WorldWideScience

Sample records for human cancer estimation

  1. Estimated cancer risk of dioxins to humans using a bioassay and physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Wakae; Aoki, Yasunobu

    2006-01-01

    The health risk of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds to humans was analyzed quantitatively using experimental data and mathematical models. To quantify the toxicity of a mixture of three dioxin congeners, we calculated the new relative potencies (REPs) for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD), and 2,3,4,7,8- pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), focusing on their tumor promotion activity. We applied a liver foci formation assay to female SD rats after repeated oral administration of dioxins. The REP of dioxin for a rat was determined using dioxin concentration and the number of the foci in rat liver. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK model) was used for interspecies extrapolation targeting on dioxin concentration in liver. Toxic dose for human was determined by back-estimation with a human PBPK model, assuming that the same concentration in the target tissue may cause the same level of effect in rats and humans, and the REP for human was determined by the toxic dose obtained. The calculated REPs for TCDD, PeCDD, and PeCDF were 1.0, 0.34, and 0.05 for rats, respectively, and the REPs for humans were almost the same as those for rats. These values were different from the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) presented previously (Van den Berg, M., Birnbaum, L., Bosveld, A.T.C., Brunstrom, B., Cook, P., Feeley, M., Giesy, J.P., Hanberg, A., Hasegawa, R., Kennedy, S.W., Kubiak, T., Larsen, J.C., Rolaf van Leeuwen, F.X., Liem, A.K.D., Nolt, C., Peterson, R.E., Poellinger. L., Safe, S., Schrenk, D., Tillitt, D, Tysklind, M., Younes, M., Waern, F., Zacharewski, T., 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ. Health Perspect. 106, 775-792). The relative risk of excess liver cancer for Japanese people in general was 1.7-6.5 x 10 -7 by TCDD only, and 2.9-11 x 10 -7 by the three dioxins at the present level of contamination

  2. Incidence of bone cancer in beagles after inhalation of 90SrCl2 or 238PuO2: Implications for estimation of risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Among the life-span studies conducted with beagle dogs, bone cancer has been in two studies the predominant effect at death. These studies involved dogs that inhaled 90 SrCl 2 , which is very soluble in body fluids; and dogs that inhaled 238 PuO 2 , which is initially insoluble but eventually becomes fragmented and more soluble. Both radionuclides were deposited in the skeleton after dissolution in the lung and absorption into the bloodstream. All dogs in the 90 Sr study are dead, and all living dogs in the 238 Pu study are at least 7 years postexposure. Results from these two studies were compared to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of chronic beta and alpha radiation delivered from these two radionuclides. These data also were used to estimate the risk of bone cancer in man by using comparisons with data from the 90 Sr-, 239 Pu-, and 226 Ra-injected dogs at the University of Utah and data on humans who ingested 226 Ra or were injected with 224 Ra. Such comparisons provided a link between studies in laboratory animals and the available human data. In this way risks of bone cancer in humans from inhaled plutonium or strontium were estimated, even though currently no human cases of bone cancer are known to have resulted from the inhalation of either of these radionuclides. 15 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Human cancer risk estimation for 1,3-butadiene: An assessment of personal exposure and different microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Lai Nguyen; Lee, Shun Cheng; Zhang, Zhuozhi

    2018-03-01

    This study estimated the lifetime cancer risk (LCR) attributable to 1,3-butadiene (BD) personal exposure and to other microenvironments, including residential home, outdoor, in-office, in-vehicle, and dining. Detailed life expectancy by country (WHO), inhalation rate and body weight by gender reported by USEPA were used for the calculation, focusing on adult population (25≤Agepersonal exposure exceeded the USEPA benchmark of 1×10 -6 in many cities. For outdoor BD exposure, LCR estimations in 45 out of 175 cities/sites (sharing 26%) exceeded the USEPA benchmark. Out of the top 20 cities having high LCR estimations, developing countries contributed 19 cities, including 14, 3, 1, 1 cities in China, India, Chile, and Pakistan. One city in the United States was in the list due to the nearby industrial facilities. The LCR calculations for BD levels found in residential home, in-vehicle and dining microenvironments also exceeded 1×10 -6 in some cities, while LCR caused by in-office BD levels had the smallest risk. Four cities/regions were used for investigating source distributions to total LCR results because of their sufficient BD data. Home exposure contributed significantly to total LCR value (ranging 56% to 86%), followed by in-vehicle (4% to 38%) and dining (4 to 7%). Outdoor microenvironment shared highly in Tianjin with 6%, whereas in-office contributed from 2-3% for all cities. High LCR estimations found in developing countries highlighted the greater cancer risk caused by BD in other cities without available measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  5. Human papillomaviruses and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haedicke, Juliane; Iftner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small oncogenic DNA viruses of which more than 200 types have been identified to date. A small subset of these is etiologically linked to the development of anogenital malignancies such as cervical cancer. In addition, recent studies established a causative relationship between these high-risk HPV types and tonsillar and oropharyngeal cancer. Clinical management of cervical cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is largely standardized and involves surgical removal of the tumor tissue as well as adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Notably, the response to therapeutic intervention of HPV-positive HNSCCs has been found to be better as compared to HPV-negative tumors. Although the existing HPV vaccine is solely licensed for the prevention of cervical cancer, it might also have prophylactic potential for the development of high-risk HPV-associated HNSCCs. Another group of viruses, which belongs to the beta-HPV subgroup, has been implicated in nonmelanoma skin cancer, however, the etiology remains to be established. Treatment of HPV-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer is based on local excision. However, topically applied immune-modulating substances represent non-surgical alternatives for the management of smaller cutaneous tumors. In this review we present the current knowledge of the role of HPV in cancer development and discuss clinical management options as well as targets for the development of future intervention therapies

  6. Estimation of risks to humans following intake of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The lung cancer in humans induced by plutonium intake usually starts in bronchial epithelium. The main types of lung cancer are epidermoid or squamous cell carcinoma, small cell anaplastic carcinoma, carcinoid types and bronchio-loalveolar cell carcinoma. The data on cancer in the patients given intravascular injections of Thorotrast are the only source of data from which risk estimates can be made for liver cancer. In the beagles injected with plutonium citrate, the only type of liver tumors observed in cholangiosarcoma, and if this were the case for humans, then the appropriate risk estimate is 3 times lower in human patients. Bone sarcoma and the cancer of the epithelial surfaces close to bones have been reported extensively in workers and patients exposed to radium-226 and radium-224. In the case of plutonium, it is assumed for the purpose of risk estimates that the cancer of the epithelial surfaces near bones does not occur. Plutonium passes through guts following ingestion or following the clearance of particles initially deposited in respiratory tracts. In the case of all long-lived radionuclides, lower large intestines are the region which receive the greatest dose from the activity passing through guts. It is assumed that plutonium accumulates in bone marrows through the action of macrophages engulfing the plutonium resorbed from bone surfaces. The main uncertainty in estimating the annual limit of intake probably lies in the metabolic and dosimetric models, and to a lesser extent, in the estimate of risk. (Yamashita, S.)

  7. Estimating the Risks of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Carolyn; Correa, Candace; Duane, Frances K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature...... review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers...... and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality. Smoking status was unavailable. Third, the lung or heart ERRs per Gy in the trials and the 2010 to 2015 doses were combined and applied to current smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer and cardiac mortality...

  8. The estimated impact of human papillomavirus vaccine coverage on the lifetime cervical cancer burden among girls currently aged 12 years and younger in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Saraiya, Mona; Dunne, Eileen F; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2014-11-01

    Using a previously published dynamic model, we illustrate the potential benefits of human papillomavirus vaccination among girls currently 12 years or younger in the United States. Increasing vaccine coverage of young girls to 80% would avert 53,300 lifetime cervical cancer cases versus 30% coverage and 28,800 cases versus 50% coverage.

  9. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of nanoparticles accumulation on optical properties of human normal and cancerous liver tissue in vitro estimated by OCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fang; Wei, Huajiang; Guo, Zhouyi; Ye, Xiangping; Hu, Kun; Wu, Guoyong; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; He, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the potential use of nanoparticles as contrast agents by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in liver tissue was demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles (average size of 25 and 70 nm), were studied in human normal and cancerous liver tissues in vitro, respectively. Each sample was monitored with SD-OCT functional imaging for 240 min. Continuous OCT monitoring showed that, after application of gold nanoparticles, the OCT signal intensities of normal liver and cancerous liver tissue both increase with time, and the larger nanoparticles tend to produce a greater signal enhancement in the same type of tissue. The results show that the values of attenuation coefficients have significant differences between normal liver tissue and cancerous liver tissue. In addition, 25 nm gold nanoparticles allow higher penetration depth than 70 nm gold nanoparticles in liver tissues. (paper)

  11. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed

  12. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  13. Human papillomavirus associated oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanicka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is substantial epidemiological, molecular-pathological and experimental evidence indicating that some of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), especially HPV type 16, are etiologically related to a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, in particular, those arising from the oropharynx. Incidence of oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in direct opposition to a decreasing incidence of all other head and neck cancers. The prognosis of patients with HPV associated oropharyngeal cancer is significantly better compare to patients with non associated oropharyngeal cancers. Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer respond better to radiotherapy, surgery, chemoradiotherapy. Therefore, the presence of HPV in tumor is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oropharyngeal cancers. These findings have prompted the need for change of treatment strategies in these patients. The goal is selective de-intensified treatment stratified for HPV status. (author)

  14. Report on a workshop to examine methods to arrive at risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer in the human based on laboratory data. Jointly sponsored by the Office of Health and Energy Research, Department of Energy, and Columbia University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This summary is a record of discussions and the general consensus reached by the participants. The views expressed are those of the attending scientists and do not necessarily represent the policy or opinion of the Department of Energy. An urgent need is recognized for better estimates of the risk of cancer from low levels of radiation. This need arises because of the ongoing nuclear energy option, the hazard of naturally occurring radon, and the possibility of an increasing number of lawsuits by individuals exposed to radiation in the past. The most recent estimates of risk evaluated by UN-SCEAR and BEIR V rely heavily on epidemiological studies of the A-bomb survivors which have recognized limitations and cannot provide direct risk information for chronic low-dose-rate exposure such as that experienced in occupational and medical settings. It was the consensus view that an effort to obtain information relative to risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer in humans, based on laboratory data, would be both important and timely: important, because of the opportunity to extend existing epidemiological data and overcome existing limitations; and timely, because of advances in cellular and molecular biology. In the short term, such an effort could supplement epidemiological data by providing information on the variation of cancer risk estimates with radiation dose rate and radiation quality and by providing guidance on the extrapolation of data measured at high doses to low dose regions where direct measurements are not feasible. In the long term, it may be possible to use new information about the genome from cellular and molecular studies to refine epidemiological data, i.e., to integrate classical epidemiological approaches with cell and animal biology as well as molecular genetics. Laboratory-based studies may be able to supplement epidemiological studies by: (1) identifying the molecular lesions involved in radiation-induced cancer and resolving dose, dose

  15. Estimating environmental and occupational contribution to cancer in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Y. M. Y.; Beden, S. J.; Khalifa, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    This study was performed in Radiation and Isotopes Center of Khartoum (RICK) and National Cancer Institute (NCI) University of Gazeria. It focused on cancer patients who were treated by radiation therapy in the period between 2008 and 2009. The study investigator the risk and causative factors and geographical distribution over the sudan states and the relationship of incidence with some patient's customs and dietary habits. This study summarizes recent scientific evidence of environmental and occupational links to nearly 30 types of cancer. the discussion of each cancer type is introduced by highlights of trends in incidence. The study considers additional indication that involuntary exposures are linked to cancers, such as patterns observed in different geographic areas and among different population patterns of cancer in children. The purpose of this study is to review scientific evidence, particular y epidemiologic evidence. regarding the contribution of environmental and occupational exposures to the overall cancer incidence in the Sudan. The study discussed that the widespread exposures from air and water pollution, the work environment, exposure resulting form personal habits such as smoking and drinking and the diet are major contributors to cancer in human. In the past three decades, there have been several efforts to estimate the proportion of caner due to these involuntary exposure, starting with an ambitious effort by different scientists. This study provided and alternative interpretation of the evidence of cancer incidence to particular factors. We conclude the study by recommending the significance of giving environmental and occupational links to cancer serious consideration by individuals and institutions concerned with cancer prevention, particularly those involved in research and education. (Author)

  16. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md.; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  17. HCSD: the human cancer secretome database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Banaei-Esfahani, Amir; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The human cancer secretome database (HCSD) is a comprehensive database for human cancer secretome data. The cancer secretome describes proteins secreted by cancer cells and structuring information about the cancer secretome will enable further analysis of how this is related with tumor biology...... database is limiting the ability to query the increasing community knowledge. We therefore developed the Human Cancer Secretome Database (HCSD) to fulfil this gap. HCSD contains >80 000 measurements for about 7000 nonredundant human proteins collected from up to 35 high-throughput studies on 17 cancer...

