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Sample records for human central nervous

  1. Reorganization of the human central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalow, G; Zäch, G A

    2000-10-01

    The key strategies on which the discovery of the functional organization of the central nervous system (CNS) under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions have been based included (1) our measurements of phase and frequency coordination between the firings of alpha- and gamma-motoneurons and secondary muscle spindle afferents in the human spinal cord, (2) knowledge on CNS reorganization derived upon the improvement of the functions of the lesioned CNS in our patients in the short-term memory and the long-term memory (reorganization), and (3) the dynamic pattern approach for re-learning rhythmic coordinated behavior. The theory of self-organization and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems is explicitly related to our measurements of the natural firing patterns of sets of identified single neurons in the human spinal premotor network and re-learned coordinated movements following spinal cord and brain lesions. Therapy induced cell proliferation, and maybe, neurogenesis seem to contribute to the host of structural changes during the process of re-learning of the lesioned CNS. So far, coordinated functions like movements could substantially be improved in every of the more than 100 patients with a CNS lesion by applying coordination dynamic therapy. As suggested by the data of our patients on re-learning, the human CNS seems to have a second integrative strategy for learning, re-learning, storing and recalling, which makes an essential contribution of the functional plasticity following a CNS lesion. A method has been developed by us for the simultaneous recording with wire electrodes of extracellular action potentials from single human afferent and efferent nerve fibres of undamaged sacral nerve roots. A classification scheme of the nerve fibres in the human peripheral nervous system (PNS) could be set up in which the individual classes of nerve fibres are characterized by group conduction velocities and group nerve fibre diameters. Natural impulse patterns

  2. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  3. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  4. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  5. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  6. The central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The first section presents a comprehensive evaluation of radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system and provides a comparison of the detection accuracies of radionuclide imaging (RNI) and XCT in certain lesions, realizing that the XCT results may vary when radiocontrast or newer generation XCT scanners are used. Although conventional radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system has experienced no significant changes over the last 7 years except for mild refinements, a new section has been added on positron emission tomography (PET). Most positron radiopharmaceuticals passively cross the intact blood-brain barrier, and their localization has catalyzed renewed interest in our ability to metabolically study and obtain images of the central nervous system. The section on radionuclide cisternography has been rewritten to reflect present day practice and the wider application of XCT in describing conditions affecting the ventricular system

  7. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  8. Poliovirus trafficking toward central nervous system via human poliovirus receptor-dependent and -independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seii eOHKA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In humans, paralytic poliomyelitis results from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus (PV via the blood-brain barrier (BBB. After the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons (MNs, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, neural pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155-transgenic (Tg mice. We demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerve of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly inoculated PV causes paralysis in a hPVR-dependent manner. We also showed that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV exists in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist in these mice. Circulating PV after intravenous inoculation in mice cross the BBB at a high rate in a hPVR-independent manner. Recently, we identified transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1 of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells as a binding protein to PV, implicating that TfR1 is a possible receptor for PV to permeate the BBB.

  9. Adult central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, the adult central nervous system (CNS) was regarded as relatively immune to the effects of ionising radiation, and the recognition of the CNS as a radio-vulnerable structure occurred later than was the case for many other tissues. Increasingly precise knowledge of the time-dose-volume relationships for CNS tolerance has had two important consequences: (1) it has permitted the avoidance of catastrophic and usually lethal late effects in the brain and spinal cord when these tissues are unavoidably irradiated during the treatment of adjacent non-CNS tumours, and (2) it has encouraged referral for irradiation of certain technically benign lesions which, although compatible with prolonged survival, represent a continuing threat to the patient - for example arteriovenous malformations, pituitary adenomas, and some meningiomas. Many of these can now be controlled for very long periods following radiation doses consistent with the long-term functional integrity of the CNS

  10. Heterogeneity of D-Serine Distribution in the Human Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masataka; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Mita, Masashi; Hamase, Kenji; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2017-01-01

    D-serine is an endogenous ligand for N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Accumulating evidence including genetic associations of D-serine metabolism with neurological or psychiatric diseases suggest that D-serine is crucial in human neurophysiology. However, distribution and regulation of D-serine in humans are not well understood. Here, we found that D-serine is heterogeneously distributed in the human central nervous system (CNS). The cerebrum contains the highest level of D-serine among the areas in the CNS. There is heterogeneity in its distribution in the cerebrum and even within the cerebral neocortex. The neocortical heterogeneity is associated with Brodmann or functional areas but is unrelated to basic patterns of cortical layer structure or regional expressional variation of metabolic enzymes for D-serine. Such D-serine distribution may reflect functional diversity of glutamatergic neurons in the human CNS, which may serve as a basis for clinical and pharmacological studies on D-serine modulation. PMID:28604057

  11. Diffusion tensor analysis with nuclear magnetic resonance in human central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Naoki

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been used to measure the diffusivity of water molecules. In central nervous system, anisotropic diffusion, which is characterized by apparent diffusion tensor D app ξ , is thought to be related to neuronal fiber tract orientation. For precise observation of anisotropic diffusion, it is needed to determine the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of D app ξ . Once D app ξ is estimated from a series of diffusion weighted images, a tissue's orthotropic principal axes and diffusivity of each direction are determined from eigenvalues and eigenvectors of D app ξ . There are several methods to represent anisotropic diffusion with D app ξ . Examples are diffusion ellipsoids constructed in each voxel depicting both these principal axes and the mean diffusion length in these directions, trace invariant values and its mapping image, largest eigenvalue, and ratio of largest eigenvalue to the other eigenvalue. In this study, the author investigated practical procedure to analyze diffusion tensor D app ξ using both of spin-echo end echo-planer diffusion weighted imagings with 3-tesla magnetic resonance machine in human brain. The ellipsoid representation provided particularly useful information about microanatomy including neuronal fiber tract orientation and molecular mobility reflective of microstructure. Furthermore, in the lesion of Wallerian degeneration, the loss of anisotropy of local apparent diffusion was observed. It is suggested that the function of axons can be observed via degree of anisotropy of apparent diffusion. Consequently, diffusion tensor analysis is expected to be a powerful, noninvasive method capable of quantitative and functional evaluation of the central nervous system. (author)

  12. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  13. Lactate overrides central nervous but not beta-cell glucose sensing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Hallschmid, Manfred; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Peters, Achim; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd

    2008-12-01

    Lactate has been shown to serve as an alternative energy substrate in the central nervous system and to interact with hypothalamic glucose sensors. On the background of marked similarities between central nervous and beta-cell glucose sensing, we examined whether lactate also interacts with pancreatic glucose-sensing mechanisms in vivo. The effects of intravenously infused lactate vs placebo (saline) on central nervous and pancreatic glucose sensing were assessed during euglycemic and hypoglycemic clamp experiments in 10 healthy men. The release of neuroendocrine counterregulatory hormones during hypoglycemia was considered to reflect central nervous glucose sensing, whereas endogenous insulin secretion as assessed by serum C-peptide levels served as an indicator of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensing. Lactate infusion blunted the counterregulatory hormonal responses to hypoglycemia, in particular, the release of epinephrine (P = .007) and growth hormone (P = .004), so that higher glucose infusion rates (P = .012) were required to maintain the target blood glucose levels. In contrast, the decrease in C-peptide concentrations during the hypoglycemic clamp remained completely unaffected by lactate (P = .60). During euglycemic clamp conditions, lactate infusion did not affect the concentrations of C-peptide and of counterregulatory hormones, with the exception of norepinephrine levels that were lower during lactate than saline infusion (P = .049) independently of the glycemic condition. Data indicate that glucose sensing of beta-cells is specific to glucose, whereas glucose sensing at the central nervous level can be overridden by lactate, reflecting the brain's ability to rely on lactate as an alternative major energy source.

  14. Application of synchrotron radiation for elemental microanalysis of human central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Lankosz, M.; Ostachowicz, J. [Mining University, Dept. of Radipmetry, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Krakow (Poland); Adamek, D.; Krygowska-Wajs, A.; Tomik, B.; Szczudlik, A. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Krakow (Poland); Simionovici, A.; Bohic, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-08-01

    The pathogenesis of two neuro-degenerative diseases i.e, Parkinson's Disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are still not known. It is supposed that disturbance of metal ions homeostasis may promote degeneration and atrophy of neurons. As a preliminary study, the quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of selected parts of human brain and spinal cord was performed using synchrotron microbeam-X ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) technique. The samples were taken during the autopsy from patients with PD, ALS and from patients died due to non-neurological conditions events. X-ray fluorescence imaging showed that increased concentration of selected elements are observed in neurons perikaryal parts in compare with surrounding area. Moreover, comparable analysis showed significant differences in accumulation of selected elements between the pathological and control case. The investigations indicate that micro-beam of synchrotron radiation can be satisfactory applied for analysis of central nervous system tissue providing useful information about distribution and contents of elements at the single cell level. (authors)

  15. Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus type 8 infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Antonio

    2004-06-01

    In developing guidelines for the improved management of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS), the International Herpes Management Forum (IHMF) has studied Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8)- related diseases. EBV has been associated with numerous CNS diseases including meningitis, encephalitis and post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). The pathogenesis of EBV-associated CNS disorders is not completely understood but may be due to direct virus invasion of the CNS. Alternatively, damage may be immunologically mediated by infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes into neural tissue or deposition of antibody-antigen complexes. The IHMF recommends that diagnosis of EBV infections of the CNS may involve polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for EBV DNA but the sensitivity and specificity of the technique remains to be determined. Furthermore, the value of PCR in this context may be limited as EBV DNA is often detected in patients without neurological symptoms. Antiviral therapy has not demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of EBV-related CNS disorders. CNS complications of HHV-8 infection are rare, but the virus has been associated with AIDS-dementia complex, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and primary CNS lymphoma; however these links remain to be proven.

  16. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  17. Chapter 1. Central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planiol, T.; Veyre, A.; Plagne, R.

    1975-01-01

    The present situation with regard to explorations of the central nervous system by radioactive compounds is reviewed. For the sake of clarity the brain and cerebrospinal fluid examinations are described separately, with emphasis nevertheless on their complementarity. The tracers used in each of these examinations are listed, together with the criteria governing their choice. The different techniques employed are described. Scintigraphy is presented apart from gamma-angio-encephalography since it is not possible with rectilinear scintigraphs to observe the circulatory phase. The results are interpreted by an analysis of normal and pathological aspects of the different stages of the central nervous system [fr

  18. Human Immune System Mice for the Study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 Infection of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evering, Teresa H.; Tsuji, Moriya

    2018-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human cell populations or tissues, also known as human immune system (HIS) mice, have emerged as an important and versatile tool for the in vivo study of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis, treatment, and persistence in various biological compartments. Recent work in HIS mice has demonstrated their ability to recapitulate critical aspects of human immune responses to HIV-1 infection, and such studies have informed our knowledge of HIV-1 persistence and latency in the context of combination antiretroviral therapy. The central nervous system (CNS) is a unique, immunologically privileged compartment susceptible to HIV-1 infection, replication, and immune-mediated damage. The unique, neural, and glia-rich cellular composition of this compartment, as well as the important role of infiltrating cells of the myeloid lineage in HIV-1 seeding and replication makes its study of paramount importance, particularly in the context of HIV-1 cure research. Current work on the replication and persistence of HIV-1 in the CNS, as well as cells of the myeloid lineage thought to be important in HIV-1 infection of this compartment, has been aided by the expanded use of these HIS mouse models. In this review, we describe the major HIS mouse models currently in use for the study of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis, recent insights from the field, limitations of the available models, and promising advances in HIS mouse model development. PMID:29670623

  19. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F. [INM Neuromed IRCCS, Pozzilli (Italy). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Caroli, E. [Policlinico S. Andrea, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Neurosurgery

    2005-06-15

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival.

  20. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F.; Caroli, E.

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  1. Expanding Role of T Cells in Human Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Pilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is being increasingly recognized that a dysregulation of the immune system plays a vital role in neurological disorders and shapes the treatment of the disease. Aberrant T cell responses, in particular, are key in driving autoimmunity and have been traditionally associated with multiple sclerosis. Yet, it is evident that there are other neurological diseases in which autoreactive T cells have an active role in pathogenesis. In this review, we report on the recent progress in profiling and assessing the functionality of autoreactive T cells in central nervous system (CNS autoimmune disorders that are currently postulated to be primarily T cell driven. We also explore the autoreactive T cell response in a recently emerging group of syndromes characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins. Common methodology implemented in T cell biology is further considered as it is an important determinant in their detection and characterization. An improved understanding of the contribution of autoreactive T cells expands our knowledge of the autoimmune response in CNS disorders and can offer novel methods of therapeutic intervention.

  2. Sleep Deprivation Impairs the Human Central and Peripheral Nervous System Discrimination of Social Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N; Greer, Stephanie M; Saletin, Jared M; Walker, Matthew P

    2015-07-15

    Facial expressions represent one of the most salient cues in our environment. They communicate the affective state and intent of an individual and, if interpreted correctly, adaptively influence the behavior of others in return. Processing of such affective stimuli is known to require reciprocal signaling between central viscerosensory brain regions and peripheral-autonomic body systems, culminating in accurate emotion discrimination. Despite emerging links between sleep and affective regulation, the impact of sleep loss on the discrimination of complex social emotions within and between the CNS and PNS remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate in humans that sleep deprivation impairs both viscerosensory brain (anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala) and autonomic-cardiac discrimination of threatening from affiliative facial cues. Moreover, sleep deprivation significantly degrades the normally reciprocal associations between these central and peripheral emotion-signaling systems, most prominent at the level of cardiac-amygdala coupling. In addition, REM sleep physiology across the sleep-rested night significantly predicts the next-day success of emotional discrimination within this viscerosensory network across individuals, suggesting a role for REM sleep in affective brain recalibration. Together, these findings establish that sleep deprivation compromises the faithful signaling of, and the "embodied" reciprocity between, viscerosensory brain and peripheral autonomic body processing of complex social signals. Such impairments hold ecological relevance in professional contexts in which the need for accurate interpretation of social cues is paramount yet insufficient sleep is pervasive. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510135-11$15.00/0.

  3. Vitamin D and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Wrzosek, Michał; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Matsumoto, Halina; Piątkiewicz, Paweł; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Wojnar, Marcin; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is formed in human epithelial cells via photochemical synthesis and is also acquired from dietary sources. The so-called classical effect of this vitamin involves the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Apart from this, non-classical effects of vitamin D have recently gained renewed attention. One important yet little known of the numerous functions of vitamin D is the regulation of nervous system development and function. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin D is associated with its influence on neurotrophin production and release, neuromediator synthesis, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and prevention of oxidative damage to nervous tissue. Clinical studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency may lead to an increased risk of disease of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Adequate intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and the neonatal period seems to be crucial in terms of prevention of these diseases.

  4. Central nervous system in leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phair, J P; Anderson, R E; Namiki, Hideo

    1964-03-12

    The present report summarizes the pertinent clinical and pathologic findings in 165 cases of leukemia in atomic bomb exposed victims autopsied during the period 1949 to 1962 at ABCC in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Significant parenchymal hemorrhage occurred most often in acute myelogenous leukemia and was markedly increased in patients dying with high terminal white blood cell counts. Possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage in leukemia are discussed. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were not related to leukocytosis but appeared to be influenced by marked thrombocytopenia. Leukemic infiltrates of a diffuse nature involving the meninges were paradoxically increased in patients receiving adequate chemotherapy. Meningeal tumors did not show this peculiar relationship to therapy and were not found in association with lymphatic leukemia. Infections involving the central nervous system were confined to patients receiving chemotherapy including steroids. 39 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Central Nervous System Infections in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-04

    Central Nervous System Infections; Bacterial Meningitis; Viral Meningitis; Aseptic Meningitis; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Neuroborreliosis; Neurosyphilis; Lyme Disease; Tertiary Syphilis; Cerebral Abscess; Meningitis

  6. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  7. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  8. A Comparison of the Anorexic Effects of Chicken, Porcine, Human and Bovine Insulin on the Central Nervous System of Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to determine if some naturally-occurring substitutions of amino acid residues of insulin could act differentially within the central nervous system (CNS) of neonatal chicks to control ingestive behavior. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of chicken insuli...

  9. Possible biophysical mechanism of the effect of the solar activity on the human central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, G. A.; Mikhailov, Y. M.

    Numerous studies, beginning with Tchizhevsky's works, demonstrated the undeniable effect of the solar activity on the human body. A possible geophysical mechanism of the effect of the solar activity on the human body was proposed by Vladimirsky. In this mechanism solar disturbances (powerful chromospheres flares) cause "magnetosphere and plasmasphere disturbances on the Earth (sudden magnetic storms), which are accompanied by a change in the spectrum of the electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band. In its turn, this brings about shifts in the phisiological indices of the human body". In this model, the human body is regarded as a self-oscillating system affected by external geophysical factors. We also adhere to the main principles of this model but refine the part of this model that describes the change in the spectrum of the electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band. Unlike Vladimirsky model, we regard the human is not as a self-oscillating system but as one of two coupled oscillating system with discrete resonance frequencies in the human-habitat ensemble. Solar processes and their induced changes in one of the two coupled oscillating systems, specifically, the habitat play the role of an external force. Such an approach is based on the fact that the brain rhythms have the following definite frequencies: the alpha rhythm, 8-13 Hz; the beta rhythm, 14-30 Hz; the gamma rhythm, above 30 Hz; the delta rhythm, 1.5-3 Hz; and the theta rhythm, 4-7 Hz. On the other hand, the natural electromagnetic field on the Earth's surface in the extremely low frequency band also has a quite distinct resonance distribution. There are so-called Schuman resonances of the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the lower boundary of the ionosphere (the D and E layers) at f1=10.6; f2=18.3; f3=25.9; f4=33.5; f5=41.1 Hz. These resonance frequencies are variable and most sensitive to variations of the

  10. Observation and quantitative analyses of the skeletal and central nervous systems of human embryos and fetuses using microimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Kohei; Yamada, Shigehito; Tsuchiya, Maiko; Nakajima, Takashi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogihara, Naomichi; Katayama, Kazumichi; Kose, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    High resolution images have been available to trace the organogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS) and crania of human embryo and fetus with microimaging techniques of CT, novel MR microscopy and episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). The helical CT was conducted for Kyoto University's stock specimens of 31 fetuses at gestational stages 8-24 weeks to observe the skeletal development of neuro- and viscero-cranium in 2D and 3D view. Sixty seven landmarks were defined on the images at outer surface and lumen of the skull to analyze the morphological development. Increase of cranial length was found significant relative to width and height in fetus, confirming the faster development of neurocranium than viscero-region. Next, 1.5/2.34 T MR microscopic imaging was conducted for fixed specimens of >1000 embryos at 4-8 weeks after fertilization. For this, a newly developed contrast optimization by mapping the specimen with the relaxation time had been performed to acquire the highest resolution in the world of 80-120 micrometer, which enabled to image primordia of the inner embryonic structures like brain, spinal cord, choroid plexus, skeletons of skull and spinal column. The finding was thought helpful for analysis and diagnosis of their early development. EFIC of embryos was conducted firstly in the world, where spontaneous fluorescence of their cross section was captured by the fluorescent microscope with the resolution as high as <10 micrometer to reconstruct 2D/3D images. EFIC was found to give images of embryonic CNS, ventricular system, layering structures of brain and spinal cord without staining, and to give sequential changes of their volumes quantitated during the development. The reported microimaging techniques were concluded useful for analysis of normal and abnormal early development of CNS and skull in humans. (T.T.)

  11. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  12. Preclinical assessment of the distribution of maraviroc to potential human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sanctuary sites in the central nervous system (CNS) and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D K; Bowers, S J; Mitchell, R J; Potchoiba, M J; Schroeder, C M; Small, H F

    2008-10-01

    1. Growing knowledge of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection has led to the identification of potential virus sanctuary sites within the central nervous system and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. 2. Maraviroc is a novel CCR5 antagonist for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Disposition studies have been performed within the preclinical testing of maraviroc to determine its distribution to these anatomical sites. 3. Maraviroc, which is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, shows limited distribution to the central nervous system as evidenced by cerebrospinal fluid concentrations that were 10% of the free plasma concentration following intravenous infusion to rats. Tissue distribution studies also indicated limited distribution of radioactivity into brain tissue of rats. 4. Radioactivity in gut-associated lymphoid tissue lymph nodes exceeded the concentrations in blood and concentrations in the contents of thoracic ducts of the lymphatic system were similar to blood levels following intravenous administration to rats.

  13. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  14. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. © IMechE 2015.

  15. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  16. Phenylketonuria: central nervous system and microbiome interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased phenylalanine (Phe levels causing an inadequate neurodevelopment; the treatment of PKU is a Phe-restricting diet, and as such it can modulate the intestinal microbiome of the individual, generating central nervous system secondary disturbances that, added to the baseline disturbance, can influence the outcome of the disease.

  17. Central nervous system tuberculomata presenting as internuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma can have variable presentation depending upon the site and number of tuberculomata. We are reporting a rare case of a 15 years old girl who presented to our hospital with binocular diplopia on right gaze. Clinical examination revealed left sided internuclear ophthalmoplegia ...

  18. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, one of the most devastating clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) is noted in 5 to 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, and accounts for approximately 1% of all TB cases. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) depends upon the detection of the tubercle bacilli in ...

  19. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our

  20. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  1. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  2. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Central nervous system control of energy homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machleidt, F; Lehnert, H

    2011-03-01

    The brain is continuously supplied with information about the distribution and amount of energy stores from the body periphery. Endocrine, autonomic and cognitive-hedonic signals are centrally integrated and exert effects on the whole organism via anabolic and catabolic pathways. The adiposity signals insulin and leptin reflect the amount of body fat and are part of a negative feedback mechanism between the periphery and the central nervous system. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is the most important central nervous structure, which integrates this information. Furthermore, the CNS is able to directly measure and to respond to changes in the concentration of certain nutrients. In order to develop effective therapies for the treatment of disorders of energy balance the further elucidation of these neuro-biological processes is of crucial importance. This article provides an overview of the CNS regulation of metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Immune Responses in the Central Nervous System Are Anatomically Segregated in a Non-Human Primate Model of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tavano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV accesses the central nervous system (CNS early during infection, leading to HIV-associated cognitive impairment and establishment of a viral reservoir. Here, we describe a dichotomy in inflammatory responses in different CNS regions in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected macaques, a model for HIV infection. We found increased expression of inflammatory genes and perivascular leukocyte infiltration in the midbrain of SIV-infected macaques. Conversely, the frontal lobe showed downregulation of inflammatory genes associated with interferon-γ and interleukin-6 pathways, and absence of perivascular cuffing. These immunologic alterations were not accompanied by differences in SIV transcriptional activity within the tissue. Altered expression of genes associated with neurotoxicity was observed in both midbrain and frontal lobe. The segregation of inflammatory responses to specific regions of the CNS may both account for HIV-associated neurological symptoms and constitute a critical hurdle for HIV eradication by shielding the CNS viral reservoir from antiviral immunity.

  5. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents among commercial motorcyclists. ... including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). ... Keywords: Brain, influence, riders, substances ...

  6. Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Central Nervous System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  7. Distribution of transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton’s Jelly in the central nervous systems of the EAE rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk M. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human Wharton’s Jelly MSCs (hWJ-MSCs have a considerable advantage and potential in treating the central nervous system diseases and can be a new alternative treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Aim. To study the persistence and distribution of hWJ-MSCs along the neuraxis following transplantation in central nervous system of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model of MS. Methods. Isolation and cultivation of hWJ-MSCs in vitro. Immunological phenotyping by flow cytometry. EAE induction. Intrathecal (suboccipital injection of MSCs into CNS of SCH-induced EAE rats. Persistence of hWJ-MSCs in the CNS of hWJ-MSCs -treated rats was detected through detection of the human alpha-satellite DNA in the tissue sections and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF by PCR at days 2, 3, 4 and 5 Results. PCR-assays for alpha-satellite sequences revealed that Human DNA was detected during 5 days following intrathecal injection at the peak of disease in the treated rats. It has been demonstrated that the human DNA was traced in CSF and various segments of a spinal cord. Conclusions. The data obtained suggest that intrathecally delivered hWJ-MSCs, with time, can migrate through the CSF from the injection site to various segments of CNS and persist therein during the first week of post transplantation, which was performed at the EAE disease peak in the xenogeneic setting without immunosuppression. hWJ-MSCs may be considered as a delivery cell source of therapeutic molecules for CNS inflammatory diseases.

  8. Region-specific vulnerability to lipid peroxidation and evidence of neuronal mechanisms for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the healthy adult human central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Mayelin; Ayala, Victoria; Jové, Mariona; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Gil-Villar, Maria Pilar; Rué, Montserrat; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2017-05-01

    Lipids played a determinant role in the evolution of the brain. It is postulated that the morphological and functional diversity among neural cells of the human central nervous system (CNS) is projected and achieved through the expression of particular lipid profiles. The present study was designed to evaluate the differential vulnerability to oxidative stress mediated by lipids through a cross-regional comparative approach. To this end, we compared 12 different regions of CNS of healthy adult subjects, and the fatty acid profile and vulnerability to lipid peroxidation, were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), respectively. In addition, different components involved in PUFA biosynthesis, as well as adaptive defense mechanisms against lipid peroxidation, were also measured by western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We found that: i) four fatty acids (18.1n-9, 22:6n-3, 20:1n-9, and 18:0) are significant discriminators among CNS regions; ii) these differential fatty acid profiles generate a differential selective neural vulnerability (expressed by the peroxidizability index); iii) the cross-regional differences for the fatty acid profiles follow a caudal-cranial gradient which is directly related to changes in the biosynthesis pathways which can be ascribed to neuronal cells; and iv) the higher the peroxidizability index for a given human brain region, the lower concentration of the protein damage markers, likely supported by the presence of adaptive antioxidant mechanisms. In conclusion, our results suggest that there is a region-specific vulnerability to lipid peroxidation and offer evidence of neuronal mechanisms for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the human central nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  10. Central nervous system immune activation characterizes primary human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection even in participants with minimal cerebrospinal fluid viral burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Serena; Gisslen, Magnus; Hagberg, Lars; Lee, Evelyn; Liegler, Teri; Brew, Bruce; Fuchs, Dietmar; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Cinque, Paola; Hecht, Frederick M; Price, Richard W

    2011-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and immune activation lead to brain injury and neurological impairment. Although HIV enters the nervous system soon after transmission, the magnitude of infection and immunoactivation within the CNS during primary HIV infection (PHI) has not been characterized. This cross-sectional study analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood from 96 participants with PHI and compared them with samples from neuroasymptomatic participants with chronic infection and ≥ 200 or < 200 blood CD4 T cells/μL, and with samples from HIV-seronegative participants with respect to CSF and plasma HIV RNA, CSF to serum albumin ratio, and CSF white blood cell counts (WBC), neopterin levels, and concentrations of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2. The PHI participants (median 77 days post transmission) had CSF HIV RNA, WBC, neopterin, and CXCL10 concentrations similar to the chronic infection participants but uniquely high albumin ratios. 18 participants had ≤ 100 copies/mL CSF HIV RNA, which was associated with low CSF to plasma HIV ratios and levels of CSF inflammation lower than in other PHI participants but higher than in HIV-seronegative controls. Prominent CNS infection and immune activation is evident during the first months after HIV transmission, though a proportion of PHI patients demonstrate relatively reduced CSF HIV RNA and inflammation during this early period.

  11. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del

    1997-01-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  12. Axonal Elongation into Peripheral Nervous System ``Bridges'' after Central Nervous System Injury in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Samuel; Aguayo, Albert J.

    1981-11-01

    The origin, termination, and length of axonal growth after focal central nervous system injury was examined in adult rats by means of a new experimental model. When peripheral nerve segments were used as ``bridges'' between the medulla and spinal cord, axons from neurons at both these levels grew approximately 30 millimeters. The regenerative potential of these central neurons seems to be expressed when the central nervous system glial environment is changed to that of the peripheral nervous system.

  13. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author).

  14. [Tumors of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Loyola, Marco Antonio; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a considerable morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of these tumors have led to new classification systems, which, in turn, allow for a better diagnostic approach and therapeutic planning. Most of these neoplasms occur sporadically and several risk factors have been found to be associated with their development, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields and the concomitant presence of conditions like diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson's disease. A relatively minor proportion of primary CNS tumors occur in the context of hereditary syndromes. The purpose of this review is to analyze the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapy of CNS tumors with particular emphasis in the putative risk factors mentioned above.

  15. Imaging of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.Z., E-mail: yenzhitang@doctors.net.uk [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Booth, T.C.; Bhogal, P.; Malhotra, A.; Wilhelm, T. [Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) comprises 5% of all primary brain tumours. PCNSL demonstrates a variety of well-documented imaging findings, which can vary depending on immune status and histological type. Imaging features of PCNSL may overlap with other tumours and infection making definitive diagnosis challenging. In addition, several rare variants of PCNSL have been described, each with their own imaging characteristics. Advanced imaging techniques including 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) and {sup 11}C positron-emission tomography (PET), {sup 201}Tl single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and MR perfusion, have been used to aid differentiation of PCNSL from other tumours. Ultimately, no imaging method can definitively diagnose PCNSL, and histology is required.

  16. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  17. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  18. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  19. [Primary central nervous system lymphoma mimicking ventriculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shiro; Nagano, Seiji; Shibata, Sumiya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Imai, Yukihiro; Kohara, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with deteriorated bradykinesia, gait disturbance, disorientation, and urinary incontinence for three weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed dilatation of the ventricles. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination demonstrated lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevation of protein levels, and decreased of glucose levels. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI revealed lesions in the ventricular wall and choroid plexus, mimicking ventriculitis. No evidence of bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, or viral infections were observed in the CSF. Flow cytometry of CSF showed predominance of CD20+, λ+ cells. PCR examination of CSF revealed positive IgH gene rearrangement, suggesting B cell lymphoma. Endoscopic brain biopsy showed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. As the patient had no evidence of lymphoma in the other organs, we made a diagnosed of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). A limited intraventricular spread of PCNSL is rare but important as one of differential diagnosis of ventriculitis.

  20. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  1. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko

    1989-01-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author)

  3. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  4. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-I Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  5. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsing-I; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2015-11-24

    Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  6. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  7. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee...

  8. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  9. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  10. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  11. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  12. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  13. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  14. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  15. Bilastine and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Sastre, J; Bartra, J; Jáuregui, I; del Cuvillo, A; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    Antihistamines have been classifed as first or second generation drugs, according to their pharmacokinetic properties, chemical structure and adverse effects. The adverse effects of antihistamines upon the central nervous system (CNS) depend upon their capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and bind to the central H1 receptors (RH1). This in turn depends on the lipophilicity of the drug molecule, its molecular weight (MW), and affinity for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (CNS xenobiotic substances extractor protein). First generation antihistamines show scant affinity for P-gp, unlike the second generation molecules which are regarded as P-gp substrates. Histamine in the brain is implicated in many functions (waking-sleep cycle, attention, memory and learning, and the regulation of appetite), with numerous and complex interactions with different types of receptors in different brain areas. Bilastine is a new H1 antihistamine that proves to be effective in treating allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (seasonal and perennial) and urticaria. The imaging studies made, as well as the objective psychomotor tests and subjective assessment of drowsiness, indicate the absence of bilastine action upon the CNS. This fact, and the lack of interaction with benzodiazepines and alcohol, define bilastine as a clinically promising drug with a good safety profile as regards adverse effects upon the CNS.

  16. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors in the human central nervous system : autoradiographic distribution and receptor densities in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Wilczak, N

    1997-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors were studied in postmortem adult human brain and cervical spinal cord using autoradiography with human recombinant I-125-PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB binds to the three different dimers of PDGF receptors (alpha alpha, alpha beta and beta beta) PDGF receptors were

  17. Human herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system: laboratory diagnosis based on DNA detection by nested PCR in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimério, Carla Aparecida Tavares; De Oliveira, Renato Souza; de Almeida Bonatelli, Murilo Queiroz; Nucci, Anamarli; Costa, Sandra Cecília Botelho; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves

    2015-04-01

    Infections of the central nervous systems (CNS) present a diagnostic problem for which an accurate laboratory diagnosis is essential. Invasive practices, such as cerebral biopsy, have been replaced by obtaining a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis using cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) as a reference method. Tests on DNA extracted from plasma are noninvasive, thus avoiding all of the collateral effects and patient risks associated with CSF collection. This study aimed to determine whether plasma can replace CSF in nested PCR analysis for the detection of CNS human herpesvirus (HHV) diseases by analysing the proportion of patients whose CSF nested PCR results were positive for CNS HHV who also had the same organism identified by plasma nested PCR. In this study, CSF DNA was used as the "gold standard," and nested PCR was performed on both types of samples. Fifty-two patients with symptoms of nervous system infection were submitted to CSF and blood collection. For the eight HHV, one positive DNA result-in plasma and/or CSF nested PCR-was considered an active HHV infection, whereas the occurrence of two or more HHVs in the same sample was considered a coinfection. HHV infections were positively detected in 27/52 (51.9%) of the CSF and in 32/52 (61.5%) of the plasma, difference not significant, thus nested PCR can be performed on plasma instead of CSF. In conclusion, this findings suggest that plasma as a useful material for the diagnosis of cases where there is any difficulty to perform a CSF puncture. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  19. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  20. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-04-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  1. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, A.; Dons, K.; Eskesen, V.; Kruse-Larsen, C.; Blatt Lyon, B.; Arlien Soeborg, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Praestholm, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.)

  2. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, A; Dons, K; Eskesen, V; Kruse-Larsen, C; Blatt Lyon, B; Arlien Soeborg, P; Jensen, N O; Praestholm, J [Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Neurosurgery, Neurology, and Clinical Neurophysiology

    1991-09-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.).

  3. Pharmacotherapy for Adults with Tumors of the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Schor, Nina F.

    2008-01-01

    Tumors of the adult central nervous system are among the most common and most chemoresistant neoplasms. Malignant tumors of the brain and spinal cord collectively account for approximately 1.3% of all cancers and 2.2% of all cancer-related deaths. Novel pharmacological approaches to nervous system tumors are urgently needed. This review presents the current approaches and challenges to successful pharmacotherapy of adults with malignant tumors of the central nervous system and discusses novel...

  4. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The extent or spread ... different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Different types of treatment ...

  5. Neurons in the monoaminergic nuclei of the rat and human central nervous system express FA1/dlk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Meyer, M; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2001-01-01

    The gene DLK1 encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) superfamily, delta-like (dlk). When exposed in vivo to the action of an unknown protease, this type 1 membrane protein generates a soluble peptide referred to as Fetal antigen 1 (FA1). By acting in juxtacrine as well as paracrine....../autocrine manners, both forms have been shown to be active in the differentiation/proliferation process of various cell types. In adults, FA1/dlk has been demonstrated mainly within (neuro) endocrine tissues. In this study we investigated the presence of FA1/dlk in other parts of the developing and adult rat...... and human CNS. Using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization we found that in both species FA1/dlk was expressed in neurons of the Edinger-Westphal's nucleus as well as in substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area (VTA), locus coeruleus and in certain parts of the raphe nuclei....

  6. Central and peripheral nervous systems: master controllers in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Liu, Dan; Yang, Zhengyan; Guo, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Central and sympathetic nervous systems govern functional activities of many organs. Solid tumors like organs are also innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers. Neurotransmitters released from sympathetic nerve fibers can modulate biological behaviors of tumor cells. Multiple physiologic processes of tumor development may be dominated by central and sympathetic nervous systems as well. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of central and sympathetic nervous systems and disorder of the hormone network induced by psychological stress may influence malignant progression of cancer by inhibiting the functions of immune system, regulating metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, and inducing interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Over-release of inflammatory cytokines by tumors may aggravate emotional disorder, triggering the vicious cycles in tumor microenvironment and host macroenvironment. It is reasonable to hypothesize that cancer progression may be controlled by central and sympathetic nervous systems. In this review, we will focus on the recent information about the impacts of central and sympathetic nervous systems on tumor invasion and metastasis.

  7. Cleavage of a Neuroinvasive Human Respiratory Virus Spike Glycoprotein by Proprotein Convertases Modulates Neurovirulence and Virus Spread within the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Le Coupanec

    Full Text Available Human coronaviruses (HCoV are respiratory pathogens that may be associated with the development of neurological diseases, in view of their neuroinvasive and neurotropic properties. The viral spike (S glycoprotein is a major virulence factor for several coronavirus species, including the OC43 strain of HCoV (HCoV-OC43. In an attempt to study the role of this protein in virus spread within the central nervous system (CNS and neurovirulence, as well as to identify amino acid residues important for such functions, we compared the sequence of the S gene found in the laboratory reference strain HCoV-OC43 ATCC VR-759 to S sequences of viruses detected in clinical isolates from the human respiratory tract. We identified one predominant mutation at amino acid 758 (from RRSR↓ G758 to RRSR↓R758, which introduces a putative furin-like cleavage (↓ site. Using a molecular cDNA infectious clone to generate a corresponding recombinant virus, we show for the first time that such point mutation in the HCoV-OC43 S glycoprotein creates a functional cleavage site between the S1 and S2 portions of the S protein. While the corresponding recombinant virus retained its neuroinvasive properties, this mutation led to decreased neurovirulence while potentially modifying the mode of virus spread, likely leading to a limited dissemination within the CNS. Taken together, these results are consistent with the adaptation of HCoV-OC43 to the CNS environment, resulting from the selection of quasi-species harboring mutations that lead to amino acid changes in viral genes, like the S gene in HCoV-OC43, which may contribute to a more efficient establishment of a less pathogenic but persistent CNS infection. This adaptative mechanism could potentially be associated with human encephalitis or other neurological degenerative pathologies.

