT scan is a widely available, affordable, non-invasive and relatively accurate investigation in patients with stroke and is important to identify stroke pathology and exclude mimics. Aim of this study is to establish the diagnostic significance of computed tomography in cerebrovascular accident and to differentiate between cerebral infarction and cerebral haemorrhage with CT for better management of CVA. Methods: A one year observational cross sectional study was conducted in 100 patients that presented at the department of radiodiagnosis from emergency or ward within the one year of study period with the clinical diagnosis of stroke, and had a brain CT scan done within one to fourteen days of onset. Results: A total of 100 patients were studied. 66 were male and 34 were female with a male/female ratio of 1.9:1. Maximum number of cases (39% was in the age group of 61-80 yrs. Among 100 patients, 55 cases were clinically diagnosed as hemorrhagic stroke and 45 cases were clinically diagnosed with an infarct. Out of the 55 hemorrhagic cases, two cases were diagnosed as both hemorrhage and infarct by CT scan, one case had normal CT scan findings and one had subdural haemorrhage. These four cases were excluded while comparing the clinical diagnosis with CT scan finding. Among 51 clinically diagnosed cases of hemorrhagic stroke, 32(62.7% cases were proved by CT scan as hemorrhagic stroke and among clinically diagnosed cases of infarct, 39(86.7% cases were proved by CT scan as infarct which is statistically significant (p <0.001. A significant agreement between clinical and CT diagnosis was observed as indicated by kappa value of 0.49. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of clinical findings as compared to CT in diagnosing hemorrhage were 84.2%, 67.2%, 62.8% and 86

  18. Patterns in neurosurgical adverse events: open cerebrovascular neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Judith M; Ziewacz, John E; Ho, Allen L; Panchmatia, Jaykar R; Kim, Albert H; Bader, Angela M; Thompson, B Gregory; Du, Rose; Gawande, Atul A

    2012-11-01

    As part of a project to devise evidence-based safety interventions for specialty surgery, we sought to review current evidence concerning the frequency of adverse events in open cerebrovascular neurosurgery and the state of knowledge regarding methods for their reduction. This review represents part of a series of papers written to consolidate information about these events and preventive measures as part of an ongoing effort to ascertain the utility of devising system-wide policies and safety tools to improve neurosurgical practice. The authors performed a PubMed search using search terms "cerebral aneurysm", "cerebral arteriovenous malformation", "intracerebral hemorrhage", "intracranial hemorrhage", "subarachnoid hemorrhage", and "complications" or "adverse events." Only papers that specifically discussed the relevant complication rates were included. Papers were chosen to be included to maximize the range of rates of occurrence for the reported adverse events. The review revealed hemorrhage-related hyperglycemia (incidence rates ranging from 27% to 71%) and cerebral salt-wasting syndromes (34%-57%) to be the most common perioperative adverse events related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Next in terms of frequency was new cerebral infarction associated with SAH, with a rate estimated at 40%. Many techniques are advocated for use during surgery to minimize risk of this development, including intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, but are not universally used due to surgeon preference and variable availability of appropriate staffing and equipment. The comparative effectiveness of using or omitting monitoring technologies has not been evaluated. The incidence of perioperative seizure related to vascular neurosurgery is unknown, but reported seizure rates from observational studies range from 4% to 42%. There are no standard guidelines for the use of seizure prophylaxis in these patients, and there remains a need for prospective studies to support such

  19. Human intestinal dendritic cells as controllers of mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are the most potent, professional antigen-presenting cells in the body; following antigen presentation they control the type (proinflammatory/regulatory of immune response that will take place, as well as its location. Given their high plasticity and maturation ability in response to local danger signals derived from innate immunity, dendritic cells are key actors in the connection between innate immunity and adaptive immunity responses. In the gut dendritic cells control immune tolerance mechanisms against food and/or commensal flora antigens, and are also capable of initiating an active immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. Dendritic cells are thus highly efficient in controlling the delicate balance between tolerance and immunity in an environment so rich in antigens as the gut, and any factor involving these cells may impact their function, ultimately leading to the development of bowel conditions such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we shall summarize our understanding of human intestinal dendritic cells, their ability to express and induce migration markers, the various environmental factors modulating their properties, their subsets in the gut, and the problems entailed by their study, including identification strategies, differences between humans and murine models, and phenotypical variations along the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Cerebrovascular disease in childhood: neuropsychological investigation of 14 cases Doença cerebrovascular na infância: investigação neuropsicológica em 14 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Elcione Guimarães

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about the development of a child after a cerebrovascular accident (CVA, and they usually describe problems such as diminishing in intellectual capacities, difficulties in linguistic and visual-motor skills, as well as in spatial organization and integration. In this study, there were 28 children participating, being 14 placed in the experimental group (EG after clinical diagnosis and ischemic CVA imaging, and other 14 children without past history of CVA, who formed the control group (CG. The neuropsychological research protocol included an intelligence test, a visual-motor coordination test, human figure drawing, a cortical functions battery and the medical records of the children from the EG. The analysis of the results of this study revealed that the best performances after the CVA are related to the shortest time of functional recovery; CG presented better performances than EG in all the instruments used, in cognitive, perceptual and motor skills. It has been noticed that CVA may lead to intellectual reduction in case of a recurrence of the vascular insult.Nos poucos estudos acerca do desenvolvimento da criança após o acidente vascular cerebral (AVC são descritos problemas como rebaixamento intelectual, dificuldades na capacidade lingüística, viso-motora, na organização e integração espacial. Neste estudo fizeram parte 28 crianças, sendo 14 pertencentes ao grupo experimental (GE com diagnóstico clínico e de imagem de AVC isquêmico. Outras 14 crianças sem história de AVC que formaram o grupo controle (GC. O protocolo de investigação neuropsicológica constou de teste de inteligência, teste de coordenação viso-motor, desenho da figura humana, bateria de funções corticais e prontuário médico das crianças do GE. A análise dos resultados deste estudo mostrou que os melhores desempenhos após o AVC, estão relacionados ao menor tempo de recuperação funcional; houve desempenho superior do GC sobre o

  1. Human movement data for malaria control and elimination strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindolia, Deepa K; Garcia, Andres J; Wesolowski, Amy; Smith, David L; Buckee, Caroline O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-06-18

    Recent increases in funding for malaria control have led to the reduction in transmission in many malaria endemic countries, prompting the national control programmes of 36 malaria endemic countries to set elimination targets. Accounting for human population movement (HPM) in planning for control, elimination and post-elimination surveillance is important, as evidenced by previous elimination attempts that were undermined by the reintroduction of malaria through HPM. Strategic control and elimination planning, therefore, requires quantitative information on HPM patterns and the translation of these into parasite dispersion. HPM patterns and the risk of malaria vary substantially across spatial and temporal scales, demographic and socioeconomic sub-groups, and motivation for travel, so multiple data sets are likely required for quantification of movement. While existing studies based on mobile phone call record data combined with malaria transmission maps have begun to address within-country HPM patterns, other aspects remain poorly quantified despite their importance in accurately gauging malaria movement patterns and building control and detection strategies, such as cross-border HPM, demographic and socioeconomic stratification of HPM patterns, forms of transport, personal malaria protection and other factors that modify malaria risk. A wealth of data exist to aid filling these gaps, which, when combined with spatial data on transport infrastructure, traffic and malaria transmission, can answer relevant questions to guide strategic planning. This review aims to (i) discuss relevant types of HPM across spatial and temporal scales, (ii) document where datasets exist to quantify HPM, (iii) highlight where data gaps remain and (iv) briefly put forward methods for integrating these datasets in a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework for analysing and modelling human population and Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection movements.

  2. Human and environmental controls over aboveground carbon storage in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asner Gregory P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate, high-resolution mapping of aboveground carbon density (ACD, Mg C ha-1 could provide insight into human and environmental controls over ecosystem state and functioning, and could support conservation and climate policy development. However, mapping ACD has proven challenging, particularly in spatially complex regions harboring a mosaic of land use activities, or in remote montane areas that are difficult to access and poorly understood ecologically. Using a combination of field measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and satellite data, we present the first large-scale, high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar. Results We found that elevation and the fraction of photosynthetic vegetation (PV cover, analyzed throughout forests of widely varying structure and condition, account for 27-67% of the spatial variation in ACD. This finding facilitated spatial extrapolation of LiDAR-based carbon estimates to a total of 2,372,680 ha using satellite data. Remote, humid sub-montane forests harbored the highest carbon densities, while ACD was suppressed in dry spiny forests and in montane humid ecosystems, as well as in most lowland areas with heightened human activity. Independent of human activity, aboveground carbon stocks were subject to strong physiographic controls expressed through variation in tropical forest canopy structure measured using airborne LiDAR. Conclusions High-resolution mapping of carbon stocks is possible in remote regions, with or without human activity, and thus carbon monitoring can be brought to highly endangered Malagasy forests as a climate-change mitigation and biological conservation strategy.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Management of Cerebrovascular Disease to Prevent Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Thulborn, Keith R.

    2008-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is a heterogeneous disease that may require objective criteria for developing optimal recurrent stroke prevention strategies. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and angiography together with MR perfusion and functional MR imaging provide sufficient parameters to tailor medical and surgical interventions for each patient and to monitor disease compensation or progression. These MR imaging procedures are demonstrated by clinical cases of advanced cerebrovascular pathology i...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Management of Cerebrovascular Disease to Prevent Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulborn, Keith R.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Cerebrovascular disease is a heterogeneous disease that may require objective criteria for developing optimal recurrent stroke prevention strategies. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and angiography together with MR perfusion and functional MR imaging provide sufficient parameters to tailor medical and surgical interventions for each patient and to monitor disease compensation or progression. These MR imaging procedures are demonstrated by clinical cases of advanced cerebrovascular pathology in which treatment varied from medical management to surgical intervention. PMID:19026896

  5. Clinical Observation on Acupuncture Treatment of Cerebrovascular Dementia- A Report of 32 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Cerebrovascular dementia is a common disease in the middle-aged and old people. Its incidence makes up about 10-20% of all kinds of dementia. It is mainly caused by general degeneration of the brain function resulted from cerebral arteriosclerosis and cerebral infarction. The author has treated 32 cases of cerebrovascular dementia with acupuncture in the recent years with satisfactory therapeutic results. A report follows.

  6. Revisión actualizada sobre enfermedad cerebrovascular: estudio de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Bardají Fandos, Teodosia

    2003-01-01

    La enfermedad cerebrovascular (ECV), también denominada accidente cerebrovascular (ACV)o ictus, representa el 90% de las enfermedades neurológicas y constituye la tercera causa de muerte en la mayoría de los países desarrollados; en España representa la primera causa de muerte en mujeres de 75 años o más de edad.

  7. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: Implementation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin `Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature ( t eq) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t eq from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t eq. The results showed that the t eq values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  8. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature (t(eq)) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t(eq) from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t(eq). The results showed that the t(eq) values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  9. Industrial accident compensation insurance benefits on cerebrovascular and heart disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Su; Choi, Jae Wook; Chang, Soung Hoon; Lee, Kun Sei

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the importance of work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease from the viewpoint of expenses. Using the insurance benefit paid for the 4,300 cases, this study estimated the burden of insurance benefits spent on work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease. The number of cases with work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease per 100,000 insured workers were 3.36 in 1995; they were increased to 13.16 in 2000. By the days of occurrence, the estimated number of cases were 1,336 in 2001 (95% CI: 1,211-1,460 cases) and 1,769 in 2005 (CI: 1,610-1,931 cases). The estimated average insurance benefits paid per person with work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease was 75-19 million won for medical care benefit and 56 million won for other benefits except medical care. By considering the increase in insurance payment and average pay, the predicted insurance benefits for work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease was 107.9 billion won for the 2001 cohort and 192.4 billion won for the 2005 cohort. From an economic perspective, the results will be used as important evidence for the prevention and management of work-related cerebrovascular and heart disease.

  10. Care for patients with cerebrovascular disease in a general hospital. 2 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Omar Rojas Fuentes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The care of patients with cerebrovascular disease requires an organized system from pre-hospital care until discharge of the patient, to ensure the continuity of rehabilitation. In order to provide differentiated services to patients with this condition was created in the General Hospital Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "a specialized room for attention to these diseases and the rehabilitation of patients. Objective: To determine the benefits obtained with differentiated services to patients with cerebrovascular disease in a general hospital. Methods: Descriptive case series that included 1038 patients admitted to the specialized chamber for cerebrovascular disease. We analyzed the following variables: stay, type of cerebrovascular disease, clinical classification, the Barthel index and discharge status. Results: 972 patients suffered from cerebrovascular disease, hospital stay was reduced by two days, the attention of specialized equipment increased from 51.75% to 79.2% patients were discharged with a mild degree of functional dependence. Conclusions: The differentiated services to cerebrovascular disease in general hospitals shows benefits for patients.

  11. Uric acid levels and their relation to incapacities in acute cerebrovascular disease

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    Julio López Argüelles

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: cerebrovascular disease and ischemic cardiopathy can be considered as an epidemic and constitute the first cause of incapacities in developed countries. Multiple studies have shown the association between uric acid levels and cerebrovascular diseases. Objective: To correlate the levels of serum uric acid and incapacities in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease. Methods: A correlational study was carried out with 217 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease. The patient’s incapacity level was measured by using the Barthel Index and those results were related with the serum uric acid levels and other variables. Results: Male patients have higher levels of uric acid (p=0, 04; r=0, 13. Age and Barthel index were p < 0,001; r = -0, 30 and uric acid levels and Barthel Index were p=0, 03; r=-0, 14. The principal predicting factors of incapacity in the acute phase of cerebrovascular disease were the high levels of uric acid, age and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: It is shown that the highest is the level of uric acid at advanced age; the greatest is the risk of suffering from incapacity in acute phases of cerebrovascular diseases.

  12. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, P<=0.01 for all the balance features. For the youth, the balance state of females was better than that of the males. But this sexual difference disappeared for the middle-aged and elderly group. Second, a double-blind randomized trial was carried out to study the influences of Shengyi capsule, a Chinese medicine health food with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid, on the balance features. The subjects were middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history. Shengyi capsule was taken by the trial group while Xuezhikang capsule (with lovastatin as the main effective component) by the control group for 108 days. The balance features of ITI showed that Shengyi was significantly better than Xuezhikang in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation (including the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance). The relative efficacy rate was 81.0% for the trial group and 33.3% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). Shengyi could effectively decrease the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but the effect of Xuezhikang in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was better than Shengyi. Though the lipid-lowering effect of Shengyi was not as good as Xuezhikang, ITI reflected the obvious advantage of Shengyi in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation which

  13. Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Esther; Roth, Felix; Bonfoh, Bassirou; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Although industrialized countries have been able to contain recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, many resource-limited and transitioning countries have not been able to react adequately. The key for controlling zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is to focus on the animal reservoir. In this respect, ministries of health question whether the public health sector really benefits from interventions for livestock. Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective. Combining the total societal benefits, the intervention in the animal sector saves money and provides the economic argument, which opens new approaches for the control of zoonoses in resource-limited countries through contributions from multiple sectors. PMID:17553265

  14. Magnetization transfer MR of cerebrovascular disorders using calculated images

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    Enomoto, Kyoko; Watabe, Tsuneya; Amanuma, Makoto; Heshiki, Atsuko [Saitama Medical School, Moroyama, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    This study applied a magnetization transfer contrast method to patients with cerebrovascular disorders. A 1.5 T superconducting MR unit was used, and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) images were calculated by evaluating two paired images before and after off-resonance gradient echo pulse sequences. The normal white matter showed the highest MTRs, CSF the lowest, and gray matter, intermediate. Cerebral ischemic patients showed two patterns according to the chronological stage of the affected area. Lesions in the acute and subacute stages revealed higher transfer rates than those in the chronic stage. Patients with cerebral hemorrhage were divided into three groups: the hyperacute group showed a low transfer pattern; the acute group presented inhomogeneous high transfer rates; and the subacute group showed remarkably low transfer rates. In the acute and subacute ischemic stages, increased macromolecules caused higher MTRs than in the chronic stage. In hemorrhagic groups, low MTRs in subacute hemorrhage reflected the transfer of methemoglobin. High MTRs in acute hemorrhage with rich deoxyhemoglobin suggested increased fibrin, plasma, and serum components of macromolecules. The MTC method provided new chronological information on cerebral hemorrhage, adding to that provided by routine MR images. (author)