  18. Human papillomavirus and genital cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapose Alwyn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections world-wide. Low-risk HPV-types are associated with genital warts. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV-types is associated with genital cancers. Smoking and HIV infection have consistently been associated with longer duration of HPV infection and risk for genital cancer. There is an increasing incidence of anal cancers, and a close association with HPV infection has been demonstrated. Receptive anal sex and HIV-positive status are associated with a high risk for anal cancer. Two HPV vaccines are now available and offer protection from infection by the HPV-types included in the vaccine. This benefit is maximally seen in young women who were uninfected prior to vaccination.

  19. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  20. Observer-Based Human Knee Stiffness Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misgeld, Berno J E; Luken, Markus; Riener, Robert; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-05-01

    We consider the problem of stiffness estimation for the human knee joint during motion in the sagittal plane. The new stiffness estimator uses a nonlinear reduced-order biomechanical model and a body sensor network (BSN). The developed model is based on a two-dimensional knee kinematics approach to calculate the angle-dependent lever arms and the torques of the muscle-tendon-complex. To minimize errors in the knee stiffness estimation procedure that result from model uncertainties, a nonlinear observer is developed. The observer uses the electromyogram (EMG) of involved muscles as input signals and the segmental orientation as the output signal to correct the observer-internal states. Because of dominating model nonlinearities and nonsmoothness of the corresponding nonlinear functions, an unscented Kalman filter is designed to compute and update the observer feedback (Kalman) gain matrix. The observer-based stiffness estimation algorithm is subsequently evaluated in simulations and in a test bench, specifically designed to provide robotic movement support for the human knee joint. In silico and experimental validation underline the good performance of the knee stiffness estimation even in the cases of a knee stiffening due to antagonistic coactivation. We have shown the principle function of an observer-based approach to knee stiffness estimation that employs EMG signals and segmental orientation provided by our own IPANEMA BSN. The presented approach makes realtime, model-based estimation of knee stiffness with minimal instrumentation possible.

  1. Human location estimation using thermopile array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnin, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Utilization of Thermopile sensor at an early stage of human detection is challenging as there are many things that produce thermal heat other than human such as electrical appliances and animals. Therefrom, an algorithm for early presence detection has been developed through the study of human body temperature behaviour with respect to the room temperature. The change in non-contact detected temperature of human varied according to body parts. In an indoor room, upper parts of human body change up to 3°C whereas lower part ranging from 0.58°C to 1.71°C. The average changes in temperature of human is used as a conditional set-point value in the program algorithm to detect human presence. The current position of human and its respective angle is gained when human is presence at certain pixels of Thermopile’s sensor array. Human position is estimated successfully as the developed sensory system is tested to the actuator of a stand fan.

  2. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  3. An improved silhouette for human pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Anthony H.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel method for analyzing images that exploits the natural lines of a human poses to find areas where self-occlusion could be present. Errors caused by self-occlusion cause several modern human pose estimation methods to mis-identify body parts, which reduces the performance of most action recognition algorithms. Our method is motivated by the observation that, in several cases, occlusion can be reasoned using only boundary lines of limbs. An intelligent edge detection algorithm based on the above principle could be used to augment the silhouette with information useful for pose estimation algorithms and push forward progress on occlusion handling for human action recognition. The algorithm described is applicable to computer vision scenarios involving 2D images and (appropriated flattened) 3D images.

  4. A New Model for the Estimation of Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giger, Maryellen Lissak

    2001-01-01

    ... for use in estimating risk of breast cancer. The specific aims include 1. Creating a database of mammograms, along with tabulated clinical information of women at low risk and high risk for breast cancer; 2...

  5. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  6. Systematic biases in human heading estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F Cuturi

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is vital to everyday navigation and locomotion. Despite extensive behavioral and physiological research on both visual and vestibular heading estimation over more than two decades, the accuracy of heading estimation has not yet been systematically evaluated. Therefore human visual and vestibular heading estimation was assessed in the horizontal plane using a motion platform and stereo visual display. Heading angle was overestimated during forward movements and underestimated during backward movements in response to both visual and vestibular stimuli, indicating an overall multimodal bias toward lateral directions. Lateral biases are consistent with the overrepresentation of lateral preferred directions observed in neural populations that carry visual and vestibular heading information, including MSTd and otolith afferent populations. Due to this overrepresentation, population vector decoding yields patterns of bias remarkably similar to those observed behaviorally. Lateral biases are inconsistent with standard bayesian accounts which predict that estimates should be biased toward the most common straight forward heading direction. Nevertheless, lateral biases may be functionally relevant. They effectively constitute a perceptual scale expansion around straight ahead which could allow for more precise estimation and provide a high gain feedback signal to facilitate maintenance of straight-forward heading during everyday navigation and locomotion.

  7. New estimates for human lung dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christine; Sidavasan, Sivalal; Kramer, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The currently used lung dimensions in dosimetry were originally estimated in the 1940s from Army recruits. This study provides new estimates of lung dimensions based on images acquired from a sample from the general population (varying age and sex). Building accurate models, called phantoms, of the human lung requires that the spatial dimensions (length, width, and depth) be quantified, in addition to volume. Errors in dose estimates may result from improperly sized lungs as the counting efficiency of externally mounted detectors (e.g., in a lung counter) is dependent on the position of internally deposited radioactive material (i.e., the size of the lung). This study investigates the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Lung phantoms have previously been made in one of two sizes. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Torso Phantom (LLNL) has deep, short lungs whose dimensions do not comply well with the data published in Report 23 (Reference Man) issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute Torso Phantom(JAERI), has longer, shallower lungs that also deviate from the ICRP values. However, careful examination of the ICRP recommended values shows that they are soft. In fact, they have been dropped from the ICRP's Report 89 which updates Report 23. Literature surveys have revealed a wealth of information on lung volume, but very little data on the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Better lung phantoms need to be constructed to more accurately represent a person so that dose estimates may be quantified more accurately in view of the new, lower, dose limits for occupationally exposed workers and the general public. Retrospective chest images of 60 patients who underwent imaging of the chest- lungs as part of their healthy persons occupational screening for lung disease were chosen. The chosen normal lung images represent the general population). Ages, gender and weight of the

  8. REGγ is associated with multiple oncogenic pathways in human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jing; Wang, Zhuo; Shi, Tieliu; Zhang, Pei; Chen, Rui; Li, Xiaotao; Cui, Long; Zeng, Yu; Wang, Guangqiang; Zhou, Ping; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ji, Lei; Zhao, Yanyan; Chen, Jiwu

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a role of the proteasome activator, REGγ, in cancer progression. Since there are limited numbers of known REGγ targets, it is not known which cancers and pathways are associated with REGγ. REGγ protein expressions in four different cancers were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Following NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database search, microarray platform validation, differential expressions of REGγ in corresponding cancers were statistically analyzed. Genes highly correlated with REGγ were defined based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Functional links were estimated by Ingenuity Core analysis. Finally, validation was performed by RT-PCR analysis in established cancer cell lines and IHC in human colon cancer tissues Here, we demonstrate overexpression of REGγ in four different cancer types by micro-tissue array analysis. Using meta-analysis of publicly available microarray databases and biological studies, we verified elevated REGγ gene expression in the four types of cancers and identified genes significantly correlated with REGγ expression, including genes in p53, Myc pathways, and multiple other cancer-related pathways. The predicted correlations were largely consistent with quantitative RT-PCR analysis. This study provides us novel insights in REGγ gene expression profiles and its link to multiple cancer-related pathways in cancers. Our results indicate potentially important pathogenic roles of REGγ in multiple cancer types and implicate REGγ as a putative cancer marker

  9. Human Cancer Models Initiative | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Cancer Models Initiative (HCMI) is an international consortium that is generating novel human tumor-derived culture models, which are annotated with genomic and clinical data. In an effort to advance cancer research and more fully understand how in vitro findings are related to clinical biology, HCMI-developed models and related data will be available as a community resource for cancer research.

  10. Estimating the gaze of a virtuality human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David J; Rae, John; Duckworth, Tobias W; Moore, Carl M; Aspin, Rob

    2013-04-01

    The aim of our experiment is to determine if eye-gaze can be estimated from a virtuality human: to within the accuracies that underpin social interaction; and reliably across gaze poses and camera arrangements likely in every day settings. The scene is set by explaining why Immersive Virtuality Telepresence has the potential to meet the grand challenge of faithfully communicating both the appearance and the focus of attention of a remote human participant within a shared 3D computer-supported context. Within the experiment n=22 participants rotated static 3D virtuality humans, reconstructed from surround images, until they felt most looked at. The dependent variable was absolute angular error, which was compared to that underpinning social gaze behaviour in the natural world. Independent variables were 1) relative orientations of eye, head and body of captured subject; and 2) subset of cameras used to texture the form. Analysis looked for statistical and practical significance and qualitative corroborating evidence. The analysed results tell us much about the importance and detail of the relationship between gaze pose, method of video based reconstruction, and camera arrangement. They tell us that virtuality can reproduce gaze to an accuracy useful in social interaction, but with the adopted method of Video Based Reconstruction, this is highly dependent on combination of gaze pose and camera arrangement. This suggests changes in the VBR approach in order to allow more flexible camera arrangements. The work is of interest to those wanting to support expressive meetings that are both socially and spatially situated, and particular those using or building Immersive Virtuality Telepresence to accomplish this. It is also of relevance to the use of virtuality humans in applications ranging from the study of human interactions to gaming and the crossing of the stage line in films and TV.

  11. Optimization of human cancer radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, George W

    1981-01-01

    The mathematical models in this book are concerned with a variety of approaches to the manner in which the clinical radiologic treatment of human neoplasms can be improved. These improvements comprise ways of delivering radiation to the malignan­ cies so as to create considerable damage to tumor cells while sparing neighboring normal tissues. There is no unique way of dealing with these improvements. Accord­ ingly, in this book a number of different presentations are given. Each presentation has as its goal some aspect of the improvement, or optimization, of radiotherapy. This book is a collection of current ideas concerned with the optimization of human cancer radiotherapy. It is hoped that readers will build on this collection and develop superior approaches for the understanding of the ways to improve therapy. The author owes a special debt of thanks to Kathy Prindle who breezed through the typing of this book with considerable dexterity. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Introduction 1...

  12. Human bladder cancer diagnosis using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sushmita; Wysock, James S.; Ng, Casey K.; Akhtar, Mohammed; Perner, Sven; Lee, Ming-Ming; Rubin, Mark A.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Webb, Watt W.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2009-02-01

    At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive. Appropriate diagnosis and surgical resection at this stage improves prognosis dramatically. However, these lesions, being small and/or flat, are often missed by conventional white-light cystoscopes. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the surgical margin for negativity using conventional cystoscopes. Resultantly, the recurrence rates in patients with early bladder cancer are very high. This is currently addressed by repeat cystoscopies and biopsies, which can last throughout the life of a patient, increasing cost and patient morbidity. Multiphoton endoscopes offer a potential solution, allowing real time, noninvasive biopsies of the human bladder, as well as an up-close assessment of the resection margin. While miniaturization of the Multiphoton microscope into an endoscopic format is currently in progress, we present results here indicating that Multiphoton imaging (using a bench-top Multiphoton microscope) can indeed identify cancers in fresh, unfixed human bladder biopsies. Multiphoton images are acquired in two channels: (1) broadband autofluorescence from cells, and (2) second harmonic generation (SHG), mostly by tissue collagen. These images are then compared with gold standard hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) stained histopathology slides from the same specimen. Based on a "training set" and a very small "blinded set" of samples, we have found excellent correlation between the Multiphoton and histopathological diagnoses. A larger blinded analysis by two independent uropathologists is currently in progress. We expect that the conclusion of this phase will provide us with diagnostic accuracy estimates, as well as the degree of inter-observer heterogeneity.

  13. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Svahn, Malene Frøsig; Faber, Mette Tuxen

    2014-01-01

    HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer.......HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer....