  8. Anatomical Organization of Urocortin 3-Synthesizing Neurons and Immunoreactive Terminals in the Central Nervous System of Non-Human Primates [Sapajus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella S. Battagello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin 3 (UCN3 is a neuropeptide member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF peptide family that acts as a selective endogenous ligand for the CRF, subtype 2 (CRF2 receptor. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization data from rodents revealed UCN3-containing neurons in discrete regions of the central nervous system (CNS, such as the medial preoptic nucleus, the rostral perifornical area (PFA, the medial nucleus of the amygdala and the superior paraolivary nucleus. UCN3-immunoreactive (UCN3-ir terminals are distributed throughout regions that mostly overlap with regions of CRF2 messenger RNA (mRNA expression. Currently, no similar mapping exists for non-human primates. To better understand the role of this neuropeptide, we aimed to study the UCN3 distribution in the brains of New World monkeys of the Sapajus genus. To this end, we analyzed the gene and peptide sequences in these animals and performed immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to identify UCN3 synthesis sites and to determine the distribution of UCN3-ir terminals. The sequencing of the Sapajus spp. UCN3-coding gene revealed 88% and 65% identity to the human and rat counterparts, respectively. Additionally, using a probe generated from monkey cDNA and an antiserum raised against human UCN3, we found that labeled cells are mainly located in the hypothalamic and limbic regions. UCN3-ir axons and terminals are primarily distributed in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH and the lateral septal nucleus (LS. Our results demonstrate that UCN3-producing neurons in the CNS of monkeys are phylogenetically conserved compared to those of the rodent brain, that the distribution of fibers agrees with the distribution of CRF2 in other primates and that there is anatomical evidence for the participation of UCN3 in neuroendocrine control in primates.

  9. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  10. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  11. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Ang, K.K.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathognomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gy in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales

  12. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathoGyomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gn in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales. 140 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S.; Thurnher, Majda M.; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  14. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated ...

  15. CT diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koreaki

    1980-01-01

    In the diagnosis of central nervous system congenital anomalies, understanding of embryology of the central nervous system and pathophysiology of each anomaly are essential. It is important for clinical approach to central nervous system congenital anomalies to evaluate the size of the head and tention of the anterior fontanelle. Accurate diagnosis of congenital anomalies depends on a correlation of CT findings to clinical pictures. Clinical diagnosis of congenital anomalies should include prediction of treatability and prognosis, in addition to recognition of a disease. (author)

  16. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  17. HHV-6 symptoms in central nervous system. Encephalitis and encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinari, Satoshi; Hamano, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described is the present knowledge of central nervous symptoms, mainly encephalitis and encephalopathy, caused by the primary infection of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) in the pediatric field. Discovery of HHV-6 is in 1986, the virus, normally latent, has a high nervous affinity, and most infants are infected until the age of 3 years. Encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by the primary infection can be derived from direct viral invasion in nervous system or secondary like that through angitis. Most of early clinical symptoms are febrile convulsion. Imaging of the head by MRI particularly with diffusion weighted imaging and by cerebral blood flow SPECT with 123 I-infetamine (IMP) is important for classification of encephalitis and encephalopathy by HHV-6: Four types of them are defined according to the area of lesion observed in abnormal images, the basal nuclei-diencephalon-brainstem, frontal lobe-dominant one, cerebral hemisphere and diffusive one. Further reviewed are the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis together with other HHV-6 related problems like infection in neonate, temporal lobe epilepsy and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Current topics are related with activation of latent HHV-6. Despite numerous findings, many remain to be elucidated in acute encephalitis and encephalopathy which are most important in pediatrics. (R.T.)

  18. Progress of radionuclide diagnostic methods in central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Zen'kovich, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    A summarry on modern radionuclide diagnosis achivements of central nervous system diseases is presented. Most optimal tumorotropic preparations and compounds in the view of decreasing irradiation does and optimazing image are given

  19. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  20. Central nervous system infections in heart transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Patel, Robin; Daly, Richard C.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study central nervous system infections after heart transplantations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Cardiac Transplant Program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Patients Three hundred fifteen consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from January 1988

  1. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  2. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolyszewski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  3. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using human embryonal carcinoma (Ntera2=NT2) and Human neuroblastoma cell (NB1). They exposed to heavy ions and X ray 80% confluent cells in culture bottles. The cells were different type about growth and differentiation in the neuron. The apoptosis profile was measured by AnnexinV-EGFP, PI stained and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after carbon- or iron-ion irradiation. Memory functions were rapidly decreased after irradiation both ions. Iron -ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation C-ion group were recovered 25 weeks after irradiation. Tier memory were still keep at over 100 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  4. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E. Sica

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, Huntington’s dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well.

  5. The Emerging Roles for Telomerase in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ying Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, a specialized ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex, maintains telomere length at the 3′ end of chromosomes, and functions importantly in stem cells, cancer and aging. Telomerase exists in neural stem cells (NSCs and neural progenitor cells (NPCs, at a high level in the developing and adult brains of humans and rodents. Increasing studies have demonstrated that telomerase in NSCs/NPCs plays important roles in cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, neuronal survival and neuritogenesis. In addition, recent works have shown that telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT can protect newborn neurons from apoptosis and excitotoxicity. However, to date, the link between telomerase and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS is not well reviewed. Here, we analyze the evidence and summarize the important roles of telomerase in the CNS. Understanding the roles of telomerase in the nervous system is not only important to gain further insight into the process of the neural cell life cycle but would also provide novel therapeutic applications in CNS diseases such as neurodegenerative condition, mood disorders, aging and other ailments.

  6. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  7. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  8. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  9. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter-observer variabil......Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  10. CT findings of central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Cheng; Yang Xinghui; Wang Man

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant. Methods: CT findings of central nervous system in 11 infants with clinically proved congenital syphilis were analyzed retrospectively. Results: CT findings in 10 syphilis neonates were diffuse hypodense lesions in the white matter, with subarachnoid and intra-encephalic hemorrhage in 3 and 1 cases, respectively. One 2-month-old syphilis infant case and 5 cases of follow-up after 45 days to 6 months of treatment demonstrated bilateral widened sulci and cistern with enlarged ventricles in 3 of them. Conclusion: CT findings of the central nervous system in congenital syphilis infant are similar to those of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates, and extra-encephalic hydrocephalus or brain hypogenesis ensues later on. (authors)

  11. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of relieving...

  12. 75 FR 56548 - Joint Meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Joint Meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety... and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory...

  13. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  14. Primary central nervous system plasmablastic lymphoma presenting in human immunodeficiency virus-negative but Epstein-Barr virus-positive patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a 32-year-old Outer Mongolian man, with plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL primarily occured in the central nervous system and diagnosed by surgical resection. This patient appeared headache and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed multiple lesions in the right cerebral hemisphere including the right frontal-parietal lobe and right basal ganglia and the left cerebellum, he was diagnosed as lymphoma by stereotactic biopsy in January 2009 in local hospital, and was given radiotherapy 33 times after the biopsy. The patient was admitted to The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA., Beijing, P.R. China on March 9th, 2011, with chief complaints of right limbs convulsioned suddenly, then fell down and lose of his consciousness, then awoke after 4 to 5 minutes, with symptoms of angulus oris numbness and the right upper limb powerless ten days ago. MRI of the brain revealed a well-defined hyperdense and enhancing mass in the left frontal-parietal lobe, the meninges are closely related, there was extensive peritumoural edema noted with pressure effects, as evident by effacement of the left lateral ventricles and a 0.5 cm shift of the midline to the right side. Surgical resection showed markedly atypical, large singly dispersed or cohesive proliferation of plasmacytoid cells with frequent abnormal mitoses and binucleation, some neoplastic cells were large with round or oval nuclei and showed coarse chromatin and smaller or unapparent nucleoli, some neoplastic cells with prominent nucleoli, apoptosis and necrosis were often presented. Immunohistochemistry staining and gene rearrangement together with other supportive investigation confirmed the diagnosis of primary central nervous system plasmablastic lymphoma. A month later, he was started on chemotherapy with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, leurocristime and prednisone for a week. Other supportive treatment was provided for symptomatic epilepsy. The patient regained

  15. Central nervous system lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2-synthase is correlated with orexigenic neuropeptides, visceral adiposity and markers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, E; Benrick, A; Behre, C J; Ekman, R; Zetterberg, H; Stenlöf, K; Wallenius, V

    2011-06-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2-synthase (L-PGDS) is the main producer of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Animal data suggest effects of central nervous L-PGDS in the regulation of food intake and obesity. No human data are available. We hypothesised that a role for CNS L-PGDS in metabolic function in humans would be reflected by correlations with known orexigenic neuropeptides. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were retrieved from 26 subjects in a weight loss study, comprising a 3-week dietary lead-in followed by 12-weeks of leptin or placebo treatment. At baseline, CSF L-PGDS was positively correlated with neuropeptide Y (NPY) (ρ = 0.695, P fat distribution and central HPA axis mediators. The importance of these findings is unclear but could suggest a role for CSF L-PGDS in the regulation of visceral obesity by interaction with the neuroendocrine circuits regulating appetite and fat distribution. Further interventional studies will be needed to characterise these interactions in more detail. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Sevilla, G.; Olivan, M.; Gutierrez, P.; Guelbenzo, S.; Ayuso, T.

    1995-01-01

    A case of a young man with primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system manifesting as a seizure is presented. The patient did not show previous pathology. Laboratory tests, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, but the definitive diagnosis was made only by means of brain biopsy. Administration of steroids showed and improvement in symptoms. 8 refs

  17. Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocquard, Y.; Marion, J.L.; Goas, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse effects of radiotherapy on the central nervous system are increasingly met with. Both the brain and spinal cord may be involved. Whereas some forms have a favorable outcome, many run a relentlessly progressive course, failing to respond to treatment. Improvement of radiation protocols should achieve a lower complication rate [fr

  18. Conventional external beam radiotherapy for central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Burger, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated external beam photon radiotherapy is an important component of the clinical management of malignant disease of the central nervous system. The practicing neurologist or neurosurgeon frequently relies on the consultative and treatment skills of a radiotherapist. This article provides a review for the nonradiotherapist of the place of conventional external beam radiotherapy in neuro-oncology. 23 references

  19. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg ..... in the brain and inhibition of neuronal output could be ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolicki, L.; Bak, M.; Grieb, P.

    1996-01-01

    The article presents the current results of MR spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system. This method is useful in examination of brain ischemia, brain tumors, epilepsy; white matter disorders and degeneration diseases. MR spectroscopy is unique technique for in vivo examination of the brain in physiological and pathophysiological states. (author)

  1. Thiophene Scaffold as Prospective Central Nervous System Agent: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Aggarwal, Swati; Kaushik, Dhirender; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are extensively dispersed in nature and are vital for life. Various investigational approaches towards Structural Activity Relationship that focus upon the exploration of optimized candidates have become vastly important. Literature studies tell that for a series of compounds that are imperative in industrial and medicinal chemistry, thiophene acts as parent. Among various classes of heterocyclic compounds that have potential central nervous system activity, thiophene is the most important one. In the largely escalating chemical world of heterocyclic compounds showing potential pharmacological character, thiophene nucleus has been recognized as the budding entity. Seventeen Papers were included in this review article to define the central nervous system potential of thiophene. This review article enlightens the rationalized use and scope of thiophene scaffold as novel central nervous system activity such as anticonvulsant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5/p25) inhibitors, CNS depressant, capability to block norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake by their respective transporters etc. The Finding of this review confirm the importance of thiophene scaffold as potential central nervous system agents. From this outcome, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to the novel derivatives with better constructive pharmacological potential may be derived.

  2. Central Auditory Nervous System Dysfunction in Echolalic Autistic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherby, Amy Miller; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The results showed that all the Ss had normal hearing on the monaural speech tests; however, there was indication of central auditory nervous system dysfunction in the language dominant hemisphere, inferred from the dichotic tests, for those Ss displaying echolalia. (Author)

  3. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS),

  4. Characteristic radionuclide appearance of certain pediatric central nervous system neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of 5 years experience in the localization of brain neoplasms in children are summarized. The radiopharmaceutical of choice was /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate administered in a dosage of 100μ Ci/lb. The appearance of the most common neoplasms of the central nervous system in childhood is characterized. (U.S.)

  5. Radiotherapy of the central nervous system in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is a site of occult and overt involvement with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Prophylactic treatment of the cranial and spinal meninges can significantly reduce the incidence of CNS relapse. This review addresses the issues associated with the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of the CNS in ALL.20 references

  6. Sino-orbital aspergillosis with central nervous system complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A central nervous system (CNS) complication (cerebral abscess) was diagnosed following seizures in the patient. The patient died a few days later. Conclusion: The diagnosis of aspergillosis of the orbit was only made from fungal culture after the patient's death. It requires a high index of suspicion to make a diagnosis of ...

  7. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  8. Primary cerebral angitis of the central nervous | Das | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various medications like intravenous immunoglobulin, antibiotics, acyclovir, methyl prednisolone and management for raised intracranial pressure were instituted. She rapidly deteroriated and died on tenth hospital day. Only at autopsy was the diagnosis of primary angitis of central nervous system established. East African ...

  9. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  10. Computed tomography of the central nervous system in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipold, A.; Tipold, E.

    1991-01-01

    With computed tomography in 44 small animals some well defined anatomical structures and pathological processes of the central nervous system are described. Computed tomography is not only necessary for the diagnosis of tumors; malformations, inflammatory, degenerative and vascular diseases and traumas are also visible

  11. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  12. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this article a review is given of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the central nervous system. An example of the screening of the population for multiple scelerosis is given. A good preliminary examination and the supply of relevant information to the person which performs the imaging is necessary. (R.B.). 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, F.; Gandon, Y.; Heautot, J.F.; Montagne, C.; Michelet, C.; Carsin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined [fr

  15. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  16. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the

  17. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  18. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; López Soto, Eduardo J; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perelló, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  19. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cabral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a, and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  20. Central nervous system radiation injury in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies on radiation injury in the central nervous system have been carried out in many species ranging from mouse to monkey. This review is restricted to studies in rodents irradiated with low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In this paper, the various rodent models of brain and spinal cord injury are described with particular emphasis on the pathology of different types of lesions and theories of their pathogenesis. Many of the initial studies were limited to relatively high single doses, but in later work more clinically relevant fractionated irradiation schemes were employed. This has led to the recognition of various types of early and late delayed injury that are analogous to the syndromes observed in humans. Two main pathways have been suggested for the pathogenesis, one involving predominantly the progressive loss of glial cells and the other involving vascular injury. The relative importance of both mechanisms will be discussed with respect to treatment conditions and to dose level in particular. An hypothesis is presented concerning the possible role of different cell types in the development of specific syndromes

  1. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis.

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  3. Central nervous system infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajiri, Ryo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watakabe, Kyoko; Murata, Yutaka; Hagino, Takeshi; Seno, Yasushi; Najima, Yuho; Igarashi, Aiko; Doki, Noriko; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2017-03-01

    Here, we described the clinical characteristics and outcomes of central nervous system (CNS) infections occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in a single institution over the previous 6 years. Charts of 353 consecutive allogeneic transplant recipients were retrospectively reviewed for CNS infection. A total of 17 cases of CNS infection were identified at a median of 38 days (range, 10-1028 days) after allo-HSCT. Causative pathogens were human herpesvirus-6 (n=6), enterococcus (n=2), staphylococcus (n=2), streptococcus (n=2), varicella zoster virus (n=1), cytomegalovirus (n=1), John Cunningham virus (n=1), adenovirus (n=1), and Toxoplasma gondii (n=1). The cumulative incidence of CNS infection was 4.1% at 1 year and 5.5% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that high-risk disease status was a risk factor for developing CNS infection (p=.02), and that overall survival at 3 years after allo-HSCT was 33% in patients with CNS infection and 53% in those without CNS infection (p=.04). Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  5. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  6. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  7. Hydatid disease of the Central Nervous System: imaging characteristics and general features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbassioun, K.; Amirjamshidi, A.; Sabouri Deylamie, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hydatid disease primarily affects the liver and typically demonstrates characteristic imaging findings. Secondary involvement due to hematogenous dissemination may be seen in almost any locations, e.g., lung, kidney, spleen, bone and central nervous system. Objectives: To review the different aspects of hydatidosis of the central nervous system briefly and discuss the pathognomonic features and rare varieties of radiological findings useful in preoperative diagnosis of the disease in the human central nervous system. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, the records of almost 100 cases of central nervous system hydatidosis were analyzed . The available images were reviewed by independent observers, either a radiologist or a neurosurgeon, and reported separately. Results: In skull x-ray films, nonspecific changes denoted increased intracranial pressure, skull asymmetry and curvilinear calcification in rare instances. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the round or oval, well-defined cystic mass with an attenuation or signal intensity similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid, with no associated perifocal edema, and no contrast enhancement as the pathognomonic findings of brain hydatidosis. Similar findings were detected in hydatid cysts involving the orbit, spinal column and spinal cord with some variations. Such findings as mild perifocal edema, non homogenous contrast enhancement, non-uniform shapes, calcification and multiplicity or septations have been the atypical radiological findings. Conclusion: In endemic areas, familiarity with typical and atypical radiological manifestations of hydatid disease of the central nervous system, will be helpful in making prompt and correct preoperative diagnosis leading to a better surgical outcome

  8. Acute Central Nervous System Complications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytan, Birol; Evim, Melike Sezgin; Güler, Salih; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Okan, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved because of intensive chemotherapy and supportive care. The frequency of adverse events has also increased, but the data related to acute central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment are sparse. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these complications and to determine their long term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital reports of 323 children with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia from a 13-year period for acute neurological complications. The central nervous system complications of leukemic involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and post-treatment late-onset encephalopathy, and neurocognitive defects were excluded. Twenty-three of 323 children (7.1%) suffered from central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. The majority of these complications (n = 13/23; 56.5%) developed during the induction period. The complications included posterior reversible encephalopathy (n = 6), fungal abscess (n = 5), cerebrovascular lesions (n = 5), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (n = 4), and methotrexate encephalopathy (n = 3). Three of these 23 children (13%) died of central nervous system complications, one from an intracranial fungal abscess and the others from intracranial thrombosis. Seven of the survivors (n = 7/20; 35%) became epileptic and three of them had also developed mental and motor retardation. Acute central neurological complications are varied and require an urgent approach for proper diagnosis and treatment. Collaboration among the hematologist, radiologist, neurologist, microbiologist, and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent fatal outcome and serious morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The twitcher mouse. Central nervous system pathology after bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suzuki, K.; Hoogerbrugge, P. M.; Poorthuis, B. J.; Bekkum, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on the pathology of the central nervous system were evaluated, at light and electron microscope levels, in the homozygous twitcher mouse (twi/twi), an authentic murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD, Krabbe disease) in humans. In the twitcher

  10. MRI findings in central nervous system of neurofibromatosis-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoen; Huang Suiqiao; Shen Jun; Hong Guobin; Wu Zhuo; Lin Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in central nervous system involvement of neurofibromatosis II. Methods: 7 patients with surgically and pathologically proved neurofibromatosis II were included. Their MR imaging findings and clinical features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The main findings of 7 cases of neurofibraomaosis II on MR imaging included bilateral acoustic neurilemoma, multiple neurofibroma, meningioma and schwannoma. Among the 7 patients, Tl-weighted imaging after contrast enhancement displayed additional lesions which had been ignored on un-enhanced scan. Conclusion: MR imaging has advantages in the detection of central nervous sys- tem involvement of neurofibromatosis II with regard to its ability to show the lesions well, meanwhile displaying the size, morphology and signal features clearly. (authors)

  11. The role of surgery in primary central nervous system lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Villalonga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL are infrequent. The traditional treatment of choice is chemotherapy. Complete resections have generally not been recommended, because of the risk of permanent central nervous system deficits with no proven improvement in survival. The aim of the current study was to compare survival among patients with PCNSL who underwent biopsy versus surgical resection. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 50 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PCNSL treated at our center from January 1994 to July 2015. Results Patients in the resection group exhibited significantly longer median survival time, relative to the biopsy group, surviving a median 31 months versus 14.5 months; p = 0.016. Conclusions In our series, patients who had surgical resection of their tumor survived a median 16.5 months longer than patients who underwent biopsy alone.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of central nervous system haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Hennessy, O.

    1993-01-01

    The variable magnetic resonance imaging appearances of central nervous system haemorrhage, both intra- and extra-axial, are described. These will vary with the type of image contrast (T1 or T2 weighting), the nature of the imaging sequence (spin-echo or gradient-echo) and the time from onset of haemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful technique for imaging haemorrhage in the central nervous system as it yields temporal information about haematoma development, and it is the only non-invasive means of imaging intraspinal haemorrhage. However, in the imaging of haematomas within 24 h of onset and in subarachnoid haemorrhage computed tomography is the investigation of choice. 13 refs., 6 figs

  13. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toirac Romani, Carlos Andres; Salmon Cruzata, Acelia; Musle Acosta, Mirelvis; Rosales Fargie, Yamile; Dosouto Infante, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  14. Leptin and the central nervous system control of glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    The regulation of body fat stores and blood glucose levels is critical for survival. This review highlights growing evidence that leptin action in the central nervous system plays a key role in both processes. Investigation into underlying mechanisms has begun to clarify the physiological role of leptin in the control of glucose metabolism and raises interesting new possibilities for the treatment of diabetes and related disorders.

  15. Regulation of Neurotransmitter Responses in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP J’-aminobutyric acid; yclic AM’P; neuromodulation ; brain 1ABTAT(Continue on reverse if necessary and...crucial enzyme for regulating neuromodulation in brain. Given the ultimate goal of developing novel pharmacological agents for N! manipulating...central nervous system function, the discovery of a biochemical response to a neuromodulator can be considered a major step in that direction. Thus, up to

  16. Rituximab treatment in primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Ross, Laura; Oon, Shereen; Nikpour, Mandana

    2018-06-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis affecting the brain and spinal cord. Treatment with biological agents has revolutionised the treatment of many rheumatic conditions but there is scant literature regarding the use of biological agents in PACNS. We present three cases of PACNS treated with rituximab, including two cases of relapsed disease, and a literature review suggesting a role for rituximab in this condition. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. O...... the subtle nature of HME, CSF HSV PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection....

  18. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur; Toorn, Ronald van

    2009-01-01

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  19. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  20. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [The Role of Imaging in Central Nervous System Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hajime; Tazoe, Jun; Yamada, Kei

    2015-07-01

    Many infections invade the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the main tool that is used to evaluate infectious lesions of the central nervous system. The useful sequences on MRI are dependent on the locations, such as intra-axial, extra-axial, and spinal cord. For intra-axial lesions, besides the fundamental sequences, including T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, advanced sequences, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy, can be applied. They are occasionally used as determinants for quick and correct diagnosis. For extra-axial lesions, understanding the differences among 2D-conventional T1-weighted images, 2D-fat-saturated T1-weighted images, 3D-Spin echo sequences, and 3D-Gradient echo sequence after the administration of gadolinium is required to avoid wrong interpretations. FLAIR plus gadolinium is a useful tool for revealing abnormal enhancement on the brain surface. For the spinal cord, the sequences are limited. Evaluating the distribution and time course of the spinal cord are essential for correct diagnoses. We summarize the role of imaging in central nervous system infections and show the pitfalls, key points, and latest information in them on clinical practices.

  2. Pazopanib efficacy in recurrent central nervous system hemangiopericytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Alentorn, Agusti; Mokhtari, Karima; Kalamarides, Michel; Sanson, Marc

    2018-04-26

    There is currently no treatment for solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/H) of the central nervous system recurring after multiple surgeries and radiotherapies. The NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion is the hallmark of these tumors, and upregulates Early Growth Factor, activating several growth pathways. We treated two patients presenting pluri-recurrent meningeal SFT/H with Pazopanib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We analyzed the exome and RNA sequencing data of one of them and, in addition to another meningeal SFT/H, compared it to the transcriptomic profiling of 5 systemic SFT/H. A dramatic clinical and radiological response was observed in both cases, respectively 84 and 43% decrease after 3 months. As a comparison, Pazopanib has only a stabilizing effect in systemic SFT/H. Indeed, central nervous system SFT/H show overexpression of different tyrosine kinases targeted by Pazopanib. Two consecutive patients with untreatable central nervous system SFT/H showed a spectacular partial response to Pazopanib, an unprecedented result in SFT/H. This result could be explained by differences in expression profiles and calls for a confirmation in a larger cohort of patients.

  3. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H H; Huygen, P L M; Merx, J L; Kremer, H P H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Longridge, Neil S

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  4. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  5. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  6. Central- and autonomic nervous system coupling in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Steffen; Bolz, Mathias; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been well described in schizophrenia (SZ), a severe mental disorder. Nevertheless, the coupling between the ANS and central brain activity has been not addressed until now in SZ. The interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS need to be considered as a feedback–feed-forward system that supports flexible and adaptive responses to specific demands. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, this study investigates central–autonomic couplings (CAC) studying heart rate, blood pressure and electroencephalogram in paranoid schizophrenic patients, comparing them with age–gender-matched healthy subjects (CO). The emphasis is to determine how these couplings are composed by the different regulatory aspects of the CNS–ANS. We found that CAC were bidirectional, and that the causal influence of central activity towards systolic blood pressure was more strongly pronounced than such causal influence towards heart rate in paranoid schizophrenic patients when compared with CO. In paranoid schizophrenic patients, the central activity was a much stronger variable, being more random and having fewer rhythmic oscillatory components. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the interplay of neuronal and autonomic regulatory processes in SZ and most likely greater insights into the complex relationship between psychotic stages and autonomic activity. PMID:27044986

  7. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...) and/or abnormal vascularity (abnormal blood supply and circulation) of the central nervous system. The...

  8. Central nervous system involvement in childhood HIV: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Perez, A.; Otero, C.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the neuroradiological findings disclosed by CT on children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to analyze the different radiological changes observed in the presence and absence of HIV encephalopathy. Fifty-one children with vertically transmitted HIV infection were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of neurological changes (groups I and II, respectively). All the patients underwent cranial CT at different phases during the course of the disease. The presence of cerebral atrophy, calcifications of the basal ganglia, lesions involving white matter, opportunistic infections, vascular lesions and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed. Neurological signs were observed in 17 patients (group I) and were absent in 34 (group II). Seventy percent of the patients in group I presented abnormal cranial CT findings, the most common of which were cerebral atrophy (58.8%) and calcifications of the basal ganglia (47%). One patient presented focal white matte lesions, another had hemorrhagic infarction and subdural hematoma and a third presented aneurysmal dilation of the intracerebral arteries. The rate of mortality in children with encephalopathy was 82.3%. Of the 34 patients in group II, Three (8.8%) presented an increase in the size of the ventricular system and of the subarachnoid space. Neuroradiological changes are frequently observed in children with HIV encephalopathy. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter are the most common findings. Although cerebral atrophy can precede the development of encephalopathy, its presence generally coincides with neurological deterioration. The onset of neurological signs in HIV-infected patients indicates a very poor prognosis for the outcome of the disease. (Author) 32 refs

  9. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient mimicking bilateral eye sign in brain seen in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusany; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Shibu, Deepu; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan Edathurthy; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-04-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in the diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastasis and posttreatment monitoring of several malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It also has the ability to make the important distinction between malignancy and infection in the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, leading to the initiation of the appropriate treatment and precluding the need for invasive biopsy. We report an interesting case of HIV positive 35-year-old woman presented with headache, disorientation, and decreased level of consciousness. She underwent whole body PET/CT which showed multiple lesions in the cerebrum which mimics bilateral eye in brain. A diagnosis of a primary CNS lymphoma was made and patient was started on chemotherapy.

  10. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in an human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient mimicking bilateral eye sign in brain seen in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusany; Thirugnanam, Rajasekar; Shibu, Deepu; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan Edathurthy; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in the diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastasis and posttreatment monitoring of several malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It also has the ability to make the important distinction between malignancy and infection in the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, leading to the initiation of the appropriate treatment and precluding the need for invasive biopsy. We report an interesting case of HIV positive 35-year-old woman presented with headache, disorientation, and decreased level of consciousness. She underwent whole body PET/CT which showed multiple lesions in the cerebrum which mimics bilateral eye in brain. A diagnosis of a primary CNS lymphoma was made and patient was started on chemotherapy

  11. The Central Nervous System and Bone Metabolism: An Evolving Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Paul; Rosen, Cliff

    2017-05-01

    Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function. The sympathetic nervous system was originally identified as the predominant efferent pathway mediating central signalling to control skeleton metabolism, in part regulated through circadian genes. More recent evidence points to a role of the parasympathetic nervous system in the control of skeletal metabolism either through muscarinic influence of sympathetic nerves in the brain or directly via nicotinic receptors on osteoclasts, thus providing evidence for broader autonomic skeletal regulation. Sensory innervation of bone has also received focus again widening our understanding of the complex neuronal regulation of bone mass. Whilst scientific advance in this field of bone metabolism has been rapid, progress is still required to understand how these model systems work in relation to the multiple confounders influencing skeletal metabolism, and the relative balance in these neuronal systems required for skeletal growth and development in childhood and maintaining skeletal integrity in adulthood.

  12. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  13. Tolerance of the central nervous system to photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigg, D.R.; Murray, R.M.L.; Koschel, K.

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response isoeffect equations have been determined for hypothalamic pituitary insufficiency following cranial irradiation. Of particular importance is the occurrence of complications at doses substantially less than those commonly used for the treatment of central nervous system tumors. Such complications may be severe and potentially life threatening. These complications occur when a small midline 'target' volume containing the pituitary gland, infundibulum and adjacent inferior hypothalamic structures is irradiated. Direct pituitary irradiation is unlikely to be a factor, at least in some cases. The possible role of incidental hypothalamic irradiation in the control of acromegaly and pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome is discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Prophylactic radiotherapy for central nervous system in acute leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Ferrigno, R.

    1994-01-01

    Prophylaxis of the central nervous system in leukemias is a complex problem and there is no optimal solution that is universal for all patients. Radiation therapy, because of its CNS toxicity and potential carcinogenicity, is reserved for those in the highest risk groups. The cranial radiation dose is 18 Gy, while the spinal cord is treated with intrathecal methotrexate or multidrug therapy. The authors describe the basic aspects of radiation therapy treatment planning, as the main areas that should be included in treatment field, in order to guarantee favourable results. (author)

  15. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  16. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Emes, Richard; Elsheikha, Hany; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Acanthamoeba granulomatous encephalitis generally develops as a result of haematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system (CNS) and cause inflammation. At present, the mechanisms which Acanthamoeba use to invade this incredibly well-protected area of the CNS and produce infection are not well understood. In this paper, we propose two key virulence factors: mannose-binding protein and extracellular serine proteases as key players in Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier leading to neuronal injury. Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  18. Central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, A.G.; Boyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ischemic neurologic events and neuropsychiatric disorders occur in approximately 70% of patients with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The CT and MR findings in adults with central nervous system (CNS) SLE have been described, but to the authors' knowledge no pediatric series has been reported. The MR and CT findings in four children with CNS SLE are compared with those reported in adults. Large infarcts are less frequent in children than in adults with CNS SLE, while multiple small infarctions and white matter lesions are more common. These findings in children who have no obvious source of emboli, intracardiac shunt, or history of trauma should raise the suspicion of SLE

  19. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M.; Altena, R. van; Laridon, A.; Coeman, V.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  20. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  1. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangbing; Chen Liguang; Ma Yuxiang; Liu Wen; Lin Xiangtao; Shi Hao; Yang Zhenzhen; Qu Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T 2 -weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T 1 -weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T 2 -weighted images. T 1 -weighted images were not as good as T 2 -weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  2. Involvement of the central nervous system in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Ritsuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kuroiwa, Yoshigoro; Iwashita, Hiroshi; Kato, Motohiro.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy, intelligence quotient (IQ), brain CT scan, EEG and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) were analyzed in 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Impaired intelligence was observed in 9 out of 10 patients, abnormal brain CT in 7, and EEG abnormality in 7. The brain CT showed a diffuse cortical atrophy, a dilatation of the ventricles, and a periventricular lucency, mainly around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. The EEG findings showed a tendency toward generalized slowing of the background activity. These abnormal findings were well related to the clinical severity of MD, indicating that there is a diffuse cerebral involvement in the majority of the MD patients. VEP showed a prolonged P100 latency in 5 out of 10 patints, or 7 out of 19 eyes examined. These prolonged latency of the P100 component was considered to be due to dysfunctions of the visual pathway in the cerebral hemisphere, rather than due to cataracts and retinal dysfunctions because it was observed only in moderate and severe cases. These severe and moderate cases showed abnormalities in all four examinations. It was concluded that combination of different parameters might be useful to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in patients with MD. (author)

  3. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T W; Sill, Martin; Hovestadt, Volker; Schrimpf, Daniel; Sturm, Dominik; Koelsche, Christian; Sahm, Felix; Chavez, Lukas; Reuss, David E; Kratz, Annekathrin; Wefers, Annika K; Huang, Kristin; Pajtler, Kristian W; Schweizer, Leonille; Stichel, Damian; Olar, Adriana; Engel, Nils W; Lindenberg, Kerstin; Harter, Patrick N; Braczynski, Anne K; Plate, Karl H; Dohmen, Hildegard; Garvalov, Boyan K; Coras, Roland; Hölsken, Annett; Hewer, Ekkehard; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Schick, Matthias; Fischer, Roger; Beschorner, Rudi; Schittenhelm, Jens; Staszewski, Ori; Wani, Khalida; Varlet, Pascale; Pages, Melanie; Temming, Petra; Lohmann, Dietmar; Selt, Florian; Witt, Hendrik; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Aronica, Eleonora; Giangaspero, Felice; Rushing, Elisabeth; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Geisenberger, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Becker, Albert; Preusser, Matthias; Haberler, Christine; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Cryan, Jane; Farrell, Michael; Deckert, Martina; Hench, Jürgen; Frank, Stephan; Serrano, Jonathan; Kannan, Kasthuri; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Brück, Wolfgang; Hofer, Silvia; Brehmer, Stefanie; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Hänggi, Daniel; Hans, Volkmar; Rozsnoki, Stephanie; Hansford, Jordan R; Kohlhof, Patricia; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Lechner, Matt; Lopes, Beatriz; Mawrin, Christian; Ketter, Ralf; Kulozik, Andreas; Khatib, Ziad; Heppner, Frank; Koch, Arend; Jouvet, Anne; Keohane, Catherine; Mühleisen, Helmut; Mueller, Wolf; Pohl, Ute; Prinz, Marco; Benner, Axel; Zapatka, Marc; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Kramm, Christof M; Müller, Hermann L; Rutkowski, Stefan; von Hoff, Katja; Frühwald, Michael C; Gnekow, Astrid; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Calaminus, Gabriele; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Perry, Arie; Jones, Chris; Jacques, Thomas S; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Gessi, Marco; Pietsch, Torsten; Schramm, Johannes; Schackert, Gabriele; Westphal, Manfred; Reifenberger, Guido; Wesseling, Pieter; Weller, Michael; Collins, Vincent Peter; Blümcke, Ingmar; Bendszus, Martin; Debus, Jürgen; Huang, Annie; Jabado, Nada; Northcott, Paul A; Paulus, Werner; Gajjar, Amar; Robinson, Giles W; Taylor, Michael D; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Ryzhova, Marina; Platten, Michael; Unterberg, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Karajannis, Matthias A; Mittelbronn, Michel; Acker, Till; Hartmann, Christian; Aldape, Kenneth; Schüller, Ulrich; Buslei, Rolf; Lichter, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Herold-Mende, Christel; Ellison, David W; Hasselblatt, Martin; Snuderl, Matija; Brandner, Sebastian; Korshunov, Andrey; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M

    2018-03-22

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging-with substantial inter-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show that the availability of this method may have a substantial impact on diagnostic precision compared to standard methods, resulting in a change of diagnosis in up to 12% of prospective cases. For broader accessibility, we have designed a free online classifier tool, the use of which does not require any additional onsite data processing. Our results provide a blueprint for the generation of machine-learning-based tumour classifiers across other cancer entities, with the potential to fundamentally transform tumour pathology.

  4. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  5. [Central Nervous Involvement in Patients with Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), the second most common muscular dystrophy in the Japanese population, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the fukutin (FKTN) gene. The main features of FCMD are a combination of infantile-onset hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, eye abnormalities and central nervous system involvement with mental retardation and seizures associated with cortical migration defects. The FKTN gene product is thought to be necessary for maintaining migrating neurons in an immature state during migration, and for supporting migration via α-dystroglycan in the central nervous system. Typical magnetic resonance imaging findings in FCMD patients are cobblestone lissencephaly and cerebellar cystic lesions. White matter abnormalities with hyperintensity on T(2)-weighted images are seen especially in younger patients and those with severe phenotypes. Most FCMD patients are mentally retarded and the level is moderate to severe, with IQs ranging from 30 to 50. In our recent study, 62% of patients developed seizures. Among them, 71% had only febrile seizures, 6% had afebrile seizures from the onset, and 22% developed afebrile seizures following febrile seizures. Most patients had seizures that were controllable with just 1 type of antiepileptic drug, but 18% had intractable seizures that must be treated with 3 medications.

  6. [Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus - diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka, Magdalena

    Nervous system involvement in lupus belongs to its severe complications and significantly impacts its prognosis. Neuropsychiatric lupus includes 19 disease manifestations concerning both central and peripheral nervous system. This paper presents clinical aspects of central nervous system involvement in lupus. It reviews its epidemiology, risk factors and principles of diagnosis and therapy.