  15. Cerebrovascular diseases and depression: epidemiology, mechanisms and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göthe, F; Enache, D; Wahlund, L O; Winblad, B; Crisby, M; Lökk, J; Aarsland, D

    2012-09-01

    Both cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and depression are common conditions in the elderly, and there is emerging evidence of a bi-directional relationship: 1) depression can cause CVD and stroke, transient ischemic attack; and 2) subcortical CVD are associated with increased risk for depression. The frequency of poststroke depression is highest during the first month after the stroke, but remains high even after several years. Depression is associated with poorer functional prognosis and higher mortality after stroke. There is good evidence that severity of functional impairment, high neuroticism, low social support as well as genetic factors are associated with an increased risk for post-stroke depression. Deep white matter lesions are the most consistent imaging correlate of depression. Potential mechanisms mediating the association between depression and CVD are neuroinflammation and HPA-axis activation, fronto-subcortical circuit lesions, and serotonergic dysfunction. Antidepressants have demonstrated effect on poststroke depression in meta-analyses, and such drugs as well as vitamin B can reduce the incidence of depression in stroke survivors. In addition, serotonergic drugs may strengthen poststroke motor and cognitive recovery, potentially through restorative mechanisms. Psychotherapeutic strategies such as problem-solving therapy seem to be effective. There is emerging evidence that treatment of cardiovascular disease and risk-factors can reduce the risk for late-life depression, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  16. Calidad de vida de cuidadores de adultos con accidente cerebrovascular

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    INNA ELIDA FLÓREZ TORRES

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la calidad de vida de los cuidadores familiares de adultos con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular, en Cartagena, Colombia. Método: estudio descriptivo cuantitativo realizado durante el segundo semestre de 2008. Muestra no probabilística por conveniencia de 97 cuidadores. Se empleó el instrumento propuesto por Ferrell et ál. Para valorar cada uno de los bienestares que integran la calidad de vida se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y coeficiente de variación. Resultados: el grupo de cuidadores presentó en el bienestar físico un promedio de 11,1 con relación al máximo puntaje, lo que indica el peor estado de salud; los bienestares psicológico y social tuvieron promedios de 48,8 y 21,9, respectivamente, con menor afectación. El mejor estado se halló en el bienestar espiritual, con promedio de 22,6. Conclusiones: la experiencia de ser cuidador modifica de manera importante la calidad de vida de las personas; los cuidadores, como fuente importante de cuidado informal, requieren apoyo de los sistemas de salud y, como parte de este, de los profesionales de enfermería.

  17. Cerebrovascular complications in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Montalembert, M; Wang, W

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents were until recently responsible for much mortality and morbidity in children with sickle cell disease; the likelihood of a child with HbSS having a stroke was 11% before age 20 years, with a peak incidence of ischemic stroke between 2 and 5 years of age, and of hemorrhagic strokes between 20 and 29 years of age. Vessels occlusion is likely initiated by intimal proliferation and amplified by inflammation, excessive adhesion of cells to activated endothelium, hypercoagulable state, and vascular tone dysregulation. Silent infarcts may occur and are associated with decreased cognitive functions. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) was more recently demonstrated able to achieve early detection of the children at high risk for clinical strokes. A randomized study demonstrated that a first stroke may be prevented by monthly transfusion in children with abnormal TCD, leading to a recommendation for annual TCD screening of children aged between 2 and 16 years and monthly transfusion for those with abnormal results. In children who have had a first stroke, the risk of recurrence is more than 50% and is greatly reduced by chronic transfusion, although not completely abolished. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is indicated in children with cerebral vasculopathy who have an HLA-identical sibling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis expert system for cerebrovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Zhijun; Sy, Chrisopher; Liu, Xiaokun; Qian, Jinwu; Zheng, Jia; Dong, Zhiqiang; Cao, Limei; Geng, Xiang; Xu, Shuye; Liu, Xueyuan

    2014-05-01

    To establish an expert diagnosis system for cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs) and assess accuracy of the diagnosis system. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and evaluated using actual clinical cases. An expert diagnosis system for CVDs was established and tested in 319 clinical patients. Diagnosis accordance was obtained in 307 patients (the diagnosis accordance rate was 96.2%). Involved were 223, 7, 23, 54 and 12 patients with cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism, transient ischemic attack, cerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively; and diagnosis accordance was obtained in 219 (98.2%), 6 (85.7%), 23 (100%), 48 (88.9%) and 11 (91.7%), respectively. Overall, the case analysis results support and demonstrate the diagnostic reasoning accuracy of the expert diagnosis system for CVDs. With the expert diagnosis system, medical experts' diagnosis of CVDs can be effectively mimicked and auxiliary diagnosis of CVDs has been preliminarily realized, laying a foundation for increasing the diagnostic accuracy of clinical diagnoses as it pertains to CVDs.

  19. Computed tomographic evaluation in 8 patient of cerebrovascular moyamoya disease

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    Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Jung Suk; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Soon Yong [School of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    CT findings in eight cerebrovascular moyamoya disease were compared with carotid angiographic findings and the results were as follows: 1. The patient's age was ranged from 2 to 49 years. Of eight patients, five were less than 17 years old and the rests were two 23 years and one 49 years of age. 2. Except one 6 years old boy, all of them were female patients. 3. In precontrast CT scan of 8 cases, 6 cases of cortical atrophy, 6 cases of ventricular dilatation and 5 cases of low density area were observed. In postcontrast study the children group shows abnormal contrast enhancement in 3 out of 5 patients but all adult reveal no contrast enhancement. 4. The isodense area in CT were thought to represent good collateral manifested by angiographic moyamoya vascular network and leptomeningeal anastomosis while the low density area in CT appears to poor colleaterals manifested by transdural anastomosis. 5. To evaluate the possibility of this disease, carotid angiography should be performed to the hemiplgic child who shows multiple low density area and abnormal enhancement in CT scan. 6. CT is not only reliable for evaluation of ventricular hemorrhage but also brain damage in patients with moyamoya disease.

  20. Cerebrovascular accidents in sickle cell disease: rates and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohene-Frempong, K; Weiner, S J; Sleeper, L A; Miller, S T; Embury, S; Moohr, J W; Wethers, D L; Pegelow, C H; Gill, F M

    1998-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a major complication of sickle cell disease. The incidence and mortality of and risk factors for CVA in sickle cell disease patients in the United States have been reported only in small patient samples. The Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease collected clinical data on 4,082 sickle cell disease patients enrolled from 1978 to 1988. Patients were followed for an average of 5.2 +/- 2.0 years. Age-specific prevalence and incidence rates of CVA in patients with the common genotypes of sickle cell disease were determined, and the effects of hematologic and clinical events on the risk of CVA were analyzed. The highest rates of prevalence of CVA (4.01%) and incidence (0.61 per 100 patient-years) were in sickle cell anemia (SS) patients, but CVA occurred in all common genotypes. The incidence of infarctive CVA was lowest in SS patients 20 to 29 years of age and higher in children and older patients. Conversely, the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in SS patients was highest among patients aged 20 to 29 years. Across all ages the mortality rate was 26% in the 2 weeks after hemorrhagic stroke. No deaths occurred after infarctive stroke. Risk factors for infarctive stroke included prior transient ischemic attack, low steady-state hemoglobin concentration and rate of and recent episode of acute chest syndrome, and elevated systolic blood pressure. Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with low steady-state hemoglobin and high leukocyte count.

  1. Evaluation of mobility and functionality outcomes post cerebrovascular accident

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    Jeanne Caldas Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: individuals with cerebrovascular accident (CVA have sequels that interfere with its functionality and mobility and undertake activities of daily living (Dlas. Objectives: the aim of this study was to correlate the mobility with functional independence in people with sequelae of CVA. Methods: the 19 volunteers were evaluated through Functional independence measurement and Time Up and Go. The descriptive analysis of data was performed by statistics percentage, average, and standard deviation and the Pearson Correlation was used to analyze the correlation of variables in the study. Results: the statistical analysis on the functional independence pointed out that 52.6% of individuals require 25% more aid in the performance of daily activities. In relation to mobility, 63.1% of participants needed more than 20 seconds to perform the Time Up and Go. There was a negative correlation (r = - 0.6 between the functionality and mobility in individuals affected by CVA (p < 0.05. It is concluded that the performance of the individual affected by a CVA is related to the level of mobility. This study supports new studies which can develop new hypotheses.

  2. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24–1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03–1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD. Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  3. Blunt Traumatic Extracranial Cerebrovascular Injury and Ischemic Stroke

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    Paul M. Foreman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic stroke occurs in a significant subset of patients with blunt traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI. The patients are victims of motor vehicle crashes, assaults or other high-energy collisions, and suffer ischemic stroke due to injury to the extracranial carotid or vertebral arteries. Summary: An increasing number of patients with TCVI are being identified, largely because of the expanding use of computed tomography angiography for screening patients with blunt trauma. Patients with TCVI are particularly challenging to manage because they often suffer polytrauma, that is, numerous additional injuries including orthopedic, chest, abdominal, and head injuries. Presently, there is no consensus about optimal management. Key Messages: Most literature about TCVI and stroke has been published in trauma, general surgery, and neurosurgery journals; because of this, and because these patients are managed primarily by trauma surgeons, patients with stroke due to TCVI have been essentially hidden from view of neurologists. This review is intended to bring this clinical entity to the attention of clinicians and investigators with specific expertise in neurology and stroke.

  4. Potential applications of gut microbiota to control human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Ozgün Candan Onarman; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B; Svihus, Birger; Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2013-11-01

    The microorganisms living in our gut have been a black box to us for a long time. However, with the recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, it is now possible to assess virtually all microorganisms in our gut including non-culturable ones. With the use of powerful bioinformatics tools to deal with multivariate analyses of huge amounts of data from metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, we now start to gain some important insights into these tiny gut inhabitants. Our knowledge is increasing about who they are, to some extent, what they do and how they affect our health. Gut microbiota have a broad spectrum of possible effects on health, from preventing serious diseases, improving immune system and gut health to stimulating the brain centers responsible for appetite and food intake control. Further, we may be on the verge of being capable of manipulating the gut microbiota by diet control to possibly improve our health. Diets consisting of different components that are fermentable by microbiota are substrates for different kinds of microbes in the gut. Thus, diet control can be used to favor the growth of some selected gut inhabitants. Nowadays, the gut microbiota is taken into account as a separate organ in human body and their activities and metabolites in gut have many physiological and neurological effects. In this mini-review, we discuss the diversity of gut microbiota, the technologies used to assess them, factors that affect microbial composition and metabolites that affect human physiology, and their potential applications in satiety control via the gut-brain axis.

  5. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  6. Dysphagia in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Update. Disfagia en paciente con enfermedad cerebrovascular. Actualización.

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    Yolanda Aguilera Martínez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An important number of patients with cerebrovascular disease also present dysphagia as a result of damage in cerebral hemispheres or brainstem, which contributes to negative morbility and functional rehabilitation prognosis due to the complications liked with this condition. It is a significant cause of nutritional dysfunctions, including increased in-hospital undernourishment, increased per patient expenditure and longer in-hospital stay. One of the objectives of the Nutritional Support Team of the Neuroscience and Neurology Institute is to reduce undernourishment causes in patients with neurological diseases. A wide review of the subject was performed including experts´ opinions, from the above mentioned institutions, in order to gather an updated report related with the significance of early diagnosis of dysphagia in patients with ictus and the opportune and correct use of therapeutic measures to reduce complication risk.Gran número de pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular padecen de disfagia, por lesiones de hemisferios o del tronco cerebral, lo que, además de contribuir a un mal pronóstico en términos de morbilidad y recuperación funcional, por las complicaciones que acarrea, es causa importante de afectación del estado nutricional, con incremento de la desnutrición intrahospitalaria, de la estadía y de los costos por enfermo. Uno de los propósitos del Grupo de Apoyo Nutricional del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía es minimizar las causas de desnutrición en los enfermos con trastornos neurológicos. Se realizó una amplia revisión del tema y se consultaron expertos del país, procedentes de las instituciones mencionadas antes, con el objetivo de conformar un informe actualizado relacionado con la importancia del diagnóstico precoz de la disfagia en el paciente con ictus y la aplicación oportuna y adecuada de medidas terapéuticas que disminuyan el riesgo de complicaciones.

  7. Assessment of Vitamin D level in Cerebrovascular Accident Patients in Eastern India

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    Kaushik Chatterjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: Vitamin D in addition to its effect on bone- mineral homeostasis has many extra-skeletal effects. Recently its association with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension are well described. In our study we have tried to find out any of its association with cerebrovascular accident (CVA patients. Material and Methods: In a cross sectional study serum 25 OH vitamin D3, parathormone, calcium and phosphate were estimated in 38 CVA patients and 46 age and sex matched controls. Results: Vitamin D level was found to be low in CVA patients [mean 20.01(+/-7.13 ng/ml] irrespective of their sex, residence, diabetes and hypertension. However there was no significant difference with control population [mean 20.37(+/-5.74 ng/ml; P= 0.79]. Conclusion: There is no significant difference in vitamin D level between CVA patients or non-CVA population. So the role of vitamin D deficiency in the causation of CVA needs reevaluation, especially in Indian patients." [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(4.000: 264-269

  8. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Stolker, Robert J; Visser, Gerhard H; Weyland, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2-induced changes in CBF, CVR, CPPe, ZFP, and RAP is not fully understood. In a controlled crossover trial, we investigated 10 anesthetized patients aiming at PaCO2 levels of 30, 37, 43, and 50 mm Hg. Cerebral blood flow was measured with a modified Kety-Schmidt-technique. Zero flow pressure and RAP was estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure-flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP, CVR as the ratio CPPe/CBF. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way RM-ANOVA. When comparing hypocapnia with hypercapnia, CBF showed a significant exponential reduction by 55% and mean VMCA by 41%. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure linearly decreased by 17% while ZFP increased from 14 to 29 mm Hg. Cerebrovascular resistance increased by 96% and RAP by 39%; despite these concordant changes in mean CVR and Doppler-derived RAP correlation between these variables was weak (r=0.43). In conclusion, under general anesthesia hypocapnia-induced reduction in CBF is caused by both an increase in CVR and a decrease in CPPe, as a consequence of an increase in ZFP.

  9. Effects of Probiotics on Human Obesity Control: An Unproven Hypothesis

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    Amparo Arias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to review the different publications associated with probiotics and obesity, as well as to get some new insights regarding the role of the microbiome in diseases such as obesity. An extensive search for scientific publications (studies in animal models, cells, clinical trials and reviews was performed in the following specialist computer databases (PubMed central (PMC-NCBI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct to establish the current status of the potential effect of probiotics in the control of obesity in humans, as well as the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity. The intestinal microbiota and oral probiotics have a positive effect on human health, as they can regulate the immune functions and protect from infections and chronic inflammatory processes. Although divergent results have recently been reported, it has been shown but not confirmed that intestinal microbiota might play a role as a new factor associated with the regulation of body weight and obesity-related diseases. The international MetaHIT project has shown that human microbiome populations can be grouped into three different enterotypes. Two of these enterotypes (Bacteroides and Ruminococcus seem to encode functions related to obesity. Although the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity are not yet well established, the attempt to manipulate intestinal microbiota through diet is suggested as a new plausible approach to prevent, or modify the risk of, obesity and its related diseases.

  10. Dynamic Networks of Human Homeostatic Control in Norm

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    Veronica A. Sherman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has been undertaken to study the regional and common relationships between hemodynamic and metabolic parameters of human body functioning in individuals without clinical signs of pathology (in "norm". Indicators of hemodynamics and metabolism were obtained by catheterization in a variety of areas: LV, RV, RA, CS, Ao, fixed SS, IJV, SVC, right VH, renal vena, and PA. Correlation and factor analyses were conducted for the study of: 1 the relationship between biochemical parameters in the blood stream, 2 the relationship between hemodynamic parameters, 3 relationship between the hemodynamic and biochemical parameters. Due to the nature of the correlation analysis, the significant (p<0.05 relation signs (+, 0, - without regard to their power were considered. The obtained results in the study of brain blood flow, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys suggested the existence of the primary homeostatic control of the factors determining rheological and thrombogenic properties of blood; the regulation of brain gas exchange and intracranial venous pressure by the minimum level of pressure in the cerebral outflow pathway—the pressure in RA; the regulating relationships between blood flow in CS with blood flow in HV, RA, SS, and LV; and the existence of a synergistic complex of the relationships between the studied biochemical and hemodynamic characteristics that form the human homeostasis control matrix in norm.