  14. State-Level Estimates of Cancer-Related Absenteeism Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K.; Trogdon, Justin G.; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Guy, Gery P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. Methods In analyses of data from the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. Results We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population. PMID:23969498

  15. Estimated generic prices of cancer medicines deemed cost-ineffective in England: a cost estimation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Redd, Christopher; Gotham, Dzintars; Erbacher, Isabelle; Meldrum, Jonathan; Harada, Ryo

    2017-01-20

    The aim of this study was to estimate lowest possible treatment costs for four novel cancer drugs, hypothesising that generic manufacturing could significantly reduce treatment costs. This research was carried out in a non-clinical research setting using secondary data. There were no human participants in the study. Four drugs were selected for the study: bortezomib, dasatinib, everolimus and gefitinib. These medications were selected according to their clinical importance, novel pharmaceutical actions and the availability of generic price data. Target costs for treatment were to be generated for each indication for each treatment. The primary outcome measure was the target cost according to a production cost calculation algorithm. The secondary outcome measure was the target cost as the lowest available generic price; this was necessary where export data were not available to generate an estimate from our cost calculation algorithm. Other outcomes included patent expiry dates and total eligible treatment populations. Target prices were £411 per cycle for bortezomib, £9 per month for dasatinib, £852 per month for everolimus and £10 per month for gefitinib. Compared with current list prices in England, these target prices would represent reductions of 74-99.6%. Patent expiry dates were bortezomib 2014-22, dasatinib 2020-26, everolimus 2019-25 and gefitinib 2017. The total global eligible treatment population in 1 year is 769 736. Our findings demonstrate that affordable drug treatment costs are possible for novel cancer drugs, suggesting that new therapeutic options can be made available to patients and doctors worldwide. Assessing treatment cost estimations alongside cost-effectiveness evaluations is an important area of future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  17. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soung Min

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine ...

  18. Theoretical epidemiology applied to health physics: estimation of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indirect estimation of low-dose radiation hazards is possible using the multihit model of carcinogenesis. This model is based on cancer incidence data collected over many decades on tens of millions of people. Available data on human radiation effects can be introduced into the modeling process without the requirement that these data precisely define the model to be used. This reduction in the information demanded from the limited data on human radiation effects allows a more rational approach to estimation of low-dose radiation hazards and helps to focus attention on research directed towards understanding the process of carcinogenesis, rather than on repeating human or animal experiments that cannot provide sufficient data to resolve the low-dose estimation problem. Assessment of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer provides an excellent example of the utility of multihit modeling procedures

  19. Graphs to estimate an individualized risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, J; Gail, M H; Mulvihill, J J

    1996-01-01

    Clinicians who counsel women about their risk for developing breast cancer need a rapid method to estimate individualized risk (absolute risk), as well as the confidence limits around that point. The Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP) model (sometimes called the Gail model) assumes no genetic model and simultaneously incorporates five risk factors, but involves cumbersome calculations and interpolations. This report provides graphs to estimate the absolute risk of breast cancer from the BCDDP model. The BCDDP recruited 280,000 women from 1973 to 1980 who were monitored for 5 years. From this cohort, 2,852 white women developed breast cancer and 3,146 controls were selected, all with complete risk-factor information. The BCDDP model, previously developed from these data, was used to prepare graphs that relate a specific summary relative-risk estimate to the absolute risk of developing breast cancer over intervals of 10, 20, and 30 years. Once a summary relative risk is calculated, the appropriate graph is chosen that shows the 10-, 20-, or 30-year absolute risk of developing breast cancer. A separate graph gives the 95% confidence limits around the point estimate of absolute risk. Once a clinician rules out a single gene trait that predisposes to breast cancer and elicits information on age and four risk factors, the tables and figures permit an estimation of a women's absolute risk of developing breast cancer in the next three decades. These results are intended to be applied to women who undergo regular screening. They should be used only in a formal counseling program to maximize a woman's understanding of the estimates and the proper use of them.

  20. A Mouse Model for Human Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Schweizer, Johannes; Mahoney, Charles; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Human anal cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers. As with other cancers, HPV16 is the most common high-risk HPV in anal cancers. We describe the generation and characterization of a mouse model for human anal cancer. This model makes use of K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice in which the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes are directed in their expression to stratified squamous epithelia. HPV16 E6 and E7 possess oncogenic properties including but not limited to their capacity to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and pRb, respectively. Both E6 and E7 were found to be functionally expressed in the anal epithelia of K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice. To assess the susceptibility of these mice to anal cancer, mice were treated topically with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a chemical carcinogen that is known to induce squamous cell carcinomas in other sites. Nearly 50% of DMBA-treated HPV16 E6/E7 transgenic mice showed overt signs of tumors; whereas, none of the like treated non-transgenic mice showed tumors. Histopathological analyses confirmed that the HPV16 transgenic mice were increased in their susceptibility to anal cancers and precancerous lesions. Biomarker analyses demonstrated that these mouse anal cancers exhibit properties that are similar to those observed in HPV-positive precursors to human anal cancer. This is the first mouse model for investigating the contributions of viral and cellular factors in anal carcinogenesis, and should provide a platform for assessing new therapeutic modalities for treating and/or preventing this type of cancer. PMID:20947489

  1. Cancer Related-Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    These model-based estimates are produced using statistical models that combine data from the Health Information National Trends Survey, and auxiliary variables obtained from relevant sources and borrow strength from other areas with similar characteristics.

  2. Estimating progression rates for human papillomavirus infection from epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Gay, Nigel; Soldan, Kate; Hong Choi, Yoon; Edmunds, William John

    2010-01-01

    A Markov model was constructed in order to estimate type-specific rates of cervical lesion progression and regression in women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). The model was fitted to age- and type-specific data regarding the HPV DNA and cytological status of women undergoing cervical screening in a recent screening trial, as well as cervical cancer incidence. It incorporates different assumptions about the way lesions regress, the accuracy of cytological screening, the specificity of HPV DNA testing, and the age-specific prevalence of HPV infection. Combinations of assumptions generate 162 scenarios for squamous cell carcinomas and 54 scenarios for adenocarcinomas. Simulating an unscreened cohort of women infected with high-risk HPV indicates that the probability of an infection continuing to persist and to develop into invasive cancer depends on the length of time it has already persisted. The scenarios and parameter sets that produce the best fit to available epidemiological data provide a basis for modeling the natural history of HPV infection and disease.

  3. Environmental and genetic interactions in human cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, M.C.

    Humans, depending upon their genetic make-up, differ in their susceptibility to the cancer-causing effects of extrinsic agents. Clinical and laboratory studies on the hereditary disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (AT) show that persons afflicted with this are cancer-prone and unusually sensitive to conventional radiotherapy. Their skin cells, when cultured, are hypersensitive to killing by ionizing radiation, being defective in the enzymatic repair of radiation-induced damange to the genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This molecular finding implicates DNA damage and its imperfect repair as an early step in the induction of human cancer by radiation and other carcinogens. The parents of AT patients are clincally normal but their cultured cells are often moderately radiosensitive. The increased radiosensitivity of cultured cells offers a means of identifying a presumed cancer-prone subpopulation that should avoid undue exposure to certain carcinogens. The radioresponse of cells from patients with other cancer-associated genetic disorders and persons suspected of being genetically predisposed to radiation-induced cancer has also been measured. Increased cell killing by γ-rays appears in the complex genetic disease, tuberous sclerosis. Cells from cancer-stricken members of a leukemia-prone family are also radiosensitive, as are cells from one patient with radiation-associated breast cancer. These radiobiological data, taken together, strongly suggest that genetic factors can interact with extrinsic agents and thereby play a greater causative role in the development of common cancers in man than previously thought. (L.L.)

  4. Human pancreatic cancer xenografts recapitulate key aspects of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitto, Daniel; Judge, Sarah M; Delitto, Andrea E; Nosacka, Rachel L; Rocha, Fernanda G; DiVita, Bayli B; Gerber, Michael H; George, Thomas J; Behrns, Kevin E; Hughes, Steven J; Wallet, Shannon M; Judge, Andrew R; Trevino, Jose G

    2017-01-03

    Cancer cachexia represents a debilitating syndrome that diminishes quality of life and augments the toxicities of conventional treatments. Cancer cachexia is particularly debilitating in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Mechanisms responsible for cancer cachexia are under investigation and are largely derived from observations in syngeneic murine models of cancer which are limited in PC. We evaluate the effect of human PC cells on both muscle wasting and the systemic inflammatory milieu potentially contributing to PC-associated cachexia. Specifically, human PC xenografts were generated by implantation of pancreatic cancer cells, L3.6pl and PANC-1, either in the flank or orthotopically within the pancreas. Mice bearing orthotopic xenografts demonstrated significant muscle wasting and atrophy-associated gene expression changes compared to controls. Further, despite the absence of adaptive immunity, splenic tissue from orthotopically engrafted mice demonstrated elevations in several pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with cancer cachexia, including TNFα, IL1β, IL6 and KC (murine IL8 homologue), when compared to controls. Therefore, data presented here support further investigation into the complexity of cancer cachexia in PC to identify potential targets for this debilitating syndrome.

  5. Estimation of National Colorectal-Cancer Incidence Using Claims Databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantin, C.; Benzenine, E.; Hagi, M.; Auverlot, B.; Cottenet, J.; Binquet, M.; Compain, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the colorectal-cancer incidence estimated from administrative data. Methods. We selected potential incident colorectal-cancer cases in 2004-2005 French administrative data, using two alternative algorithms. The first was based only on diagnostic and procedure codes, whereas the second considered the past history of the patient. Results of both methods were assessed against two corresponding local cancer registries, acting as “gold standards.” We then constructed a multivariable regression model to estimate the corrected total number of incident colorectal-cancer cases from the whole national administrative database. Results. The first algorithm provided an estimated local incidence very close to that given by the regional registries (646 versus 645 incident cases) and had good sensitivity and positive predictive values (about 75% for both). The second algorithm overestimated the incidence by about 50% and had a poor positive predictive value of about 60%. The estimation of national incidence obtained by the first algorithm differed from that observed in 14 registries by only 2.34%. Conclusion. This study shows the usefulness of administrative databases for countries with no national cancer registry and suggests a method for correcting the estimates provided by these data.

  6. Modeling Human Cancers in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoshita, M; Cagan, R L

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that affects multiple organs. Whole-body animal models provide important insights into oncology that can lead to clinical impact. Here, we review novel concepts that Drosophila studies have established for cancer biology, drug discovery, and patient therapy. Genetic studies using Drosophila have explored the roles of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that when dysregulated promote cancer formation, making Drosophila a useful model to study multiple aspects of transformation. Not limited to mechanism analyses, Drosophila has recently been showing its value in facilitating drug development. Flies offer rapid, efficient platforms by which novel classes of drugs can be identified as candidate anticancer leads. Further, we discuss the use of Drosophila as a platform to develop therapies for individual patients by modeling the tumor's genetic complexity. Drosophila provides both a classical and a novel tool to identify new therapeutics, complementing other more traditional cancer tools. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence.

  8. Estimating the costs of human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The plan for NASA's new exploration initiative has the following strategic themes: (1) incremental, logical evolutionary development; (2) economic viability; and (3) excellence in management. The cost estimation process is involved with all of these themes and they are completely dependent upon the engineering cost estimator for success. The purpose is to articulate the issues associated with beginning this major new government initiative, to show how NASA intends to resolve them, and finally to demonstrate the vital importance of a leadership role by the cost estimation community.

  9. Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovato James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22. Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88 after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

  10. Estimating Human Predictability From Mobile Sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Jensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of human behavior is of prime interest in many applications ranging from behavioral science to practical applications like GSM resource planning and context-aware services. As proxies for humans, we apply multiple mobile phone sensors all conveying information about human behavior....... Using a recent, information theoretic approach it is demonstrated that the trajectories of individual sensors are highly predictable given complete knowledge of the infinite past. We suggest using a new approach to time scale selection which demonstrates that participants have even higher predictability...