  7. Differentiation of Enhancing Glioma and Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma by Texture-Based Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide-Leon, P; Dufort, P; Geraldo, A F; Alshafai, L; Maralani, P J; Spears, J; Bharatha, A

    2017-06-01

    Accurate preoperative differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma and enhancing glioma is essential to avoid unnecessary neurosurgical resection in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a machine-learning algorithm by using texture analysis of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images for differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma and enhancing glioma. Seventy-one adult patients with enhancing gliomas and 35 adult patients with primary central nervous system lymphomas were included. The tumors were manually contoured on contrast-enhanced T1WI, and the resulting volumes of interest were mined for textural features and subjected to a support vector machine-based machine-learning protocol. Three readers classified the tumors independently on contrast-enhanced T1WI. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were estimated for each reader and for the support vector machine classifier. A noninferiority test for diagnostic accuracy based on paired areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve was performed with a noninferiority margin of 0.15. The mean areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.877 (95% CI, 0.798-0.955) for the support vector machine classifier; 0.878 (95% CI, 0.807-0.949) for reader 1; 0.899 (95% CI, 0.833-0.966) for reader 2; and 0.845 (95% CI, 0.757-0.933) for reader 3. The mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the support vector machine classifier was significantly noninferior to the mean area under the curve of reader 1 ( P = .021), reader 2 ( P = .035), and reader 3 ( P = .007). Support vector machine classification based on textural features of contrast-enhanced T1WI is noninferior to expert human evaluation in the differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma and enhancing glioma. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. human immunodeficiency virus and the nervous system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    pathogenicity, drug resistance and predisposition to ... tropical countries, antiretroviral therapy is not available ... induced peripheral nervous system disorders ... ataxia and intractable vomiting. ... eligibility for chemotherapy and survival after.

  9. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system; Effectos radioinducidos sobre el sistema nervioso central en desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisone, P; Dubner, D; Michelin, S C; Perez, M.R. Del [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Gerencia de Apoyo Cientifico, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-11-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed. 8 refs.

  10. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Bøgh, I. B.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    normoglycaemia. Brain glucose concentrations, being approximately 15-20% of the blood glucose concentration in humans, are rigorously maintained during hypoglycaemia through adaptions such as increased cerebral glucose transport, decreased cerebral glucose utilisation and, possibly, by using central nervous...... system glycogen as a glucose reserve. However, during sustained hypoglycaemia, the brain cannot maintain a sufficient glucose influx and, as the cerebral hypoglycaemia becomes severe, electroencephalogram changes, oxidative stress and regional neuronal death ensues. With particular focus on evidence from...

  11. Nanomaterials for delivery of nucleic acid to the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Danyang; Wu, Lin-Ping

    2017-01-01

    -related disease, such as neurodegeneration and disorders, suitable, safe and effective drug delivery nanocarriers have to been developed to overcome the blood brain barrier (BBB), which is the most inflexible barrier in human body. Here, we highlight the structure and function of barriers in the central nervous...... system (CNS) and summary several types of nanomaterials which can be potentially used in the brain delivery nucleic acid....

  12. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10 -5 M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3 H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  13. Central nervous system side effects associated with zolpidem treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, L C; Tsambiras, B M; Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Cooper, D S

    2000-01-01

    Zolpidem is one of the newer medications developed for the treatment of insomnia. It is an imidazopyridine agent that is an alternative to the typical sedative-hypnotic agents. Zolpidem use is gaining favor because of its efficacy and its side effect profile, which is milder and less problematic than that of the benzodiazepines and barbiturates used to treat insomnia. Still, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem use. We report a series of cases in which the patients developed delirium, nightmares and hallucinations during treatment with zolpidem. We will review its pharmacology, discuss previous reports of central nervous system side effects, examine the impact of drug interactions with concurrent use of antidepressants, examine gender differences in susceptibility to side effects, and explore the significance of protein binding in producing side effects.

  14. Tendencies the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Jimenez Medina, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) and that chemotherapy (QMT) is used even more, as well as the other drugs. A bibliographic review was made to update the knowledge on the current trends and perspectives of RT applied to CNS tumors. The following were found among them: a) combinations of RT and CMT; b) radiosensitizers incorporated to the radiant treatment; c) angiogenesis inhibitors associated with RT; d) the scale-up or increase of the RT doses thanks to the development of new technologies, such as 3 D conformal radiotherapy, intensity- modulated radiotherapy, surgery and others. Another field of research is that of the changes in the rhythm or fractioning of the RT: hyperfractionated, accelerated, combinations of both, etc., which will allow mainly to increase the dosage scale-up

  15. Central nervous system hypoxia in children due to near drowning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, S.J.; Gerald, B.; Magill, H.L.; Tonkin, I.L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen children who experienced acute, profound central nervous system hypoxia secondary to near drowning, aspiration, or respiratory arrest underwent CT examination. During the first week after the episode, the most frequent finding was a loss of gray-white matter differentiation. Other findings included effacement of sulci and cisterns, focal areas of edema in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, and hemorrhagic infarctions of the basal ganglia. Subsequent CT scans obtained from two weeks to five months after the hypoxic episode showed progression of cerebral loss from cortical infarction with gyral hemorrhage and enhancement to global parenchymal atrophy. The prognosis is poor in these patients: seven children experienced severe neurologic deficits and seven died

  16. Implication of coumarins towards central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Budzyńska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are widely distributed, plant-derived, 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one derivatives which have attracted intense interest in recent years as a result of their diverse and potent pharmacological properties. Particularly, their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have been established. The present review discusses the most important pharmacological effects of natural and synthetic coumarins on the CNS, including their interactions with benzodiazepine receptors, their dopaminergic and serotonergic affinity, and their ability to inhibit cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases. The structure-activity relationships pertaining to these effects are also discussed. This review posits that natural or synthetic coumarins have the potential for development in the therapy of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, anxiety, epilepsy, and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schwingel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  18. Pericyte function in the physiological central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Rieko; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leads to disruption of the vascular network, causing vascular dysfunction. Vascular dysfunction is the major event in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases and is closely associated with the severity of neuronal dysfunction. The suppression of vascular dysfunction has been considered a promising avenue to limit damage to the CNS, leading to efforts to clarify the cellular and molecular basis of vascular homeostasis maintenance. A reduction of trophic support and oxygen delivery due to circulatory insufficiency has long been regarded as a major cause of vascular damage. Moreover, recent studies provide a new perspective on the importance of the structural stability of blood vessels in CNS diseases. This updated article discusses emerging information on the key role of vascular integrity in CNS diseases, specially focusing on pericyte function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Richa; Saksena, Sona; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB

  20. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  1. Dendrimer Advances for the Central Nervous System Delivery of Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included. PMID:24274162

  2. Dendrimer advances for the central nervous system delivery of therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leyuan; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of noninvasive treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is generally limited by the poor access of therapeutic agents into the CNS. Most CNS drugs cannot permeate into the brain parenchyma because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and overcoming this has become one of the most significant challenges in the development of CNS therapeutics. Rapid advances in nanotechnology have provided promising solutions to this challenge. This review discusses the latest applications of dendrimers in the treatment of CNS diseases with an emphasis on brain tumors. Dendrimer-mediated drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis are also reviewed. The toxicity, biodistribution, and transport mechanisms in dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents bypassing or crossing the BBB are also discussed. Future directions and major challenges of dendrimer-mediated delivery of CNS therapeutic agents are included.

  3. Mosaic serine proteases in the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Shinichi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2008-01-01

    We review the structure and function of three kinds of mosaic serine proteases expressed in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Mosaic serine proteases have several domains in the proenzyme fragment, which modulate proteolytic function, and a protease domain at the C-terminus. Spinesin/TMPRSS5 is a transmembrane serine protease whose presynaptic distribution on motor neurons in the spinal cord suggests that it is significant for neuronal plasticity. Cell type-specific alternative splicing gives this protease diverse functions by modulating its intracellular localization. Motopsin/PRSS12 is a mosaic protease, and loss of its function causes mental retardation. Recent reports indicate the significance of this protease for cognitive function. We mention the fibrinolytic protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which has physiological and pathological functions in the CNS.

  4. Monitoring In Patients With Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunoday G R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of brain injury in infections of central nervous system (CNS are complex. While the primary injury may be due to meningeal and/or parenchymal invasion by the pathogen and release of toxins, a variety of secondary insults occur, which may influence the outcome as much as the primary insult. This concept is well recognized in brain trauma(1,2 where early recognition of secondary injuries and their appropriate treatment has been shown to improve outcome. Hypoxia, ischemia and metabolic disturbances are important secondary insults recognized in brain trauma, These are known to cause permanent neurological damage and worsening of outcome if undetected and untreated. In CNS infections, with their complex pathophysiologies, there is ample scope for such secondary insults. Monitoring in patients with CNS infections is to detect these secondary insults, allowing for a more informed approach to treatment.

  5. Visualization of radiation effects on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Dinkel, J.; Zamecnik, C.

    2012-01-01

    Therapy-related side effects, which are detectable with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at high sensitivity, are one of the most frequent causes of morbidity in cancer patients. They can be observed in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases as well as in systemic therapy, including whole brain irradiation and chemotherapy and are more often seen due to the better overall survival. This review describes the most frequent acute and chronic therapy-related changes in the CNS and the imaging findings. Acute changes are often reversible while chronic changes can be observed up to several years after treatment. The differentiation of treatment-related from tumor-related changes might be very difficult, although modern imaging modalities such as MR spectroscopy or MR perfusion measurements supply helpful differential diagnostic information. (orig.) [de

  6. Central Nervous System (CNS Disease Triggering Takotsubo Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is usually triggered by psychological or physical stress. One of the many physical sources of stress are central nervous system (CNS disorders. CNS disorders most frequently triggering TTS include subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, migraine, and intracerebral bleeding. More rare CNS-triggers of TTS include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encephalitis, or traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. TTS triggered by any of the CNS disorders needs to be recognized since adequate treatment of TTS may improve the general outcome from the CNS disorder as well. Neurologists need to be aware of TTS as a complication of specific CNS disorders but TTS may be triggered also by CNS disorders so far not recognised as causes of TTS.

  7. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system - A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannalini, S.

    1997-01-01

    There is little information on superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) in the literature, mainly due to the rarity of the disease, the difficulties in diagnosis (autopsy pre magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and the long latency of the symptoms. With the advent of MRI, for the first time we are able to make a positive in vivo diagnosis. But this comes at a time of less disease incidence, and little clinical awareness. MRI is able to make the diagnosis because of the strong paramagnetic effect of haemosiderin, the blood by-product that is deposited on the brain surface in superficial siderosis of the CNS. The ability of the brain to biosynthesize ferritin in response to prolonged contact with haemosiderin is thought to be the most important factor in the pathogenesis of superficial siderosis. (author)

  8. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  9. MR imaging of the pediatric central nervous system utilization review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.D.; Prince, J.R.; Galloway, D.C.; Ross-Duggan, J.; Lester, P.D.; Yamanashi, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    MR has been done in over 500 pediatric and adolescent patients (ages 5 days to 20 years) with central nervous system (CNS) disease (brain, n = 331; spine, n = 218), including high-field and special coil application in 362 cases. T1-weighted, multiplanar MR imaging provides superior anatomic delineation of organogenetic CNS malformations, while multiparameter (T1, T2, p) MR is usually necessary for more complete characterization of histogenetic malformations, as well as acquired conditions. MR imaging is a desirable method for the initial and definitive evaluation of many cranial and spinal conditions of childhood (more-invasive procedures were obviated in 164 patients). CT or other modalities may be added when MR imaging does not satisfy the clinical query

  10. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  11. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  12. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  13. Radioautographic localization of neuropeptide receptors in central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostene, W.; Besson, J.; Broer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The first step of any physiological effect of a neuropeptide (NP) is its recognition by specific receptor sites. The very organization of the central nervous system (CNS) does not permit a precise localization of these binding sites by conventional binding assays. The aim of the present paper is to describe in detail a recently developed in vitro methodology for the localization, visualization and quantitation of specific binding sites for various NP such as TRH, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the rat CNS. The combination of this autoradiographic technique with radioimmunological measurements of NP, reveals that the endogenous distribution of THR, for example, in various brain regions, is not correlated with the presence of its binding sites. In vitro autoradiography may also be used to study the neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory role of NP in the CNS [fr

  14. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  15. Misdiagnosis of acute peripheral vestibulopathy in central nervous ischemic infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Eva Maria; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Ropposch, Thorsten; Nemetz, Ulrike; Lackner, Andreas; Walch, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Vertigo is a very common symptom at otorhinolaryngology (ENT), neurological, and emergency units, but often, it is difficult to distinguish between vertigo of peripheral and central origin. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a hospital database, including all patients admitted to the ENT University Hospital Graz after neurological examination, with a diagnosis of peripheral vestibular vertigo and subsequent diagnosis of central nervous infarction as the actual cause for the vertigo. Twelve patients were included in this study. All patients with acute spinning vertigo after a thorough neurological examination and with uneventful computed tomographic scans were referred to our ENT department. Nine of them presented with horizontal nystagmus. Only 1 woman experienced additional hearing loss. The mean diagnostic delay to the definite diagnosis of a central infarction through magnetic resonance imaging was 4 days (SD, 2.3 d). A careful otologic and neurological examination, including the head impulse test and caloric testing, is mandatory. Because ischemic events cannot be diagnosed in computed tomographic scans at an early stage, we strongly recommend to perform cranial magnetic resonance imaging within 48 hours from admission if vertigo has not improved under conservative treatment.

  16. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  17. Central nervous system regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sarah; Taher, Jennifer; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-02-01

    In response to nutrient availability, the small intestine and brain closely communicate to modulate energy homeostasis and metabolism. The gut-brain axis involves complex nutrient sensing mechanisms and an integration of neuronal and hormonal signaling. This review summarizes recent evidence implicating the gut-brain axis in regulating lipoprotein metabolism, with potential implications for the dyslipidemia of insulin resistant states. The intestine and brain possess distinct mechanisms for sensing lipid availability, which triggers subsequent regulation of feeding, glucose homeostasis, and adipose tissue metabolism. More recently, central receptors, neuropeptides, and gut hormones that communicate with the brain have been shown to modulate hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism via parasympathetic and sympathetic signaling. Gut-derived glucagon-like peptides appear to be particularly important in modulating the intestinal secretion of chylomicron particles via a novel brain-gut axis. Dysregulation of these pathways may contribute to postprandial diabetic dyslipidemia. Emerging evidence implicates the central and enteric nervous systems in controlling many aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain involving neuronal pathways and gut peptides is critical for regulating feeding and metabolism, and forms a neuroendocrine circuit to modulate dietary fat absorption and intestinal production of atherogenic chylomicron particles.

  18. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress. Research on the role of microbiome in CNS disorders deepens our academic knowledge about host-microbiome commensalism in central regulation and in practicality, holds conceivable promise for developing novel prognostic and therapeutic avenues for CNS disorders. PMID:24370461

  19. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the anterior/posterior axis, this ancestor used gene networks homologous to those patterning three organizing centers in the vertebrate brain: the anterior neural ridge, the zona limitans intrathalamica and the isthmic organizer, and subsequent evolution of the vertebrate brain involved elaboration of these ancestral signaling centers; however, all or part of these signaling centers were lost from the CNS of invertebrate chordates. The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once – in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm. The expression patterns of genes involved in medio/lateral (dorso/ventral) patterning of the CNS are similar in protostomes and chordates; however, these genes are not similarly expressed in the ectoderm outside the CNS. Thus, their expression is a better criterion for CNS homologs than the expression of anterior/posterior patterning genes, many of which (for example, Hox genes) are similarly expressed both in the CNS and in the remainder of the ectoderm in many bilaterians. The evidence leaves hemichordates in an ambiguous position – either CNS centralization was lost to some extent at the base of the hemichordates, or even earlier, at the base of the hemichordates

  20. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the central nervous system: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Section of Neuroradiology, Service of Radiology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Toni, G. de [University Hospital, Medical School of Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Borba, L.A. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Oliveira, G.G. [Division of Pathology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil)

    1995-11-01

    A retrospective analisis of six cases of central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis, all but one proven by biopsy and surgery, was carried out to study the CT and clinical data and pathological correlation. Most of the patients were from the country. Headache, vomiting, seizures and hemiparesis were the most frequent symptoms. Papilloedema was present in four patients with raised intracranial pressure. Five patients had chronic lung disease and two with advanced systemic disease, skin and mucous membrane lesions were also observed. The neurological disturbance was sometimes the presenting features and the diagnosis was discovered incidentally after surgery. Both solitary and multiple parenchymal lesions were observed and the cerebral hemispheres were more commonly involved in four patients. Local meningeal involvement was observed in one with a single cortical granuloma. We enphasise the usefulness of CT, showing a rounded or lobulated mass with an isodense or radiolucent centre after contrast enhancement, surrounded by an irregular wall of varying thickness. There was always moderate oedema, extending peripherally. Other infections or neoplastic diseases may present similar findings. Preoperative diagnosis should rest on integration of clinical data, chest films, laboratory and neuroimaging studies. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The Central Nervous in system Rhabdoid tumor primitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manana, G.; Bernachin, J.; Waskoff, S.; Panuncio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Primitive Rhabdoid tumors of the Central Nervous system are entities of very low frequency and since 1942 is the first event observed in a total of 16,000 cases studied in the Laboratory of Neuropathology, Clinical Hospital. Until 2003 were described 118 case in the literature. The case is about the 3 years old child with no previous medical history consulted for 3 months with headaches, repeated vomiting, irritability and non specific abnormal gait. On examination is found a physical waking depression and great hydrocephalus in V I bilateral pair so is submitted to a emergency surgery. RMI CT and MRI performed reveals large frontal tumor that reaches the oval center with cystic and calcifications areas. Three days after is operates for the intraventricular tumor without post operative complications. Receive chemotherapy and the patient died 2 years later. The neuro pathological and ultrastructural study reveals a Rhabdoid malignancy brain tumor of grade IV as well as were analyzed histopathological and ultrastructural aspects of this entity

  2. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  3. Preferential lentiviral targeting of astrocytes in the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fassler

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize and genetically manipulate specific cell populations of the central nervous system (CNS is fundamental to a better understanding of brain functions at the cellular and molecular levels. Tools to selectively target cells of the CNS include molecular genetics, imaging, and use of transgenic animals. However, these approaches are technically challenging, time consuming, and difficult to control. Viral-mediated targeting of cells in the CNS can be highly beneficial for studying and treating neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, despite specific marking of numerous cell types in the CNS, in vivo selective targeting of astrocytes has not been optimized. In this study, preferential targeting of astrocytes in the CNS was demonstrated using engineered lentiviruses that were pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis envelope and displayed anti-GLAST IgG on their surfaces as an attachment moiety. Viral tropism for astrocytes was initially verified in vitro in primary mixed glia cultures. When injected into the brains of mice, lentiviruses that displayed GLAST IgG on their surface, exhibited preferential astrocyte targeting, compared to pseudotyped lentiviruses that did not incorporate any IgG or that expressed a control isotype IgG. Overall, this approach is highly flexible and can be exploited to selectively target astrocytes or other cell types of the CNS. As such, it can open a window to visualize and genetically manipulate astrocytes or other cells of the CNS as means of research and treatment.

  4. Current Management of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Bovi, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord. Initially thought to be characteristically associated with congenital, iatrogenic, or acquired immunosuppression, PCNSL is now recognized with increasing frequency in immunocompetent individuals. The role of surgery is limited to establishing diagnosis, as PCNSL is often multifocal with a propensity to involve the subarachnoid space. A whole-brain radiation volume has empirically been used to adequately address the multifocal tumor frequently encountered at the time of PCNSL diagnosis. Despite high rates of response after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), rapid recurrence is common and long-term survival is the exception. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with WBRT has more recently become the treatment of choice. Most effective regimens contain high-dose methotrexate and or other agents that are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. High response rates and improved survival with the use of chemotherapy has led to treatment strategies that defer or eliminate WBRT in hopes of lessening the risk of neurotoxicity attributed to WBRT. Unfortunately, elimination of WBRT is also associated with a higher rate of relapse. Combined chemotherapy and WBRT regimens are now being explored that use lower total doses of radiation and altered fractionation schedules with the aim of maintaining high rates of tumor control while minimizing neurotoxicity. Pretreatment, multifactor prognostic indices have recently been described that may allow selection of treatment regimens that strike an appropriate balance of risk and benefit for the individual PCNSL patient.

  5. Clinical Proton MR Spectroscopy in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Jeffry R.; Barker, Peter B.; Bartha, Robert; Bizzi, Alberto; Boesch, Chris; Bolan, Patrick J.; Brindle, Kevin M.; Cudalbu, Cristina; Dinçer, Alp; Dydak, Ulrike; Emir, Uzay E.; Frahm, Jens; González, Ramón Gilberto; Gruber, Stephan; Gruetter, Rolf; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Heerschap, Arend; Henning, Anke; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Hüppi, Petra S.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kantarci, Kejal; Klomp, Dennis W. J.; Kreis, Roland; Kruiskamp, Marijn J.; Leach, Martin O.; Lin, Alexander P.; Luijten, Peter R.; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Pan, Jullie W.; Peet, Andrew C.; Poptani, Harish; Posse, Stefan; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Ross, Brian D.; Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Schuster, Christian; Smith, Ian C. P.; Soher, Brian J.; Tkáč, Ivan; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [1H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of 1H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the central nervous system. The clinical usefulness of 1H MR spectroscopy has been established for brain neoplasms, neonatal and pediatric disorders (hypoxia-ischemia, inherited metabolic diseases, and traumatic brain injury), demyelinating disorders, and infectious brain lesions. The growing list of disorders for which 1H MR spectroscopy may contribute to patient management extends to neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and stroke. To facilitate expanded clinical acceptance and standardization of MR spectroscopy methodology, guidelines are provided for data acquisition and analysis, quality assessment, and interpretation. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to expedite the use of robust MR spectroscopy methodology in the clinical setting, including incorporation of technical advances on clinical units. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24568703

  6. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Helm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of central nervous system (CNS diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes.

  7. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O'Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement

  8. A case of disseminated central nervous system sparganosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiphithak, Raywat; Doungprasert, Gahn

    2016-01-01

    Sparganosis is a very rare parasitic infection in various organs caused by the larvae of tapeworms called spargana. The larva usually lodges in the central nervous system (CNS) and the orbit. However, lumbar spinal canal involvement, as noted in the present case, is extremely rare. We report a rare case of disseminated CNS sparganosis involving the brain and spinal canal and review the literature. A 54-year-old man presented with progressive low back pain and neurological deficit at the lumbosacral level for 2 months. Imaging indicated arachnoiditis and an abnormal lesion at the L4-5 vertebral level. The patient underwent laminectomy of the L4-5 with lesionectomy and lysis of adhesions between the nerve roots. Microscopic examination indicated sparganum infection. Further brain imaging revealed evidence of chronic inflammation in the left parieto-occipital area without evidence of live parasites. In addition, an ophthalmologist reported a nonactive lesion in the right conjunctiva. The patient recovered well after surgery, although he had residual back pain and bladder dysfunction probably due to severe adhesion of the lumbosacral nerve roots. CNS sparganosis can cause various neurological symptoms similar to those of other CNS infections. A preoperative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is helpful for diagnosis, especially in endemic areas. Surgical removal of the worm remains the treatment of choice.

  9. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  10. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  11. A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Gastrodiae (also known as Tian ma, the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume, is a famous Chinese herb that has been traditionally used for the treatment of headache, dizziness, spasm, epilepsy, stoke, amnesia and other disorders for centuries. Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the main bioactive constituent of Rhizoma Gastrodiae. Since identified in 1978, gastrodin has been extensively investigated on its pharmacological properties. In this article, we reviewed the central nervous system (CNS effects of gastrodin in preclinical models of CNS disorders including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, affective disorders, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cognitive impairment as well as the underlying mechanisms involved and, where possible, clinical data that support the pharmacological activities. The sources and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin were also reviewed here. As a result, gastrodin possesses a broad range of beneficial effects on the above-mentioned CNS diseases, and the mechanisms of actions include modulating neurotransmitters, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, suppressing microglial activation, regulating mitochondrial cascades, up-regulating neurotrophins, etc. However, more detailed clinical trials are still in need for positioning it in the treatment of neurological disorders.

  12. Calcium signal communication in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Katleen; Cabooter, Liesbet; Paemeleire, Koen; Leybaert, Luc

    2004-02-01

    The communication of calcium signals between cells is known to be operative between neurons where these signals integrate intimately with electrical and chemical signal communication at synapses. Recently, it has become clear that glial cells also exchange calcium signals between each other in cultures and in brain slices. This communication pathway has received utmost attention since it is known that astrocytic calcium signals can be induced by neuronal stimulation and can be communicated back to the neurons to modulate synaptic transmission. In addition to this, cells that are generally not considered as brain cells become progressively incorporated in the picture, as astrocytic calcium signals are reported to be communicated to endothelial cells of the vessel wall and can affect smooth muscle cell tone to influence the vessel diameter and thus blood flow. We review the available evidence for calcium signal communication in the central nervous system, taking into account a basic functional unit -the brain cell tripartite- consisting of neurons, glial cells and vascular cells and with emphasis on glial-vascular calcium signaling aspects.

  13. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, SCID, B6, B6C3F1 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive. Radiation sensitivity of these cells ware SCID>B6>B6C3F1>C3H to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. Memory function were rapidly decrease after irradiation both ions. C-ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation, but Iron group were different. (author)

  14. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Liu Cuihua; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2003-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), B6 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. (author)

  15. Fetal central nervous system anomalies: fast MRI vs ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenzhong; Xia Liming; Yang Minjie; Feng Dingyi; Hu Junwu; Zou Mingli; Wang Chengyuan; Chen Xinlin; Yang Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of fast MRI to detect fetal central nervous system (CNS) anomalies and to compare its performance with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Methods Forty-eight pregnant women were detected by conventional prenatal US and MRI. Twenty-two fetuses with CNS anomalies were conformed by autopsy and follow-up. The MR and US appearances of fetal CNS structure were compared to each other and to that of autopsy. Results: A total of 26 CNS anomalies were identified by autopsy (n=17) and follow-up (n=9) including anencephaly (n=6), rachischisis (n=2), encephalocele (n=3), congenital hydrocephalus (n=7), alobar holoprosencephaly (n=1), porencephalia (n=3), arachnoid cyst (n=2) and choroids plexus cyst (n=2). US diagnosed 24 CNS anomalies, the correct diagnostic rate was 92.3%, the false-positive rate was 3.8%, the missed-diagnostic rate was 3.8%. MRI diagnosed 23 CNS anomalies, the correct-diagnostic rate was 88.5%, the false-positive rate was 3.8% ,the missed-diagnostic rate was 7.7%. There was no difference between US and MRI (P>0.05), but MRI have larger FOV, higher tissues resolution, and can demonstrate gray-white matter in detail. Conclusions: MR imaging has a similar sensitivity to that of US in the detection of fetal CNS anomalies. (authors)

  16. MRI findings of central nervous system granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Man; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Ik Soo; Cho, Kwan Soo

    1997-01-01

    To characterize MRI findings of central nervous system (CNS) granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) and to analyse the points which differentiate it from other CNS tumors. We evaluated MRI in six patients with CNS granulocytic sarcoma proven by surgery or bone marrow biopsy (intracranical, one case and spine five cases). A 0.5T superconductive MR machine was used for diagnosis and, axial, coronal and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. We retrospectively analized the location, signal intensity, margin, contrast enhancement and homogeneity, and bony change around the tumor. MRI findings of CNS granulocytic sarcomas were as follows : one tumor was seen to be an extra-axial mass in the posterior fossa of the brain, four were epidural, and one was an epidural and presacral masses in the spine;tumor magins were lobulated and three were smooth. On T1-weighted images, all tumors were of isoignal intensity;on T2-weighted images, four were of isosignal intersity and two were of high signal intensity. Contrast enhancement was inhomogeneous in five of six cases. Bony change around the tumor was seen in two cases. On T1-weighted images, CNS granulocytic sarcomas (chloromas) were of isosignal intensity, relative to brain parenchyma or spinal cord;on T2-weighted images, they were of iso or high signal intensity, with relative contrast enhancement. These points could be useful in differentiating them from other CNS tumors

  17. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stephanie M.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS. PMID:24860829

  18. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Mitsdoerffer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS, which results in permanent neuronal damage and substantial disability in patients. Autoreactive T cells are important drivers of the disease, however, the efficacy of B cell depleting therapies uncovered an essential role for B cells in disease pathogenesis. They can contribute to inflammatory processes via presentation of autoantigen, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of pathogenic antibodies. Recently, B cell aggregates reminiscent of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs were discovered in the meninges of MS patients, leading to the hypothesis that differentiation and maturation of autopathogenic B and T cells may partly occur inside the CNS. Since these structures were associated with a more severe disease course, it is extremely important to gain insight into the mechanism of induction, their precise function and clinical significance. Mechanistic studies in patiens are limited. However, a few studies in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE recapitulate TLO formation in the CNS and provide new insight into CNS TLO features, formation and function. This review summarizes what we know so far about CNS TLOs in MS and what we have learned about them from EAE models. It also highlights the areas that are in need of further experimental work, as we are just beginning to understand and evaluate the phenomenon of CNS TLOs.

  19. Drug/radiation interactions and central nervous system injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAngelis, L.M.; Shapiro, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by combined treatment with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and chemotherapy is a complicated and difficult problem. Interactions between the two modalities at the cellular level, the effect of treatment sequencing, and chemotherapy and RT dosages are all poorly understood. While this is generally true and applicable to toxicities expressed in multiple organs and tissue types, it is particularly true for the brain. There are many clinical descriptions and situations that strongly implicate an enhanced neurotoxic potential for combined treatment compared to either therapy alone; there is a paucity of definitive experimental evidence, however, and few animal models that can be used to elucidate the nature and pathophysiology of this clinical association. This paper addresses the neurotoxic potential of a specific chemotherapeutic drug when combined with CRT; outlines whose drugs known to cause CNS injury when combined with CRT. Although many of the clinical situations are complicated because multiple cytotoxic agents have been used, usually only one is thought to contribute to the CNS injury. The authors discuss each drug separately

  20. Prenatal irradiation: radioinduced apoptosis in developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.

    1998-01-01

    Severe mental retardation (SMR) is the most significant effect of prenatal irradiation. The high radiosensitivity of developing brain is related with the chronology of morpho genetic phenomena regarding neuroblast proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration, synaptogenesis and dendritic arborization. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) normally occurs during development in central nervous system (CNS). Apoptosis is a direct result of the expression of specific genes with a final common pathway leading to a characteristic DNA fragmentation pattern. A wide variety of situations and toxic agents have been reported to result in apoptotic death in developing CNS. The aim of this work was the characterization and quantification of apoptosis using an in vitro model of prenatal irradiation. Primary cell cultures from rat brain cortex of 17 days g.a. were irradiated with a gamma source, with doses between 0.2 Gy to 2 Gy. Apoptosis was evaluated 4 hours and 20 hours after irradiation by hematoxylin/eosin, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and DNA electrophoresis. It was also evaluated the neuro protective effect of L-NAME, SOD and glutathion. A dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell fraction was observed. A protector effect related with the presence of glutathion was observed. (author) [es

  1. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Pashut

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  2. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashut, Tamar; Wolfus, Shuki; Friedman, Alex; Lavidor, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Yeshurun, Yosef; Korngreen, Alon

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS) with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  3. Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0586 TITLE: Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring PRINCIPAL...Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0586 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14-1-0586 5c...barriers that prevent the optimal delivery of biologics and cells to the injured nervous system . A significant problem is the formation of scar tissue

  4. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal.

  5. Primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a young dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyun; Ciesielski, Thomas; Kim, Jung H.; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Nam, Hae-Mi; Kim, Il-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a 3-year-old intact female Maltese dog. Canine primary central nervous system lymphomas constitute about 4% of all intracranial primary neoplasms, but comprehensive histopathologic classifications have rarely been carried out. This is the first report of this disease in a young adult dog. PMID:23115372

  6. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  7. Central nervous system complications in non-Hodgkin-lymphomas and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liffers, R.

    1981-01-01

    261 case historys of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphomas were analysed in the years from 1969 until 1978 in the 'Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Kiel'/West-Germany. 18 Patients got a central nervous complication of Non Hodgkin-Lymphoma earlier or later, a percentage of about 7. There were 7 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma (LB), a percentage of 10 for this entity. In the group of immunoblastic lymphoma (IB) 6 cases of central nervous infiltration were detected, that is a ratio of 7.7 percent. 4 case histories M. Brill-Symmers (CC/CB) were complicated by central nervous dissemination, a percentage of 5.3. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma have the highest risk of central nervous complication. The beginning of central nervous dissemination in the single case histories is very different between the histological groups. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma suffered from central nervous complication in an early phase of history, in cases of M. Brill-Symmers central nervous infiltration can occur also in a late phase. The results may determine the discussion about stratifying of radiotherapy. Early radiotherapy including central nervous system may be discussed and investigated in special histological entities of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphoma. (orig.) [de

  8. Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nickel, Mara; Gu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic sup...

  9. Biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 3-stem cell- and cell-based applications and realities in the biological management of central nervous system disorders: traumatic, vascular, and epilepsy disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Azadeh; Liu, Charles Y; Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2009-11-01

    STEM CELL THERAPY has emerged as a promising novel therapeutic endeavor for traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, and epilepsy in experimental studies. A few preliminary clinical trials have further supported its safety and early efficacy after transplantation into humans. Although not yet clinically available for central nervous system disorders, stem cell technology is expected to evolve into one of the most powerful tools in the biological management of complex central nervous system disorders, many of which currently have limited treatment modalities. The identification of stem cells, discovery of neurogenesis, and application of stem cells to treat central nervous system disorders represent a dramatic evolution and expansion of the neurosurgeon's capabilities into the neurorestoration and neuroregeneration realms. In Part 3 of a 5-part series on stem cells, we discuss the theory, experimental evidence, and clinical data pertaining to the use of stem cells for the treatment of traumatic, vascular, and epileptic disorders.

  10. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  11. Central Nervous System Strongyloidiasis and Cryptococcosis in an HIV-Infected Patient Starting Antiretroviral Therapy

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    Mónica Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome with central nervous system involvement, in a patient with late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy, in whom Strongyloides stercoralis larvae and Cryptococcus neoformans were isolated antemortem from cerebrospinal fluid. Our patient was not from an endemic region for the parasite, so strongyloidiasis was not originally suspected. For this reason, we conclude that Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be suspected in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in order to avoid potential fatal outcomes.

  12. Thyroid hormones and the central nervous system of mammals (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liegro, Italia

    2008-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) L-thyroxine (T4) and L-triiodothyronine (T3) have a profound influence on the development and maturation of the mammalian brain, both before and after birth. Any impairment in the supply of THs to the developing nervous system leads to severe and irreversible changes in both the overall architecture and functions of the brain and causes, in humans, neurological and motor deficits known as cretinism. Pronounced neurological symptoms are also commonly observed in adult patients suffering from both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and it has recently emerged that certain symptoms might result from the reduced brain uptake, rather than the insufficient production, of THs. Most of the effects of THs are mediated by two classes of nuclear receptors (α and β isoforms), which belong to the c-erbA superfamily of transcriptional regulators and are expressed in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated manner. Interestingly, the nuclear TH receptors (nTRs) act as both ligand-independent gene repressors and ligand-dependent gene activators. On the other hand, negatively-regulated genes, which can be stimulated in the absence of THs and repressed by THs, have also been observed. Due to this complex pattern of regulation, the effects of receptor dysfunction do not exactly overlap the effects of hormone deficiency or excess. Moreover, non-genomic mechanisms of TH action have been described in many tissues, including the brain, some of which seem to be mediated by integrins and to be calcium-dependent. Intracellular receptors, distinct from nTRs, are present in the mitochondria, where a matrix-associated, T3-dependent transcriptional regulator of approximately 43 kDa has been described. Finally, complex patterns of pituitary and/or peripheral resistance to thyroid hormones (RTH), characterized by elevated plasma levels of THs and non-suppressible thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), have been identified. This review summarizes the major advances

  13. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  14. Extrarenal rhabdoid tumours outside the central nervous system in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces-Inigo, Enrique F. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Radiology Department, Hermanos Falco, Albacete (Spain); Leung, Rebecca; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant rhabdoid tumours (RT) are increasingly recognized in young children, probably as a consequence of advances in accurate histological diagnosis rather than a true increase in frequency. Although typically presenting as renal tumours in infancy, extrarenal tumours outside the central nervous system (CNS) in children less than 12 months of age are now well recognized, but previous literature on their imaging features is very limited. To demonstrate the imaging features of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS. A retrospective database review was made from 1989 to 2007 of patients diagnosed with extrarenal RT in infancy, i.e. below 12 months of age. There were nine patients (six boys and three girls). The age at presentation varied from 1 to 11 months (average 6 months). Tumours were located in the thorax/mediastinum (n=3), liver (n=3), neck (n=1), shoulder (n=1) and axilla (n=1). The imaging modalities used included US (n=8), CT (n=7) and MRI (n=6). Bone scan was positive in one patient, while metastases at the time of diagnosis occurred in four patients. On MRI the tumours tended to show nonspecific hypointensity on T1-W images and heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W images, with heterogeneous enhancement. This is the largest radiological series of extrarenal RTs outside the CNS in infancy. In our series no imaging features were found specific to the diagnosis. A tendency towards large size and mediastinal/paravertebral location were noted. A hypodense solid component on CT and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-W MR images suggest that this tumour should be considered in the routine differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumours in infancy, in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. (orig.)

