WorldWideScience

Sample records for human cd13 gene-different

  1. Aminopeptidase N (CD13 Is Involved in Phagocytic Processes in Human Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica I. Villaseñor-Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminopeptidase N (APN or CD13 is a membrane ectopeptidase expressed by many cell types, including myelomonocytic lineage cells: monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD13 is known to regulate the biological activity of various peptides by proteolysis, and it has been proposed that CD13 also participates in several functions such as angiogenesis, cell adhesion, metastasis, and tumor invasion. We had previously reported that, in human monocytes and macrophages, CD13 modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors for the Fc portion of IgG antibodies (FcγRs. In this work, we analyzed the possible interaction of CD13 with other phagocytic receptors. We found out that the cross-linking of CD13 positively modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors of the innate immune system, since a significant increase in the phagocytosis of zymosan particles or heat-killed E. coli was observed when CD13 was cross-linked using anti-CD13 antibodies, in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Also, we observed that, during the phagocytosis of zymosan, CD13 redistributes and is internalized into the phagosome. These findings suggest that, besides its known functions, CD13 participates in phagocytic processes in dendritic cells and macrophages.

  2. Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13 inhibitor, Ubenimex, enhances radiation sensitivity in human cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawa Akihiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy can be used to treat all stages of cervical cancer. For improving local control via radiotherapy, it is important to use additional antitumor agents. Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13, a 150-kDa metalloproteinase, is a multifunctional cell surface aminopeptidase with ubiquitous expression. Recent studies have suggested that APN/CD13 plays an important role in tumor progression in several human malignancies. Methods We investigated whether the suppression of APN/CD13 using Ubenimex, an inhibitor of APN/CD13 activity, may affect tumor radiosensitivity in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell surface APN/CD13 activity in HeLa cells was calculated using alanine-p-nitroanilido as a substrate. For colony formation assays, single-dose radiation and/or Ubenimex were administered to each dish of HeLa cells, and these dishes were cultured for 14 days. Molecular changes of apoptosis were determined by Western blot. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin-V PI staining (flow cytometry analysis and the Tunel method. Moreover, we investigated the effect of combining Ubenimex and low-dose radiation on tumor growth using nude mice. Results We demonstrated that Ubenimex enhanced the effectiveness of radiotherapy, acting as a radiosensitizer both in vitro and in vivo. In colony formation assays, a significant decline in clonogenic survival was observed in Ubenimex-treated cells. Mice treated with a combination of radiation and Ubenimex showed a significant prolongation of the tumor-doubling time compared with the control, Ubenimex, or radiation-alone groups. We also showed that ubenimex enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Although further studies are needed, this report suggests that Ubeniemx acts as a radiosensitizer in cervical cancer treatment, and that the inhibition of APN/CD13 activity may represent a new approach for improving the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy for uterine

  3. CD13 and ROR2 Permit Isolation of Highly Enriched Cardiac Mesoderm from Differentiating Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Rhys J P; Brady, Bevin; Khoja, Suhail; Sahoo, Debashis; Engel, James; Arasaratnam, Deevina; Saleh, Kholoud K; Abilez, Oscar J; Zhao, Peng; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G; Kwon, Murray; Elliott, David A; Ardehali, Reza

    2016-01-12

    The generation of tissue-specific cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is critical for the development of future stem cell-based regenerative therapies. Here, we identify CD13 and ROR2 as cell-surface markers capable of selecting early cardiac mesoderm emerging during hESC differentiation. We demonstrate that the CD13+/ROR2+ population encompasses pre-cardiac mesoderm, which efficiently differentiates to all major cardiovascular lineages. We determined the engraftment potential of CD13+/ROR2+ in small (murine) and large (porcine) animal models, and demonstrated that CD13+/ROR2+ progenitors have the capacity to differentiate toward cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells in vivo. Collectively, our data show that CD13 and ROR2 identify a cardiac lineage precursor pool that is capable of successful engraftment into the porcine heart. These markers represent valuable tools for further dissection of early human cardiac differentiation, and will enable a detailed assessment of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac lineage cells for potential clinical applications.

  4. CD13 and ROR2 Permit Isolation of Highly Enriched Cardiac Mesoderm from Differentiating Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys J.P. Skelton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of tissue-specific cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs is critical for the development of future stem cell-based regenerative therapies. Here, we identify CD13 and ROR2 as cell-surface markers capable of selecting early cardiac mesoderm emerging during hESC differentiation. We demonstrate that the CD13+/ROR2+ population encompasses pre-cardiac mesoderm, which efficiently differentiates to all major cardiovascular lineages. We determined the engraftment potential of CD13+/ROR2+ in small (murine and large (porcine animal models, and demonstrated that CD13+/ROR2+ progenitors have the capacity to differentiate toward cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells in vivo. Collectively, our data show that CD13 and ROR2 identify a cardiac lineage precursor pool that is capable of successful engraftment into the porcine heart. These markers represent valuable tools for further dissection of early human cardiac differentiation, and will enable a detailed assessment of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac lineage cells for potential clinical applications.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a primary proximal tubular epithelial cell model from human kidney by CD10/CD13 double labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Van der Hauwaert

    Full Text Available Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells play a central role in renal physiology and are among the cell types most sensitive to ischemia and xenobiotic nephrotoxicity. In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of kidney injuries, a stable and well-characterized primary culture model of proximal tubular cells is required. An existing model of proximal tubular cells is hampered by the cellular heterogeneity of kidney; a method based on cell sorting for specific markers must therefore be developed. In this study, we present a primary culture model based on the mechanical and enzymatic dissociation of healthy tissue obtained from nephrectomy specimens. Renal epithelial cells were sorted using co-labeling for CD10 and CD13, two renal proximal tubular epithelial markers, by flow cytometry. Their purity, phenotypic stability and functional properties were evaluated over several passages. Our results demonstrate that CD10/CD13 double-positive cells constitute a pure, functional and stable proximal tubular epithelial cell population that displays proximal tubule markers and epithelial characteristics over the long term, whereas cells positive for either CD10 or CD13 alone appear to be heterogeneous. In conclusion, this study describes a method for establishing a robust renal proximal tubular epithelial cell model suitable for further experimentation.

  6. The biological difference between CD13+CD133+ and CD13¬CD133¬liver cancer cells and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-long JIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the biological difference between CD13+CD133+ and CD13-CD133- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells in HuH7 cell line and its clinical significance. Methods The status of proliferation, phase of the cell cycle, tumor formation in vivo, differentiation, and their chemoresistance to 5-FU and pirarubicin of CD13+CD133+ and CD13-CD133-HCC cells were studied to analyze the clinical implication of CD13+CD133+HCC cell subset. Results The proliferation rate of CD13+CD133+HCC cells was significantly higher than that of CD13-CD133-HCC cells. The cell-cycle phase study showed that 78.45% of the CD13+CD133+HCC cells were in the G0/G1 phase, 2.19% in G2/M phase, and 19.36% in S phase, while 62.18% CD13-CD133-HCC cells were in the G0/G1 phase, 11.88% in G2/M phase, and 25.95% in S phase. Limiting dilution analysis of HuH7 cells revealed that 1×103 CD13+CD133+ cells could form the tumor, while 1×105 CD13-CD133- cells did. CD13+CD133+ cells showed chemoresistance to 5-FU and pirarubicin, while other three subsets succumbed to the drugs. Conclusion CD13+CD133+ cancer cells in HuH7 showed the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which might contribute to the relapse and metastasis of liver cancer, and they may be the main target for chemotherapy in human liver cancer.

  7. CD13 Promotes Mesenchymal Stem Cell-mediated regeneration of ischemic muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mamunur eRahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent, tissue-resident cells that can facilitate tissue regeneration and thus show great promise as potential therapeutic agents. Functional MSCs have been isolated and characterized from a wide array of adult tissues and are universally identified by the shared expression of a core panel of MSCs markers. One of these markers is the multifunctional cell surface peptidase CD13 that has been shown to be expressed on human and murine MSCs from many tissues. To investigate whether this universal expression indicates a functional role for CD13 in MSC biology we isolated, expanded and characterized MSCs from bone marrow of wild type (WT and CD13KO mice. Characterization of these cells demonstrated that both WT and CD13KO MSCs expressed the full complement of MSC markers (CD29, CD44, CD49e, CD105, Sca1, showed comparable proliferation rates and were capable of differentiating toward the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. However, MSCs lacking CD13 were unable to differentiate into vascular cells, consistent with our previous characterization of CD13 as an angiogenic regulator. Compared to WT MSCs, adhesion and migration on various extracellular matrices of CD13KO MSCs were significantly impaired, which correlated with decreased phospho-FAK levels and cytoskeletal alterations. Crosslinking human MSCs with activating CD13 antibodies increased cell adhesion to endothelial monolayers and induced FAK activation in a time dependent manner. In agreement with these in vitro data, intramuscular injection of CD13KO MSCs in a model of severe ischemic limb injury resulted in significantly poorer perfusion, decreased ambulation, increased necrosis and impaired vascularization compared to those receiving WT MSCs. This study suggests that CD13 regulates FAK activation to promote MSC adhesion and migration, thus contributing to MSC-mediated tissue repair. CD13 may present a viable target to enhance the efficacy of mesenchymal

  8. Establishment of fusion protein eukaryotic expression vector of single-chain antibody fragments reacting with human CD13 and scorpion toxin polypeptide AGAP and the target lethal effect to NB4 cells%重组CD13单链抗体和蝎毒素多肽AGAP融合蛋白真核表达及对NB4细胞的靶向杀伤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪吴花; 骆超; 俞康; 吴建波

    2008-01-01

    目的:本研究应用基因工程技术方法,构建含重组编码CD13单链抗体和蝎毒素镇痛抗肿瘤缬精甘肽(arialgesic antitumoral peptide,AGAP)融合蛋白基因的表达载体,并研究CD13-AGAP融合蛋白对CD13阳性白血病细胞NB4影响.方法:克隆东亚钳蝎活性肽AGAP的基因,插入真核表达载体pSecTag2/CD13/RFP,得到pSecTag2/CD13/AGAP重组真核表达载体.酶切及测序鉴定后,脂质体介导重组质粒转染293T细胞,通过RT-PCR和免疫印迹方法检测融合基因和蛋白的表达.纯化融合蛋白,作用NB4细胞,CCK8检测细胞活性,流式细胞仪检测细胞周期.结果:酶切及测序结果证实pSecTag/CD13/AGAP重组真核表达载体构建成功,转染293T细胞后,RT-PCR和免疫印迹方法结果证实重组质粒得到有效表达,并纯化真核表达融合蛋白CD13-AGAP对血液肿瘤CD13阳性白血病细胞NB4有一定的生长抑制作用,并且使细胞周期G1期阻滞,S期减少.结论:成功构建了融合蛋白真核表达载体pSecTag2/CD13/AGAP,并在293T细胞中成功表达,进一步证实融合蛋白对CD13阳性白血病细胞NB4有杀伤作用.

  9. CD13 is a novel mediator of monocytic/endothelial cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mina-Osorio, Paola; Winnicka, Beata; O'Conor, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    rearrangement and filopodia formation. Treatment with soluble recombinant (r)CD13 blocks this CD13-dependent adhesion, and CD13 molecules from monocytic and endothelial cells are present in the same immunocomplex, suggesting a direct participation of CD13 in the adhesive interaction. This concept...

  10. CD13 and TCR clone: markers of early mycosis fungoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Claire; Nguyen, Jean Michel; Quéreux, Gaëlle; Renault, Jean Jaques; Bureau, Brigine; Dreno, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Making a differential diagnosis between early mycosis fungoides and parapsoriasis is often difficult at the clinical and histological level. The aim of this study was to explore markers that could help in this process. A total of 88 patients were included in 2 categories: large plaque parapsoriasis and digitiform parapsoriasis. A histological examination was performed for each patient, and expression of the antigen My7 (CD13), which is lacking in cutaneous T-lymphomas (but not in inflammatory lesions) and rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gene were analysed. A histological aspect of epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was observed in 23.5% of cases of large plaque parapsoriasis and 15% of cases of digitiform parapsoriasis. A disappearance of My7 antigen was noted in the 2 forms of parapsoriasis, more frequently when there was cutaneous T-cell lymphoma histology. A cutaneous clone was observed in 10.3% of cases of large plaque parapsoriasis, but not of digitiform parapsoriasis. For 3 patients, a cutaneous clone and a disappearance of My7 were associated with a non-specific histology. Considering these histological, immunological and molecular biological data, it appears that My7 antigen combined with T-cell clone may help the dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis of early mycosis fungoides. Moreover, further studies will determine whether CD13 is an early prognostic marker of evolution of a parapsoriasis to mycosis fungoides. Finally, these results demonstrate that digitiform parapsoriasis can be an early stage of MF.

  11. The human thyrotropin beta-subunit gene differs in 5' structure from murine TSH-beta genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, P T; Whitfield, G K; Porti, D; Kourides, I A

    1988-12-01

    The gene encoding the beta-subunit of human thyrotropin (hTSH-beta) was isolated, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene is 4.3 kb in length, consists of three exons and two introns, and is present as a single copy as determined by Southern blot analysis of total genomic DNA. The protein coding portion of the gene, which includes exons 2 and 3, was isolated from a human genomic phage library, while exon 1, which encodes only 5' untranslated mRNA sequence, was isolated from a plasmid library of size-selected genomic DNA fragments. Here we describe the isolation of the 5' untranslated exon of the hTSH-beta subunit and 5'-flanking region. The structure of the hTSH-beta gene is very similar to the previously characterized TSH-beta genes from mouse and rat. The genes from all three species have two distinct promoter regions, but while both promoters are utilized by the murine TSH-beta genes, the human TSH-beta gene apparently utilizes only the proximal promoter for transcription initiation. A striking difference in hTSH-beta gene structure compared to the murine genes is that exon 1 of the human gene is 36 nucleotides. An analysis of the mouse, rat, and human exon 1 and 5'-flanking region shows a high percentage of sequence homology, with the exception of a 9-nucleotide insertion 13 bases 3' from the proximal TATA box found in the human gene but not found in the other two species. We propose that this insertion results in the additional length of human exon 1 compared to the mouse and rat genes. By isolating the promoter region of the hTSH-beta gene, we can begin to identify specific sequences involved in the regulation of hTSH gene expression.

  12. CD13在骨瘤及骨肉瘤中的表达及意义%Expression and significance of CD13 in osteoma and osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文革; 杨朝晖; 刘清高; 鄢含坤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and significance of CD13 in osteoma and osteosarcoma.Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the protein expression of CD13 in 20 cases of benign osteoma and 56 cases of osteosarcoma.reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactionn (RT-PCR) method was used to examine the level of CD13 mRNA in 20 cases of osteosarcoma and corresponding adjacent tissue,and the relationship between expression of CD13 and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated.Results Immunohistochemistry showed the positive rate of CD13 protein in benign osteoma and osteosarcoma tissues was 64.3% and 10.0% respectively (P < 0.05).CD13 protein in osteosarcoma tissues of phase Ⅲ and phase Ⅰ-Ⅱ was 90.0% and 58.9% respectively (P < 0.05).The CD13 protein expression was not correlated with age,sex,tumor location,and tumor size (P > 0.05).RT-PCR results showed CD13 mRNA expression level was significantly higher in sarcoma than that in the adjacent tissue (P <0.05).Conclusion CD13 is obviously correlated with the occurrence and progression of osteosarcoma.%目的 观察CD13在骨瘤及骨肉瘤中的表达及意义.方法 免疫组织化学法检测20例良性骨瘤及56例骨肉瘤组织中CD13蛋白的表达,逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测CD13mRNA在20例骨肉瘤及相应肉瘤旁组织中的表达,分析CD13表达与临床病理参数的关系.结果 免疫组织化学结果显示CD13蛋白在良性骨瘤及骨肉瘤组织中的阳性表达率分别为64.3%、10.0%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).CD13蛋白在Ⅲ期及Ⅰ~Ⅱ期骨肉瘤组织中的阳性表达率分别为90.0%、58.9%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而与患者的年龄、性别、肿瘤发生部位、肿瘤大小无明显相关(P>0.05).RT-PCR结果显示CD13 mRNA在肉瘤中的表达明显高于肉瘤旁组织(P<0.05).结论 CD13的表达与骨肉瘤发生及进展明显相关.

  13. Anti-CD13 Abs in children with extensive chronic GVHD and their relation to soluble CD13 after allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation from a Children's Oncology Groups Study, ASCT0031.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, G D E; Kariminia, A; Fujii, H; Aslanian, S; Wall, D; Goldman, F; Grupp, S A; Dunn, S E; Krailo, M; Shapiro, L H; Gilman, A; Schultz, K R

    2010-11-01

    Our group previously demonstrated a strong association between elevated plasma soluble CD13 enzyme activity and newly diagnosed extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in children. As cytotoxic anti-CD13 Abs have been documented after blood and marrow transplant (BMT) in association with CMV infection and cGVHD, we hypothesized that soluble CD13 contributes to cGVHD pathogenesis by induction of CD13 reactive Abs and that anti-CD13 Abs could be additional biomarkers for newly diagnosed pediatric extensive cGVHD. Using prospectively collected plasma samples from pediatric allogeneic BMT (allo-BMT) subjects with cGVHD and controls without cGVHD enrolled in a large multi-institution Children's Oncology Group cGVHD therapeutic trial, we evaluated whether soluble CD13 correlates with induction of anti-CD13 Abs. We found that CD13 reactive Abs are present in a proportion of patients after allo-BMT, but did not seem to correlate with the presence of soluble CD13. Anti-CD13 Abs also did not meet our criteria as a diagnostic biomarker for cGVHD. These data do not confirm that induction of CD13 reactive Abs is a mechanism for cGVHD in children nor are part of the pathogenesis of cGVHD associated with elevated soluble CD13. The exact role of CD13 in cGVHD remains to be determined.

  14. Defectively N-glycosylated and non-O-glycosylated aminopeptidase N (CD13) is normally expressed at the cell surface and has full enzymatic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, K; Hansen, Gert Helge; Clausen, H;

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the effects of the absence of O-glycosylation and modifications of N-glycosylation on a class II membrane protein, pig and human aminopeptidase N (CD13) were stably expressed in the ldl(D) cell line. This cell line carries a UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc-epimerase deficiency which blocks...

  15. Macrophage Polarization Modulates FcγR- and CD13-Mediated Phagocytosis and Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Independently of Receptor Membrane Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Coronel, Elizabeth; Ortega, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    In response to microenvironmental cues, macrophages undergo a profound phenotypic transformation acquiring distinct activation phenotypes ranging from pro-inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2). To study how activation phenotype influences phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by receptors for IgG antibodies (Fcγ receptors) and by CD13, human monocyte-derived macrophages were polarized to distinct phenotypes using IFN-γ (Mϕ-IFN-γ), IL-4 (Mϕ-IL-4), or IL-10 (Mϕ-IL-10). Phenotypically, Mϕ-IFN-γ were characterized as CD14+CD80+CD86+ cells, Mϕ-IL-4 as CD209highCD206+CD11b+CD14low, and Mϕ-IL-10 as CD16+CD163+ cells. Compared to non-polarized macrophages, FcγRI expression increased in Mϕ-IFN-γ and Mϕ-IL-10 and FcγRIII expression increased in Mϕ-IL-10. None of the polarizing cytokines modified FcγRII or CD13 expression. Functionally, we found that cytokine-mediated activation significantly and distinctively affected FcγR- and CD13-mediated phagocytosis and ROS generation. Compared to non-polarized macrophages, FcγRI-, FcγRII-, and CD13-mediated phagocytosis was significantly increased in Mϕ-IL-10 and decreased in Mϕ-IFN-γ, although both cytokines significantly upregulated FcγRI expression. IL-10 also increased phagocytosis of Escherichia coli, showing that the effect of IL-10 on macrophage phagocytosis is not specific for a particular receptor. Interestingly, Mϕ-IL-4, which showed poor FcγR- and CD13-mediated phagocytosis, showed very high phagocytosis of E. coli and zymosan. Coupled with phagocytosis, macrophages produce ROS that contribute to microbial killing. As expected, Mϕ-IFN-γ showed significant production of ROS after FcγRI-, FcγRII-, or CD13-mediated phagocytosis. Unexpectedly, we found that Mϕ-IL-10 can also produce ROS after simultaneous stimulation through several phagocytic receptors, as coaggregation of FcγRI/FcγRII/CD13 induced a belated but significant ROS production. Together, these

  16. The pro-inflammatory cytokine 14-3-3ε is a ligand of CD13 in cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefla, Meriam; Sudre, Laure; Denat, Guillaume; Priam, Sabrina; Andre-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Berenbaum, Francis; Jacques, Claire

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis is a whole-joint disease characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage involving abnormal communication between subchondral bone and cartilage. Our team previously identified 14-3-3ε protein as a subchondral bone soluble mediator altering cartilage homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N, APN) in the chondrocyte response to 14-3-3ε. After identifying CD13 in chondrocytes, we knocked down CD13 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and blocking antibodies in articular chondrocytes. 14-3-3ε-induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 was significantly reduced with CD13 knockdown, which suggests that it has a crucial role in 14-3-3ε signal transduction. Aminopeptidase N activity was identified in chondrocytes, but the activity was unchanged after stimulation with 14-3-3ε. Direct interaction between CD13 and 14-3-3ε was then demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Using labeled 14-3-3ε, we also found that 14-3-3ε binds to the surface of chondrocytes in a manner that is dependent on CD13. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3ε might directly bind to CD13, which transmits its signal in chondrocytes to induce a catabolic phenotype similar to that observed in osteoarthritis. The 14-3-3ε–CD13 interaction could be a new therapeutic target in osteoarthritis. PMID:26208633

  17. Clinical Significance of Tissue Factor and CD13 Double-Positive Microparticles in Sirs Patients with Trauma and Severe Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Ogura, Hiroshi; Koh, Taichin; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Activated immune cells such as monocytes are key factors in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) following trauma and sepsis. Activated monocytes induce almost all tissue factor (TF) expression contributing to inflammation and coagulation. TF and CD13 double-positive microparticles (TF/CD13MPs) are predominantly released from these activated monocytes. This study aimed to evaluate TF/CD13MPs and assess their usefulness as a biomarker of pathogenesis in early SIRS following trauma and sepsis. This prospective study comprising 24 trauma patients, 25 severe sepsis patients, and 23 healthy controls was conducted from November 2012 to February 2015. Blood samples were collected from patients within 24 h after injury and diagnosis of severe sepsis and from healthy controls. Numbers of TF/CD13MPs were measured by flow cytometry immediately thereafter. Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were calculated at patient enrollment. APACHE II and SOFA scores and International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) diagnostic criteria algorithm were calculated at the time of enrollment of severe sepsis patients. Numbers of TF/CD13MPs were significantly increased in both trauma and severe sepsis patients versus controls and correlated significantly with ISS and APACHE II score in trauma patients and with APACHE II and ISTH DIC scores in severe sepsis patients. Increased numbers of TF/CD13MPs correlated significantly with severities in the acute phase in trauma and severe sepsis patients, suggesting that TF/CD13MPs are important in the pathogenesis of early SIRS following trauma and sepsis.

  18. Differential Diagnosis Value of CD117, CD13 and CD33 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia%CD117、CD13、CD33在鉴别诊断AML中的应用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冬芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨CD117、CD13、CD33在鉴别诊断AML中的应用评价。方法:采用流式细胞术分析510例急性白血病患者骨髓或外周血标本的免疫表型。结果:在AML中CD117、CD13和CD33的表达率依次为91.9%、91.6%和94.4%。与急性淋巴细胞性白血病相比表达率高,有显著性意义(P<0.01)。结论:CD13、CD33和CD117在AML和ALL的鉴别诊断中具有重要意义。%Objectives:To study the differential diagnosis value of CD 117 、CD13 and CD33 in acute myeloid leukemia .Methods:The peripheral blood and bone marrow of 510 cases with acute myeloid leukemia was analyzed by flow cytometry .Results:In acute myeloid leu-kemia, the percent of expression in CD117,CD13 and CD33 was 91.9%、91.6%and 94.4%.These were significantly higher compared with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (P<0.01);Conclusion:CD117,CD13 and CD33 might be significant in differential diagnosis between acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia .

  19. Identification of a unique hepatocellular carcinoma line, Li-7, with CD13(+) cancer stem cells hierarchy and population change upon its differentiation during culture and effects of sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Abei, Masato; Danjoh, Inaho; Shirota, Ryoko; Yamashita, Taro; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Nakamura, Yukio

    2015-04-11

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) research has highlighted the necessity of developing drugs targeting CSCs. We investigated a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line that not only has CSC hierarchy but also shows phenotypic changes (population changes) upon differentiation of CSC during culture and can be used for screening drugs targeting CSC. Based on a hypothesis that the CSC proportion should decrease upon its differentiation into progenitors (population change), we tested HCC cell lines (HuH-7, Li-7, PLC/PRF/5, HLF, HLE) before and after 2 months culture for several markers (CD13, EpCAM, CD133, CD44, CD90, CD24, CD166). Tumorigenicity was tested using nude mice. To evaluate the CSC hierarchy, we investigated reconstructivity, proliferation, ALDH activity, spheroid formation, chemosensitivity and microarray analysis of the cell populations sorted by FACS. Only Li-7 cells showed a population change during culture: the proportion of CD13 positive cells decreased, while that of CD166 positive cells increased. The high tumorigenicity of the Li-7 was lost after the population change. CD13(+)/CD166(-) cells showed slow growth and reconstructed the bulk Li-7 populations composed of CD13(+)/CD166(-), CD13(-)/CD166(-) and CD13(-)/CD166(+) fractions, whereas CD13(-)/CD166(+) cells showed rapid growth but could not reproduce any other population. CD13(+)/CD166(-) cells showed high ALDH activity, spheroid forming ability and resistance to 5-fluorouracil. Microarray analysis demonstrated higher expression of stemness-related genes in CD166(-) than CD166(+) fraction. These results indicated a hierarchy in Li-7 cells, in which CD13(+)/CD166(-) and CD13(-)/CD166(+) cells serve as slow growing CSCs and rapid growing progenitors, respectively. Sorafenib selectively targeted the CD166(-) fraction, including CD13(+) CSCs, which exhibited higher mRNA expression for FGF3 and FGF4, candidate biomarkers for sorafenib. 5-fluorouracil followed by sorafenib inhibited the growth of bulk Li-7

  20. Improved flow cytometric identification of myelopoiesis by the simultaneous labelling with CD13, CD14 and CD66 monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J; Meyer, K; Broe, M K

    1996-01-01

    in the fast determination of remission state. In MDS, the immature myeloid component could be distinguished in patients defined according to the FAB classification with the possibility of identifying aberrant phenotypes, the assay should also be of interest in other myeloproliferative disorders. Moreover......The aim of the present study was to increase our knowledge of myelopoiesis evaluated by flow cytometry. We therefore designed a triple-marker assay employing monoclonal antibodies against the CD13 (immature), the CD14 (monocytic), and the CD66 (mature myeloid) antigens using three...