  11. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  12. Prevalence of Telomerase Activity in Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hau Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity has been measured in a wide variety of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue types, and the vast majority of clinical studies have shown a direct correlation between it and the presence of cancerous cells. Telomerase plays a key role in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Telomerase is activated in 80–90% of human carcinomas, but not in normal somatic cells, therefore, its detection holds promise as a diagnostic marker for cancer. Measurable levels of telomerase have been detected in malignant cells from various samples: tissue from gestational trophoblastic neoplasms; squamous carcinoma cells from oral rinses; lung carcinoma cells from bronchial washings; colorectal carcinoma cells from colonic luminal washings; bladder carcinoma cells from urine or bladder washings; and breast carcinoma or thyroid cancer cells from fine needle aspirations. Such clinical tests for telomerase can be useful as non-invasive and cost-effective methods for early detection and monitoring of cancer. In addition, telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with poor clinical outcome in late-stage diseases such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and soft tissue sarcomas. In such cases, testing for telomerase activity can be used to identify patients with a poor prognosis and to select those who might benefit from adjuvant treatment. Our review of the latest medical advances in this field reveals that telomerase holds great promise as a biomarker for early cancer detection and monitoring, and has considerable potential as the basis for developing new anticancer therapies.

  13. Radiobiology of human cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has systematically collected and collated the scientific literature correlating the basic and clinical sciences in this field in order to produce a definitive treatise. The book thoroughly reviews the biology and biochemistry relevant to radiobiology and describes the critical locus for the extinction of cell reproductive capacity. Extensive coverage is given to oxygen effect, hyperthermia, high linear energy transfer, cell populations, and similar topics. Separate sections cover time, dose, and fractionation; radiation hematology; cancer chemotherapy; and cancer immunology. The book also contains invaluable discussions of techniques for optimizing radiotherapy alone and in combination with other therapies

  14. Estimation of health state utilities in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seon-Ha Kim,1 Min-Woo Jo,2 Minsu Ock,2 Hyeon-Jeong Lee,2 Jong-Won Lee3,4 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Dankook University, Cheonan, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, 3Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 4Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the utility of breast cancer health states using the standard gamble (SG and visual analog scale (VAS methods in the Korean general population.Materials and methods: Eight hypothetical breast cancer health states were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. Data from 509 individuals from the Korean general population were used to evaluate breast cancer health states using the VAS and the SG methods, which were obtained via computer-assisted personal interviews. Mean utility values were calculated for each human papillomavirus (HPV-related health state.Results: The rank of health states was identical between two valuation methods. SG values were higher than VAS values in all health states. The utility values derived from SG were 0.801 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy and followed by reconstruction, 0.790 (noninvasive breast cancer with mastectomy only, 0.779 (noninvasive breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy, 0.731 (invasive breast cancer with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy, 0.610 (locally advanced breast cancer with radical mastectomy with radiation therapy, 0.587 (inoperable locally advanced breast cancer, 0.496 (loco-regional recurrent breast cancer, and 0.352 (metastatic breast cancer.Conclusion: Our findings might be useful for economic evaluation of breast cancer screening and interventions in general populations. Keywords: breast neoplasm, Korea, quality-adjusted life years, quality of life

  15. Human factors estimation methods using physiological informations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nakasa, Hiroyasu

    1984-01-01

    To enhance the operational safety in the nuclear power plant, it is necessary to decrease abnormal phenomena due to human errors. Especially, it is essential to basically understand human behaviors under the work environment for plant maintenance workers, inspectors, and operators. On the above stand point, this paper presents the results of literature survey on the present status of human factors engineering technology applicable to the nuclear power plant and also discussed the following items: (1) Application fields where the ergonomical evaluation is needed for workers safety. (2) Basic methodology for investigating the human performance. (3) Features of the physiological information analysis among various types of ergonomical techniques. (4) Necessary conditions for the application of in-situ physiological measurement to the nuclear power plant. (5) Availability of the physiological information analysis. (6) Effectiveness of the human factors engineering methodology, especially physiological information analysis in the case of application to the nuclear power plant. The above discussions lead to the demonstration of high applicability of the physiological information analysis to nuclear power plant, in order to improve the work performance. (author)

  16. Human antimicrobial peptides and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ge; Weinberg, Aaron

    2018-05-30

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have long been a topic of interest for entomologists, biologists, immunologists and clinicians because of these agents' intriguing origins in insects, their ubiquitous expression in many life forms, their capacity to kill a wide range of bacteria, fungi and viruses, their role in innate immunity as microbicidal and immunoregulatory agents that orchestrate cross-talk with the adaptive immune system, and, most recently, their association with cancer. We and others have theorized that surveillance through epithelial cell-derived AMPs functions to keep the natural flora of microorganisms in a steady state in different niches such as the skin, the intestines, and the mouth. More recently, findings related to specific activation pathways of some of these AMPs have led investigators to associate them with pro-tumoral activity; i.e., contributing to a tumorigenic microenvironment. This area is still in its infancy as there are intriguing yet contradictory findings demonstrating that while some AMPs have anti-tumoral activity and are under-expressed in solid tumors, others are overexpressed and pro-tumorigenic. This review will introduce a new paradigm in cancer biology as it relates to AMP activity in neoplasia to address the following questions: Is there evidence that AMPs contribute to tumor promoting microenvironments? Can an anti-AMP strategy be of use in cancer therapy? Do AMPs, expressed in and released from tumors, contribute to compositional shifting of bacteria in cancerous lesions? Can specific AMP expression characteristics be used one day as early warning signs for solid tumors? Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating Rn-induced lung cancer in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, J.H.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The proportion of lung cancer deaths attributable to Rn among residents of single-family homes in the U.S. (approximately 70% of the housing stock) is estimated using the log-normal distribution of Rn concentrations proposed by Nero et al. (1986) and the risk model developed by the National Academy of Sciences' BEIR IV Committee. The risk model, together with the exposure distribution, predicts that approximately 14% of lung cancer deaths among such residents (about 13,300 deaths per year, or 10% of all U.S. lung cancer deaths) may be due to indoor Rn exposure. The 95% confidence interval is 7%-25%, or approximately 6600 to 24,000 lung cancer deaths. These estimated attributable risks due to Rn are similar for males and females and for smokers and nonsmokers, but higher baseline risks of lung cancer result in much larger absolute numbers of Rn-attributable cancers among males (approximately 9000) and among smokers (approximately 11,000). Because of the apparent skewness of the exposure distribution, most of the contribution to the attributable risks arises from exposure rates below 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), i.e., below the EPA action level. As a result, if all exposure rates that exceed 148 Bq m-3 (approximately 8% of homes) were eliminated, the models predict that the total annual lung cancer burden in the U.S. would drop by 4-5%, or by about 3800 lung cancer deaths, in contrast to a maximum reduction of 14% if all indoor Rn exposure above the 1st percentile were eliminated

  18. Cervical cancer and the human immunodeficiency virus: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in women. It comprises approximately 12% of all cancers and is the commonest cancer in women in developing countries. The most recent compilation of global data indicates that an estimated 490 000 new cases of cervical cancer occur annually worldwide and ...

  19. Estimates of radiation doses and cancer risk from food intake in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Wi Ho; Seo, Song Won; Jin, Young Woo; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Hae Jung; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Hwang, Myung Sil; Choi, Hoon

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a widespread public concern for radiation exposure through the contamination of domestic or imported food has continued worldwide. Because the internal exposure from contaminated food is an important consideration for human health effect, some studies for estimating radiation doses and cancer risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident have been conducted in several countries (1). The aims of the study is to estimate internal radiation dose and lifetime risks of cancer from food ingestion in Korean population. Our findings suggest no discernible increase n radiation doses or excess fatal cancer risk from food ingestion at this stage in Korea, and provide scientific evidence of the risk communication with general public associated with low-dose radiation exposure.

  20. Estimates of radiation doses and cancer risk from food intake in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Wi Ho; Seo, Song Won; Jin, Young Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hae Jung; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Hwang, Myung Sil [Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a widespread public concern for radiation exposure through the contamination of domestic or imported food has continued worldwide. Because the internal exposure from contaminated food is an important consideration for human health effect, some studies for estimating radiation doses and cancer risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident have been conducted in several countries (1). The aims of the study is to estimate internal radiation dose and lifetime risks of cancer from food ingestion in Korean population. Our findings suggest no discernible increase n radiation doses or excess fatal cancer risk from food ingestion at this stage in Korea, and provide scientific evidence of the risk communication with general public associated with low-dose radiation exposure.

  1. Estimation of the proteomic cancer co-expression sub networks by using association estimators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Erdoğan

    Full Text Available In this study, the association estimators, which have significant influences on the gene network inference methods and used for determining the molecular interactions, were examined within the co-expression network inference concept. By using the proteomic data from five different cancer types, the hub genes/proteins within the disease-associated gene-gene/protein-protein interaction sub networks were identified. Proteomic data from various cancer types is collected from The Cancer Proteome Atlas (TCPA. Correlation and mutual information (MI based nine association estimators that are commonly used in the literature, were compared in this study. As the gold standard to measure the association estimators' performance, a multi-layer data integration platform on gene-disease associations (DisGeNET and the Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB was used. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate the performance of the association estimators by comparing the created co-expression networks with the disease-associated pathways. It was observed that the MI based estimators provided more successful results than the Pearson and Spearman correlation approaches, which are used in the estimation of biological networks in the weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA package. In correlation-based methods, the best average success rate for five cancer types was 60%, while in MI-based methods the average success ratio was 71% for James-Stein Shrinkage (Shrink and 64% for Schurmann-Grassberger (SG association estimator, respectively. Moreover, the hub genes and the inferred sub networks are presented for the consideration of researchers and experimentalists.

  2. Human Papillomavirus and Vaccination in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Liahng Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is not only the most frequently reported cancer among women, but also the most common female genital tract neoplasm in Taiwan. Early detection is effective, because the development, maintenance and progression of precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] evolve slowly into invasive cancer, typically over a period of more than 10 years. It is now recognized that human papillomavirus (HPV infection is a necessary cause for over 99% of cervical cancer cases. Advances in the understanding of the causative role of HPV in the etiology of high-grade cervical lesions (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer have led to the development, evaluation and recommendation of HPV-based technologies for cervical cancer prevention and control. The prevention of HPV infection before the onset of CIN is now possible with recently available prophylactic HPV vaccines, e.g. the quadrivalent Gardasil (Merck & Co., NJ, USA and bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK. This review article provides an up-to-date summary of recent studies and available information concerning HPV and vaccination in cervical cancer.

  3. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor in primary human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xueyan; Hu Guoqiang; Tian Keli; Wang Mingyun

    1996-01-01

    Cell membranes were prepared from 12 human lung cancers for the study of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR). EGFR concentration was estimated by ligand binding studies using 125 I-radiolabeled EGF. The dissociation constants of the high affinity sites were identical, 1.48 nmol and 1.1 nmol in cancer and normal lung tissues, the EGFR contents were higher in lung cancer tissues (range: 2.25 to 19.39 pmol·g -1 membrane protein) than that in normal tissues from the same patients (range: 0.72 to 7.43 pmol·g -1 membrane protein). These results suggest that EGF and its receptor may play a role in the regulatory mechanisms in the control of lung cellular growth and tumor promotion

  5. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  6. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers: A growing global problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Anshuma; Singh, Mini P; Rai, Bhavana

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is linked with several cancers such as cancer cervix, vagina, vulva, head and neck, anal, and penile carcinomas. Although there is a proven association of HPV with these cancers, questions regarding HPV testing, vaccination, and treatment of HPV-related cancers continue to remain unanswered. The present article provides an overview of the HPV-associated cancers.

  7. A transcriptome anatomy of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Bingjian; Xu, Jing; Lai, Maode; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating databases in human genome research have enabled integrated genome-wide study on complicated diseases such as cancers. A practical approach is to mine a global transcriptome profile of disease from public database. New concepts of these diseases might emerge by landscaping this profile. In this study, we clustered human colorectal normal mucosa (N), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adenoma (A) and cancer (T) related expression sequence tags (EST) into UniGenes via an in-house GetUni software package and analyzed the transcriptome overview of these libraries by GOTree Machine (GOTM). Additionally, we downloaded UniGene based cDNA libraries of colon and analyzed them by Xprofiler to cross validate the efficiency of GetUni. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the expression of β-catenin and. 7 novel genes in colorectal cancers. The efficiency of GetUni was successfully validated by Xprofiler and RT-PCR. Genes in library N, IBD and A were all found in library T. A total of 14,879 genes were identified with 2,355 of them having at least 2 transcripts. Differences in gene enrichment among these libraries were statistically significant in 50 signal transduction pathways and Pfam protein domains by GOTM analysis P < 0.01 Hypergeometric Test). Genes in two metabolic pathways, ribosome and glycolysis, were more enriched in the expression profiles of A and IBD than in N and T. Seven transmembrane receptor superfamily genes were typically abundant in cancers. Colorectal cancers are genetically heterogeneous. Transcription variants are common in them. Aberrations of ribosome and glycolysis pathway might be early indicators of precursor lesions in colon cancers. The electronic gene expression profile could be used to highlight the integral molecular events in colorectal cancers

  8. A Suitable Approach to Estimate Cancer Incidence in Area without Cancer Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitton, N.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Use of cancer cases from registries and PMSI claims database to estimate Department-specific incidence of four major cancers. Methods. Case extraction used principal diagnosis then surgery codes. PMSI cases/registry cases ratios for 2004 were modelled then Department-specific incidence for 2007 estimated using these ratios and 2007 PMSI cases. Results. For 2007, only colon-rectum and breast cancer estimations were satisfactorily validated for infra national incidence not ovary and kidney cancers. For breast, the estimated national incidence was 50,578 cases and the incidence rate 98.6 cases per 100,000 person per year. For colon-rectum, incidence was 21,172 in men versus 18,327 in women and the incidence rate 38 per 100,000 versus 24.8. For ovary, the estimated incidence was 4,637 and the rate 8.6 per 100,000. For kidney, incidence was 6,775 in men versus 3,273 in women and the rate 13.3 per 100.000 versus 5.2. Conclusion. Incidence estimation using PMSI patient identifiers proved encouraging though still dependent on the assumption of uniform cancer treatments and coding.