  15. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  16. Hox gene regulation in the central nervous system of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar eGummalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes specify the structures that form along the anteroposterior (AP axis of bilateria. Within the genome, they often form clusters where, remarkably enough, their position within the clusters reflects the relative positions of the structures they specify along the AP axis. This correspondence between genomic organization and gene expression pattern has been conserved through evolution and provides a unique opportunity to study how chromosomal context affects gene regulation. In Drosophila, a general rule, often called posterior dominance, states that Hox genes specifying more posterior structures repress the expression of more anterior Hox genes. This rule explains the apparent spatial complementarity of Hox gene expression patterns in Drosophila. Here we review a noticeable exception to this rule where the more-posteriorly expressed Abd-B hox gene fails to repress the more-anterior abd-A gene in cells of the central nervous system (CNS. While Abd-B is required to repress ectopic expression of abd-A in the posterior epidermis, abd-A repression in the posterior CNS is accomplished by a different mechanism that involves a large 92kb long non-coding RNA (lncRNA encoded by the intergenic region separating abd-A and Abd-B (the iab8ncRNA. Dissection of this lncRNA revealed that abd-A is repressed by the lncRNA using two redundant mechanisms. The 1st mechanism is mediated by a microRNA (mir-iab-8 encoded by intronic sequence within the large iab8-ncRNA. Meanwhile, the second mechanism seems to involve transcriptional interference by the long iab-8 ncRNA on the abd-A promoter. Recent work demonstrating CNS-specific regulation of genes by ncRNAs in Drosophila, seem to highlight a potential role for the iab-8-ncRNA in the evolution of the Drosophila hox complexes

  17. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira Canellas, A.; Rovira Gols, A.; Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  18. Citation classics in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Kang M; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Y; Bae, Jong S

    2017-06-01

    To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed. For neuromyelitis optica (NMO), articles that were cited more than 100 times were regarded as a citation classic and described separately. The top 100 cited articles were published between 1972 and 2011 in 13 journals. The highest number of articles ( n  = 24) was published in Brain, followed by The New England Journal of Medicine ( n  = 21). The average number of citations was 664 (range 330-3,897), and 64% of the articles were from the United States and the United Kingdom. The majority of the top 100 cited articles were related to multiple sclerosis ( n  = 87), and only a few articles reported on other topics such as NMO ( n  = 9), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ( n  = 2) and optic neuritis ( n  = 2). Among the top 100 cited articles, 77% were original articles. Forty-one citation classics were found for NMO. Our study provides a historical perspective on the research progress on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease and may serve as a guide for important advances and trends in the field for associated researchers.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  20. Craniotomy and Survival for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Ali I; Mehta, Amol; Cloney, Michael; Kinslow, Connor J; Wang, Tony J C; Bhagat, Govind; Canoll, Peter D; Zanazzi, George J; Sisti, Michael B; Sheth, Sameer A; Connolly, E Sander; McKhann, Guy M; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Iwamoto, Fabio M; Sonabend, Adam M

    2018-04-04

    Cytoreductive surgery is considered controversial for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). To investigate survival following craniotomy or biopsy for PCNSL. The National Cancer Database-Participant User File (NCDB, n = 8936), Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER, n = 4636), and an institutional series (IS, n = 132) were used. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between craniotomy, prognostic factors, and survival for PCNSL using case-control design.  In NCDB, craniotomy was associated with increased median survival over biopsy (19.5 vs 11.0 mo), independent of subsequent radiation and chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, P < .001). We found a similar trend with survival for craniotomy vs biopsy in the IS (HR 0.68, P = .15). In SEER, gross total resection was associated with increased median survival over biopsy (29 vs 10 mo, HR 0.68, P < .001). The survival benefit associated with craniotomy was greater within recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 1 group in NCDB (95.1 vs 29.1 mo, HR 0.66, P < .001), but was smaller for RPA 2-3 (14.9 vs 10.0 mo, HR 0.86, P < .001). A surgical risk category (RC) considering lesion location and number, age, and frailty was developed. Craniotomy was associated with increased survival vs biopsy for patients with low RC (133.4 vs 41.0 mo, HR 0.33, P = .01), but not high RC in the IS. Craniotomy is associated with increased survival over biopsy for PCNSL in 3 retrospective datasets. Prospective studies are necessary to adequately evaluate this relationship. Such studies should evaluate patients most likely to benefit from cytoreductive surgery, ie, those with favorable RPA and RC.

  1. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrastructural changes of central nervous system irradiated with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-12-01

    Morphological changes of the central nervous tissues (cerebral and cerebellar cortices) of mice which were irradiated by a massive dose (5,000-80,000 rad) of Linac x-ray were observed with the lapse of time by electron microscopy, and changes in their ultrastructure were investigated. Capillaries and the processes of astrocytes surrounding them, when irradiated with 5,000-40,000 rad, showed swelling of endothelial cells, nuclear atrophy, destruction of basement membrane, and swelling and edematous changes of astrocytic processes. Morphological changes of the nerve cells, granule cells of cerebellum, and astrocytes increased depending on the dose of irradiation, and their injuries appeared in the early stage, showing pyknosis, chromatokinesis, and turbid swelling, transparent swelling of mitochondria, and disappearance of Nissl's bodies as cytoplasmic changes. Destruction of cell membrane was observed in the cerebellar granule cells and astrocytes; particularly in the cerebellar granule cells, pyknosis and prominent degeneration of cytoplasm appeared very early, compared with other cells. Although no definite change nor severance was observed in the marrow sheath of medullated nerve fibers within the dose range of this study, an image of degeneration was observed in the mitochondria in the axon; splitting of marrow sheath and deformity of axon membrane were more prominent in the 40,000 rad-irradiated group than in the other groups. Synaptic vesicles tended to increase and scatter when irradiated with 5,000 rad and 10,000 rad. However, by the irradiation with 40,000 rad, the synaptic vesicles tended to enlarge and decrease on the contrary, disappearing with the lapse of time.

  3. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Belman, A L; Park, Y D; Wiley, C; Horoupian, D S; Llena, J; Kure, K; Lyman, W D; Morecki, R; Mitsudo, S

    1989-01-01

    The neuropathologic findings of brains and spinal cords removed at autopsy from 26 infants and children with AIDS is described; in two cases, only the spinal cords were available. The most common finding in the brains was dystrophic calcification of blood vessels of all calibers in the basal ganglia and deep cerebral white matter (21 og 24 cases). The next most frequent finding was subacute encephalitis (SE) (15 of 24 cases) with microglial nodules and multinulceated giant cells. Immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization studies showed HIV antigen or genetic sequences only in the brains of cases with SE. Multinucleated giants cells (MGC) were the most frequent cells with reaction products. MGC were labeled with ricinus lectin (RCA), but not with leukocyte common antigen (LCA) or glial fibrillary acidic protein. Many cells in microglial nodules were labeled with RCA, but not LCA; cells in the perivascular compartment were labeled with LCA, but not RCA. Corticospinal tract degeneration was noted in 15 of 20 spinal cords. In six cases tract degeneration was consistent with delayed myelination, and the remaining cases had axonal injury consistent with Wallerian degeneration. Opportunistic infections were rare (three cases). Central nervous system lymphoma occurred in three children and was the most common mass lesion. In two cases lymphoma occurred in the setting of a systemic polyclonal immunoproliferation possibly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cerebrovascular accidents were noted in seven cases. Two cases had hemorrhage associated with immune thrombocytopenia; one hemorrhage was catastrophic. Two children had large vessel arteriopathy with multiple encephalomalacias. Two children had a necrotizing encephalopathy with encephalomalacia and vascular changes suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Current opinions on radiotherapy of pediatric central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnacka, M.; Skowronska-Gardas, A.

    2006-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms are the most frequent solid tumors in childhood accounting for 20% of all pediatric malignancies. Despite developments in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, a significant proportion of these patients suffer progressive disease. A good treatment management strategy should consider not only survival but also the quality of life of the child. Irradiation is ann essential part of the management of the majority of CNS tumors. During then last decade, there significant advances in the technology of planning and delivery of radiation treatment. These new radiotherapy techniques such as conformal, intensity modulated photon beam and stereotactic methods allow a high homogenous dose to the tumor region with minimal doses to normal tissue. This is particularly important in children with localized low-grade tumors, whose prognosis of long-term survival is often excellent and should be accompanied by smallest risk of treatment toxicity. For small tumors fractionated radiotherapy stereotactic radiotherapy using multiple fixed non-coplanar beams is an appropriate treatment. Modification of craniospinal technique, lowering of the total craniospinal dose with adjuvant chemotherapy, new radiotherapy modalities to treat the posterior fossa may be employed to possibly decrease the late rectifies of radiation therapy. For malignant glioma and brain stem tumors we need new approaches, as chemo sensitization, angiogenesis inhibitors and gene therapies. These new methods in therapy of pediatric brain tumors and our experience in treatment of children with medulloblastoma, low-grade astrocytoma, craniopharyngioma and brain stem tumors are presented. We summarize therapeutic aspects of most childhood brain tumors. (author)

  5. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 Increased between 2005 and 2011 Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants include prescription drugs, like those used ...

  6. Progress in study on central nervous system injuries caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiang-xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and repetitive intermittent hypoxia and dysfunction of sleep architecture mainly contribute to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. More and more evidences demonstrate it is a systemic disease, which is common encountered in clinic and strongly related to the systemic lesion of central nervous system. The central nervous system complications comprise cognitive impairment, brain atrophy and the growing risk of stroke and so on. Early treatment for OSAS has a positive significance on complications of central nervous system, and even the damage can be completely reversed.

  7. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernandes Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced.

  8. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Azevedo, Bruna; Barros Furieri, Lorena; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra; Frizera Vassallo, Paula; Ronacher Simões, Maylla; Fiorim, Jonaina; Rossi de Batista, Priscila; Fioresi, Mirian; Rossoni, Luciana; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, María Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Valentim Vassallo, Dalton

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced. PMID:22811600

  9. Comprehensive allelotype and genetic anaysis of 466 human nervous system tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Deimling, A; Fimmers, R; Schmidt, M C

    2000-01-01

    Brain tumors pose a particular challenge to molecular oncology. Many different tumor entities develop in the nervous system and some of them appear to follow distinct pathogenic routes. Molecular genetic alterations have increasingly been reported in nervous system neoplasms. However......, a considerable number of affected genes remain to be identified. We present here a comprehensive allelotype analysis of 466 nervous system tumors based on loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies with 129 microsatellite markers that span the genome. Specific alterations of the EGFR, CDK4, CDKN2A, TP53, DMBT1, NF2...... may provide a valuable framework for future studies to delineate molecular pathways in many types of human central nervous system tumors....

  10. Radiologic studies in two outbreaks of isolated vasculitis in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, H.J.; Perez, M.; Tilton, A.H.; Garcia, C.; McGarry, P.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis is only occasionally diagnosed with angiography. Two outbreaks of isolated central nervous system vasculitis permitted a comparison of the accuracy of diagnostic radiologic studies. Two new radiologic features and methods of diagnosis are discussed

  11. Cerebral angiography as a guide for therapy in isolated central nervous system vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.L.; Martino, C.R.; Weinert, D.M.; Hueftle, M.; Kammer, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a case of isolated central nervous system vasculitis documented by cerebral arteriography in which remission, using a treatment regimen of prednisone and cyclophosphamide, was guided by serial arteriography during a 15-month period

  12. Mild hypothermia as a treatment for central nervous system injuries: Positive or negative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Rami; Yan, Yi

    2013-10-05

    Besides local neuronal damage caused by the primary insult, central nervous system injuries may secondarily cause a progressive cascade of related events including brain edema, ischemia, oxida-tive stress, excitotoxicity, and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Hypothermia is a beneficial strategy in a variety of acute central nervous system injuries. Mild hypothermia can treat high intra-cranial pressure following traumatic brain injuries in adults. It is a new treatment that increases sur-vival and quality of life for patients suffering from ischemic insults such as cardiac arrest, stroke, and neurogenic fever following brain trauma. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases free radical produc-tion, inflammation, excitotoxicity and intracranial pressure, and improves cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia, thus protecting against central nervous system dam-age. Although a series of pathological and physiological changes as well as potential side effects are observed during hypothermia treatment, it remains a potential therapeutic strategy for central nervous system injuries and deserves further study.

  13. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  14. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult central nervous system tumor treatment may include surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance, and targeted therapy. Treatment depends on the tumor type. Learn more about brain and spinal tumor treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  15. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2011-06-01

    Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome.

  16. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood central nervous system embryonal tumors and pineal tumors are treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue and targeted therapy. Learn more in this expert-reviewed summary.

  17. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult central nervous system tumor treatment options include surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance, and supportive care. Get detailed information about the types and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent brain and spinal tumors in this clinician summary.

  18. Bioactivity of marine organisms: Part 7- Effect of seaweed extract on central nervous system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Jain, S.; Goel, A.K.; Srimal, R.C.

    Alcohol extracts of marine algae (Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae) was screened for their effect on central nervous system. Of 69 species investigated 8 appeared biologically active, 6 being CNS stimulant, sites and dates of collection...

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  20. A pediatric renal lymphoma case presenting with central nervous system findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Ahmet; Küpeli, Serhan; Doğru, Omer

    2013-06-01

    In pediatric patients renal lymphoma frequently presents in the form of multiple, bilateral mass lesions, infrequently as a single or retroperitoneal mass, and rarely as diffuse infiltrative lesions. In patients with apparent central nervous system involvement close attention to other physical and laboratory findings are essential for preventing a delay in the final diagnosis. Herein we present a pediatric patient with renal lymphoma that presented with central nervous system findings that caused a delay in diagnosis. None declared.

  1. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieron, M.A.; Khoromi, S.; Campos, A.

    1995-01-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  2. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieron, M A [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Khoromi, S [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Campos, A [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in four dogs with central nervous system neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, Birgit; Driver, Colin J; Benigni, Livia; Davies, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is a polysystemic disease that can affect dogs of any age and can cause inflammation of the central nervous system. Antemortem diagnosis can be challenging, as clinical and conventional laboratory test findings are often nonspecific. A previous report described cerebellar lesions in brain MRI studies of seven dogs and proposed that these may be characteristic for central nervous system Neosporosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe MRI characteristics in another group of dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and compare them with the previous report. The hospital's database was searched for dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and four observers recorded findings from each dog's MRI studies. A total of four dogs met inclusion criteria. Neurologic examination was indicative of a forebrain and cerebellar lesion in dog 2 and multifocal central nervous system disease in dogs 1, 3, and 4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed mild bilateral and symmetrical cerebellar atrophy in three of four dogs (dogs 2, 3, 4), intramedullary spinal cord changes in two dogs (dogs 3, 4) and a mesencephalic and metencephalic lesion in one dog (dog 2). Multifocal brain lesions were recognized in two dogs (dogs 1, 4) and were present in the thalamus, lentiform nucleus, centrum semiovale, internal capsule, brainstem and cortical gray matter of the frontal, parietal or temporal lobe. Findings indicated that central nervous system neosporosis may be characterized by multifocal MRI lesions as well as cerebellar involvement in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  4. Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Nickel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic support and can profoundly affect neural circuit computation. Recent studies have revealed that long-lasting changes of myelination can be induced in these brain regions by experience, such as social isolation, stress, and alcohol abuse, as well as by neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. However, the mechanism and function of these changes remain poorly understood. Myelin regulation represents a new form of neural plasticity. Some progress has been made to provide new mechanistic insights into activity-independent and activity-dependent regulations of myelination in different experimental systems. More extensive investigations are needed in this important but underexplored research field, in order to shed light on how higher brain functions and myelination interplay in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  5. Effects of the fluoride on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Jiménez, L; Soria Fregozo, C; Miranda Beltrán, M L; Gutiérrez Coronado, O; Pérez Vega, M I

    2011-06-01

    Fluoride (F) is a toxic and reactive element, and exposure to it passes almost unnoticed, with the consumption of tea, fish, meat, fruits, etcetera and articles of common use such as: toothpaste additives; dental gels, non-stick pans and razor blades as Teflon. It has also been used with the intention of reducing the dental cares. Fluoride can accumulate in the body, and it has been shown that continuous exposure to it causes damaging effects on body tissues, particularly the nervous system directly without any previous physical malformations. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that the F induces changes in cerebral morphology and biochemistry that affect the neurological development of individuals as well as cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. F can be toxic by ingesting one part per million (ppm), and the effects they are not immediate, as they can take 20 years or more to become evident. The prolonged ingestion of F may cause significant damage to health and particularly to the nervous system. Therefore, it is important to be aware of this serious problem and avoid the use of toothpaste and items that contain F, particularly in children as they are more susceptible to the toxic effects of F. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: experience of a Brazilian center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Miranda Silva Dias

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estimated involvement of the central nervous system in patients with multiple myeloma is rare at about 1%. The infiltration can be identified at the time multiple myeloma is diagnosed or during its progression. However, it is more common in refractory disease or during relapse. Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed data from medical records of patients followed up at the Gammopathy Outpatient Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo from January 2008 to December 2016. Results: Twenty patients were included, with a median follow-up of 33.5 months after central nervous system infiltration. The prevalence was 7%. The median age at diagnosis of multiple myeloma was 56.1 years, with 70% of participants being female. Sixteen patients had central nervous system infiltration at diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients had exclusive osteodural lesions and three had infiltrations of the leptomeninge, of which one had exclusive involvement and two had associated osteodural lesions. The median overall survival was 40.3 months after central nervous system involvement. The median overall survival in the group with central nervous system infiltration at relapse was 7.4 months. The patients with leptomeningeal involvement had a median overall survival of 5.8 months. Conclusion: Central nervous system infiltration is a rare condition, but it should be considered as a possibility in patients with multiple myeloma and neurological symptoms. The best treatment regimen for this condition remains unknown and, in most cases, the prognosis is unfavorable. Keywords: Central nervous system, Multiple myeloma, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy, Prognosis

  7. Current Proteomic Methods to Investigate the Dynamics of Histone Turnover in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, L A; Dill, B D; Molina, H; Birtwistle, M R; Maze, I

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamic behavior of nucleosomes in the central nervous system is vital to our understanding of brain-specific chromatin-templated processes and their roles in transcriptional plasticity. Histone turnover-the complete loss of old, and replacement by new, nucleosomal histones-is one such phenomenon that has recently been shown to be critical for cell-type-specific transcription in brain, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Such revelations that histones, long believed to static proteins in postmitotic cells, are highly dynamic in neurons were only possible owing to significant advances in analytical chemistry-based techniques, which now provide a platform for investigations of histone dynamics in both healthy and diseased tissues. Here, we discuss both past and present proteomic methods (eg, mass spectrometry, human "bomb pulse labeling") for investigating histone turnover in brain with the hope that such information may stimulate future investigations of both adaptive and aberrant forms of "neuroepigenetic" plasticity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Cerebral Metabolism: Potential Applications in Stroke and Disorders of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Julius Gene S; Schmidt, Elena B

    2015-09-01

    No compound has generated more attention in both the scientific and recently in the political arena as much as cannabinoids. These diverse groups of compounds referred collectively as cannabinoids have both been vilified due to its dramatic and potentially harmful psychotropic effects and glorified due to its equally dramatic and potential application in a number of acute and chronic neurological conditions. Previously illegal to possess, cannabis, the plant where natural form of cannabinoids are derived, is now accepted in a growing number of states for medicinal purpose, and some even for recreational use, increasing opportunities for more scientific experimentation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing body of literature on cannabinoids and to present an overview of our current state of knowledge of the human endocannabinoid system in the hope of defining the future of cannabinoids and its potential applications in disorders of the central nervous system, focusing on stroke.

  9. Myelin injury in the central nervous system and Alzheimer's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Zhao; Zhu, Tian-Bi; Chu, Shi-Feng; He, Wen-Bin; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2018-05-03

    Myelin is a membrane wrapped around the axon of the nerve cell, which is composed of the mature oligodendrocytes. The role of myelin is to insulate and prevent the nerve electrical impulses from the axon of the neurons to the axons of the other neurons, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Minor changes in myelin thickness could lead to substantial changes in conduction speed and may thus alter neural circuit function. Demyelination is the myelin damage, which characterized by the loss of nerve sheath and the relative fatigue of the neuronal sheath and axon. Studies have shown that myelin injury may be closely related to neurodegenerative diseases and may be an early diagnostic criteria and therapeutic target. Thus this review summarizes the recent result of pathologic effect and signal pathways of myelin injury in neurodegenerative diseases, especially the Alzheimer's disease to provide new and effective therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Congenital and acquired mitochondrial disorders of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nikitina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentations of disorders of the nervous system manifest in young and middle-aged patients with congenital and acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions and cognitive disorders manifest in patients with mitochondrial diseases more often. Nowadays the effective methods of initial diagnosing of these conditions are neurological and neuropsychological examination of patients, using of biochemical markers of mitochondrial diseases: the indices of lactate, total homocysteine in plasma and liquor. Neuro-visual study (Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, MR spectroscopy, tractography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, mitochondrial DNA typing is actually used for the differential diagnosing of mitochondrial diseases with other disorders that are accompanied by demyelinating disorders.

  11. Endocrine factors influencing radiation injury to central nervous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, S.A.; Boone, M.L.; Laguna, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Corticosteroids have been shown experimentally to lower the tolerance of various normal tissues (lung, kidney, intestine) to irradiation. Pre-existing hypertension also modified the effect of irradiation on the rat spinal cord and brain. Hypercorticism and hypertension co-exist in patients with Cushing's disease. Although these patients are often approached therapeutically by irradiation, no reports concerning differences in the radiation sensitivity of nervous tissue between normal subjects (non-functioning pituitary adenomas) and those with hormonal imbalance and/or hypertension appear to be available. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed 14 patients with radiation damage to brain or to optic pathways following moderate doses for pituitary adenomas. Seven of the 14 patients (50%) had Cushing's disease. This apparent higher incidence of radiation injury is significant if we consider that less than 5% of all patients receiving irradiation for pituitary adenomas have Cushing's disease

  12. Lipomas of the central nervous system in childhood. Apropos of 3 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi Bottato, M.; Scavone Mauro, C.; Delfino Albornoz, A.

    2004-01-01

    Lipomas of the central nervous system occur as a phenomenon consequences developmental malformations of the central nervous system (CNS) and are not considered neoplasms . It is often associated with other congenital malformations. Representing 0.5 percent of intracranial tumors. Imaging studies are central CT or MRI for diagnosis. They are generally associated with other malformations of the CNS. The surgical treatment is always discussed by the high morbidity associated with it. We present three cases of children with lipomas of different topography. (author) [es

  13. The effect of central nervous system involvement and irradiation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskinen, Mervi; Oskarsson, Trausti; Levinsen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system irradiation (CNS-RT) has played a central role in the cure of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but due to the risk of long-term toxicity, it is now considered a less-favorable method of CNS-directed therapy. PROCEDURES: Retrospectively, we estimated the effect...

  14. The role of ZAP70 kinase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia infiltration into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadeq, Ameera; Fedders, Henning; Vokuhl, Christian; Belau, Nele M; Zimmermann, Martin; Wirbelauer, Tim; Spielberg, Steffi; Vossen-Gajcy, Michaela; Cario, Gunnar; Schrappe, Martin; Schewe, Denis M

    2017-02-01

    Central nervous system infiltration and relapse are poorly understood in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We examined the role of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in preclinical models of central nervous system leukemia and performed correlative studies in patients. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells was modulated using short hairpin ribonucleic acid-mediated knockdown or ectopic expression. We show that zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 regulates CCR7/CXCR4 via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. High expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells resulted in a higher proportion of central nervous system leukemia in xenografts as compared to zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 low expressing counterparts. High zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 also enhanced the migration potential towards CCL19/CXCL12 gradients in vitro CCR7 blockade almost abrogated homing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to the central nervous system in xenografts. In 130 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 117 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 and CCR7/CXCR4 expression levels were significantly correlated. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression correlated with central nervous system disease in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and CCR7/CXCR4 correlated with central nervous system involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. In multivariate analysis, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression levels in the upper third and fourth quartiles were associated with central nervous system involvement in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (odds ratio=7.48, 95% confidence interval, 2.06-27.17; odds ratio=6.86, 95% confidence interval, 1.86-25.26, respectively). CCR7 expression in the upper fourth quartile correlated with central

  15. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  16. Central nervous system tumours and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1989-01-01

    Among female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of fatal brain or central nervous system tumours. A significant excess did appear, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumours outside of the brain was observed, consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Excess tumours of the eye, pituitary or pineal did not occur. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. (author)

  17. MRT of the central nervous system. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Jansen, Olav (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-11-01

    The book on MRT of the central nervous system includes the following chapters: anatomy, vascular diseases, brain tumors, craniocerebral injuries, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis and related diseases, metabolic diseases, degenerative diseases, malformations and developmental disorders, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension, spinal marrow, degenerative caused spinal and foraminal stenosis, traumata, tumors and tumor-like neoplasm, vascular diseases, inflammations, infections and related diseases, diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

  18. Phenotype of Antigen Unexperienced TH Cells in the Inflamed Central Nervous System in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Sophia; Paterka, Magdalena; Birkenstock, Jerome; Zipp, Frauke; Siffrin, Volker; Witsch, Esther

    2017-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, disseminated inflammation of the central nervous system which is thought to be driven by autoimmune T cells. Genetic association studies in multiple sclerosis and a large number of studies in the animal model of the disease support a role for effector/memory T helper cells. However, the mechanisms underlying relapses, remission and chronic progression in multiple sclerosis or the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are not clear. In particular, there is only scarce information on the role of central nervous system-invading naive T helper cells in these processes. By applying two-photon laser scanning microscopy we could show in vivo that antigen unexperienced T helper cells migrated into the deep parenchyma of the inflamed central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, independent of their antigen specificity. Using flow cytometric analyses of central nervous system-derived lymphocytes we found that only antigen-specific, formerly naive T helper cells became activated during inflammation of the central nervous system encountering their corresponding antigen.

  19. Central nervous insulin resistance: a promising target in the treatment of metabolic and cognitive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallschmid, M; Schultes, B

    2009-11-01

    Research on functions and signalling pathways of insulin has traditionally focused on peripheral tissues such as muscle, fat and liver, while the brain was commonly believed to be insensitive to the effects of this hormone secreted by pancreatic beta cells. However, since the discovery some 30 years ago that insulin receptors are ubiquitously found in the central nervous system, an ever-growing research effort has conclusively shown that circulating insulin accesses the brain, which itself does not synthesise insulin, and exerts pivotal functions in central nervous networks. As an adiposity signal reflecting the amount of body fat, insulin provides direct negative feedback to hypothalamic nuclei that control whole-body energy and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, insulin affects distinct cognitive processes, e.g. by triggering the formation of psychological memory contents. Accordingly, metabolic and cognitive disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease are associated with resistance of central nervous structures to the effects of insulin, which may derive from genetic polymorphisms as well as from long-term exposure to excess amounts of circulating insulin due to peripheral insulin resistance. Thus, overcoming central nervous insulin resistance, e.g. by pharmacological interventions, appears to be an attractive strategy in the treatment and prevention of these disorders. Enhancement of central nervous insulin signalling by administration of intranasal insulin, insulin analogues and insulin sensitisers in basic research approaches has yielded encouraging results that bode well for the successful translation of these effects into future clinical practice.

  20. Review of dextromethorphan administration in 18 patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Maryam; Birnbaum, Daniel; Golden, Carla

    2014-06-01

    The pathogenesis of methotrexate central nervous system toxicity is multifactorial, but it is likely related to central nervous system folate homeostasis. The use of folinate rescue has been described to decrease toxicity in patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. It has also been described in previous studies that there is an elevated level of homocysteine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. Homocysteine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist. The use of dextromethorphan, noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor receptor antagonist, has been used in the treatment of sudden onset of neurological dysfunction associated with methotrexate toxicity. It remains unclear whether the dextromethorphan impacted the speed of recovery, and its use remains controversial. This study reviews the use of dextromethorphan in the setting of subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Charts of 18 patients who had sudden onset of neurological impairments after receiving methotrexate and were treated with dextromethorphan were reviewed. The use of dextromethorphan in most of our patients resulted in symptomatic improvement. In this patient population, earlier administration of dextromethorphan resulted in faster improvement of impairments and led to prevention of recurrence of seizure activity induced by methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Our study provides support for the use of dextromethorphan in patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  2. Risk of central nervous system defects in offspring of women with and without mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Fraser, William D; Low, Nancy; Arbour, Laura; Healy-Profitós, Jessica; Auger, Nathalie

    2018-02-22

    We sought to determine the relationship between maternal mental illness and the risk of having an infant with a central nervous system defect. We analyzed a cohort of 654,882 women aged less than 20 years between 1989 and 2013 who later delivered a live born infant in any hospital in Quebec, Canada. The primary exposure was mental illness during pregnancy or hospitalization for mental illness before pregnancy. The outcomes were neural and non-neural tube defects of the central nervous system in any offspring. We computed risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between mental disorders and risk of central nervous system defects in log-binomial regression models adjusted for age at delivery, total parity, comorbidity, socioeconomic deprivation, place of residence, and time period. Maternal mental illness was associated with an increased risk of nervous system defects in offspring (RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.64-1.89). Hospitalization for any mental disorder was more strongly associated with non-neural tube (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-1.99) than neural tube defects (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.59). Women at greater risk of nervous system defects in offspring tended to be diagnosed with multiple mental disorders, have more than one hospitalization for mental disease, or be 17 or older at first hospitalization. A history of mental illness is associated with central nervous system defects in offspring. Women hospitalized for mental illness may merit counseling at first symptoms to prevent central nervous system defects at pregnancy.

  3. [Investigation of bacterial and viral etiology in community acquired central nervous system infections with molecular methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Hasip; Tünger, Alper; Şenol, Şebnem; Gazi, Hörü; Avcı, Meltem; Örmen, Bahar; Türker, Nesrin; Atalay, Sabri; Köse, Şükran; Ulusoy, Sercan; Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Meltem; Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Yamazhan, Tansu; Gülay, Zeynep; Alp Çavuş, Sema; Pullukçu, Hüsnü

    2017-07-01

    In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of the patients were examined by standart bacteriological culture methods, bacterial multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-B ACE Detection (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Group B streptococci) and viral multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-V1 ACE Detection kits herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6)) (Seeplex meningitis-V2 ACE Detection kit (enteroviruses)). Patients were classified as purulent meningitis, aseptic meningitis and encephalitis according to their clinical, CSF (leukocyte level, predominant cell type, protein and glucose (blood/CSF) levels) and cranial imaging results. Patients who were infected with a pathogen other than the detection of the kit or diagnosed as chronic meningitis and other diseases during the follow up, were excluded from the study. A total of 79 patients (28 female, 51 male, aged 42.1 ± 18.5) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. A total of 46 patients were classified in purulent meningitis group whereas 33 were in aseptic meningitis/encephalitis group. Pathogens were detected by multiplex PCR in 41 patients. CSF cultures were positive in 10 (21.7%) patients (nine S.pneumoniae, one H.influenzae) and PCR were positive for 27 (58.6%) patients in purulent meningitis group. In this group one type of bacteria were detected in 18 patients (14 S.pneumoniae, two N

  4. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  5. [Primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system: A diagnostic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillo-Olvera, Javier; Uribe-Olalde, Juan Salvador; Alcántara-Gómez, Leopoldo Alberto; Rejón-Pérez, Jorge Dax; Palomera-Gómez, Héctor Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The rare incidence of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system and its ability to mimic other melanocytic tumors on images makes it a diagnostic challenge for the neurosurgeon. A 51-year-old patient, with a tumor located in the right forniceal callosum area. Total surgical excision was performed. Histopathological result was consistent with the diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system, after ruling out extra cranial and extra spinal melanocytic lesions. The primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system is extremely rare. There are features in magnetic resonance imaging that increase the diagnostic suspicion; nevertheless there are other tumors with more prevalence that share some of these features through image. Since there is not an established therapeutic standard its prognosis is discouraging. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis in bone marrow transplantation recipients: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermazi, Ali; Gluckman, Eliane; Tabti, Bachir; Miaux, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is being seen with an increased frequency, particularly due to the increased number of immunosuppressed patients. The major cause of invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is bone marrow transplantation. In most cases, aspergillosis develops in the paranasal sinuses and in the lungs, and secondarily spreads to the brain. Imaging of cerebral aspergillosis may present different patterns depending on the lesion's age and the immunologic status of the patient. Lesions of the spinal cord are far less common but has been encountered in our series. In this article we review the clinical and radiologic features of aspergillosis affecting the central nervous system in patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation. Different CT and MR patterns are presented, including pertinent clinical and pathologic material. Significant morbidity and mortality can be associated with this fungal infection, and it is therefore incumbent upon the radiologist to identify intracranial aspergillosis as early as possible so that appropriate therapy can be administered. (orig.)

  7. Central nervous system tissue heterotopia of the nose: case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altissimi, G; Ascani, S; Falcetti, S; Cazzato, C; Bravi, I

    2009-01-01

    Summary The Authors present a case of heterotopic central nervous system tissue observed in an 81-year-old male in the form of an ethmoidal polyp. A review of the literature indicates that this is a rare condition characterised by a connective tissue lesion with astrocytic and oligodendrocytic glial cells, which may be located outside the nasal pyramid in some cases and inside the nasal cavity in others. The most important diagnostic aspect involves differentiating these from meningoencephalocele, which maintains an anatomical connection with central nervous system tissue. Contrast-enhanced imaging is essential for diagnosis, as in cases of heterotopic central nervous system tissue, it will demonstrate that there are no connections with intra-cranial tissue. Endoscopic excision is the treatment of choice. PMID:20161881

  8. The Central Nervous System Sites Mediating the Orexigenic Actions of Ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B.L.; Wang, Q.; Zigman, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is important for both homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, and its orexigenic actions occur mainly via binding to the only known ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSRs are located in several distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review discusses those central nervous system sites that have been found to play critical roles in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin, including hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudal brain stem, and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Hopefully, this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding behavior, and as inspiration for future studies to provide an even-more-detailed map of the neurocircuitry controlling eating and body weight. PMID:24111557

  9. Functional structure and dynamics of the human nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The status of an effort to define the directions needed to take in extending pilot models is reported. These models are needed to perform closed-loop (man-in-the-loop) feedback flight control system designs and to develop cockpit display requirements. The approach taken is to develop a hypothetical working model of the human nervous system by reviewing the current literature in neurology and psychology and to develop a computer model of this hypothetical working model.

  10. CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Drummond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common human fungal pathogen and causes systemic infections that require neutrophils for effective host defense. Humans deficient in the C-type lectin pathway adaptor protein CARD9 develop spontaneous fungal disease that targets the central nervous system (CNS. However, how CARD9 promotes protective antifungal immunity in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we show that a patient with CARD9 deficiency had impaired neutrophil accumulation and induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid despite uncontrolled CNS Candida infection. We phenocopied the human susceptibility in Card9-/- mice, which develop uncontrolled brain candidiasis with diminished neutrophil accumulation. The induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines is significantly impaired in infected Card9-/- brains, from both myeloid and resident glial cellular sources, whereas cell-intrinsic neutrophil chemotaxis is Card9-independent. Taken together, our data highlight the critical role of CARD9-dependent neutrophil trafficking into the CNS and provide novel insight into the CNS fungal susceptibility of CARD9-deficient humans.

  11. Multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: experience of a Brazilian center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Luiza Miranda Silva; Higashi, Fabiana; Peres, Ana Lúcia M; Cury, Pricilla; Crusoé, Edvan de Queiroz; Hungria, Vânia Tietsche de Moraes

    The estimated involvement of the central nervous system in patients with multiple myeloma is rare at about 1%. The infiltration can be identified at the time multiple myeloma is diagnosed or during its progression. However, it is more common in refractory disease or during relapse. This retrospective cohort study reviewed data from medical records of patients followed up at the Gammopathy Outpatient Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo from January 2008 to December 2016. Twenty patients were included, with a median follow-up of 33.5 months after central nervous system infiltration. The prevalence was 7%. The median age at diagnosis of multiple myeloma was 56.1 years, with 70% of participants being female. Sixteen patients had central nervous system infiltration at diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients had exclusive osteodural lesions and three had infiltrations of the leptomeninge, of which one had exclusive involvement and two had associated osteodural lesions. The median overall survival was 40.3 months after central nervous system involvement. The median overall survival in the group with central nervous system infiltration at relapse was 7.4 months. The patients with leptomeningeal involvement had a median overall survival of 5.8 months. Central nervous system infiltration is a rare condition, but it should be considered as a possibility in patients with multiple myeloma and neurological symptoms. The best treatment regimen for this condition remains unknown and, in most cases, the prognosis is unfavorable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Central nervous system medications and falls risk in men aged 60-75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masud, Tahir; Frost, Morten; Ryg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years.......Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years....

  13. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D.; Al Houayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. Methods We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16?weeks) a group of ...

  14. The Gut Microbiome as Therapeutic Target in Central Nervous System Diseases: Implications for Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Katarzyna; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Research on commensal microbiota and its contribution to health and disease is a new and very dynamically developing field of biology and medicine. Recent experimental and clinical investigations underscore the importance of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and course of stroke. Importantly, microbiota may influence the outcome of cerebral ischemia by modulating central nervous system antigen-specific immune responses. In this review we summarize studies linking gut microbiota with physiological function and disorders of the central nervous system. Based on these insights we speculate about targeting the gut microbiome in order to treat stroke.