  11. Blunt cerebrovascular injury in rugby and other contact sports: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Trajan A; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Moore, Frederick A

    2014-01-01

    Contact sports have long been a part of human existence. The two earliest recorded organized contact games, both of which still exist, include Royal Shrovetide Football played since the 12(th) century in England and Caid played since 1308 AD in Ireland. Rugby is the premier contact sport played throughout the world with the very popular derivative American football being the premier contact sport of the North American continent. American football in the USA has on average 1,205,037 players at the high school and collegiate level per year while rugby in the USA boasts a playing enrollment of 457,983 at all levels. Recent media have highlighted injury in the context of competitive contact sports including their long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that had previously been underappreciated. Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has become a recognized injury pattern for trauma; however, a paucity of data regarding this injury can be found in the sports trauma literature. We present a case of an international level scrum-half playing Rugby Union at club level for a local non-professional team, in which a player sustained a fatal BCVI followed by a discussion of the literature surrounding sport related BCVI.

  12. Hereditary and Sporadic Forms of Aβ-Cerebrovascular Amyloidosis and Relevant Transgenic Mouse Models

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    Samir Kumar-Singh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA refers to the specific deposition of amyloid fibrils in the leptomeningeal and cerebral blood vessel walls, often causing secondary vascular degenerative changes. Although many kinds of peptides are known to be deposited as vascular amyloid, amyloid-β (Aβ-CAA is the most common type associated with normal aging, sporadic CAA, Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Down’s syndrome. Moreover, Aβ-CAA is also associated with rare hereditary cerebrovascular amyloidosis due to mutations within the Aβ domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP such as Dutch and Flemish APP mutations. Genetics and clinicopathological studies on these familial diseases as well as sporadic conditions have already shown that CAA not only causes haemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, but also leads to progressive dementia. Transgenic mouse models based on familial AD mutations have also successfully reproduced many of the features found in human disease, providing us with important insights into the pathogenesis of CAA. Importantly, such studies have pointed out that specific vastopic Aβ variants or an unaltered Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio favor vascular Aβ deposition over parenchymal plaques, but higher than critical levels of Aβ40 are also observed to be anti-amyloidogenic. These data would be important in the development of therapies targeting amyloid in vessels.

  13. Doença cerebrovascular na infância: I. Manifestações epilépticas Cerebrovascular disease in children: I. Epileptic manifestations

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    M. AUGUSTA MONTENEGRO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available As crises epilépticas podem constituir complicação de doença cerebrovascular (DCV, e a sua prevalência, apresentação clínica, fatores de risco e evolução em crianças tem sido estudadas por poucos autores. Neste estudo, 39 crianças com diagnóstico de DCV foram avaliadas quanto à ocorrência de manifestações epilépticas. Vinte e quatro (61,5% apresentaram crises durante algum momento da doença (22 na fase aguda e 2 na tardia; 13 (54,2% apresentaram crises generalizadas, 7 (29,2% parciais, e 4 (16,6% secundariamente generalizadas. A prevalência de manifestação epiléptica em lactentes foi significativamente maior (p=0,0362 do que nas outras faixas etárias. A localização cortical da DCV mostrou determinar de modo estatisticamente significante (p=0,0101 a ocorrência de crises. Não houve relação significativa entre o tipo de insulto vascular (isquêmico ou hemorrágico e a ocorrência de crises. Quatorze pacientes evoluíram sem crise após a fase aguda; os 2 pacientes previamente epilépticos tiveram suas crises controladas com droga anti-epiléptica (DAE; 3 evoluíram com epilepsia (1 controlado com DAE e 2 de difícil controle; 3 continuaram em acompanhamento ambulatorial e não houve tempo hábil para definir se o quadro evoluirá para epilepsia e em 2 ocorreu óbito na fase aguda.Seizures may occur as a complication of cerebrovascular disease (CVD and its prevalence, clinical presentation, risk factors and evolution have been reported by few authors. We evaluated 39 children with CVD and analysed the association with seizures. Seizures occurred in 24 (61.5% patients and were classified as partial (29.2%, generalized (54.2% and secondarily generalized (16.6%. Infants had a significantly higher prevalence of seizures (p=0.0362 than children at other ages. Cortical localization was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of seizures (p=0.0101. There were no differences between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes

  14. Human-centered headway control for adaptive cruise-controlled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhai Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Driving characteristics of human drivers, such as driving safety, comfort, handiness, and efficiency, which are interrelated and contradictory, are synthetically considered to maintain a safe inter-vehicle distance in this article. For the multi-objective coordination control problem, the safety, handiness, comfort, and efficiency indicators are established via driving states and manipulated variable. Furthermore, a multi-performance indicator coordination mechanism is proposed via the invariant set and quadratic boundedness theory. A headway control algorithm for adaptive cruise control is established under the dynamic output feedback control framework. Finally, feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are verified via closed-loop simulations under the following, cut-out, and cut-in typical operating conditions.

  15. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety..., 2010, PHMSA published a Control Room Management/Human Factors notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... to expedite the program implementation deadlines of the Control Room Management/Human Factors rule...

  16. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines where... 63310) entitled ``Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors.'' This final rule...

  17. Clinic Practical Guides for Cerebrovascular Diseases Guías de práctica clínica para las enfermedades cerebrovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pando Cabrera

    Full Text Available The clinic practical guides for cerebrovascular diseases are presented. They include different aspects as its concept, classification, and epidemiological data in Cuba as well as worldwide. They also offer its diagnosis, classification, complications and treatment. The frequency of assessment of its application including the tools to measure the quality of life in patients with cerebrovascular accident and the way to proceed with them are shown
    Se presentan las guías de práctica clínica para las enfermedades cerebrovasculares. Incluye aspectos como su concepto y clasificación, datos epidemiológicos en el mundo y en Cuba, así como su diagnóstico, clasificación, complicaciones y tratamiento. Se ofrece la forma y frecuencia de la evaluación de su aplicación e incluye instrumentos para medir calidad de vida de los enfermos con accidentes cerebrovasculares.

  18. Changes in Cerebral Partial Oxygen Pressure and Cerebrovascular Reactivity During Intracranial Pressure Plateau Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Erhard W; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John; Czosnyka, Marek

    2015-08-01

    show a slight overshoot after normalization. We assume that this might be due to different latencies of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen level control mechanisms. Other factors may include baseline conditions, such as pre-plateau wave cerebrovascular reactivity or pbtO2 levels, which differ between studies.

  19. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of white matter lesions on MRI: the evaluation of vascular care in Alzheimer's disease (EVA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A

    2010-03-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs and prevents occurrence of new infarcts. A randomized controlled clinical trial, including 123 subjects, compared vascular care with standard care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions on MRI. Progression of WMLs, lacunes, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and global cortical atrophy were semiquantitatively scored after 2-year follow-up. Sixty-five subjects (36 vascular care, 29 standard care) had a baseline and a follow-up MRI and in 58 subjects, a follow-up scan could not be obtained due to advanced dementia or death. Subjects in the vascular care group had less progression of WMLs as measured with the WML change score (1.4 versus 2.3, P=0.03). There was no difference in the number of new lacunes or change in global cortical atrophy or medial temporal lobe atrophy between the 2 groups. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs. Treatment aimed at vascular risk factors in patients with early Alzheimer disease may be beneficial, possibly in an even earlier stage of the disease.

  20. Clinical Evaluation of Effects of Chronic Resveratrol Supplementation on Cerebrovascular Function, Cognition, Mood, Physical Function and General Well-Being in Postmenopausal Women—Rationale and Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Michael Evans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This methodological paper presents both a scientific rationale and a methodological approach for investigating the effects of resveratrol supplementation on mood and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women have an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, which may be at least partly due to loss of beneficial effects of estrogen on the cerebrovasculature. We hypothesise that resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, may counteract this risk by enhancing cerebrovascular function and improving regional blood flow in response to cognitive demands. A clinical trial was designed to test this hypothesis. Method: Healthy postmenopausal women were recruited to participate in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled (parallel comparison dietary intervention trial to evaluate the effects of resveratrol supplementation (75 mg twice daily on cognition, cerebrovascular responsiveness to cognitive tasks and overall well-being. They performed the following tests at baseline and after 14 weeks of supplementation: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Cambridge Semantic Memory Battery, the Double Span and the Trail Making Task. Cerebrovascular function was assessed simultaneously by monitoring blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Conclusion: This trial provides a model approach to demonstrate that, by optimising circulatory function in the brain, resveratrol and other vasoactive nutrients may enhance mood and cognition and ameliorate the risk of developing dementia in postmenopausal women and other at-risk populations.

  1. Peptide Characterization of Mature Fluorotic and Control Human Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelis, Isabel Maria Porto; Molina, Gabriela F; Souza, Cláudia; Perez, Walter B; Laure, Helen J; Rosa, José C; Gerlach, Raquel F

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high fluoride levels during amelogenesis causes enamel fluorosis. This study aimed to determine and compare the amino acid sequences in the enamel of fluorotic and control teeth. This investigation included enamel samples obtained from erupted and non-erupted third molars with either TF grade 4-6 (n=7) fluorosis or no sign of fluorosis (controls, n=7). The samples were kept frozen at -20 °C until protein extraction. Samples were etched and processed with a cocktail of proteinase inhibitors and immediately analyzed. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-Of-Flight/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) followed by MASCOT search aided the peptides analysis. The more abundant peptides bore the N-terminal amelogenin sequences WYQSIRPPYP (which is specific for the X-encoded amelogenin) and MPLPPHPGHPGYINF (which does not show sexual dimorphism) were not different in control or fluorotic enamel. There was no missing proteolytic cleavage in the fluorotic samples, which suggested that the increased amount of protein described in fluorotic enamel did not stem from the decreased ability of proteinases to cleave the proteins in humans. This study showed how to successfully obtain peptide from superficial enamel. A relatively low number of teeth was sufficient to provide good data on the actual peptides found in mature enamel.

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism in patients with myocardial or cerebrovascular infarction in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战梅; 周玉玲; 韩忠朝

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G gene polymorphism and the occurrence of myocardial and cerebrovascular infarctions in individuals from Tianjin, China.Methods The PAI-1 genotype was determined using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) in 56 myocardial infarction (MI) patients, 54 cerebrovascular infarction(CI) patients and 83 unrelated healthy controls. All subjects ' clinical features and plasma PAI-1 activity levels were determined.Results The PAI-1 genotype distribution frequency of the single guanine deletion/insertion 4G/5G polymorphism (located -675 bp upstream from the start of transcription) significantly differed between the patients and healthy controls. In the MI group, the 4G/4G-genotype frequency was increased, but the 4G/5G-genotype is decreased when compared to the control group. In the CI group, both the 4G/4G- and 4G/5G -genotypes occurred at a lower frequency than those in the control group (P<0.001). The plasma PAI-1 activity level in the MI group was lowered as the presence of the 4G allele decreases. In the CI group, the frequency of 5G/5G was much higher than that of the control group (P<0.001). The plasma PAI-1 activity level in the CI group was elevated as the presence of the 5G allele increased. Furthermore, positive correlation between triglyceride, glucose levels and PAI-1 activity were found in all three groups (P<0.001).Conclusions The PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism is associated with a higher risk of MI and CI in individuals in Tianjin, China. The deletion/insertion polymorphism is probably an important hereditary risk factor for heart diseases. Moreover, triglyceride and glucose levels of plasma have functional importance in regulating PAI-1 activity.

  3. Tratamiento de Terapia Ocupacional en el accidente cerebrovascular

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    Domingo García, AM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEntre los muchos pacientes que necesitan tratamiento rehabilitador en Terapia Ocupacional están los que en la edad adulta han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular.Uno de los factores de riesgo asociados con más frecuencia a las alteraciones del sistema nervioso central es el progresivo envejecimiento de la población, debido a esto orientaré el siguiente artículo hacia la intervención sobre la población geriátrica.La Terapia Ocupacional ofrece un tratamiento global que abarca las áreas funcional, motriz, sensorial, perceptivo y cognitiva. No debemos olvidar el asesoramiento realizado al paciente, a la familia y/ o cuidadores sobre el manejo de la persona que ha sufrido un ictus, la adaptación del entorno y la prescripción, uso y manejo de ayudas técnicas cuando sea necesario.Las propuestas terapéuticas que expondré a continuación, no son recetas únicas que se puedan emplear del mismo modo en todos las personas que hayan sufrido un ictus. Con cada paciente será necesario una evaluación individualizada de su situación y una adaptación de la terapia según sus déficit específicos.La meta final de la Terapia Ocupacional es la integración óptima del paciente dentro de su entorno familiar y social, con el mayor grado de autonomía posible.ABSTRACTAmong the patients who need Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment, there are those who have suffered a cerebrovascular damage when elderly.People’s gradual ageing is one of the risk factors in the nervous central system’s alterations and this is why I am going to write about intervention on geriatric population.The Occupational Therapy’s rehabilitation treatment works on the functional, motor, sensorial, perceptive and cognitive areas. Moreover, we should not forget to advise the patient and his/her family or caregivers about the way of treating ,the environment’s adaptation, the prescription and use of technical aids when needed.The following therapeutic

  4. Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Cerebro-vascular Accident Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farahmand; Choobi Anzali, Babak; Heshmat, Ramin; Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Hamedanchi, Sepehr

    2013-05-01

    We aim to assess serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with different types of cerebro-vascular accidents (CVA) in comparison to control group. A comparative cross-sectional study conducted on patients admitted to the emergency department from January to August 2012. Control group consisted of patients admitted to emergency department due to common cold, urinary tract infection, low back pain, cluster, and tension headache or migraine. Serum sodium and potassium levels were measured via standard laboratory methods. There were 77 patients in control group and 78 in CVA group. Forty nine patients from the CVA group had ischemic CVA, 11 had hemorrhagic CVA and 18 suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Serum sodium level in control group was significantly lower than in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Serum potassium level in control group was higher than patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Patients with hemorrhagic CVA showed significantly lower serum potassium level than patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, it was observed that serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). In patients with hemorrhagic CVA serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher when compared to patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). This study shows that higher serum sodium and lower serum potassium level may be associated with higher incidence of CVA. Further studies are paramount to elucidate the role of serum electrolyte levels in vascular events.

  5. Proportional myoelectric control of a virtual object to investigate human efferent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith E; Ferris, Daniel P

    2004-12-01

    We used proportional myoelectric control of a one-dimensional virtual object to investigate differences in efferent control between the proximal and distal muscles of the upper limbs. Eleven subjects placed one of their upper limbs in a brace that restricted movement while we recorded electromyography (EMG) signals from elbow flexors/extensors or wrist flexors/extensors during isometric contractions. By activating their muscles, subjects applied virtual forces to a virtual object using a real-time computer interface. The magnitudes of these forces were proportional to EMG amplitudes. Subjects used this proportional EMG control to move the virtual object through two tracking tasks, one with a static target and one with a moving target (i.show $132#e., a sine wave). We hypothesized that subjects would have better control over the virtual object using their distal muscles rather than using their proximal muscles because humans typically use more distal joints to perform fine motor tasks. The results indicated that there was no difference in subjects' ability to control virtual object movements when using either upper arm muscles or forearm muscles. These results suggest that differences in control accuracy between elbow joint movements and wrist joint movements are more likely to be a result of motor practice, proprioceptive feedback or joint mechanics rather than inherent differences in efferent control.