  9. Human motion estimation with multiple frequency modulated continuous wave radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, P.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Human motion estimation is an important issue in automotive, security or home automation applications. Radar systems are well suited for this because they are robust, are independent of day or night conditions and have accurate range and speed domain. The human response in a radar range-speed-time

  10. Regulatory T Cells in Human Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jun Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple layers of suppressive components including regulatory T (TReg cells, suppressive antigen-presenting cells, and inhibitory cytokines form suppressive networks in the ovarian cancer microenvironment. It has been demonstrated that as a major suppressive element, TReg cells infiltrate tumor, interact with several types of immune cells, and mediate immune suppression through different molecular and cellular mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on human ovarian cancer and will discuss the nature of TReg cells including their subsets, trafficking, expansion, and function. We will briefly review the development of manipulation of TReg cells in preclinical and clinical settings.

  11. Estimation of Cachexia among Cancer Patients Based on Four Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Fox

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Estimate and compare the proportion of cancer patients with cachexia using different definitions from available clinical data. Methods. Electronic medical records were examined to estimate the proportion of cancer patients with cachexia using 4 definitions: (1 ICD-9 diagnostic code of 799.4 (cachexia, (2 ICD-9 diagnosis of cachexia, anorexia, abnormal weight loss, or feeding difficulties, (3 prescription for megestrol acetate, oxandrolone, somatropin, or dronabinol, and (4 ≥5% weight loss. Patients with cancer of the stomach, pancreas, lung, colon/rectum, head/neck, esophagus, prostate, breast, or liver diagnosed between 1999 and 2004 were followed for cachexia. Results. Of 8541 cancer patients (60% men and 55% Caucasian, cachexia was observed in 2.4% of patients using the cachexia diagnostic code, 5.5% expanded diagnoses, 6.4% prescription medication definition, and 14.7% with ≥5% weight loss. Conclusions. The proportion of patients with cachexia varied considerably depending upon the definition employed, indicating that a standard operational definition is needed.

  12. Human retroviruses: their role in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, W A

    1999-01-01

    Viruses are etiologically linked to approximately 20% of all malignancies worldwide. Retroviruses account for approximately 8%-10% of the total. For human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-I), the viral regulatory tax gene product is responsible for enhanced transcription of viral and cellular genes that promote cell growth by stimulating various growth factors and through dysregulation of cellular regulatory suppressor genes, such as p53. After a long latent period, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) occurs in 1 per 1000 carriers per year, resulting in 2500-3000 cases per year worldwide and over half of the adult lymphoid malignancies in endemic areas. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) accounts for a significant cancer burden, and its transactivating regulatory protein Tat enhances direct and indirect cytokine and immunological dysregulation to cause diverse cancers. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a very rare tumor except after HIV-1 infection, when its incidence is greatly amplified reaching seventy thousand-fold in HIV-infected homosexual men. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), which is also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus (KSHV), is a necessary but not sufficient etiological factor in KS. The dramatic decline of KS since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could be due to suppression of HIV-1 tat. B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurs as their first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining diagnosis in 3%-4% of HIV-infected patients. Hodgkin's lymphoma is also associated with HIV infection but at a lower risk. Human papillomaviruses are linked to invasive cervical cancer and anogenital cancers among HIV-infected patients. Human retroviruses cause malignancy via direct effects as well as through interactions with other oncogenic herpesviruses and other viruses.

  13. Estimation of cancer risks from radiotherapy of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Kamprad, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The effective-dose method which was proposed by the ICRP (International Commission of Radiation Protection) for the estimation of risk to the general population from occupational or environmental, low-dose radiation exposure is not adequate for estimating the risk of cancer induction by radiotherapy of malignant or nonmalignant diseases. Methods:The risk of cancer induction by radiotherapy of benign diseases should be based on epidemiologic data directly derived from follow-up studies of patients who had been given radiotherapy for nonmalignant diseases in the past. Results: Risk factors were derived from epidemiologic studies of patients treated with irradiation for nonmalignant diseases to be used for selecting treatment options and optimizing treatment procedures. Conclusion: In most cases, cancer risks estimated by the effective-dose method may overestimate the true risks by one order of magnitude, yet in other cases even may underestimate it. The proposed method using organ-specific risk factors may be more suitable for treatment planning. (orig.)

  14. Recent proposal for the estimation of household human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Vittadini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dagum and Slottje (2000 estimated household Human Capital (HC as a Latent Variable (LV proposing its monetary estimation by means of an actuarial approach. This paper introduces an improved method for the estimation of household HC as LV by means of formative and reflective indicators in agreement with the accepted economic definition of HC. The monetary HC distribution, estimated for Italian (2000 and US (2004 household, is used in a recursive causal model to explore the role of HC in macroeconomy.

  15. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cegolon Luca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a significant and growing problem worldwide. While this increase may, in part, be attributed to increasing longevity, improved case notifications and risk-enhancing lifestyle (such as smoking, diet and obesity, hygiene-related factors resulting in immuno-regulatory failure may also play a major role and call for a revision of vaccination strategies to protect against a range of cancers in addition to infections. Discussion Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs are a significant component of a wider family of retroelements that constitutes part of the human genome. They were originated by the integration of exogenous retroviruses into the human genome millions of years ago. HERVs are estimated to comprise about 8% of human DNA and are ubiquitous in somatic and germinal tissues. Physiologic and pathologic processes are influenced by some biologically active HERV families. HERV antigens are only expressed at low levels by the host, but in circumstances of inappropriate control their genes may initiate or maintain pathological processes. Although the precise mechanism leading to abnormal HERVs gene expression has yet to be clearly elucidated, environmental factors seem to be involved by influencing the human immune system. HERV-K expression has been detected in different types of tumors. Among the various human endogenous retroviral families, the K series was the latest acquired by the human species. Probably because of its relatively recent origin, the HERV-K is the most complete and biologically active family. The abnormal expression of HERV-K seemingly triggers pathological processes leading to melanoma onset, but also contributes to the morphological and functional cellular modifications implicated in melanoma maintenance and progression. The HERV-K-MEL antigen is encoded by a pseudo-gene incorporated in the HERV-K env-gene. HERV-K-MEL is significantly expressed in the majority of dysplastic and normal naevi, as well

  16. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegolon, Luca; Salata, Cristiano; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vineis, Paolo; Palù, Giorgio; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-03

    Cancer is a significant and growing problem worldwide. While this increase may, in part, be attributed to increasing longevity, improved case notifications and risk-enhancing lifestyle (such as smoking, diet and obesity), hygiene-related factors resulting in immuno-regulatory failure may also play a major role and call for a revision of vaccination strategies to protect against a range of cancers in addition to infections. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a significant component of a wider family of retroelements that constitutes part of the human genome. They were originated by the integration of exogenous retroviruses into the human genome millions of years ago. HERVs are estimated to comprise about 8% of human DNA and are ubiquitous in somatic and germinal tissues.Physiologic and pathologic processes are influenced by some biologically active HERV families. HERV antigens are only expressed at low levels by the host, but in circumstances of inappropriate control their genes may initiate or maintain pathological processes. Although the precise mechanism leading to abnormal HERVs gene expression has yet to be clearly elucidated, environmental factors seem to be involved by influencing the human immune system.HERV-K expression has been detected in different types of tumors.Among the various human endogenous retroviral families, the K series was the latest acquired by the human species. Probably because of its relatively recent origin, the HERV-K is the most complete and biologically active family.The abnormal expression of HERV-K seemingly triggers pathological processes leading to melanoma onset, but also contributes to the morphological and functional cellular modifications implicated in melanoma maintenance and progression.The HERV-K-MEL antigen is encoded by a pseudo-gene incorporated in the HERV-K env-gene. HERV-K-MEL is significantly expressed in the majority of dysplastic and normal naevi, as well as other tumors like sarcoma, lymphoma, bladder and

  17. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegolon, Luca; Salata, Cristiano; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vineis, Paolo; Palù, Giorgio; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a significant and growing problem worldwide. While this increase may, in part, be attributed to increasing longevity, improved case notifications and risk-enhancing lifestyle (such as smoking, diet and obesity), hygiene-related factors resulting in immuno-regulatory failure may also play a major role and call for a revision of vaccination strategies to protect against a range of cancers in addition to infections. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a significant component of a wider family of retroelements that constitutes part of the human genome. They were originated by the integration of exogenous retroviruses into the human genome millions of years ago. HERVs are estimated to comprise about 8% of human DNA and are ubiquitous in somatic and germinal tissues. Physiologic and pathologic processes are influenced by some biologically active HERV families. HERV antigens are only expressed at low levels by the host, but in circumstances of inappropriate control their genes may initiate or maintain pathological processes. Although the precise mechanism leading to abnormal HERVs gene expression has yet to be clearly elucidated, environmental factors seem to be involved by influencing the human immune system. HERV-K expression has been detected in different types of tumors. Among the various human endogenous retroviral families, the K series was the latest acquired by the human species. Probably because of its relatively recent origin, the HERV-K is the most complete and biologically active family. The abnormal expression of HERV-K seemingly triggers pathological processes leading to melanoma onset, but also contributes to the morphological and functional cellular modifications implicated in melanoma maintenance and progression. The HERV-K-MEL antigen is encoded by a pseudo-gene incorporated in the HERV-K env-gene. HERV-K-MEL is significantly expressed in the majority of dysplastic and normal naevi, as well as other tumors like sarcoma, lymphoma, bladder

  18. The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walpole Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. Regarding human populations, although considerable attention is given to estimating the number of people, much less is given to estimating average mass, despite evidence that average body mass is increasing. We estimate global human biomass, its distribution by region and the proportion of biomass due to overweight and obesity. Methods For each country we used data on body mass index (BMI and height distribution to estimate average adult body mass. We calculated total biomass as the product of population size and average body mass. We estimated the percentage of the population that is overweight (BMI > 25 and obese (BMI > 30 and the biomass due to overweight and obesity. Results In 2005, global adult human biomass was approximately 287 million tonnes, of which 15 million tonnes were due to overweight (BMI > 25, a mass equivalent to that of 242 million people of average body mass (5% of global human biomass. Biomass due to obesity was 3.5 million tonnes, the mass equivalent of 56 million people of average body mass (1.2% of human biomass. North America has 6% of the world population but 34% of biomass due to obesity. Asia has 61% of the world population but 13% of biomass due to obesity. One tonne of human biomass corresponds to approximately 12 adults in North America and 17 adults in Asia. If all countries had the BMI distribution of the USA, the increase in human biomass of 58 million tonnes would be equivalent in mass to an extra 935 million people of average body mass, and have energy requirements equivalent to that of 473 million adults. Conclusions Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food energy demands as an extra half a billion people living on the earth.

  19. Estimation of human emotions using thermal facial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung; Kotani, Kazunori; Chen, Fan; Le, Bac

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on human emotion estimation using thermal infrared (IR) imagery has appealed to many researchers due to its invariance to visible illumination changes. Although infrared imagery is superior to visible imagery in its invariance to illumination changes and appearance differences, it has difficulties in handling transparent glasses in the thermal infrared spectrum. As a result, when using infrared imagery for the analysis of human facial information, the regions of eyeglasses are dark and eyes' thermal information is not given. We propose a temperature space method to correct eyeglasses' effect using the thermal facial information in the neighboring facial regions, and then use Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Eigen-space Method based on class-features (EMC), and PCA-EMC method to classify human emotions from the corrected thermal images. We collected the Kotani Thermal Facial Emotion (KTFE) database and performed the experiments, which show the improved accuracy rate in estimating human emotions.