  15. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  16. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Owens, T; Frøkiaer, J

    2010-01-01

    Asgari N, Owens T, Frøkiaer J, Stenager E, Lillevang ST, Kyvik KO. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS).
Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01416.x.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. In the past 10 years, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has...... or by intrathecal administration to naive mice. NMO may be characterized as a channelopathy of the central nervous system with autoimmune characteristics....

  17. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make hormones. Yolk sac tumors make the hormone alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Mixed germ cell tumors are made of ... used to diagnose some CNS germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Blood ...

  18. Chemokines and their receptors in central nervous system disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biber, K; de Jong, EK; van Weering, HRJ; Boddeke, HWGM

    Almost a decade ago, it was discovered that the human deficiency virus (HIV) makes use of chemokine receptors to infect blood cells. This appreciation of the clinical relevance of specific chemokine receptors has initiated a considerable boost in the field of chemokine research. It is clear today

  19. Localization of Reversion-Induced LIM Protein (RIL) in the Rat Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yuko; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Morishima, Tetsuro; Sasano, Hiroshi; Asai, Kiyofumi; Sobue, Kazuya; Takata, Kuniaki

    2009-01-01

    Reversion-induced LIM protein (RIL) is a member of the ALP (actinin-associated LIM protein) subfamily of the PDZ/LIM protein family. RIL serves as an adaptor protein and seems to regulate cytoskeletons. Immunoblotting suggested that RIL is concentrated in the astrocytes in the central nervous system. We then examined the expression and localization of RIL in the rat central nervous system and compared it with that of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). RIL was concentrated in the cells of ependyma lining the ventricles in the brain and the central canal in the spinal cord. In most parts of the central nervous system, RIL was expressed in the astrocytes that expressed AQP4. Double-labeling studies showed that RIL was concentrated in the cytoplasm of astrocytes where glial fibrillary acidic protein was enriched as well as in the AQP4-enriched regions such as the endfeet or glia limitans. RIL was also present in some neurons such as Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and some neurons in the brain stem. Differential expression of RIL suggests that it may be involved in the regulation of the central nervous system

  20. Central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma: computed tomographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.; Wallace, S.; Hayman, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in the brain were identified in 31 of 405 patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Abnormalities included neoplastic masses (15), hemorrhage (nine), abscess (two), other brain tumors (four), and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy (one). CT was normal in 374 patients including 148 with meningeal disease diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination. Prior to treatment, malignant masses were isodense or of greater density with varying amounts of edema. Increase in size or number of the masses indicated worsening. Response to radiation and chemotherapy was manifested by development of a central low density region with an enhancing rim. CT findings correlated with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings. The differential diagnosis of the various abnormalities is considered

  1. Brief electrical stimulation accelerates axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system and promotes sensory axon regeneration in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Udina, Esther; Verge, Valerie M K; de Chaves, Elena I Posse

    2009-10-01

    Injured peripheral but not central nerves regenerate their axons but functional recovery is often poor. We demonstrate that prolonged periods of axon separation from targets and Schwann cell denervation eliminate regenerative capacity in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). A substantial delay of 4 weeks for all regenerating axons to cross a site of repair of sectioned nerve contributes to the long period of separation. Findings that 1h 20Hz bipolar electrical stimulation accelerates axon outgrowth across the repair site and the downstream reinnervation of denervated muscles in rats and human patients, provides a new and exciting method to improve functional recovery after nerve injuries. Drugs that elevate neuronal cAMP and activate PKA promote axon outgrowth in vivo and in vitro, mimicking the electrical stimulation effect. Rapid expression of neurotrophic factors and their receptors and then of growth associated proteins thereafter via cAMP, is the likely mechanism by which electrical stimulation accelerates axon outgrowth from the site of injury in both peripheral and central nervous systems.

  2. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Orth; Stefano Bellosta

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein...

  3. Radiotherapy applied to tumours of the intracranial central nervous systems in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortereau, Antonin

    2009-01-01

    As domestic animals such as dogs are living older because of a better life quality and better cares, they may more frequently develop tumours in their intracranial central nervous system. In this research thesis, the author addresses this specific topic. He first recalls fundamental physical and biological aspects for the understanding of radiotherapy action mechanisms, and the modalities of such a treatment. He addresses the general study of intracranial central nervous system tumours in dogs: brief recall on anatomic and histological aspects, presentation of their classification and their prevalence, and precise descriptions of their characteristics. In the third part, the author reports clinical and para-clinical data which allow the diagnosis of an intracranial nervous tissue tumour. The last part presents different available therapeutic modalities, more particularly addresses the interest of radiotherapy in neuro-oncology, and compares published results [fr

  4. Turning sex inside-out: Peripheral contributions to sexual differentiation of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift-Gallant Ashlyn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual differentiation of the nervous system occurs via the interplay of genetics, endocrinology and social experience through development. Much of the research into mechanisms of sexual differentiation has been driven by an implicit theoretical framework in which these causal factors act primarily and directly on sexually dimorphic neural populations within the central nervous system. This review will examine an alternative explanation by describing what is known about the role of peripheral structures and mechanisms (both neural and non-neural in producing sex differences in the central nervous system. The focus of the review will be on experimental evidence obtained from studies of androgenic masculinization of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus, but other systems will also be considered.

  5. Insulin in Central Nervous System: More than Just a Peripheral Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin signaling in central nervous system (CNS has emerged as a novel field of research since decreased brain insulin levels and/or signaling were associated to impaired learning, memory, and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, besides its well-known role in longevity, insulin may constitute a promising therapy against diabetes- and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. More interestingly, insulin has been also faced as the potential missing link between diabetes and aging in CNS, with Alzheimer's disease (AD considered as the “brain-type diabetes.” In fact, brain insulin has been shown to regulate both peripheral and central glucose metabolism, neurotransmission, learning, and memory and to be neuroprotective. And a future challenge will be to unravel the complex interactions between aging and diabetes, which, we believe, will allow the development of efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies to overcome age-related diseases and to prolong human “healthy” longevity. Herewith, we aim to integrate the metabolic, neuromodulatory, and neuroprotective roles of insulin in two age-related pathologies: diabetes and AD, both in terms of intracellular signaling and potential therapeutic approach.

  6. Gpr124 is essential for blood-brain barrier integrity in central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junlei; Mancuso, Michael R; Maier, Carolina; Liang, Xibin; Yuki, Kanako; Yang, Lu; Kwong, Jeffrey W; Wang, Jing; Rao, Varsha; Vallon, Mario; Kosinski, Cynthia; Zhang, J J Haijing; Mah, Amanda T; Xu, Lijun; Li, Le; Gholamin, Sharareh; Reyes, Teresa F; Li, Rui; Kuhnert, Frank; Han, Xiaoyuan; Yuan, Jenny; Chiou, Shin-Heng; Brettman, Ari D; Daly, Lauren; Corney, David C; Cheshier, Samuel H; Shortliffe, Linda D; Wu, Xiwei; Snyder, Michael; Chan, Pak; Giffard, Rona G; Chang, Howard Y; Andreasson, Katrin; Kuo, Calvin J

    2017-04-01

    Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise is central to the etiology of diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders, endothelial receptor proteins that control BBB function are poorly defined. The endothelial G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr124 has been reported to be required for normal forebrain angiogenesis and BBB function in mouse embryos, but the role of this receptor in adult animals is unknown. Here Gpr124 conditional knockout (CKO) in the endothelia of adult mice did not affect homeostatic BBB integrity, but resulted in BBB disruption and microvascular hemorrhage in mouse models of both ischemic stroke and glioblastoma, accompanied by reduced cerebrovascular canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling. Constitutive activation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling fully corrected the BBB disruption and hemorrhage defects of Gpr124-CKO mice, with rescue of the endothelial gene tight junction, pericyte coverage and extracellular-matrix deficits. We thus identify Gpr124 as an endothelial GPCR specifically required for endothelial Wnt signaling and BBB integrity under pathological conditions in adult mice. This finding implicates Gpr124 as a potential therapeutic target for human CNS disorders characterized by BBB disruption.

  7. Astrocytic TYMP and VEGFA drive blood-brain barrier opening in inflammatory central nervous system lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapouly, Candice; Tadesse Argaw, Azeb; Horng, Sam; Castro, Kamilah; Zhang, Jingya; Asp, Linnea; Loo, Hannah; Laitman, Benjamin M; Mariani, John N; Straus Farber, Rebecca; Zaslavsky, Elena; Nudelman, German; Raine, Cedric S; John, Gareth R

    2015-06-01

    In inflammatory central nervous system conditions such as multiple sclerosis, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier is a key event in lesion pathogenesis, predisposing to oedema, excitotoxicity, and ingress of plasma proteins and inflammatory cells. Recently, we showed that reactive astrocytes drive blood-brain barrier opening, via production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Here, we now identify thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP; previously known as endothelial cell growth factor 1, ECGF1) as a second key astrocyte-derived permeability factor, which interacts with VEGFA to induce blood-brain barrier disruption. The two are co-induced NFκB1-dependently in human astrocytes by the cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), and inactivation of Vegfa in vivo potentiates TYMP induction. In human central nervous system microvascular endothelial cells, VEGFA and the TYMP product 2-deoxy-d-ribose cooperatively repress tight junction proteins, driving permeability. Notably, this response represents part of a wider pattern of endothelial plasticity: 2-deoxy-d-ribose and VEGFA produce transcriptional programs encompassing angiogenic and permeability genes, and together regulate a third unique cohort. Functionally, each promotes proliferation and viability, and they cooperatively drive motility and angiogenesis. Importantly, introduction of either into mouse cortex promotes blood-brain barrier breakdown, and together they induce severe barrier disruption. In the multiple sclerosis model experimental autoimmune encephalitis, TYMP and VEGFA co-localize to reactive astrocytes, and correlate with blood-brain barrier permeability. Critically, blockade of either reduces neurologic deficit, blood-brain barrier disruption and pathology, and inhibiting both in combination enhances tissue preservation. Suggesting importance in human disease, TYMP and VEGFA both localize to reactive astrocytes in multiple sclerosis lesion samples. Collectively, these data identify TYMP as an

  8. Central nervous system aspergillus infection complicating renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, M.; Wilson, J.

    2001-01-01

    A case of catastrophic intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to aspergillus infection in an immunocompromised renal transplant patient is presented. The pathological features and related images are described and the radiology of CNS aspergillus infection is reviewed. A 37-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain. She had recently received a cadaveric renal transplant following failure of the previous live donor kidney. Gastroscopy showed changes suspicious of cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastroduodenitis and she was treated with gancyclovir, with resolution of her symptoms. While in hospital her creatinine began to rise. The renal biopsy was suggestive of cyclosporin toxicity and the cyclosporin level was raised 537 mg/mL (normal 160-360 mg/mL). Several days later, she developed slurred speech and weakness in her right arm. Non-contrast CT showed multifocal regions of low attenuation over the right temporal convexity, within the basal ganglia, inferior frontal lobe and corona radiata on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging on the same day showed multiple areas of high signal on the FLAIR images, some of which contained central areas of low signal. There was no significant enhancement post gadolinium but several of the lesions showed increased signal on the diffusion-weighted images, reflecting cytotoxic oedema. Repeat CT showed an increase in the size of the cerebral lesions with haemorrhagic transformation of the right basal ganglia mass. A further lesion with a peripheral dense rim on the non-contrast images was identified in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The possibility of a vasculitis secondary to a fungal infection was raised. Two days later the patient became comatose with CT showing a large intracerebral haematoma in the left basal ganglia, intraventricular blood and hydrocephalus. The patient died soon afterwards. Post-mortem examination showed multifocal cerebral haemorrhage associated with necrotizing vasculitis and aspergillus infection

  9. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  10. Pediatric Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Central Nervous System Differentially Express Granzyme Inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; van Hecke, Wim; Spliet, Wim G M; Villacorta Hidalgo, José; Fisch, Paul; Broekhuizen, Roel; Bovenschen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malignant primary brain tumors that occur in young infants. Using current standard therapy, up to 80% of the children still dies from recurrent disease. Cellular immunotherapy might be key to improve overall

  11. Seasonality of birth in children with central nervous system tumours in Denmark, 1970-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Grell, Kathrine; Frederiksen, K

    2008-01-01

    We investigated possible seasonal variation of births among children central nervous system tumour in Denmark (N=1640), comparing them with 2,582,714 children born between 1970 and 2003. No such variation was seen overall, but ependymoma showed seasonal variation....

  12. Targeting the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL10 in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2004-01-01

    focuses on the present data regarding CXCL10 (previously known as IP-10) and CXRC3 in multiple sclerosis, since consistent data has suggested that this chemokine/chemokine receptor pair has a pivotal role in leukocyte recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis....

  13. The burden and epidemiology of community-acquired central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Inan, A; Guven, E

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment of central nervous system (CNS) infection patients is of key importance in predicting likely pathogens. However, data are lacking on the epidemiology globally. We performed a multicenter study to understand the burden of community-acquired CNS (CA-CNS) infections between 2012...

  14. Consequences for central nervous system functional state of exposure to ionizing radiation modification with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukalenko, Je.V.; Varets'kij, V.V.; Rakochyi, O.G.; Dmyitryijeva, Yi.R.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: to estimate the pattern of ionizing radiation effects modification by antioxidants using central nervous system functional state indices. The studies were carried out using 84 rats. Beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were found to significantly improve conditioned activity indices level of the animals exposed to ionizing radiation and emotional-pain stress

  15. Central Gi(2) proteins, sympathetic nervous system and blood pressure regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zicha, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 3 (2016), s. 258-259 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : inhibitory G proteins * sympathetic nervous system * central blood pressure control Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.867, year: 2016

  16. Non-viral Nucleic Acid Delivery Strategies to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James-Kevin Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With an increased prevalence and understanding of central nervous system injuries and neurological disorders, nucleic acid therapies are gaining promise as a way to regenerate lost neurons or halt disease progression. While more viral vectors have been used clinically as tools for gene delivery, non-viral vectors are gaining interest due to lower safety concerns and the ability to deliver all types of nucleic acids. Nevertheless, there are still a number of barriers to nucleic acid delivery. In this focused review, we explore the in vivo challenges hindering non-viral nucleic acid delivery to the central nervous system and the strategies and vehicles used to overcome them. Advantages and disadvantages of different routes of administration including: systemic injection, cerebrospinal fluid injection, intraparenchymal injection, and peripheral administration are discussed. Non-viral vehicles and treatment strategies that have overcome delivery barriers and demonstrated in vivo gene transfer to the central nervous system are presented. These approaches can be used as guidelines in developing synthetic gene delivery vectors for central nervous system applications and will ultimately bring non-viral vectors closer to clinical application.

  17. Microglia - insights into immune system structure, function, and reactivity in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Babcock, Alicia A; Vinters, Harry V

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different onto...

  18. Cognitive functions in primary central nervous system lymphoma: Literature review and assessment guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D. Correa; L. Maron; H. Harder (Helena); M. Klein (Martin); C.L. Armstrong; P. Calabrese; J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); L.E. Abrey (Lauren); T.T. Batchelor (Tracy); D. Schiff (David)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Treatment-related neurotoxicity has been recognized as a significant problem in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) as effective treatment has increased survival rates. There is, however, a paucity of research on cognitive functions in this

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis in infectious and noninfectious central nervous system disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunbæk Egelund, Gertrud; Ertner, Gideon; Langholz Kristensen, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is the most important tool for assessing central nervous system (CNS) disease. An elevated CSF leukocyte count rarely provides the final diagnosis, but is almost always an indicator of inflammation within the CNS.The present study investigated the variety...

  20. The spectrum of central nervous system infections in an adult referral hospital in hanoi, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Walter R.; Nguyen, Kinh; Nguyen, Duc; Nguyen, Huyen; Horby, Peter; Nguyen, Ha L.; Lien, Trinh; Tran, Giang; Tran, Ninh; Nguyen, Ha M.; Nguyen, Thai; Nguyen, Ha H.; Nguyen, Thanh; Tran, Giap; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno; Schultsz, Constance; Tran, Huong; Nguyen, Diep; Vu, Bich; Le, Hoa; Dao, Trinh; Nguyen, Trung; Wertheim, Heiman

    2012-01-01

    To determine prospectively the causative pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. From May 2007 to December 2008, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 352 adults with suspected meningitis or encephalitis underwent

  1. Clinical trial aims to study immunotherapy for central nervous system tumors | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new clinical trial aims to determine whether nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, can improve control of cancer for patients with several types of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord and the cause of most CNS tumors in adults is unknown. Learn more...

  2. Metallothionein expression in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Ortega-Aznar, A

    2003-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major chronic demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oxidative stress likely plays a pathogenic role in the development of myelin and neuronal damage. Metallothioneins (MTs) are antioxidant proteins induced in the CNS...

  3. Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia Type II Presenting with Multiple Central Nervous System Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis-Peters, Ellis; Versluys, Anne Brigitta; Stokman, Marijn Fijke; van der Crabben, Saskia Nanette; Nij Bijvank, Sebastiaan W A; van Wezel-Meijler, Gerda

    Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is a rare autosomal recessive bone marrow failure, caused by MPL gene mutations. The combination of CAMT and central nervous system abnormalities is uncommon. We describe a case with a homozygous missense MPL gene mutation and polymicrogyria,

  4. Central Nervous System Symptoms Due to Transient Methemoglobinemia in a Child With G6PD Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreya; Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram

    2017-01-01

    The authors herein report a 5-year-old child who presented with massive hemolysis, irritability, and cyanosis. The final diagnosis was glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with associated central nervous system symptoms probably because of concomitantly acquired methemoglobinemia following oxidant drug exposure. The associated acute-onset anemia would have contributed to the development of cerebral anoxia-related seizures and encephalopathy.

  5. Combination Antifungal Therapy in the Treatment of Scedosporium apiospermum Central Nervous System Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Henao-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Scedosporium apiospermum central nervous system (CNS infection typically consists of an azole in combination with surgical debridement. This approach requires prolonged treatment and carries a high associated mortality. We present two cases of the successful treatment of S. apiospermum CNS infections with the combination of voriconazole and terbinafine.

  6. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O.; Bechmann, Ingo; Fluegel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D.; Weller, Roy O.

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system.

  7. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the

  8. A case of primary hypothyroidism causing central nervous system atherosclerosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Poma, Roberto; Stalker, Margaret J; Allen, Dana G

    2008-08-01

    A 2-year-old, castrated male, Australian shepherd was presented with a history of chronic mild ataxia, obesity, and lethargy. The dog was treated with levothyroxine, but the ataxia worsened. Cranial nerve abnormalities developed and the dog was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed marked thyroid gland atrophy and widespread, severe central nervous system atherosclerosis.

  9. Some Central Nervous System Effects of the aqueous Extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Phyllanthus amarus is used in Southern Nigeria to treat variety of diseases including epilepsy. The aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus was investigated for some central nervous system effects. Two animals models (maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion), were used ...

  10. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors form from germ cells (a type of cell that forms as a fetus develops and later becomes sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries). Learn about the signs, tests to diagnose, and treatment of pediatric germ cell tumors in the brain in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. A Comparative Study of Successful Central Nervous System Drugs Using Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosub; Sulaimon, Segun; Menezes, Sandra; Son, Anne; Menezes, Warren J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular modeling is a powerful tool used for three-dimensional visualization and for exploring electrostatic forces involved in drug transport. This tool enhances student understanding of structure-property relationships, as well as actively engaging them in class. Molecular modeling of several central nervous system (CNS) drugs is used to…

  12. CT and MRI analysis of central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiatang; Lang Senyang; Pu Chuanqiang; Zhu Ruyuan; Wang Dianjun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT and MRI imaging features of central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease and to enhance knowledge and differential diagnostic ability for central nervous system Rosai-Doffman disease. Methods: The CT and MRI imaging appearances in 4 cases of pathologically proven Rosai-Dorfman disease were retrospectively evaluated and the literature of central nervous system Rosai- Dorfman disease were reviewed. Results: Two cases had cranial CT scans, 4 cases had cranial MRI scans. On CT scans, cerebral edema was demonstrated in one case and the other case was normal. MRI scans showed the lesions were solitary in saddle area in 3 cases, and multiple in anterior cranial fossa in 1 case. The lesions exhibited iso- to hypointensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI images. Following intravenous injection of contrast medium, ring-like enhancement was seen in 2 cases and homogeneous enhancement in 1 case. Nodular enhancement was seen in the case of multiple lesions in the anterior cranial fossa. All lesions were dural-based. Conclusions: In patients with fever, headache, elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and a polyclonal increase in γ-globulins, the possibility of central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered when single or multiple dural-based mass lesions, especially in sellar region, were identified by CT and MRI. (authors)

  13. Selenium in the central nervous system of the rat after exposure to L-selenomethionine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Thorlacius-Ussing, O.

    1990-01-01

    in the anterior pituitary of rats exposed to sodium selenite (Thorlacius-Ussing and Danscher 1985). This histochemical method demonstrates complexes of exogenous selenium and endogenous metal. In the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary, selenium is suggested to form bonds with zinc (Danscher 1984...

  14. Occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and risk for central nervous system disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of whether exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) is related to central nervous system diseases is inconsistent. This study updates a previous study of the incidence of such diseases in a large cohort of Danish utility workers by almost doubling the period...

  15. Risk Factors for Subsequent Central Nervous System Tumors in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Melissa; Shaw, Bronwen E; Brazauskas, Ruta

    2017-01-01

    Survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk of subsequent solid tumors, including central nervous system (CNS) tumors. The risk of CNS tumors after HCT in pediatric HCT recipients is not known. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for CNS tumors in pediatric recipients...

  16. Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Tani, M; Jensen, J

    1999-01-01

    Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. Thus, chemokines may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic disorder in which the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reaction is largely restricted to mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. We asked whether...

  17. ANTIEPILEPTIC MEDICATION IN PREGNANCY - LATE EFFECTS ON THE CHILDRENS CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPOL, MC; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    In a follow-up study long-term effects of antenatal exposure to two anticonvulsant drugs, phenobarbital and carbamazepine on central nervous system development were evaluated. Children aged 6 to 13 years of epileptic mothers who used phenobarbital (n = 13), carbamazepine (n = 12), phenobarbital plus

  18. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the cephalopod mollusc, Idiosepius notoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Loesel, R.; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS...

  19. Downregulation of membrane type-matrix metalloproteinases in the inflamed or injured central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Babcock, Alicia A; Millward, Jason M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to mediate cellular infiltration in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation by cleaving extracellular matrix proteins associated with the blood-brain barrier. The family of MMPs includes 23 proteinases, including six membrane type-MMPs (M...

  20. The presumed central nervous system effects of rocuronium in a neonate and its reversal with sugammadex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Ross J; McFadzean, Jillian; McCormack, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 2-day-old male infant who received rocuronium as part of general anesthesia for a tracheal esophageal fistula repair. Postoperatively, he had prolonged central and peripheral neuromuscular blockade despite cessation of the rocuronium infusion several hours previously. This case discusses the presumed central nervous system effects of rocuronium in a neonate and its effective reversal with sugammadex. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  2. Whole transcriptome sequencing enables discovery and analysis of viruses in archived primary central nervous system lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher DeBoever

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL have a dramatically increased prevalence among persons living with AIDS and are known to be associated with human Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. Previous work suggests that in some cases, co-infection with other viruses may be important for PCNSL pathogenesis. Viral transcription in tumor samples can be measured using next generation transcriptome sequencing. We demonstrate the ability of transcriptome sequencing to identify viruses, characterize viral expression, and identify viral variants by sequencing four archived AIDS-related PCNSL tissue samples and analyzing raw sequencing reads. EBV was detected in all four PCNSL samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV, JC polyomavirus (JCV, and HIV were also discovered, consistent with clinical diagnoses. CMV was found to express three long non-coding RNAs recently reported as expressed during active infection. Single nucleotide variants were observed in each of the viruses observed and three indels were found in CMV. No viruses were found in several control tumor types including 32 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma samples. This study demonstrates the ability of next generation transcriptome sequencing to accurately identify viruses, including DNA viruses, in solid human cancer tissue samples.

  3. Redox Signaling Mediated by Thioredoxin and Glutathione Systems in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoyuan; Zou, Lili; Zhang, Xu; Branco, Vasco; Wang, Jun; Carvalho, Cristina; Holmgren, Arne; Lu, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems play important roles in maintaining the redox balance in the brain, a tissue that is prone to oxidative stress due to its high-energy demand. These two disulfide reductase systems are active in various areas of the brain and are considered to be critical antioxidant systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Various neuronal disorders have been characterized to have imbalanced redox homeostasis. Recent Advances: In addition to their detrimental effects, recent studies have highlighted that reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) act as critical signaling molecules by modifying thiols in proteins. The Trx and GSH systems, which reversibly regulate thiol modifications, regulate redox signaling involved in various biological events in the CNS. In this review, we focus on the following: (i) how ROS/RNS are produced and mediate signaling in CNS; (ii) how Trx and GSH systems regulate redox signaling by catalyzing reversible thiol modifications; (iii) how dysfunction of the Trx and GSH systems causes alterations of cellular redox signaling in human neuronal diseases; and (iv) the effects of certain small molecules that target thiol-based signaling pathways in the CNS. Further study on the roles of thiol-dependent redox systems in the CNS will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of many human neuronal disorders and also help to develop novel protective and therapeutic strategies against neuronal diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 989-1010.

  4. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  5. Secondary infiltration of the central nervous system in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Maira Bueno da Silveira da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of infiltration of the central nervous system after the initial treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patients treated at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. METHODS: A total of 133 patients treated for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from January 2001 to April 2008 were retrospectively analyzed in respect to the incidence and risk factors of secondary central nervous system involvement of lymphoma. Intrathecal prophylaxis was not a standard procedure for patients considered to be at risk. This analysis includes patients whether they received rituximab as first-line treatment or not. RESULTS: Nine of 133 (6.7% patients developed central nervous system disease after a mean observation time of 29 months. The median time to relapse or progression was 7.9 months after diagnosis and all but one patient died despite the treatment administered. Twenty-six (19.5% patients of this cohort received rituximab as first-line treatment and nine (7.1% received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis. Of the nine patients that relapsed, seven (77.7% had parenchymal central nervous system involvement; seven (77.7% had stage III or IV disease; one (11.1% had bone marrow involvement; two (22.2% had received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis; and 3 (33.3% had taken rituximab. In a multivariate analysis, the risk factors for this infiltration were being male, previous use of intrathecal chemotherapy and patients that were refractory to initial treatment. CONCLUSION: Central nervous system infiltration in this cohort is similar to that of previous reports in the literature. As this was a small cohort with a rare event, only three risk factors were important for this infiltration

  6. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  7. Neurophysiological changes in the central and peripheral nervous system of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Course of development and effects of insulin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Biessels, G.J.; Cristino, N.A.; Rutten, G.J.; Hamers, F.P.; Erkelens, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can affect both the peripheral and the central nervous system. However, central deficits are documented less well than peripheral deficits. We therefore compared the course of development of neurophysiological changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems in

  8. CCR1+/CCR5+ mononuclear phagocytes accumulate in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebst, C; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Kivisäkk, P

    2001-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) are considered central to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Molecular cues that mediate mononuclear phagocyte accumulation and activation in the central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients may include chemokines RANTES/CCL5...

  9. A review of Heinrich Obersteiner's 1888 textbook on the central nervous system by the neurologist Sigmund Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigiannakoglou, Paul D; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2011-06-01

    In 1888, the Austrian neuroanatomist Heinrich Obersteiner, founder of Vienna's Neurological Institute, published his "Introduction to the Study of the Structure of the Central Nervous Organs in Health and Disease", a fundamental textbook in which he summarised the state-of-the-art knowledge available then on the normal and pathological anatomy of the human nervous system, incorporating many of his original research findings. The book became "the Bible for generations of budding neurologists" worldwide and was crucial for the eventual development of neurology as an independent medical discipline. In his early career as a neuroanatomist, Sigmund Freud wrote a review of Obersteiner's book for the Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift. That review was not included in the "Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works". The present article provides an English translation of Freud's review and further discusses its historical context, especially regarding the influence of Theodor Meynert on his two illustrious students, Freud and Obersteiner.

  10. Similar chemokine receptor profiles in lymphomas with central nervous system involvement - possible biomarkers for patient selection for central nervous system prophylaxis, a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Siria A; Pasanen, Anna Kaisa; Haapasaari, Kirsi-Maria; Sippola, Antti; Sormunen, Raija; Soini, Ylermi; Jantunen, Esa; Koivunen, Petri; Salokorpi, Niina; Bloigu, Risto; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Kuittinen, Outi

    2016-05-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) relapse occurs in around 5% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases. No biomarkers to identify high-risk patients have been discovered. We evaluated the expression of lymphocyte-guiding chemokine receptors in systemic and CNS lymphomas. Immunohistochemical staining for CXCR4, CXCR5, CCR7, CXCL12, and CXCL13 was performed on 89 tissue samples, including cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), secondary CNS lymphoma (sCNSL), and systemic DLBCL. Also, 10 reactive lymph node samples were included. Immunoelectron microscopy was performed on two PCNSLs, one sCNSL, one systemic DLBCL, and one reactive lymph node samples, and staining was performed for CXCR4, CXCR5, CXCL12, and CXCL13. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between clinical parameters, diagnostic groups, and chemokine receptor expression. Strong nuclear CXCR4 positivity correlated with systemic DLBCL, whereas strong cytoplasmic CXCR5 positivity correlated with CNS involvement (P = 0.003 and P = 0.039). Immunoelectron microscopy revealed a nuclear CXCR4 staining in reactive lymph node, compared with cytoplasmic and membranous localization seen in CNS lymphomas. We found that CNS lymphoma presented a chemokine receptor profile different from systemic disease. Our findings give new information on the CNS tropism of DLBCL and, if confirmed, may contribute to more effective targeting of CNS prophylaxis among patients with DLBCL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Experimental alkylmercurial poisoning in swine. Lesions in the peripheral and central nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, K M

    1974-01-01

    The effects of alkylmercurial poisoning were studied in 16 pigs poisoned with daily oral doses of a fungicide containing methylmercury 2, 3-dihydroxy propyl mercaptide and methylmercury acetate. Clinical signs included weakness, wobbling gait, blindness, recumbency and death. Microscopic studies of the peripheral nervous system revealed Wallerian degeneration in sensory fibers and neuronal degeneration in dorsal root ganglia. In the central nervous system, there were neuronal degeneration of ischemic type, glial degeneration, gliosis and necrosis of the media of meningeal arterioles. The last mentioned lesion was not extensive. The sequential development of lesions and the absence of segmental demyelination suggest that the primary lesion in the peripheral nervous system was neuronal-axonal degeneration rather than degeneration of the Schwann cell and myelin sheath. 25 references.

  12. Infectious Progression of Canine Distemper Virus from Circulating Cerebrospinal Fluid into the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Akiko; Sato, Hiroki; Ikeda, Fusako; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2016-10-15

    many respects, the pathogenesis of CDV infection in animals resembles that of measles virus infection in humans. We successfully generated a recombinant CDV containing the H and P genes from a mouse-adapted neurovirulent strain and expressing EGFP. The recombinant CDV exhibited severe neurovirulence with high mortality, comparable to the parental mouse-adapted strain. The mouse-infectious model could become a useful tool for analyzing CDV infection of the central nervous system subsequent to passing through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and infectious progression in the target cells in acute disease. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: age and performance status are more important than treatment modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corry, June; Smith, Jennifer G.; Wirth, Andrew; Quong, George; Liew, Kuen Hoe

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors and treatment modalities of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in terms of response rates, patterns of failure and overall survival. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients presenting with PCNSL between 1982 and 1994 at Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute with no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection were included in the study. Their median age was 60 years; World Health Organisation (WHO) performance status was ≥2 in 85%. All patients were planned to receive whole brain irradiation; 7 also received spinal irradiation. The median planned dose to the target volume was 50.4 Gy. Twenty patients were planned to receive chemotherapy as well. Patients were followed up to June 20, 1995, giving a median follow-up for 14 surviving patients of 5.4 years, range 0.3 to 10.2 years. Results: The clinical response rate to treatment was 77% [95% confidence interval (CI) 65 to 87%]. The estimated median overall survival was 20.6 months (CI 12.4 to 33.4 months). On univariate analysis male gender, age <60 years, WHO performance status ≤1, treatment to the target volume ≥45 Gy, and treatment with additional chemotherapy, were associated with a significantly better overall survival (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis only age and performance status remained significant prognostic variables. Relapse involved the central nervous system or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in all patients with known sites of relapse except three who had ocular relapse only. There was a low incidence of relapse in the initial brain site (23% of known cases) and a high incidence (50%) of CSF/spinal cord relapse. Of 48 deaths, 15 were related to initial or subsequent treatment. Conclusions: Patient outcome is strongly influenced by age and performance status. Studies suggesting better survival for patients treated with chemoradiation may reflect patient selection rather than treatment variables. Optimal management remains to be

  14. AAV9-mediated central nervous system–targeted gene delivery via cisterna magna route in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lukashchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current barriers to the use of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9 in clinical trials for treating neurological disorders are its high expression in many off-target tissues such as liver and heart, and lack of cell specificity within the central nervous system (CNS when using ubiquitous promoters such as human cytomegalovirus (CMV or chicken-β-actin hybrid (CAG. To enhance targeting the transgene expression in CNS cells, self-complementary (sc AAV9 vectors, scAAV9-GFP vectors carrying neuronal Hb9 and synapsin 1, and nonspecific CMV and CAG promoters were constructed. We demonstrate that synapsin 1 and Hb9 promoters exclusively targeted neurons in vitro, although their strengths were up to 10-fold lower than that of CMV. In vivo analyses of mouse tissue after scAAV9-GFP vector delivery via the cisterna magna revealed a significant advantage of synapsin 1 promoter over both Hb9 variants in targeting neurons throughout the brain, since Hb9 promoters were driving gene expression mainly within the motor-related areas of the brain stem. In summary, this study demonstrates that cisterna magna administration is a safe alternative to intracranial or intracerebroventricular vector delivery route using scAAV9, and introduces a novel utility of the Hb9 promoter for the targeted gene expression for both in vivo and in vitro applications.

  15. Antiviral type I and type III interferon responses in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Kreit, Marguerite; Hermant, Pascale; Lardinois, Cécile; Michiels, Thomas

    2013-03-15

    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i) preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii) the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii) the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv) the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  16. A case of central nervous system infection due to Cladophialophora bantiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarcioglu, A Serda; Guarro, Josep; de Hoog, G Sybren; Apaydin, Hulya; Kiraz, Nuri; Balkan, Ilker Inanç; Ozaras, Resat

    Cladophialophora bantiana is a melanised mold with a pronounced tropism for the central nervous system, almost exclusively causing human brain abscesses. We describe a case of cerebral infection by this fungus in an otherwise healthy 28-year-old coal-miner. Environmental occurrence, route of entry, and incubation period of this fungus are unknown, but our case is informative in that the first symptoms occurred about eight weeks after known traumatic inoculation. Lesions were compatible with tuberculous granulomas, and the patient initially received antitubercular treatment. Melanised fungal cells were seen in a brain biopsy and abscess materials. Therapy was switched from empirical antitubercular treatment to amphotericin B (0.5mg/kg/d), but was changed to voriconazole 200mg/d, i.v. on the basis of antifungal susceptibility test results. The patient responded clinically, and gradually improved. The isolate was identified by sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer domain of rDNA. Given the non-specific clinical manifestations of C. bantiana cerebral abscesses, clinicians and laboratory workers should suspect infections caused by C. bantiana, particularly in immunocompromised patients with a trauma history. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Central nervous system remyelination in culture — A tool for multiple sclerosis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jarjour, Andrew A.; Boyd, Amanda; Williams, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of electrical impulse conduction in nerves and provide neuroprotection, reducing disability in patients. Testing a remyelination therapy in the many and various in vivo models of multiple sclerosis is expensive in terms of time, animals and money. We report the development and characterisation of an ex vivo slice culture system using mouse brain and spinal cord, allowing investigation of myelination, demyelination and remyelination, which can be used as an initial reliable screen to select the most promising remyelination strategies. We have automated the quantification of myelin to provide a high content and moderately-high-throughput screen for testing therapies for remyelination both by endogenous and exogenous means and as an invaluable way of studying the biology of remyelination. PMID:21515259

  18. Central nervous system remyelination in culture--a tool for multiple sclerosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jarjour, Andrew A; Boyd, Amanda; Williams, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of electrical impulse conduction in nerves and provide neuroprotection, reducing disability in patients. Testing a remyelination therapy in the many and various in vivo models of multiple sclerosis is expensive in terms of time, animals and money. We report the development and characterisation of an ex vivo slice culture system using mouse brain and spinal cord, allowing investigation of myelination, demyelination and remyelination, which can be used as an initial reliable screen to select the most promising remyelination strategies. We have automated the quantification of myelin to provide a high content and moderately-high-throughput screen for testing therapies for remyelination both by endogenous and exogenous means and as an invaluable way of studying the biology of remyelination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Case of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Located at Brain Stem in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Kim, Young Zoon

    2016-10-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is confined to the brain, eyes, and/or leptomeninges without evidence of a systemic primary tumor. Although the tumor can affect all age groups, it is rare in childhood; thus, its incidence and prognosis in children have not been well defined and the best treatment strategy remains unclear. A nine-year old presented at our department with complaints of diplopia, dizziness, dysarthria, and right side hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance image suggested a diffuse brain stem glioma with infiltration into the right cerebellar peduncle. The patient was surgically treated by craniotomy and frameless stereotactic-guided biopsy, and unexpectedly, the histopathology of the mass was consistent with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity for CD20 and CD79a. Accordingly, we performed a staging work-up for systemic lymphoma, but no evidence of lymphoma elsewhere in the body was obtained. In addition, she had a negative serologic finding for human immunodeficient virus, which confirmed the histopathological diagnosis of PCNSL. She was treated by radiosurgery at 12 Gy and subsequent adjuvant combination chemotherapy based on high dose methotrexate. Unfortunately, 10 months after the tissue-based diagnosis, she succumbed due to an acute hydrocephalic crisis.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotot, P.M.; Sansonetti, P.J.; Levillain, R.; Cabanis, E.A.; Lavayssiere, R.; Sandoz-Tronca, C.