  6. Imaging of cerebrovascular pathology in animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klohs, Jan; Rudin, Markus; Shimshek, Derya R.; Beckmann, Nicolau

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature. PMID:24659966

  7. Cerebrovascular Time Constant in Patients with Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Alex; Kalentiev, George; Gribkov, Alexander; Voennov, Oleg; Grigoryeva, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The cerebrovascular time constant (τ) theoretically estimates how fast the cerebral arterial bed is filled by blood volume after a sudden change in arterial blood pressure during one cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to assess the time constant of the cerebral arterial bed in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with and without intracranial hematomas (IH). We examined 116 patients with severe TBI (mean 35 ± 15 years, 61 men, 55 women). The first group included 58 patients without IH and the second group included 58 patients with epidural (7), subdural (48), and multiple (3) hematomas. Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) was performed 1-12 days after TBI in the first group and 2-8 days after surgical evacuation of the hematoma in the second group. Arteriovenous amplitude of regional cerebral blood volume oscillation was calculated as the difference between arterial and venous blood volume in the "region of interest" of 1 cm(2). Mean arterial pressure was measured and the flow rate of the middle cerebral artery was recorded with transcranial Doppler ultrasound after PCT. The time constant was calculated by the formula modified by Kasprowicz. The τ was shorter (p = 0.05) in both groups 1 and 2 in comparison with normal data. The time constant in group 2 was shorter than in group 1, both on the side of the former hematoma (р = 0.012) and on the contralateral side (р = 0.044). The results indicate failure of autoregulation of cerebral capillary blood flow in severe TBI, which increases in patients with polytrauma and traumatic IH.

  8. Haemodynamic and cerebrovascular responses to glycerol infusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J L; Wang, Y C; Wang, J Y

    1989-11-01

    1. The response of cerebral blood vessels to hyperosmolar agents in vivo remains controversial, and little is known about the effect of glycerol on cerebral vessels. In this study we investigated the cerebrovascular response to intravenous administration of glycerol (1 g/kg, infused over 25 min) in dogs under pentobarbital anaesthesia. 2. intracranial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, serum osmolarity and packed cell volume were continuously monitored, and blood gases were checked frequently. Through a parietal cranial window, pial vessel diameter was measured by means of a surgical microscope and a video image-analyser. 3. Pial vessel diameter increased gradually with a maximum at 30 min after the beginning of glycerol infusion. The maximum increase in diameter in small (less than or equal to 100 microns) vessels was 14.3%, whereas that in large (greater than 100 microns) vessels was 10.3%. There was only a slight increase (less than 4%) in pial vessel diameter in vehicle-infused animals. The intracranial pressure decreased drastically after glycerol infusion, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure remained constant. There were correlations between the rise in serum osmolarity, fall in packed cell volume and vasodilatation, indicating that glycerol caused vasodilatation accompanied by plasma volume expansion. 4. Our data suggest that glycerol produces cerebral vasodilatation, which might be beneficial in cerebral ischaemia and vasospasm, in addition to its intracranial pressure-reducing effect on normal or oedematous brain. The degree of vasodilatation was not sufficient to affect the predominant intracranial pressure drop resulting from cerebral dehydration.

  9. Prothrombin and risk of venous thromboembolism, ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Juul, Klaus; Zacho, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that Prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity associate with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) in the general population and re-tested risk of IHD and ICVD in two case......-control studies. METHODS: 9231 individuals from the Danish general population were followed for VTE (VTE=DVT+PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), IHD, myocardial infarction (MI), ICVD, and ischemic stroke (IS) for a median of 24 years. Case-control studies included 2461 IHD cases and 867.......0(1.0-3.8) for MI, 1.4(0.7-3.1) for ICVD, and 2.1(0.8-5.4) for IS. CONCLUSION: Prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity alone and in combination with Factor V Leiden R506Q heterozygosity predicts 1.5 and 6.0 fold risk of IHD compared to non-carriers....

  10. Effects of peritumoural oedema on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with alert consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Cheng [Department of Neurosurgery, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan 236-0004; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Ito, Susumu [Department of Neurosurgery, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan); Ikegami, Tadashi [Department of Radiology, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan); Yamamoto, Isao [Department of Neurosurgery, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    The effects of peritumoural oedema on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) were studied in 18 patients with alert consciousness. Hemispheric mean CBF was measured by performing first-pass radionuclide angiography using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. CVR was measured as the percentage change from the baseline mean CBF value after acetazolamide administration. Patients were classified into three groups according to the severity of peritumoural oedema. The mean CBF of both hemispheres in each group was not significantly different from that of age-matched controls. CVR was preserved in patients with mild peritumoural oedema (n=6), but was significantly (P<0.01) reduced in patients with moderate (n=7) and severe peritumoural oedema (n=5). No significant correlation was found between the degree of midline shift and the mean CVR of both hemispheres (P=0.09). Surgical removal of the tumour significantly (P<0.05) improved the impaired CVR, although the mean CBF did not change. Administration of glucocorticoid improved the impaired CVR, without a change in the mean CBF, in a patient with a metastatic brain tumour. We conclude that CVR is impaired by the development of peritumoural oedema prior to changes in mean CBF. (orig.)

  11. Cerebral Endothelial Function Determined by Cerebrovascular Reactivity to L-Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Pretnar-Oblak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelium forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and plays an important role in many physiological functions including the control of vasomotor tone. Cerebral endothelium is probably one of the most specific types but until recently it was impossible to determine its function. In this review, the role of cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine (CVR-L-Arg for assessment of cerebral endothelial function is discussed. L-Arginine induces vasodilatation through enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO in the cerebral endothelium. Transcranial Doppler sonography is used for evaluation of cerebral blood flow changes. The method is noninvasive, inexpensive, and enables reproducible measurements. CVR-L-Arg has been compared to flow-mediated dilatation as a gold standard for systemic endothelial function and intima-media thickness as a marker for morphological changes. However, it seems to show specific cerebral endothelial function. So far CVR-L-Arg has been used to study cerebral endothelial function in many pathological conditions such as stroke, migraine, etc. In addition CVR-L-Arg has also proven its usefulness in order to show potential improvement after pharmacological interventions. In conclusion CVR-L-Arg is a promising noninvasive research method that could provide means for evaluation of cerebral endothelial function in physiological and pathological conditions.

  12. Features of cognitive dysfunction in patients with depressive disorder and cerebrovascular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Prokhorova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of elderly people, and at the same time the accumulation of mental and somatic diseases inherent in these age categories. Depression, dementia and cardiovascular disease continue to occupy leading positions. Executive dysfunction syndrome in patients with organic depressive disorder with cerebrovascular pathology is one of the pathognomonic features of violation of higher brain functions in subcortical ischemic depression, which is important for the prognosis of the disease, provision of timely medical care, development of preventive measures and improvement of patients' quality of life. Materials and methods. Using TMT and Strup tests, 138 patients with depressive disorder were screened for the purpose of detecting cognitive dysfunction. Results. More pronounced cognitive dysfunction in the form of violation of the executive function, cognitive control, volume and distribution of attention was observed in patients with organic depressive disorder and signs of subcortical ischemia of the GM. Differences in the structure of violations of cognition are caused by zones of morphological defeat of the GM and the rupture of cortico-strial paths. Conclusions. Thus, in patients with subcortical ischemic depression, there is a syndrome of executive dysfunction, which is the leading cause of subcortical ischemic dementia. Ability to develop and implement a comprehensive program for the recovery of cognitive dysfunction will improve the quality of life of patients.

  13. The role of endothelial progenitor cells in transient ischemic attack patients for future cerebrovascular events

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    Rokhsareh Meamar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in the maintenance of vascularization following ischemic brain after experimental stroke has been established. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the role of circulating EPCs in transient ischemic attack (TIA patients for future cerebrovascular (CV events. Materials and Methods: The level of circulating EPCs (staining markers: CD34, CD309 were determined using flow cytometry at 24 h after TIA in thirty consecutive patients. The EPCs level was also evaluated once in thirty healthy volunteers. Over a period of 12 months, all patients were evaluated by an experienced neurologist for recurrent TIA, stroke or death induced by CV disorders. Results: Circulating EPCs increased in patients group following the first attack of TIA when compared with controls. By analysis of covariance, cardiovascular event history, hyperlipidemia, and statin therapy remained significant independent predictors of EPCs. The mean (standard deviation duration of follow-up was 10.5 (3.1 months (range, 2–12 months. During follow-up, a total of three patients died due to CV accident and four patients experienced again recurrent TIA. By analyzing data with Cox regression, EPC did not predict the future CV events in TIA patients. Conclusion: Increased incidence of future CV events did not occur in those patients with elevated EPCs in the first attack of TIA. The significant predicting factors of EPCs were cardiovascular event history, hyperlipidemia, and statin therapy.

  14. Controls of nucleosome positioning in the human genome.

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    Daniel J Gaffney

    Full Text Available Nucleosomes are important for gene regulation because their arrangement on the genome can control which proteins bind to DNA. Currently, few human nucleosomes are thought to be consistently positioned across cells; however, this has been difficult to assess due to the limited resolution of existing data. We performed paired-end sequencing of micrococcal nuclease-digested chromatin (MNase-seq from seven lymphoblastoid cell lines and mapped over 3.6 billion MNase-seq fragments to the human genome to create the highest-resolution map of nucleosome occupancy to date in a human cell type. In contrast to previous results, we find that most nucleosomes have more consistent positioning than expected by chance and a substantial fraction (8.7% of nucleosomes have moderate to strong positioning. In aggregate, nucleosome sequences have 10 bp periodic patterns in dinucleotide frequency and DNase I sensitivity; and, across cells, nucleosomes frequently have translational offsets that are multiples of 10 bp. We estimate that almost half of the genome contains regularly spaced arrays of nucleosomes, which are enriched in active chromatin domains. Single nucleotide polymorphisms that reduce DNase I sensitivity can disrupt the phasing of nucleosome arrays, which indicates that they often result from positioning against a barrier formed by other proteins. However, nucleosome arrays can also be created by DNA sequence alone. The most striking example is an array of over 400 nucleosomes on chromosome 12 that is created by tandem repetition of sequences with strong positioning properties. In summary, a large fraction of nucleosomes are consistently positioned--in some regions because they adopt favored sequence positions, and in other regions because they are forced into specific arrangements by chromatin remodeling or DNA binding proteins.

  15. Prokineticins in central and peripheral control of human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Wael; Brouillet, Sophie; Sergent, Frederic; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima; Aboussaouira, Touria; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean Jacques; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Prokineticin 1 (PROK1) and (PROK2), are two closely related proteins that were identified as the mammalian homologs of their two amphibian homologs, mamba intestinal toxin (MIT-1) and Bv8. PROKs activate two G-protein linked receptors (prokineticin receptor 1 and 2, PROKR1 and PROKR2). Both PROK1 and PROK2 have been found to regulate a stunning array of biological functions. In particular, PROKs stimulate gastrointestinal motility, thus accounting for their family name "prokineticins". PROK1 acts as a potent angiogenic mitogen, thus earning its other name, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial factor. In contrast, PROK2 signaling pathway has been shown to be a critical regulator of olfactory bulb morphogenesis and sexual maturation. During the last decade, strong evidences established the key roles of prokineticins in the control of human central and peripheral reproductive processes. PROKs act as main regulators of the physiological functions of the ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis, with marked dysfunctions in various pathological conditions such as recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia. PROKs have also been associated to the tumor development of some of these organs. In the central system, prokineticins control the migration of GnRH neurons, a key process that controls reproductive functions. Importantly, mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 are associated to the development of Kallmann syndrome, with direct consequences on the reproductive system. This review describes the finely tuned actions of prokineticins in the control of the central and peripheral reproductive processes. Also, it discusses future research directions for the use of these cytokines as diagnostic markers for several reproductive diseases.

  16. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  17. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  18. Balancing Human and Inter-Agent Influences for Shared Control of Bio-Inspired Collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    multiple uavs ,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, 2009. [4] Z. Kira and M. A. Potter, “Exerting human control over decentral- ized robot swarms ,” in...how influence is shared between the human and the swarm and (2) the resulting success of the human- swarm interaction. Note that related literature...control is shared: persistence and span. We define per- sistence as how long the human signals the swarm and span as how many agents the human

  19. In-hospital cerebrovascular complications following orthotopic liver transplantation: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhijian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrovascular complications are severe events following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. This study aimed to observe the clinical and neuroimaging features and possible risk factors of in-hospital cerebrovascular complications in the patients who underwent OLT. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 337 consecutive patients who underwent 358 OLTs. Cerebrovascular complications were determined by clinical and neuroimaging manifestations, and the possible risk factors were analyzed in the patients with intracranial hemorrhage. Results Ten of 337 (3.0% patients developed in-hospital cerebrovascular complications (8 cases experienced intracranial hemorrhage and 2 cases had cerebral infarction, and 6 of them died. The clinical presentations were similar to common stroke, but with rapid deterioration at early stage. The hematomas on brain CT scan were massive, irregular, multifocal and diffuse, and most of them were located at brain lobes and might enlarge or rebleed. Infarcts presented lacunar and multifocal lesions in basal gangliar but with possible hemorrhagic transformation. The patients with intracranial hemorrhage had older age and a more frequency of systemic infection than non-intracranial hemorrhage patients. (P = 0.011 and 0.029, respectively. Conclusion Posttransplant cerebrovascular complications have severe impact on outcome of the patients who received OLT. Older age and systemic infection may be the possible risk factors of in-hospital intracranial hemorrhage following OLT.

  20. Brain imaging changes associated with risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph I; Tang, Cheuk Y; de Haas, Hans J; Changchien, Lisa; Goliasch, Georg; Dabas, Puneet; Wang, Victoria; Fayad, Zahi A; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of imaging studies assessing the brain effects of vascular risk factors typically include a substantial number of studies with subjects with a history of symptomatic cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and/or events, limiting our ability to disentangle the primary brain effects of vascular risk factors from those of resulting brain and cardiac damage. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of brain changes from imaging studies in patients with vascular risk factors but without clinically manifest cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease or events. The 77 studies included in this review demonstrate that in persons without symptomatic cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular disease, the vascular risk factors of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and smoking are all independently associated with brain imaging changes before the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. We conclude that the identification of brain changes associated with vascular risk factors, before the manifestation of clinically significant cerebrovascular damage, presents a window of opportunity wherein adequate treatment of these modifiable vascular risk factors may prevent the development of irreversible deleterious brain changes and potentially alter patients' clinical course.

  1. Nonlinear Control of Heart Rate Variability in Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, George; Allan, Walter; Sobel, Daniel; Allan, Kenneth D.

    1996-03-01

    Nonlinear analyses of infant heart rhythms reveal a marked rise in the complexity of the electrocardiogram with maturation. We find that normal mature infants (gestation >= 35 weeks) have complex and distinctly nonlinear heart rhythms (consistent with recent reports for healthy adults) but that such nonlinearity is lacking in preterm infants (gestation parasympathetic-sympathetic interaction and function are presumed to be less well developed. Our study further shows that infants with clinical brain death and those treated with atropine exhibit a similar lack of nonlinear feedback control. These three lines of evidence support the hypothesis championed by Goldberger et al. [Goldberger, A. L., Rigney, D. R. & West, B. J. (1990) Sci. Am. 262, 43-49] that autonomic nervous system control underlies the nonlinearity and possible chaos of normal heart rhythms. This report demonstrates the acquisition of nonlinear heart rate dynamics and possible chaos in developing human infants and its loss in brain death and with the administration of atropine. It parallels earlier work documenting changes in the variability of heart rhythms in each of these cases and suggests that nonlinearity may provide additional power in characterizing physiological states.