  20. Molecular concept in human oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U S

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which multiple genetic events occur that alter the normal functions of proto-oncogenes/oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, these gene alterations can deregulate the normal activity such as increase in the production of growth factors (transforming growth factor-α [TGF-α], TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor, etc.) or numbers of cell surface receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor, etc.), enhanced intracellular messenger signaling and mutated production of transcription factors (ras gene family, c-myc gene) which results disturb to tightly regulated signaling pathways of normal cell. Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in oral cancer especially cyclin family, ras, PRAD-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p53 and RB1. Viral infections, particularly with oncogenic human papilloma virus subtype (16 and 18) and Epstein-Barr virus have tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia. Worldwide, this is an urgent need to initiate oral cancer research programs at molecular and genetic level which investigates the causes of genetic and molecular defect, responsible for malignancy. This approach may lead to development of target dependent tumor-specific drugs and appropriate gene therapy.

  1. Estimation of the human error probabilities in the human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibin; He Xuhong; Tong Jiejuan; Shen Shifei

    2006-01-01

    Human error data is an important issue of human reliability analysis (HRA). Using of Bayesian parameter estimation, which can use multiple information, such as the historical data of NPP and expert judgment data to modify the human error data, could get the human error data reflecting the real situation of NPP more truly. This paper, using the numeric compute program developed by the authors, presents some typical examples to illustrate the process of the Bayesian parameter estimation in HRA and discusses the effect of different modification data on the Bayesian parameter estimation. (authors)

  2. Evaluating human cancer cell metastasis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; White, David T; Mumm, Jeff S; Cowell, John K

    2013-01-01

    In vivo metastasis assays have traditionally been performed in mice, but the process is inefficient and costly. However, since zebrafish do not develop an adaptive immune system until 14 days post-fertilization, human cancer cells can survive and metastasize when transplanted into zebrafish larvae. Despite isolated reports, there has been no systematic evaluation of the robustness of this system to date. Individual cell lines were stained with CM-Dil and injected into the perivitelline space of 2-day old zebrafish larvae. After 2-4 days fish were imaged using confocal microscopy and the number of metastatic cells was determined using Fiji software. To determine whether zebrafish can faithfully report metastatic potential in human cancer cells, we injected a series of cells with different metastatic potential into the perivitelline space of 2 day old embryos. Using cells from breast, prostate, colon and pancreas we demonstrated that the degree of cell metastasis in fish is proportional to their invasion potential in vitro. Highly metastatic cells such as MDA231, DU145, SW620 and ASPC-1 are seen in the vasculature and throughout the body of the fish after only 24–48 hours. Importantly, cells that are not invasive in vitro such as T47D, LNCaP and HT29 do not metastasize in fish. Inactivation of JAK1/2 in fibrosarcoma cells leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and in zebrafish these cells show limited spread throughout the zebrafish body compared with the highly metastatic parental cells. Further, knockdown of WASF3 in DU145 cells which leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo also results in suppression of metastasis in zebrafish. In a cancer progression model involving normal MCF10A breast epithelial cells, the degree of invasion/metastasis in vitro and in mice is mirrored in zebrafish. Using a modified version of Fiji software, it is possible to quantify individual metastatic cells in the transparent larvae to correlate with

  3. Estimation of radiation cancer risk in CT-KUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahrudin, N. A.; Mhareb, M. H. A.

    2017-08-01

    The increased demand for computed tomography (CT) in radiological scanning examinations raises the question of a potential health impact from the associated radiation exposures. Focusing on CT kidney-ureter-bladder (CT-KUB) procedures, this work was aimed at determining organ equivalent dose using a commercial CT dose calculator and providing an estimate of cancer risks. The study, which included 64 patients (32 males and 32 females, mean age 55.5 years and age range 30-80 years), involved use of a calibrated CT scanner (Siemens-Somatom Emotion 16-slice). The CT exposures parameter including tube potential, pitch factor, tube current, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded and analyzed using CT-EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany). Patient organ doses, including for stomach, liver, colon, bladder, red bone marrow, prostate and ovaries were calculated and converted into cancer risks using age- and sex-specific data published in the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report. With a median value scan range of 36.1 cm, the CTDIvol, DLP, and effective dose were found to be 10.7 mGy, 390.3 mGy cm and 6.2 mSv, respectively. The mean cancer risks for males and females were estimated to be respectively 25 and 46 out of 100,000 procedures with effective doses between 4.2 mSv and 10.1 mSv. Given the increased cancer risks from current CT-KUB procedures compared to conventional examinations, we propose that the low dose protocols for unenhanced CT procedures be taken into consideration before establishing imaging protocols for CT-KUB.

  4. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 2 provides detailed procedures for using the techniques, detailed descriptions of the analyses performed to evaluate the techniques, and HEP estimates generated as part of this project. The results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. Judgments were shown to be consistent and to provide HEP estimates with a good degree of convergent validity. Of the two techniques tested, direct numerical estimation appears to be preferable in terms of ease of application and quality of results

  5. Artificial sweeteners and human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Morrison, B; Gordon, P; Weldon, L; Chambers, L W; Fodor, G; Winsor, G M

    1977-09-17

    A positive association between the use of artificial sweetners, particularly saccharin, and risk of bladder cancer in males has been observed in a case-control study of 480 men and 152 women in three Provinces in Canada. The risk ratio for ever versus never used is 1-6 for males (P=0-009, one-tailed test), and a significant dose-response relationship was obtained for both duration and frequency of use. The population attributable risk for males is estimated at 7%, though for diabetics, who have a similar risk ratio for artificial sweetner use as non-diabetics, the attributable risk is 33%.

  6. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer: A ... Primary HPV prevention may be the key to reducing incidence and burden of cervical cancer ... Other resources included locally-published articles and additional internet ...

  7. Effect of Training on Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Effect of Training on Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Human. Papiloma Virus Vaccine ... debut, multiple sexual partners, smoking, history of sexually ... prevent cervical cancer. These include ..... needed to understand and explain the.

  8. Evaluation of human error estimation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, L.N.; Blackman, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The dominant risk for severe accident occurrence in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is human error. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored an evaluation of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) techniques for estimation of human error in NPPs. Twenty HRA techniques identified by a literature search were evaluated with criteria sets designed for that purpose and categorized. Data were collected at a commercial NPP with operators responding in walkthroughs of four severe accident scenarios and full scope simulator runs. Results suggest a need for refinement and validation of the techniques. 19 refs

  9. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  10. Financial impact estimate for radioinduced cancer treatment following RDD scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F.Q. da; Andrade, Edson R. de; Rebello, Wilson F.; Araujo, Olga M.O., E-mail: profgabriel.fisica@gmail.com, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: olgafisica2013@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to propose a methodology to estimate the possible financial impact of cancer development and treatment over general public as consequence of a radiological event. Asymmetric threats involving radioactive materials and its consequences are being studied by some groups worldwide but without using the concept of methodology of convergence. This concept is based on combining single platforms into a package in order to effectively support the decision-making process during an emergency. A Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) can be built of small amounts of explosive and radioactive material which are packed together. A fictional scenario was modeled using cesium-137. The venue is the Athletes Park, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro which will host large events such as Olympics .The RDD explosion was modeled using the HotSpot Health Physics Codes 3.0, which provided radioactive isodoses over the affected location with thresholds in agreement with those recommended by Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Also included in the results, Hotspot simulated the contaminated area and, the total effective dose for individuals. Estimative about excess relative risk (ERR) were performed by using Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V (BEIR V) report and TECDOC-870 (IAEA - Methods for Estimating the Probability of Cancer from Occupation Radiation Exposure). Leukemia was considered as morbidity for this study due to its short period of latency. The Total Body Irradiation was considered as a treatment and the financial impact was roughly estimated about coasts excluding logistical issues which should be calculated for each specific demand in further studies. (author)

  11. Financial impact estimate for radioinduced cancer treatment following RDD scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gabriel F.Q. da; Andrade, Edson R. de; Rebello, Wilson F.; Araujo, Olga M.O.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to propose a methodology to estimate the possible financial impact of cancer development and treatment over general public as consequence of a radiological event. Asymmetric threats involving radioactive materials and its consequences are being studied by some groups worldwide but without using the concept of methodology of convergence. This concept is based on combining single platforms into a package in order to effectively support the decision-making process during an emergency. A Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) can be built of small amounts of explosive and radioactive material which are packed together. A fictional scenario was modeled using cesium-137. The venue is the Athletes Park, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro which will host large events such as Olympics .The RDD explosion was modeled using the HotSpot Health Physics Codes 3.0, which provided radioactive isodoses over the affected location with thresholds in agreement with those recommended by Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Also included in the results, Hotspot simulated the contaminated area and, the total effective dose for individuals. Estimative about excess relative risk (ERR) were performed by using Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V (BEIR V) report and TECDOC-870 (IAEA - Methods for Estimating the Probability of Cancer from Occupation Radiation Exposure). Leukemia was considered as morbidity for this study due to its short period of latency. The Total Body Irradiation was considered as a treatment and the financial impact was roughly estimated about coasts excluding logistical issues which should be calculated for each specific demand in further studies. (author)

  12. Human error probability estimation using licensee event reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voska, K.J.; O'Brien, J.N.

    1984-07-01

    Objective of this report is to present a method for using field data from nuclear power plants to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs). These HEPs are then used in probabilistic risk activities. This method of estimating HEPs is one of four being pursued in NRC-sponsored research. The other three are structured expert judgment, analysis of training simulator data, and performance modeling. The type of field data analyzed in this report is from Licensee Event reports (LERs) which are analyzed using a method specifically developed for that purpose. However, any type of field data or human errors could be analyzed using this method with minor adjustments. This report assesses the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of estimating HEPs from LERs and comprehensively presents the method for use

  13. Age estimation based on aspartic acid racemization in human sclera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumb, Karolin; Matzenauer, Christian; Reckert, Alexandra; Lehmann, Klaus; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Age estimation based on racemization of aspartic acid residues (AAR) in permanent proteins has been established in forensic medicine for years. While dentine is the tissue of choice for this molecular method of age estimation, teeth are not always available which leads to the need to identify other suitable tissues. We examined the suitability of total tissue samples of human sclera for the estimation of age at death. Sixty-five samples of scleral tissue were analyzed. The samples were hydrolyzed and after derivatization, the extent of aspartic acid racemization was determined by gas chromatography. The degree of AAR increased with age. In samples from younger individuals, the correlation of age and D-aspartic acid content was closer than in samples from older individuals. The age-dependent racemization in total tissue samples proves that permanent or at least long-living proteins are present in scleral tissue. The correlation of AAR in human sclera and age at death is close enough to serve as basis for age estimation. However, the precision of age estimation by this method is lower than that of age estimation based on the analysis of dentine which is due to molecular inhomogeneities of total tissue samples of sclera. Nevertheless, the approach may serve as a valuable alternative or addition in exceptional cases.

  14. Development of an integrated system for estimating human error probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflick, J.L.; Hahn, H.A.; Morzinski, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project had as its main objective the development of a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), knowledge-based expert system that would provide probabilistic estimates for potential human errors within various risk assessments, safety analysis reports, and hazard assessments. HRA identifies where human errors are most likely, estimates the error rate for individual tasks, and highlights the most beneficial areas for system improvements. This project accomplished three major tasks. First, several prominent HRA techniques and associated databases were collected and translated into an electronic format. Next, the project started a knowledge engineering phase where the expertise, i.e., the procedural rules and data, were extracted from those techniques and compiled into various modules. Finally, these modules, rules, and data were combined into a nearly complete HRA expert system.

  15. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  16. Alterations of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yesilkanal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2009, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC was thought to be the only biologically significant cytosine modification in mammalian DNA. With the discovery of the TET enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC, however, intense interest has emerged in determining the biological function of 5-hmC. Here, we review the techniques used to study 5-hmC and evidence that alterations to 5-hmC physiology play a functional role in the molecular pathogenesis of human cancers.