    1988-01-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy [fr

  1. Pathogenesis of developmental anomalies of the central nervous system induced by congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hideya; Kosugi, Isao; Meguro, Shiori; Iwashita, Toshihide

    2017-02-01

    In humans, the herpes virus family member cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent mediator of intrauterine infection-induced congenital defect. Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is a distinguishing symptom of CMV infection, and characterized by ventriculoencephalitis and microglial nodular encephalitis. Reports on the initial distribution of CMV particles and its receptors on the blood brain barrier (BBB) are rare. Nevertheless, several factors are suggested to affect CMV etiology. Viral particle size is the primary factor in determining the pattern of CNS infections, followed by the expression of integrin β1 in endothelial cells, pericytes, meninges, choroid plexus, and neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), which are the primary targets of CMV infection. After initial infection, CMV disrupts BBB structural integrity to facilitate the spread of viral particles into parenchyma. Then, the initial meningitis and vasculitis eventually reaches NSPC-dense areas such as ventricular zone and subventricular zone, where viral infection inhibits NSPC proliferation and differentiation and results in neuronal cell loss. These cellular events clinically manifest as brain malformations such as a microcephaly. The purpose of this review is to clearly delineate the pathophysiological basis of congenital CNS anomalies caused by CMV. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsuoka, M. [Second Division of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Jhono, M. [Department of Dermatology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Eto, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  3. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Jhono, M.; Eto, K.

    2002-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  4. Control Points To Reduce Movement of Central Nervous System Tissue during Beef Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalhus, J L; Thacker, R D; Larsen, I L; Roberts, J C; Price, M A; Juárez, M

    2017-02-01

    Consumption of central nervous system tissue (CNST) from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is thought to cause the human neurological disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. To identify points of cross-contamination of beef carcasses with CNST, 55 young beef cattle were slaughtered and processed through a federally inspected multispecies abattoir. The objectives of this study were to evaluate CNST spread following the placement of a plug in the penetration site of the skull after captive bolt stunning, to evaluate cross-contamination of carcasses before and after splitting, to compare the effects of hot water pasteurization (84°C for 10 s) versus cold water wash (10°C for 30 s) for reducing CNST on the carcass, and to examine other possible sources of cross-contamination in the abattoir. Results indicated that the use of a plastic plug reduced CNST contamination near the bolt penetration site. This study also confirmed that carcass splitting resulted in an increase in CNST contamination at various areas of the carcass. Hot water pasteurization appeared to be an effective means of removing CNST contamination from carcasses in most of the areas sampled.

  5. An Injury Paradigm to Investigate Central Nervous System Repair in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Hidalgo, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    An experimental method has been developed to investigate the cellular responses to central nervous system (CNS) injury using the fruit-fly Drosophila. Understanding repair and regeneration in animals is a key question in biology. The damaged human CNS does not regenerate, and understanding how to promote the regeneration is one of main goals of medical neuroscience. The powerful genetic toolkit of Drosophila can be used to tackle the problem of CNS regeneration. A lesion to the CNS ventral nerve cord (VNC, equivalent to the vertebrate spinal cord) is applied manually with a tungsten needle. The VNC can subsequently be filmed in time-lapse using laser scanning confocal microscopy for up to 24 hr to follow the development of the lesion over time. Alternatively, it can be cultured, then fixed and stained using immunofluorescence to visualize neuron and glial cells with confocal microscopy. Using appropriate markers, changes in cell morphology and cell state as a result of injury can be visualized. With ImageJ and purposely developed plug-ins, quantitative and statistical analyses can be carried out to measure changes in wound size over time and the effects of injury in cell proliferation and cell death. These methods allow the analysis of large sample sizes. They can be combined with the powerful genetics of Drosophila to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying CNS regeneration and repair. PMID:23567253

  6. Quantitative autoradiography of TRH receptors and radioimmunoassay of TRH in the cat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogin, R.M.; Kreider, M.S.; Caine, S.B.; Pack, A.I.; Winokur, A.

    1986-01-01

    In the cat, microinjection of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) into certain areas of the central nervous system (CNS) changes ventilation and cardiovascular variables. To initiate a more systematic investigation of these effects, they undertook a study to determine the location of TRH and its receptors in the cat CNS. Using techniques previously described from the laboratory, quantitative autoradiograms for TRH receptors of the cat brain were produced; additional specimens were dissected, and radioimmunoassay for TRH was performed. Heterogeneous distribution of receptors was observed in the cat brain. In the forebrain, large quantities of TRH receptors were found in amygdala, hippocampus, claustrum, pyriform nucleus, and tuberculum olfactorium. In the brainstem, high concentrations were localized to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the hypoglossal nucleus, and the periaqueductal grey. The cerebellum contained few receptors. The largest quantities of the TRH tripeptide were noted in the hypothalamus and septum, with substantial amounts also obtained from the olfactory bulb, corpus striatum, and thalamus. The results demonstrate that the distribution of TRH and TRH receptors in the cat brain is very similar to that previously described in the rat and human brain. They provide a basis for exploring the physiological and pharmacological effects of TRH in cats

  7. Autoradiographic localization of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaker, S.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the rat and human central nervous system (CNS). The binding of [ 3 H]-3-methyl-histidine 2 -TRH ([ 3 H]-MeTRH) to TRH receptors was saturable, of a high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5 nM), and specific for TRH analogs. Studies with neurotoxins ibotenic acid and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) suggest that TRH receptors within the amygdala are predominantly located on cell bodies, and not nerve terminals. Finally, an examination was made of the concentrations of TRH receptors in spinal cords of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease of the motor neurons located in Lamina IX. Large decreases in TRH receptors were noted in ALS spinal cords, when compared to non-neurological controls, probably reflecting the loss of motor neurons. In addition, decreases in the TRH receptor concentration of Lamina II were observed. This finding may reflect the sensitivity of neurons throughout the CNS to the pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuronal degeneration which cause ALS

  8. The burden and epidemiology of community-acquired central nervous system infections: a multinational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, H; Inan, A; Guven, E; Hargreaves, S; Larsen, L; Shehata, G; Pernicova, E; Khan, E; Bastakova, L; Namani, S; Harxhi, A; Roganovic, T; Lakatos, B; Uysal, S; Sipahi, O R; Crisan, A; Miftode, E; Stebel, R; Jegorovic, B; Fehér, Z; Jekkel, C; Pandak, N; Moravveji, A; Yilmaz, H; Khalifa, A; Musabak, U; Yilmaz, S; Jouhar, A; Oztoprak, N; Argemi, X; Baldeyrou, M; Bellaud, G; Moroti, R V; Hasbun, R; Salazar, L; Tekin, R; Canestri, A; Čalkić, L; Praticò, L; Yilmaz-Karadag, F; Santos, L; Pinto, A; Kaptan, F; Bossi, P; Aron, J; Duissenova, A; Shopayeva, G; Utaganov, B; Grgic, S; Ersoz, G; Wu, A K L; Lung, K C; Bruzsa, A; Radic, L B; Kahraman, H; Momen-Heravi, M; Kulzhanova, S; Rigo, F; Konkayeva, M; Smagulova, Z; Tang, T; Chan, P; Ahmetagic, S; Porobic-Jahic, H; Moradi, F; Kaya, S; Cag, Y; Bohr, A; Artuk, C; Celik, I; Amsilli, M; Gul, H C; Cascio, A; Lanzafame, M; Nassar, M

    2017-09-01

    Risk assessment of central nervous system (CNS) infection patients is of key importance in predicting likely pathogens. However, data are lacking on the epidemiology globally. We performed a multicenter study to understand the burden of community-acquired CNS (CA-CNS) infections between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2583 patients with CA-CNS infections were included from 37 referral centers in 20 countries. Of these, 477 (18.5%) patients survived with sequelae and 227 (8.8%) died, and 1879 (72.7%) patients were discharged with complete cure. The most frequent infecting pathogens in this study were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 206, 8%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n = 152, 5.9%). Varicella zoster virus and Listeria were other common pathogens in the elderly. Although staphylococci and Listeria resulted in frequent infections in immunocompromised patients, cryptococci were leading pathogens in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. Among the patients with any proven etiology, 96 (8.9%) patients presented with clinical features of a chronic CNS disease. Neurosyphilis, neurobrucellosis, neuroborreliosis, and CNS tuberculosis had a predilection to present chronic courses. Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, M. tuberculosis, and S. pneumoniae were the most fatal forms, while sequelae were significantly higher for herpes simplex virus type 1 (p < 0.05 for all). Tackling the high burden of CNS infections globally can only be achieved with effective pneumococcal immunization and strategies to eliminate tuberculosis, and more must be done to improve diagnostic capacity.

  9. Antiviral Type I and Type III Interferon Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michiels

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  10. Central Nervous Insulin Signaling in Sleep-Associated Memory Formation and Neuroendocrine Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Gordon B; Wilhem, Ines; Benedict, Christian; Rüdel, Benjamin; Klameth, Corinna; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    The neurochemical underpinnings of sleep's contribution to the establishment and maintenance of memory traces are largely unexplored. Considering that intranasal insulin administration to the CNS improves memory functions in healthy and memory-impaired humans, we tested whether brain insulin signaling and sleep interact to enhance memory consolidation in healthy participants. We investigated the effect of intranasal insulin on sleep-associated neurophysiological and neuroendocrine parameters and memory consolidation in 16 men and 16 women (aged 18-30 years), who learned a declarative word-pair task and a procedural finger sequence tapping task in the evening before intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo administration and 8 h of nocturnal sleep. On the subsequent evening, they learned interfering word-pairs and a new finger sequence before retrieving the original memories. Insulin increased growth hormone concentrations in the first night-half and EEG delta power during the second 90 min of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Insulin treatment impaired the acquisition of new contents in both the declarative and procedural memory systems on the next day, whereas retrieval of original memories was unchanged. Results indicate that sleep-associated memory consolidation is not a primary mediator of insulin's acute memory-improving effect, but that the peptide acts on mechanisms that diminish the subsequent encoding of novel information. Thus, by inhibiting processes of active forgetting during sleep, central nervous insulin might reduce the interfering influence of encoding new information.

  11. Cardiac biopotentials influence on central nervous system functioning: first steps in hypothesis verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondal'skaya Yu.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to verify the hypothesis on influence of cardiac biopotentials on central nervous system. Materials: 20 healthy individuals aged 18-26 years old have been participated in the investigations. Two groups composed of 10 patients each have been formed. Double increase in heart biopotentials by means of artificial impulse insertion between natural cardiac contractions has been modeled. Artificial impulses have been similar to unaffected ones, produced in a normal heart work. Additional impulses have been generated using external pacemaker and have been linked up with electrodes on the chest. They have been synchronized with the heart rhythm and located in-between R waves. The duration of those impulses has been fully matched to ventricular complex. Their amplitude has been adjusted individually depending on the height of R wave. Nervous system mobility has been used as the indicator reflecting the central nervous system functioning. Degree of mobility has been defined on the basis of tapping test results. The test has been repeated at specific intervals. Groups have been exposed to two adverse testing modes. Additional impulses have been conducted to the patients of group I within an hour over a period of the first and the third 15-minute intervals and to the patients of group II over a period of the second and the fourth 15-minute intervals. In the middle and in the end of each time interval tapping test has been carried out. After preliminary analysis two other modes of stimulation have been tested. The stimulation has been performed within the 40-minute course: over a period of the first 20-minute interval and vice versa. Results: Detailed evaluation has revealed that short-time increase of nervous processes has been checked in combination with decrease in their stability. Conclusion: The data obtained have shown that there is possible influence on central nervous system functioning. The article ends with prospects of further

  12. Epstein-Barr virus associated central nervous system leiomyosarcoma occurring after renal transplantation: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahri, A.; Noel, G.; Feuvret, L.; Jauffret, E.; Brun, B.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F.; Noel, G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Feuvret, L.; Figuerella-Branger, D.; Goncalves, A.

    2003-01-01

    Central nervous system leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare, however, they became more frequent among immuno-deficient patients, either in a patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or after organ transplantation. The data of the literature indicate that the infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a causal role in the development of these tumours but its precise role in the onco-genesis remains unresolved. We report a new case of EBV associated leiomyosarcoma of the left cavernous sinus occurring after renal transplantation. The epidemiological, clinical, pathological and therapeutic characteristics of these tumours are discussed. (authors)

  13. Central Nervous System Parasitosis and Neuroinflammation Ameliorated by Systemic IL-10 Administration in Trypanosoma brucei-Infected Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Rodgers

    Full Text Available Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS by African trypanosomes represents a critical step in the development of human African trypanosomiasis. In both clinical cases and experimental mouse infections it has been demonstrated that predisposition to CNS invasion is associated with a type 1 systemic inflammatory response. Using the Trypanosoma brucei brucei GVR35 experimental infection model, we demonstrate that systemic delivery of the counter-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 lowers plasma IFN-γ and TNF-α concentrations, CNS parasitosis and ameliorates neuro-inflammatory pathology and clinical symptoms of disease. The results provide evidence that CNS invasion may be susceptible to immunological attenuation.

  14. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K

    2010-01-01

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease....

  15. RAS in the central nervous system: Potential role in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Prestes, Thiago Ruiz Rodrigues; Feracin, Victor; Machado, Caroline Amaral; Ferreira, Rodrigo Novaes; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; de Miranda, Aline Silva

    2018-02-25

    The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a key regulator of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis, but also plays important roles in mediating physiological functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The effects of the RAS were classically described as mediated by angiotensin (Ang) II via angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors. However, another arm of the RAS formed by the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor has been a matter of investigation due to its important physiological roles, usually counterbalancing the classical effects exerted by Ang II. We aim to provide an overview of effects elicited by the RAS, especially Ang-(1-7), in the brain. We also aim to discuss the therapeutic potential for neuropsychiatric disorders of the modulation of RAS. We carried out an extensive literature search in PubMed central. Within the brain, Ang-(1-7) contributes to the regulation of blood pressure by acting at regions that control cardiovascular functions. In contrast with Ang II, Ang-(1-7) improves baroreflex sensitivity and plays an inhibitory role in hypothalamic noradrenergic neurotransmission. Ang-(1-7) not only exerts effects related to blood pressure regulation, but also acts as a neuroprotective component of the RAS, for instance, by reducing cerebral infarct size, inflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. Pre-clinical evidence supports a relevant role for ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including stress-related and mood disorders, cerebrovascular ischemic and haemorrhagic lesions and neurodegenerative diseases. However, very few data are available regarding the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis in human CNS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Specific central nervous system recruitment of HLA-G(+) regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Zozulya, Alla L; Weidenfeller, Christian; Metz, Imke; Buck, Dorothea; Toyka, Klaus V; Brück, Wolfgang; Wiendl, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    We have recently described a novel population of natural regulatory T cells (T(reg)) that are characterized by the expression of HLA-G and may be found at sites of tissue inflammation (HLA-G(pos) T(reg)). Here we studied the role of these cells in multiple sclerosis (MS), a prototypic autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Sixty-four patients with different types of MS, 9 patients with other neurological diseases, and 20 healthy donors were included in this study. Inflamed brain lesions from 5 additional untreated MS patients were examined. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) were analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by flow cytometry and in inflammatory demyelinating lesions of MS brain specimens by immunohistochemistry. Functional capacity was accessed and transmigration was determined using an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). HLA-G(pos) T(reg) were found enriched in the inflamed CSF of MS patients and in inflammatory demyelinating lesions of MS brain specimens. HLA-G(pos) T(reg) showed a strong propensity to transmigrate across BBB, which was vigorously driven by inflammatory chemokines, and associated with a gain of suppressive capacity upon transmigration. CSF-derived HLA-G(pos) T(reg) of MS patients represented a population of activated central memory activated T cells with an upregulated expression of inflammatory chemokine receptors and exhibiting full suppressive capacity. Unlike natural FoxP3-expressing T(reg), HLA-G(pos) T(reg) derived from peripheral blood were functionally unimpaired in MS. In MS, HLA-G(pos) T(reg) may serve to control potentially destructive immune responses directly at the sites of CNS inflammation and to counterbalance inflammation once specifically recruited to the CNS.

  17. [Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system: 20 years' experience in a referral hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; Pacheco-Calleros, J; Castelán-Maldonado, E; Nocedal-Rustrián, F C

    Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) are rare neoplasms. AIM. To study the clinical aspects and the immuno-phenotype of all cases of PCNSL in a 20 years lapse in a referral hospital in Northeastern Mexico. From January 1986 to December 2005 all PCNSL histologically confirmed were studied. The primary lymphomas were 1% of malignant central nervous system neoplasms. 21 cases were studied (ages from 9-70 years) with male predominance (2:1). 24% patients had immuno-suppression. The more frequent clinical data were: papilledema (71%), headache (62%), paresis (48%) and seizures (33%). 33% of patients died during the first six months after diagnosis. The T lymphomas were 19% of cases and corresponded to small cell type. PCNSL are still a diagnostic challenge. Multicenter studies are required in order to determine the best treatment protocol.

  18. Evaluation of central nervous system in patients with glycogen storage disease type 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Yusuf; Gürakan, Figen; Saltık Temizel, İnci Nur; Demir, Hülya; Oğuz, Kader Karlı; Yalnızoğlu, Dilek; Topçu, Meral; Özen, Hasan; Yüce, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate structure and functions of central nervous system (CNS) in children with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a. Neurological examination, psychometric tests, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were performed. The results were compared between patients with good and poor metabolic control and healthy children. Twenty-three patients with GSD type 1a were studied. Twelve patients were in poor metabolic control group and 11 patients in good metabolic control group. Five patients had intellectual disability, 10 had EEG abnormalities, seven had abnormal VEP and two had abnormal BAEP results. MRI was abnormal in five patients. There was significant correlation between the number of hypoglycemic attacks and MRI abnormalities. Central nervous system may be affected in GSD type 1a even in patients with normal neurologic examination. Accumulation of abnormal results in patients with poor metabolic control supports the importance of metabolic control in GSD type 1a.

  19. Psychosis in primary angiitis of the central nervous system involving bilateral thalami: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangha; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare inflammatory disease restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), with unusual clinical presentation mimicking schizophrenia. Case report. A 45-year-old male presented with alteration of consciousness and confusion. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a mass-like enhancing lesion involving bilateral thalami, and biopsy revealed findings compatible with PACNS. The patient was treated with corticosteroids. Psychotic symptoms crystallized over the initial 2 months after the diagnosis and persisted for over a year. Severity of his symptoms improved with gradual normalization of the radiologic findings and antipsychotic medication. Our case highlights the importance of considering PACNS as a differential diagnosis of a tumor-like mass lesion in the CNS and the significance of thalamic involvement in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms including delusions and hallucinations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Connexin: a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Connexin subunits are proteins that form gap junction channels, and play an important role in communication between adjacent cells. This review article discusses the function of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions under physiological conditions, and summarizes the findings regarding the role of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions in the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying central nervous system diseases such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, epilepsy, brain and spinal cord tumor, migraine, neuroautoimmune disease, Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinson′s disease, X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease, spastic paraplegia and maxillofacial dysplasia. Connexins are considered to be a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system.

  1. Effects of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra on the central nervous system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Aydin, Süleyman; Oztürk, Yusuf; Caliş, Ihsan

    2002-11-01

    A methanolic extact of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has been investigated for its possible effects on the central nervous system of mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg (i.p.), the methanol extract of Gentiana roots caused a significant increase in the swimming endurance test and exhibited slight analgesic activity, but no lethality in mice suggesting some activity on the central nervous system. However, there was no indication of sedation or muscular fatigue at the doses employed. HPLC analysis showed that three secoiridoid compounds, gentiopicroside, swertiamarine and sweroside were present and may have been responsible for the CNS effects of the methanol extract of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Neural Stem Cells: Implications for the Conventional Radiotherapy of Central Nervous System Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barani, Igor J.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Lin, Peck-Sun

    2007-01-01

    Advances in basic neuroscience related to neural stem cells and their malignant counterparts are challenging traditional models of central nervous system tumorigenesis and intrinsic brain repair. Neurogenesis persists into adulthood predominantly in two neurogenic centers: subventricular zone and subgranular zone. Subventricular zone is situated adjacent to lateral ventricles and subgranular zone is confined to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Neural stem cells not only self-renew and differentiate along multiple lineages in these regions, but also contribute to intrinsic brain plasticity and repair. Ionizing radiation can depopulate these exquisitely sensitive regions directly or impair in situ neurogenesis by indirect, dose-dependent and inflammation-mediated mechanisms, even at doses <2 Gy. This review discusses the fundamental neural stem cell concepts within the framework of cumulative clinical experience with the treatment of central nervous system malignancies using conventional radiotherapy

  3. White-matter abnormalities in unirradiated patients cured of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.; Hochberg, F.H.; Shaeffer, P.

    2000-01-01

    On MRI, primary brain tumors are commonly seen as contrast-enhancing masses surrounded by areas of abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Following successful treatment tumors may no longer show contrast enhancement. The residual abnormalities are assumed to be represent ''edema'' and infiltrating tumor cells. We report nine patients with primary lymphoma of the central nervous system who had complete responses to intravenous methotrexate, but did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy or cranial irradiation. After complete resolution of contrast-enhancing lesions, persistent abnormalities on T2-weighted images in the region of prior tumor were initially assumed to reflect residual viable tumor. As they remained unchanged for years, however, this may not hold true in the cases in which primary central nervous system lymphoma responds to chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  4. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of Lipoxin A4 in Central Nervous System Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cadete Martini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases of the central nervous system are characterized and sometimes worsened by an intense inflammatory response in the affected tissue. It is now accepted that resolution of inflammation is an active process mediated by a group of mediators that can act in synchrony to switch the phenotype of cells, from a proinflammatory one to another that favors the return to homeostasis. This new genus of proresolving mediators includes resolvins, protectins, maresins, and lipoxins, the first to be discovered. In this short review we provide an overview of current knowledge into the cellular and molecular interactions of lipoxins in diseases of the central nervous system in which they appear to facilitate the resolution of inflammation, thus exerting a neuroprotective action.

  6. [Multicenter investigation of bufavirus in the etiology of viral central nervous system infections of adults and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay Koçak, Aylin; Öcal, Murat; Polat, Meltem; Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Aktaş Tapısız, Anıl; Tezer, Hasan; Özkul, Aykut; Ergünay, Koray; Bozdayı, Gülendam; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2017-04-01

    Bufavirus (BuV) is a newly-identified parvovirus in the family of Parvoviridae. Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from children in Burkina Faso with acute diarrhea showed a highly divergent parvovirus, which was named bufavirus (BuV). The global distribution, epidemiology and genetic characteristics of BuVs infections are obscure. It was first discovered as an agent causing gastroenteritis but the association of BuV infections with various clinical presentations mostly remain to be explored. The aims of this study were to investigate probable impact of BuV in central nervous system infections in a region where it was previously reported to cause human infections and to detect enteroviruses (EV) which are reported as a cause of central nervous system infections in our country. The study was undertaken in three institutions in Ankara province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Patients, clinically diagnosed with febrile disease and/or central nervous system infections of presumed viral etiology, were enrolled in the study with informed consent. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were collected from 93 children attended to Gazi University Hospital and Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Hospital from October 2011-April 2015 and 33 adult patients, attended to Hacettepe University Hospital from June 2012 to March 2013. Clinical history and follow-up, physical examination and standard laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Nucleic acid extraction was performed via commercially available spin-column assays and complementery DNA (cDNA) synthesis was performed by using commercially available cDNA synthesis kit with randomised hexamer primers. BuV detection was carried out by in house nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) utilized with previously-described primers. EV detection was carried out by in house PCR with pan-enterovirus primers. Seventy-four percent (93/126) and 26% (33/126) of the patients were children (0-18) and adults (19-86), respectively. In all patients

  7. Paracoccidioidomicose sistêmica com envolvimento do sistema nervoso central Systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Luiz Wiener Pureza Duarte

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente portador de paracoccidioidomicose sistêmica, com comprometimento oral e ganglionar regional e posterior envolvimento pulmonar. O paciente, tratado com drogas específicas(anfotericina B, itraconazol, sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim e acompanhado durante seis anos, foi ao óbito com extenso comprometimento do sistema nervoso centralA clinical case of a patient bearing systemic paracoccidioidomycosis with regional ganglionic and oral exposure and later pulmonary envolvement is presented. The patient was treated with especific drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and followed throughout a 6-year period and eventually died showing an extensive envolvement of the central nervous system.

  8. Clinical features and early treatment response of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a therapeutic challenge. PROCEDURE: To explore leukemia characteristics of patients with CNS involvement at ALL diagnosis, we analyzed clinical features and early treatment response of 744...... leukemia and patients without such characteristics (0.50 vs. 0.61; P = 0.2). CONCLUSION: CNS involvement at diagnosis is associated with adverse prognostic features but does not indicate a less chemosensitive leukemia....

  9. Unusual location of central nervous system langerhans cell histiocytosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. Yup; Lee, Jae Kyu; Kim, Chan Kyo; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Phil Wook

    2003-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system (CNS) usually involves the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and T1-weighted MR images normally demonstrate infundibular thickening and/or a mass lesion in the hypothalamus and the absence of a posterior pituitary 'bright spot'. We recently encountered a case of CNS langerhans cell histiocytosis with no posterior pituitary 'bright spot' and with lesions involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia but not the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

  10. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Tesch, Benjamin A; Gawande, Rakhee S; Zhang, Lei; MacMillan, Margaret L; Nascene, David R

    2017-06-01

    Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11.3 years; range, 1-43 years; M:F=19:17), which we reviewed and compared to 19 age- and sex-matched controls (average age, 7.9 years; range, 2-18 years; M:F=9:10). Genotypic information was available for 27 patients (15 FA-A, 2 FA-C, 3 FA-G, and 7 FA-D1 [biallelic mutations in BRCA2 gene]). Of the 36 patients, 61% had at least one congenital central nervous system or skull base abnormality. These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), and ectopic neurohypophysis (n=6). Average pituitary volume was significantly less in patients with Fanconi anemia (PFanconi anemia patients (P=0.006), but the basal angle of those with FA-D1 was not significantly different from controls (P=0.239). Clivus length was less in the Fanconi anemia group (P=0.002), but significance was only observed in the FA-D1 subgroup (PFanconi anemia have higher incidences of ectopic neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis hypoplasia, platybasia and other midline central nervous system skull base posterior fossa abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia, are more likely to have biallelic BRCA2 mutations.

  11. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Tesch, Benjamin A.; Gawande, Rakhee S.; Nascene, David R.; Zhang, Lei; MacMillan, Margaret L.

    2017-01-01

    Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11.3 years; range, 1-43 years; M:F=19:17), which we reviewed and compared to 19 age- and sex-matched controls (average age, 7.9 years; range, 2-18 years; M:F=9:10). Genotypic information was available for 27 patients (15 FA-A, 2 FA-C, 3 FA-G, and 7 FA-D1 [biallelic mutations in BRCA2 gene]). Of the 36 patients, 61% had at least one congenital central nervous system or skull base abnormality. These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), and ectopic neurohypophysis (n=6). Average pituitary volume was significantly less in patients with Fanconi anemia (P<0.0001) than in controls. Basal angle was significantly greater in Fanconi anemia patients (P=0.006), but the basal angle of those with FA-D1 was not significantly different from controls (P=0.239). Clivus length was less in the Fanconi anemia group (P=0.002), but significance was only observed in the FA-D1 subgroup (P<0.0001). Of the seven patients meeting criteria for pontocerebellar hypoplasia, six belonged to the FA-D1 group. Patients with Fanconi anemia have higher incidences of ectopic neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis hypoplasia, platybasia and other midline central nervous system skull base posterior fossa abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia, are more likely to have biallelic BRCA2 mutations. (orig.)

  12. Etiologic Agents of Central Nervous System Infections among Febrile Hospitalized Patients in the Country of Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Akhvlediani, Tamar; Bautista, Christian T.; Shakarishvili, Roman; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Imnadze, Paata; Tatishvili, Nana; Davitashvili, Tamar; Samkharadze, Tamar; Chlikadze, Rusudan; Dvali, Natia; Dzigua, Lela; Karchava, Mariam; Gatserelia, Lana; Macharashvili, Nino; Kvirkvelia, Nana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is a large spectrum of viral, bacterial, fungal, and prion pathogens that cause central nervous system (CNS) infections. As such, identification of the etiological agent requires multiple laboratory tests and accurate diagnosis requires clinical and epidemiological information. This hospital-based study aimed to determine the main causes of acute meningitis and encephalitis and enhance laboratory capacity for CNS infection diagnosis. METHODS: Children and adults patients cli...

  13. Lipomas of the central nervous system in the newborns – a report of eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradowska, Kinga; Czech-Kowalska, Justyna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta; Komornicka, Justyna; Dobrzańska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system lipomas are rare tumours. In most of the cases they are located in corpus callosum of the brain. The ultrasonographic image of lipomas tends to be quite characteristic. Final diagnosis is however done on a basis of brain resonance. The purpose of this work is to present proceeding in case of central nervous system lipomas with particular attention to diagnostic imaging. This work is based on own research. There are eight patients with central nervous system lipomas described in this work. The ultrasonographic imaging performed upon patients’ birth revealed features of agenesis of corpus callosum with presence of hyperechoic structure in the area of median line within corpus callosum. This image correlated with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance examination results. Our research confirms that patients with central nervous system lipomas represent rare diagnostic and therapeutic cases. Due to characteristic results of ultrasonographic imaging of the brain, recognition of agenesis of corpus callosum would not cause difficulties. However the presence of hyperechoic structure without vascular flow which may suggest lipomas of corpus callosum would require final verification of the diagnosis and wider assessment of brain with NMR examination. We did not recognize any relation between corpus callosum pathology and neuroinfection of cytomegalovirus etiology. In all of the eight research cases there were malformations diagnostics conducted. There were genetic irregularities in case of two of the neonates only. Until today, all of the patients remain under neurological care. Their psychomotor development is regularly controlled. Taking into consideration that numerous malformations occur altogether with brain lipomas, it is recommended to conduct appropriate diagnostics, to inform parents on an essence of diagnosis and on necessity of observing child’s psychomotor development. Obviously, it is crucial to secure a patient with paediatric and neurological

  14. Localization of rem2 in the central nervous system of the adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anna G; Scholles, Katie R; Hollis, David M

    2016-12-01

    Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca 2+ entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. Rem2 is involved in neuronal processes where the capacities between adults of different vertebrate classes vary. Thus, we sought to localize the rem2 gene in the central nervous system of an adult anamniotic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In situ hybridization using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled RNA probe was used to identify the regional distribution of rem2 expression throughout the trout central nervous system, while real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) further supported these findings. Based on in situ hybridization, the regional distribution of rem2 occurred within each major subdivision of the brain and included large populations of rem2 expressing cells in the dorsal telencephalon of the cerebrum, the internal cellular layer of the olfactory bulb, and the optic tectum of the midbrain. In contrast, no rem2 expressing cells were resolved within the cerebellum. These results were corroborated by rtPCR, where differential rem2 expression occurred between the major subdivisions assayed with the highest levels being found in the cerebrum, while it was nearly absent in the cerebellum. These data indicate that rem2 gene expression is broadly distributed and likely influences diverse functions in the adult fish central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioengineered Hydrogel to Inhibit Post-Traumatic Central Nervous System Scarring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    necessary to unlock the full therapeutic value of stem cell -based regenerative therapies. The present proposal takes advantage of a long- standing, cross...the Journal of Controlled Release (J Control Release. 2015 Jun 28;208:76-84). 15. SUBJECT TERMS prevalence, trauma, hydrogel, stem cell therapy...cavitations that are not spontaneously repaired. Early after injury, blood enters the central nervous system (CNS) and directly kills brain cells but also

  16. Immunosenescence of microglia and macrophages: impact on the ageing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawji, Khalil S; Mishra, Manoj K; Michaels, Nathan J; Rivest, Serge; Stys, Peter K; Yong, V Wee

    2016-03-01

    Ageing of the central nervous system results in a loss of both grey and white matter, leading to cognitive decline. Additional injury to both the grey and white matter is documented in many neurological disorders with ageing, including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Accompanying neuronal and glial damage is an inflammatory response consisting of activated macrophages and microglia, innate immune cells demonstrated to be both beneficial and detrimental in neurological repair. This article will propose the following: (i) infiltrating macrophages age differently from central nervous system-intrinsic microglia; (ii) several mechanisms underlie the differential ageing process of these two distinct cell types; and (iii) therapeutic strategies that selectively target these diverse mechanisms may rejuvenate macrophages and microglia for repair in the ageing central nervous system. Most responses of macrophages are diminished with senescence, but activated microglia increase their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while diminishing chemotactic and phagocytic activities. The senescence of macrophages and microglia has a negative impact on several neurological diseases, and the mechanisms underlying their age-dependent phenotypic changes vary from extrinsic microenvironmental changes to intrinsic changes in genomic integrity. We discuss the negative effects of age on neurological diseases, examine the response of senescent macrophages and microglia in these conditions, and propose a theoretical framework of therapeutic strategies that target the different mechanisms contributing to the ageing phenotype in these two distinct cell types. Rejuvenation of ageing macrophage/microglia may preserve neurological integrity and promote regeneration in the ageing central nervous system. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  17. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to brachial plexus injury: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setogutti, Enio Tadashi; Cassuriaga, Jefferson; Valduga, Simone Gianella; Lorenzzoni, Pablo Longhi; Severgnini, Giancarlo Muraro; Feldman, Carlos Jader

    2005-01-01

    Superficial siderosis can be caused by hemosiderin deposition o the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuro-axis due to recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. Probable intrathecal bleeding sites must be investigated. In ut t 50% of the patients the bleeding source may be identified and the progression of the disease can be interrupted. In this study, the authors present a case of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system developed two decades after a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus.(author)

  18. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on central nervous system remyelination in fat-1 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Siegert, Elise; Paul, Friedemann; Rothe, Michael; Weylandt, Karsten H.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a large body of experimental evidence suggesting that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are capable of modulating immune function. Some studies have shown that these PUFAs might have a beneficial effect in patients suffering form multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). This could be due to increased n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. In the present study we tested the effect...

  19. Interplay between exercise and dietary fat modulates myelinogenesis in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hyesook; Kleven, Andrew; Paulsen, Alex; Kleppe, Laurel; Wu, Jianmin; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we show that the interplay between exercise training and dietary fat regulates myelinogenesis in the adult central nervous system. Mice consuming high fat with coordinate voluntary running wheel exercise for 7 weeks showed increases in the abundance of the major myelin membrane proteins, proteolipid (PLP) and myelin basic protein (MBP), in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Expression of MBP and PLP RNA, as well that for Myrf1, a transcription factor driving oligodendrocyte differentiation wer...

  20. Central nervous system involvement in a case of segmental nevus depigmentosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system involvement in segmental nevus depigmentosus (SND is rare. A 7-month-old boy having convulsion and segmental hypopigmented patch in the right inguinal region. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed bilateral periventricular white matter hypoplasia with prominent subarachnoid spaces and mild dilation of ventricles with mild left cerebral hemispheric atrophy. Association of SND with seizure and white matter lesion has been rarely reported.

  1. Comparison of intelligence quotient in children surviving leukemia who received different prophylactic central nervous system treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid, Reisi; Leila, Khalilian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive deficits and decrease in intelligence quotient (IQ) is one of the complication of prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. In this study, we compare the IQ in survivors of ALL that were treated with different prophylactic CNS treatments. Materials and Methods : We compared 43 long-term survivors of ALL: 21 survivors with intrathecal methotrexate (IT MTX) as CNS prophylaxis, 22 with IT MTX+1800-2400 rads c...

  2. MR findings of primary central nervous system lymphoma in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftci, E.; Erden, I.; Akyar, S.

    1998-01-01

    MR imaging of a rare case of primary central nervous system lymphoma in a 12-year-old boy with headache and seizure is presented. MR imaging showed a mass lesion located in the corpus callosum. Diagnosis was made by stereotactic biopsy. The patient was treated with radiotherapy. Early control MR imaging showed a decrease in tumor size but after 12 months an increase in tumor size was detected. (orig.)

  3. Pathways for Small Molecule Delivery to the Central Nervous System Across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Mikitsh, John L; Chacko, Ann-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disease has long been difficult due to the ineffectiveness of drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This review summarizes important concepts of the BBB in normal versus pathophysiology and how this physical, enzymatic, and efflux barrier provides necessary protection to the CNS during drug delivery, and consequently treatment challenging. Small molecules account for the vast majority of available CNS drugs primarily due to their abi...