  2. Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; McCarthy, James S; Good, Michael F

    2017-09-18

    Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or direct injection of sporozoites or parasitised erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of anti-malarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early phase proof-of-concept clinical studies thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in malaria-endemic areas. Controlled infections have also been used to immunise against malaria infection. Historically, CHMI studies have been restricted by the need for access to insectaries housing infected mosquitoes or suitable malaria-infected individuals. Evaluation of vaccine and drug candidates has been constrained in these studies by the availability of a limited number of P. falciparum isolates. Recent advances have included cryopreservation of sporozoites, the manufacture of well characterised and genetically distinct cultured malaria cell banks for blood-stage infection, and P. vivax-specific reagents. These advances will help to accelerate malaria vaccine and drug development by making the reagents for CHMI more widely accessible and also enabling a more rigorous evaluation with multiple parasite strains and species. Here we discuss the different applications of CHMI, recent advances in the use of CHMI and ongoing challenges for consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Classification of ischemic cerebrovascular disease using perfusion CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Yuzo; Furuichi, Masahiro; Nokura, Hiroaki [Inuyama Central Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Sakai, Noboru [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    We evaluated cerebral ischemia using cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) determined by perfusion CT and compared the results to Xenon CT. Fifty-five patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases aged 67.5{+-}12.5 years were assessed by the box-modulation transfer function method with 30 ml of contrast media intravenously injected at 5 ml/sec. CBF of middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory and corona radiata showed close correlations between Xenon CT and perfusion CT. The CBF, CBV and MTT of MCA territories on perfusion CT were 48.5{+-}8.9 ml/100 g/min, 2.2{+-}0.5 ml/100 g, 2.9{+-}0.5 sec on the unaffected side, while they were 35.6{+-}9.9 ml/100 g/min, 2.2{+-}0.4 ml/100 g, 4.3{+-}1.4 sec on the lesion side with stenosis or occlusion of the main MCA trunks or the internal carotid artery. Under both conditions MTT<4 sec and CBF 39.6{>=}ml/100 g/min, MTT correlated with CBV; CBV=0.664MTT+0.346, r=0.607, p<0.0001 (n=49), whereas, under conditions of MTT{>=}4 sec, MTT correlated with CBF inversely; CBF=-4.14MTT+51.2, r=-0.542, p<0.0024 (n=29). Furthermore, there was a close relationship inversely between MTT and cerebral vascular reserve (CVR), calculated by acetazolamide loading test with Xenon CT. The majority of 43 cases (93%) with MTT<4 seconds had CVR>20%. We could classify cerebral ischemia into 4 stages according to border values; 30 ml/100 g/min (average-2SD) in CBF, 2.7 ml/100 g (average+1SD) in CBV, and 4 sec (average+2SD) in MTT. Namely, the stages are as follows: stage 0: normal CBF, no prolonged MTT, and no increased CBV, stage 1: increased CBV{>=}2.7 ml/100 g, and no prolonged MTT, stage 2: prolonged MTT{>=}4 seconds, stage 3: decreased CBF{<=}30 ml/100 g/min, and prolonged MTT. In summary, since our classification agreed with the prognosis of cerebral ischemia by modified Rankin scale, perfusion CT is considered to be an useful modality to identify compromised hosts. (author)

  4. Cognitive impairment after cerebrovascular stroke: Relationship to vascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M Khedr

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Eman M Khedr1, Sherifa A Hamed1, Hala K El-Shereef2, Ola A Shawky1, Khalid A Mohamed1, Effat M Awad3, Mohamed A Ahmed2, Ghaydaa A Shehata1, Mahmoud A Eltahtawy41Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Clinical Pathology, Assiut University, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut, EgyptBackground: Cognitive decline after cerebrovascular stroke has adverse outcome consequences. Since some vascular causes can be prevented and treated, the identification of stroke-related cognitive impairment is a challenge. Patients with cognitive impairment and vascular diseases exhibit higher homocysteine (Hcy concentrations. Whether Hcy is an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment after stoke is still in question. The objectives of this study were to determine: 1 the relative frequency of first-ever post-stroke dementia (PSD (three months after onset in a consecutive sample of our population, 2 the risk factors associated with PSD, and 3 the relationship between Hcy levels and PSD.Methods: Eighty-one inpatients with first-ever stroke were prospectively evaluated with a neuropsychological battery and event-related evoked potentials (P300 at onset and then after three months. A wide range of demographic, clinical, radiological and laboratory variables were examined. PSD was diagnosed if the clinical presentation fulfilled DSM-IV criteria of vascular dementia, the patient scored ≤21 on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and ≤67 points on Cognitive Abilities Screening Instruments (CASI.Results: PSD was diagnosed in 21%. PSD was significantly associated with increasing age, low levels of education, large sized and lacunar infarctions, severity of stroke, prolonged P300 latency, smoking, hypertension, and elevated Hcy levels. High Hcy levels increased the odds ratio of PSD after adjustment of significantly relevant variables including age, smoking, size of infarction, and carotid stenosis

  5. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A.; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G.; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K.; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-01

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  6. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnih, Volodymyr; Kavukcuoglu, Koray; Silver, David; Rusu, Andrei A; Veness, Joel; Bellemare, Marc G; Graves, Alex; Riedmiller, Martin; Fidjeland, Andreas K; Ostrovski, Georg; Petersen, Stig; Beattie, Charles; Sadik, Amir; Antonoglou, Ioannis; King, Helen; Kumaran, Dharshan; Wierstra, Daan; Legg, Shane; Hassabis, Demis

    2015-02-26

    The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.

  7. Postprandial hyperglycemia and cerebrovascular diseases%餐后高血糖与脑血管病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛家厚; 周农

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cerebro-vascular diseases. This article reviews the mechanisms of cerebrovascular diseases caused by postprandial hyperglycemia from aspects of postprandial hyperglycemia participating in the pathophysiological mechanisms of atherosclerosis, and the relations between postprandial hyperglycemia and cerebrovascular diseases.%餐后血糖升高是动脉粥样硬化和脑血管病的危险因素.文章分别从餐后高血糖参与动脉粥样硬化的病理生理学机制、餐后高血糖与脑血管病的关系及其病理生理学机制等方面,综述了餐后高血糖引起脑血管病的机制.

  8. The monitoring and control of task sequences in human and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Desrochers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to plan and execute a series of tasks leading to a desired goal requires remarkable coordination between sensory, motor, and decision-related systems. Prefrontal cortex is thought to play a central role in this coordination, especially when actions must be assembled extemporaneously and cannot be programmed as a rote series of movements. A central component of this flexible behavior is the moment-by-moment allocation of working memory and attention. The ubiquity of sequence planning in our everyday lives belies the neural complexity that supports this capacity, and little is known about how frontal cortical regions orchestrate the monitoring and control of sequential behaviors. For example, it remains unclear if and how sensory cortical areas, which provide essential driving inputs for behavior, are modulated by the frontal cortex during these tasks. Here we review what is known about moment-to-moment monitoring as it relates to visually guided, rule-driven behaviors that change over time. We highlight recent human work that shows how the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC participates in monitoring during task sequences. Neurophysiological data from monkeys suggests that monitoring may be accomplished by neurons that respond to items within the sequence and may in turn influence the tuning properties of neurons in posterior sensory areas. Understanding the interplay between proceduralized or habitual acts and supervised control of sequences is key to our understanding of sequential task execution. A crucial bridge will be the use of experimental protocols that allow for the examination of the functional homology between monkeys and humans. We illustrate how task sequences may be parceled into components and examined experimentally, thereby opening future avenues of investigation into the neural basis of sequential monitoring and control.

  9. Vibration control of electrorheological seat suspension with human-body model using sliding mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Han, Young-Min

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents vibration control performance of a semi-active electrorheological (ER) seat suspension system using a robust sliding mode controller (SMC). A cylindrical type of ER seat damper is manufactured for a commercial vehicle seat suspension and its field-dependent damping force is experimentally evaluated. A vertical vibration model of human-body is then derived and integrated with the governing equations of the ER seat suspension system. The integrated seat-driver model featured by a high order degree-of-freedom (dof) is reduced through a balanced model reduction method. The SMC is then designed based on the reduced model and the state observer is formulated to estimate feedback states which cannot be directly measured from sensors. By imposing a semi-active actuating condition, the synthesized SMC is experimentally realized. In the experimental implementation, a driver directly sits on the controlled seat. Both vertical displacement and acceleration are measured at seat frame and driver's head, respectively. Control performances are evaluated under various road conditions and compared with those obtained from conventional passive seat suspension system.

  10. Gesture controlled human-computer interface for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Oskar M; Sawicki, Dariusz J

    2017-02-28

    The possibility of using a computer by a disabled person is one of the difficult problems of the human-computer interaction (HCI), while the professional activity (employment) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of life, especially for disabled people. The aim of the project has been to propose a new HCI system that would allow for resuming employment for people who have lost the possibility of a standard computer operation. The basic requirement was to replace all functions of a standard mouse without the need of performing precise hand movements and using fingers. The Microsoft's Kinect motion controller had been selected as a device which would recognize hand movements. Several tests were made in order to create optimal working environment with the new device. The new communication system consisted of the Kinect device and the proper software had been built. The proposed system was tested by means of the standard subjective evaluations and objective metrics according to the standard ISO 9241-411:2012. The overall rating of the new HCI system shows the acceptance of the solution. The objective tests show that although the new system is a bit slower, it may effectively replace the computer mouse. The new HCI system fulfilled its task for a specific disabled person. This resulted in the ability to return to work. Additionally, the project confirmed the possibility of effective but nonstandard use of the Kinect device. Med Pr 2017;68(1):1-21.

  11. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism is not related to the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in a Brazilian population Polimorfismo no gene de metilenetetrahidrofolato redutase não está relacionado com o risco de doença cerebrovascular isquêmica em uma população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Katsuyuki Shinjo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Data are conflicting concerning the risk for ischemic stroke associated with a common polymorphism in the gene encoding 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T, which predisposes carriers to hyperhomocysteinemia. A meta-analysis study suggested that the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype might have a small influence in determining susceptibility to ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype polymorphism in Brazilian subjects with ischemic stroke, using a case-control design. RESULTS: We compared 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes in groups of subjects presenting ischemic stroke (n = 127 and normal control (n = 126 and found an odds ratio of 1.97 (95% CI, 0.84-4.64 in a multivariate analysis in which results were adjusted to baseline clinical characteristics of study participants. CONCLUSION: We found that the homozygous 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype was not a risk factor for ischemic stroke in these Brazilian subjects.OBJETIVO: Os dados são conflitantes em relação a risco de acidente cerebrovascular associado a polimorfismo do gene 5,10-metilenetetrahidrofolato redutase C677T, o qual predispõe a hiperhomocisteinemia. Um estudo de meta-análise sugere que o genotipo 5,10-metilenetetrahidrofolato redutase 677TT poderia ter uma pequena influência em determinar susceptibilidade a acidente cerebrovascular. MÉTODOS: Analisamos este polimorfismo em indivíduos brasileiros com acidente cerebrovascular isquêmico, baseando-se em um estudo de caso-controle. RESULTADOS: Comparamos os genótipos 5,10-metilenetetrahidrofolato redutase em grupos de indivíduos com acidente cerebrovascular isquêmico (n=127 e controle normal (n=126, e encontramos Odds Ratio de 1,97 (IC 95% 0,84 - 4,64 em uma análise multivariada, na qual os resultados foram ajustados a características clínicas basais dos indivíduos estudados. DISCUSS

  12. Welfare aspects of vertebrate pest control and culling: ranking control techniques for humaneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, K; Fisher, P; Beausoleil, N J; Sharp, T

    2014-04-01

    The management of vertebrate pests depends on the use of traps, pesticides, repellents and other methods, each of which can cause varying levels of pain and other negative experiences to animals. Vertebrate pest control is essential for managing the impacts of unwanted or over-abundant animals on human and animal health, ecological balance and economic interests. As the need for this management is unlikely to diminish over time, a framework has been developed for assessing the humaneness of each technique by considering their negative impacts on animal welfare so that these can be included in decision-making about the selection of techniques for a specific control operation. This information can also support evidence-based regulations directed at managing such animal welfare impacts. In this paper, the authors discuss this assessment framework, briefly review two assessments conducted using the framework and discuss ways in which Competent Authorities and others can use it and other means to improve animal welfare in vertebrate pest management.

  13. Lower prevalence of carotid plaque hemorrhage in women, and its mediator effect on sex differences in recurrent cerebrovascular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neghal Kandiyil

    Full Text Available Women are at lower risk of stroke, and appear to benefit less from carotid endarterectomy (CEA than men. We hypothesised that this is due to more benign carotid disease in women mediating a lower risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. To test this, we investigated sex differences in the prevalence of MRI detectable plaque hemorrhage (MRI PH as an index of plaque instability, and secondly whether MRI PH mediates sex differences in the rate of cerebrovascular recurrence.Prevalence of PH between sexes was analysed in a single centre pooled cohort of 176 patients with recently symptomatic, significant carotid stenosis (106 severe [≥70%], 70 moderate [50-69%] who underwent prospective carotid MRI scanning for identification of MRI PH. Further, a meta-analysis of published evidence was undertaken. Recurrent events were noted during clinical follow up for survival analysis.Women with symptomatic carotid stenosis (50%≥ were less likely to have plaque hemorrhage (PH than men (46% vs. 70% with an adjusted OR of 0.23 [95% CI 0.10-0.50, P<0.0001] controlling for other known vascular risk factors. This negative association was only significant for the severe stenosis subgroup (adjusted OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.067-0.50 not the moderate degree stenosis. Female sex in this subgroup also predicted a longer time to recurrent cerebral ischemic events (HR 0.38 95% CI 0.15-0.98, P = 0.045. Further addition of MRI PH or smoking abolished the sex effects with only MRI PH exerting a direct effect. Meta-analysis confirmed a protective effect of female sex on development of PH: unadjusted OR for presence of PH = 0.54 (95% CI 0.45-0.67, p<0.00001.MRI PH is significantly less prevalent in women. Women with MRI PH and severe stenosis have a similar risk as men for recurrent cerebrovascular events. MRI PH thus allows overcoming the sex bias in selection for CEA.

  14. Artificial and Natural Sensors in FES-assisted Human Movement Control

    OpenAIRE

    Veltink, Peter H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Baten, Chris T.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Spek, van der, R.J.; Haugland, Morten

    1998-01-01

    The availability of small and light micromachined sensors for human use and the demonstration that useful signals can be derived from the natural sensors of the human body have enabled new developments in the area of feedback controlled FES assistance of human movements. This paper presents the need for sensory feedback in FES control systems and gives an overview of available artificial sensors for human use and progress in the derivation and application of signals from natural sensors

  15. Noise-driven activation in human intermittent control: a double-well potential model

    CERN Document Server

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2014-01-01

    In controlling unstable systems humans switch intermittently between the passive and active behavior instead of controlling the system in a continuous manner. The notion of noise-driven control activation provides a richer alternative to the conventional threshold-based models of intermittent motor control. The present study represents the control activation as a random walk in a continuously changing double-well potential. The match between the proposed model and the previous data on human balancing of virtual stick prompts that the double-well approach can aid in explaining complex dynamics of human behavior in control processes.

  16. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  17. Chemotherapy in the treatment, control, and elimination of human onchocerciasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higazi TB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarig B Higazi,1 Timothy G Geary,2 Charles D Mackenzie3,41Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA; 2Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK; 4Department of Pathobiology & Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USAAbstract: Onchocerciasis treatment is one of the most positive stories in tropical medicine although major challenges remain to reaching the ultimate goal of disease elimination. Such challenges are to be expected when the therapeutic goal is to kill and safely remove a large multistage, efficient, metazoan infectious agent such as Onchocerca volvulus that has an exceptionally complicated relationship with its host. Successful control of onchocerciasis has often been hampered by host reactions following chemotherapy, that can sometimes cause significant tissue pathology. Presence of other filariae, particularly Loa loa, in endemic onchocerciasis-treatment areas also poses severe problems due to adverse reactions caused by drug-induced death of the coincident microfilariae of this usually clinically benign species. Although ivermectin has been very successful, there is a need to enhance the progress toward elimination of onchocerciasis; new drugs and their efficient use are keys to this. The permanent absence of Onchocerca microfilaridermia, defined as the lack of resurgence of skin microfilarial loads after treatment, is the ultimate characteristic of a useful new chemotherapeutic agent. Several drugs are under investigation to achieve this, including the reassessment of currently available and previously tested agents, such as the antibiotic, doxycycline, which targets the adult parasites through its anti-Wolbachia endosymbiont activity. Flubendazole, a benzimidazole derivative approved for treatment of human gastrointestinal nematodes, is

  18. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic.