  1. T cell responses affected by aminopeptidase N (CD13)-mediated trimming of major histocompatibility complex class II-bound peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S L; Pedersen, L O; Buus, S;

    1996-01-01

    the exopeptidase Aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13) as one of the enzymes involved in the observed cell-surface antigen processing. The NH2-terminal end of the longer peptide could, even while bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, be digested by APN with dramatic consequences for T cell...... antigen recognition. This could be demonstrated both in cell-free systems using purified reagents and in cellular systems. Thus, MHC class II and APN may act in concert to generate the final T cell epitopes....

  2. CD 13/APN expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin lesions in patients with advanced psoriasis vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Taihua; Liu Defang; Chen Yihua; Hu Zonghai; Chen Lu; Luo Chen; Xu Zhejuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the expression of CDI3/APN in peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin lesions of patients with advanced psoriasis vulgaris, and discuss its effect on the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods: CDI 3 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin lesions was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. Results were compared with those of healthy controls. Results: CD13 expression was significantly higher in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with advanced psoriasis vulgaris than in that of healthy controls, and in skin lesions than in healthy skin tissues. The expression was mainly in the suprabasal layers of skin lesions, andpositively correlated to PASI (R=0.78029). Conclusion: The significantly higher expression of CDI3 in peripheralblood lymphocytes and skin lesions of the patients with advanced psoriasis vulgaris probably is related to immunological abnormality, blood vessel abnormality and proliferation of keratinocyte in the pathogenic course of psoriasis. It may be a novel and effective way to treat psoriasis with specific CD13 inhibitors.

  3. Identification of CD13, CD107a, and CD164 as novel basophil-activation markers and dissection of two response patterns in time kinetics of IgE-de pendent upregulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian HENNERSDORF; Stefan FLORIAN; Andreas JAKOB; Katharina BAUMG(A)RTNER; Karoline SONNECK; Alfred NORDHEIM; Tilo BIEDERMANN; Peter VALENT; Hans-J(o)rg B(U)HRING

    2005-01-01

    Using two-colour flow cytometry >200 antibodies submitted to the 8th International Workshop of Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA8) have been analyzed for their reactivity with resting and activated CD203c+ basophils.Four antibodies either non-reactive or weakly reactive with resting basophils exhibited an increased reactivity with basophils activated by anti-IgE-mediated cross-linking of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI). These include antibodies against CD164 (WS-80160, clone N6B6 and WS-80162, clone 67D2), as well as two reagents with previously unknown specificities that were identified as CD13 (WS-80274, clone A8) and CD107a (WS-80280, clone E63-880).The activation patterns followed either the "CD203c-like" or "CD63-like" activation profile. The CD203c profile is characterized by a rapid and significant upregulation (of CD13, CD164, and CD203c), reaching maximum levels after 5-15 min of stimulation. The Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-specific inhibitor Wortmannin inhibited the upregulation of these markers whereas 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced a rapid and FcεRI-independent upregulation within 1-2 min. In the CD63 profile, maximum upregulation (of CD63 and CD107a) was detected only after 20-40 min,and upregulation by TPA reached maximum levels after 60 min. In summary, our data identify CD13, CD107a, and CD164 as novel basophil-activation antigens. Based on time kinetics of upregulation, we hypothesize that molecules of the "CD203c group" and the "CD63 group" are linked to two different mechanisms of basophil activation.

  4. CD13-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T-cell origin--a diagnostic and histogenetic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popnikolov, N K; Payne, D A; Hudnall, S D; Hawkins, H K; Kumar, M; Norris, B A; Elghetany, M T

    2000-12-01

    The expression of myelomonocytic-associated antigens in anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs), particularly those presenting in extranodal sites, can make their distinction from extramedullary myeloid cell tumors (EMCTs) or histiocytic tumors problematic. Yet, this distinction is clinically significant because of its therapeutic and prognostic implications. Herein, we describe a case of extranodal anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive CD30-positive ALCL of T-cell origin in a 12-year-old boy, which was initially called an EMCT because of the expression of CD13 and HLA-DR detected by flow cytometry and the absence of other T-cell-related surface markers. However, the detection of cytoplasmic CD3 by flow cytometry prompted further studies. The tumor was composed of large cells with abundant slightly eosinophilic vacuolated cytoplasm and ovoid or reniform nuclei with a few small nucleoli. Using immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for CD45, CD30, CD45RO, and CD43 with a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear anaplastic lymphoma kinase stain. The tumor cells showed a T-cell clonal genotype. Electron microscopy revealed no ultrastructural features of myelomonocytic or histiocytic origin. The patient responded well to the chemotherapy and was in complete remission for 10 months at the time of submission of this manuscript. Review of the literature showed inconsistencies regarding the diagnosis, nomenclature, and, therefore, treatment and prognosis of these tumors. In addition, the CD13 expression in ALCL raises some histogenetic questions and may indicate origin from a pluripotent stem cell, misprogramming during malignant transformation, or a microenvironmental effect on lymphoid cell expression of surface antigens. Therefore, ALCL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of EMCTs or histiocytic tumors, particularly when surface marker lineage assignment is ambiguous.

  5. Prognostic value of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and aminopeptidase N/CD13 in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranogajec, Irena; Jakić-Razumović, Jasminka; Puzović, Velibor; Gabrilovac, Jelka

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and aminopeptidase APN/CD13 in breast carcinoma samples, and their possible prognostic value in breast cancer patients. The expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and APN/CD13 in tumor cells was analysed in 138 breast carcinomas by immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells using the semiquantitative method for the detection of cytoplasmic and membrane reaction in tumor cells as well as stromal cells positivity. MMP-2 was positive in tumor cells of 52.9% patients and in stromal cells of 74.6% patients, while MMP-9 positive tumor and stromal cells were found in 84.8 and 63.8% patients, respectively. Tumor cell APN/CD13 expression was found in 36.2% patients. Stromal cell MMP-2 expression correlated significantly with tumor size and neoangiogenesis. A positive correlation was also observed between tumor cell MMP-9 expression and hormone receptor status. Stromal cell coexpression of MMP-2/MMP-9 correlated significantly with tumor size. APN/CD13 expression in tumor cells significantly correlated with tumor type and neoangiogenesis. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with MMP-2, MMP-2/MMP-9 positive tumor cells, and tended to be shorter in patients with APN/CD13 positive tumor cells. Coexpression of MMP-2/MMP-9 in tumor cells was an independent risk factor for patient survival (OD = 13.9). Our results suggest that MMP-2, MMP-9, APN/CD13 expression and MMP-2/MMP-9 coexpression in combination with other standard prognostic factors can serve as a poor prognostic factor in the evaluation of breast cancer prognosis.

  6. Mixture of learners for cancer stem cell detection using CD13 and H and E stained images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oǧuz, Oǧuzhan; Akbaş, Cem Emre; Mallah, Maen; Taşdemir, Kasım.; Akhan Güzelcan, Ece; Muenzenmayer, Christian; Wittenberg, Thomas; Üner, Ayşegül; Cetin, A. E.; ćetin Atalay, Rengül

    2016-03-01

    In this article, algorithms for cancer stem cell (CSC) detection in liver cancer tissue images are developed. Conventionally, a pathologist examines of cancer cell morphologies under microscope. Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD) aims to help pathologists in this tedious and repetitive work. The first algorithm locates CSCs in CD13 stained liver tissue images. The method has also an online learning algorithm to improve the accuracy of detection. The second family of algorithms classify the cancer tissues stained with H and E which is clinically routine and cost effective than immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. The algorithms utilize 1D-SIFT and Eigen-analysis based feature sets as descriptors. Normal and cancerous tissues can be classified with 92.1% accuracy in H and E stained images. Classification accuracy of low and high-grade cancerous tissue images is 70.4%. Therefore, this study paves the way for diagnosing the cancerous tissue and grading the level of it using H and E stained microscopic tissue images.

  7. Reduced activity of CD13/aminopeptidase N (APN) in aggressive meningiomas is associated with increased levels of SPARC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawrin, Christian; Wolke, Carmen; Haase, Daniela; Krüger, Sabine; Firsching, Raimund; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Paulus, Werner; Gutmann, David H; Lal, Anita; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Meningiomas are the second most common brain tumors in adults, and meningiomas exhibit a tendency to invade adjacent structures. Compared with high-grade gliomas, little is known about the molecular changes that potentially underlie the invasive behavior of meningiomas. In this study, we examined the expression and function of the membrane alanyl-aminopeptidase [mAAP, aminopeptidase N (APN), CD13, EC3.4.11.2] zinc-dependent ectopeptidase in meningiomas and meningioma cell lines, based on its prior association with tumor invasion in colorectal and renal carcinomas. We found a significant reduction of APNmRNA and protein expression, as well as enzymatic activity, in high-grade meningiomas. While meningioma tumor cell proliferation was not affected by either pharmacologic APN inhibition or siRNA-mediated APN silencing, APN pharmacologic and siRNA knockdown significantly reduced meningioma cell invasion in vitro. Next, we employed pathway-specific cDNA microarray analyses to identify extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules regulated by APN, and found that APN-siRNA knockdown substantially increased the expression of secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)/osteonectin. Finally, we demonstrated that SPARC, which has been previously associated with meningioma invasiveness, was increased in aggressive meningiomas. Collectively, these results suggest that APN expression and enzymatic function is reduced in aggressive meningiomas, and that alterations in the balance between APN and SPARC might favor meningioma invasion.

  8. Onset of transcription of the aminopeptidase N (leukemia antigen CD 13) gene at the crypt/villus transition zone during rabbit enterocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, O; Dabelsteen, E; Høyer, P E

    1989-01-01

    The sequence of a cDNA clone (2.82 kbp) of rabbit intestinal aminopeptidase N (CD 13) is reported. Using the corresponding anti-sense RNA probe, the distribution of aminopeptidase N mRNA along the crypt/villus axis of the rabbit small intestine was studied by in situ hybridization. The aminopepti......The sequence of a cDNA clone (2.82 kbp) of rabbit intestinal aminopeptidase N (CD 13) is reported. Using the corresponding anti-sense RNA probe, the distribution of aminopeptidase N mRNA along the crypt/villus axis of the rabbit small intestine was studied by in situ hybridization....... The aminopeptidase N gene is expressed along the whole length of the villus with a maximum at its base. Expression was not detected in the crypt cells. The distribution of aminopeptidase N mRNA correlates with the presence of active enzyme as monitored by histochemical staining. The results are compatible with onset...

  9. Identification of a candidate stem cell in human gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Rohan; Li, Yaming; Fohrer, Helene; Guzik, Lynda; Stolz, Donna Beer; Chandran, Uma R; LaFramboise, William A; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-05-01

    There are currently no reports of identification of stem cells in human gallbladder. The differences between human gallbladder and intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) cells have also not been explored. The goals of this study were to evaluate if human fetal gallbladder contains a candidate stem cell population and if fetal gallbladder cells are distinct from fetal IHBD cells. We found that EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ cells represent the cell population most enriched for clonal self-renewal from primary gallbladder. Primary EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ cells gave rise to EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ and EpCAM+CD44+CD13- cells in vitro, and gallbladder cells expanded in vitro exhibited short-term engraftment in vivo. Last, we found that CD13, CD227, CD66, CD26 and CD49b were differentially expressed between gallbladder and IHBD cells cultured in vitro indicating clear phenotypic differences between the two cell populations. Microarray analyses of expanded cultures confirmed that both cell types have unique transcriptional profiles with predicted functional differences in lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid and drug metabolism. In conclusion, we have isolated a distinct clonogenic population of epithelial cells from primary human fetal gallbladder with stem cell characteristics and found it to be unique compared to IHBD cells.

  10. Isolation and characterization of dendritic cells from normal human esophageal mucosa%食管黏膜树突状细胞表型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存良; 宁寒冰; 王艳红; 张连峰; 李继昌

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究食管黏膜树突状细胞(DCs)表型特点.方法:内镜下收集健康人食管黏膜标本,Ficoll-Hypacque密度梯度离心法分离食管黏膜标本中的单个核细胞,采用磁珠分选技术分离DCs,流式细胞仪分析食管黏膜DCs表型.结果:健康人食管黏膜含3类单个核细胞:HLA-DRhtgh/CD13low,HLA-DRmed/CD13+和HLA-DR-/CD13+; HLA-DRhigh/CD13low细胞表达不同DCs亚群表面标志,是食管黏膜DCs;健康人食管黏膜DCsCD80、CD83、CD86表达水平低,是不成熟DCs.结论:成功分离了食管黏膜DCs,证实HLA-DRhigh/CD13low细胞是食管黏膜DCs.%AIM: To investigate the characteristics of dendritic cells (DCs) from normal human esophageal mucosa. METHODS: We collected normal esophageal mucosa samples from healthy individuals using endoscope and isolated mononuclear cells from the samples using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation. DCs were further separated by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) to analyze DCs subsets by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Three mononuclear cell populations were detected in normal human esophageal mucosa: HLA-DRhigh/CD13low, HLA-DRmad/CD13 + and HLA-DR-/CD13+. HLA-DRhigh/CD13low cells expressed the DCs-associated molecules and were referred to as esophageal mucosal DCs. The DCs were immature since they expressed low levels of CD80, CD83 and CD86. CONCLUSION; HLA-DRhigh/CD13low cells isolated from the normal human esophageal mucosa were proved to be DCs. DCs can be successfully isolated from esophageal mucosa.

  11. Prospective isolation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitors that integrate into human fetal heart tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehali, Reza; Ali, Shah R; Inlay, Matthew A; Abilez, Oscar J; Chen, Michael Q; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Yazawa, Masayuki; Gong, Yongquan; Nusse, Roeland; Drukker, Micha; Weissman, Irving L

    2013-02-26

    A goal of regenerative medicine is to identify cardiovascular progenitors from human ES cells (hESCs) that can functionally integrate into the human heart. Previous studies to evaluate the developmental potential of candidate hESC-derived progenitors have delivered these cells into murine and porcine cardiac tissue, with inconclusive evidence regarding the capacity of these human cells to physiologically engraft in xenotransplantation assays. Further, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains untested and unknown. Here, we have prospectively identified a population of hESC-derived ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells that give rise to cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro at a clonal level. We observed rare clusters of ROR2(+) cells and diffuse expression of KDR and PDGFRα in first-trimester human fetal hearts. We then developed an in vivo transplantation model by transplanting second-trimester human fetal heart tissues s.c. into the ear pinna of a SCID mouse. ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells were delivered into these functioning fetal heart tissues: in contrast to traditional murine heart models for cell transplantation, we show structural and functional integration of hESC-derived cardiovascular progenitors into human heart.

  12. Procoagulant tissue factor-exposing vesicles in human seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C; Böing, A N; Hau, C M; Montag, M; Strowitzki, T; Nieuwland, R; Toth, B

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that various types of vesicles, like microparticles (MP) and exosomes, are present in blood, saliva, bone marrow, urine and synovial fluid. These vesicles, which are released upon activation or shear stress, are thought to play a role in coagulation, neovascularisation, inflammation and intercellular signalling. Seminal fluid is a cell-, sperm- and protein-rich suspension. Although seminal fluid is known to contain vesicles like prostasomes, MP and exosomes have never been characterised. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse and characterise vesicles in seminal fluid in male partners of patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF/ICSI. MP from seminal fluid of patients during routine IVF/ICSI procedures were detected and analysed with flow cytometry (FACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using antibodies against tissue factor (TF), CD10, CD13, CD26 and annexin V. The coagulant properties of vesicles were studied using a fibrin generation test. MP were detected in human seminal fluid by both flow cytometry and TEM. Seminal fluid-derived MP expressed CD10, CD13, CD26 and TF, which was highly procoagulant and a powerful trigger of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. The extent to which the procoagulant activity of MP in seminal fluid contributes to the implantation process itself and therefore affects human reproduction needs to be further elucidated.

  13. The phenotype and tissue-specific nature of multipotent cells derived from human mature adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liang; Lu, Xiao-Wen; Wu, Min-Ke; Wang, Hang; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Sato, Soh; Shen, Jie-Fei

    2014-02-21

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have been considered to be a homogeneous group of multipotent cells, which present to be an alternative source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine. However, many aspects of the cellular nature about DFAT cells remained unclarified. This study aimed to elucidate the basic characteristics of DFAT cells underlying their functions and differentiation potentials. By modified ceiling culture technique, DFAT cells were converted from human mature adipocytes from the human buccal fat pads. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that those derived cells were a homogeneous population of CD13(+) CD29(+) CD105(+) CD44(+) CD31(-) CD34(-) CD309(-) α-SMA(-) cells. DFAT cells in this study demonstrated tissue-specific differentiation properties with strong adipogenic but much weaker osteogenic capacity. Neither did they express endothelial markers under angiogenic induction.

  14. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is associated with raft membrane microdomains in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete Santos, A; Roentsch, J; Danielsen, E M;

    2000-01-01

    of monocytes were characterized by the presence of GM1 ganglioside as raft marker molecule and by the high level of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Furthermore, similar to polarized cells, rafts in monocytic cells lack Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. Cholesterol depletion of monocytes by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin greatly...

  15. Ex vivo identification and characterization of a population of CD13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Muñiz (Carmen); C. Teodosio (Cristina); A. Mayado (Andrea); A.T. Amaral (Ana Teresa); S. Matarraz (S.); P. Bárcena (Paloma); M.-L. Sánchez (M.); I. Alvarez-Twose (Iván); M. Díez-Campelo (M.); A.C. García-Montero (Andrés); J.F. Blanco (Juan F.); M.C. Del Cañizo (M.); J. Del Pino Montes (Javier); A. Orfao (Alberto)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. Their multipotential capacity and immunomodulatory properties have led to an increasing interest in their biological properties and therapeutic applications. Curren

  16. Complementary populations of human adipose CD34+ progenitor cells promote growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchioni, Stefania; Gregato, Giuliana; Martin-Padura, Ines; Reggiani, Francesca; Braidotti, Paola; Mancuso, Patrizia; Calleri, Angelica; Quarna, Jessica; Marighetti, Paola; Aldeni, Chiara; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Martella, Stefano; Manconi, Andrea; Petit, Jean-Yves; Rietjens, Mario; Bertolini, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased frequency, morbidity, and mortality of several types of neoplastic diseases, including postmenopausal breast cancer. We found that human adipose tissue contains two populations of progenitors with cooperative roles in breast cancer. CD45(-)CD34(+)CD31(+)CD13(-)CCRL2(+) endothelial cells can generate mature endothelial cells and capillaries. Their cancer-promoting effect in the breast was limited in the absence of CD45(-)CD34(+)CD31(-)CD13(+)CD140b(+) mesenchymal progenitors/adipose stromal cells (ASC), which generated pericytes and were more efficient than endothelial cells in promoting local tumor growth. Both endothelial cells and ASCs induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene expression in luminal breast cancer cells. Endothelial cells (but not ASCs) migrated to lymph nodes and to contralateral nascent breast cancer lesions where they generated new vessels. In vitro and in vivo, endothelial cells were more efficient than ASCs in promoting tumor migration and in inducing metastases. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) effectively mobilized endothelial cells (but not ASCs), and the addition of chemotherapy and/or of CXCR4 inhibitors did not increase endothelial cell or ASC blood mobilization. Our findings suggest that adipose tissue progenitor cells cooperate in driving progression and metastatic spread of breast cancer.

  17. Expression of Surface Molecules in Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Co-Cultured with Nucleated Umbilical Cord Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    We studied the expression of different classes of surface molecules (CD13, CD29, CD40, CD44, CD54, CD71, CD73, CD80, CD86, CD90, CD105, CD106, CD146, HLA-I, and HLA-DR) in mesenchymal stromal cells from human umbilical cord and bone marrow during co-culturing with nucleated umbilical cord blood cells. Expression of the majority of surface markers in both types of mesenchymal stromal cells was stable and did not depend on the presence of the blood cells. Significant differences were found only for cell adhesion molecules CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD106 (VCAM-1) responsible for direct cell-cell contacts with leukocytes and only for bone marrow derived cells.

  18. Human Stromal (Mesenchymal) Stem Cells from Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue and Skin Exhibit Differences in Molecular Phenotype and Differentiation Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Nbaheen, May; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Ali, Dalia;

    2013-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent stem cells with ability to differentiate into mesoderm-type cells e.g. osteoblasts and adipocytes and thus they are being introduced into clinical trials for tissue regeneration. Traditionally, hMSCs have been isolated from bone marrow......, but the number of cells obtained is limited. Here, we compared the MSC-like cell populations, obtained from alternative sources for MSC: adipose tissue and skin, with the standard phenotype of human bone marrow MSC (BM-MSCs). MSC from human adipose tissue (human adipose stromal cells (hATSCs)) and human skin...... (human adult skin stromal cells, (hASSCs) and human new-born skin stromal cells (hNSSCs)) grew readily in culture and the growth rate was highest in hNSSCs and lowest in hATSCs. Compared with phenotype of hBM-MSC, all cell populations were CD34(-), CD45(-), CD14(-), CD31(-), HLA-DR(-), CD13(+), CD29...

  19. Perivascular mesenchymal progenitors in human fetal and adult liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Over, Patrick; Turner, Morris E; Thompson, Robert L; Foka, Hubert G; Chen, William C W; Péault, Bruno; Gridelli, Bruno; Schmelzer, Eva

    2012-12-10

    The presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been described in various organs. Pericytes possess a multilineage differentiation potential and have been suggested to be one of the developmental sources for MSCs. In human liver, pericytes have not been defined. Here, we describe the identification, purification, and characterization of pericytes in human adult and fetal liver. Flow cytometry sorting revealed that human adult and fetal liver contains 0.56%±0.81% and 0.45%±0.39% of CD146(+)CD45(-)CD56(-)CD34(-) pericytes, respectively. Of these, 41% (adult) and 30% (fetal) were alkaline phosphatase-positive (ALP(+)). In situ, pericytes were localized around periportal blood vessels and were positive for NG2 and vimentin. Purified pericytes could be cultured extensively and had low population doubling times. Immunofluorescence of cultures demonstrated that cells were positive for pericyte and mesenchymal cell markers CD146, NG2, CD90, CD140b, and vimentin, and negative for endothelial, hematopoietic, stellate, muscle, or liver epithelial cell markers von Willebrand factor, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD144, CD326, CK19, albumin, α-fetoprotein, CYP3A7, glial fibrillary acid protein, MYF5, and Pax7 by gene expression; myogenin and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were variable. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of cultures confirmed surface expression of CD146, CD73, CD90, CD10, CD13, CD44, CD105, and ALP and absence of human leukocyte antigen-DR. In vitro differentiation assays demonstrated that cells possessed robust osteogenic and myogenic, but low adipogenic and low chondrogenic differentiation potentials. In functional in vitro assays, cells had typical mesenchymal strong migratory and invasive activity. In conclusion, human adult and fetal livers harbor pericytes that are similar to those found in other organs and are distinct from hepatic stellate cells.

  20. Abrupt decrease of c—myc expression by antisense transcripts induses terminal differentiation and apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL—60 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAOXIUJUAN; PEIHSIENTANG; 等

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed using c-myc antisense transcripts to evaluate how alteration of c-myc expression in human myeloid leukemic HL-60 cells could influence the myelomonocytic differentiation and induction of apoptosis.The recombinant plasmid pDACx expressing antisense transcripts to c-myc fragment containing a part of intron 1 and 137 nt exon 2 was constructed.pDACx was transfected into HL-60 cell line by lipofectin reagent.Cytochemical stainings including NBT reduction,peroxidase and α-NAE as well as detection of CD13 and CD33 antigens by flow cytometric analysis indicated occurrence of myelomonocytic differentiation in cells expressing antisense transcripts to c-myc.DNA degradation measured by DNA gel electrophoresis and typical morphological changes observed under electron microscope proved the swith-on of apoptosis in terminally differentiating HL-60 cells.

  1. Human See, Human Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A human demonstrator showed human children and captive chimpanzees how to drag food or toys closer using a rakelike tool. One side of the rake was less efficient than the other for dragging. Chimps tried to reproduce results rather than methods while children imitated and used the more efficient rake side. Concludes that imitation leads to…

  2. Comparative studies of different cryopreservation methods for mesenchymal stem cells derived from human fetal liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Plamen; Hristova, Elena; Konakchieva, Rossitza; Michova, Antoaneta; Dimitrov, Josif

    2010-03-29

    Fetal stem cells possess some intriguing characteristics, which delineate them as promising cellular therapeutics. They are less immunogenic, at lower stage of differentiation and have higher potential for repopulation and migration. Furthermore, the fetal stem cells secrete a set of cytokines and growth factors, which stimulate the regeneration of the recipient tissue. The present study indicated that the adhesive fraction of human fetal liver cells possessed the morphological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as potential to differentiate into adipocyte and osteoblast lineages. The immunophenotypic analysis showed that the cells expressed CD13, CD73, CD90 and CD105 (typical for mesenchymal stem cells) and lacked the haematopoietic lineage markers CD34 and CD45. Addressing the issue of the low-temperature storage of the human fetal liver cells, four different methods for cryopreservation were assessed: conventional slow freezing, program freezing and two vitrification protocols. The obtained results demonstrated that the cells were cryotolerant and maintained their properties and differentiation potential after thawing. Program freezing showed to be the most efficient method for cryopreservation of the investigated cells.

  3. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  4. Cd, Cu, and Mn from Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil, and their toxicological potential for human leukocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Rezer Costa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the limnology from the Medium Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, Brazil, with a focus on the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Mn, to assess the toxicological potential (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity for humans using as biological matrix of study human leukocyte cells. The conductivity, resistivity, and dissolved O2 levels exceeded the limits recommended by the National Environmental Council (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente - CONAMA. The percentage of non-viable human leukocyte cells exposed to water samples was approximately 20% higher than that of the negative control (<3%, but similar to the positive control. The DNA damage index was high for all heavy metal concentrations assayed when compared to the negative control 12±2.96, p < 0.0001, with a range of 155.66±23.89 to 194.33±23.23, but similar to the positive control (210.62±27.48. Moreover, the leukocyte degeneration index was higher in all samples containing heavy metals than in the negative control (4%, which demonstrates to be due the presence of Cu (11.8-12.5%, Cd (13-15.6%, and Mn (15.6-22.5%. Taken together, our results show that the quality from water samples analyzed is below than recommended by CONAMA and offers risk of contamination by heavy metals for the general population.