  17. Uncertainties in fatal cancer risk estimates used in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki

    1999-01-01

    Although ICRP and NCRP had not described the details of uncertainties in cancer risk estimates in radiation protection, NCRP, in 1997, firstly reported the results of uncertainty analysis (NCRP No.126) and which is summarized in this paper. The NCRP report pointed out that there are following five factors which uncertainty possessing: uncertainty in epidemiological studies, in dose assessment, in transforming the estimates to risk assessment, in risk prediction and in extrapolation to the low dose/dose rate. These individual factors were analyzed statistically to obtain the relationship between the probability of cancer death in the US population and life time risk coefficient (% per Sv), which showed that, for the latter, the mean value was 3.99 x 10 -2 /Sv, median, 3.38 x 10 -2 /Sv, GSD (geometrical standard deviation), 1.83 x 10 -2 /Sv and 95% confidential limit, 1.2-8.84 x 10 -2 /Sv. The mean value was smaller than that of ICRP recommendation (5 x 10 -2 /Sv), indicating that the value has the uncertainty factor of 2.5-3. Moreover, the most important factor was shown to be the uncertainty in DDREF (dose/dose rate reduction factor). (K.H.)

  18. Estimation of the Burden of Serious Human Fungal Infections in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukumani Devi Velayuthan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections (mycoses are likely to occur more frequently as ever-increasingly sophisticated healthcare systems create greater risk factors. There is a paucity of systematic data on the incidence and prevalence of human fungal infections in Malaysia. We conducted a comprehensive study to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Malaysia. Our study showed that recurrent vaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year was the most common of all cases with a diagnosis of candidiasis (n = 501,138. Oesophageal candidiasis (n = 5850 was most predominant among individuals with HIV infection. Candidemia incidence (n = 1533 was estimated in hospitalized individuals, some receiving treatment for cancer (n = 1073, and was detected also in individuals admitted to intensive care units (ICU (n = 460. In adults with asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA was the second most common respiratory mycoses noticed (n = 30,062 along with severe asthma with fungal sensitization (n = 39,628. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated in 184 cases undergoing anti-cancer treatment and 834 ICU cases. Cryptococcal meningitis was diagnosed in 700 subjects with HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonitis (PCP in 1286 subjects with underlying HIV disease. The present study indicates that at least 590,214 of the Malaysian population (1.93% is affected by a serious fungal infection annually. This problem is serious enough to warrant the further epidemiological studies to estimate the burden of human fungal infections in Malaysia.

  19. Tumor-Associated Neutrophils in Human Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    markers in humans. The logistical, ethical , and regulatory difficulties in obtaining human tumor tissue for research also act to discourage such...Mouse models of cancer. Annu. Rev. Pathol 6, 95–119 52. Merlo, L.M. et al. (2006) Cancer as an evolutionary and ecological process. Nat. Rev. Cancer...some effect on the phenotype and function of TANs. The logistical, ethical , and regulatory difficulties in obtaining human tumor tissue for research

  20. The financial burden of cancer: Estimates from patients undergoing cancer care in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidi Adnan A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The emotional burden associated with the diagnosis of cancer is sometimes overshadowed by financial burden sustained by patient and the family. This is especially relevant for a developing country as there is limited state support for cancer treatment. We conducted this study to estimate the cost of cancer care for two major types of cancer and to assess the perception of patients and families regarding the burden of the cost for undergoing cancer treatment at a private tertiary care hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at day care and radiotherapy unit of Aga Khan University, Hospital (AKUH Karachi, Pakistan. All adult patients with breast and head & neck cancers diagnosed for 3 months or more were included. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Results Sixty seven patients were interviewed during the study period. The mean and median monthly income of these patients was 996.4 USD and 562.5 USD respectively. Comparatively the mean and median monthly cost of cancer care was 1093.13 USD and 946.42 USD respectively. The cost of the treatment either fully or partially was borne by the family in most cases (94%. The financial burden of cancer was perceived as significant by 28 (42% patients and unmanageable by 18 (27% patients. This perceived level of burden was associated significantly with average monthly income (p = Conclusion Our study indicates that the financial burden of cancer care is substantial and can be overwhelming. There is a desperate need for treatment support programs either by the government or other welfare organisations to support individuals and families who are already facing a difficult and challenging situation.

  1. Endogenous retroviral promoter exaptation in human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Babaian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer arises from a series of genetic and epigenetic changes, which result in abnormal expression or mutational activation of oncogenes, as well as suppression/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of coding genes or long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs with oncogenic properties can be caused by translocations, gene amplifications, point mutations or other less characterized mechanisms. One such mechanism is the inappropriate usage of normally dormant, tissue-restricted or cryptic enhancers or promoters that serve to drive oncogenic gene expression. Dispersed across the human genome, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs provide an enormous reservoir of autonomous gene regulatory modules, some of which have been co-opted by the host during evolution to play important roles in normal regulation of genes and gene networks. This review focuses on the “dark side” of such ERV regulatory capacity. Specifically, we discuss a growing number of examples of normally dormant or epigenetically repressed ERVs that have been harnessed to drive oncogenes in human cancer, a process we term onco-exaptation, and we propose potential mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon.

  2. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10 -4 (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System

  3. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ávila, Mónica; Becerra, Virginia; Guedea, Ferran; Suárez, José Francisco; Fernandez, Pablo; Macías, Víctor; Mariño, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical

  4. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Mónica [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Becerra, Virginia [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); Guedea, Ferran [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Suárez, José Francisco [Servicio de Urología, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Fernandez, Pablo [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Instituto Oncológico de Guipúzcoa, San Sebastián (Spain); Macías, Víctor [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Oncologic del Valles-Hospital General de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain); Mariño, Alfonso [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Centro Oncológico de Galicia, A Coruña (Spain); and others

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical

  5. Data Sources for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model-based estimates of important cancer risk factors and screening behaviors are obtained by combining the responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

  6. Data Sources for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer-Related Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model-based estimates of important cancer risk factors and screening behaviors are obtained by combining the responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

  7. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer-Related Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HINTS is designed to produce reliable estimates at the national and regional levels. GIS maps using HINTS data have been used to provide a visual representation of possible geographic relationships in HINTS cancer-related variables.

  8. Sanitary and hygienic state estimation of population determined by cancer morbidity level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, L.; Cucereanu, A.

    2009-01-01

    The European recommendations of Cancer Register elaboration are presented in this paper. A short literature review about sanitary and hygienic estimation status of population thru determination of cancer morbidity level also has been performed. (authors)

  9. ESTIMATION OF MELANIN CONTENT IN IRIS OF HUMAN EYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Genina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experimental data obtained in vivo from digital analysis of color images of human irises, the mean melanin content in human eye irises has been estimated. For registration of color images the digital camera Olympus C-5060 has been used. The images have been obtained from irises of healthy volunteers as well as from irises of patients with open-angle glaucoma. The computer program has been developed for digital analysis of the images. The result has been useful for development of novel methods and optimization of already existing ones for non-invasive glaucoma diagnostics.

  10. How social information can improve estimation accuracy in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayles, Bertrand; Kim, Hye-Rin; Escobedo, Ramón; Cezera, Stéphane; Blanchet, Adrien; Kameda, Tatsuya; Sire, Clément; Theraulaz, Guy

    2017-11-21

    In our digital and connected societies, the development of social networks, online shopping, and reputation systems raises the questions of how individuals use social information and how it affects their decisions. We report experiments performed in France and Japan, in which subjects could update their estimates after having received information from other subjects. We measure and model the impact of this social information at individual and collective scales. We observe and justify that, when individuals have little prior knowledge about a quantity, the distribution of the logarithm of their estimates is close to a Cauchy distribution. We find that social influence helps the group improve its properly defined collective accuracy. We quantify the improvement of the group estimation when additional controlled and reliable information is provided, unbeknownst to the subjects. We show that subjects' sensitivity to social influence permits us to define five robust behavioral traits and increases with the difference between personal and group estimates. We then use our data to build and calibrate a model of collective estimation to analyze the impact on the group performance of the quantity and quality of information received by individuals. The model quantitatively reproduces the distributions of estimates and the improvement of collective performance and accuracy observed in our experiments. Finally, our model predicts that providing a moderate amount of incorrect information to individuals can counterbalance the human cognitive bias to systematically underestimate quantities and thereby improve collective performance. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Fast human pose estimation using 3D Zernike descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjón, Daniel; Morán, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Markerless video-based human pose estimation algorithms face a high-dimensional problem that is frequently broken down into several lower-dimensional ones by estimating the pose of each limb separately. However, in order to do so they need to reliably locate the torso, for which they typically rely on time coherence and tracking algorithms. Their losing track usually results in catastrophic failure of the process, requiring human intervention and thus precluding their usage in real-time applications. We propose a very fast rough pose estimation scheme based on global shape descriptors built on 3D Zernike moments. Using an articulated model that we configure in many poses, a large database of descriptor/pose pairs can be computed off-line. Thus, the only steps that must be done on-line are the extraction of the descriptors for each input volume and a search against the database to get the most likely poses. While the result of such process is not a fine pose estimation, it can be useful to help more sophisticated algorithms to regain track or make more educated guesses when creating new particles in particle-filter-based tracking schemes. We have achieved a performance of about ten fps on a single computer using a database of about one million entries.

  12. Prognostic markers for colorectal cancer: estimating ploidy and stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, H E; Hveem, T S; Domingo, E; Pradhan, M; Kleppe, A; Syvertsen, R A; Kostolomov, I; Nesheim, J A; Askautrud, H A; Nesbakken, A; Lothe, R A; Svindland, A; Shepherd, N; Novelli, M; Johnstone, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerr, R; Kerr, D J

    2018-03-01

    We report here the prognostic value of ploidy and digital tumour-stromal morphometric analyses using material from 2624 patients with early stage colorectal cancer (CRC). DNA content (ploidy) and stroma-tumour fraction were estimated using automated digital imaging systems and DNA was extracted from sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for analysis of microsatellite instability. Samples were available from 1092 patients recruited to the QUASAR 2 trial and two large observational series (Gloucester, n = 954; Oslo University Hospital, n = 578). Resultant biomarkers were analysed for prognostic impact using 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) as the clinical end point. Ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction were significantly prognostic in a multivariate model adjusted for age, adjuvant treatment, and pathological T-stage in stage II patients, and the combination of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction was found to stratify these patients into three clinically useful groups; 5-year CSS 90% versus 83% versus 73% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.77 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13-2.77) and HR = 2.95 (95% CI: 1.73-5.03), P < 0.001]. A novel biomarker, combining estimates of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction, sampled from FFPE tissue, identifies stage II CRC patients with low, intermediate or high risk of CRC disease specific death, and can reliably stratify clinically relevant patient sub-populations with differential risks of tumour recurrence and may support choice of adjuvant therapy for these individuals.

  13. Estimating the temporal distribution of exposure-related cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.L.; Sposto, R.; Preston, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    The temporal distribution of exposure-related cancers is relevant to the study of carcinogenic mechanisms. Statistical methods for extracting pertinent information from time-to-tumor data, however, are not well developed. Separation of incidence from 'latency' and the contamination of background cases are two problems. In this paper, we present methods for estimating both the conditional distribution given exposure-related cancers observed during the study period and the unconditional distribution. The methods adjust for confounding influences of background cases and the relationship between time to tumor and incidence. Two alternative methods are proposed. The first is based on a structured, theoretically derived model and produces direct inferences concerning the distribution of interest but often requires more-specialized software. The second relies on conventional modeling of incidence and is implemented through readily available, easily used computer software. Inferences concerning the effects of radiation dose and other covariates, however, are not always obtainable directly. We present three examples to illustrate the use of these two methods and suggest criteria for choosing between them. The first approach was used, with a log-logistic specification of the distribution of interest, to analyze times to bone sarcoma among a group of German patients injected with 224 Ra. Similarly, a log-logistic specification was used in the analysis of time to chronic myelogenous leukemias among male atomic-bomb survivors. We used the alternative approach, involving conventional modeling, to estimate the conditional distribution of exposure-related acute myelogenous leukemias among male atomic-bomb survivors, given occurrence between 1 October 1950 and 31 December 1985. All analyses were performed using Poisson regression methods for analyzing grouped survival data. (J.P.N.)