  19. Can the detection of misery perfusion in chronic cerebrovascular disease be based on reductions in baseline CBF and vasoreactivity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazawa, Hidehiko; Kobayashi, Masato; Pagani, Marco; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Matcuoka-cho, Fukui (Japan); Tsuchida, Tatsuro [Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Fukui (Japan); Arai, Yoshikazu; Isozaki, Makoto [University of Fukui, Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether decreases in baseline regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and in residual cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR), assessed by the acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge, can detect misery perfusion in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and other haemodynamic parameters were measured in 115 patients (64{+-}9 years old) with unilateral cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease (>70% stenosis) using {sup 15}O-gas and water PET. A significant elevation of OEF, by greater than the mean+2SD compared with healthy controls, was defined as misery perfusion. CBF, CVR determined by percent change in CBF after ACZ administration, OEF and other haemodynamic parameters in the territories of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries were analysed. Diagnostic accuracy for the detection of misery perfusion using the criteria determined by baseline CBF and CVR was evaluated in all patients and in only those patients with occlusive lesions. Ten of 24 patients with misery perfusion showed a significant reduction in CVR. Using criteria determined by significant decreases in CVR and baseline CBF, misery perfusion was detected with a sensitivity of 42% and a specificity of 95% in all patients. In patients with occlusive lesions (n=50), sensitivity was higher but specificity was slightly lower. The diagnostic accuracy of the threshold determined by baseline CBF alone was similar in all patients and in only those patients with occlusive lesions, and was higher than that achieved using the asymmetry index of OEF. Reductions in CVR and baseline CBF in the ACZ challenge for CVD would detect misery perfusion with high specificity. Reduction in baseline rCBF is more accurate than reduction in CVR alone for the detection of misery perfusion. (orig.)

  20. Characteristics and outcome of stroke patients with cerebrovascular accident at the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, Ku; Okojie, Nq

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe stroke defined as NIHSS score >17 constituting about 15-20% of cerebrovascular accident require admission into the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). However the benefit of ICU admission for stroke patients remains controversial. Aim & Objectives: To determine the characteristics and outcome of patients with cerebrovascular accident managed at the Intensive Care Unit of University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Demographic characteristics, clinical features and course, treatment options and outcome of all stroke patients admitted in ICU from January 2002 to January 2012 were retrieved from the hospital records and analyzed. A patient before and after each stroke patient were selected as controls for the study. Primary outcome variable was ICU mortality, type of stroke whether ischemic or haemorrhagic, duration of stay, whether patients were transferred from the medical/stroke ward or from the accident and emergency department of the hospital. A total of thirty six (36) stroke patients were admitted into the ICU within the study period accounting for 5.6% of the total ICU admissions. The male: female ratio is 2:1 and patients aged >60 years accounted for 55.6%. Stroke patients admitted into ICU had a mortality rate of 77.8%. Patients with severe stroke admitted into the ICU were 4 times more likely to die compared to non-stroke patients in the ICU (p=0.002, OR=4.472). However, severe stroke had no significant impact on duration of ICU stay (p=0.454, OR=1.464). Stroke patients have a high mortality in the intensive care unit that is independent on the type and route of admission. Provision of the support equipment and instruments required for high dependency service in the intensive care unit and early admission should improve the outcome.

  1. 肺心病患者脑循环动力学的研究%Study of cerebrovascular activity in patients with pulmonary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金双; 左剑; 荆春明; 韩云辉

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate cerebrovascular activity (CVA) change of pulmonary heart disease patients.Methods To measure CAV of acute stage and compare with CAV of remission stage and control group with CAV tester.Results Average cerebral blood flow velocity,maximal blood velocity,minimal blood velocity and minimal blood flow of pulmonary heart disease patients decrease apparently (P0.05).Conclusion CVA of pulmonary heart disease patients is disorder in different degree,and this disorder aggravate as aggravating of state of disease.

  2. Radioiodine therapy increases the risk of cerebrovascular events in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Jensen, Lars Thorbjoern; Vej-Hansen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    to radiation and is capable of inducing atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to elucidate whether ionizing radiation from radioiodine might contribute to cerebrovascular morbidity. METHODS: In a retrospective register cohort study, 4000 hyperthyroid and 1022 euthyroid goitre patients treated...

  3. Neckties and Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Males: A Pilot Randomised Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rafferty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A necktie may elevate intracranial pressure through compression of venous return. We hypothesised that a tight necktie would deleteriously alter cerebrovascular reactivity. Materials and Methods. A necktie was simulated using bespoke apparatus comprising pneumatic inner-tube with aneroid pressure-gauge. Using a randomised crossover design, cerebrovascular reactivity was measured with the “pseudo-tie” worn inflated or deflated for 5 minutes (simulating tight/loose necktie resp.. Reactivity was calculated using breath hold index (BHI and paired “t” testing used for comparative analysis. Results. We enrolled 40 healthy male volunteers. There was a reduction in cerebrovascular reactivity of 0.23 units with “tight” pseudotie (BHI loose 1.44 (SD 0.48; BHI tight 1.21 (SD 0.38 P<.001. Conclusion. Impairment in cerebrovascular reactivity was found with inflated pseudo-tie. However, mean BHI is still within a range of considered normal. The situation may differ in patients with vascular risk factors, and confirmatory work is recommended.

  4. A novel distinctive cerebrovascular phenotype is associated with heterozygous Arg179 ACTA2 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munot, Pinki; Saunders, Dawn E.; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Regalado, Ellen S.; Ostergaard, John R.; Braun, Kees P.; Kerr, Timothy; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D.; Philip, Sunny; Rittey, Christopher; Jacques, Thomas S.; Cox, Timothy C.; Ganesan, Vijeya

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ACTA2 gene lead to diffuse and diverse vascular diseases; the Arg179His mutation is associated with an early onset severe phenotype due to global smooth muscle dysfunction. Cerebrovascular disease associated with ACTA2 mutations has been likened to moyamoya disease, but appears to h

  5. Outcomes With Edoxaban Versus Warfarin in Patients With Previous Cerebrovascular Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rost, Natalia S; Giugliano, Robert P; Ruff, Christian T

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with atrial fibrillation and previous ischemic stroke (IS)/transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at high risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events despite anticoagulation. In this prespecified subgroup analysis, we compared warfarin with edoxaban in patients with ver...... IS or TIA. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00781391....

  6. Cerebrovascular disease, associated risk factors and antithrombotic therapy in a population screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Marco; Mairesse, Georges H; Goethals, Peter;

    2017-01-01

    (4.0%) reported a positive clinical history for cerebrovascular disease. Logistic regression analysis found that age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, history of vascular disease, history of heart failure and history of AF (all p ...-optimal antithrombotic therapy management was evident, with a low use of oral anticoagulant drugs among patients with AF and a low use of aspirin among subjects without AF....

  7. The role of inflammation and interleukin-1 in acute cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available James Galea,1 David Brough21Manchester Academic Health Sciences Center, Brain Injury Research Group, Clinical Sciences Building, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, AV Hill Building, Manchester, UKAbstract: Acute cerebrovascular disease can affect people at all stages of life, from neonates to the elderly, with devastating consequences. It is responsible for up to 10% of deaths worldwide, is a major cause of disability, and represents an area of real unmet clinical need. Acute cerebrovascular disease is multifactorial with many mechanisms contributing to a complex pathophysiology. One of the major processes worsening disease severity and outcome is inflammation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin (IL-1 family are now known to drive damaging inflammatory processes in the brain. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent literature describing the role of IL-1 in acute cerebrovascular disease and to provide an update on our current understanding of the mechanisms of IL-1 production. We also discuss the recent literature where the effects of IL-1 have been targeted in animal models, thus reviewing potential future strategies that may limit the devastating effects of acute cerebrovascular disease.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, stroke, inflammation, microglia, interleukin-1, caspase-1

  8. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T

    2004-01-01

    of different progestins on cerebrovascular reactivity in an animal model. METHODS: Fifty-six ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into seven groups receiving hormone treatment for 4 weeks: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day); norethisterone acetate (NETA) (3 mg/day); conjugated...

  9. Clinical and anatomical consequences of impaired cerebrovascular reserve as detectable by quantitative functional MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Brain areas exhibiting impaired cerebrovascular reserve are believed to be at higher risk of ischemic tissue injury under circumstances in which cerebral blood flow is insufficient to meet metabolic demand. Other than for acute ischemia, which results in apparent (irreversible) loss of brain tissue

  10. Awake craniotomy in a patient with ejection fraction of 10%: considerations of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Weston, Stephen D; Chang, Edward F; Gelb, Adrian W

    2015-05-01

    A 37-year-old man with nonischemic 4-chamber dilated cardiomyopathy and low-output cardiac failure (estimated ejection fraction of 10%) underwent awake craniotomy for a low-grade oligodendroglioma resection under monitored anesthesia care. The cerebrovascular and cardiovascular physiologic challenges and our management of this patient are discussed.

  11. Rare cerebrovascular anomalies in a patient with Cornelia De Lange Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Jones

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Advance knowledge of cerebrovascular variants associated with CDL may help interventionalists prepare to approach such cases. Additionally, further inquiry into the function of proteins encoded by genes associated with CDL could better our understanding of vascular development in the brain.

  12. Impaired dynamic cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia predicts development of white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Vascular impairment in regions of NAWM that progresses to WMH consists not only of decreased magnitude of ssCVR, but also a pathological decrease in the speed of vascular response. These findings support the association between cerebrovascular dysregulation and the development of WMH.

  13. Preserved metabolic coupling and cerebrovascular reactivity during mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, L.L.A.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Simons, K.S.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although mild hypothermia improves outcome in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the cardiodepressive effects of hypothermia may lead to secondary brain damage. This study was performed to assess the cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen extraction, and cerebrovascular reactivi

  14. Recurrence of cerebrovascular events in young adults with a secundum atrial septal defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, Bjorn; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Fernandes, Susan M.; Gatzoulis, Michael A.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The recurrence rate for cerebrovascular ischemic events in patients after a first TIA or CVA with an atrial septal defect type 2 (ASD2) remains unknown. At present, there are no guidelines with respect to appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to determine incidence rates of re

  15. Recurrence of cerebrovascular events in young adults with a secundum atrial septal defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, Bjorn; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Fernandes, Susan M.; Gatzoulis, Michael A.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The recurrence rate for cerebrovascular ischemic events in patients after a first TIA or CVA with an atrial septal defect type 2 (ASD2) remains unknown. At present, there are no guidelines with respect to appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to determine incidence rates of re

  16. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  17. 1. Microscopic Surgery(Less Invasive Treatment Strategy for Cerebrovascular Disease,Cardiovascular System(5))

    OpenAIRE

    堀, 智勝; 林, 基弘; 比嘉, 隆; Tomokatsu, HORI; Motohiro, HAYASHI; Takashi, HIGA

    2004-01-01

    Nonsurgical treatments of cerebrovascular diseases have been established now in our department including endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysm/arteriovenous malformations, and gammaknife treatment of arteriovenous malformation. In spite of these tremendous progresses of nonsurgical treatments, microsurgical management of difficult aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations have not diminished in our department. Difficult type of large neck aneurysms of posterior circulation, of anterior ...

  18. Effect of breath holding on cerebrovascular hemodynamics in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Belfort, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired autonomic function, which is hypothesized to cause cerebral hemodynamic abnormalities. Our aim was to test this hypothesis by estimating the difference in the cerebrovascular response to breath holding (BH; known to cause symp

  19. Cardiomyopathy and Cerebrovascular Accident Associated with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Ronald M.; Richter, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    A case report is presented of a 32 year-old male bodybuilder who sustained an ischemic cerebrovascular accident and showed signs of cardiomyopathy. Although no cause was found, the man had been taking steroids for 16 years. Harmful effects of steroid use are discussed. (IAH)

  20. Balance and gait analysis of senior tumble-prone patients with cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hong

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to observe the tumble status for senior patients with cerebrovascular disease, and to analyze the balance and gait condition in order to provide the basis for clinical prevention and nursing care. A total of 48 senior patients with cerebrovascular disease were investigated with the Tinetti balance and gait evaluation, and the relation between tumble occurrence and balance ability was interrogated. The total score of balance evaluation value and gait value for 89.1% of the senior patients with cerebrovascular disease was fewer than 19 points, which indicated a risk of tumble. The majority of patients could not complete the immediate standing balance well, turning stand balance, mild chest-pushed balance and eyes-closed standing balance. The occurrence of immediate standing balance and turning stand balance fewer than three times was less frequent than the occurrence of tumble for one time, which had significant difference (P<0.05). The senior patients with cerebrovascular disease and immediate standing balance and turning stand balance could easily tumble many times, which was crucial for the nursing staff to carry out preventive strategies. Detailed observations of balance and gait function for senior patients were described, which provided a promising basis for designing appropriate nursing measures.

  1. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  2. Peripheral Microcirculation and Endothelial Function in Comas Induced by Acute Cerebrovascular Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L Kan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the state of systemic microcirculation and endothelial function in comas induced by acute cerebrovascular accident (ACA. Subjects and methods. The study was conducted within the first 7 days of ACA in 38 coma patients, who were divided into groups according to the etiology of stroke: Group 1 comprised 20 patients with hemorrhagic stroke; their mean age was 56.6±2.3 years; Group 2 consisted of 18 patients with ischemic stroke; their mean age was 58.5±2.2 years. A control group included 34 apparently healthy individuals; their mean age was 55.1±2.1 years. The microcirculatory bed was evaluated within 7 days, by applying cutaneous laser Doppler flowmetry using a LAKK-02 capillary blood flow laser analyzer made in Russia (LAZMA Research-and-Production Association, the Russian Federation. Coincidentally with recording of the microcirculatory blood flow, blood samples were collected to explore the serum concentrations of endothelin-1, stable nitric oxide metabolites, van Willebrand factor, and thrombomodulin. Results. Throughout the study, the patients with coma induced by ACA were found to have microcirculatory disorders consisting in higher microperfusion along with the markedly increased influence of active modulators of vascular tone, as well as endothelial functional structural changes. Conclusion. The data obtained in the study suggest that there were uniform changes in the state and regulation of systemic microcirculation in patients with ACA irrespective of the type of stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic. Key words: stroke, microcirculation, microvascular bed, micro blood flow, tissue perfusion, endothelium.

  3. Blunt cerebrovascular trauma causing vertebral arteryd issection in combination with a laryngeal fracture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krettek Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The diagnosis and therapy of blunt cerebrovascular injuries has become a focus since improved imaging technology allows adequate description of the injury. Although it represents a rare injury the long-term complications can be fatal but mostly prevented by adequate treatment. Case presentation A 33-year-old Caucasian man fell down a 7-meter scarp after losing control of his quad bike in a remote area. Since endotracheal intubation was unsuccessfully attempted due to the severe cervical swelling as well as oral bleeding an emergency tracheotomy was performed on scene. He was hemodynamically unstable despite fluid resuscitation and intravenous therapy with vasopressors and was transported by a helicopter to our trauma center. He had a stable fracture of the arch of the seventh cervical vertebra and fractures of the transverse processes of C5-C7 with involvement of the lateral wall of the transverse foramen. An abort of the left vertebral artery signal at the first thoracic vertebrae with massive hemorrhage as well as a laryngeal fracture was also detected. Further imaging showed retrograde filling of the left vertebral artery at C5 distal of the described abort. After stabilization and reconfirmation of intracranial perfusion during the clinical course weaning was started. At the time of discharge, he was aware and was able to move all extremities. Conclusion We report a rare case of a patient with vertebral artery dissection in combination with a laryngeal fracture after blunt trauma. Thorough diagnostic and frequent reassessments are recommended. Most patients can be managed with conservative treatment.

  4. MicroRNAs: control and loss of control in human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Marin-Muller, Christian; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Chow, Kwong-Hon; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of the human genome indicates that a large fraction of the genome sequences are RNAs that do not encode any proteins, also known as non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules 20-22 nucleotides (nt) in length that are predicted to control the activity of approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes in mammals. miRNAs play important roles in many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and immune disorders. The expression of miRNAs can be regulated by epigenetic modification, DNA copy number change, and genetic mutations. miRNAs can serve as a valuable therapeutic target for a large number of diseases. For miRNAs with oncogenic capabilities, potential therapies include miRNA silencing, antisense blocking, and miRNA modifications. For miRNAs with tumor suppression functions, overexpression of those miRNAs might be a useful strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this review, we discuss the current progress of miRNA research, regulation of miRNA expression, prediction of miRNA targets, and regulatory role of miRNAs in human physiology and diseases, with a specific focus on miRNAs in pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, the immune system, and infectious disease. This review provides valuable information for clinicians and researchers who want to recognize the newest advances in this new field and identify possible lines of investigation in miRNAs as important mediators in human physiology and diseases.

  5. Human-FES cooperative control for wrist movement: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  6. Control of a Robot Dancer for Enhancing Haptic Human-Robot Interaction in Waltz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbo Wang; Kosuge, K

    2012-01-01

    Haptic interaction between a human leader and a robot follower in waltz is studied in this paper. An inverted pendulum model is used to approximate the human's body dynamics. With the feedbacks from the force sensor and laser range finders, the robot is able to estimate the human leader's state by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce interaction force, two robot controllers, namely, admittance with virtual force controller, and inverted pendulum controller, are proposed and evaluated in experiments. The former controller failed the experiment; reasons for the failure are explained. At the same time, the use of the latter controller is validated by experiment results.