  5. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  6. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards an

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells from the human umbilical cord ameliorate fulminant hepatic failure and increase survival in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Feng Yang; Hong-Cui Cao; Qiao-Ling Pan; Jiong Yu; Jun Li; Lan-Juan Li

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Cell therapy has been promising for various diseases. We investigated whether transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) has any therapeutic effects on D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure in mice. METHODS:hUCMSCs isolated from human umbilical cord were cultured and transplanted via the tail vein into severe combined immune deifciency mice with GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatic failure. After transplantation, the localiza-tion and differentiation of hUCMSCs in the injured livers were investigated by immunohistochemical and genetic analy-ses. The recovery of the injured livers was evaluated histologi-cally. The survival rate of experimental animals was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS:hUCMSCs expressed high levels of CD29, CD73, CD13, CD105 and CD90, but did not express CD31, CD79b, CD133, CD34, and CD45. Cultured hUCMSCs displayed adip-ogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that transplantation of hUCMSCs reduced hepatic necrosis and promoted liver regeneration. Transplantation of hUCMSCs prolonged the survival rate of mice with fulminant hepatic failure. Polymerase chain reaction for humanalu sequences showed the presence of human cells in mouse livers. Positive staining for human albumin, human alpha-fetoprotein and human cytokeratin 18 suggested the for-mation of hUCMSCs-derived hepatocyte-like cellsin vivo. CONCLUSIONS:hUCMSC was a potential candidate for stem cell based therapies. After transplantation, hUCMSCs partially repaired hepatic damage induced by GalN/LPS in mice. hUC-MSCs engrafted into the injured liver and differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells.

  8. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  9. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation ...... often mentioned post-human condition....

  10. Systematic evaluation of markers used for the identification of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Sumitha Prameela; Manian, Kannan Vrindavan; Aalam, Syed Mohammed Musheer; Palani, Dhavapriya; Deshpande, Prashant Ajit; Pratheesh, Mankuzhy Damodaran; Srivastava, Alok

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming and heterogeneity among human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) demand extensive characterization of isolated clones before their use in downstream applications. By monitoring human fibroblasts undergoing reprogramming for their morphological changes and expression of fibroblast (CD13), pluripotency markers (SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60) and a retrovirally expressed red fluorescent protein (RV-RFP), we compared the efficiency of these features to identify bona fide hiPSC colonies. The co-expression kinetics of fibroblast and pluripotency markers in the cells being reprogrammed and the emerging colonies revealed the heterogeneity within SSEA-4+ and TRA-1-60+ cells, and the inadequacy of these commonly used pluripotency markers for the identification of bona fide hiPSC colonies. The characteristic morphological changes in the emerging hiPSC colonies derived from fibroblasts expressing RV-RFP showed a good correlation between hiPSC morphology acquisition and silencing of RV-RFP and facilitated the easy identification of hiPSCs. The kinetics of retroviral silencing and pluripotency marker expression in emerging colonies suggested that combining both these markers could demarcate the stages of reprogramming with better precision than with pluripotency markers alone. Our results clearly demonstrate that the pluripotency markers that are routinely analyzed for the characterization of established iPSC colonies are not suitable for the isolation of pluripotent cells in the early stages of reprogramming, and silencing of retrovirally expressed reporter genes helps in the identification of colonies that have attained a pluripotent state and the morphology of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). PMID:28089995

  11. Human microbiomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendhran, J.; P. Gunasekaran

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  12. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  13. Characteristics of myeloid differentiation and maturation pathway derived from human hematopoietic stem cells exposed to different linear energy transfer radiation types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Monzen

    Full Text Available Exposure of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs to ionizing radiation causes a marked suppression of mature functional blood cell production in a linear energy transfer (LET- and/or dose-dependent manner. However, little information about LET effects on the proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs has been reported. With the aim of characterizing the effects of different types of LET radiations on human myeloid hematopoiesis, in vitro hematopoiesis in Human CD34(+ cells exposed to carbon-ion beams or X-rays was compared. Highly purified CD34(+ cells exposed to each form of radiation were plated onto semi-solid culture for a myeloid progenitor assay. The surviving fractions of total myeloid progenitors, colony-forming cells (CFC, exposed to carbon-ion beams were significantly lower than of those exposed to X-rays, indicating that CFCs are more sensitive to carbon-ion beams (D(0 = 0.65 than to X-rays (D(0 = 1.07. Similar sensitivities were observed in granulocyte-macrophage and erythroid progenitors, respectively. However, the sensitivities of mixed-type progenitors to both radiation types were similar. In liquid culture for 14 days, no significant difference in total numbers of mononuclear cells was observed between non-irradiated control culture and cells exposed to 0.5 Gy X-rays, whereas 0.5 Gy carbon-ion beams suppressed cell proliferation to 4.9% of the control, a level similar to that for cells exposed to 1.5 Gy X-rays. Cell surface antigens associated with terminal maturation, such as CD13, CD14, and CD15, on harvest from the culture of X-ray-exposed cells were almost the same as those from the non-irradiated control culture. X-rays increased the CD235a(+ erythroid-related fraction, whereas carbon-ion beams increased the CD34(+CD38(- primitive cell fraction and the CD13(+CD14(+/-CD15(- fraction. These results suggest that carbon-ion beams inflict severe damage on the clonal growth of myeloid HSPCs, although the intensity of cell

  14. Characteristics of myeloid differentiation and maturation pathway derived from human hematopoietic stem cells exposed to different linear energy transfer radiation types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzen, Satoru; Yoshino, Hironori; Kasai-Eguchi, Kiyomi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to ionizing radiation causes a marked suppression of mature functional blood cell production in a linear energy transfer (LET)- and/or dose-dependent manner. However, little information about LET effects on the proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs has been reported. With the aim of characterizing the effects of different types of LET radiations on human myeloid hematopoiesis, in vitro hematopoiesis in Human CD34(+) cells exposed to carbon-ion beams or X-rays was compared. Highly purified CD34(+) cells exposed to each form of radiation were plated onto semi-solid culture for a myeloid progenitor assay. The surviving fractions of total myeloid progenitors, colony-forming cells (CFC), exposed to carbon-ion beams were significantly lower than of those exposed to X-rays, indicating that CFCs are more sensitive to carbon-ion beams (D(0) = 0.65) than to X-rays (D(0) = 1.07). Similar sensitivities were observed in granulocyte-macrophage and erythroid progenitors, respectively. However, the sensitivities of mixed-type progenitors to both radiation types were similar. In liquid culture for 14 days, no significant difference in total numbers of mononuclear cells was observed between non-irradiated control culture and cells exposed to 0.5 Gy X-rays, whereas 0.5 Gy carbon-ion beams suppressed cell proliferation to 4.9% of the control, a level similar to that for cells exposed to 1.5 Gy X-rays. Cell surface antigens associated with terminal maturation, such as CD13, CD14, and CD15, on harvest from the culture of X-ray-exposed cells were almost the same as those from the non-irradiated control culture. X-rays increased the CD235a(+) erythroid-related fraction, whereas carbon-ion beams increased the CD34(+)CD38(-) primitive cell fraction and the CD13(+)CD14(+/-)CD15(-) fraction. These results suggest that carbon-ion beams inflict severe damage on the clonal growth of myeloid HSPCs, although the intensity of cell surface

  15. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  16. Differentiating of banked human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Pham Van; Nhung, Truong Hai; Loan, Dang Thi Tung; Chung, Doan Chinh; Ngoc, Phan Kim

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells. They are able to differentiate into functional cells from not only mesoderm but also endoderm. Many researches showed that cells derived from fresh human UCB could transdifferentiate into insulin-secreting cells. In this study, transdifferentiating potential of cryopreserved human UCB-derived MSCs into insulin-secreting cell was investigated. Fresh human UCB was enriched the mononuclear cells by Ficoll-Paque centrifugation. The mononuclear cell population was cryopreserved in cryo-medium containing Iscove's modified Dulbecco's media (IMDM) with 10% DMSO at -196°C for 1 yr. After thawing, mononuclear cells were cultured to isolate MSCs in medium IMDM with 20% FBS supplemented with growth factors. At the fifth passages, MSCs were confirmed by flow cytometry about expression of CD13, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD166, and HLA-DR markers; after that, they were induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. After inducing with specific medium for islet differentiation, there were many clusters of cell like islet at day 14-28. Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to analyze the expression of functional genes, the result showed that Nestin, Pdx-1, Ngn3, Ils-1, Pax6, Pax4, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Glut-2, Insulin genes expressed. The results showed that MSCs derived from banked cord blood can differentiate into functional pancreatic islet-like cells in vitro. If human MSCs, especially MSCs from banked cord blood of diabetes patients themselves can be isolated, proliferated, differentiated into functional pancreatic islet-like cells, and transplanted back into them (autologous transplantation), their high-proliferation potency and rejection avoidance will provide one promising therapy for diabetes.

  17. IL-10-Engineered Human CD4(+) Tr1 Cells Eliminate Myeloid Leukemia in an HLA Class I-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locafaro, Grazia; Andolfi, Grazia; Russo, Fabio; Cesana, Luca; Spinelli, Antonello; Camisa, Barbara; Ciceri, Fabio; Lombardo, Angelo; Bondanza, Attilio; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Gregori, Silvia

    2017-07-05

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) play a key role in modulating T cell responses. Clinical trials showed that Tregs modulate graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, their ability to mediate anti-leukemic activity (graft-versus-leukemia [GvL]) is largely unknown. Enforced interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression converts human CD4(+) T cells into T regulatory type 1 (Tr1)-like (CD4(IL-10)) cells that suppress effector T cells in vitro and xenoGvHD in humanized mouse models. In the present study, we show that CD4(IL-10) cells mediate anti-leukemic effects in vitro and in vivo in a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-dependent but antigen-independent manner. The cytotoxicity mediated by CD4(IL-10) cells is granzyme B (GzB) dependent, is specific for CD13(+) target cells, and requires CD54 and CD112 expression on primary leukemic target blasts. CD4(IL-10) cells adoptively transferred in humanized mouse models directly mediate anti-tumor and anti-leukemic effects. In addition, when co-transferred with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD4(IL-10) cells contribute to the GvL activity but suppress xenoGvHD mediated by the PBMCs. These findings provide for the first time a strong rationale for CD4(IL-10) cell immunotherapy to prevent GvHD and promote GvL in allo-HSCT for myeloid malignancies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...

  19. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  20. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  1. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  2. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  3. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  4. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    , and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  5. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  6. Teaching humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David T; Cohen, Jordan J; Bruder, Ann; Packer, Barbara; Sole, Allison

    2008-01-01

    As the "passion that animates authentic professionalism," humanism must be infused into medical education and clinical care as a central feature of medicine's professionalism movement. In this article, we discuss a current definition of humanism in medicine. We will also provide detailed descriptions of educational programs intended to promote humanism at a number of medical schools in the United States (and beyond) and identify the key factors that make these programs effective. Common elements of programs that effectively teach humanism include: (1) opportunities for students to gain perspective in the lives of patients; (2) structured time for reflection on those experiences; and (3) focused mentoring to ensure that these events convert to positive, formative learning experiences. By describing educational experiences that both promote and sustain humanism in doctors, we hope to stimulate the thinking of other medical educators and to disseminate the impact of these innovative educational programs to help the profession meet its obligation to provide the public with humanistic physicians.

  7. Characterization of distinct mesenchymal-like cell populations from human skeletal muscle in situ and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecourt, Severine, E-mail: severine.lecourt@sls.aphp.fr [UPMC/AIM UMR S 974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); INSERM U974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); CNRS UMR 7215, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Marolleau, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: Marolleau.Jean-Pierre@chu-amiens.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); CHU Amiens Hopital Sud, Service d' Hematologie Clinique, UPJV, Amiens (France); Fromigue, Olivia, E-mail: olivia.fromigue@larib.inserm.fr [INSERM U606, Universite Paris 07, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Vauchez, Karine, E-mail: k.vauchez@institut-myologie.org [UPMC/AIM UMR S 974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); INSERM U974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); CNRS UMR 7215, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Genzyme S.A.S., Saint-Germain en Laye (France); Andriamanalijaona, Rina, E-mail: rinandria@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie des Tissus Conjonctifs, Faculte de Medecine, Caen (France); Ternaux, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.ternaux@orange.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Lacassagne, Marie-Noelle, E-mail: mnlacassagne@free.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Robert, Isabelle, E-mail: isa-robert@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Boumediene, Karim, E-mail: karim.boumediene@unicaen.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie des Tissus Conjonctifs, Faculte de Medecine, Caen (France); Chereau, Frederic, E-mail: fchereau@pervasistx.com [Myosix S.A., Saint-Germain en Laye (France); Marie, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.marie@larib.inserm.fr [INSERM U606, Universite Paris 07, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); and others

    2010-09-10

    Human skeletal muscle is an essential source of various cellular progenitors with potential therapeutic perspectives. We first used extracellular markers to identify in situ the main cell types located in a satellite position or in the endomysium of the skeletal muscle. Immunohistology revealed labeling of cells by markers of mesenchymal (CD13, CD29, CD44, CD47, CD49, CD62, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and CD15 in this study), myogenic (CD56), angiogenic (CD31, CD34, CD106, CD146), hematopoietic (CD10, CD15, CD34) lineages. We then analysed cell phenotypes and fates in short- and long-term cultures of dissociated muscle biopsies in a proliferation medium favouring the expansion of myogenic cells. While CD56{sup +} cells grew rapidly, a population of CD15{sup +} cells emerged, partly from CD56{sup +} cells, and became individualized. Both populations expressed mesenchymal markers similar to that harboured by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In differentiation media, both CD56{sup +} and CD15{sup +} cells shared osteogenic and chondrogenic abilities, while CD56{sup +} cells presented a myogenic capacity and CD15{sup +} cells presented an adipogenic capacity. An important proportion of cells expressed the CD34 antigen in situ and immediately after muscle dissociation. However, CD34 antigen did not persist in culture and this initial population gave rise to adipogenic cells. These results underline the diversity of human muscle cells, and the shared or restricted commitment abilities of the main lineages under defined conditions.

  8. Human Computation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  9. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary societies, the humanities are under constant pressure and have to justify their existence. In the ongoing debates, Humboldt’s ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’ are often used to justify the unique function of the humanities of ensuring free research and contributing to a vital...... philosophy. Contrary to Humboldt’s idea that the non-practical is the most practical in the long run, philosophical pragmatism recommends to the humanities to situate knowledge in practices and apply knowledge to practices....

  10. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  11. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . The first section of this chapter outlines the complete cause-effect pathway, from emissions of toxic substances to intake by the population up to damages in terms of human health effects. Section 2 outlines the framework for assessing human toxicity in LCIA. Section 3 discusses the contributing substances......This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... – demonstrates the importance to account for both outdoor and indoor exposure, including consumer products. Analysing the variations in intake fraction (the fraction of the emitted or applied chemical that is taken in by the consumer and the general population), effect factor and characterisation factor across...

  12. Human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.; Kasparek, L.; Novicky, O.; Querner, E.P.; Fendeková, M.; Kupczyk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Human activities can cause drought, which was not previously reported (man-induced hydrological drought). Groundwater abstractions for domestic and industrial use are a well-known example of such an environmental change

  13. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  14. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  15. Human babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rożej-Bielicka, Wioletta; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Gołąb, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging parasitic, anthropo-zoonotic tick-borne disease, seldom diagnosed in humans. Caused by Protozoa, Babesia (also called Piroplasma) intraerytrocytic piriform microorganism. Infection of vertebrates is transmitted by ticks. Out of more than 100 Babesia species/genotypes described so far, only some were diagnosed in infected humans, mostly B. microti, B. divergens and B. venatorum (Babesia sp. EU1). Infection in humans is often asymptomatic or mild but is of a particular risk for asplenic individuals, those with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and elderly. Infections transmitted with blood and blood products raise concerns in hemotherapy. Epidemiological situation of babesiosis varies around the world. In Europe, no increase in the number of cases was reported, but in the USA its prevalence is increasing and extension of endemic areas is observed. The aim of this publication is to describe the problems connected with the current epidemiological situation, diagnosis and treatment of human babesiosis with regard to clinical status of patients.

  16. Human energy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the midst of big-oil record profits and growing debate on global warming, the Chevron Corporation launched its “Human Energy” public relations campaign. In television commercials and print advertisements, Chevron portrays itself as a compassionate entity striving to solve the planet’s energy crisis. Yet, the first term in this corporate oxymoron misleadingly reframes the significance of the second, suggesting that the corporation has a renewed focus. In depicting Chevron as a green/human o...

  17. Human Echolocation

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Santani

    2013-01-01

    The use of active natural echolocation as a mobility aid for blind humans has received increased scientific and popular attention in recent years (Engber, 2006; Kreiser, 2006; NPR, 2011), in part due to a focus on several blind individuals who have developed remarkable expertise. However, perhaps surprisingly, the history of empirical human echolocation research is not much younger than the era of echolocation research (cf. Griffin, 1958). Nevertheless, compared to its bat and cetacean count...

  18. Human ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. It is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus Erlichia. These are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. Tick Ixodes is the principle vector in Europe, and Amblyomma americanum in the United States. Bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. Human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of diseases caused by different species of Ehrlichia. One of them is the disease named human monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the other is a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilia. Case report. We reported a 23-year-old patient admitted for the clinical treatment with the symptoms of high febrility (above 40 °C, headache, vomiting, general weakness and exhaustion, but without data on a tick bite. The patient was treated with trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a week when Ehrlichia chaffeensis was confirmed by the immunofluoroscence test, and the therapy contimed with doxacyclin. Conclusion. Human ehrlichiosis is also present in our country, so this disease should be considered everyday, especially in infectology practice.

  19. [Human influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2006-10-01

    Human influenza is one of the most common human infectious diseases, contributing to approximately one million deaths every year. In Germany, each year between 5.000 and 20.000 individuals die from severe influenza infections. In several countries, the morbidity and mortality of influenza is greatly underestimated. This is reflected by general low immunization rates. The emergence of avian influenza against the background of the scenario of a human influenza pandemic has revived public interest in the disease. According to the World Health Organisation, it is only the question on the beginning of a new influenza pandemic. The virus type of the new pandemic is still uncertain and it is also unclear, if a pandemic spread of the virus may be prevented by consistent controlling of avian influenza.

  20. [Humanized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2005-06-01

    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  1. Beyond Humanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer to the leading question of this paper, namely: ‘what does it mean to go beyond humanisms?’ The conclusion exposes briefly an ethics of hospitality and care from an angeletic perspective.

  2. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  3. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  4. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  5. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  6. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  7. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  8. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  9. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  10. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH...

  11. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  12. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH...

  13. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  14. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  15. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  16. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  17. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    steroid concentrations cause alterations in endometrial development, affecting oocyte viability in assisted reproductive technology. Furthermore, it has been proposed that elevated progesterone levels have a negative effect on the reproductive outcome of COS. This may arise from an asynchrony between...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  18. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  19. Cannabidiol Modulates the Immunophenotype and Inhibits the Activation of the Inflammasome in Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libro, Rosaliana; Scionti, Domenico; Diomede, Francesca; Marchisio, Marco; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Pollastro, Federica; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2016-01-01

    Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs) are multipotential cells that can expand and differentiate in culture under specific and standardized conditions. In the present study, we have investigated whether in vitro pre-treatment of hGMSCs with Cannabidiol (CBD) can influence their expression profile, improving the therapeutic potential of this cell culture. Following CBD treatment (5 μM) for 24 h, gene expression analysis through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revealed several genes differentially expressed between CBD-treated hGMSCs (CBD-hGMSCs) and control cells (CTR-hGMSCs) that were linked to inflammation and apoptosis. In particular, we have demonstrated that CBD treatment in hGMSCs prevented the activation of the NALP3-inflammasome pathway by suppressing the levels of NALP3, CASP1, and IL18, and in parallel, inhibited apoptosis, as demonstrated by the suppression of Bax. CBD treatment was also able to modulate the expression of the well-known mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD13, CD29, CD73, CD44, CD90, and CD166), and other surface antigens. Specifically, CBD led to the downregulation of genes codifying for antigens involved in the activation of the immune system (CD109, CD151, CD40, CD46, CD59, CD68, CD81, CD82, CD99), while it led to the upregulation of those implicated in the inhibition of the immune responses (CD47, CD55, CD276). In conclusion, the present study will provide a new simple and reproducible method for preconditioning hGMSCs with CBD, before transplantation, as an interesting strategy for improving the hGMSCs molecular phenotype, reducing the risk of immune or inflammatory reactions in the host, and in parallel, for increasing their survival and thus, their long-term therapeutic efficacy.

  20. Cannabidiol Modulates the Immunophenotype and Inhibits the Activation of the Inflammasome in Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libro, Rosaliana; Scionti, Domenico; Diomede, Francesca; Marchisio, Marco; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Pollastro, Federica; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2016-01-01

    Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs) are multipotential cells that can expand and differentiate in culture under specific and standardized conditions. In the present study, we have investigated whether in vitro pre-treatment of hGMSCs with Cannabidiol (CBD) can influence their expression profile, improving the therapeutic potential of this cell culture. Following CBD treatment (5 μM) for 24 h, gene expression analysis through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has revealed several genes differentially expressed between CBD-treated hGMSCs (CBD-hGMSCs) and control cells (CTR-hGMSCs) that were linked to inflammation and apoptosis. In particular, we have demonstrated that CBD treatment in hGMSCs prevented the activation of the NALP3-inflammasome pathway by suppressing the levels of NALP3, CASP1, and IL18, and in parallel, inhibited apoptosis, as demonstrated by the suppression of Bax. CBD treatment was also able to modulate the expression of the well-known mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD13, CD29, CD73, CD44, CD90, and CD166), and other surface antigens. Specifically, CBD led to the downregulation of genes codifying for antigens involved in the activation of the immune system (CD109, CD151, CD40, CD46, CD59, CD68, CD81, CD82, CD99), while it led to the upregulation of those implicated in the inhibition of the immune responses (CD47, CD55, CD276). In conclusion, the present study will provide a new simple and reproducible method for preconditioning hGMSCs with CBD, before transplantation, as an interesting strategy for improving the hGMSCs molecular phenotype, reducing the risk of immune or inflammatory reactions in the host, and in parallel, for increasing their survival and thus, their long-term therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27932991

  1. Cannabidiol modulates the immunophenotype and inhibits the activation of the inflammasome in human gingival mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaliana Libro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSC are multipotential cells that can expand and differentiate in culture under specific and standardized conditions. In the present study, we have investigated whether in vitro pre-treatment of hGMCs with Cannabidiol (CBD can influence their expression profile, improving the therapeutic potential of this cell culture. Following CBD treatment (5μM for 24 h, gene expression analysis through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS has revealed several genes differentially expressed between CBD-treated hGMCs (CBD-hGMCs and control cells (CTR-hGMCs that were linked to inflammation and apoptosis. In particular, we have demonstrated that CBD treatment in hGMCs prevented the activation of the NALP3-inflammasome pathway by suppressing the levels of NALP3, CASP1 and IL18, and in parallel, inhibited apoptosis, as demonstrated by the suppression of Bax.CBD treatment was also able to modulate the expression of the well-known mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD13, CD29, CD73, CD44, CD90 and CD166, and other surface antigens. Specifically, CBD led to the downregulation of genes codifying for antigens involved in the activation of the immune system (CD109, CD151, CD40, CD46, CD59, CD68, CD81, CD82, CD99, while it led to the upregulation of those implicated in the inhibition of the immune responses (CD47, CD55, CD276.In conclusion, the present study will provide a new simple and reproducible method for preconditioning hGMSCs with CBD, before transplantation, as an interesting strategy for improving the hGMCs molecular phenotype, reducing the risk of immune or inflammatory reactions in the host, and in parallel, for increasing their survival and thus, their long-term therapeutic efficacy.

  2. Human Toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Burak Selek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis is an parasitic infection caused by the ingestion of larvae of dog nematode Toxocara canis and less frequently of cat nematode T.cati. Toxocara eggs, shed to environment by infected dogs' and cats' droppings, become infective by embryonation. Humans, particularly children, can be infected by accidentally ingesting embryonated Toxocara eggs. Larvae hatch in the small intestine, penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate to other parts of body via the bloodstream. It is generally a benign, asymptomatic, and self-limiting disease, although migrating larvae can cause damage to tissues and organs, especially brain involvement can cause severe morbidity. The two main clinical presentations of toxocariasis are visceral larva migrans (VLM (a systemic disease caused by larval migration through major organs and ocular larva migrans (OLM (a disease limited to the eyes and optic nerves. There are also two less-severe syndromes which have recently been described, one mainly in children (covert toxocariasis and the other mainly in adults (common toxocariasis. Diagnosis is usually made by clinical signs/symptoms, epidemiological background of the patient and the use of immunological methods (ELISA or western-blot. On the other hand definitive diagnosis is much more challenging, since it requires the demonstration of larvae via biopsy or autopsy. Most cases of toxocariasis clear up without any treatment. VLM is primarily treated with antihelmintic drugs, such as; albendazole or mebendazole. Treatment of OLM is more difficult and usually consists of measures to prevent progressive damage to the eye like steroids. Laser photocoagulation and cryoretinopexy may also be used to treat severe cases. Since eradicating T.canis infection is difficult due to the complexity of its life cycle, prevention of toxocariasis is always preferred. Toxocara eggs have a strong protective layer which makes the eggs able to survive in the environment for months or

  3. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  4. [Human papillomaviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G

    2003-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect exclusively the basal cells of the skin and of mucosal epithelia adjacent to the skin such as the mouth, the upper respiratory tract, the lower genital tract and the anal canal. HPV does not lead to a viremia. Basically there are three different types of HPV infection: Clinically visible lesions, subclinical HPV infections and latent HPV infections. Distinct HPV types induce morphologically and prognostically different clinical pictures. The most common HPV associated benign tumor of the skin is the common wart. Infections of the urogenitoanal tract with specific HPV-types are recognised as the most frequent sexually transmitted viral infections. So-called "high-risk" HPV-types (HPV16, 18 and others) are regarded by the world health organisation as important risk-factors for the development of genital cancer (mainly cervical cancer), anal cancer and upper respiratory tract cancer in both genders. Antiviral substances with a specific anti-HPV effect are so far unknown. Conventional therapies of benign skin warts and of mucosal warts are mainly nonspecific. They comprise tissue-destroying therapies such as electrocautery, cryotherapy and laser. In addition cytotoxic substances such as podophyllotoxin and systemic therapy with retinoids are in use. Systemically and topically administered immunotherapies represent a new approach for treatment. Both interferons and particularly the recently developed imiquimod, an interferon-alpha and cytokine-inductor lead to better results and are better tolerated then conventional therapies. HPV-specific vaccines have been developed in the last 5 years and will be used in future for prevention and treatment of benign and malignant HPV-associated tumors of the genitoanal tract in both sexes.

  5. Human Development Report 1991: Financing Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP

    1991-01-01

    Lack of political commitment rather than financial resources is often the real barrier to human development. This is the main conclusion of Human Development Report 1991 - the second in a series of annual reports on the subject.