  4. Fanconi anemia: correlating central nervous system malformations and genetic complementation groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson-Tesch, Benjamin A. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Gawande, Rakhee S.; Nascene, David R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Centre, Minneapolis, MN (United States); MacMillan, Margaret L. [University of Minnesota, Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Pediatrics, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Congenital central nervous system abnormalities in children with Fanconi anemia are poorly characterized, especially with regard to specific genetic complementation groups. To characterize the impact of genetic complementation groups on central nervous system anatomy. Through chart review we identified 36 patients with Fanconi anemia with available brain MRIs at the University of Minnesota (average age, 11.3 years; range, 1-43 years; M:F=19:17), which we reviewed and compared to 19 age- and sex-matched controls (average age, 7.9 years; range, 2-18 years; M:F=9:10). Genotypic information was available for 27 patients (15 FA-A, 2 FA-C, 3 FA-G, and 7 FA-D1 [biallelic mutations in BRCA2 gene]). Of the 36 patients, 61% had at least one congenital central nervous system or skull base abnormality. These included hypoplastic clivus (n=12), hypoplastic adenohypophysis (n=11), platybasia (n=8), pontocerebellar hypoplasia (n=7), isolated pontine hypoplasia (n=4), isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=3), and ectopic neurohypophysis (n=6). Average pituitary volume was significantly less in patients with Fanconi anemia (P<0.0001) than in controls. Basal angle was significantly greater in Fanconi anemia patients (P=0.006), but the basal angle of those with FA-D1 was not significantly different from controls (P=0.239). Clivus length was less in the Fanconi anemia group (P=0.002), but significance was only observed in the FA-D1 subgroup (P<0.0001). Of the seven patients meeting criteria for pontocerebellar hypoplasia, six belonged to the FA-D1 group. Patients with Fanconi anemia have higher incidences of ectopic neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis hypoplasia, platybasia and other midline central nervous system skull base posterior fossa abnormalities than age- and sex-matched controls. Patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, including pontocerebellar hypoplasia, are more likely to have biallelic BRCA2 mutations. (orig.)

  5. Linfoma primário do sistema nervoso central Primary central nervous system lymphoma

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    Marcelo Bellesso

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O linfoma primário do sistema nervoso central (LPSNC é um linfoma extralinfonodal que, ao diagnóstico, encontra-se restrito ao parênquima cerebral, às meninges e/ou cordão espinhal e/ou olhos. Sua incidência triplicou nas últimas três décadas para 0,4 casos por 100.000 habitantes, representando 4% dos tumores do sistema nervoso central (SNC. Embora pacientes infectados pelo HIV tenham 3.600 vezes maior risco para o desenvolvimento do LPSNC, a incidência não aumentou apenas neste grupo de pessoas. Dados sugerem reduções da incidência de LPSNC em pacientes infectados após a introdução de drogas anti-retrovirais. Cerca de 90% dos casos de LPSNC são classificados como linfoma difuso de grandes células B, 10% têm envolvimento ocular e 10% são HIV positivos. A apresentação clínica depende da localização tumoral, prevalecendo os sintomas neurológicos em detrimento aos sistêmicos. Os exames de tomografia computadorizada (TC e ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM são essenciais para o diagnóstico, porém o exame confirmatório deve ser o anatomopatológico. O estadiamento deve ser feito com exames de imagem e biópsia de medula óssea (BMO bilateral. Os principais fatores de mau prognóstico são: performance status do paciente acima de 1, idade superior a 60 anos, DHL elevada, hiperproteinorraquia e acometimento de área cerebral não hemisférica. Alguns fatores de prognóstico biológicos também podem influenciar na sobrevida, a exemplo da expressão de Bcl-6, que confere melhor prognóstico. O tratamento de escolha é a combinação de quimioterapia contendo altas doses de metotrexate e radioterapia (RDT. Devido às altas taxas de neurotoxicidade associada à RDT, seu uso tem ficado mais restrito aos pacientes idosos, e os recidivados ou refratários.Primary Central Nervous System lymphoma (PCNSL is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord or eyes. The incidence of PCNSL increased

  6. Tachykinin-1 in the central nervous system regulates adiposity in rodents.

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    Trivedi, Chitrang; Shan, Xiaoye; Tung, Yi-Chun Loraine; Kabra, Dhiraj; Holland, Jenna; Amburgy, Sarah; Heppner, Kristy; Kirchner, Henriette; Yeo, Giles S H; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-05-01

    Ghrelin is a circulating hormone that targets the central nervous system to regulate feeding and adiposity. The best-characterized neural system that mediates the effects of ghrelin on energy balance involves the activation of neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide neurons, expressed exclusively in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. However, ghrelin receptors are expressed in other neuronal populations involved in the control of energy balance. We combined laser capture microdissection of several nuclei of the central nervous system expressing the ghrelin receptor (GH secretagoge receptor) with microarray gene expression analysis to identify additional neuronal systems involved in the control of central nervous system-ghrelin action. We identified tachykinin-1 (Tac1) as a gene negatively regulated by ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we identified neuropeptide k as the TAC1-derived peptide with more prominent activity, inducing negative energy balance when delivered directly into the brain. Conversely, loss of Tac1 expression enhances the effectiveness of ghrelin promoting fat mass gain both in male and in female mice and increases the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in ovariectomized mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate a role TAC1 in the control energy balance by regulating the levels of adiposity in response to ghrelin administration and to changes in the status of the gonadal function.

  7. Checkpoints to the Brain: Directing Myeloid Cell Migration to the Central Nervous System

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    Meredith Harrison-Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are a unique subset of leukocytes with a diverse array of functions within the central nervous system during health and disease. Advances in understanding of the unique properties of these cells have inspired interest in their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes, proteins, and drugs, or as “assistants” in the clean-up of aggregated proteins and other molecules when existing drainage systems are no longer adequate. The trafficking of myeloid cells from the periphery to the central nervous system is subject to complex cellular and molecular controls with several ‘checkpoints’ from the blood to their destination in the brain parenchyma. As important components of the neurovascular unit, the functional state changes associated with lineage heterogeneity of myeloid cells are increasingly recognized as important for disease progression. In this review, we discuss some of the cellular elements associated with formation and function of the neurovascular unit, and present an update on the impact of myeloid cells on central nervous system (CNS diseases in the laboratory and the clinic. We then discuss emerging strategies for harnessing the potential of site-directed myeloid cell homing to the CNS, and identify promising avenues for future research, with particular emphasis on the importance of untangling the functional heterogeneity within existing myeloid subsets.

  8. Value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, I.; Sicinska, J.; Szymanska, E.; Rudnicka, L.; Furmanek, M.; Walecki, J.; Olszewska, M.; Rudnicka, L.; Walecki, J.

    2006-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by vascular abnormalities and fibrotic changes in skin and internal organs. The aim of the study was to investigate involvement of the central nervous system in systemic sclerosis and the value of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of central nervous system involvement in systemic sclerosis. 26 patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms in the course of systemic sclerosis were investigated for central nervous system abnormalities by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among these 26 symptomatic patients lesions in brain MRI and CT examinations were present in 54% and in 50% patients respectively. Most common findings (in 46% of all patients), were symptoms of cortical and subcortical atrophy, seen in both, MRI and CT. Single and multiple focal lesions, predominantly in the white matter, were detected by MRI significantly more frequently as compared to CT (62% and 15% patients respectively). These data indicate that brain involvement is common in patients with severe systemic sclerosis. MRI shows significantly higher than CT sensitivity in detection focal brain lesions in these patients. (author)

  9. A Case Of Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Who Presented With Status Epilepticus

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    Sırma Geyik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNV is limited with central nervous system and rare vasculitis that mostly seen in middle-aged men. PCNV vasculitis is usually presented that headache, dementia, stroke and multifocal common neurological symptoms. PCNV especially involves small medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. 43 years old male patient who have been progressive forgetfulness and headache for 3 years. He applied with recurrent that before starting right focal and than sprawling whole body which generalized tonic-clonic seizures to us. During management that he was transfered to the intensive care unit due to status epilepticus (SE. Later than we found right hemiparesis, motor aphasia and right babinski positivity in neurologic examination. Diffusion restriction was revealed in left MCA territory in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging(MRI. EEG showed two types abnormality that a slow background ritm and epileptiform activity. Biochemistry of blood, complete blood count, blood sedimentation rate, CRP and markers of vasculitis were found in the normal range. Cerebral anjiography revealed that irregularities in the distal vascular areas and fusiform aneurysm at the top of basilar artery. He was consulted with rheumatology and diagnosed central nervous system vasculitis with the existing findings. Biopsy couldn't be taken from the brain to verify the diagnosis. Finally, we applied treatment that pulse steroid and cyclophosphamide to patient. This case has been presented due to emphasize that PCNV rarely may play a role in the etiology of recurrent stroke and status epilepticus.

  10. Robust Central Nervous System Pathology in Transgenic Mice following Peripheral Injection of α-Synuclein Fibrils.

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    Ayers, Jacob I; Brooks, Mieu M; Rutherford, Nicola J; Howard, Jasie K; Sorrentino, Zachary A; Riffe, Cara J; Giasson, Benoit I

    2017-01-15

    Misfolded α-synuclein (αS) is hypothesized to spread throughout the central nervous system (CNS) by neuronal connectivity leading to widespread pathology. Increasing evidence indicates that it also has the potential to invade the CNS via peripheral nerves in a prion-like manner. On the basis of the effectiveness following peripheral routes of prion administration, we extend our previous studies of CNS neuroinvasion in M83 αS transgenic mice following hind limb muscle (intramuscular [i.m.]) injection of αS fibrils by comparing various peripheral sites of inoculations with different αS protein preparations. Following intravenous injection in the tail veins of homozygous M83 transgenic (M83 +/+ ) mice, robust αS pathology was observed in the CNS without the development of motor impairments within the time frame examined. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of αS fibrils in hemizygous M83 transgenic (M83 +/- ) mice resulted in CNS αS pathology associated with paralysis. Interestingly, injection with soluble, nonaggregated αS resulted in paralysis and pathology in only a subset of mice, whereas soluble Δ71-82 αS, human βS, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) control proteins induced no symptoms or pathology. Intraperitoneal injection of αS fibrils also induced CNS αS pathology in another αS transgenic mouse line (M20), albeit less robustly in these mice. In comparison, i.m. injection of αS fibrils was more efficient in inducing CNS αS pathology in M83 mice than i.p. or tail vein injections. Furthermore, i.m. injection of soluble, nonaggregated αS in M83 +/- mice also induced paralysis and CNS αS pathology, although less efficiently. These results further demonstrate the prion-like characteristics of αS and reveal its efficiency to invade the CNS via multiple routes of peripheral administration. The misfolding and accumulation of α-synuclein (αS) inclusions are found in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and is a hallmark feature of Parkinson

  11. Genetic Separation of Listeria monocytogenes Causing Central Nervous System Infections in Animals

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    Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes abortion, septicemia, gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS infections in ruminants and humans. L. monocytogenes strains mainly belong to two distinct phylogenetic groups, named lineages I and II. In general, clinical cases in humans and animals, in particular CNS infections, are caused by lineage I strains, while most of the environmental and food strains belong to lineage II. Little is known about why lineage I is more virulent than lineage II, even though various molecular factors and mechanisms associated with pathogenesis are known. In this study, we have used a variety of whole genome sequence analyses and comparative genomic tools in order to find characteristics that distinguish lineage I from lineage II strains and CNS infection strains from non-CNS strains. We analyzed 225 strains and identified single nucleotide variants between lineages I and II, as well as differences in the gene content. Using a novel approach based on Reads Per Kilobase per Million Mapped (RPKM, we identified 167 genes predominantly absent in lineage II but present in lineage I. These genes are mostly encoding for membrane-associated proteins. Additionally, we found 77 genes that are largely absent in the non-CNS associated strains, while 39 genes are especially lacking in our defined “non-clinical” group. Based on the RPKM analysis and the metadata linked to the L. monocytogenes strains, we identified 6 genes potentially associated with CNS cases, which include a transcriptional regulator, an ABC transporter and a non-coding RNA. Although there is not a clear separation between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains based on phylogenetic lineages, the presence of the genes identified in our study reveals potential pathogenesis traits in ruminant L. monocytogenes strains. Ultimately, the differences that we have found in our study will help steer future studies in understanding the virulence

  12. Genetic Separation of Listeria monocytogenes Causing Central Nervous System Infections in Animals

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    Aguilar-Bultet, Lisandra; Nicholson, Pamela; Rychener, Lorenz; Dreyer, Margaux; Gözel, Bulent; Origgi, Francesco C.; Oevermann, Anna; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes abortion, septicemia, gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS) infections in ruminants and humans. L. monocytogenes strains mainly belong to two distinct phylogenetic groups, named lineages I and II. In general, clinical cases in humans and animals, in particular CNS infections, are caused by lineage I strains, while most of the environmental and food strains belong to lineage II. Little is known about why lineage I is more virulent than lineage II, even though various molecular factors and mechanisms associated with pathogenesis are known. In this study, we have used a variety of whole genome sequence analyses and comparative genomic tools in order to find characteristics that distinguish lineage I from lineage II strains and CNS infection strains from non-CNS strains. We analyzed 225 strains and identified single nucleotide variants between lineages I and II, as well as differences in the gene content. Using a novel approach based on Reads Per Kilobase per Million Mapped (RPKM), we identified 167 genes predominantly absent in lineage II but present in lineage I. These genes are mostly encoding for membrane-associated proteins. Additionally, we found 77 genes that are largely absent in the non-CNS associated strains, while 39 genes are especially lacking in our defined “non-clinical” group. Based on the RPKM analysis and the metadata linked to the L. monocytogenes strains, we identified 6 genes potentially associated with CNS cases, which include a transcriptional regulator, an ABC transporter and a non-coding RNA. Although there is not a clear separation between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains based on phylogenetic lineages, the presence of the genes identified in our study reveals potential pathogenesis traits in ruminant L. monocytogenes strains. Ultimately, the differences that we have found in our study will help steer future studies in understanding the virulence mechanisms of the

  13. Viral immune surveillance: Toward a TH17/TH9 gate to the central nervous system.

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    Barkhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Viral cellular immune surveillance is a dynamic and fluid system that is driven by finely regulated cellular processes including cytokines and other factors locally in the microenvironment and systemically throughout the body. It is questionable as to what extent the central nervous system (CNS) is an immune-privileged organ protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent evidence suggests converging pathways through which viral infection, and its associated immune surveillance processes, may alter the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and lead to inflammation, swelling of the brain parenchyma and associated neurological syndromes. Here, we expand upon the recent "gateway theory", by which viral infection and other immune activation states may disrupt the specialized tight junctions of the BBB endothelium making it permeable to immune cells and factors. The model we outline here builds upon the proposition that this process may actually be initiated by cytokines of the IL-17 family, and recognizing the intimate balance between TH17 and TH9 cytokine profiles systemically. We argue that immune surveillance events, in response to viruses such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), cause a TH17/TH9 induced gateway through blood brain barrier, and thus lead to characteristic neuroimmune pathology. It is possible and even probable that the novel TH17/TH9 induced gateway, which we describe here, opens as a consequence of any state of immune activation and sustained chronic inflammation, whether associated with viral infection or any other cause of peripheral or central neuroinflammation. This view could lead to new, timely and critical patient-centered therapies for patients with neuroimmune pathologies across a variety of etiologies. BBB - blood brain barrier, BDV - Borna disease virus, CARD - caspase activation and recruitment domains, CD - clusters of differentiation, CNS - central nervous system, DAMP - damage-associated molecular patterns, DENV - Dengue

  14. Cisplatin and radiation in the treatment of tumors of the central nervous system: Pharmacological considerations and results of early studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, D.J.; Molepo, J.M.; Eapen, L.; Montpetit, V.A.J.; Goel, R.; Wong, P.T.T.; Popovic, P.; Taylor, K.D.; Raaphorst, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the human central nervous system pharmacology of cisplatin, factors that affect cisplatin uptake in tumors, and use alone and with radiation for the treatment of primary brain tumors. The authors review their own prior published and unpublished experience and data published by other groups on the above issues. Cisplatin is one of the most active chemotherapy drugs available for the treatment of solid tumors. It is synergistic with several other agents, including radiation. While it attains only low concentrations in the normal central nervous system, concentrations and plasma-tissue transfer constants for human intracerebral tumors are comparable to those in extracerebral tumors. Tumor type appears to be a more important determinant of platinum concentration than is tumor location, and gliomas do achieve lower concentrations than do other intracerebral or extracerebral tumors. Several other factors have also been identified that correlate with concentrations of cisplatin achieved in human tumors. While cisplatin alone and in combination with other drugs does have some degree of efficacy against primary brain tumors, combining it with cranial irradiation has generally not resulted in any substantial improvement in outcome to date, although some individual studies have been somewhat encouraging. New approaches are currently under investigation. Human pharmacology studies provide a rationale for use of cisplatin in the treatment of human brain tumors, and human and in vitro studies suggest some manipulations that might potentially further augment tumor platinum concentrations. While clinical studies suggest that cisplatin combinations may be of some value vs. human primary brain tumors and brain metastases, and while in vitro studies suggest that cisplatin potentiates radiation efficacy, no combination of cisplatin plus radiation yet tested has appeared to be superior to radiation alone. 123 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Intraventricular ciprofloxacin usage in treatment of multidrug-resistant central nervous system infections: report of four cases

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    Ayse Karaaslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multidrug-resistant microorganisms appear as important nosocomial pathogens which treatment is quite difficult. As sufficient drug levels could not be achieved in cerebrospinal fluid during intravenous antibiotic therapy for central nervous system infections and due to multidrug-resistance treatment alternatives are limited. In this study, four cases of central nervous system infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms who were successfully treated with removal of the devices and intraventricular ciprofloxacin are presented. In conclusion, intraventricular ciprofloxacin can be used for treatment of central nervous system infections if the causative microorganism is sensitive to the drug and no other alternative therapy is available.

  16. Manipulating central nervous mechanisms of food intake and body weight regulation by intranasal administration of neuropeptides in man.

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    Hallschmid, Manfred; Benedict, Christian; Born, Jan; Fehm, Horst-Lorenz; Kern, Werner

    2004-10-30

    Maintaining a stable body weight set-point is assumed to rely on a homeostatic central nervous system (CNS) regulation of body fat with the particular involvement of hypothalamic pathways. The peripheral adiposity signals insulin and leptin convey information on the amount of energy stored as body fat to the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where anabolic/orexigenic and catabolic/anorexigenic pathways interact to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. One of the most prominent orexigenic messengers is neuropeptide Y (NPY), whereas melanocortins, including alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), are essential for inducing anorexigenic effects. The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4-R) plays the most important role in mediating catabolic effects of alpha-MSH. In this review, we present a series of own studies on NPY, insulin and MSH/ACTH4-10, an MC4-R agonist. The studies were all based on the intranasal route of administration which enables a direct access of the peptides to hypothalamic functions. NPY acutely attenuated electrocortical signs of meal-related satiety. Prolonged intranasal administration of insulin as well as of MSH induced weight loss in healthy human subjects. However, overweight subjects did not lose body fat after MSH administration. The results corroborate in humans the significance of all three messengers for the central nervous regulation of adiposity and might contribute to the future development of medical strategies against body-weight-related disorders.

  17. Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model of the Rat Central Nervous System

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    Raj K. Singh Badhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS drug disposition is dictated by a drug’s physicochemical properties and its ability to permeate physiological barriers. The blood–brain barrier (BBB, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and centrally located drug transporter proteins influence drug disposition within the central nervous system. Attainment of adequate brain-to-plasma and cerebrospinal fluid-to-plasma partitioning is important in determining the efficacy of centrally acting therapeutics. We have developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of the rat CNS which incorporates brain interstitial fluid (ISF, choroidal epithelial and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF compartments and accurately predicts CNS pharmacokinetics. The model yielded reasonable predictions of unbound brain-to-plasma partition ratio (Kpuu,brain and CSF:plasma ratio (CSF:Plasmau using a series of in vitro permeability and unbound fraction parameters. When using in vitro permeability data obtained from L-mdr1a cells to estimate rat in vivo permeability, the model successfully predicted, to within 4-fold, Kpuu,brain and CSF:Plasmau for 81.5% of compounds simulated. The model presented allows for simultaneous simulation and analysis of both brain biophase and CSF to accurately predict CNS pharmacokinetics from preclinical drug parameters routinely available during discovery and development pathways.

  18. Experimental study on central nervous toxicity of 'misonidazole' a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Iku

    1981-01-01

    'Misonidazole', a radiosensitizer for hypoxic cells is expected to be applied to the treatment of malignant tumors, but its side effect becomes a subject of study, because its effective dose is close to its lethal dose. The auther performed experiments with mice on the central nervous toxicity, which is the most lethal of the side effects of Misonidazole, with the following results; 1. The abrupt death seen after the administration of a large dose of Misonidazole was attributable to the central nervous toxicity. LD 50 for d.d. strain mouse was 1.55 mg per body weight g. 2. The used mice always developed convulsion before death. But the administration of anticonvulsant failed to free them from death. 3. Autopsy findings were such abnormal ones as the degeneration and exfoliation of nerve cells and diapedetic focus. After sacrifice, however, no findings indicative of disturbance of central nerve could be detected. 4. Misonidazole, even in a small divided dose, left intracerebral retention, though slightly, indicating that its accumulation in the brain would be increased with increase in the dose. 5. The disturbance of central nerve was not exacerbated by the whole brain irradiation with Misonidazole. (author)

  19. Evaluation of a TaqMan Array Card for Detection of Central Nervous System Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Clayton O; Loparev, Vladimir; Lidechi, Shirley; Bhullar, Vinod; Schmid, D Scott; Radford, Kay; Lo, Michael K; Rota, Paul; Johnson, Barbara W; Munoz, Jorge; Oneko, Martina; Burton, Deron; Black, Carolyn M; Neatherlin, John; Montgomery, Joel M; Fields, Barry

    2017-07-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often acute, with significant morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnosis of such infections is limited in developing countries and requires modern equipment in advanced laboratories that may be unavailable to a number of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a TaqMan array card (TAC) that detects multiple pathogens simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid. The 21-pathogen CNS multiple-pathogen TAC (CNS-TAC) assay includes two parasites ( Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba ), six bacterial pathogens ( Streptococcus pneumonia e, Haemophilus influenzae , Neisseria meningitidis , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and Bartonella ), and 13 viruses (parechovirus, dengue virus, Nipah virus, varicella-zoster virus, mumps virus, measles virus, lyssavirus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, and chikungunya virus). The card also includes human RNase P as a nucleic acid extraction control and an internal manufacturer control, GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). This CNS-TAC assay can test up to eight samples for all 21 agents within 2.5 h following nucleic acid extraction. The assay was validated for linearity, limit of detection, sensitivity, and specificity by using either live viruses (dengue, mumps, and measles viruses) or nucleic acid material (Nipah and chikungunya viruses). Of 120 samples tested by individual real-time PCR, 35 were positive for eight different targets, whereas the CNS-TAC assay detected 37 positive samples across nine different targets. The CNS-TAC assays showed 85.6% sensitivity and 96.7% specificity. Therefore, the CNS-TAC assay may be useful for outbreak investigation and surveillance of suspected neurological disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Expression of CD150 in tumors of the central nervous system: identification of a novel isoform.

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    Olga Romanets-Korbut

    Full Text Available CD150 (IPO3/SLAM belongs to the SLAM family of receptors and serves as a major entry receptor for measles virus. CD150 is expressed on normal and malignant cells of the immune system. However, little is known about its expression outside the hematopoietic system, especially tumors of the central nervous system (CNS. Although CD150 was not found in different regions of normal brain tissues, our immunohistochemical study revealed its expression in 77.6% of human CNS tumors, including glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma, ependymoma, and others. CD150 was detected in the cytoplasm, but not on the cell surface of glioma cell lines, and it was colocalized with the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex markers. In addition to the full length mRNA of the mCD150 splice isoform, in glioma cells we found a highly expressed novel CD150 transcript (nCD150, containing an 83 bp insert. The insert is derived from a previously unrecognized exon designated Cyt-new, which is located 510 bp downstream of the transmembrane region exon, and is a specific feature of primate SLAMF1. Both mCD150 and nCD150 cDNA variants did not contain any mutations and had the leader sequence. The nCD150 transcript was also detected in normal and malignant B lymphocytes, primary T cells, dendritic cells and macrophages; however, in glioma cells nCD150 was found to be the predominant CD150 isoform. Similarly to mCD150, cell surface expression of nCD150 allows wild type measles virus entry to the cell. Our data indicate that CD150 expression in CNS tumors can be considered a new diagnostic marker and potential target for novel therapeutic approaches.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus sarA regulates inflammation and colonization during central nervous system biofilm formation.

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    Jessica N Snowden

    Full Text Available Infection is a frequent and serious complication following the treatment of hydrocephalus with CSF shunts, with limited therapeutic options because of biofilm formation along the catheter surface. Here we evaluated the possibility that the sarA regulatory locus engenders S. aureus more resistant to immune recognition in the central nervous system (CNS based on its reported ability to regulate biofilm formation. We utilized our established model of CNS catheter-associated infection, similar to CSF shunt infections seen in humans, to compare the kinetics of bacterial titers, cytokine production and inflammatory cell influx elicited by wild type S. aureus versus an isogenic sarA mutant. The sarA mutant was more rapidly cleared from infected catheters compared to its isogenic wild type strain. Consistent with this finding, several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-17, CXCL1, and IL-1β were significantly increased in the brain following infection with the sarA mutant versus wild type S. aureus, in agreement with the fact that the sarA mutant displayed impaired biofilm growth and favored a planktonic state. Neutrophil influx into the infected hemisphere was also increased in the animals infected with the sarA mutant compared to wild type bacteria. These changes were not attributable to extracellular protease activity, which is increased in the context of SarA mutation, since similar responses were observed between sarA and a sarA/protease mutant. Overall, these results demonstrate that sarA plays an important role in attenuating the inflammatory response during staphylococcal biofilm infection in the CNS via a mechanism that remains to be determined.

  2. Impact of the Innate Immune Response in the Actions of Ethanol on the Central Nervous System.

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    Montesinos, Jorge; Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Guerri, Consuelo

    2016-11-01

    The innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) participates in both synaptic plasticity and neural damage. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies supports the role of the neuroimmune system response in many actions of ethanol (EtOH) on the CNS. Research studies have shown that alcohol stimulates brain immune cells, microglia, and astrocytes, by activating innate immune receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (inflammasome NLRs) triggering signaling pathways, which culminate in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that lead to neuroinflammation. This review focuses on evidence that indicates the participation of TLRs and the inflammasome NLRs signaling response in many effects of EtOH on the CNS, such as neuroinflammation associated with brain damage, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and adolescent brain development alterations. It also reviews findings that indicate the role of TLR4-dependent signaling immune molecules in alcohol consumption, reward, and addiction. The research data suggest that overactivation of TLR4 or NLRs increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators to cause neural damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, while modest TLR4 activation, along with the generation of certain cytokines and chemokines in specific brain areas (e.g., amygdala, ventral tegmental area), modulate neurotransmission, alcohol drinking, and alcohol rewards. Elimination of TLR4 and NLRP3 abolishes many neuroimmune effects of EtOH. Despite much progress being made in this area, there are some research gaps and unanswered questions that this review discusses. Finally, potential therapies that target neuroimmune pathways to treat neuropathological and behavioral consequences of alcohol abuse are also evaluated. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Expression of Hepatoma-derived growth factor family members in the adult central nervous system

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    Abouzied Mekky M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF belongs to a polypeptide family containing five additional members called HDGF related proteins 1–4 (HRP-1 to -4 and Lens epithelial derived growth factor. Whereas some family members such as HDGF and HRP-2 are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression of others is very restricted. HRP-1 and -4 are only expressed in testis, HRP-3 only in the nervous system. Here we investigated the expression of HDGF, HRP-2 and HRP-3 in the central nervous system of adult mice on the cellular level by immunohistochemistry. In addition we performed Western blot analysis of various brain regions as well as neuronal and glial cell cultures. Results HDGF was rather evenly expressed throughout all brain regions tested with the lowest expression in the substantia nigra. HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex. HDGF and HRP-2 were found to be expressed by neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In contrast, strong expression of HRP-3 in the adult nervous system is restricted to neurons, except for very weak expression in oligodendrocytes in the brain stem. Although the majority of neurons are HRP-3 positive, some like cerebellar granule cells are negative. Conclusion The coexpression of HDGF and HRP-2 in glia and neurons as well as the coexpression of all three proteins in many neurons suggests different functions of members of the HDGF protein family in cells of the central nervous system that might include proliferation as well as cell survival. In addition the restricted expression of HRP-3 point to a special function of this family member for neuronal cells.

  4. Detection and Cellular Localization of Phospho-STAT2 in the Central Nervous System by Immunohistochemical Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) indicates their involvement in active signaling. Here we describe immunohistochemical staining procedures for detection and identification of the cellular localization of phospho-STAT2 in the central nervous system (CNS...

  5. The effects of prophylactic treatment of the central nervous system on the intellectual functioning of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, H.A.; Nannis, E.D.; Poplack, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of central nervous system prophylaxis (cranial radiation and intrathecal chemotherapy) on intellectual function was studied in 24 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. The Wechsler Intelligence tests were administered to these children and to a sample of their healthy siblings, who served as a comparison group. The mean Full Scale lQ was 98.6 for the patients and 112.5 for the sibling controls (p less than 0.001 level). Those patients who received central nervous system preventive treatment at a young age exhibited a greater decrement in intellectual abilities than did patients who were older when they received this treatment. In contrast, leukemia patients who had not received central nervous system prophylaxis had IQs that did not differ statistically from those of their siblings. These data suggest that central nervous system prophylaxis may have an adverse effect on the intellectual capability of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

  6. Application of the 2012 revised diagnostic definitions for paediatric multiple sclerosis and immune-mediated central nervous system demyelination disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, E. Danielle; Neuteboom, Rinze F.; Ketelslegers, Immy A.; Boon, Maartje; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E.; Hintzen, Rogier Q.

    Background Recently, the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) definitions for the diagnosis of immune-mediated acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of the central nervous system, including paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), have been revised. Objective To evaluate the

  7. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot

  8. Methodological aspects in quantitative translational neuroimaging in central nervous system diseases with Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müllauer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from central nervous system (CNS) diseases crucially depend on a sufficient supply with CNS active drugs that help them to control and endure their illness. As the site of action of CNS drugs is in the brain, these substances need to pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a physiological barrier seperating the blood circulation and the brain. However, CNS drug treatment is often accompanied by pharmacoresistance (drug resistance). Multidrug transporters, such as permeable glycoprotein (Pgp) are responsible for a gradient dependent transport of substances over the BBB. Drug resistance is hypothesised as a result of overactivity of multidrug transporters at the BBB, with the result of insufficient and poor CNS drug levels in the brain. In the case of epilepsy in up to 20 - 40% of patients drug resistance is observed. The influence of Ppg overexpression on drug resistance in epilepsy was studied using positron emission tomography (PET), a novel non-invasive nuclear imaging method, together with radioligands that interact with Pgp. Radiolabeled Pgp-substrates ((R)-[11C]verapamil), and inhibitors ([11C]elacridar and [11C]tariquidar) were developed and used to study the influence of Pgp and other transporters at the BBB in a translational research approach; in animal models of epilepsy and in humans. The aim in translational PET research is a direct comparision of gathered animal and human data. Consequently diverse methodological challenges arise, that need to be addressed and observed in order to enable a translation between species. To achieve full quantification of the function and density of drug transporters at the BBB in both, humans and rodents, kinetic modeling (compartmental modeling) was applied to the PET pharmacokinetic data. Estimated modeling parameters were in succession used to estimate biological and physiological processes of Pgp at the BBB. Subsequently, nonlinear mixed effects modeling was deployed to increase the mechanistic

  9. Central nervous system manifestations in pediatric patients with influenza A H1N1 infection during the 2009 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilking, Ashley N; Elliott, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N; Murray, Kristy O; Munoz, Flor M

    2014-09-01

    A novel H1N1 influenza A virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) particularly affected individuals central nervous system complications associated with pandemic influenza in the pediatric population. Retrospective review of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and central nervous system manifestations at Texas Children's Hospital between April 2009 and June 2010. Among 365 patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 32 (8.8%) had central nervous system manifestations at a median age of 4 years. Eight (25.0%) were previously healthy, and 12 (37.5%) had neurological pre-existing conditions. Of the 32 cases of influenza with neurological complications, seizure (n = 17; 53.1%) was the most common central nervous system manifestation, followed by encephalitis (n = 4; 12.5%), meningitis (n = 4; 12.5%), encephalopathy (n = 3; 9.4%), meningismus (n = 3; 9.4%), focal hemorrhagic brain lesions (n = 2; 6.3%), brain infarction (n = 1; 3.1%), and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 1; 3.1%). Two patients demonstrated two or more types of central nervous system complications. One patient had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid with pleocytosis. Almost two thirds of the children with central nervous system manifestations required intensive care unit admission and nearly half required mechanical ventilation. There were no deaths. Patients with pre-existing neurological conditions were at greater risk for central nervous system manifestations during pandemic influenza infection. Patients with central nervous system manifestations were more likely to experience severe illness, characterized by intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation, although overall outcomes were good. Influenza prevention in patients with underlying medical conditions, particularly those with neurological conditions, is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution of alarin in the mouse brain and in tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, N.

    2011-01-01

    Alarin is a 25 amino acid peptide that belongs to the galanin neuropeptide family and is a splice variant of the galanin-like peptide (GALP) gene. It was first identified in gangliocytes of neuroblastic tumors and recently, alarin was demonstrated to stimulate food intake as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in rodents. However, mRNA and protein expression of alarin in the central nervous system have not been described yet. Therefore, we investigated GALP/alarin promoter activity using a transgenic reporter mouse model. This mouse model expresses YFP when the GALP/alarin promoter is active and therefore is a suitable tool to indicate nuclei where GALP/alarin mRNA is expressed. Immunohistochemical analysis of YFP expression in these transgenic mice revealed a wide distribution of GALP/alarin promoter activity throughout the whole murine brain. As the promoter activity studies cannot discriminate between GALP and alarin expression the next aim was to determine the distribution of alarin peptide- in the adult murine brain with an anti-alarin antibody. The specificity of the antibody against alarin was demonstrated by the absence of labeling after pre-absorption of the antiserum with synthetic alarin peptide and in transgenic mouse brains depleted of cells expressing the GALP/alarin gene. In wild type animals alarin-like immunoreacitivity (alarin-LI) was observed in different areas of the murine brain including the accessory olfactory bulb, medial preoptic area and the hypothalamus. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of alarin expression in peripheral tissues revealed high alarin levels in the testis of adult mice, whereas no alarin-Li was detected in the oesophagus of mice and trachea of rats. The galanin peptide family is known to play a role in cancer and alarin was first described in human neuroblastic tumors. Therefore, alarin expression in different CNS-tumor types was determined in the present study. Immunohistochemical analysis of a variety

  11. Different types of centrally acting antihypertensives and their targets in the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.; Chalmers, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The central regulation of blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters may involve the baroreceptor reflex are, including both adrenergic and serotonergic pathways, as well as amino acids, as neurotransmitters. Both adrenergic and serotonergic pathways have been recognized as targets for

  12. The activation pattern of macrophages in giant cell (temporal) arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Bernhard; Bergmann, Markus; Brück, Wolfgang; Probst-Cousin, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    To determine if the pattern of macrophage activation reflects differences in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system, specimens of 10 patients with giant cell arteritis and five with primary angiitis of the central nervous system were immunohistochemically studied and the expression of the macrophage activation markers 27E10, MRP14, MRP8 and 25F9 was determined in the vasculitic infiltrates. Thus, a partly different expression pattern of macrophage activation markers in giant cell arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system was observed. The group comparison revealed that giant cell arteritis cases had significantly higher numbers of acute activated MRP14-positive macrophages, whereas primary angiitis of the central nervous system is characterized by a tendency toward more MRP8-positive intermediate/late activated macrophages. Furthermore, in giant cell arteritis comparably fewer CD8-positive lymphocytes were observed. These observations suggest, that despite their histopathological similarities, giant cell arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system appear to represent either distinct entities within the spectrum of granulomatous vasculitides or different stages of similar disease processes. Their discrete clinical presentation is reflected by different activation patterns of macrophages, which may characterize giant cell arteritis as a more acute process and primary angiitis of the central nervous system as a more advanced inflammatory process. © 2013 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  13. Incidence and risk factors for central nervous system relapse in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, Camila Silva Peres; Murao, Mitiko; Viana, Marcos Borato; de Oliveira, Benigna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite all the advances in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system relapse remains an important obstacle to curing these patients. This study analyzed the incidence of central nervous system relapse and the risk factors for its occurrence in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods This study has a retrospective cohort design. The studied population comprised 199 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia followed up at Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG) between March 2001 and August 2009 and submitted to the Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento de Leucemia da Infância - acute lymphoblastic leukemia (GBTLI-LLA-99) treatment protocol. Results The estimated probabilities of overall survival and event free survival at 5 years were 69.5% (± 3.6%) and 58.8% (± 4.0%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of central nervous system (isolated or combined) relapse was 11.0% at 8 years. The estimated rate of isolated central nervous system relapse at 8 years was 6.8%. In patients with a blood leukocyte count at diagnosis ≥ 50 x 109/L, the estimated rate of isolated or combined central nervous system relapse was higher than in the group with a count 50 x 109/L at diagnosis seems to be a significant prognostic factor for a higher incidence of central nervous system relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:23323068

  14. Biopsy-proven case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated vasculitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Kohei; Katayama, Takayuki; Takeguchi, Shiori; Asanome, Asuka; Takahashi, Kae; Saito, Tsukasa; Sawada, Jun; Saito, Masato; Anei, Ryogo; Kamada, Kyousuke; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2017-06-01

    A 75-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with rapidly deteriorating consciousness disturbance. She had a 7-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which had been treated with methotrexate (MTX) and prednisolone. Brain T2-weighted MRI showed diffuse high-intensity lesions in the cerebral subcortical and deep white matter, bilateral basal ganglia and thalamus. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated protein levels and positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. Human immunodeficiency virus was negative. Brain biopsy showed perivascular lymphocytic infiltration in the parenchyma and meninx with EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER). Since this case did not fulfill the criteria for chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), she was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated vasculitis of the central nervous system. High-dose methylprednisolone, acyclovir, ganciclovir and foscarnet were not effective. Although EBV is a causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinomas, vasculitic pathology of the central nervous system with EBV reactivation in the elderly is rare. Immunosuppressive drugs such as steroids and MTX are widely used to treat autoimmune disorders, but may exacerbate the reactivation of EBV. This is the first case of biopsy-proven EBV-positive/HIV-negative vasculitis during the treatment of RA with MTX and steroids. This case indicates that EBV-associated vasculitis needs to be considered as a differential diagnosis of CNS vasculitis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  15. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  16. Interleukin-6 levels in the central nervous system are negatively correlated with fat mass in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlöf, Kaj; Wernstedt, Ingrid; Fjällman, Ted; Wallenius, Ville; Wallenius, Kristina; Jansson, John-Olov

    2003-09-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of IL-6 increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat in rodents. Therefore, IL-6 may play a role in appetite and body weight control in the central nervous system. In the present study we evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum IL-6 levels in humans in relation to body fat content and to CSF and serum levels of leptin. Thirty-two healthy overweight/obese male subjects with a body mass index range of 29.3-36.0 kg/m(2) were studied. Total and sc body fat were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. CSF IL-6 levels were in some individuals higher than serum IL-6 levels and correlated negatively with total body weight, sc and total body fat. In contrast, CSF leptin levels were 30-60 times lower than serum leptin levels and correlated positively with serum leptin, body weight, sc and total body fat. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between CSF IL-6 and leptin. In conclusion, CSF IL-6 differs in many ways from CSF leptin. CSF IL-6 may be locally produced rather than serum derived, and body fat-regulating regions in the central nervous system may be exposed to insufficient IL-6 levels in more severe obesity.