  7. A Study of the Characteristics of Human-Pilot Control Response to Simulated Aircraft Lateral Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Donald C

    1954-01-01

    Report presents the results of studies made in an attempt to provide information on the control operations of the human pilot. These studies included an investigation of the ability of pilots to control simulated unstable yawing oscillations, a study of the basic characteristics of human-pilot control response, and a study to determine whether and to what extent pilot control response can be represented in an analytical form.

  8. Epidemiologia dos acidentes cerebrovasculares em Joinville, Brasil: estudo institucional Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Joinville, Brazil: an institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto L. Cabral

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A carência de dados epidemiológicos e a impressão prévia de elevada incidência de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC no Brasil criou o estímulo para estudo institucional prospectivo em Joinville. No período de 1-março-1995 a 1-março-1996, avaliamos o primeiro episódio e episódios recorrentes em AVC, incidência, mortalidade, taxa de fatalidade-caso em 30 dias (letalidade, freqüência de fatores de risco, tempo para admissão hospitalar e distribuição dos infartos cerebrais por subtipos patológicos. Registramos 429 pacientes no período, 320 destes com primeiro episódio. Tomografia de crânio foi realizada em 98% dos casos. A taxa de incidência anual ajustada por idade em primeiro episódio de AVC foi de 156/100000. A distribuição por diagnóstico foi: 73,4% para infarto cerebral, 18.4% para hemorragia cerebral e 7,5% para hemorragia subaracnóide. A taxa de mortalidade anual padronizada foi 25/100000. A letalidade foi 26%. Hipertensão, AVC prévio e diabetes foram os fatores de risco mais freqüentes. Somente 25% dos pacientes chegaram ao hospital nas primeiras três horas iniciais. Concluímos que a taxa de incidência em primeiro episódio de AVC em pacientes institucionalizados em Joinville, Brasil, é elevada. A taxa de mortalidade e letalidade são similares as de outras populações.The paucity of epidemiologic data, and the previous impression of high incidence of cerebrovascular disease in Brazil, made us elaborate a prospective institutional study in Joinville, Brazil, with the objective of identifying first and recurrent episodes in stroke. This study occurred from March 1995 to March 1996. We evaluated during the first episode of stroke: incidence, mortality and fatality-case rate (in 30 days letality, frequency of risk factor, time in hospital and distribution of cerebral infarcts by pathological subtypes. In this period, 429 patients with stroke were registered, 320 with the first episode. 98% of all the patients

  9. Procoagulant control strategies for the human blood clotting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurino, Marco; Menara, Tommaso; Stella, Alessandro; Betta, Monica; Landi, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the comparison between two drug control strategies to hemophilia A. To emulate blood clotting and the pathological condition of hemophilia, a mathematical model composed by 14 ordinary differential equations is considered. We adopt a variable structure non-linear PID approach and a Model Predictive Control in order to control the dosage of procoagulant factor used in the treatment of hemophiliac patient. The two control actions are sampled for a practical application. Finally, we discuss and compare the results of the two control approaches, introducing a suited control index (eINR).

  10. Predictive models of procedural human supervisory control behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussemart, Yves

    Human supervisory control systems are characterized by the computer-mediated nature of the interactions between one or more operators and a given task. Nuclear power plants, air traffic management and unmanned vehicles operations are examples of such systems. In this context, the role of the operators is typically highly proceduralized due to the time and mission-critical nature of the tasks. Therefore, the ability to continuously monitor operator behavior so as to detect and predict anomalous situations is a critical safeguard for proper system operation. In particular, such models can help support the decision J]l8king process of a supervisor of a team of operators by providing alerts when likely anomalous behaviors are detected By exploiting the operator behavioral patterns which are typically reinforced through standard operating procedures, this thesis proposes a methodology that uses statistical learning techniques in order to detect and predict anomalous operator conditions. More specifically, the proposed methodology relies on hidden Markov models (HMMs) and hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) to generate predictive models of unmanned vehicle systems operators. Through the exploration of the resulting HMMs in two distinct single operator scenarios, the methodology presented in this thesis is validated and shown to provide models capable of reliably predicting operator behavior. In addition, the use of HSMMs on the same data scenarios provides the temporal component of the predictions missing from the HMMs. The final step of this work is to examine how the proposed methodology scales to more complex scenarios involving teams of operators. Adopting a holistic team modeling approach, both HMMs and HSMMs are learned based on two team-based data sets. The results show that the HSMMs can provide valuable timing information in the single operator case, whereas HMMs tend to be more robust to increased team complexity. In addition, this thesis discusses the

  11. Artificial and Natural Sensors in FES-assisted Human Movement Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Baten, Christian T.M.; Bergveld, Piet; van der Spek, J.H.; Haugland, Morten

    1998-01-01

    The availability of small and light micromachined sensors for human use and the demonstration that useful signals can be derived from the natural sensors of the human body have enabled new developments in the area of feedback controlled FES assistance of human movements. This paper presents the need

  12. Artificial and Natural Sensors in FES-assisted Human Movement Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Baten, Chris T.M.; Bergveld, Piet; Spek, van der Jaap; Haugland, Morten

    1998-01-01

    The availability of small and light micromachined sensors for human use and the demonstration that useful signals can be derived from the natural sensors of the human body have enabled new developments in the area of feedback controlled FES assistance of human movements. This paper presents the need

  13. Care for patients with cerebrovascular disease in a general hospital. 2 years experience Atención a pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular en un hospital general. Experiencia de 2 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio López Arguelles

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The care of patients with cerebrovascular disease requires an organized system from pre-hospital care until discharge of the patient, to ensure the continuity of rehabilitation. In order to provide differentiated services to patients with this condition was created in the General Hospital Universitario "Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía "a specialized room for attention to these diseases and the rehabilitation of patients. Objective: To determine the benefits obtained with differentiated services to patients with cerebrovascular disease in a general hospital. Methods: Descriptive case series that included 1038 patients admitted to the specialized chamber for cerebrovascular disease. We analyzed the following variables: stay, type of cerebrovascular disease, clinical classification, the Barthel index and discharge status. Results: 972 patients suffered from cerebrovascular disease, hospital stay was reduced by two days, the attention of specialized equipment increased from 51.75% to 79.2% patients were discharged with a mild degree of functional dependence. Conclusions: The differentiated services to cerebrovascular disease in general hospitals shows benefits for patients.Fundamento: la atención a pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular requiere un sistema organizado desde la atención prehospitalaria hasta el egreso del paciente, que asegure la continuidad de la rehabilitación. En aras de brindar una atención diferenciada a los pacientes con esta afección se creó en el Hospital General Universitario “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” una sala especializada para la atención a estas enfermedades y la rehabilitación de los pacientes. Objetivo: determinar los beneficios que se obtienen con la atención diferenciada a pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular en un hospital general. Métodos: estudio

  14. Human Automation Integration for Supervisory Control of UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    diminished. Performance of tasks that are likely to be required include: • Managing and controlling multiple UAV missions • Co-ordination and de...Data latency and trust; • Migrating control between operators and teams ; • Operator skills & embedded training; • Commonality in control...Nano cognetics – bottom-up, emergent organising principles based on least parsable information exchanges Controlability • Automation is not the

  15. Characteristics of cerebrovascular accidents at time of diagnosis in a series of 98 patients with giant cell arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, Thierry; Puget, Marie

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of cerebrovascular accidents at time of diagnosis in patients with giant cell arteritis. Retrospective data were collected from 98 patients at a single hospital with giant cell arteritis (according to the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) diagnosed between October 1999 and January 2012. Cerebrovascular accident was found at initial presentation in 6 patients (6.1 %, 95 % CIs 2.3-12.9). Most of them had other symptoms of giant cell arteritis when the disease began. Signs reflecting the involvement of vertebro-basilar territory were present in 3 cases. No other case of cerebrovascular accident was described during the follow-up of patient; particularly no case of cerebrovascular accident occurred once corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of giant cell arteritis had been initiated. No differences in the epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features at the time of diagnosis between patients who had cerebrovascular accidents and the rest of the giant cell arteritis patients were observed. Prognosis was good in our survey. However, there was no case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion, a condition associated with poor prognosis. The present study confirms that cerebrovascular accidents may be the initial manifestation of giant cell arteritis, an argument in favor of a direct effect of the vasculitis in the development of cerebrovascular accidents rather than a complication of the corticosteroid therapy. The diagnosis of giant cell arteritis should always be considered in an elderly patient with stroke and an unexplained elevation of inflammatory biomarkers.

  16. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Kramer, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  17. Cardiovascular and fluid volume control in humans in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The human cardiovascular system and regulation of fluid volume are heavily influenced by gravity. When decreasing the effects of gravity in humans such as by anti-orthostatic posture changes or immersion into water, venous return is increased by some 25%. This leads to central blood volume expans...... is of importance for understanding pathophysiology of heart failure, where gravity plays a strong role in fluid and sodium retention.......The human cardiovascular system and regulation of fluid volume are heavily influenced by gravity. When decreasing the effects of gravity in humans such as by anti-orthostatic posture changes or immersion into water, venous return is increased by some 25%. This leads to central blood volume...... on this complex interaction, because it is the only way to completely abolish the effects of gravity over longer periods. Results from space have been unexpected, because astronauts exhibit a fluid and sodium retaining state with activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which subjects during simulations...

  18. The Role of Inhibitory Control in the Development of Human Figure Drawing in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Jolley, Richard P.; Simpson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of inhibitory control in young children's human figure drawing. We used the Bear-Dragon task as a measure of inhibitory control and used the classification system devised by Cox and Parkin to measure the development of human figure drawing. We tested 50 children aged between 40 and 64 months. Regression analysis showed…

  19. An empirical framework of control methods of victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, Maria; Oostinga, Miriam Sharon Daniëlle

    2015-01-01

    Although human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a frequently discussed area in current research, especially on the way that human traffickers control their victims, a recurrent problem is the lack of empirical basis. The present study examines control methods (or conditions) used against 137

  20. Identifying Driver Nodes in the Human Signaling Network Using Structural Controllability Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Pan, Linqiang

    2015-01-01

    Cell signaling governs the basic cellular activities and coordinates the actions in cell. Abnormal regulations in cell signaling processing are responsible for many human diseases, such as diabetes and cancers. With the accumulation of massive data related to human cell signaling, it is feasible to obtain a human signaling network. Some studies have shown that interesting biological phenomenon and drug-targets could be discovered by applying structural controllability analysis to biological networks. In this work, we apply structural controllability to a human signaling network and detect driver nodes, providing a systematic analysis of the role of different proteins in controlling the human signaling network. We find that the proteins in the upstream of the signaling information flow and the low in-degree proteins play a crucial role in controlling the human signaling network. Interestingly, inputting different control signals on the regulators of the cancer-associated genes could cost less than controlling the cancer-associated genes directly in order to control the whole human signaling network in the sense that less drive nodes are needed. This research provides a fresh perspective for controlling the human cell signaling system.

  1. The Role of Inhibitory Control in the Development of Human Figure Drawing in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Jolley, Richard P.; Simpson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of inhibitory control in young children's human figure drawing. We used the Bear-Dragon task as a measure of inhibitory control and used the classification system devised by Cox and Parkin to measure the development of human figure drawing. We tested 50 children aged between 40 and 64 months. Regression analysis showed…

  2. Toward experimental validation of a model for human sensorimotor learning and control in teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eatai; Howell, Darrin; Beckwith, Cydney; Burden, Samuel A.

    2017-05-01

    Humans, interacting with cyber-physical systems (CPS), formulate beliefs about the system's dynamics. It is natural to expect that human operators, tasked with teleoperation, use these beliefs to control the remote robot. For tracking tasks in the resulting human-cyber-physical system (HCPS), theory suggests that human operators can achieve exponential tracking (in stable systems) without state estimation provided they possess an accurate model of the system's dynamics. This internalized inverse model, however, renders a portion of the system state unobservable to the human operator—the zero dynamics. Prior work shows humans can track through observable linear dynamics, thus we focus on nonlinear dynamics rendered unobservable through tracking control. We propose experiments to assess the human operator's ability to learn and invert such models, and distinguish this behavior from that achieved by pure feedback control.

  3. Talking with a Virtual Human: Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these intend

  4. Achieving Closed-Loop Control Simulation of Human-Artefact Interaction: A Comparative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Frederik van der Vegte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To include user interactions in simulations of product use, the most common approach is to couple human subjects to simulation models, using hardware interfaces to close the simulation-control loop. Testing with virtual human models could offer a low-cost addition to evaluation with human subjects. This paper explores the possibilities for coupling human and artefact models to achieve fully software-based interaction simulations. We have critically reviewed existing partial solutions to simulate or execute control (both human control and product-embedded control and compared solutions from literature with a proof-of-concept we have recently developed. Our concept closes all loops, but it does not rely on validated algorithms to predict human decision making and low-level human motor control. For low-level control, validated solutions are available from other approaches. For human decision making, however, validated algorithms exist only to predict the timing but not the reasoning behind it. To identify decision-making schemes beyond what designers can conjecture, testing with human subjects remains indispensable.

  5. SCHEME (Soft Control Human error Evaluation MEthod) for advanced MCR HRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Inseok; Jung, Wondea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Korean Human Reliability Analysis (K-HRA), Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA), Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM), and Simplified Plant Analysis Risk Human Reliability Assessment (SPAR-H) in relation to NPP maintenance and operation. Most of these methods were developed considering the conventional type of Main Control Rooms (MCRs). They are still used for HRA in advanced MCRs even though the operating environment of advanced MCRs in NPPs has been considerably changed by the adoption of new human-system interfaces such as computer-based soft controls. Among the many features in advanced MCRs, soft controls are an important feature because the operation action in NPP advanced MCRs is performed by soft controls. Consequently, those conventional methods may not sufficiently consider the features of soft control execution human errors. To this end, a new framework of a HRA method for evaluating soft control execution human error is suggested by performing the soft control task analysis and the literature reviews regarding widely accepted human error taxonomies. In this study, the framework of a HRA method for evaluating soft control execution human error in advanced MCRs is developed. First, the factors which HRA method in advanced MCRs should encompass are derived based on the literature review, and soft control task analysis. Based on the derived factors, execution HRA framework in advanced MCRs is developed mainly focusing on the features of soft control. Moreover, since most current HRA database deal with operation in conventional type of MCRs and are not explicitly designed to deal with digital HSI, HRA database are developed under lab scale simulation.

  6. Mounting human entities to control and interact with networked ship entities in a virtual environment

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Bryan Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis research addresses the problem of mounting human entities to other non-human entities in the virtual environment. Previous human entities were exercised as individual entities in the virtual environment. Yet there are many applications (i.e. shipboard damage control, amphibious landings, helicopter vertical assaults) where human entities need to mount other vehicles within the virtual environment. The approach taken was to ...

  7. Infection prevention and control during prolonged human space travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermel, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged human spaceflight to another planet or an asteroid will introduce unique challenges of mitigating the risk of infection. During space travel, exposure to microgravity, radiation, and stress alter human immunoregulatory responses, which can in turn impact an astronaut's ability to prevent acquisition of infectious agents or reactivation of latent infection. In addition, microgravity affects virulence, growth kinetics, and biofilm formation of potential microbial pathogens. These interactions occur in a confined space in microgravity, providing ample opportunity for heavy microbial contamination of the environment. In addition, there is the persistence of aerosolized, microbe-containing particles. Any mission involving prolonged human spaceflight must be carefully planned to minimize vulnerabilities and maximize the likelihood of success.

  8. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...... sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno...

  9. Role of human operator in closed loop control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Bhattacharyya

    1955-04-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief account of a particular aspect of human engineering which aims at improving the efficiency of working of a complicated machine itself, but by improving upon the machine itself, but by simplifying the operating procedures for the operator who has to run the machine. A human operator has been treated like a servocontrolled machine. It has been stressed also that probably a man and machine are basically different; the former often acts in peculiar ways whereas, the latter generally behaves in a manner bound by its design which is extremely flexible in the case of a man.