  6. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  7. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  8. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in human umbilical cord blood as support for ex vivo expansion of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and for chondrogenic differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN-FUWANG; LI-JUANWANG; YI-FANWU; YINGXIANG; CHUN-GANGXIE; BING-BINGJIA; JENNYHARRINGTON; IANK.MCNIECE

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Human mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPC) ar pluripotent, being the precursors for marrow stroma, bone, cartilage, muscle and connective tissues. Although the presence of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) in umbilical cord blood (UCB) is well known, that of MSPC has been not fully evaluated. Design and Methods. In this study, we examined the immunophenotype, the supporting function in relation to exvivo expansion of hematopoietic stem progenitor cells and the chondrogenic differentiation of cultured cells with characteristics of MSPC from UCB. When UCB nucleated cells were isolated and 107 cells cultured in IMDM with 20% fetal bovine serum, the mean number of adherent fibroblastlike colonies was 3.5±0.7/106 monuclear cells. Results. UCB-derived MSPC could be expanded for at least 15 passages. In their undifferentiated state, UCB-derived MSPC were CD 13+, CD29+, CD90+, CD105+, CD166+, SH2+,SH3+, SH4+, CD45-, CD34-, and CD14-; they produced stem cell factor, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α.UCB-derived MSPC cultured in chondrogenic media differentiated into chondrogenic cells. UCB-derived MSPC supported the proliferation and differentiation of CD34+ cells from UCB in vitro. Interpretation and Conclusions. UCB-derived MSPC have the potential to support ex vivo expansion of HSPC and chondrogenic differentiation. UCB should not be regarded as medical waste. It can serve as an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells and may provide a unique source of fetal cells for cellular and gene therapy.

  9. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  10. Scalability of human models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Rooij, L. van; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create a scalable human occupant model that allows adaptation of human models with respect to size, weight and several mechanical parameters. Therefore, for the first time two scalable facet human models were developed in MADYMO. First, a scalable human male was

  11. Visualizing Humans by Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the problems and techniques involved in visualizing humans in a three-dimensional scene. Topics discussed include human shape modeling, including shape creation and deformation; human motion control, including facial animation and interaction with synthetic actors; and human rendering and clothing, including textures and…

  12. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  13. From Human Past to Human Future

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic an...

  14. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  15. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    OpenAIRE

    TEMPLETON, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important ...

  16. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth.

  17. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  18. Human assisted robotic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  19. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which ... infections? Can HPV infections be prevented? What HPV vaccines are available? Who should get the HPV vaccines? ...

  1. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  2. Telling the Human Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  3. Human Services Offices

    Data.gov (United States)

    Fairfax County, Virginia — This data contains point features representing the human services offices within Fairfax County.“HS_Region” is the office for each human services region, “DFS_Area”...

  4. Human Resource Accounting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  5. The Growing Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  6. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  7. Monogenic human obesity syndromes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farooqi, I S; O'Rahilly, S

    2004-01-01

    .... This chapter will consider the human monogenic obesity syndromes that have been characterized to date and discuss how far such observations support the physiological role of these molecules in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  8. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    The article puts forward an aesthetic and psychoanalytic analysis of Titian's painting, The Flaying of Marsyas, arguing that the painting is a reflection on the human subject as a being constituted by skin and by a core of non-humanity. The analysis is partly an answer to Melanie Hart's (2007......) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  9. Human productivity program definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The optimization of human productivity on the space station within the existing resources and operational constraints is the aim of the Human Productivity Program. The conceptual objectives of the program are as follows: (1) to identify long lead technology; (2) to identify responsibility for work elements; (3) to coordinate the development of crew facilities and activities; and (4) to lay the foundation for a cost effective approach to improving human productivity. Human productivity work elements are also described and examples are presented.

  10. Human Resource Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; V.Sangeetha; Gopalakrishnan,S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  11. Preliminary Study on Biological Properties of Adult Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; BAI Hai; WANG Jingchang; SHI Jingyun; WANG Cunbang; LU Jihong; OU Jianfeng; WANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method of culture and expansion of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs in vitro and to explore their biological properties. Methods: Mononuclear cells were obtained from 5 mL adult human bone marrow by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll solution. Adult human MSCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with low glucose (LG-DMEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum at a density of 2× 105 cell/cm2. The morphocytology was observed under phase-contrast microscope. The cell growth was measured by MTT method. The flow cytometer was performed to examine the expression of cell surface molecules and cell cycle. The ultrastructure of MSCs was observed under transmission electron microscope. The immunomodulatory functions of MSCs were measured by MTT method. The effects of MSCs on the growth of K562 cells and the dynamic change of HA, Ⅳ-C, LN concentration in the culture supernatant of MSCs was also observed. Results: The MSCs harvested in this study were homogenous population and exhibited a spindle-shaped fibroblastic morphology. The cell growth curve showed that MSCs had a strong ability of proliferation. The cells were positive for CD44,while negative for hematopoietic cell surface marker such as CD3, CD4, CD7, CD13, CD14, CD15, CD19,CD22, CD33, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, which was closely related to graft versus host disease. Above 90% cells of MSCs were found at G0/G1 phase. The ultrastructure of MSCs indicated that there were plenty of cytoplasmic organelles. Allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes proliferation was suppressed by MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 60.68% (P<0.01). The suppressive effect was also existed in the culture supernatant of MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 9.00% (P<0.05). When lymphocytes were stimulated by PHA, the suppression effects of the culture supernatant were even stronger and the inhibition ratio was 20.91%(P<0.01). Compared with the cell growth curve of the K562 cells alone, the K562

  12. Human nature and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Allen

    2009-03-01

    Appeals to the idea of human nature are frequent in the voluminous literature on the ethics of enhancing human beings through biotechnology. Two chief concerns about the impact of enhancements on human nature have been voiced. The first is that enhancement may alter or destroy human nature. The second is that if enhancement alters or destroys human nature, this will undercut our ability to ascertain the good because, for us, the good is determined by our nature. The first concern assumes that altering or destroying human nature is in itself a bad thing. The second concern assumes that human nature provides a standard without which we cannot make coherent, defensible judgments about what is good. I will argue (1) that there is nothing wrong, per se, with altering or destroying human nature, because, on a plausible understanding of what human nature is, it contains bad as well as good characteristics and there is no reason to believe that eliminating some of the bad would so imperil the good as to make the elimination of the bad impermissible, and (2) that altering or destroying human nature need not result in the loss of our ability to make judgments about the good, because we possess a conception of the good by which we can and do evaluate human nature. I will argue that appeals to human nature tend to obscure rather than illuminate the debate over the ethics of enhancement and can be eliminated in favor of more cogent considerations.

  13. Human Document Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.; Abelmann, L.; Manz, A.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    “The Human Document Project” is a project which tries to answer all of the questions related to preserving information about the human race for tens of generations of humans to come or maybe even for a future intelligence which can emerge in the coming thousands of years. This document mainly focuss

  14. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  15. Has human evolution stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  16. (Human) Resourcing For CI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2005-01-01

    More and more, the ability to compete in today’s market is viewed as being dependent on human capital. One of the most challenging aspects of human resource management involves supplying the organization with the human capital necessary to fulfill its objectives. This task becomes especially...

  17. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  18. Monogenic human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2008-01-01

    We and others have identified several single gene defects that disrupt the molecules in the leptinmelanocortin pathway causing severe obesity in humans. In this review, we consider these human monogenic obesity syndromes and discuss how far the characterisation of these patients has informed our understanding of the physiological role of leptin and the melanocortins in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  19. From Human Past to Human Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic and neural detriments and pathologies. Uniformitarian reasoning based on ontogenic homology suggests that the cognitive abilities of hominins are consistently underrated in the unstable orthodoxies of Pleistocene archaeology. A scientifically guided review establishes developmental trajectories defining recent changes in the human genome and its expressions, which then form the basis of attempts to extrapolate from them into the future. It is suggested that continuing and perhaps accelerating unfavorable genetic changes to the human species, rather than existential threats such as massive disasters, pandemics, or astrophysical events, may become the ultimate peril of humanity.

  20. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia ...... human and animal value and agency with approaches that focus on human experience and virtue ethics, we argue that ‘the human’ at stake in the moral laboratory of feeding precarious lives puts ‘the human’ in anthropology at disposal for moral experimentation....

  1. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  2. Human Beings And Water

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  3. Human rights and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2008-05-01

    In the first part of this article we survey the concept of human rights from a philosophical perspective and especially in relation to the "right to healthcare". It is argued that regardless of meta-ethical debates on the nature of rights, the ethos and language of moral deliberation associated with human rights is indispensable to any ethics that places the victim and the sufferer in its centre. In the second part we discuss the rise of the "right to privacy", particularly in the USA, as an attempt to make the element of personal free will dominate over the element of basic human interest within the structure of rights and when different rights seem to conflict. We conclude by discussing the relationship of human rights with moral values beyond the realm of rights, mainly human dignity, free will, human rationality and response to basic human needs.

  4. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  5. The experimental investigation of glioma-trophic capacity of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells after intraventricular administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Cun-gang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the glioma-trophic migration capacity of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs by intraventricular administration. Methods The umbilical cord tissue were obtained during full-term pregnancy cesarean section under sterile conditions. This study was approved by Ethics Committee and got the informed consent of patient. The hUC-MSCs were isolated by trypsin and collagenase digestion, followed by adherent culture methods. The characteristics of isolated hUC-MSCs were demonstrated by cell morphylogy, phenotype analysis and multi-differentiation potentials into adipocytes, osteoblasts and neural cells. Then the hUC-MSCs were labeled with CM-DiI and injected into contralateral ventricle of glioma of the C6 glioma-bearing Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Two weeks later, the rats were sacrificed and the brains were taken out to examine the migration and distribution of hUC-MSCs in the tumor bed, at the interface of tumor and cerebral parenchyma as well as the tumor satelites infiltrating into the normal brain. Results The hUC-MSCs demonstrated plastic-adherent characterization and homogeneous fibroblastic-like morphylogy in culture, expression of specific surface phenotypes of MSCs (CD13, CD29, CD44, CD90 but not endothelial or hematopoietic markers (CD14, CD31, CD34, CD38, CD45, CD133, and muti-differentiatiation potentials into Oil red O stained adipocytes, Alizarin red S stained osteoblasts, neuron-specific enolase (NSE-positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive astrocytes in permissive inducive conditions. Importantly, after labeled hUC-MSCs injection into contralateral ventricle of glioma, the hUC-MSCs migrated from initial injection site to the glioma mass and along the interface of tumor and brain, and some of them "chasing" the glioma satellites infiltrated into the normal parenchyma. Conclusion The hUC-MSCs possess prominent tumor-specific targeting capacity and extensive intratumoral

  6. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  7. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  8. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept.

  9. Chimeras and human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2008-12-01

    Discussions about whether new biomedical technologies threaten or violate human dignity are now common. Indeed, appeals to human dignity have played a central role in national and international debates about whether to allow particular kinds of biomedical investigations. The focus of this paper is on chimera research. I argue here that both those who claim that particular types of human-nonhuman chimera research threaten human dignity and those who argue that such threat does not exist fail to make their case. I first introduce some of the arguments that have been offered supporting the claim that the creation of certain sorts of chimeras threatens or violates human dignity. I next present opponents' assessments of such arguments. Finally I critically analyze both the critics' and the supporters' claims about whether chimera research threatens human dignity.

  10. Human Performance in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  11. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  12. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...

  13. Advancing Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2012-2015) was initiated after the successful conclusion of the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010).The Chinese government in late July published an assessment report on the implementation of the plan,elaborating on the full implementation of China's first-ever national program on human rights development,which was drafted in April 2009.

  14. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  15. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  16. Robotics for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  17. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  18. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  19. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...... to fulfil their possible obligations to protect against human rights violations by corporations.......The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...

  20. The psychology of humanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures.

  1. The Human Toolmaker

    OpenAIRE

    Kassuba, Tanja; Kastner, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Do you enjoy building airplanes, cars, houses, or robots with Lego blocks? Humans are the only animal species that can create complicated constructions from simple Lego blocks – our Lego building ability is “human-specific,” since it is only found in human beings. What would our closest relatives, apes or monkeys, do with a box of Lego blocks? They would probably chew on them, and lose interest when they find out that they are not edible! Why are humans the only Lego builders in the animal ki...

  2. Photography after the Human

    OpenAIRE

    Zylinska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    How can we visualise and subsequently reimagine the abstraction that is the extinction of human species while there is still time? The article addresses this question by considering the existence of images – and, in particular, light-induced mechanical images known as photographs – after the human. The “after the human” designation does not just refer to the material disappearance of the human in some kind of distant future, but also to the present imagining of the disappearance of the human ...

  3. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...... in pharmacological management of chronic atrial fibrillation....

  4. The characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood and its chemotaxis in ovarian cancer cells%人脐带血来源的间充质干细胞特性及对卵巢癌细胞趋化作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩玲; 时小丁; 庄如锦; 刘倩

    2011-01-01

    目的 为人脐带血(HUCD)可成为间充质干细胞(MSCs)重要新来源提供依据,着重研究时人卵巢癌细胞的趋化作用,为临床靶向治疗卵巢癌提供新的载体.方法 征求足月健康的自然产孕妇同意,获得脐带血,从中提取MSCs.获得稳定增殖传代的MSCs后,鉴定其生物特性和抗原表型,将其与人卵巢癌HO-8910细胞共培养,探讨其对卵巢癌细胞的趋化作用.结果 成功从HUCD中提取MSCs,筛选出稳定传代的细胞系.其生物学特性与骨髓来源的MSCs-样具有多向细胞分化潜能,可诱导分化成脂肪细胞、成骨细胞;同时还具有相同的免疫表型,CD29、CD44、CD105阳性表达,CD13、CD14、CD34、CD45阴性表达,并且其免疫表型不随着细胞传代而改变.HUCD来源的MSCs与HO-8910细胞共培养时发现,MSCs对其有趋化作用.结论 证实HUCD可以作为MSCs的新的重要来源.实验发现MSCs时人卵巢癌细胞株HO一8910有明显趋化作用,这一发现可能为卵巢肿瘤靶向治疗提供了新的有效载体.%Objective: To provide evidence on human umbilical cord blood (HUCD) that can be a new important origin of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Mainly research the MSCs's ability of the chemotaxis to ovarian cancer cells, which can become the new target - vector of ovarian cancers on clinical therapy. Methods: We obtain HUCD from mature and healthy pregnant woman who agreed as parturition. Isolate, purify and culture MSCs, till MSCs have a stable proliferation, identify biology characteristic and phenotypic characterization. Then have a co- culture with the human ovarian carcinoma cell lines HO- 8910, the tropism capacity of MSCs was quantitatively assayed in vitro using the Millicell system. Results: MSCs obtained from HUCD, which have the same biology characteristic and phenotypic characterization with that originated from bone marrow. HUCD MSCs can differentiate into lipocyte and osteoblast. HUCD MSCs don't expressed hematopoietic

  5. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  6. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  7. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  8. Introduction to human factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  9. Human Capital and Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Alders

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by

  10. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  11. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  12. Human Resource Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An interview is reported which discussed the implications for the hiring, recruiting, screening and development of employees in the light of human resource accounting, here defined as the identification, accumulation and dissemination of information about human resources in dollar terms. (SA)

  13. Hooking Kids with Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, Neil L.

    1993-01-01

    Humanitas is part of Collaboratives for Humanities and Arts Teaching (CHART), a nationwide network funded primarily by the Rockefeller Foundation. In 11 large school districts and numerous rural districts, high school teachers, academics, artists, and business and community leaders are cooperating to promote teaching of the arts and humanities.…

  14. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    with fundamental human values like intuition, vision and sensing; all the qualities the technology, the industrialisation and rationalisation, or in short modernity, has been criticized for having taken away from human existence. What technology has taken away now comes back through new technology as an aid...

  15. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  16. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and urogenit

  17. Human Rights Guaranteed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Report says China’s human rights plan successfully implemented According to a detailed assessment report published by China’s State Council Information Office (SCIO),all the measures outlined in the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-10) had been successfully put into place by the end of 2010.

  18. Defects in Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    By tracing the defects of society back to the defects of human nature, humanity's essence is proved to be inherent evil. Man's natural tendency to do evil remain harnessed through the controls and conventions imposed by civilization, however, when rules or civilization are weakened, man' s dark side is unleashed.

  19. Humanism within Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adult learning connects it to almost all other facets of human endeavor. Consequently, the future of adult education depends, to a large extent on who participates and the quality of such participation. Quality participation, when teamed with environments committed to a concern for humanity, launches opportunities for varied…

  20. Report Details Human Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China issues its first white paper on human resources The Chinese Government issued a white paper on its human resources on September 10, highlighting the country’s policies to cope with employment pressures and a lack of "high-level innovative talents.

  1. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a Colo

  2. Humanism within Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adult learning connects it to almost all other facets of human endeavor. Consequently, the future of adult education depends, to a large extent on who participates and the quality of such participation. Quality participation, when teamed with environments committed to a concern for humanity, launches opportunities for varied…

  3. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structural...

  4. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  5. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and urogenit

  6. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  7. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  8. Human Rights Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China issues a white paper on its human rights,highlighting freedom of speech on the Interne The Chinese Government released a white paper on its human rights in 2009 on September 26,highlighting the role of Internet freedom and the country’s efforts in safeguarding citizens’legitimate civil and political rights.

  9. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century lib

  10. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... a shared interdisciplinary research and educational collaboration. As a creative research initiative it focuses on change and innovative thinking. The innovativeness is a result of the strongly interdisciplinary perspective which is at the heart of Designing Human Technologies. Designing Human Technologies...

  11. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Human Relations-skolen er en samlebetegnelse for to forskningsretninger, som tilsammen bidrog som nogle af de første til at indkredse og belyse de mellemmenneskelige relationers betydning for motivation og trivsel i arbejdslivet, og som skulle få stor ind"ydelse ikke bare på organisationsteorien......, som formulerede en række teorier og modeller om menneskets motivation, trivsel og behov i arbejdslivet. Selvom de ikke nødvendigvis relaterede sig til hinandens arbejde, er de forskellige bidragsydere i dag kendt som repræsentanter for den paradigmatiske betegnelse Human Relations. Undertiden skelnes...... der mellem Human Relations (Hawthorne-eksperimenter ne) og Neo-Human Relations (behovsteorierne), men i denne fremstilling bruges Human Relations som en samlebetegnelse for begge disse – noget forskellige – forskningstraditioner. De har i dag opnået stor udbredelse og er praktisk talt obligatorisk...

  12. Human to Human Transmission of Brucella Melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Vigeant

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is acquired mainly through contact with infected animal tissues, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or infected aerosols. Person to person transmission is still considered uncertain. The case of a woman diagnosed with proven brucellosis after her husband suffered a relapse of bacteremia with Brucella melitensis biotype 3, which was originally acquired abroad by eating goat cheese, is described. It was postulated that person to person spread of brucellosis is a likely mode of transmission in this case.

  13. Human to Human Transmission of Brucella Melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Vigeant; Jack Mendelson; Miller, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Human brucellosis is acquired mainly through contact with infected animal tissues, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or infected aerosols. Person to person transmission is still considered uncertain. The case of a woman diagnosed with proven brucellosis after her husband suffered a relapse of bacteremia with Brucella melitensis biotype 3, which was originally acquired abroad by eating goat cheese, is described. It was postulated that person to person spread of brucellosis is a likely ...

  14. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  15. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  16. Human pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  17. Enhancing human capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues

  18. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  20. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  1. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  2. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF GENES INVOLVED IN METABOLISM BETWEEN TUMORIGENITIC HUMAN LEUKEMIA CELL LINES K562 AND K562-n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕书晴; 许小平; 夏放; 居小萍; 李瑶; 应康; 毛裕民

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the molecular mechanism of different tumorigenicity in nude mice of human leukemia cell lines K562-n and K562. Methods: To analyze the genes differently expressed between K562 and K562-n cells by using cDNA microarray technique. Results: Among the 12800 genes detected, some genes involved in material metabolism and material transport were differently expressed between K562-n and K562 cells. These genes include homo sapiens placenta-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter gene, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase gene, hepatic dihydrodiol dehydrogenase gene, NAD-dependent methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase cyclohydrolase, lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, alpha gene, argininosuccinate lyase gene, mitochondrial isocitrtate dehydrogenase, adhesion protein SQM1 gene, dimethylarginine dimethylamino-hydrolase gene, M1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase gene. Conclusion: The high tumorigenicity of K562-n cells is related to the different expression of some genes concerned with cell metabolism and material transpoert.

  3. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  4. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Page Content Article Body According to the Centers ... and how to prevent it. How to Prevent HPV: There are 3 types of HPV vaccine: Cervarix , ...

  6. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  7. Human Emotion Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbag Singh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of feature extraction of facial expressions with combination of neural network for the recognition of different facial emotions (happy, sad, angry, fear, surprised, neutral etc... Humans are capable of producing thousands of facial actions during communication that vary in complexity, intensity, and meaning. This paper analyses the limitations with existing system Emotion recognition using brain activity. In this paper by using an existing simulator I have achieved 97 percent accurate results and it is easy and simplest way than Emotion recognition using brain activity system. Purposed system depends upon human face as we know face also reflects the human brain activities or emotions. In this paper neural network has been used for better results. In the end of paper comparisons of existing Human Emotion Recognition System has been made with new one.

  8. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  9. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  10. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  11. Human Resource Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  12. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  13. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Humanism Education in Language Class,Innovative model university English teaching,Analysis on Information Literacy of College English Teachers Based On Net Environment,Cultural Differences between E-C Idioms and Teaching of English Idioms

  14. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  15. Will Technology Humanize Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    The author considers the question of whether technology will cause humanization or dehumanization in the schools. He concludes that we can not stop tecchnology; we can only give it direction and purpose. (Author/MS)

  16. Report Details Human Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Government issued a white paper on its human resources on September I0, highlighting the coun-try's policies to cope with employ-ment pressures and a lack of "high-level innovative talents."

  17. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ban on efforts to implant a human cloned embryo for the purpose of reproduction. The scientific evidence ... stem cell research, including the use of nuclear transplantation techniques (also known as research or therapeutic cloning), ...

  18. Science and Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Pierre

    1971-01-01

    Science and humanism are separated so completely as to bring about the creation of two cultures quite distinct from each other within contemporary civilization. Pragmatic, rational attitudes are needed on both sides to bring them together. (DF)

  19. Modification of Monolignol Biosynthetic Pathway in Jute: Different Gene, Different Consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafrin, Farhana; Ferdous, Ahlan Sabah; Sarkar, Suprovath Kumar; Ahmed, Rajib; Amin, Al-; Hossain, Kawsar; Sarker, Mrinmoy; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Rio, Jose C; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Khan, Haseena

    2017-01-04

    Lignin, a cross-linked macromolecule of hydrophobic aromatic structure, provides additional rigidity to a plant cell wall. Although it is an integral part of the plant cell, presence of lignin considerably reduces the quality of the fiber of fiber-yielding plants. Decreasing lignin in such plants holds significant commercial and environmental potential. This study aimed at reducing the lignin content in jute-a fiber crop, by introducing hpRNA-based vectors for downregulation of two monolignoid biosynthetic genes- cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT). Transgenic generations, analyzed through Southern, RT-PCR and northern assays showed downregulation of the selected genes. Transgenic lines exhibited reduced level of gene expression with ~ 16-25% reduction in acid insoluble lignin for the whole stem and ~13-14% reduction in fiber lignin content compared to the control lines. Among the two transgenic plant types one exhibited an increase in cellulose content and concomitant improvement of glucose release. Composition of the lignin building blocks was found to alter and this alteration resulted in a pattern, different from other plants where the same genes were manipulated. It is expected that successful COMT-hpRNA and C4H-hpRNA transgenesis in jute will have far-reaching commercial implications leading to product diversification and value addition.

  20. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  1. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology

  2. Human Resources Accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 21 st century will be the epoch of knowled ge economy. Knowledge economy is to develop economy on the basis of knowledge will surely become the major resources of economy development. Therefore, human resources accounting which provides such information as the ebb and follow of hu man resources investment, the size of the human resources employment, will bec ome the main stream of accounting the time of knowledge economy. To face China 's reality, to develop economy, and to flourish enterprise...

  3. Human motricity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  4. Human Happiness Is Sensuous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕静

    2003-01-01

    All human happiness is biological happiness. That is strictly scientific. At the risk of being misunderstood. I must make it clearer: all human happiness is sensuous happiness. The spiritualists will misunderstand me. I am sure; the spiritualists and materialists must forever misunderstand each other, because they don’t talk the same language, or mean by the same word different things. Are we, too, in this problem

  5. Evolution and human sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory.

  6. Meeting human needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    The degree of autonomy of future long duration manned missions will emphasize interactions between human operators and automated systems aimed at the most effective allocations of tasks between humans and machines. Knowledge of crewmembers' physical status, encompassing both capabilities and limitations, will also be critical during EVA and planetary roving missions; psychological evaluation and support, with a view to both individual health and group cohesion and productivity, may become a critical consideration. Attention is here given to crewmembers' medical and psychological vulnerabilities.

  7. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  8. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  9. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  10. Genomics of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagboom, P E; Beekman, M; Passtoors, W M; Deelen, J; Vaarhorst, A A M; Boer, J M; van den Akker, E B; van Heemst, D; de Craen, A J M; Maier, A B; Rozing, M; Mooijaart, S P; Heijmans, B T; Westendorp, R G J

    2011-01-12

    In animal models, single-gene mutations in genes involved in insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signalling pathways extend lifespan to a considerable extent. The genetic, genomic and epigenetic influences on human longevity are expected to be much more complex. Strikingly however, beneficial metabolic and cellular features of long-lived families resemble those in animals for whom the lifespan is extended by applying genetic manipulation and, especially, dietary restriction. Candidate gene studies in humans support the notion that human orthologues from longevity genes identified in lower species do contribute to longevity but that the influence of the genetic variants involved is small. Here we discuss how an integration of novel study designs, labour-intensive biobanking, deep phenotyping and genomic research may provide insights into the mechanisms that drive human longevity and healthy ageing, beyond the associations usually provided by molecular and genetic epidemiology. Although prospective studies of humans from the cradle to the grave have never been performed, it is feasible to extract life histories from different cohorts jointly covering the molecular changes that occur with age from early development all the way up to the age at death. By the integration of research in different study cohorts, and with research in animal models, biological research into human longevity is thus making considerable progress.

  11. Human Milk Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population.

  12. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  13. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  14. Why Geo-Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  15. [Human ehrlichiosis. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraga-Alvarado, C

    1994-12-01

    Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized tick-borne disease. Since 1935 Ehrlichia canis has been known as a cause of illness in dogs and other canine species, and for a few years it was related with human disease. In 1990, Ehrlichia chaffeensis was isolated from a man suspected of having ehrlichiosis. Partial sequencing of the rRNAS from the human isolate and E. canis, indicated that they are 98.7% related. More recently (May 1994) an "human granulocytic ehrlichiosis" have been reported in USA. PCR amplification and sequence of 16S rDNA, showed that the human isolate was virtually identical to those reported for E. phagocytophila y E. equi, organisms that cause ehrlichiosis in rumiant and in horses. Most patients shows fever, headache, malaise, nausea or vomiting, anorexia and in a minority of cases rash is present. Some of them have complications such as pulmonary infiltrates, gastrointestinal problems, renal dysfunction or failure, hepatoesplenomegaly, neurologic abnormalities, DIC and some times death. Leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzyme values have been common findings. Tetracycline and cloramphenicol have been using in adults and children as especific theraphy.