  17. Neuro-Coagulopathy: Blood Coagulation Factors in Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Ciro; Virtuoso, Assunta; Maggio, Nicola; Papa, Michele

    2017-10-12

    Blood coagulation factors and other proteins, with modulatory effects or modulated by the coagulation cascade have been reported to affect the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). The protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway can be considered the central hub of this regulatory network, mainly through thrombin or activated protein C (aPC). These proteins, in fact, showed peculiar properties, being able to interfere with synaptic homeostasis other than coagulation itself. These specific functions modulate neuronal networks, acting both on resident (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) as well as circulating immune system cells and the extracellular matrix. The pleiotropy of these effects is produced through different receptors, expressed in various cell types, in a dose- and time-dependent pattern. We reviewed how these pathways may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and post-ischemic epilepsy, CNS cancer, addiction, and mental health. These data open up a new path for the potential therapeutic use of the agonist/antagonist of these proteins in the management of several central nervous system diseases.

  18. Bone mineral density in subjects using central nervous system-active medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Mitsuyo; Setoguchi, Soko; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Solomon, Daniel H

    2005-12-01

    Decreased bone mineral density defines osteoporosis according to the World Health Organization and is an important predictor of future fractures. The use of several types of central nervous system-active drugs, including benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and opioids, have all been associated with increased risk of fracture. However, it is unclear whether such an increase in risk is related to an effect of bone mineral density or to other factors, such as increased risk of falls. We sought to examine the relationship between bone mineral density and the use of benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and opioids in a representative US population-based sample. We analyzed data on adults aged 17 years and older from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). Total femoral bone mineral density of 7114 male and 7532 female participants was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable linear regression models were used to quantify the relation between central nervous system medication exposure and total femoral bone mineral density. Models controlled for relevant covariates, including age, sex, and body mass index. In linear regression models, significantly reduced bone mineral density was found in subjects taking anticonvulsants (0.92 g/cm2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89 to 0.94) and opioids (0.92 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.95) compared with nonusers (0.95 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.95) after adjusting for several potential confounders. The other central nervous system-active drugs--benzodiazepines or antidepressants--were not associated with significantly reduced bone mineral density. In cross-sectional analysis of NHANES III, anticonvulsants and opioids (but not benzodiazepines or antidepressants) were associated with significantly reduced bone mineral density. These findings have implications for fracture-prevention strategies.

  19. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI in central nervous system Behcet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, E. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Carlier, R. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Idir, A.B.C. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Masnou, P.O. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Moulonguet, A. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Adams, D. (Dept. of Neurology, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France)); Doyon, D. (Dept. of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Hopital de Bicetre, Paris-Sud Univ. (France))

    1993-02-01

    Two cases of central nervous system Behcet's disease, studied by gadolinium-enhanced MRI, are presented. In one patient, whose clinical picture was dominated by a brain stem syndrome, the gadolinium enhancement resolved with clinical improvement, although the hyperintense areas in the mesencephalon on T2-weighted images persisted. In the second, who had a pseudobulbar palsy and a mild right hemiparesis, there were many abnormal areas, but an enhancing focus in the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was probably the lesion responsible for the hemiparesis. (orig.)

  20. Numerous Fusiform and Saccular Cerebral Aneurysms in Central Nervous System Lupus Presenting with Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Shahram; Leon Guerrero, Christopher R; Gandhy, Shreya; Burger, Kathleen M; Sigounas, Dimitri

    2017-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurs in up to 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Cerebral aneurysm formation is a rare complication of CNS lupus. The majority of these patients present with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report a patient with an active SLE flare who presented with a recurrent ischemic stroke and was found to have numerous unruptured fusiform and saccular aneurysms in multiple vascular territories. He was treated with high-dose steroid and rituximab along with aspirin and blood pressure control for stroke prevention. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Meningeous sarcoma: a rare tumor among the central nervous system neoplasia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondinelli, Patricia Imperatriz Porto; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Sredni, Simone Treiger; Araujo, Maria Betania Mahler

    2003-01-01

    We describe a case of meningeous malignancy in childhood, diagnosed by the Pediatric Department of the Cancer Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and do revise the world literature as well. The meningeous sarcoma (M S) is an extremely aggressive tumor, which appears in the central nervous system, at any age, but mainly in children. They represent a tiny percentage of brain tumors in children and sporadic cases are related in the world literature. Consequently, there are not enough clinical experiences about this distinct entity to allow the conclusion about which is the best therapeutic approach. (author)

  2. Survival of the children population with tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard Alejo, Julio; Nunnez Ferrer, Pedro; Rodriguez Herrera, Ernesto; Agustin Antomarchi, Luis M; Romero Garcia, Lazaro

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of all the patients with tumors of the central nervous system, admitted to the Southern Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from 1987 to 2006, in order to analyze the survival of this population whose mean was 45-49 months ± 5,84. It was found that age, tissue aspects, anatomical site, and resection degree, as well as the applied treatments (radiotherapy and chemotherapy), constituted decisive factors to improve the life prognosis of the case material. (author)

  3. Tumors of the central nervous system in the first year of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard Alejo, Julio S; Rodriguez Herrera, Ernesto; Tablada, Ricardo Hodelin; Romero Garcia, Lazaro I.

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of 8 patients with tumors of the central nervous system in the first year of life was carried out. They were diagnosed in the Southern Children Hospital of Santiago de Cuba from 1987 to 2008, 5 of them (62,5%) had died when the present article was made. The treatments indicated in this case are the resection of the tumor mass, the most radical surgery depending on its size and localization, as well as the chemotherapy according to the tissular type

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of central nervous system in lysosomal storage diseases: A pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Nathan; Alexander, Allen; Irani, Neville; Saade, Charbel; Naffaa, Lena

    2017-06-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) are a complex group of genetic disorders that are a result of inborn errors of metabolism. These errors result in a variety of metabolic dysfunction and build-up certain molecules within the tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). Although, they have discrete enzymatic deficiencies, symptomology and CNS imaging findings can overlap with each other, which can become challenging to radiologists. The purpose of this paper is to review the most common CNS imaging findings in LSD in order to familiarize the radiologist with their imaging findings and help narrow down the differential diagnosis. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  5. Treatment Sequencing in a Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patient with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Mousinho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL with neurologic involvement is a rare condition and should require a careful follow-up. Although no standard protocol exists for this condition, intrathecal chemotherapy, combined with systemic chemoimmunotherapy, has been used previously. This case describes the treatment of a patient with CLL and symptomatic compromise of the central nervous system. Our results suggest that a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and ibrutinib, administered sequentially over a 2-year period, led to a near-complete resolution of the cerebral spinal fluid neoplastic infiltration. Importantly, this response has been maintained with ibrutinib monotherapy for more than 12 months.

  6. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System in Small Animals: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Timothy; Taylor, Amanda R; Thomovsky, Stephanie A

    2018-01-01

    Small animal mycoses vary geographically. Different clinical presentations are seen in animals with infection of the central nervous system (CNS), including multifocal meningoencephalomyelitis, intracranial lesions that accompany sinonasal lesions, rapidly progressive ventriculitis, or solitary granuloma of the brain or spinal cord. Systemic, nasal, or extraneural clinical signs are common but, especially in granuloma cases, do not always occur. Surgery may have a diagnostic and therapeutic role in CNS granuloma. There have been recent advancements in serology. Fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole cross the blood-brain barrier, but voriconazole is neurotoxic to cats. Liposomal and lipid-encapsulated formulations of amphotericin B are preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma: Incorporating MRI in the Planning of Treatment Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloraby, A.; Zaki, I.

    2001-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system is becoming increasingly encountered secondary to the acquired immune-deficiency disorders. MRI is rapidly evolving diagnostic tool in the management of the lymphomatous CNS primary infiltrates. Methods and materials: 40 patients of the National Cancer Institute of Cairo University were studied by medium and high power MRI machines before and after intra-venous contrast enhancement. Results: The cerebral lesions exhibited specific diagnostic criteria regarding the anatomical configuration, signal pattern, peri-focal oedema and response to steroids, such manifestations made. Conclusion: MRI a highly reliable tool in the management of the disease. The work proved that spinal cord primary lymphoma is a rare entity

  8. Unusual location of central nervous system langerhans cell histiocytosis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. Yup; Lee, Jae Kyu; Kim, Chan Kyo; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Phil Wook [Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system (CNS) usually involves the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and T1-weighted MR images normally demonstrate infundibular thickening and/or a mass lesion in the hypothalamus and the absence of a posterior pituitary 'bright spot'. We recently encountered a case of CNS langerhans cell histiocytosis with no posterior pituitary 'bright spot' and with lesions involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia but not the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  9. Imaging findings of central nervous system infections. Case-based review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Prompt detection and an accurate diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infections are important because most of these disorders are readily treatable. Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of the disorders. Infections of CNS pose a worldwide public health problem. Global scale transportation means that disorders once relatively confined to certain geographic areas are now readily ''outside the window'' of practicing radiologists everywhere. Therefore, we, neuroradiologists are in the need of studying foreign infectious diseases, such as West Nile fever, enterovirus poliomyelitis, etc. (author)

  10. Advanced in study of cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation effects on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2008-01-01

    Along with radiation treatment extensively applied, radiation injury also is valued gradually. The effect of radiation to the cellular and molecular of central nervous system (CNS) is a complicated and moderately advanced process and the mechanism is remains incompletely clear yet. Inquiring into the possible mechanism of the CNS including the injury and the restoration of neuron, neuroglia cells, endotheliocyte cell and blood-brain barrier and the molecular level of change induced by radiation, so as to provide beneficial thought for preventing and curing radiation injury clinically. Some neuroprotective strategies are also addressed in the review. (authors)

  11. Immune and Inflammatory Responses in the Central Nervous System: Modulation by Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; hidalgo, juan; aschner, michael

    2008-01-01

    Beyond their long-recognized support functions, astrocytes are active partners of neurons in processing information, synaptic integration, and production of trophic factors, just to name a few. Both microglia and astrocytes produce and secrete a number of cytokines, modulating and integrating...... the communication between hematogenous cells and resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS). This review will address (1) the functions of astrocytes in the normal brain and (2) their role in surveying noxious stimuli within the brain, with particular emphasis on astrocytic responses to damage or disease...

  12. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with central nervous system infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Christian; Benfield, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) plays an essential pathophysiological role in septic shock; however, its role in central nervous system infection (CNS) remains to be defined. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF......-22725) vs. 3240ng/L (1563-9302), respectively, P=0.003), and in patients with impaired consciousness (8614 ng/L (3344-20935) vs. 2625 ng/L (1561-7530), respectively, P=0.02). CSF MIF levels correlated significantly to the meningeal inflammation (Psystemic inflammatory response (P>0...

  13. Creatine kinase in the serum of patients with acute infections of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterslund, N A; Heinsvig, E M; Christensen, K D

    1985-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase was assessed in 94 consecutive patients without convulsions admitted to hospital due to suspicion of infection of the central nervous system. No reliable discrimination between patients with aseptic and those with bacterial meningitis was obtained. Patients with bacterial...... of bacterial meningitis. The highest serum CK value found in patients with encephalitis was 725 U/l. Reference values for control patients with meningism were 16-269 U/1. In a subset of 9 patients creatine kinase isoenzyme analysis was performed. In all cases only muscle type (MM) isoenzyme was found...

  14. Diverse roles of extracellular calcium-sensing receptor in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2010-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), upon activation by Ca(2+) or other physiologically relevant polycationic molecules, performs diverse functions in the brain. The CaSR is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and is characterized by a robust increase in its...... to astrocytic or neuronal lineages. In adult CNS, CaSR has broad relevance in maintaining local ionic homeostasis. CaSR shares an evolutionary relationship with the metabotropic glutamate receptor and forms heteromeric complexes with the type B-aminobutyric acid receptor subunits that affects its cell surface...

  15. Central nervous system involvement in primary Sjogren`s syndrome manifesting as multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yao; Zhao, Teng; Zhou, Chun-Kui

    2014-04-01

    Central nervous system symptoms in patients with primary Sjogren`s syndrome are rare. They can present as extraglandular manifestations and require a differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis. Due to a variety of presentations, Sjogren`s syndrome with neurologic involvement may be difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old woman who was first diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 2010, but who was subsequently diagnosed with primary Sjogren`s syndrome 2 years later after showing signs of atypical neurologic manifestations. Therefore, primary Sjogren`s syndrome should be suspected in patients who present with atypical clinical and radiologic neurologic manifestations.

  16. Immunohistochemical Analysis in the Rat Central Nervous System and Peripheral Lymph Node Tissue Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzemovic, Milena Z; Zeitelhofer, Manuel; Leisser, Marianne; Köck, Ulricke; Kury, Angela; Olsson, Tomas

    2016-11-14

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) provides highly specific, reliable and attractive protein visualization. Correct performance and interpretation of an IHC-based multicolor labeling is challenging, especially when utilized for assessing interrelations between target proteins in the tissue with a high fat content such as the central nervous system (CNS). Our protocol represents a refinement of the standard immunolabeling technique particularly adjusted for detection of both structural and soluble proteins in the rat CNS and peripheral lymph nodes (LN) affected by neuroinflammation. Nonetheless, with or without further modifications, our protocol could likely be used for detection of other related protein targets, even in other organs and species than here presented.

  17. Positron emission tomography - a new technique for studies of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Lars; Dahlbom, Magnus; Widen, Lennart

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become an important tool to study the central nervous system. Examples of such studies are cerebral blood flow and metabolism and determination of receptor characteristics of the brain. In the following the basic principles and the physics behind PET are given. Different aspects are discussed such as detector design, image reconstruction and data analyses. Since quantification is essential in PET, data have to be corrected for absorption, scatter and random coincidences. These corrections and their influence on image data are discussed. A review of state-of-the-art PET research of the brain is given. (author)

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system. Comparison with X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajima, Toshio; Kagawa, Yoshihiro; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1987-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) have been performed in 169 consecutive patients with central nervous system diseases. The findings from the two methods were compared for the capacity to defect lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than or equivalent to X-ray CT in detecting lesions - especially detecting. Arnold-Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, spinal cord injury, and pituitary adenoma - in 158 patients (94 %). In six patients (10 %), lesion detection was possible only by MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging was inferior to X-ray CT in 11 patients (7 %) in detecting calcified lesions, meningioma, and cavernous hemangioma. (Namekawa, K.).

  19. Secondary superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in a patient presenting with sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmerling, M.; De Praeter, G.; Mollet, P.; Mortele, K.; Kunnen, M.; Mastenbroek, G.

    1998-01-01

    We present a 50-year-old man who was investigated for sensorineural hearing loss. On MRI of the brain superficial siderosis of the central nervous system was seen, while MRI of the spine revealed an ependymoma of the cauda equina. This case illustrates the importance of performing T2-weighted imaging of the brain and posterior fossa when sensorineural hearing loss is present. Spine imaging is mandatory when superficial siderosis of the brain is diagnosed without identification of a bleeding source in the brain. (orig.)

  20. Potentials of radiotherapy in inoperable tumours of the central nervous system in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, Bela; Horvath, Akos; Varjas, Geza; Bajcsay, Andras; Kaldau, Ferenc; Pap, Lilla

    1990-01-01

    16 patients under 16 years were irradiated because of inoperable tumours in the central nervous system. Irradiations were performed by cobalt-60 facility and by a Neptun 10-p linear accelerator, and the results were evaluated. In these cases radiotherapy has an important role as it is the only definitive therapeutical intervention. Radiotherapy should be attempted even if the histological verification is impossible and only the clinical course referres to malignant process. Radiotherapy must be carried out on the basis of CT scan controlled irradiation plan. The 3-year survival rate was 14 per cent in the authors' material. (author) 16 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. PET/MRI of central nervous system: current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhen Lu; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Imaging plays an increasingly important role in the early diagnosis, prognosis prediction and therapy response evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The newly emerging hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) can perform ''one-stop-shop'' evaluation, including anatomic, functional, biochemical and metabolic information, even at the molecular level, for personalised diagnoses and treatments of CNS diseases. However, there are still several problems to be resolved, such as appropriate PET detectors, attenuation correction and so on. This review will introduce the basic physical principles of PET/MRI and its potential clinical applications in the CNS. We also provide the future perspectives for this field. (orig.)

  2. The physiological functions of central nervous system pericytes and a potential role in pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley-Long, Nicholas; Durrant, Alexandra M; Swift, Matthew N; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2018-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) pericytes regulate critical functions of the neurovascular unit in health and disease. CNS pericytes are an attractive pharmacological target for their position within the neurovasculature and for their role in neuroinflammation. Whether the function of CNS pericytes also affects pain states and nociceptive mechanisms is currently not understood. Could it be that pericytes hold the key to pain associated with CNS blood vessel dysfunction? This article reviews recent findings on the important physiological functions of CNS pericytes and highlights how these neurovascular functions could be linked to pain states. PMID:29623199

  3. Tolerance of the central nervous system to photon irradiation. Endocrine complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigg, D.R.; Murray, R.M.L.; Koschel, K. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response isoeffect equations have been determined for hypothalamic pituitary insufficiency following cranial irradiation. Of particular importance is the occurrence of complications at doses substantially less than those commonly used for the treatment of central nervous system tumors. Such complications may be severe and potentially life threatening. These complications occur when a small midline 'target' volume containing the pituitary gland, infundibulum and adjacent inferior hypothalamic structures is irradiated. Direct pituitary irradiation is unlikely to be a factor, at least in some cases. The possible role of incidental hypothalamic irradiation in the control of acromegaly and pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome is discussed.

  4. Chondroitin sulfates and their binding molecules in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerbal, L; Lortat-Jacob, H; Kwok, Jcf

    2017-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is the most abundant glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in the central nervous system (CNS) matrix. Its sulfation and epimerization patterns give rise to different forms of CS, which enables it to interact specifically and with a significant affinity with various signalling molecules in the matrix including growth factors, receptors and guidance molecules. These interactions control numerous biological and pathological processes, during development and in adulthood. In this review, we describe the specific interactions of different families of proteins involved in various physiological and cognitive mechanisms with CSs in CNS matrix. A better understanding of these interactions could promote a development of inhibitors to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Pharmacological Targets in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the body and represent good sensors for detecting protons. The pH drop in the nervous system is equivalent to ischemia and acidosis, and ASICs are very good detectors in discriminating slight changes in acidity. ASICs are important pharmacological targets being involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes affecting both the peripheral nervous system (e.g., peripheral pain, diabetic neuropathy) and the central nervous system (e.g., stroke, epilepsy, migraine, anxiety, fear, depression, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.). This review discusses the role played by ASICs in different pathologies and the pharmacological agents acting on ASICs that might represent promising drugs. As the majority of above-mentioned pathologies involve not only neuronal dysfunctions but also microvascular alterations, in the next future, ASICs may be also considered as potential pharmacological targets at the vasculature level. Perspectives and limitations in the use of ASICs antagonists and modulators as pharmaceutical agents are also discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, Matthijs; van Eijk, Lucas T; Zwaag, Jelle; van den Wildenberg, Joanne; Sweep, Fred C G J; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Pickkers, Peter

    2014-05-20

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. Herein, we evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either the intervention (n = 12) or control group (n = 12). Subjects in the intervention group were trained for 10 d in meditation (third eye meditation), breathing techniques (i.a., cyclic hyperventilation followed by breath retention), and exposure to cold (i.a., immersions in ice cold water). The control group was not trained. Subsequently, all subjects underwent experimental endotoxemia (i.v. administration of 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin). In the intervention group, practicing the learned techniques resulted in intermittent respiratory alkalosis and hypoxia resulting in profoundly increased plasma epinephrine levels. In the intervention group, plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased more rapidly after endotoxin administration, correlated strongly with preceding epinephrine levels, and were higher. Levels of proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were lower in the intervention group and correlated negatively with IL-10 levels. Finally, flu-like symptoms were lower in the intervention group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in epinephrine release and subsequent suppression of the innate immune response in humans in vivo. These results could have important implications for the treatment of conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases.

  7. The Case for TAAR1 as a Modulator of Central Nervous System Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Rutigliano

    2018-01-01

    polymorphisms have been identified, but their functional consequences have not been extensively investigated yet. In conclusion, the bulk of evidence points to a significant physiological role of TAAR1 in the modulation of central nervous system function and a potential pharmacological role of TAAR1 agonists in neurology and/or psychiatry. However, the specific effects of TAAR1 stimulation are still controversial, and many crucial issues require further investigation.

  8. Isolated Richter's syndrome in central nervous system: case report Sindrome de Richter isolada em sistema nervoso central: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene S.R. Resende

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL, or Richter's syndrome, is a rare and serious complication. Isolated Richter's syndrome in the central nervous system is very rare; only 12 cases have been reported. We describe a 74-year-old patient with diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the right frontal region with the appearance of multiform glioblastoma.Linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em paciente portador de leucemia linfóide crônica (LLC, ou síndrome de Richter, é complicação rara e grave nesta leucemia. Síndrome de Richter isolada no sistema nervoso central é muito rara, tendo sido encontrados apenas 12 casos descritos. Descrevemos paciente de 74 anos, que apresentou linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em região frontal direita, simulando glioblastoma multiforme.

  9. Prions spread via the autonomic nervous system from the gut to the central nervous system in cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christine; Ziegler, Ute; Buschmann, Anne; Weber, Artur; Kupfer, Leila; Oelschlegel, Anja; Hammerschmidt, Baerbel; Groschup, Martin H

    2007-03-01

    To elucidate the still-unknown pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), an oral BSE challenge and sequential kill study was carried out on 56 calves. Relevant tissues belonging to the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as to the lymphoreticular tract, from necropsied animals were analysed by highly sensitive immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting techniques to reveal the presence of BSE-associated pathological prion protein (PrPSc) depositions. Our results demonstrate two routes involving the autonomic nervous system through which BSE prions spread by anterograde pathways from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the central nervous system (CNS): (i) via the coeliac and mesenteric ganglion complex, splanchnic nerves and the lumbal/caudal thoracic spinal cord (representing the sympathetic GIT innervation); and (ii) via the Nervus vagus (parasympathetic GIT innervation). The dorsal root ganglia seem to be subsequently affected, so it is likely that BSE prion invasion of the non-autonomic peripheral nervous system (e.g. sciatic nerve) is a secondary retrograde event following prion replication in the CNS. Moreover, BSE-associated PrPSc was already detected in the brainstem of an animal 24 months post-infection, which is 8 months earlier than reported previously. These findings are important for the understanding of BSE pathogenesis and for the development of new diagnostic strategies for this infectious disease.

  10. Retinal Electrophysiology Is a Viable Preclinical Biomarker for Drug Penetrance into the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Charng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether retinal electrophysiology is a useful surrogate marker of drug penetrance into the central nervous system (CNS. Materials and Methods. Brain and retinal electrophysiology were assessed with full-field visually evoked potentials and electroretinograms in conscious and anaesthetised rats following systemic or local administrations of centrally penetrant (muscimol or nonpenetrant (isoguvacine compounds. Results. Local injections into the eye/brain bypassed the blood neural barriers and produced changes in retinal/brain responses for both drugs. In conscious animals, systemic administration of muscimol resulted in retinal and brain biopotential changes, whereas systemic delivery of isoguvacine did not. General anaesthesia confounded these outcomes. Conclusions. Retinal electrophysiology, when recorded in conscious animals, shows promise as a viable biomarker of drug penetration into the CNS. In contrast, when conducted under anaesthetised conditions confounds can be induced in both cortical and retinal electrophysiological recordings.

  11. The Intrinsic Electrophysiological Properties of Mammalian Neurons: Insights into Central Nervous System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Rodolfo R.

    1988-12-01

    This article reviews the electroresponsive properties of single neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). In some of these cells the ionic conductances responsible for their excitability also endow them with autorhythmic electrical oscillatory properties. Chemical or electrical synaptic contacts between these neurons often result in network oscillations. In such networks, autorhytmic neurons may act as true oscillators (as pacemakers) or as resonators (responding preferentially to certain firing frequencies). Oscillations and resonance in the CNS are proposed to have diverse functional roles, such as (i) determining global functional states (for example, sleep-wakefulness or attention), (ii) timing in motor coordination, and (iii) specifying connectivity during development. Also, oscillation, especially in the thalamo-cortical circuits, may be related to certain neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review proposes that the autorhythmic electrical properties of central neurons and their connectivity form the basis for an intrinsic functional coordinate system that provides internal context to sensory input.

  12. Immunotherapeutics in Pediatric Autoimmune Central Nervous System Disease: Agents and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosadini, Margherita; Sartori, Stefano; Sharma, Suvasini; Dale, Russell C

    2017-08-01

    Beyond the major advances produced by careful clinical-radiological phenotyping and biomarker development in autoimmune central nervous system disorders, a comprehensive knowledge of the range of available immune therapies and a deeper understanding of their action should benefit therapeutic decision-making. This review discusses the agents used in neuroimmunology and their mechanisms of action. First-line treatments typically include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, while for severe disease second-line "induction" agents such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide are used. Steroid-sparing agents such as mycophenolate, azathioprine, or methotrexate are often used in potentially relapsing or corticosteroid-dependent diseases. Lessons from adult neuroimmunology and rheumatology could be translated into pediatric autoimmune central nervous system disease in the future, including the potential utility of monoclonal antibodies targeting lymphocytes, adhesion molecules for lymphocytic migration, cytokines or their receptors, or complement. Finally, many agents used in other fields have multiple mechanisms of action, including immunomodulation, with potential usefulness in neuroimmunology, such as antibiotics, psychotropic drugs, probiotics, gut health, and ketogenic diet. All currently accepted and future potential agents have adverse effects, which can be severe; therefore, a "risk-versus-benefit" determination should guide therapeutic decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence, risk factors and outcome of nosocomial pneumonia in patients with central nervous system infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajović Olgica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pneumonia is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units. The reported frequency varies with definition, the type of hospital or intensive care units and the population of patients. The incidence ranges from 6.8-27%. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors and mortality of nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care patients. Methods. We analyzed retrospectively and prospectively the collected data of 180 patients with central nervous system infections who needed to stay in the intensive care unit for more than 48 hours. This study was conducted from 2003 to 2009 at the Clinical Centre of Kragujevac. Results. During the study period, 54 (30% patients developed nosocomial pneumonia. The time to develop pneumonia was 10±6 days. We found that the following risk factors for the development of nosocomial pneumonia were statistically significant: age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score <9, mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, presence of nasogastric tube and enteral feeding. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Klebsiella-Enterobacter spp. (33.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24.1%, Acinetobacter spp. (16.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. Conclusion. Nosocomial pneumonia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of patients with central nervous system infections. Patients on mechanical ventilation are particularly at a high risk. The mortality rate of patients with nosocomial pneumonia was 54.4% and it was five times higher than in patients without pneumonia.

  14. Central nervous system histoplasmosis: Multicenter retrospective study on clinical features, diagnostic approach and outcome of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Joseph; Myint, Thein; Guo, Ying; Kemmer, Phebe; Hage, Chadi; Terry, Colin; Azar, Marwan M; Riddell, James; Ender, Peter; Chen, Sharon; Shehab, Kareem; Cleveland, Kerry; Esguerra, Eden; Johnson, James; Wright, Patty; Douglas, Vanja; Vergidis, Pascalis; Ooi, Winnie; Baddley, John; Bamberger, David; Khairy, Raed; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth; Sivasubramanian, Geetha; Bowlware, Karen; Pahud, Barbara; Sarria, Juan; Tsai, Townson; Assi, Maha; Mocherla, Satish; Prakash, Vidhya; Allen, David; Passaretti, Catherine; Huprikar, Shirish; Anderson, Albert

    2018-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement occurs in 5 to 10% of individuals with disseminated histoplasmosis. Most experience has been derived from small single center case series, or case report literature reviews. Therefore, a larger study of central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis is needed in order to guide the approach to diagnosis, and treatment.A convenience sample of 77 patients with histoplasmosis infection of the CNS was evaluated. Data was collected that focused on recognition of infection, diagnostic techniques, and outcomes of treatment.Twenty nine percent of patients were not immunosuppressed. Histoplasma antigen, or anti-Histoplasma antibodies were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 75% of patients. One year survival was 75% among patients treated initially with amphotericin B, and was highest with liposomal, or deoxycholate formulations. Mortality was higher in immunocompromised patients, and patients 54 years of age, or older. Six percent of patients relapsed, all of whom had the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and were poorly adherent with treatment.While CNS histoplasmosis occurred most often in immunocompromised individuals, a significant proportion of patients were previously, healthy. The diagnosis can be established by antigen, and antibody testing of the CSF, and serum, and antigen testing of the urine in most patients. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (AMB-L) for at least 1 month; followed by itraconazole for at least 1 year, results in survival among the majority of individuals. Patients should be followed for relapse for at least 1 year, after stopping therapy.

  15. Magnetic resonance features of primary central nervous system lymphoma in the immunocompetent patient: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Kelvin K.; Sutherland, Tom; Liew, Elain; Tartaglia, Con J.; Trost, Nick; Pang, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon but important variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents up to 6% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. Recognition of this entity by radiologist on MRI may avoid unnecessary neurosurgical resection and redirect to biopsy. The pretreatment MRI of patients with biopsy proven PCNSL from the last 5 years at our institution was reviewed. Selected examples were used to construct a pictorial essay to illustrate some of the typical and atypical MR features of PCNSL. MRI of other CNS conditions with imaging similarities to PCNSL was included to demonstrate possible mimics. The typical features of PCNSL lymphoma are intra-axial homogenous single or multiple contrast enhancing lesions, with marked surrounding oedema and restricted diffusion, usually contacting a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surface. Necrosis, peripheral enhancement, haemorrhage or calcification are unusual and other diagnoses should be considered if any of these features are present. Potential mimics include high grade glioma, infarcts, metastatic disease, demyelination, abscess and secondary lymphoma. Careful assessment of the MR features and correlation with the clinical findings should enable the radiologists to raise the possibility of PCNSL and minimise the risk of unnecessary resection.

  16. Intraventricular Delivery of siRNA Nanoparticles to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishab Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease currently lacking effective treatment. Efficient delivery of siRNA via nanoparticles may emerge as a viable therapeutic approach to treat AD and other central nervous system disorders. We report here the use of a linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI-g-polyethylene glycol (PEG copolymer-based micellar nanoparticle system to deliver siRNA targeting BACE1 and APP, two therapeutic targets of AD. Using LPEI-siRNA nanoparticles against either BACE1 or APP in cultured mouse neuroblastoma (N2a cells, we observe selective knockdown, respectively, of BACE1 or APP. The encapsulation of siRNA by LPEI-g-PEG carriers, with different grafting degrees of PEG, leads to the formation of micellar nanoparticles with distinct morphologies, including worm-like, rod-like, or spherical nanoparticles. By infusing these shaped nanoparticles into mouse lateral ventricles, we show that rod-shaped nanoparticles achieved the most efficient knockdown of BACE1 in the brain. Furthermore, such knockdown is evident in spinal cords of these treated mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that the shape of siRNA-encapsulated nanoparticles is an important determinant for their delivery and gene knockdown efficiency in the central nervous system.

  17. [The blood-brain barrier and drug delivery in the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch-Neckel, Gecioni; Koepp, Janice

    2010-08-01

    To provide an updated view of the difficulties due to barriers and strategies used to allow the release of drugs in the central nervous system. The difficulty for the treatment of many diseases of the central nervous system, through the use of intra-venous drugs, is due to the presence of barriers that prevent the release of the same: the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebro-spinal fluid barrier and the blood-arachnoid barrier. The blood-brain barrier is the main barrier for the transport of drugs in the brain that also acts as a immunologic and metabolic barrier. The endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier are connected to a junction complex through the interaction of transmembrane proteins that protrude from de inside to the outside, forming a connection between the endothelial cells. The transport of substances to the brain depends on the mechanisms of transport present in the barrier and the diffusion of these compounds also depends on the physicochemical characteristics of the molecule. Some diseases alter the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and thus the passage of drugs. Strategies such as the use of methods for drug delivery in the brain have been investigated. Further details regarding the mechanisms of transport across the blood-brain barrier and the changes in neuropathology would provide important information about the etiology of diseases and lead to better therapeutic strategies.

  18. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in the Mammalian Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Katherine E; Day, Jeremy J

    2017-12-01

    Within the central nervous system, gene regulatory mechanisms are crucial regulators of cellular development and function, and dysregulation of these systems is commonly observed in major neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. However, due to a lack of tools to specifically modulate the genome and epigenome in the central nervous system, many molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying cognitive function and behavior are still unknown. Although genome editing tools have been around for decades, the recent emergence of inexpensive, straightforward, and widely accessible CRISPR/Cas9 systems has led to a revolution in gene editing. The development of the catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) expanded this flexibility even further by acting as an anchoring system for fused effector proteins, structural scaffolds, and RNAs. Together, these advances have enabled robust, modular approaches for specific targeting and modification of the local chromatin environment at a single gene. This review highlights these advancements and how the combination of powerful modulatory tools paired with the versatility of CRISPR-Cas9-based systems offer great potential for understanding the underlying genetic and epigenetic contributions of neuronal function, behavior, and neurobiological diseases.

  19. Adult clonidine overdose: prolonged bradycardia and central nervous system depression, but not severe toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Heppell, Simon P; Page, Colin B; Ryan, Nicole M

    2017-03-01

    There are limited reports of adult clonidine overdose. We aimed to describe the clinical effects and treatment of clonidine overdose in adults. This was a retrospective review of a prospective cohort of poisoned patients who took clonidine overdoses (>200 μg). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment, complications (central nervous system and cardiovascular effects) and length of stay (LOS) were extracted from a clinical database or medical records. From 133 admissions for clonidine poisoning (1988-2015), no medical record was available in 14 and 11 took staggered ingestions. Of 108 acute clonidine overdoses (median age 27 years; 14-65 years; 68 females), 40 were clonidine alone ingestions and 68 were clonidine with co-ingestants. Median dose taken was 2100 μg (interquartile range [IQR]: 400-15,000 μg). Median LOS was 21h (IQR: 14-35 h) and there were no deaths. Glasgow coma score [GCS] central nervous system depression and bradycardia. Naloxone was not associated with improved outcomes.

  20. Central Nervous System Effects of Intrauterine Zika Virus Infection: A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bianca Guedes; Werner, Heron; Lopes, Flávia P P L; Hygino da Cruz, L Celso; Fazecas, Tatiana M; Daltro, Pedro A N; Nogueira, Renata A

    2017-10-01

    Relatively few agents have been associated with congenital infections involving the brain. One such agent is the Zika virus, which has caused several outbreaks worldwide and has spread in the Americas since 2015. The Zika virus is an arbovirus transmitted by infected female mosquito vectors, such as the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This virus has been commonly associated with congenital infections of the central nervous system and has greatly increased the rates of microcephaly. Ultrasonography (US) remains the method of choice for fetal evaluation of congenital Zika virus infection. For improved assessment of the extent of the lesions, US should be complemented by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Postnatal computed tomography and MR imaging can also unveil additional findings of central nervous system involvement, such as microcephaly with malformation of cortical development, ventriculomegaly, and multifocal calcifications in the cortical-subcortical junction, along with associated cortical atrophy. The calcifications may be punctate, dystrophic, linear, or coarse and may follow a predominantly bandlike distribution. A small anterior fontanelle with prematurely closed sutures is also observed with Zika virus infection. In this review, the prenatal and postnatal neurologic imaging findings of congenital Zika virus infection are covered. Radiologists must be aware of this challenging entity and have knowledge of the various patterns that may be depicted with each imaging modality and the main differential diagnosis of the disease. As in other neurologic infections, serial imaging is able to help demonstrate the progression of the findings. © RSNA, 2017.