  10. Human factors design review guidelines for advanced nuclear control room technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.; Brown, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Granda, T.; Baker, C. (Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Control Strategy for Anaesthetic Drug Dosage with Interaction Among Human Physiological Organs Using Optimal Fractional Order PID Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Saptarshi; Maharatna, Koushik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient control strategy for physiological interaction based anaesthetic drug infusion model is explored using the fractional order (FO) proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers. The dynamic model is composed of several human organs by considering the brain response to the anaesthetic drug as output and the drug infusion rate as the control input. Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is employed to obtain the optimal set of parameters for PID/FOPID controller structures. With the proposed FOPID control scheme much less amount of drug-infusion system can be designed to attain a specific anaesthetic target and also shows high robustness for +/-50% parametric uncertainty in the patient's brain model.

  12. Vehicle fingertip reach controls--human factors recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Hamouda, E; Mourant, R R

    1981-06-01

    Interviews were conducted with 405 drivers of cars equipped with fingertip reach controls. A high percentage of finding problems was reported when the horn was mounted on a stalk and also when the turn signal was on a right stalk. Drivers of configurations with two left stalks had a large percentage of inadvertent operation problems for the turn signal and for the headlight beam selector. A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate modes of operation for the wiper on/off, wiper speed and washer on/off functions. Subjects performed best when the wiper on/off and speed control were actuated by a rotating had switch. Subjects' reactions to stalk mounted controls were much faster than their reactions to dash mounted controls. Recommendations to eliminate finding and inadvertent operation problems associated with fingertip reach controls are given.

  13. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Jongert, E.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with disappointin

  14. A controlled-release ergometer for the human ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL

    1997-01-01

    A hydraulic ergometer for the human foot is described that can apply ankle rotations up to 1 rad at a constant high speed of 10-20 rad/s against moments up to 200 N m. The initial acceleration is damped, so as not to exceed a preset value. With the presented set-up the series elasticity of the intac

  15. Contextual Control of Extinguished Conditioned Performance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Remco C.; Keuker, Jantien; Lataster, Timeke; Jansen, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Animal research has shown that extinguished conditioned performance is modulated by the environmental context in which extinction treatment has occurred. When the conditioned stimulus is presented outside the extinction context, conditioned responding is renewed. In two experiments, whether a renewal effect can also be found in humans was…

  16. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  17. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  18. Overproduction of nitric oxide intensifies brain infarction and cerebrovascular damage through reduction of claudin-5 and ZO-1 expression in striatum of ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction has been demonstrated from different NO-synthase overexpression or hyperactivity after brain ischemia. Here, we examined the effects of inhibition of NO overproduction on brain infarction, cerebrovascular damage and expression of claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in striatum of ischemic brain. The experiment was performed in three groups of rats; sham, control ischemia and ischemic treatment. Brain ischemia was induced by 60min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24h of reperfusion. Treated rats received L-NAME 30min before induction of ischemia (1mg/kg, i.p.). Infarct volume and histopathological changes of ischemic striatum were assessed by TTC and LFB staining methods, respectively. Ultimately, quantitative RT-PCR was used for assessment of claudins-5 and ZO-1 expression. MCAO in the control group induced infarction (135±25mm(3)) at large areas of striatum in accompany with neuronal damages, whereas L-NAME significantly reduced infarction (87±16mm(3)) and neuronal injuries. The mRNA of ZO-1 and claudin-5 decreased in ischemic striatum, whereas inhibition of NO overproduction by L-NAME attenuated this reduction for these genes. Our findings indicated that NO overproduction after brain ischemia plays a crucial role in neuronal damage especially at striatal regions. Hence, inhibition of excessive NO production may save striatal cerebrovascular integrity of ischemic brain.

  19. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  20. The role of executive control in human drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Lubman, Dan I; Yücel, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Recent neurobiological models propose that executive control deficits play a critical role in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of executive control processes and their constituent neural network, and examine neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence of executive control dysfunction in addicted drug users. We explore the link between attentional biases to drug-related stimuli and treatment outcome, and discuss recent work demonstrating that the hedonic balance between drug cues and natural reinforcers is abnormal in addiction. Finally, we consider the potential impact of early drug use on the developing adolescent brain, and discuss research examining premorbid executive control impairments in drug-naïve "at-risk" populations.

  1. 急性脑血管病并发脑心综合征55例临床分析%Analysis of acute cerebrovascular disease complicated by brain- heart syndrome 55 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦; 滕军放

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨急性脑血管病并发脑心综合征的发病机制和防治措施.方法 选择郑州大学第一附属医院2008年9月至2011年8月收治的急性脑血管病患者90例,回顾性分析其临床资料,观察并发脑心综合征的发生率,并分析发病机制和防治效果.结果 全部患者并发脑心综合征55例,发生率为61.11%.其中出血性脑血管病48例,占87.27%;缺血性脑血管病7例,占12.73%.经综合治疗后,好转53例,好转率为96.36%.结论 脑心综合征的发生可能与急性脑血管病的类型有关,出血性脑血管病高于缺血性脑血管病.其发生机制可能与脑受损后对心脏神经支配紊乱、神经和体液调节障碍、血管病变及血流动力学变化有关.应注意加强对急性脑血管病尤其是出血性脑血管病患者的心功能监护,积极防治脑心综合征.%Objective To investigate the pathogenesis and prevention measures of acute cerebrovascular disease complicated by brain - heart syndrome,and provide a reference for clinical work. Methods Totally 90 patients with acute ce-rebrovascular disease were treated in our hospital from September 2008 - August 2011,a retrospective analysis of clinical data,observation of brain - heart syndrome,complicated by incidence,pathogenesis and control. Results All patients with brain - heart syndrome in 55 cases,the rate was 61. 11%. One of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease in 48 cases,accounting for 87. 27% ; Ischemic cerebrovascular disease in 7 cases,accounting for 12. 73%. Comprehensive treatment ,improved in 53 cases,improvement rate was 96. 36%. Conclusions Brain - heart syndrome may occur with the type of acute cerebrovascular disease,hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease was more than ischemic cerebrovascular disease. In future clinical work,should be paid attention to acute hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease,especially heart function in patients with cerebrovascular disease monitoring,to prevent and treat

  2. Integrating autonomous distributed control into a human-centric C4ISR environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers incorporating autonomy into human-centric Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) environments. Specifically, it focuses on identifying ways that current autonomy technologies can augment human control and the challenges presented by additive autonomy. Three approaches to this challenge are considered, stemming from prior work in two converging areas. In the first, the problem is approached as augmenting what humans currently do with automation. In the alternate approach, the problem is approached as treating humans as actors within a cyber-physical system-of-systems (stemming from robotic distributed computing). A third approach, combines elements of both of the aforementioned.

  3. The Maximum Principle of Pontryagin in Control of Twolegged Robot Based on Human Walking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żur K.K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a hypothesis about state equations of human gait is presented. Instantaneous normalized power developed by human muscles at particular joints of a leg is a control vector in state equations of the human walking system. The maximum principle of Pontryagin in analysis of dynamic human knee joint was presented. The discrete Hamilton function of a knee joint is similar to a discrete square function of normalized power developed by muscles at the knee joint. The results satisfy optimal conditions and could be applied in control of exoskeleton and DAR type robot.

  4. Studies in the Human Use of Controlled English

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    given below [4]: 1. Write down in free form English what this phrase means for the individuals involved and the ties they can or cannot be wearing...have been made by the author to fill in missing words. 1) Turning English into Controlled English The tasks encouraged the users to write their...Controlled English for Knowledge Representation, Doctoral thesis , University of Zurich [6] R Core Team (2014). R: A language and environment for

  5. A Mathematical Model of the Human Respiratory Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhorn, Howard T.; Benton, Richard; Ross, Richard; Guyton, Arthur C.

    1965-01-01

    The respiratory system exhibits the properties of a control system of the regulator type. Equations describing this biological control system have been derived. Transient and steady-state solutions for various CO2 and O2 step input disturbances were obtained utilizing a digital computer and are compared with experimental results. The effectiveness of the respiratory system as a regulator is investigated. Further extensions of the model are suggested. PMID:14284328

  6. Influence of steep Trendelenburg position and CO(2) pneumoperitoneum on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory homeostasis during robotic prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, A. F.; Foubert, L.; Hendrickx, J. F. A.; Mottrie, A.; Absalom, A.; Mortier, E. P.; Struys, M. M. R. F.

    2010-01-01

    The steep (40 degrees) Trendelenburg position optimizes surgical exposure during robotic prostatectomy. The goal of the current study was to investigate the combined effect of this position and CO(2) pneumoperitoneum on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory homeostasis during these proced

  7. The relationship between cerebrovascular complications and previously established use of antiplatelet therapy in left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in infective endocarditis (IE) are common. The only established treatments to reduce the incidence of CVC in IE are antibiotics and in selected cases early cardiac surgery. Potential effects of previously established antiplatelet therapy are under debate....

  8. A human rights view on access to controlled substances for medical purposes under the international drug control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispen, Marie Elske C

    2013-11-05

    The world is confronted with a major public health deficit caused by poor access to controlled essential medicines under the international drug control framework. This is affecting millions of patients on a daily basis and resulting in numerous human rights violations. The present review contextualises this deficit from a human rights perspective. Drug control efforts are informed by a twofold objective stemming from the double nature of scheduled substances: free access for medical purposes should be ensured, though non-medical use of substances such as opium should be restricted. The international drug control framework is, in theory, based on this twofold notion, however at the level of interpretation, monitoring, and implementation, a one-sided emphasis is demonstrated. By tracing a parallel between the obligations of states under the international drug control framework and those that derive from human rights law, the review shows that the two systems seem incoherent and conflicting in nature and flags the importance of cross-disciplinary research into drug control and human rights.

  9. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human ...... to collision of normodromically and antidromically conducted impulses in efferent sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibers. The evidence obtained suggests that sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to postural changes are complex and highly differentiated....

  10. Human-Centered Command and Control of Future Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    displays revealed by our recent Naïve Realism research in metacognition and visual displays (Smallman & Cook, 2011). The role of the human factors...values as comparisons for real-time values to help monitor. These work-arounds are strikingly similar to strategies used by nuclear plant operators when...monitoring (Mumaw, Roth, Vicente, & Burns, 2000). The development and use of these strategies is indicative of the shortfalls of systems in both

  11. A cerebrovascular stroke following endoscopy for an elderly patient with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people constitute an increasing proportion of those presenting with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Not only in upper gastrointestinal bleeding is advanced age a risk of death, but also exceeding 60 years of age results in an increased risk of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. Factors likely to influence the morbidity and mortality associated with endoscopy in an elderly cohort with acute gastrointestinal bleeding include the acuity and severity of bleeding and the presence of comorbid conditions. Audits have shown a surprisingly high incidence of both morbidity and mortality following upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The following incident is a case report of a cerebrovascular accident following diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for an elderly patient with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  12. Cerebrovascular pattern improved by ozone autohemotherapy: an entropy-based study on multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Filippo; Rimini, Daniele; Liboni, William; Acharya, U Rajendra; Franzini, Marianno; Pandolfi, Sergio; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Vaiano, Francesco; Valdenassi, Luigi; Simonetti, Vincenzo

    2017-08-01

    Ozone major autohemotherapy is effective in reducing the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but its effects on brain are still not clear. In this work, we have monitored the changes in the cerebrovascular pattern of MS patients and normal subjects during major ozone autohemotherapy by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as functional and vascular technique. NIRS signals are analyzed using a combination of time, time-frequency analysis and nonlinear analysis of intrinsic mode function signals obtained from empirical mode decomposition technique. Our results show that there is an improvement in the cerebrovascular pattern of all subjects indicated by increasing the entropy of the NIRS signals. Hence, we can conclude that the ozone therapy increases the brain metabolism and helps to recover from the lower activity levels which is predominant in MS patients.

  13. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Cerebrovascular Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Peters, Annette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collected...... and occurrence of a first stroke was evaluated. Individual air pollution exposures were predicted from land-use regression models developed within the "European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects" (ESCAPE). The exposures were: PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] below 2.5 µm in diameter), coarse PM (PM...... found suggestive evidence of an association between fine particles and incidence of cerebrovascular events in Europe, even at lower concentrations than set by the current air quality limit value....

  14. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism in cerebrovascular diseases of the Chinese Naxi populations from Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xu; Qihong Yuan; Xijun Fan; Guoqiang He

    2011-01-01

    Currently it is not well known whether apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a genetic susceptibility factor for cerebrovascular diseases in the Chinese Naxi population. The present study detected and sequenced ApoE polymorphisms of 90 patients with cerebrovascular diseases (58 cases of cerebral infarction and 32 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage), and 50 normal people of Naxi nationality from Yunnan province, China. The populations were used to analyze the relationship of ApoE polymorphisms with cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage. Results showed an association between ApoE gene polymorphism and the onset of cerebral infarction, and a possibility that the ε4 allele is a susceptibility locus for the risk of cerebral infarction. However, there was no evidence of a relationship between the ApoE gene polymorphism and cerebral hemorrhage.

  15. Self-care to elderly after cerebrovascular accident: caregiver and academics experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Gabriela Gomes Nascimento

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: understand the experiences of the caregiver and multidisciplinary health academics toward the developmentof self-care at home for elderly after cerebrovascular accident. Methods: qualitative study with the use of semi-structuredinterviews with six caregivers and eight academics whose data were analyzed in the light of the Phenomenology. Results:three categories emerged: living with the challenges and limitations imposed on the caregiver and on the person being cared;the professional being and the technic conservatism; the multidisciplinary team at home: experiences with the caregiver andthe person being cared. Conclusion: caregivers of elderly who went through cerebrovascular accident need more supportand guidance for conducting home care, they need a plan of care to facilitate and encourage self-care, minimizing the burdenincurred to the caregiver. Multidisciplinary academics displayed a technical view. This demonstrates the need for change inacademic education with more focus on a holistic and humanistic view of care.

  16. Risk of cerebrovascular events in persons with and without HIV: a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Engsig, Frederik N; Christensen, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk of cerebrovascular events (CVEs) in HIV-infected individuals and evaluate the impact of proven risk factors, injection drug abuse (IDU), immunodeficiency, HAART and family-related risk factors.......To assess the risk of cerebrovascular events (CVEs) in HIV-infected individuals and evaluate the impact of proven risk factors, injection drug abuse (IDU), immunodeficiency, HAART and family-related risk factors....

  17. Clinical and Paraclinical Findings of Cerebrovascular Accidents in Children Admitted to Pediatric Medical Center from 1993 till 2003

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dehghani; H Montazer Lotfe Elahi; M Ashrafi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Stroke is a clinical diagnosis which brings up cerebrovascular diseases. Stroke includes any cerebrovascular accident which leads to local neural defect and lasts more than 24 hours. Stroke has severe and irreversible complications and high rates of recurrence after first episode, therefore we decided to study clinical and paraclinical findings of this disease for better diagnosis and prevention of it. Methods: We prepared a case series study to review medical files of the patie...

  18. Blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease, and longevity in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Sillesen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity.......Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity....

  19. Appl ication of motivational interview in primary prevention of patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases%动机性访谈在心脑血管疾病一级预防中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆萍静; 王霞; 李莉莉

    2014-01-01

    It introduced the concept,principle and skills of motivational in-terview and research progress on its application in primary prevention of patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.It thought that motivational interview was an effective intervention method,and positive results have been achieved in the control of risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.%介绍了动机性访谈的概念、原则、技巧及在心脑血管疾病一级预防中的应用研究进展,认为动机性访谈是一种有效的干预方法,在控制心脑血管疾病危险因素方面取得了积极效果。

  20. Verification and validation of human factors issues in control room design and upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Collier, S. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reactor Project

    1999-12-01

    Systems, facilities and equipment are periodically updated during a power plant's lifetime. This has human factors implications, especially if the central control room is involved. Human factors work may therefore be required. There is an extensive literature on human factors itself, but not so much on how it is verified and validated. Therefore, HRP and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate commissioned a study. The objective was to review the literature and establish a knowledge base on verification and validation (V and V) of human factors issues. The report first discusses verification and validation as applied to human factors work. It describes a design process and the typical human factors topics involved. It then presents a generic method for V and V of human factors. This is built on a review of standards, guidelines and other references given in an annotated bibliography. The method is illustrated by application to some human factors topics.