  16. The human serum metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Psychogios

    Full Text Available Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca.

  17. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  18. NOOSPHERE HUMAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novozhilova Elena Olegovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author dwells upon typical features of noosphere human communities, assessing prospects and hazards of genetic engineering, namely of recombinant DNA technology. Background: Socio-historical ecology ushers in a new approach to studying society in its relation to nature. This interrelation is regarded as a series of socio-ecological transformations ending up in certain types of socio-ecological systems being formed. One of such historical types is represented by a noosphere human community [1]. Results: A number of characteristic features of this kind of community have been outlined, namely: its existence and functioning on global scale, major role of information in making up social wealth, creation of living matter. Conclusion: The noosphere human community is currently the latest stage in the sequence of historical types of socio-ecological systems. Widespread use of information and genetic technology may enable noosphere people to create in future a totally man-made world superseding evolutionary biosphere.

  19. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    , men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg......Human Relations-skolen er en samlebetegnelse for to forskningsretninger, som tilsammen bidrog som nogle af de første til at indkredse og belyse de mellemmenneskelige relationers betydning for motivation og trivsel i arbejdslivet, og som skulle få stor ind"ydelse ikke bare på organisationsteorien......, som formulerede en række teorier og modeller om menneskets motivation, trivsel og behov i arbejdslivet. Selvom de ikke nødvendigvis relaterede sig til hinandens arbejde, er de forskellige bidragsydere i dag kendt som repræsentanter for den paradigmatiske betegnelse Human Relations. Undertiden skelnes...

  20. [Human pulmonary trichomonoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboucher, Christophe; Caby, Stéphanie; Chabé, Magali; Gantois, Nausicaa; Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Pierce, Raymond; Capron, Monique; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2007-05-01

    Colonization of human lungs by various Trichomonas species is a frequent occurrence, but is unknown to most physicians. At this site of infection, the parasite develops into an amoeboid form that renders it unrecognizable. For this reason it has been overlooked until recently. Morphological identification is not feasible under these conditions and molecular tools provide the only means of identification. The species involved are not restricted to Trichomonas tenax, a saprophyte of the mouth that is usually cited in the rare cases of pleuropulmonary trichomoniasis reported in the literature. The recent discovery of species previously unknown in humans raises further questions, including the zoonotic potential of these microorganisms and the existence of species of animal origin that have adapted to humans. Anaerobiosis in poorly ventilated alveolar lumen, rather than immunodepression, seems to be the factor that promotes proliferation of this parasite. The diagnosis of trichomoniasis and its treatment by specific drugs will make it possible to evaluate the pathogenicity of these parasites.

  1. Scientists and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  2. Helicopter human factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  3. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions.......This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...

  4. Reflections on humanizing biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, James A

    2008-01-01

    Although biomedicine is responsible for the "miracles" of modern medicine, paradoxically it has also led to a quality-of-care crisis in which many patients feel disenfranchised from the health-care industry. To address this crisis, several medical commentators make an appeal for humanizing biomedicine, which has led to shifts in the philosophical boundaries of medical knowledge and practice. In this paper, the metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical boundaries of biomedicine and its humanized versions are investigated and compared to one another. Biomedicine is founded on a metaphysical position of mechanistic monism, an epistemology of objective knowing, and an ethic of emotionally detached concern. In humanizing modern medicine, these boundaries are often shifted to a metaphysical position of dualism/holism, an epistemology of subject knowing, and an ethic of empathic care. In a concluding section, the question is discussed whether these shifts in the philosophical boundaries are adequate to resolve the quality-of-care crisis.

  5. HUMAN MISSION OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  6. (Human) Resourcing For CI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2005-01-01

    More and more, the ability to compete in today’s market is viewed as being dependent on human capital. One of the most challenging aspects of human resource management involves supplying the organization with the human capital necessary to fulfill its objectives. This task becomes especially...... challenging in organizations involved in change processes such as Continuous Improvement (CI), as the technical skills traditionally valued are no longer adequate. These companies are faced with the question: “What competencies should our employees possess in order to contribute to our success, given...... the change processes in which we are engaged?” Without a clear picture of the types of competencies required to implement CI, it is impossible for companies to make informed decisions regarding recruitment, hiring, and training of their workforce. The objective of this paper is therefore to define...

  7. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... and technologies relating to performances and experiences, urban design, climate adaptation, etc. The research takes a process-oriented and participatory approach and involves interaction between different user interests and designs. It is based on empirical, typical case- and action research-oriented studies...

  8. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus.

  9. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  10. Human immune system variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Petter; Davis, Mark M

    2017-01-01

    The human immune system is highly variable between individuals but relatively stable over time within a given person. Recent conceptual and technological advances have enabled systems immunology analyses, which reveal the composition of immune cells and proteins in populations of healthy individuals. The range of variation and some specific influences that shape an individual's immune system is now becoming clearer. Human immune systems vary as a consequence of heritable and non-heritable influences, but symbiotic and pathogenic microbes and other non-heritable influences explain most of this variation. Understanding when and how such influences shape the human immune system is key for defining metrics of immunological health and understanding the risk of immune-mediated and infectious diseases.

  11. [Human rights and procreation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, F

    1990-04-01

    The impact of procreation on freedom, health and welfare of human beings, is considerable. This relationship, however, is not mirrored in texts devoted to Human Rights. This omission obviously implies a neglect of women's and children's rights. The history of anticonceptive methods exemplifies the struggle for these rights. This conquest, which has lasted two hundred years, is far from completed. Because of the demographic outbreak in Third World countries, an ideological conflict has appeared between first generation Human Rights concerned with individual freedom ("rights of") and those of second generation aiming at social fairness ("rights to"). Adequate political and economic adjustment between North and South is a prerequisite to any balanced compromise that would resolve this conflict through democratic, albeit intensive, birth control.

  12. Monogenic obesity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, I Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the small number of identifiable inherited human diseases associated with marked obesity were complex, pleiotropic developmental disorders, the molecular basis for which were entirely obscure. The molecular basis for many of these complex syndromes, such as Bardet Beidl syndrome, has been revealed, providing novel insights into processes essential for human hypothalamic function and energy balance. In addition to these discoveries, which were the fruits of positional cloning, the molecular constituents of the signaling pathways responsible for the control of mammalian energy homeostasis have been identified, largely through the study of natural or artificial mutations in mice. We discuss the increasing number of human disorders that result from genetic disruption of the leptin-melanocortin pathways that have been identified. Practical implications of these findings for genetic counseling, prognostication, and even therapy have already emerged.

  13. Monogenic human obesity syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, I S

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade we have witnessed a major increase in the scale of scientific activity devoted to the study of energy balance and obesity. This explosion of interest has, to a large extent, been driven by the identification of genes responsible for murine obesity syndromes, and the novel physiological pathways revealed by those genetic discoveries. Others and we have also recently identified several single gene defects causing severe human obesity. Many of these defects have been in molecules identical or similar to those identified as a cause of obesity in rodents. I will review the human monogenic obesity syndromes that have been characterised to date and discuss how far such observations support the physiological role of these molecules in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  14. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...... the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a shared social world. Social signals can be processed automatically by the receiver and may be unconsciously emitted by the sender. These signals are non-verbal and are responsible for social learning in the first year of life. Social...... signals can also be processed consciously and this allows automatic processing to be modulated and overruled. Evidence for this higher-level social processing is abundant from about 18 months of age in humans, while evidence is sparse for non-human animals. We suggest that deliberate social signalling...

  15. Differential DNA methylation correlates with differential expression of angiogenic factors in human heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehregan Movassagh

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms such as microRNA and histone modification are crucially responsible for dysregulated gene expression in heart failure. In contrast, the role of DNA methylation, another well-characterized epigenetic mark, is unknown. In order to examine whether human cardiomyopathy of different etiologies are connected by a unifying pattern of DNA methylation pattern, we undertook profiling with ischaemic and idiopathic end-stage cardiomyopathic left ventricular (LV explants from patients who had undergone cardiac transplantation compared to normal control. We performed a preliminary analysis using methylated-DNA immunoprecipitation-chip (MeDIP-chip, validated differential methylation loci by bisulfite-(BS PCR and high throughput sequencing, and identified 3 angiogenesis-related genetic loci that were differentially methylated. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the expression of these genes differed significantly between CM hearts and normal control (p<0.01. Moreover, for each individual LV tissue, differential methylation showed a predicted correlation to differential expression of the corresponding gene. Thus, differential DNA methylation exists in human cardiomyopathy. In this series of heterogeneous cardiomyopathic LV explants, differential DNA methylation was found in at least 3 angiogenesis-related genes. While in other systems, changes in DNA methylation at specific genomic loci usually precede changes in the expression of corresponding genes, our current findings in cardiomyopathy merit further investigation to determine whether DNA methylation changes play a causative role in the progression of heart failure.

  16. Structure and organization of the human thrombospondin 3 gene (THBS3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolph, K.W.; Long, G.L.; Bornstein, P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-20

    The promoter/5{prime} flank sequence, cDNA sequence, and exon/intron structures of the human thrombospondin 3 (THBS3) gene have been determined. THBS3 cDNA clones were obtained by PCR amplification of human fetal lung cDNA using THBS3-specific primers. Analysis of cDNA and genomic sequences showed the THBS3 gene to be composed of 23 exons, 1 more than the number of exons in the previously characterized mouse TSP3 gene. The additional exon results from the division of mouse exon F into exons F1 and F2. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 956 amino acids that is highly acidic, with a clustering of acidic side chains in the third quarter of the polypeptide. This region corresponds to seven type III (Ca{sup 2+}-binding) repeats, a feature shared with other thrombospondins. In addition to these type III repeats, four type II (EGF-like) repeats and NH{sub 2}- and COOH-terminal domains are present in thrombospondin 3. The THBS3 and mouse TSP3 genes differ in intron sizes, but exon sequences and sizes and positions of insertion of introns are conserved to a high degree. The structural organization of the THBS3 gene is of interest because of its close proximity to that of metaxin, with which it shares a common promoter sequence, and to the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase, a deficiency in which causes Gaucher disease. 33 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Human Security Agendas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Ⅰ.IntroductionThe need for governments and international organisations to gain a better understanding of "security" is ever more urgent.For example in the conflict in Libya in early 2011,many security dilemmas were visible:the protection of Libyan civilians,the security of the regime,whether and how the UN or NATO should intervene,whether Europe would be threatened with a massive refugee flow,how to protect or evacuate foreign citizens (including Chinese),how to secure food and medical supplies in the midst of armed conflict.Such events may be termed "complex emergencies" which often raise legal, military and humanitarian issues simultaneously.International law and practice do not provide clear guidelines on such situations,and responses can be random,contingent on a variety of factors.Traditional concepts of security,for example protection of national borders,are certainly still relevant and legally enforceable,but more sophisticated concepts are needed to respond to security dilemmas in today's globalised world.Human security as a concept was first developed within the UN system in the 1990s,and set out,for example,in Human Security Now [1] The first section of this paper tracks the development of Human Security discourse,and also examines the broadening of the "security"concept in recent years.The second section reports on institutions with a specific interest in Human Security,for example within the UN system and in universities.The third section acknowledges some critiques of the Human Security paradigm.The last section reports on new directions that may enrich the Human Security agenda.

  18. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    The need for experimental models is obvious. In animal models it is possible to study vascular responses, neurogenic inflammation, c-fos expression etc. However, the pathophysiology of migraine remains unsolved, why results from animal studies not directly can be related to the migraine attack......, which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  19. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...

  20. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  1. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  2. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan

    2013-01-01

    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  3. We Are Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan’s arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. PMID:26810918

  4. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...... to be constant across individuals and over time: it seems that death is being delayed because people are reaching old age in better health. Research by demographers, epidemiologists and other biomedical researchers suggests that further progress is likely to be made in advancing the frontier of survival...... - and healthy survival - to even greater ages....

  5. Understanding digital humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, D

    2012-01-01

    The application of new computational techniques and visualisation technologies in the Arts and Humanities are resulting in fresh approaches and methodologies for the study of new and traditional corpora. This 'computational turn' takes the methods and techniques from computer science to create innovative means of close and distant reading. This book discusses the implications and applications of 'Digital Humanities' and the questions raised when using algorithmic techniques. Key researchers in the field provide a comprehensive introduction to important debates surrounding issues such as th

  6. Artificial human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  7. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    to become part of a global cultural flow, thus calling into question the physical connection between viewer and image. This article analyses what happens to that connection when not only the image but also the physical body is mediated and challenged in post-human relations, and examines the ensuing ethical...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  8. Ayahuasca and human destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  9. Human Factors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  10. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  11. Human automation integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, M.; Cosenzo, K.; Galster, s.; Hollnagel, E.; Miller, C.; Parasuraman, R.; Reising, J.; Taylor, R.; Breda, L. van

    2007-01-01

    Many versions of future concept of operations (CONOPS) rely heavily on UMVs. The pressure to take the human out of immediate control of these vehicles is being driven by several factors. These factors include a reduction in cost for the production and maintenance of the vehicle, operational viabilit

  12. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  13. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical group...

  14. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  15. Predictors of human rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.

  16. Humanizing science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, James F.

    2004-09-01

    This paper argues that the diverse curriculum reform agendas associated with science education are strongly and critically associated with the educational characteristics of the humanities. The article begins with a survey of interpretations of the distinctive contribution which the humanities make to educational purposes. From this survey four general characteristics of the humanities are identified: an appeal to an autonomous self with the right and capacity to make independent judgements and interpretations; indeterminacy in the subject matter of these judgements and interpretations; a focus on meaning, in the context of human responses, actions, and relationships, and especially on the ethical, aesthetic, and purposive; and finally, the possibility of commonality in standards of judgement and interpretation, under conditions of indeterminacy. Inquiry and science technology and society (STS) orientated curriculum development agendas within science education are explored in the light of this analysis. It is argued that the four characteristics identified are central to the educational purposes of these and other less prominent modes of curriculum development in science, though not unproblematically so. In the light of this discussion the prognosis and challenges for science curriculum development are explored.

  17. Learning to Be Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmurray, John

    2012-01-01

    This article presents "Learning to be Human", which John Macmurray delivered on 5 May 1958 as the annual public lecture at Moray House College of Education, now part of Edinburgh University. The key themes of the paper are ones to which Macmurray returned again and again in both his educational and his philosophical writing for over 40 years and…

  18. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  19. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  20. Parasites and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of human evolutionary and population history can be advanced by ecological and evolutionary studies of our parasites. Many parasites flourish only in the presence of very specific human behaviors and in specific habitats, are wholly dependent on us, and have evolved with us for thousands or millions of years. Therefore, by asking when and how we first acquired those parasites, under which environmental and cultural conditions we are the most susceptible, and how the parasites have evolved and adapted to us and we in response to them, we can gain considerable insight into our own evolutionary history. As examples, the tapeworm life cycle is dependent on our consumption of meat, the divergence of body and head lice may have been subsequent to the development of clothing, and malaria hyperendemicity may be associated with agriculture. Thus, the evolutionary and population histories of these parasites are likely intertwined with critical aspects of human biology and culture. Here I review the mechanics of these and multiple other parasite proxies for human evolutionary history and discuss how they currently complement our fossil, archeological, molecular, linguistic, historical, and ethnographic records. I also highlight potential future applications of this promising model for the field of evolutionary anthropology.

  1. Antihumanism in the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the antihumanistic elements of Jacques Derrida's theory of deconstruction. Argues that the modern French intellectuals, including Foucault, Derrida, and Lacan, have had an antihumanistic effect on the American social sciences and humanities by rejecting the existence of truth, morality, and rationality. (FMW)

  2. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  3. Human thimet oligopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P M; Brown, M A; Barrett, A J

    1993-01-01

    We have purified human thimet oligopeptidase to homogeneity from erythrocytes, and compared it with the enzyme from rat testis and chicken liver. An antiserum raised against rat thimet oligopeptidase also recognized the human and chicken enzymes, suggesting that the structure of the enzyme has been strongly conserved in evolution. Consistent with this, the properties of the human enzyme were very similar to those for the other species. Thus human thimet oligopeptidase also is a thiol-dependent metallo-oligopeptidase with M(r) about 75,000. Specificity for cleavage of a number of peptides was indistinguishable from that of the rat enzyme, but Ki values for the four potent reversible inhibitors tested were lower. In discussing the results, we consider the determinants of the complex substrate specificity of thimet oligopeptidase. We question whether substrates containing more than 17 amino acid residues are cleaved, as has been suggested. We also point out that the favourable location of a proline residue and a free C-terminus in the substrate may be as important as the hydrophobic residues in the P2, P1 and P3' positions that have been emphasized in the past. Images Figure 1 PMID:8373360

  4. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library of Medicine thanks the men and the women who will their body to science, thereby enabling medical research and development. Further Information General Information A description of The Visible Human Project ® image data and how to obtain it (includes license ...

  5. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  6. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies dif

  7. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are conven

  8. Narratology beyond the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses Lauren Groff’s 2011 short story “Above and Below” to explore aspects of a narratology beyond the human, considering how ideas developed by scholars of narrative bear on questions about the nature and scope of human-animal relationships in the larger biosphere. Bringing Groff’s text into dialogue with the concept of “self-narratives” as developed by Kenneth J. Gergen and Mary M. Gergen, anthropological research on the ontologies projected by the members of different cultures, and ideas from literary narratology, I discuss how the structure and narration of Groff’s story reveal a fault line between two competing ontologies in the culture of modernity, one parsimonious and the other prolific when it comes to allocating possibilities for selfhood across species lines. More generally, in addition to illuminating how a given self-narrative locates the human agent in a transspecies constellation of selves, a narratology beyond the human can assist with the construction of new, more sustainable individual and collective self-narratives that situate the self within wider webs of creatural life.

  9. Communicating Humanism Nonverbally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillison, John

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of nonverbal communication by counselors in expressing humanistic feeling. Notes that facial expression (i.e., smiling) provides immediate feedback to the observer; use of space (i.e., close proximity) communicates warmth and humaneness; and tone of voice can complement spoken words and give them more meaning. (WAS)

  10. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in constru

  11. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  12. Human social genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  13. Lessons in Human Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Joanne Lozar

    2003-01-01

    Explores the importance of relationship literacy--the ability to create good relationships with others--in the next economy and offers perspectives on how business education instructors can help students develop and improve their human relations skills for business success. (Author/JOW)

  14. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  15. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  16. Humanizing the Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Norman K., Ed.; Saylor, J. Galen, Ed.

    These papers, presented during ASCD-sponsored conference, confront educators with issues in and alternatives for making secondary schools a more humanizing experience for students. The contributors and their articles are: Norman K. Hamilton, "Alternatives in Secondary Education"; Thornton B. Monez and Norman L. Bussiere, "The High School in Human…

  17. Humanism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  18. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  19. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior...

  20. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  1. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  2. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  3. Designers of Human Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  4. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never ...

  5. Haptocorrin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2007-01-01

    knowledge concerning its function and its distribution in adult and foetal life is limited. In this study, we present data on the tissue expression of haptocorrin and on the relation between analogues on haptocorrin and vitamin B(12) status in humans. Methods: Polyclonal antibodies towards haptocorrin were...

  6. Strengthening Career Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    Rooted in A. Bandura's (1982, 2001b) social cognitive theory, the notion of human agency has received considerable attention in vocational and career psychology for the last 2 decades, especially with the recent emergence of social constructivist thinking in the field. This article continues in the same direction. In reviewing the notion of human…

  7. Humanism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  8. Animal and Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks…

  9. Conceptualizations of Human Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.

    1973-01-01

    Presents six major methods by which characteristics of environments have been related to indexes of human functioning: (1) ecological dimensions; (2) behavior settings; (3) dimensions of organizational structure; and, (4) dimensions identifying the collective personal and/or behavioral characteristics of the milieu inhabitants; and two others.…

  10. Radar: Human Safety Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  11. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  12. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  13. Towards International Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Julian

    1971-01-01

    The basic task before the educational profession today is to study and understand the evolutionary-humanist revolution, to follow up its educational implications; and to enable as many as possible of the world's growing minds to be illuminated by its new vision of human destiny. (Author/JB)

  14. Recombinant human milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Human milk provides proteins that benefit newborn infants. They not only provide amino acids, but also facilitate the absorption of nutrients, stimulate growth and development of the intestine, modulate immune function, and aid in the digestion of other nutrients. Breastfed infants have a lower prevalence of infections than formula-fed infants. Since many women in industrialized countries choose not to breastfeed, and an increasing proportion of women in developing countries are advised not to breastfeed because of the risk of HIV transmission, incorporation of recombinant human milk proteins into infant foods is likely to be beneficial. We are expressing human milk proteins known to have anti-infective activity in rice. Since rice is a normal constituent of the diet of infants and children, limited purification of the proteins is required. Lactoferrin has antimicrobial and iron-binding activities. Lysozyme is an enzyme that is bactericidal and also acts synergistically with lactoferrin. These recombinant proteins have biological activities identical to their native counterparts. They are equally resistant to heat processing, which is necessary for food applications, and to acid and proteolytic enzymes which are needed to maintain their biological activity in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. These recombinant human milk proteins may be incorporated into infant formulas, baby foods and complementary foods, and used with the goal to reduce infectious diseases.

  15. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of hu

  16. Disability and Human Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff McNair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of models of disability growing out of the field of disability studies and leading to a call for interventions going beyond a simply medical model approach. A brief discussion of human supports/services is provided such that readers engaged in the development of services/supports can base them on best principles.

  17. Human herpesviruses and MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove

    2007-01-01

    Environmental factors operate on a background of genetic susceptibility in MS pathogenesis; the human herpesviruses (HHV) are likely candidates for such factors. HHV share a number of properties: they are almost ubiquitous, they are highly prevalent worldwide, they all cause latent infections...

  18. Children Are Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, James H. S.

    2017-01-01

    The basic assumption underlying this article is that the really significant changes in human history are those that occur, not in the mechanical gadgets which men use nor in the institutionalized arrangements by which they live, but in their attitudes and in the values which they accept. The revolutions of the past that have had the greatest…

  19. Ubiquitous Human Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing means network connectivity everywhere, linking devices and systems as small as a thumb tack and as large as a worldwide product distribution chain. What could happen when people are so readily networked? This short essay explores issues arising from two possible emerging models of ubiquitous human computing: fungible networked brainpower and collective personal vital sign monitoring.

  20. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  1. Human-Centered Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulyk, O.; Kosara, R.; Urquiza, J.; Wassink, I.; Kerren, A.; Ebert, A.; Meyer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Humans have remarkable perceptual capabilities. These capabilities are heavily underestimated in current visualizations. Often, this is due to the lack of an in-depth user study to set the requirements for optimal visualizations. The designer does not understand what kind of information should be vi

  2. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  3. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  4. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  5. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  6. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  7. Helicopter Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  8. The science of unitary human beings and interpretive human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F

    1993-01-01

    Natural science and human science are identified as the bases of most nursing theories and research programs. Natural science has been disclaimed by Martha Rogers as the philosophy of science that undergirds her work. The question remains, is the science of unitary human beings an interpretive human science? The author explores the works of Rogers through a dialectic with two human scientists' works. Wilhelm Dilthey's works represent the founding or traditional view, and Jurgen Habermas' works represent a contemporary, reconstructionist view. The ways Rogerian thought contributes to human studies but is distinct from traditional and reconstructionist human sciences are illuminated.

  9. Digitalization of the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason, since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they have not been able to resolve in full the human problems, and therefore, the same issues were taken by the representatives of the socalled “critical theory”, who used the theory to criticize the way of live Western civilization was offering, known as digitalization of the human mind. The human problems are addressed in a poly-dimensional manner. The factors affecting the human mind are: industrial civilization, technical progress, automation, overtly influence of machinery on humans, substitution of cultural values, which in sum have developed a new World Order, where the ruler is technology. In the modern world, the human fails to recognize himself, since he is out of himself and lives according to the rules set forth by the “remote control”. In the flow of this kind of livelihood, human alienates, or in other words, the human goes out of himself, trying to adapt maximally to the requirements of the new way of life.

  10. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  11. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  12. Survey Relationship between Human Resources Roles and Human Resources Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Darvish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates relationship between Human resources roles and Human resources competencies in Iranian Petroleum Company. For this study, we were looking for answers to these questions: What are the new required Human Resources competencies For Contemporary organizations? And For Gain these competencies what roles should be played by Human Resources? The study had one main hypothesis and four minor hypotheses. Research method was descriptive, and regression and correlation tests were used to determine the relationship between variables. The populations of this study were managers of Iranian Petroleum Company. This Research showed that Human resources roles have significant effect on Human resources competencies; Strategic partner, Employee champion, and Change agent had significant relationship with all of Human resource competencies; Administrative expert had not significant relationship with none of the Human resource competencies.

  13. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    morphine via high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC peak corresponding to an authentic morphine standard had its morphine level determined via radioimmune assay. The identity of this material was established by Q-TOF-MS analysis. RESULTS: Each glioma exhibited an endogenous morphine presence....... Tumor extractions demonstrated a molecular mass of 286.14 da, identical to authentic morphine. Subsequent fragmentation analysis of this molecule revealed fragment masses of 129.01 da, 183.09 da and 201.07 da, corresponding to authentic morphine fragments. This material was not found in any......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  14. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  15. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    projects, it remains a challenge to investigate in detail how people interact with all of their body. Analysis of full-body movement is time consuming, notation techniques are rare, and findings are difficult to share between members of a design team. In this paper we propose tangible video analysis......, a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving....... By backtracking our design research experiments, we will unfold how and why the tangible tool succeeds in engaging designers with varied analysis experience to collaboratively focus on human action structures – and even find video analysis fun!...

  16. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    written about philanthropy from a political, sociological, anthropological and managerial perspective. However, an essential question remains: what does philanthropy mean? In a Greek context, philanthropy is connected to a friendly act towards one’s owns close connections such as family or fellow citizens......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern...

  17. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  18. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... dimensions of interaction and components of regulatory governance which characterise the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on the rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process ensuring support...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...

  19. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...

  20. Ancient human microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-02-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  1. Is human fecundity changing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Sapra, Katherine J; Gemmill, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen...... quality, ovulation) or couple-based (e.g. time-to-pregnancy) endpoints. Population monitoring of fecundity is challenging, and often defaults to relying on rates of births (fertility) or adverse outcomes such as genitourinary malformations and reproductive site cancers. In light of reported declines...... in semen quality and fertility rates in some global regions among other changes, the question as to whether human fecundity is changing needs investigation. We review existing data and novel methodological approaches aimed at answering this question from a transdisciplinary perspective. The existing...

  2. Serotonin in human skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Huang; Qiying Gong; Guiming Li

    2005-01-01

    In this review the authors summarize data of a potential role for serotonin in human skin physiology and pathology. The uncovering of endogenous serotonin synthesis and its transformation to melatonin underlines a putative important role of this pathway in melanocyte physiology and pathology. Pathways of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of serotonin have been characterized in human beings and its major cellular populations. Moreover, receptors of serotonin are expressed on keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts and these mediate phenotypic actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation. And the widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic system indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra-, auto-, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner. Melatonin, in turn, can also act as a hormone, neurotransmitter, cytokine, biological modifier and immunomodulator. Thus, Serotonin local synthesis and cellular localization could thus become of great importance in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous pathology.

  3. Posthumanism: beyond humanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The focal point of posthumanism consists not as such in an a-critical acceptance of the technological promises - like there is for transhumanism - but in a total contamination and hybridization of human beings with other living beings and machines (these are the two main forms of contamination). The change of perspective untaken by posthumanism would be, thus, a paradigmatic shift in anthropology. As with ecologism, posthumanism, in order to obtain total contamination and man's openness to otherness, proposes the elimination and the fluidification of boundaries, thus even denying man's identity, and, with it, the very possibility of openness. However, by denying the identity, one denies the condition of possibility of thought, just as it has been manifested in history until now: hence we understand how, primarily, posthumanism is not configured as an adequate philosophical reflection, but as a narrative that takes origin from certain requirements, which are eminently human, and that discloses its deeply anthropogenic roots.

  4. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non-productive...... with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...

  5. Animals, Humans and Sociability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Tedeschi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses animal studies from the point of view of sociability as an “inter-subjective field of action” and as an agent and builder of society (“doing society”. In sociology, the zoological connection has availed of the theory of borders and critical realism, but, above all, of constructionism, in its interactionist and ethno-methodological sense and both focused on social micro-interaction. The construction of the identity of social actors (both human and animal is especially evident in interaction regarding play, games, sport, daily life and work. In these spheres, analyses shed light on ambivalent and contradictory human experiences that clash with the dominant culture, while highlighting practical resistance against speciesism, which it is well worth to bring to the attention of future research, using open, mixed methodologies.

  6. Fractionating human intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Adam; Highfield, Roger R; Parkin, Beth L; Owen, Adrian M

    2012-12-20

    What makes one person more intellectually able than another? Can the entire distribution of human intelligence be accounted for by just one general factor? Is intelligence supported by a single neural system? Here, we provide a perspective on human intelligence that takes into account how general abilities or "factors" reflect the functional organization of the brain. By comparing factor models of individual differences in performance with factor models of brain functional organization, we demonstrate that different components of intelligence have their analogs in distinct brain networks. Using simulations based on neuroimaging data, we show that the higher-order factor "g" is accounted for by cognitive tasks corecruiting multiple networks. Finally, we confirm the independence of these components of intelligence by dissociating them using questionnaire variables. We propose that intelligence is an emergent property of anatomically distinct cognitive systems, each of which has its own capacity.

  7. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  8. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  9. Human herpesvirus 8 – A novel human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelman Daniel C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1994, Chang and Moore reported on the latest of the gammaherpesviruses to infect humans, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 1. This novel herpesvirus has and continues to present challenges to define its scope of involvement in human disease. In this review, aspects of HHV-8 infection are discussed, such as, the human immune response, viral pathogenesis and transmission, viral disease entities, and the virus's epidemiology with an emphasis on HHV-8 diagnostics.

  10. Den humane teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hverdagsæstetikkens forestillinger om teknologi i tv-reklamer, nærmere bestemt to mobiltelefoner fra Nokia. Nokias slogan er som bekendt: "Nokia -connecting people". Hvilken funktion tilskrives denne succes-teknologi via billeder, narrativer, lyde, interaktioner og affekter? M...... så ofte nævnte post-humane tilstand, er konklusionen. Udgivelsesdato: 14.9.08...

  11. Den humane teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hverdagsæstetikkens forestillinger om teknologi i tv-reklamer, nærmere bestemt to mobiltelefoner fra Nokia. Nokias slogan er som bekendt: "Nokia -connecting people". Hvilken funktion tilskrives denne succes-teknologi via billeder, narrativer, lyde, interaktioner og affekter? M...... så ofte nævnte post-humane tilstand, er konklusionen. Udgivelsesdato: 14.9.08...

  12. Retroviruses and human disease.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 25 years animal retroviruses have been favoured subjects of research by virologists, oncologists, and molecular biologists. Retroviruses have given us reverse transcriptase, oncogenes, and cloning vectors that may one day be exploited for human gene therapy. They have also given us leukaemia and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Kawasaki disease and tropical spastic paraparesis are thought to be associated with retrovirus infection, and other diseases such as de Qu...

  13. [The process of humanization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durali, T

    1999-01-01

    As Stefan Zweig expressed the situation of mankind succinctly: There are key moments in history (Sternstunden der Menschheit). Because of their paramount importance their events are minimal. Moreover, among them there are those which are greater in calibre than the ones quoted in Stefan Zweig's Sternstunden der Menschheit. These are the turning points of history. At first glance we can enumerate four major events: first and foremost, the enormous shift of certain communities from food-gathering to agriculture around 8000 BC mainly in Southwest Asia (Mesopotamia). Second, the introduction of the writing system at circa 3500 BC by the Sumerians again in Southwest Asia. Last but not least that tremendous innovation, maybe the greatest in history, once more in western Asia, the emergence of monotheistic religions based on revelation, and the origination of philosophy-science within the realm of the Antique Aegean civilization. Man's basic reality is biotic. He shares this very particularity with all other living beings of this world. Livingness, so far as we know, is a peculiarity of our planet, the Earth. The unfolding of livingness and ultimately the emergence of man as a living being is apparently covered by evolution. Hominization is the biotic, whereas humanization represents the cultural (or spiritual) aspect of becoming the human being. Hominization and humanization complement one another to bring about the human wholeness. Hominization, or put it in another way, the evolutionary aspect is, indeed, not the beginning of the story. There still remains a lower layer, in the ontological sense of the team, to be tackled; and that is the physical one. Just as with every living thing, man's most fundamental building blocks are of a physico-chemical-i.e. subatomic, atomic and molecular-nature.

  14. Ancient human microbiomes

    OpenAIRE

    Warinner, C.; Speller, C; Collins, M.; Lewis Jr., C.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and theref...

  15. Recombinant Human Enterovirus 71

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Two human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) isolates were identified from hand, foot and mouth disease patients with genome sequences that had high similarity to HEV71 (>93%) at 5´ UTR, P1, and P2 and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, >85%) at P3 and 3´UTR. Intertypic recombination is likely to have occurred between HEV71 and CV-A16 or an as-yet to be described CV-A16-like virus.

  16. Strategic Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Muqaj

    2016-01-01

    Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) represents an important and sensitive aspect of the functioning and development of a company, business, institution, state, public or private agency of a country. SHRM is based on a point of view of the psychological practices, especially by investing on empowerment, broad training and teamwork. This way it remains the primary resource to maintain stability and competitiveness. SHRM has lately evolved on fast and secure steps, and the transformation...

  17. Structure of Human Adenovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Phoebe L Stewart; Reddy, Vijay S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been stymied by the complexity and size of this 150 MDa macromolecular complex. Over the past 10 years, the steady improvements in viral genome manipulation concomitant with advances in crystallographic techniques and data processing software has allowed structure determination of this virus by X-ray diffraction at 3.5 Å resolution. The virus structure revealed the location, folds, and interactions of major and minor (ce...

  18. Understanding Human Carboxylesterase 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lamego, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Dissertation presented to obtain the Ph.D degree in Engineering and Technology Sciences, Biotechnology The first barrier oral drugs and prodrugs encounter prior to reaching an organism’s systemic circulation is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically the intestine, which is the primary section for absorption. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the permeability of the therapeutic agent as well as its potential metabolism by human enterocytes, since biotransformatio...

  19. Literature as a Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Albert William

    1976-01-01

    Attempts a brief summary of the American critical scene for the period 1935-1965 in order to indicate the serial prominence of 1) a sociological, 2) a New-Critical, and 3) a Marxist moment in literary criticism. Sets out to assert that for any literary work to be taught as a humanity is to bring to bear upon it the arts of communication,…

  20. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  1. Is dissection humane?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Tabinda

    2011-01-01

    Dissection is being jeopardized in the modern medical education. It has unrelentingly faced the lashes of time and has been the scapegoat for numerous convenient curricula reforms and subjective biases. The cadaver is unparallel in establishing core knowledge among the medical community and it needs to be appreciated in a new light in the “cyber anatomy” realm of today. This article elucidates the medical and ethical validity of continuing human body dissection in medicine which outweighs all...

  2. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  3. Science and Human Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2015-01-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  4. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Greer, Lindred L; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Shalvi, Shaul; Handgraaf, Michel J J

    2011-01-25

    Human ethnocentrism--the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups--creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we conjecture that ethnocentrism may be modulated by brain oxytocin, a peptide shown to promote cooperation among in-group members. In double-blind, placebo-controlled designs, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo and privately performed computer-guided tasks to gauge different manifestations of ethnocentric in-group favoritism as well as out-group derogation. Experiments 1 and 2 used the Implicit Association Test to assess in-group favoritism and out-group derogation. Experiment 3 used the infrahumanization task to assess the extent to which humans ascribe secondary, uniquely human emotions to their in-group and to an out-group. Experiments 4 and 5 confronted participants with the option to save the life of a larger collective by sacrificing one individual, nominated as in-group or as out-group. Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser extent, out-group derogation. These findings call into question the view of oxytocin as an indiscriminate "love drug" or "cuddle chemical" and suggest that oxytocin has a role in the emergence of intergroup conflict and violence.

  5. Human Viruses and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Morales-Sánchez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers.

  6. Psychophysics of human echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schörnich, Sven; Wallmeier, Ludwig; Gessele, Nikodemus; Nagy, Andreas; Schranner, Michael; Kish, Daniel; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The skills of some blind humans orienting in their environment through the auditory analysis of reflections from self-generated sounds have received only little scientific attention to date. Here we present data from a series of formal psychophysical experiments with sighted subjects trained to evaluate features of a virtual echo-acoustic space, allowing for rigid and fine-grain control of the stimulus parameters. The data show how subjects shape both their vocalisations and auditory analysis of the echoes to serve specific echo-acoustic tasks. First, we show that humans can echo-acoustically discriminate target distances with a resolution of less than 1 m for reference distances above 3.4 m. For a reference distance of 1.7 m, corresponding to an echo delay of only 10 ms, distance JNDs were typically around 0.5 m. Second, we explore the interplay between the precedence effect and echolocation. We show that the strong perceptual asymmetry between lead and lag is weakened during echolocation. Finally, we show that through the auditory analysis of self-generated sounds, subjects discriminate room-size changes as small as 10%.In summary, the current data confirm the practical efficacy of human echolocation, and they provide a rigid psychophysical basis for addressing its neural foundations.

  7. Mapping the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, Charles R.

    1989-06-01

    The following pages aim to lay a foundation for understanding the excitement surrounding the ''human genome project,'' as well as to convey a flavor of the ongoing efforts and plans at the Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Our own work, of course, is only part of a broad international effort that will dramatically enhance our understanding of human molecular genetics before the end of this century. In this country, the bulk of the effort will be carried out under the auspices of the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, but significant contributions have already been made both by nonprofit private foundations and by private corporation. The respective roles of the DOE and the NIH are being coordinated by an inter-agency committee, the aims of which are to emphasize the strengths of each agency, to facilitate cooperation, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort. The NIH, for example, will continue its crucial work in medical genetics and in mapping the genomes of nonhuman species. The DOE, on the other hand, has unique experience in managing large projects, and its national laboratories are repositories of expertise in physics, engineering, and computer science, as well as the life sciences. The tools and techniques the project will ultimately rely on are thus likely to be developed in multidisciplinary efforts at laboratories like LBL. Accordingly, we at LBL take great pride in this enterprise -- an enterprise that will eventually transform our understanding of ourselves.

  8. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  9. Human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Bentivoglio, Marina; Franco, José Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood-brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe neuroinflammation, is fatal without treatment, but the available drugs are toxic and complicated to administer. The choice of medication is determined by the infecting parasite subspecies and disease stage. Clinical features include a constellation of nonspecific symptoms and signs with evolving neurological and psychiatric alterations and characteristic sleep-wake disturbances. Because of the clinical profile variability and insidiously progressive central nervous system involvement, disease staging is currently based on cerebrospinal fluid examination, which is usually performed after the finding of trypanosomes in blood or other body fluids. No vaccine being available, control of human African trypanosomiasis relies on diagnosis and treatment of infected patients, assisted by vector control. Better diagnostic tools and safer, easy to use drugs are needed to facilitate elimination of the disease.

  10. Human evolution and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2010-09-01

    Human beings are distinguished from all other organisms by their symbolic way of processing information about the world. This unique cognitive style is qualitatively different from all the earlier hominid cognitive styles, and is not simply an improved version of them. The hominid fossil and archaeological records show clearly that biological and technological innovations have typically been highly sporadic, and totally out of phase, since the invention of stone tools some 2.5 million years ago. They also confirm that this pattern applied in the arrival of modern cognition: the anatomically recognizable species Homo sapiens was well established long before any population of it began to show indications of behaving symbolically. This places the origin of symbolic thought in the realms of exaptation, whereby new structures come into existence before being recruited to new uses, and of emergence, whereby entire new levels of complexity are achieved through new combinations of attributes unremarkable in themselves. Both these phenomena involve entirely routine evolutionary processes; special as we human beings may consider ourselves, there was nothing special about the way we came into existence. Modern human cognition is a very recent acquisition; and its emergence ushered in an entirely new pattern of technological (and other behavioral) innovation, in which constant change results from the ceaseless exploration of the potential inherent in our new capacity.

  11. Securing Humanity - Situating 'Human Security' as Concept and Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The label ‘human security’ (HS) has attracted much attention since the 1994 Human Development Report, but there are numerous conflicting definitions and agendas and widespread scepticism. The Ogata-Sen Commission report Human Security Now has proposed a unified yet

  12. Securing Humanity - Situating 'Human Security' as Concept and Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The label ‘human security’ (HS) has attracted much attention since the 1994 Human Development Report, but there are numerous conflicting definitions and agendas and widespread scepticism. The Ogata-Sen Commission report Human Security Now has proposed a unified yet flexibl

  13. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Byron E.; Barzon, Luisa; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fuente, de la José; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Wammes, Linda J.; Takken, Willem; Rij, van Ronald P.; Papa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex i

  14. Human dignity according to international instruments on human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Alzina de Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to international instruments on human rights, the dignity of the human person is the foundation of human rights, and both human dignity and human rights are inherent to the human being, universal and inviolable. This understanding of human dignity is not a fruitless truism, but the solid foundation on which to build a world community under the rule of the new ius gentium: the International Law for Humankind. Moreover, it is the clue to answer many questions raised by the new world of globalization and of the exponential growth of international rules.Consequently, there is a need to a common doctrine on a notion of human dignity which will allow the implementation and adjudication of the aforementioned instruments, at the service of the human person and in conformity with the juridical conscience which they reflect. Philosophy of Law concepts which can be traced back to Aristotle provide that notion. According to these concepts, the demanding nature of “human dignity” sustains the notion of “legal personhood”, and both notions pertain to the realm of Law and Right, not of Morale and Values. Thus, human dignity and human rights are and must be, respectively, a basic principle and a necessary part of any Law system, including international law

  15. Human-centered Computing: Toward a Human Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes, Alejandro; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Sebe, Nicu; Thomas S. Huang

    2007-01-01

    Human-centered computing studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. HCC is emerging from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned both with understanding human beings and with the design of computational artifacts.

  16. Human Provenancing: It's Elemental…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp

    2009-04-01

    Forensic science already uses a variety of methods often in combination to determine a deceased person's identity if neither personal effects nor next of kin (or close friends) can positively identify the victim. While disciplines such as forensic anthropology are able to work from a blank canvass as it were and can provide information on age, gender and ethnical grouping, techniques such as DNA profiling do rely on finding a match either in a database or a comparative sample presumed to be an ante-mortem sample of the victim or from a putative relation. Chances for either to succeed would be greatly enhanced if information gained from a forensic anthropological examination and, circumstances permitting a facial reconstruction could be linked to another technique that can work from a blank canvass or at least does not require comparison to a subject specific database. With the help of isotope ratio mass spectrometry even the very atoms from which a body is made can be used to say something about a person that will help to focus human identification using traditional techniques such as DNA, fingerprints and odontology. Stable isotope fingerprinting works on the basis that almost all chemical elements and in particular the so-called light elements such as carbon (C) that comprise most of the human body occur naturally in different forms, namely isotopes. 2H isotope abundance values recorded by the human body through food and drink ultimately reflect averaged isotopic composition of precipitation or ground water. Stable isotope analysis of 2H isotopic composition in different human tissue such as hair, nails, bone and teeth enables us to construct a time resolved isotopic profile or ‘fingerprint' that may not necessarily permit direct identification of a murder victim or mass disaster victim but in conjunction with forensic anthropological information will provide sufficient intelligence to construct a profile for intelligence lead identification stating where a

  17. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  18. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  19. Cell encoding recombinant human erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A.K.; Withy, R.M.; Zabrecky, J.R.; Masiello, N.C.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes a C127 cell transformed with a recombinant DNA vector. It comprises: a DNA sequence encoding human erythropoietin, the transformed cell being capable of producing N-linked and O-linked glycosylated human erythropoietin.

  20. Human pheromones and sexual attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Neave, Nick

    2005-02-01

    Olfactory communication is very common amongst animals, and since the discovery of an accessory olfactory system in humans, possible human olfactory communication has gained considerable scientific interest. The importance of the human sense of smell has by far been underestimated in the past. Humans and other primates have been regarded as primarily 'optical animals' with highly developed powers of vision but a relatively undeveloped sense of smell. In recent years this assumption has undergone major revision. Several studies indicate that humans indeed seem to use olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive certain pheromones; recent studies have found that pheromones may play an important role in the behavioural and reproduction biology of humans. In this article we review the present evidence of the effect of human pheromones and discuss the role of olfactory cues in human sexual behaviour.

  1. National Human Genome Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Director Organization Reports & Publications Español The National Human Genome Research Institute conducts genetic and genomic research, funds ... Landscape Social Media Videos Image Gallery Fact Sheets Human Genome Project Clinical Studies Genomic Careers DNA Day Calendar ...

  2. Humanities Education in Chinese Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Stanley; Chengxu, Wang, Eds.

    1986-01-01

    In China, humanities studies include languages, history, philosophy, economics, law, political science, business, and education. Changes and trends in humanities education at the post-secondary level are discussed. (RM)

  3. Human Exposure Database System (HEDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) provides public access to data sets, documents, and metadata from EPA on human exposure. It is primarily intended for...

  4. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank.

  5. Human Rights and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  6. Leadership in a Humane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the way leadership influences an organization to become humane through its features and behaviors; as well as the organizational circumstances in which humane leadership can be nurtured. The first empirical case study, in the fields of Human Resource Development (HRD) and hospitality management, to…

  7. Measuring human behaviour with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents human motion measurements with the experimental Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave(FMCW) radar at TNO-FEL. The aim of these measurements is to analyse the Doppler velocity spectrum of humans. These analysis give insight in measuring human behaviour with radar for security applica

  8. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed informa

  9. Human Rights and the Statistician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirer, Herbert F.

    Statisticians can help to improve human rights reporting. The statistician's approach to measurement, summary, and interpretation is needed to understand and help reduce human rights violations. Statistical problems in the measurement and analysis of human rights violations include: lack of agreement on the definition; great difficulties in…

  10. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  11. Human Rights and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  12. Leadership in a Humane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the way leadership influences an organization to become humane through its features and behaviors; as well as the organizational circumstances in which humane leadership can be nurtured. The first empirical case study, in the fields of Human Resource Development (HRD) and hospitality management, to…

  13. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  14. Humanism and science: a reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    Authors in this section have noted that humanism is intrinsic to psychotherapy, although disagreements remain. One of the disagreements is about the role of science in humanism. In this reaction, I contend that humanism, as discussed in these articles, is a legitimate theory to be subjected to scientific scrutiny. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Community College Humanities Review, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, George L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of the Community College Humanities Review contains articles generated by National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institutes, held over several years. The institutes provided opportunities for academics from a variety of humanities disciplines and types of institutions to interact over an extended period of common study of…

  16. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed

  17. Stromal mesenchyme cell genes of the human prostate and bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Laura E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal mesenchyme cells play an important role in epithelial differentiation and likely in cancer as well. Induction of epithelial differentiation is organ-specific, and the genes responsible could be identified through a comparative genomic analysis of the stromal cells from two different organs. These genes might be aberrantly expressed in cancer since cancer could be viewed as due to a defect in stromal signaling. We propose to identify the prostate stromal genes by analysis of differentially expressed genes between prostate and bladder stromal cells, and to examine their expression in prostate cancer. Methods Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to cluster designation (CD cell surface antigens was first used to characterize the stromas of the prostate and bladder. Stromal cells were prepared from either prostate or bladder tissue for cell culture. RNA was isolated from the cultured cells and analyzed by DNA microarrays. Expression of candidate genes in normal prostate and prostate cancer was examined by RT-PCR. Results The bladder stroma was phenotypically different from that of the prostate. Most notable was the presence of a layer of CD13+ cells adjacent to the urothelium. This structural feature was also seen in the mouse bladder. The prostate stroma was uniformly CD13-. A number of differentially expressed genes between prostate and bladder stromal cells were identified. One prostate gene, proenkephalin (PENK, was of interest because it encodes a hormone. Secreted proteins such as hormones and bioactive peptides are known to mediate cell-cell signaling. Prostate stromal expression of PENK was verified by an antibody raised against a PENK peptide, by RT-PCR analysis of laser-capture microdissected stromal cells, and by database analysis. Gene expression analysis showed that PENK expression was down-regulated in prostate cancer. Conclusion Our findings show that the histologically similar stromas of the prostate and

  18. Human myoblast genome therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K Law; Leo A Bockeria; Choong-Chin Liew; Danlin M Law; Ping Lu; Eugene KW Sim; Khawja H Haider; Lei Ye; Xun Li; Margarita N Vakhromeeva; Ilia I Berishvili

    2006-01-01

    Human Myoblast Genome Therapy (HMGT) is a platform technology of cell transplantation, nuclear transfer, and tissue engineering. Unlike stem cells, myoblasts are differentiated, immature cells destined to become muscles. Myoblasts cultured from satellite cells of adult muscle biopsies survive, develop, and function to revitalize degenerative muscles upon transplantation. Injection injury activates regeneration of host myofibers that fuse with the engrafted myoblasts, sharing their nuclei in a common gene pool of the syncytium. Thus, through nuclear transfer and complementation, the normal human genome can be transferred into muscles of patients with genetic disorders to achieve phenotype repair or disease prevention. Myoblasts are safe and efficient gene transfer vehicles endogenous to muscles that constitute 50% of body weight. Results of over 280 HMGT procedures on Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) subjects in the past 15 years demonstrated absolute safety. Myoblast-injected DMD muscles showed improved histology.Strength increase at 18 months post-operatively averaged 123%. In another application of HMGT on ischemic cardiomyopathy, the first human myoblast transfer into porcine myocardium revealed that it was safe and effective. Clinical trials on approximately 220 severe cardiomyopathy patients in 15 countries showed a <10% mortality. Most subjects received autologous cells implanted on the epicardial surface during coronory artery bypass graft, or injected on the endomyocardial surface percutaneously through guiding catheters. Significant increases in left ventricular ejection fraction, wall thickness, and wall motion have been reported, with reduction in perfusion defective areas, angina, and shortness of breath. As a new modality of treatment for disease in the skeletal muscle or myocardium, HMGT emerged as safe and effective. Large randomized multi-center trials are under way to confirm these preliminary results. The future of HMGT is bright and exciting

  19. [Humanism and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Axel

    2002-03-30

    WITH THE PROGRESS MADE IN KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNIQUES: Therapeutic efficacy has advanced. However, interrogations concerning the control of the power that is conferred and the new obligations towards patients that stem from this progress have emerged and, further to the sinister ethical deviations in medical research and testing, and the supreme temptation that is represented by the money involved, questioning has increased. THE NUREMBERG CODE: Promulgated in December 1947, is the founder text of modern biomedical ethics. Subsequently completed by numerous other international conventions, it established the principle of voluntary, informed consent, therefore confirming the autonomy of the patient and the respect that is due from the physicians. However, questions arise not only regarding the foetus and embryo, but also regarding those reaching the end of their lives. CONCERNING EMBRYOS: No contradiction is apparent between the singularity of the human embryo and the use of embryos destined to be destroyed in highly scientific and moral quality research projects. With regard to the development of methods for producing cloned human embryos, it appears to be associated with greater risks than establishing urgent and necessary steps towards fulfilling the promises of regenerating medicine. Last but not least, deviations in reproductive biology and clinical trials conducted in this field, with relentless procreation and "human studies", must be denounced. AT THE OTHER END OF LIFE: It is worrying to note the apparent facility with which our societies consider that old age is an indignity. To call knowledge a 'power' is to consider that such power can be used not only to relieve suffering but also to manipulate others. The humanistic finality of an intention is not sufficient to guarantee neither its benignity nor its morality.

  20. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human ciliary body epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Janssen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The ciliary body (CB of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE and pigmented (PE neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatures for the NPE and PE and studied possible new clues for glaucoma. METHODS: We isolated NPE and PE cells from seven healthy human donor eyes using laser dissection microscopy. Next, we performed RNA isolation, amplification, labeling and hybridization against 44×k Agilent microarrays. For microarray conformations, we used a literature study, RT-PCRs, and immunohistochemical stainings. We analyzed the gene expression data with R and with the knowledge database Ingenuity. RESULTS: The gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the NPE and PE were highly similar. We found that the most important functionalities of the NPE and PE were related to developmental processes, neural nature of the tissue, endocrine and metabolic signaling, and immunological functions. In total 1576 genes differed statistically significantly between NPE and PE. From these genes, at least 3 were cell-specific for the NPE and 143 for the PE. Finally, we observed high expression in the (NPE of 35 genes previously implicated in molecular mechanisms related to glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Our gene expression analysis suggested that the NPE and PE of the CB were quite similar. Nonetheless, cell-type specific differences were found. The molecular machineries of the human NPE and PE are involved in a range of neuro-endocrinological, developmental and immunological functions, and perhaps glaucoma.

  1. Ringing public human talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Augusto José Díaz Samper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will see how the human talent, by misionalidad, has established his duty to be on the need to attract the best service delivery and quality of life of personnel testing it has resorted to various strategies of management. But the media can go against this fundamental purpose, and represent an adverse and contrary to the institution actually starting, the disseminating a discourse of violence characterized by the friend / enemy, and irrationality passionality braking going against their own initiatives opposition.

  2. Errors in Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-15

    activities. Internatin , f - Studie, 1979, _ 5-24. Collins, A. h., & Loftus, E. F. A spreading activation theory of seman- tic processing. k fl _j-ej w...rea-daAm i_=E1jJh. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1967. LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. Toward a theory of automatic information processing...Report, November, 1979. Norman, D. A. Er n human pefg ce (Tech. Rep. 8004). University of California, San Diego, July 1980. Norman, D. A. Post Freudian

  3. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research

  4. Photosensitive human syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Graciela; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2015-06-01

    Photosensitivity in humans can result from defects in repair of light-induced DNA lesions, from photoactivation of chemicals (including certain medications) with sunlight to produce toxic mediators, and by immune reactions to sunlight exposures. Deficiencies in DNA repair and the processing of damaged DNA during replication and transcription may result in mutations and genomic instability. We will review current understanding of photosensitivity to short wavelength ultraviolet light (UV) due to genetic defects in particular DNA repair pathways; deficiencies in some are characterized by an extremely high incidence of cancer in sun-exposed tissues, while in others no cancers have been reported.

  5. Book Review: Human Radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.

    2013-11-01

    This well written report reviews the evidence for variation in human sensitivity to ionizing radiation from epidemiological, clinical, animal, and experimental studies. The report also considers the mechanism(s) of radiation sensitivity and the ethical implications of current and potential knowledge that might be gained in the future. The report is concisely written, considers a large number of historical as well as recent studies, and features a ‘ bullet like ’ summary at the end of each chapter that captures the salient points.

  6. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  7. Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  8. Human workload in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, Barry H.; Casper, Patricia A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis techniques to the evaluation of aircraft-crew workloads is discussed in an introductory overview. Consideration is given to the importance of workload for safety, crew size, automation, and certification; the definition and measurement of workload, physical vs mental workloads, subjective ratings, secondary tasks, biocybernetic measures, and attention and workload. Recent studies of pilot and ATC workloads are reviewed, and typical data are presented in graphs. Future trends are discussed, and it is predicted that increased cockpit automation will eventually require new methods to maintain operator attention rather than reduce workload.

  9. HUMAN CONNECTOME PROJECT (HCP)

    OpenAIRE

    Shashank Shekhar Tiwari*, Shivani Joshi, Tanvi Mittal, Shruti Jain

    2016-01-01

    This project deals with the nervous system and its function in brain. Here connectome means the microscopic neural connectivity and its mapping between all the neurons present in the brain which further represents their graphical representation on the visual screen also which will further help us to zoom into a region to explore the cells and the functions depending on it and taking this one step ahead the memory implementation in human brain so it will be used as a memory unit except the fac...

  10. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  11. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, John A.; Haugen, Christian N. [CALIBRE Systems, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel in a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is difficult to

  12. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  13. RNA in human sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Pires Martins; Stephen A. Krawetz

    2005-01-01

    We have yet to develop a fundamental understanding of the molecular complexities of human spermatozoa. This encompasses the unique packaging and structure of the sperm genome along with their paternally derived RNAs in preparation for their delivery to the egg. The diversity of these transcripts is vast, including several anti-sense molecules resembling known regulatory micro-RNAs. The field is still grasping with its delivery to the oocyte at fertilization and possible significance. It remains tempting to analogize them to maternally-derived transcripts active in early embryo patterning. Irrespective of their role in the embryo, their use as a means to assess male factor infertility is promising.

  14. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  15. Human herpes simplex labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahzadeh, M; Schwartz, R A

    2007-11-01

    Humans are the natural host for eight of more than 80 known herpes viruses. Infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are ubiquitous worldwide and highly transmissible. Herpes simplex labialis (HSL) is the best-recognized recrudescent infection of the lips and perioral tissues caused by HSV-1. Facial lesions of HSL may be unsightly, frequent outbreaks unpleasant, and the infection itself more severe locally and systemically in immunocompromised people. This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic features and management issues for HSL.

  16. Human Love, Boundless Love

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On August 15,a special charity performance was carried on in Malaysia by IPC Shopping Services(M)Sdn Bhd,an Ecommerce company based on Malaysia.It was special for"May 12 Earthquake"in China's Sichuan Province.and special for those suffering children in the disaster.Months have past,but moving and touching stories happened during the earthquake encourage the people alive to create a better life and never give up hopes.What the post-earthquake construction left to us is the human love and boundless love,which is also the theme of the"8.15 Yu Miao Charity Performance".

  17. Visual Analysis of Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Moeslund, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a coherent and comprehensive overview of all aspects of video analysis of humans. Broad in coverage and accessible in style, the text presents original perspectives collected from preeminent researchers gathered from across the world. In addition to presenting state-of-the-art research, the book reviews the historical origins of the different existing methods, and predicts future trends and challenges. This title: features a Foreword by Professor Larry Davis; contains contributions from an international selection of leading authorities in the field; includes

  18. Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  19. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zou; Lina Ma; Jun Yu; Zhang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.

  20. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dong; Ma, Lina; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation. PMID:25712261

  1. Timescales of Massive Human Entrainment

    CERN Document Server

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Mislove, Alan; Paxton, Alexandra; Matlock, Teenie; Dale, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an upsurge of interest in the collective behaviors of complex systems composed of many agents. In this paper, we extend concepts of entrainment to the dynamics of human collective attention. We demonstrate that large scale human entrainment may hold across a number of distinct scales, in an exquisitely time locked fashion. Using a large scale database of human communication data, we analyze and describe three different time scales of human entrainment in electronic media. We sought a distinct shared experience that provided a test bed for quantifying large scale human entrainment. We conducted a detailed investigation of the real time unfolding of human entrainment, as expressed by the content and patterns of hundreds of thousands of messages on Twitter, during the 2012 US presidential debates. By time locking these data sources, we quantify the real time impact of the debate on human attention. We show that social behavior covaries second by second to the interactional dynamics...

  2. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  3. [A cyborg is only human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Maartje H N

    2013-01-01

    New biomedical technologies make it possible to replace parts of the human body or to substitute its functions. Examples include artificial joints, eye lenses and arterial stents. Newer technologies use electronics and software, for example in brain-computer interfaces such as retinal implants and the exoskeleton MindWalker. Gradually we are creating cyborgs: hybrids of man and machine. This raises the question: are cyborgs still humans? It is argued that they are. First, because employing technology is a typically human characteristic. Second, because in western thought the human mind, and not the body, is considered to be the seat of personhood. However, it has been argued by phenomenological philosophers that the body is more than just an object but is also a subject, important for human identity. From this perspective, we can appreciate that a bionic body does not make one less human, but it does influence the experience of being human.

  4. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  5. Our humanity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Diversity and respect are defining aspects of CERN and something that I am very proud of. Our institution is the closest to a true meritocracy that I have ever experienced in my long career, and as such is a valuable role model for the world. It is a place where everyone is welcome, and where anyone can succeed, regardless of his or her ethnicity, beliefs or sexual orientation. It is therefore with some disappointment that I have learned of a spate of recent events concerning posters put up around the Laboratory by our LGBT community.   Freedom of expression is a fundamental human right. One needs to look no further than the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for common-sense clarity on this issue. It states that: ‘everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers’. In line with that, I fully supp...

  6. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2017-06-09

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Rangifer and human interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Anderson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  8. Human resources report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-05-01

    The human resources issues associated with offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia were discussed with particular focus on the nature of direct employment opportunities associated with two development scenarios. The scenarios involved one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. One of the promises of offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia's west coast has been the creation of employment opportunities which would in turn, improve the social conditions and standard of living of residents in British Columbia. Some background information was provided on labour requirements by phases of exploration, pre-development planning, construction and production. Information on labour supply and training was also included and a range of human resource planning issues were identified. It was concluded that the oil and gas industry is capital-intensive, requiring highly trained and skilled people. The industry supports above average wage rates. Most of the employment is not generated by the oil and gas industry, but by their many service and supply contractors. The existing oil and gas industry in the province could supply some of the qualified labour, but in most instances, more specific training will be required. Exploration activity will probably be intermittent and carried out by specialized work crews. Local employment will come from servicing and supplying the seismic and support vessels. The occupational requirements will change through the exploration, development and production phases. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Flexible human collective wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2015-12-01

    Group decisions typically outperform individual decisions. But how do groups combine their individual decisions to reach their collective decisions? Previous studies conceptualize collective decision making using static combination rules, be it a majority-voting rule or a weighted-averaging rule. Unknown is whether groups adapt their combination rules to changing information environments. We implemented a novel paradigm for which information obeyed a mixture of distributions, such that the optimal Bayesian rule is nonlinear and often follows minority opinions, while the majority rule leads to suboptimal but above chance performance. Using perceptual (Experiment 1) and cognitive (Experiment 2) signal-detection tasks, we switched the information environment halfway through the experiments to a mixture of distributions without informing participants. Groups gradually abandoned the majority rule to follow any minority opinion advocating signal presence with high confidence. Furthermore, groups with greater ability to abandon the majority rule achieved higher collective-decision accuracies. It is important to note that this abandonment was not triggered by performance loss for the majority rule relative to the first half of the experiment. Our results propose a new theory of human collective decision making: Humans make inferences about how information is distributed across individuals and time, and dynamically alter their joint decision algorithms to enhance the benefits of collective wisdom.

  10. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  11. Amebic infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Gourdas; Rangan, Murali

    2012-07-01

    Clinical human infections with the protozoa Entamoeba histolytica is still estimated to occur in 50 million people worldwide, of which approximately 100,000 die annually. Although most clinical symptoms are due to involvement of the large intestine, 1 % present with involvement of the liver in the form of a liver abscess, a potentially fatal condition. Distinguishing an invasive form (E. histolytica) from a morphologically identical non-invasive one (E. dispar) requires molecular or enzymatic characterization. Further, the pattern of infection, interpretation of presence of antibodies in the host, manifestations of disease, approach to investigations and strategies for management remain complex. This article also provides a comprehensive review of the parasite and host factors that govern the complex relationship of the prozoa and humans, and tries to explain why some develop a particular form of the disease in endemic zones. Application of modern imaging and image guided therapy seems to be playing a major role in diagnosis and management of the potentially most serious form of the disease, amebic liver abscess. Despite lack of controlled studies there is a tendency to lower the threshold of their use in clinical practice, and indeed in-hospital mortality rate seems to be falling for amebic liver abscess. In a world getting increasingly swamped by non-infectious metabolic diseases, awareness of amebic infections, its bed-side diagnosis, the use of appropriate laboratory tests, and decision making in management are shrinking. This review tries to update the scientific developments in amebiasis.

  12. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  13. Human kin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Kramer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection has favored the evolution of behaviors that benefit not only one's genes, but also their copies in genetically related individuals. These behaviors include optimal outbreeding (choosing a mate that is neither too closely related, nor too distant), nepotism (helping kin), and spite (hurting non-kin at a personal cost), and all require some form of kin detection or kin recognition. Yet, kinship cannot be assessed directly; human kin detection relies on heuristic cues that take into account individuals' context (whether they were reared by our mother, or grew up in our home, or were given birth by our spouse), appearance (whether they smell or look like us), and ability to arouse certain feelings (whether we feel emotionally close to them). The uncertainties of kin detection, along with its dependence on social information, create ample opportunities for the evolution of deception and self-deception. For example, babies carry no unequivocal stamp of their biological father, but across cultures they are passionately claimed to resemble their mother's spouse; to the same effect, 'neutral' observers are greatly influenced by belief in relatedness when judging resemblance between strangers. Still, paternity uncertainty profoundly shapes human relationships, reducing not only the investment contributed by paternal versus maternal kin, but also prosocial behavior between individuals who are related through one or more males rather than females alone. Because of its relevance to racial discrimination and political preferences, the evolutionary pressure to prefer kin to non-kin has a manifold influence on society at large.

  14. Globalization and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  15. Remember like humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual tracking is a challenging computer vision task due to the significant observation changes of the target. By contrast, the tracking task is relatively easy for humans. In this article, we propose a tracker inspired by the cognitive psychological memory mechanism, which decomposes the tracking task into sensory memory register, short-term memory tracker, and long-term memory tracker like humans. The sensory memory register captures information with three-dimensional perception; the short-term memory tracker builds the highly plastic observation model via memory rehearsal; the long-term memory tracker builds the highly stable observation model via memory encoding and retrieval. With the cooperative models, the tracker can easily handle various tracking scenarios. In addition, an appearance-shape learning method is proposed to update the two-dimensional appearance model and three-dimensional shape model appropriately. Extensive experimental results on a large-scale benchmark data set demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art two-dimensional and three-dimensional trackers in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness.

  16. Superstitious behavior in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, K

    1987-05-01

    Twenty undergraduate students were exposed to single response-independent schedules of reinforcer presentation, fixed-time or variable-time, each with values of 30 and 60 s. The reinforcer was a point on a counter accompanied by a red lamp and a brief buzzer. Three color signals were presented, without consistent relation to reinforcer or to the subjects' behavior. Three large levers were available, but the subjects were not asked to perform any particular behavior. Three of the 20 subjects developed persistent superstitious behavior. One engaged in a pattern of lever-pulling responses that consisted of long pulls after a few short pulls; the second touched many things in the experimental booth; the third showed biased responding called sensory superstition. However, most subjects did not show consistent superstitious behavior. Reinforcers can operate effectively on human behavior even in the absence of a response-reinforcer contingency and can, in some cases, shape stable superstitious patterns. However, superstitious behavior is not a consistent outcome of exposure of human subjects to response-independent reinforcer deliveries.

  17. Thallium toxicity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko, Petra; Cvjetko, Ivan; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-03-01

    Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element, widely distributed in the earth's crust, but at very low concentrations. It does not have a known biological use and does not appear to be an essential element for life. It has been considered one of the most toxic heavy metals.Occasionally, there are reports on thallium poisoning as results of suicide or murder attempt or accident. The main threat to humans is through occupational exposure, environmental contamination, and accumulation in food, mainly in vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Increasing use in emerging new technologies and demanding high-tech industry constantly raise concern about exposure risk to all living organisms. Thallium is considered a cumulative poison that can cause adverse health effects and degenerative changes in many organs. The effects are the most severe in the nervous system. The exact mechanism of thallium toxicity still remains unknown, although impaired glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and disruption of potassium-regulated homeostasis may play a role. The lack of data about mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic effects of thallium compounds in humans calls for further research.

  18. On Human Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Fernández Beites

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To offer a response to the challenge posed by the existentialism of M. Heidegger, the present work uses the ontology proposed by X. Zubiri in Sobre la esencia. The work, then, deals with thinking «about essence», but above all, «about human essence», which creates the difficulty raised by existentialism. The difference between «constitutive» and «conditional» proposed by Zubiri is studied in order to highlight the human being’s (and of all living beings in general character of not being made once and for all. If we designate essence in the classical sense (unalterable essence as «constitutive», we propose to bring Zubiri’s intuition to its limit by acknowledging another «essential» level, which is the «constitutional». The constitutional is not essential in tradition’s strict sense, but neither is it accidental; it is essential in a new sense, allowing the incorporation of changes in essenceitself. Thus, one arrives at the so-called processive (or dynamic essences, which, for not being made once and for all, necessarily include their being made.

  19. The Human Variome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, John; Watson, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The practical realization of genomics has meant a growing realization that variant interpretation is a major barrier to practical use of DNA sequence data. The late Professor Dick Cotton devoted his life to innovation in molecular genetics and was a prime mover in the international response to the need to understand the "variome." His leadership resulted in the launch first of the Human Genetic Variation Society and then, in 2006, an international agreement to launch the Human Variome Project (HVP), aimed at data integration enabled by standards and infrastructure of the databases of variants being identified in families with a range of inherited disorders. The project attracted a network of affiliates across 81 countries and earned formal recognition by UNESCO, which now hosts its biennial meetings. It has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the World Health Organization. Future progress will depend on longer term secure funding and integration with the efforts of the genomics community where the rapid advances in sequencing technology have enabled variant capture on a previously unimaginable scale. Efforts are underway to integrate the efforts of HVP with those of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health to provide a lasting legacy of Dick Cotton's vision.

  20. Issues on combining human and non-human intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connors, Mary M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to call attention to some of the issues confronting the designer of a system that combines human and non-human intelligence. We do not know how to design a non-human intelligence in such a way that it will fit naturally into a human organization. The author's concern is that, without adequate understanding and consideration of the behavioral and psychological limitations and requirements of the human member(s) of the system, the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) subsystems can exacerbate operational problems. We have seen that, when these technologies are not properly applied, an overall degradation of performance at the system level can occur. Only by understanding how human and automated systems work together can we be sure that the problems introduced by automation are not more serious than the problems solved.

  1. Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Markus

    2010-08-01

    The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question.

  2. Leptospirosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, David A; Levett, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread and potentially fatal zoonosis that is endemic in many tropical regions and causes large epidemics after heavy rainfall and flooding. Infection results from direct or indirect exposure to infected reservoir host animals that carry the pathogen in their renal tubules and shed pathogenic leptospires in their urine. Although many wild and domestic animals can serve as reservoir hosts, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most important source of human infections. Individuals living in urban slum environments characterized by inadequate sanitation and poor housing are at high risk of rat exposure and leptospirosis. The global burden of leptospirosis is expected to rise with demographic shifts that favor increases in the number of urban poor in tropical regions subject to worsening storms and urban flooding due to climate change. Data emerging from prospective surveillance studies suggest that most human leptospiral infections in endemic areas are mild or asymptomatic. Development of more severe outcomes likely depends on three factors: epidemiological conditions, host susceptibility, and pathogen virulence (Fig. 1). Mortality increases with age, particularly in patients older than 60 years of age. High levels of bacteremia are associated with poor clinical outcomes and, based on animal model and in vitro studies, are related in part to poor recognition of leptospiral LPS by human TLR4. Patients with severe leptospirosis experience a cytokine storm characterized by high levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10. Patients with the HLA DQ6 allele are at higher risk of disease, suggesting a role for lymphocyte stimulation by a leptospiral superantigen. Leptospirosis typically presents as a nonspecific, acute febrile illness characterized by fever, myalgia, and headache and may be confused with other entities such as influenza and dengue fever. Newer diagnostic methods facilitate early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment. Patients progressing to

  3. The human urine metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhaila Bouatra

    Full Text Available Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify a total of: 209 (209 by NMR, 179 (85 by GC-MS, 127 (127 by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40 by ICP-MS and 10 (10 by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database

  4. Human Dignity and Human Enhancement: A Multidimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoffer, David G

    2017-06-01

    In the debates concerning the ethics of human enhancement through biological or technological modifications, there have been several appeals to the concept of human dignity, both by those favouring such enhancement and by those opposing it. The result is the phenomenon of 'dignity talk', where opposing sides both appeal to the concept of human dignity to ground their arguments resulting in a moral impasse. This article examines the use of the concept of human dignity in the enhancement debates and reveals that the problem of dignity talk arises because proponents of various positions tend to ground human dignity in different features of the human individual. These features include species-membership, possession of a particular capacity, a sense of self-worth, and moral behaviour. The article proposes a solution to this problem by appealing to another feature of human beings, namely their being-in-relationship-over-time. Doing so enables us to understand dignity as a concept that affirms the worth of human individuals as complex, multidimensional wholes, rather than as isolated features. Consequently, the concept of human dignity can serve both a descriptive and a normative function in the enhancement debates. At a descriptive level, asking what advocates of a position mean when they refer to human dignity will reveal what aspects of being human they deem to be most valuable. The debate can then focus on these values. The normative function, although it cannot proscribe or prescribe all enhancement, approves only those enhancements that contribute to the flourishing of human individuals as multidimensional wholes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  6. Human metabolic atlas: an online resource for human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornputtapong, Natapol; Nookaew, Intawat; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Human tissue-specific genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) provide comprehensive understanding of human metabolism, which is of great value to the biomedical research community. To make this kind of data easily accessible to the public, we have designed and deployed the human metabolic atlas (HMA) website (http://www.metabolicatlas.org). This online resource provides comprehensive information about human metabolism, including the results of metabolic network analyses. We hope that it can also serve as an information exchange interface for human metabolism knowledge within the research community. The HMA consists of three major components: Repository, Hreed (Human REaction Entities Database) and Atlas. Repository is a collection of GEMs for specific human cell types and human-related microorganisms in SBML (System Biology Markup Language) format. The current release consists of several types of GEMs: a generic human GEM, 82 GEMs for normal cell types, 16 GEMs for different cancer cell types, 2 curated GEMs and 5 GEMs for human gut bacteria. Hreed contains detailed information about biochemical reactions. A web interface for Hreed facilitates an access to the Hreed reaction data, which can be easily retrieved by using specific keywords or names of related genes, proteins, compounds and cross-references. Atlas web interface can be used for visualization of the GEMs collection overlaid on KEGG metabolic pathway maps with a zoom/pan user interface. The HMA is a unique tool for studying human metabolism, ranging in scope from an individual cell, to a specific organ, to the overall human body. This resource is freely available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  7. Future of Mechatronics and Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harashima, Fumio; Suzuki, Satoshi

    This paper mentions circumstance of mechatronics that sustain our human society, and introduces HAM(Human Adaptive Mechatronics)-project as one of research projects to create new human-machine system. The key point of HAM is skill, and analysis of skill and establishment of assist method to enhance total performance of human-machine system are main research concerns. As study of skill is an elucidation of human itself, analyses of human higher function are significant. In this paper, after surveying researches of human brain functions, an experimental analysis of human characteristic in machine operation is shown as one example of our research activities. We used hovercraft simulator as verification system including observation, voluntary motion control and machine operation that are needed to general machine operation. Process and factors to become skilled were investigated by identification of human control characteristics with measurement of the operator's line-of sight. It was confirmed that early switching of sub-controllers / reference signals in human and enhancement of space perception are significant.

  8. Genetics and recent human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2007-07-01

    Starting with "mitochondrial Eve" in 1987, genetics has played an increasingly important role in studies of the last two million years of human evolution. It initially appeared that genetic data resolved the basic models of recent human evolution in favor of the "out-of-Africa replacement" hypothesis in which anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa about 150,000 years ago, started to spread throughout the world about 100,000 years ago, and subsequently drove to complete genetic extinction (replacement) all other human populations in Eurasia. Unfortunately, many of the genetic studies on recent human evolution have suffered from scientific flaws, including misrepresenting the models of recent human evolution, focusing upon hypothesis compatibility rather than hypothesis testing, committing the ecological fallacy, and failing to consider a broader array of alternative hypotheses. Once these flaws are corrected, there is actually little genetic support for the out-of-Africa replacement hypothesis. Indeed, when genetic data are used in a hypothesis-testing framework, the out-of-Africa replacement hypothesis is strongly rejected. The model of recent human evolution that emerges from a statistical hypothesis-testing framework does not correspond to any of the traditional models of human evolution, but it is compatible with fossil and archaeological data. These studies also reveal that any one gene or DNA region captures only a small part of human evolutionary history, so multilocus studies are essential. As more and more loci became available, genetics will undoubtedly offer additional insights and resolutions of human evolution.

  9. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  10. Human Thermal Model Evaluation Using the JSC Human Thermal Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Makinen, Janice; Cognata, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal modeling has considerable long term utility to human space flight. Such models provide a tool to predict crew survivability in support of vehicle design and to evaluate crew response in untested space environments. It is to the benefit of any such model not only to collect relevant experimental data to correlate it against, but also to maintain an experimental standard or benchmark for future development in a readily and rapidly searchable and software accessible format. The Human thermal database project is intended to do just so; to collect relevant data from literature and experimentation and to store the data in a database structure for immediate and future use as a benchmark to judge human thermal models against, in identifying model strengths and weakness, to support model development and improve correlation, and to statistically quantify a model s predictive quality. The human thermal database developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is intended to evaluate a set of widely used human thermal models. This set includes the Wissler human thermal model, a model that has been widely used to predict the human thermoregulatory response to a variety of cold and hot environments. These models are statistically compared to the current database, which contains experiments of human subjects primarily in air from a literature survey ranging between 1953 and 2004 and from a suited experiment recently performed by the authors, for a quantitative study of relative strength and predictive quality of the models.

  11. Analysis of human emotion in human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blar, Noraidah; Jafar, Fairul Azni; Abdullah, Nurhidayu; Muhammad, Mohd Nazrin; Kassim, Anuar Muhamed

    2015-05-01

    There is vast application of robots in human's works such as in industry, hospital, etc. Therefore, it is believed that human and robot can have a good collaboration to achieve an optimum result of work. The objectives of this project is to analyze human-robot collaboration and to understand humans feeling (kansei factors) when dealing with robot that robot should adapt to understand the humans' feeling. Researches currently are exploring in the area of human-robot interaction with the intention to reduce problems that subsist in today's civilization. Study had found that to make a good interaction between human and robot, first it is need to understand the abilities of each. Kansei Engineering in robotic was used to undergo the project. The project experiments were held by distributing questionnaire to students and technician. After that, the questionnaire results were analyzed by using SPSS analysis. Results from the analysis shown that there are five feelings which significant to the human in the human-robot interaction; anxious, fatigue, relaxed, peaceful, and impressed.

  12. A human rights approach to human trafficking for organ removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Columb, Seán

    2013-11-01

    Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious human rights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms.

  13. Serglycin in human cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Jian Li; Chao-Nan Qian

    2011-01-01

    Serglycin belongs to a family of small proteoglycans with Ser-Gly dipeptide repeats,and it is modified with different types of glycosaminoglycan side chains.Intracellular serglycin affects the retention and secretion of proteases,chemokines,or other cytokines by physically binding to these factors in secretory granules.Extracellular serglycin has been found to be released by several types of human cancer cells,and it is able to promote the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.Serglycin can bind to CD44,which is another glycoprotein located in cellular membrane.Serglycin's function of promoting cancer cell metastasis depends on glycosylation of its core protein,which can be achieved by autocrine as well as paracrine secretion mechanisms.Further investigations are warranted to elucidate serglycin signaling mechanisms with the goal of targeting them to prevent cancer cell metastasis.

  14. [Papillomaviruses and human tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonka, V; Hamsíková, E; Sobotková, E; Smahel, M; Kitasato, H; Sainerová, H; Ludvíková, V; Zák, R; Kanka, J; Kolár, Z; Kovarík, J

    2000-12-01

    The report summarizes the main results obtained in the course of our research project. The results of immunological and epidemiological studies provide further proofs that human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiological agents in cervical neoplasia. In addition, they raise hopes that immunological methods may be utilized in diagnostics of cervical cancer and for monitoring the clinical course of this disease in the near future. Since the etiological relationship between HPV and cervical carcinoma seems to be proven beyond reasonable doubt, the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines has become the dominant of the contemporary HPV reseach. For studying immune reactions against HPV-induced tumours we developed a model of HPV16-transformed rodent cells.

  15. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  16. General human activity patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  17. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  18. Military Surgeon and Humanity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Lu; WANG Yiran

    2015-01-01

    Military surgeons are a special group of doctors. They are both medical workers and soldiers.Their mission is to serve the wounded on the battlefield.And there is no doubt that military surgeons will save our comrades in the army. However,should a military surgeon save the wounded enemy? It is indeed a dilemma.Some may save the wounded enemy because military surgeons are doctors after all and they can't possibly abandon anybody to his fate,but some refuse to do so because military surgeons are soldiers.Therefore,some situations on the battlefield are discussed and advice is suggested for military surgeons,with heartfelt anticipation for there being less casualties on the battlefield as well as alleviating human suffering caused by war.

  19. Military Surgeon and Humanity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU; Lu; WANG; Yiran

    2015-01-01

    Military surgeons are a special group of doctors.They are both medical workers and soldiers.Their mission is to serve the wounded on the battlefield.And there is no doubt that military surgeons will save our comrades in the army.However,should a military surgeon save the wounded enemy?It is indeed a dilemma.Some may save the wounded enemy because military surgeons are doctors after all and they can’t possibly abandon anybody to his fate,but some refuse to do so because military surgeons are soldiers.Therefore,some situations on the battlefield are discussed and advice is suggested for military surgeons,with heartfelt anticipation for there being less casualties on the battlefield as well as alleviating human suffering caused by war.

  20. Human hereditary hepatic porphyrias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Yves; Puy, Hervé

    2002-11-01

    The human hereditary hepatic porphyrias are diseases due to marked deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias can be classified as either hepatic or erythroid, depending on the major production site of porphyrins or their precursors. The pathogenesis of inherited hepatic porphyrias has now been defined at the molecular level. Some gene carriers are vulnerable to a range of exogenous and endogenous factors, which may trigger neuropsychiatric and/or cutaneous symptoms. Early diagnosis is of prime importance since it makes way for counselling. In this article we present an overview of recent advances on hepatic porphyrias: 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), hereditary coproporphyria (HC), and variegate porphyria (VP).

  1. Chemical allergy in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable interest in the immunobiological processes through which the development of allergic sensitization to chemicals is initiated and orchestrated. One of the most intriguing issues is the basis for the elicitation by chemical sensitizers of different forms of allergic...... reaction; that is, allergic contact dermatitis or sensitization of the respiratory tract associated with occupational asthma. Studies in rodents have revealed that differential forms of allergic sensitization to chemicals are, in large part at least, a function of the selective development of discrete...... functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...

  2. Advances in human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, H.; Hirschhorn, K. (eds.)

    1993-01-01

    This book has five chapters covering peroxisomal diseases, X-linked immunodeficiencies, genetic mutations affecting human lipoproteins and their receptors and enzymes, genetic aspects of cancer, and Gaucher disease. The chapter on peroxisomes covers their discovery, structure, functions, disorders, etc. The chapter on X-linked immunodeficiencies discusses such diseases as agammaglobulinemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, animal models, linkage analysis, etc. Apolipoprotein formation, synthesis, gene regulation, proteins, etc. are the main focus of chapter 3. The chapter on cancer covers such topics as oncogene mapping and the molecular characterization of some recessive oncogenes. Gaucher disease is covered from its diagnosis, classification, and prevention, to its organ system involvement and molecular biology.

  3. Redesigned Human Metabolic Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Lange, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A design has been formulated for a proposed improved version of an apparatus that simulates atmospheric effects of human respiration by introducing controlled amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and heat into the air. Denoted a human metabolic simulator (HMS), the apparatus is used for testing life-support equipment when human test subjects are not available. The prior version of the HMS, to be replaced, was designed to simulate the respiratory effects of as many as four persons. It exploits the catalytic combustion of methyl acetate, for which the respiratory quotient (the molar ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed) is very close to the human respiratory quotient of about 0.86. The design of the improved HMS provides for simulation of the respiratory effects of as many as eight persons at various levels of activity. The design would also increase safety by eliminating the use of combustion. The improved HMS (see figure) would include a computer that would exert overall control. The computer would calculate the required amounts of oxygen removal, carbon dioxide addition, water addition, and heat addition by use of empirical equations for metabolic profiles of respiration and heat. A blower would circulate air between the HMS and a chamber containing a life-support system to be tested. With the help of feedback from a mass flowmeter, the blower speed would be adjusted to regulate the rate of flow according to the number of persons to be simulated and to a temperature-regulation requirement (the air temperature would indirectly depend on the rate of flow, among other parameters). Oxygen would be removed from the circulating air by means of a commercially available molecular sieve configured as an oxygen concentrator. Oxygen, argon, and trace amounts of nitrogen would pass through a bed in the molecular sieve while carbon dioxide, the majority of nitrogen, and other trace gases would be trapped by the bed and subsequently returned to the chamber. If

  4. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then at......-tempt to map these groups to the framework to find research gaps for future re-search. We find that the groups of papers cover all areas of the framework well for a variety of work and leisure domains. The area in strongest need for more research papers is the development of the holistic framework itself....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  5. [Management human resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, F P

    2004-01-01

    The management of human resources may follow different models, defined as bureaucratic, technocratic or managerial-entrepreneurial models. The latter being the most used. However, the relationship individual-enterprise is based on both a legal and a psychological contract regardless of the model used. The winning concept considers the personnel as the first and most important customer to be trained, informed and kept updated. For these reasons it is necessary to create a warm working environment, which is the first marketing tool, thus improving the marketing skills (enterprise-customer). The improved results (products, processes and publications) will be achieved by total quality management, which includes training and transformation of the chief's role from the hierarchical management to a coaching approach. This approach will recreativity, personality and competence of the personnel. This new type of leadership is based on the authority recognised by the personnel, service and motivation.

  6. Human Resource Outsourcing Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasliza Abdul-Halim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that partnership quality variables such as trust, business understanding, and communication have significant positive impact on HR outsourcing success, whereas in general, service quality was found to partially moderate these relationships. Therefore, comprehending the HR outsourcing relationship in the context of service quality may assist the organizations to accomplish HR outsourcing success by identifying areas of expected benefits and improvements.

  7. Probing human response times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders

    2004-07-01

    In a recent preprint (Dialog in e-mail traffic, preprint cond-mat/0304433), the temporal dynamics of an e-mail network has been investigated by Eckmann, Moses and Sergi. Specifically, the time period between an e-mail message and its reply were recorded. It will be shown here that their data agrees quantitatively with the frame work proposed to explain a recent experiment on the response of “internauts” to a news publication (Physica A 296(3-4) (2001) 539) despite differences in communication channels, topics, time-scale and socio-economic characteristics of the two population. This suggest a generalized response time distribution ∼ t-1 for human populations in the absence of deadlines with important implications for psychological and social studies as well the study of dynamical networks.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  9. [Human health sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Masataka; Toichi, Motomi; Yamane, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Medical science and medical practice developed remarkably and economic conditions progressed so much in recent years in Japan. As the result, the average span of life of the Japanese is now the longest in the world and we are well off. The matter of the greatest concern of Japanese people at present is health. In fact, health foods, TV program on health and various matters concerning health overflow around us. It is fairly difficult to define health clearly and correctly. So long as anyone who wants to be in good health, he must be well physically and mentally. It is necessary to pursue the true health, and to investigate theories and techniques to obtain and concrete it, which is called human health sciences.

  10. Art and human nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Toledo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a visual artist’s point of view about art. This view confronts the Eurocentric traditional cannon with some ignored, but valuable traditions, thus proposing a contra-canon. These ideas are examined on the light of a variety of sources, including prehistoric, pre-Columbian, and 20th century art expressions, in a variety of media, from sculpture to literature. Recent art expressions are characterized by their incorporation of minority values and perspectives that challenge “universal” views. Using samples of works from Latino and African American artists, the author shows that, even today, art is a means to know the world and its people, to exhibit personal life, to create personal symbolism, and to show one’s identity or the search for it. Like the human nature it represents, art has multiple faces.

  11. Strategic Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muqaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM represents an important and sensitive aspect of the functioning and development of a company, business, institution, state, public or private agency of a country. SHRM is based on a point of view of the psychological practices, especially by investing on empowerment, broad training and teamwork. This way it remains the primary resource to maintain stability and competitiveness. SHRM has lately evolved on fast and secure steps, and the transformation from Management of Human Resources to SHRM is becoming popular, but it still remains impossible to exactly estimate how much SHRM has taken place in updating the practices of HRM in organizations and institutions in general. This manuscript aims to make a reflection on strategic management, influence factors in its practices on some organizations. Researchers aim to identify influential factors that play key roles in SHRM, to determine its challenges and priorities which lay ahead, in order to select the most appropriate model for achieving a desirable performance. SHRM is a key factor in the achievement of the objectives of the organization, based on HR through continuous performance growth, it’s a complex process, unpredictable and influenced by many outside and inside factors, which aims to find the shortest way to achieve strategic competitive advantages, by creating structure planning, organizing, thinking values, culture, communication, perspectives and image of the organization. While traditional management of HR is focused on the individual performance of employees, the scientific one is based on the organizational performance, the role of the HRM system as main factor on solving business issues and achievement of competitive advantage within its kind.

  12. Human rabies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahtaj, Firouzeh; Fayaz, Ahmad; Howaizi, Nader; Biglari, Peyvand; Gholami, Alirez

    2014-10-01

    Like most Asian and African countries, Iran is highly endemic for rabies, which is a preventable disease with the timely utilisation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). With the availability of affordable vaccination in Iran, there are still several rabies deaths which are assumed misdiagnosed or received ineffective PEP. We reviewed the files of 16 human rabies deaths, consisting of two groups: 1, ineffective treatment; and 2, erroneous PEP. Most of the studied cases were male and were from rural areas. Stray dogs were found to be the common biting animal (68.75%). Of the patients, 10/16 (62.5%) who had injuries on their head and/or face demonstrated shorter incubation periods. The incubation period was longer in a 4-year-old boy who sustained injuries in his abdomen and back. All the patients in group 1 received four doses of vaccine and administration of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG), and death occurred with the mean of 49 days after the bite. This mean was 27 days in three patients in group 2, who received vaccine without administration of HRIG. In a total of 1,188,579 cases of PEP given in Iran during: 2002-2011, it is not known whether all PEPs were correctly administered by World Health Organization standards. Extending rabies awareness programmes and timely PEP education in the community in accordance with the implementation of rabies control measures might lead to a decrease in these unfortunate scenarios and heavy financial burden of vaccination required due to the prevalence of rabies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Epigenetics of human papillomaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, Eric [Department of Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lambert, Paul F., E-mail: plambert@wisc.edu [Department of Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Human papilllomaviruses (HPVs) are common human pathogens that infect cutaneous or mucosal epithelia in which they cause warts, self-contained benign lesions that commonly regress. The HPV life cycle is intricately tied to the differentiation of the host epithelium it infects. Mucosotropic HPVs are the most common sexually transmitted pathogen known to mankind. A subset of the mucosotropic HPVs, so-called high risk HPVs, is etiologically associated with numerous cancers of the anogenital tract, most notably the cervix, as well as a growing fraction of head and neck cancers. In these cancers, the HPV genome, which normally exists an a double stranded, circular, nuclear plasmid, is commonly found integrated into the host genome and expresses two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, that are implicated in the development and maintainance of the cancers caused by these high risk HPVs. Numerous studies, primarily on the high risk HPV16, have documented that the methylation status of the viral genome changes not only in the context of the viral life cycle but also in the context of the progressive neoplastic disease that culminates in cancer. In this article, we summarize the knowledge gained from those studies. We also provide the first analysis of available ChIP-seq data on the occupancy of both epigentically modified histones as well as transcription factors on the high risk HPV18 genome in the context of HeLa cells, a cervical cancer-derived cell line that has been the subject of extensive analyses using this technique. - Highlights: • Methylation status of HPV genomes is dynamic. • Changes are seen in both the viral life cycle and neoplasia. • Histone modification status at LCR is predictive of transcription factor occupancy. • Novel transcription factor binding noted by ChIP-seq.

  14. Human teratogens: update 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Lewis B

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of human teratogens have been identified. The characteristics of human teratogens can be used in the assessment of apparent "new" teratogens, when postulated. Information is available through online databases, such as TERIS and Reprotox, telephone-based counseling resources (e.g., Organization of Teratogen Information Systems [OTIS] and European Network Teratology Information Services [ENTIS]), reference books, annual meetings of the Teratology Society, and published articles. There are significant deficiencies in the information available: (1) lack of knowledge about the molecular and cellular basis for most teratogenic effects; (2) the inability to genetically identify more susceptible women before pregnancy; (3) little information is available on dermal and airborne exposures during pregnancy; and (4) most clinicians receive little, if any, training in the identification of or counseling for exposure to potential teratogens. There are many current dilemmas in counseling about exposures in pregnancy, including: (1) Is exposure to specific drugs, such as selected serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, teratogenic in the first trimester of pregnancy? (2) Are the increased risks of birth defects associated with assisted reproductive technology due, in part, to epigenetic effects? (3) What are the "safe" levels of exposure to the plasticizers phthalates during pregnancy? (4) How do we convince busy physicians, nurses, and pharmacists not to use the drug categories A, B, C, D, and X in counseling and to use more accurate sources? There is a need for a national advisory center for pregnancy registries to provide guidance when new registries are being developed.

  15. Valuing different human lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Landy, Justin F

    2014-04-01

    Do people think of the value of all human lives as equivalent irrespective of age? Affirmations of the equal value of all human lives are culturally prominent, yet much evidence points to the fact that the young are often prioritized over the old in life-and-death decision-making contexts. Studies 1-3 aimed to reconcile this tension by showing that although individuals are seen as more equal with respect to negative rights not to be harmed or killed (though not completely equal), they are seen as less equal with respect to positive rights to be aided or saved. Age exerts a large and systematic impact on decisions about who to save and about whose death is more tragic, suggesting that individuals are seen as possessing differing amounts of contingent value. These initial studies also yielded the novel finding that, although children are prioritized over adults, older children are often prioritized over younger children. Study 4 replicated this finding with a think-aloud methodology; the study showed that the preference for older children appears to be driven by their having had more invested in their lives, their better developed social relations, and their greater understanding of death. Studies 5a-5c demonstrated the independent causal effects of each of these variables on judgments of life's value. Finally, in Studies 6 and 7, mediation methods were used to show that older children's more meaningful social relations primarily explain the greater value of older than of younger children. These findings have implications for bioethics and medical policy.

  16. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international......Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...

  17. Disorder in Complex Human System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, K. Gediz

    2011-11-01

    Since the world of human and whose life becomes more and more complex every day because of the digital technology and under the storm of knowledge (media, internet, governmental and non-governmental organizations, etc...) the simulation is rapidly growing in the social systems and in human behaviors. The formation of the body and mutual interactions are left to digital technological, communication mechanisms and coding the techno genetics of the body. Deconstruction begins everywhere. The linear simulation mechanism with modern realities are replaced by the disorder simulation of human behaviors with awareness realities. In this paper I would like to introduce simulation theory of "Disorder Sensitive Human Behaviors". I recently proposed this theory to critique the role of disorder human behaviors in social systems. In this theory the principle of realty is the chaotic awareness of the complexity of human systems inside of principle of modern thinking in Baudrillard's simulation theory. Proper examples will be also considered to investigate the theory.

  18. Quality in Human Resource Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld

    resource practice in industrial and service-related work processes. The focus in these studies is directed at behavioural processes between managers and employees, especially at individual and group level. The conclusion is that quality in human resource practice can be considered to be a social process......Abstract: Quality in Human Resource Practice – a process perspective The purpose of this article is to establish criteria for what quality in human resource practice (HRP) actually means. The general thesis is that quality in human resource practices is shaped within social processes in the HRM...... areas (recruitment, training, work environment etc.). Initially the concept of quality is defined in general on the basis of selections from the HRM literature, and then related to human resource practice. The question posed in the article is then answered using examples from case studies of human...

  19. The Specificity of Human Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Today, humankind is being reintroduced within nature. Humankind is no longer presented as supernatural to nature. There is no longer a clear divide between animal and human. What makes us human is neither culture, nor language nor labor, nor art, but the degree of complexity those products and ca...... creativity. Art is fundamentally about shaping visions and very closely related to this specific human ability to make projects. Especially in times of crisis, when the old sources of meaning hardly can make sense in a new context, imagination must be used in order to survive......., and the craving to make sense of all kinds of relations that characterizes humans. Being able to produce artworks as external representations aimed at “the other,” made of internal representations is thus essential to humanity. Human aesthetics is not so much an issue of beauty but of imagination and social...

  20. Human Rights and Cultural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Stewart Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Universal human rights and particular cultural identities, which are relativistic by nature, seem to stand in conflict with each other. It is commonly suggested that the relativistic natures of cultural identities undermine universal human rights and that human rights might compromise particular cultural identities in a globalised world. This article examines this supposed clash and suggests that it is possible to frame a human rights approach in such a way that it becomes the starting point and constraining framework for all non-deficient cultural identities. In other words, it is possible to depict human rights in a culturally sensitive way so that universal human rights can meet the demands of a moderate version of meta-ethical relativism which acknowledges a small universal core of objectively true or false moral statements and avers that, beyond that small core, all other moral statements are neither objectively true nor false.

  1. Genome engineering in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minjung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Hyongbum

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing in human cells is of great value in research, medicine, and biotechnology. Programmable nucleases including zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and RNA-guided engineered nucleases recognize a specific target sequence and make a double-strand break at that site, which can result in gene disruption, gene insertion, gene correction, or chromosomal rearrangements. The target sequence complexities of these programmable nucleases are higher than 3.2 mega base pairs, the size of the haploid human genome. Here, we briefly introduce the structure of the human genome and the characteristics of each programmable nuclease, and review their applications in human cells including pluripotent stem cells. In addition, we discuss various delivery methods for nucleases, programmable nickases, and enrichment of gene-edited human cells, all of which facilitate efficient and precise genome editing in human cells.

  2. Quality in Human Resource Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld

    resource practice in industrial and service-related work processes. The focus in these studies is directed at behavioural processes between managers and employees, especially at individual and group level. The conclusion is that quality in human resource practice can be considered to be a social process......Abstract: Quality in Human Resource Practice – a process perspective The purpose of this article is to establish criteria for what quality in human resource practice (HRP) actually means. The general thesis is that quality in human resource practices is shaped within social processes in the HRM...... areas (recruitment, training, work environment etc.). Initially the concept of quality is defined in general on the basis of selections from the HRM literature, and then related to human resource practice. The question posed in the article is then answered using examples from case studies of human...

  3. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can...... into a suitable human template. Unfortunately, this procedure may results in a partial or complete loss of affinity of the grafted molecule that can be restored by back-mutating some of the residues of human origin to the corresponding murine ones. This trial-and-error procedure is hard and involves expensive...... and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps...

  4. Metabolic hypothesis for human altriciality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsworth, Holly M; Warrener, Anna G; Deacon, Terrence; Ellison, Peter T; Pontzer, Herman

    2012-09-18

    The classic anthropological hypothesis known as the "obstetrical dilemma" is a well-known explanation for human altriciality, a condition that has significant implications for human social and behavioral evolution. The hypothesis holds that antagonistic selection for a large neonatal brain and a narrow, bipedal-adapted birth canal poses a problem for childbirth; the hominin "solution" is to truncate gestation, resulting in an altricial neonate. This explanation for human altriciality based on pelvic constraints persists despite data linking human life history to that of other species. Here, we present evidence that challenges the importance of pelvic morphology and mechanics in the evolution of human gestation and altriciality. Instead, our analyses suggest that limits to maternal metabolism are the primary constraints on human gestation length and fetal growth. Although pelvic remodeling and encephalization during hominin evolution contributed to the present parturitional difficulty, there is little evidence that pelvic constraints have altered the timing of birth.

  5. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Cecilia - Nicoleta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Along with other material, financial resources, human resource is an indispensable element of each work process. The concept of human resource derives exactly from the fact that it has a limited nature and it is consumed by usage in the workplace. Any work process cannot be developed without the labour factor. Work is essentially a conscious activity specific to humans through which they release certain labour objects and transforms them according to his needs.

  6. What is a Human Body?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ulrik Becker

    2016-01-01

    The essay offers an overview of different understandings of what a body is. As such, it can be read as an overview of what we mean, when we speak of a “human body”. However, the article also goes a step further; in the last section, a responsive understanding of the human body is outlined....... This is understood as responsiveness in three ways: viz an embodied self that responds to natural life, other human beings and, ultimately, to God....

  7. Viral diseases and human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish l...

  8. Transmission risk of human trichinellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumi, Katsuhisa; Teunis, Peter; Fonville, Manoj; Vallee, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Nöckler, Karsten; van der Giessen, Joke

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella is a food-borne parasitic zoonoses and human cases are still reported in Europe mainly due to the consumption of pig meat originating from small backyard farms. Infections originating from industrialized pig farming have not been reported for decades in Europe, due to control measures to prevent the transmission of Trichinella from wildlife by indoor housing and good management practices. Therefore, risk-based monitoring programs might replace individual carcass control in industrialized pig farming as described in EU legislation SANCO 2075/2005. Transmission of Trichinella species between wildlife and the risk that may pose to humans via consumption of contaminated pork meat has not been studied quantitatively. One pathway by which human trichinellosis can occur is the rat-pig-human route. To evaluate the transmission risk though this pathway the dose responses of rat, pig, and human were studied. Experimental T. spiralis infection was performed in rats with doses of as few as 10 parasites and the data set was analysed using a newly developed dose response model that describes larvae per gram (LPG). Experimental T. spiralis infection in pig was analysed in a similar way. Furthermore nine published outbreaks of human trichinellosis were analysed to determine the dose response in humans. The risk of human trichinellosis via the rat-pig-human transmission was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. A pair of female and male parasites representing the lowest infection pressure from the environment, led to the probability of human trichinellosis by consumption of 100g of raw pork meat equal to 5% via the studied rat-pig-human pathway. In the absence of rodent control near the farm, a low infection pressure from wildlife presents a relatively high risk of human trichinellosis via consumption of uncooked pork meat.

  9. Teaching human parasitology in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Guanghui; He Shenyi; Chen Lin; Shi Na; Bai Yang; Zhu Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract China has approximately one-fifth of the world’s population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic di...

  10. HUMAN INTERACTION WITH MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Zamfiroiu; Emanuel Herteliu; Bogdan Vintila

    2012-01-01

    Computing - human interaction is a very important paradigm because informatics applications are created to be used by people via human interaction. Nowadays mobile applications are more used so is necessarily to talk about mobile - human interaction. In this paper types of mobile devices are presented. Citizen oriented character of mobile application and his utility are described. Different means of interactions with mobile devices are analyzed and in the end of the paper direction of mobile ...

  11. Bleaching of Black Human Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳

    2001-01-01

    Bleaching of black human hair has been studied systematically. On the basis of experimental data the technology of human hair bleaching through five processes was established. The optimum technology of improving the whiteness and reducing damage on fibers has been found. The technology can provide good luster,smooth handle and relatively high strength retention to human hair used for wigs or drama articles, meeting the needs of people better. Moreover, it also has important reference value to bleaching of other colored fibers.

  12. [The Vesalius of human embryology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rahilly, R; Müller, F

    1988-01-01

    Human embryology was founded 100 years ago by WILHELM HIS, who may rightly be called the "Vesalius of human embryology". 3 landmarks were published in Germany within a quarter of a century: The Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen of HIS, KEIBEL'S Normentafeln, and KEIBEL and MALL'S Handbuch der Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen. The staging of the human embryo, now associated with the names of STREETER and O'RAHILLY, was first proposed by MALL in Anatomischer Anzeiger.

  13. Discursive Framings of Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and social contexts. Historical as well as contemporary declarations of rights have stressed both the protective and political aspects of human rights. But in concrete situations and conflictual moments, the high moral legitimacy of human rights rhetoric has often clouded the actual character of specific......, it thus establishes a relationship between these different genres and the political, economic, and legal dimensions of human rights discourse....

  14. The Human Right to Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Villán Durán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The international codification of the human right to peace was brought to the United Nations by civil society organizations. The draft declaration submitted to the States has a holistic nature, is very rooted in the international human rights law, and considers peace as the absence of all forms of violence (Santiago Declaration on the Human Right to Peace of 10 December 2010. A working group appointed by the UN Human Rights Council should achieve a new and consensual text to bridge the existing gap between developed and developing States in this field, the former being more supportive of the thesis maintained by civil society.

  15. On optics of human meridians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new concept and its methodology for studying human meridians are presented based on rigorous and scientific observation on the objective existence of human meridians in view of biomedical optics. According to this methodology,the infrared radiant characteristics of acupuncture meridians over human body and the optical transport properties of light propagating along the meridian are reported. This study,thus,confirms the existence of acupuncture meridians,sheds new light on an approach to investigation of human meridians and offers a new perspective in understanding the potential meridian functions such as energy and information transfer and physiological regulation.

  16. Human capital strategy: talent management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagra, Michael

    2011-01-01

    .... This article elaborates the human capital management strategy within the Army Nurse Corps, which identifies, develops, and implements key talent management strategies under the umbrella of the Corps...

  17. Human ClpP protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Andresen, B S; Knudsen, I

    1995-01-01

    We identified three overlapping human expressed sequence tags with significant homology to the E. coli ClpP amino sequence by screening the EMBL nucleotide database. With this sequence information we applied 5' and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to amplify and sequence human clpP c...... of clpP mRNA in skeletal muscle, intermediate levels in heart, liver and pancreas, and low levels in brain, placenta, lung and kidney. By analysis of human/rodent cell hybrids the human clpP gene was assigned to chromosome 19....

  18. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo

    2014-10-09

    SUMMARY: Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity into a suitable human template. Unfortunately, this procedure may results in a partial or complete loss of affinity of the grafted molecule that can be restored by back-mutating some of the residues of human origin to the corresponding murine ones. This trial-and-error procedure is hard and involves expensive and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http://www.biocomputing.it/tabhu CONTACT: anna.tramontano@uniroma1.it, pierpaolo.olimpieri@uniroma1.it SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. On optics of human meridians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG HongQin; XIE ShuSen; LI Hui; WANG YuHua

    2009-01-01

    A new concept and its methodology for studying human meridians are presented based on rigorous and scientific observation on the objective existence of human meridians in view of biomedical optics. According to this methodology, the infrared radiant characteristics of acupuncture meridians over human body and the optical transport properties of light propagating along the meridian are reported. This study, thus, confirms the existence of acupuncture meridians, sheds new light on an approach to investigation of human meridians and offers a new perspective in understanding the potential meridian functions such as energy and information transfer and physiological regulation.

  20. The latest science and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Il; Lee, Hae Du; Lee, Geun Hui

    1985-04-15

    The book is collective reports on the science and human. The contents of this book are life ethics and technology ethics, conception of human and human science, biotechnology. The tower of Babel in computer age, human brain and robot, new media and communication innovation, status of computer engineering, current condition of development of new media, mass media and violence, crime and scientification of terror, condition of the life and peace, period of machine and literature, religious prophecy and scientific prophecy and hi-tech age and education of science.