  14. Type-specific human papillomavirus biological features: validated model-based estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Baussano

    Full Text Available Infection with high-risk (hr human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Vaccination against HPV16 and 18 types, which are responsible of about 75% of cervical cancer worldwide, is expected to have a major global impact on cervical cancer occurrence. Valid estimates of the parameters that regulate the natural history of hrHPV infections are crucial to draw reliable projections of the impact of vaccination. We devised a mathematical model to estimate the probability of infection transmission, the rate of clearance, and the patterns of immune response following the clearance of infection of 13 hrHPV types. To test the validity of our estimates, we fitted the same transmission model to two large independent datasets from Italy and Sweden and assessed finding consistency. The two populations, both unvaccinated, differed substantially by sexual behaviour, age distribution, and study setting (screening for cervical cancer or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Estimated transmission probability of hrHPV types (80% for HPV16, 73%-82% for HPV18, and above 50% for most other types; clearance rates decreasing as a function of time since infection; and partial protection against re-infection with the same hrHPV type (approximately 20% for HPV16 and 50% for the other types were similar in the two countries. The model could accurately predict the HPV16 prevalence observed in Italy among women who were not infected three years before. In conclusion, our models inform on biological parameters that cannot at the moment be measured directly from any empirical data but are essential to forecast the impact of HPV vaccination programmes.

  15. Radiocompetitive estimation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemant, S.; Kremer, R.

    1978-01-01

    A radiocompetitive estimation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in human serum is described. After extraction, a stage of purification by chromatography on a Sephadex LH 20 column permits separation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D from Vitamin D and other metabolites. The reaction of radiocompetition uses as tracer tritialed 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and as source of binding protein, rat renal cytosol. The characteristics of the binding protein and the presence in human plasma of significant quantities of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D render necesssary the chromatographic stage. This technic permits one to measure simply and specifically 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the human serum, of which normal levels (average + - standard deviation) are 12.88 + - 5.42 μg/l (3.2.10 -8 + - 1.35.10 -8 mol/l) [fr

  16. ESTIMATION OF HUMAN BODY SHAPE PARAMETERS USING MICROSOFT KINECTSENCOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Vasilkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a human body shape estimation technology based on scan data acquired from sensor controller Microsoft Kinect is described. This device includes an RGB camera and a depth sensor that provides, for each pixel of the image,a distance from the camera focus to the object. A scan session produces a triangulated high-density surface noised with oscillations, isolated fragments and holes. When scanning a human, additional noise comes from garment folds and wrinkles. An algorithm of creating a sparse and regular 3D human body model (avatar free of these defects, which approximates shape, posture and basic metrics of the scanned body is proposed. This solution finds application in individual clothing industry and computer games, as well.

  17. Rel/Nuclear factor-kappa B apoptosis pathways in human cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Marlene F

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is considered a common yet preventable cause of death in women. It has been estimated that about 420 women out of the 1400 women diagnosed with cervical cancer will die during 5 years from diagnosis. This review addresses the pathogenesis of cervical cancer in humans with a special emphasis on the human papilloma virus as a predominant cause of cervical cancer in humans. The current understanding of apoptosis and regulators of apoptosis as well as their implication in carcinogenesis will follow. A special focus will be given to the role of Rel/NF-κB family of genes in the growth and chemotherapeutic treatment of the malignant HeLa cervical cells emphasizing on Xrel3, a cRel homologue. PMID:15857509

  18. Theoretical and Experimental Estimations of Volumetric Inductive Phase Shift in Breast Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. A.; Lozano, L. M.; Uscanga, M. C.; Silva, J. G.; Polo, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Impedance measurements based on magnetic induction for breast cancer detection has been proposed in some studies. This study evaluates theoretical and experimentally the use of a non-invasive technique based on magnetic induction for detection of patho-physiological conditions in breast cancer tissue associated to its volumetric electrical conductivity changes through inductive phase shift measurements. An induction coils-breast 3D pixel model was designed and tested. The model involves two circular coils coaxially centered and a human breast volume centrally placed with respect to the coils. A time-harmonic numerical simulation study addressed the effects of frequency-dependent electrical properties of tumoral tissue on the volumetric inductive phase shift of the breast model measured with the circular coils as inductor and sensor elements. Experimentally; five female volunteer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma previously diagnosed by the radiology and oncology departments of the Specialty Clinic for Women of the Mexican Army were measured by an experimental inductive spectrometer and the use of an ergonomic inductor-sensor coil designed to estimate the volumetric inductive phase shift in human breast tissue. Theoretical and experimental inductive phase shift estimations were developed at four frequencies: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 MHz. The theoretical estimations were qualitatively in agreement with the experimental findings. Important increments in volumetric inductive phase shift measurements were evident at 0.01MHz in theoretical and experimental observations. The results suggest that the tested technique has the potential to detect pathological conditions in breast tissue associated to cancer by non-invasive monitoring. Further complementary studies are warranted to confirm the observations.

  19. Clinical Relevance of KRAS in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jančík

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The KRAS gene (Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog is an oncogene that encodes a small GTPase transductor protein called KRAS. KRAS is involved in the regulation of cell division as a result of its ability to relay external signals to the cell nucleus. Activating mutations in the KRAS gene impair the ability of the KRAS protein to switch between active and inactive states, leading to cell transformation and increased resistance to chemotherapy and biological therapies targeting epidermal growth factor receptors. This review highlights some of the features of the KRAS gene and the KRAS protein and summarizes current knowledge of the mechanism of KRAS gene regulation. It also underlines the importance of activating mutations in the KRAS gene in relation to carcinogenesis and their importance as diagnostic biomarkers, providing clues regarding human cancer patients' prognosis and indicating potential therapeutic approaches.

  20. Estimation of second primary cancers risk based on the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Chufeng; Sun Guangyao; Liu Hui; Zheng Huaqing; Cheng Mengyun; Li Gui; Wu Yican; FDS Team

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of second primary cancers risk after radiotherapy has become increasingly important for comparative treatment planning. A new method based on the treatment planning system to estimate the risk of second primary cancers was introduced in this paper. Using the Advanced/Accurate Radiotherapy Treatment System(ARTS), a treatment planning system developed by the FDS team,the risk of second primary cancer was estimated over two treatment plans for a patient with pancreatic cancer. Based on the second primary cancer risk, the two plans were compared. It was found that,kidney and gall-bladder had higher risk to develop second primary cancer. A better plan was chosen by the analysis of second primary cancer risk. The results showed that this risk estimation method we developed could be used to evaluate treatment plans. (authors)

  1. Cancer risk estimation from the A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.A.; Vaeth, M.

    1989-10-01

    Generalizations regarding radiogenic cancer risks from the A-bomb survivor data of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation involve a large number of well-identified uncertainties and approximations. These include extrapolation to low doses and dose rates, projections in time, sampling variation, the quality of the data, extrapolation to other populations, and the use of simplifying conventions. This paper discusses some of these issues, with emphasis on the first three. Results are given regarding the maximum 'linear-quadratic' curvature consistent with these data, taking into account uncertainties in individual exposure estimates. Discussion is given regarding use of relative risk models and projection of lifetime risks, emphasizing results for those who were old enough at exposure to have been followed up for a major part of their lives by now, and stressing the speculative aspects of conclusions about those exposed as children. Combining these results, and brief discussion of other uncertainties itemized above, comment is made on the evolution of risk estimates over the past 15 years. (author)

  2. Estimation of baseline lifetime risk of developed cancer related to radiation exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoliang; Niu Haowei; Sun Quanfu; Ma Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the general international method for estimation of lifetime risk of developed cancer, and to estimate the lifetime risk baseline values of several kinds of cancers related to radiation exposures in China. Methods: The risk estimation was based on the data from Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report (2010) and China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook (2009), and made according to the method previously published by National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. Results: The lifetime risk of all cancer in China in 2007 was estimated to be 27.77%, that of lung cancer 5.96%, that of breast cancer for female 3.34%, that of all leukemia 0.14%, that of thyroid cancer 0.37%. The lifetime risks of all cancer were estimated to be 32.74% for males and 24.73% for females, and that was 36.47% for urban residents and 26.79% for rural people. Conclusions: The lifetime risk of all cancer for males in 2007 was about 1.25 times as much as that for females. The value of all cancer for urban residents was about 1.35 times as much as that for rural residents. The lifetime risk of developed cancers in 2007 in China is lower than that in the developed countries,such as Japan. (authors)

  3. Estimation of the overall burden of cancers, precancerous lesions, and genital warts attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types in women and men in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig , Susanne; St Guily , Jean Lacau; Dominiak-Felden , Géraldine; Alemany , Laia; De Sanjosé , Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Background In addition to cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a significant proportion of cancers and precancerous lesions of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, head and neck, as well as genital warts. We estimated the annual number of new cases of these diseases attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types in women and men in Europe. Methods The annual number of new cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and selected head and neck sites in the population of ...

  4. Estimating cancer risk from outdoor concentrations of hazardous air pollutants in 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, T.J.; Caldwell, J.; Cogliano, V.J.; Axelrad, D.A.

    2000-03-01

    A public health concern regarding hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) is their potential to cause cancer. It has been difficult to assess potential cancer risks from HAPs, due primarily to lack of ambient concentration data for the general population. The Environmental Protection Agency's Cumulative Exposure Project modeled 1990 outdoor concentrations of HAPs across the United States, which were combined with inhalation unit risk estimates to estimate the potential increase in excess cancer risk for individual carcinogenic HAPs. These were summed3d to provide an estimate of cancer risk from multiple HAPs. The analysis estimates a median excess cancer risk of 18 lifetime cancer cases per 100,000 people for all HAP concentrations. About 75% of estimated cancer risk was attributable to exposure to polycyclic organic matter, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, benzene, and chromium. Consideration of some specific uncertainties, including underestimation of ambient concentrations, combining upper 95% confidence bound potency estimates, and changes to potency estimates, found that cancer risk may be underestimated by 15% or overestimated by 40--50%. Other unanalyzed uncertainties could make these under- or overestimates larger. This analysis used 1990 estimates of concentrations and can be used to track progress toward reducing cancer risk to the general population.

  5. Probabilistic Mapping of Human Visual Attention from Head Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Veronese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective interaction between a human and a robot requires the bidirectional perception and interpretation of actions and behavior. While actions can be identified as a directly observable activity, this might not be sufficient to deduce actions in a scene. For example, orienting our face toward a book might suggest the action toward “reading.” For a human observer, this deduction requires the direction of gaze, the object identified as a book and the intersection between gaze and book. With this in mind, we aim to estimate and map human visual attention as directed to a scene, and assess how this relates to the detection of objects and their related actions. In particular, we consider human head pose as measurement to infer the attention of a human engaged in a task and study which prior knowledge should be included in such a detection system. In a user study, we show the successful detection of attention to objects in a typical office task scenario (i.e., reading, working with a computer, studying an object. Our system requires a single external RGB camera for head pose measurements and a pre-recorded 3D point cloud of the environment.

  6. Selection of anchor values for human error probability estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffardi, L.C.; Fleishman, E.A.; Allen, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for more dependable information to assist in the prediction of human errors in nuclear power environments. The major objective of the current project is to establish guidelines for using error probabilities from other task settings to estimate errors in the nuclear environment. This involves: (1) identifying critical nuclear tasks, (2) discovering similar tasks in non-nuclear environments, (3) finding error data for non-nuclear tasks, and (4) establishing error-rate values for the nuclear tasks based on the non-nuclear data. A key feature is the application of a classification system to nuclear and non-nuclear tasks to evaluate their similarities and differences in order to provide a basis for generalizing human error estimates across tasks. During the first eight months of the project, several classification systems have been applied to a sample of nuclear tasks. They are discussed in terms of their potential for establishing task equivalence and transferability of human error rates across situations

  7. Human age estimation framework using different facial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. El Dib

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human age estimation from facial images has a wide range of real-world applications in human computer interaction (HCI. In this paper, we use the bio-inspired features (BIF to analyze different facial parts: (a eye wrinkles, (b whole internal face (without forehead area and (c whole face (with forehead area using different feature shape points. The analysis shows that eye wrinkles which cover 30% of the facial area contain the most important aging features compared to internal face and whole face. Furthermore, more extensive experiments are made on FG-NET database by increasing the number of missing pictures in older age groups using MORPH database to enhance the results.

  8. Human action recognition based on estimated weak poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Gonzàlez, Jordi; Roca, Francesc Xavier

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel method for human action recognition (HAR) based on estimated poses from image sequences. We use 3D human pose data as additional information and propose a compact human pose representation, called a weak pose, in a low-dimensional space while still keeping the most discriminative information for a given pose. With predicted poses from image features, we map the problem from image feature space to pose space, where a Bag of Poses (BOP) model is learned for the final goal of HAR. The BOP model is a modified version of the classical bag of words pipeline by building the vocabulary based on the most representative weak poses for a given action. Compared with the standard k-means clustering, our vocabulary selection criteria is proven to be more efficient and robust against the inherent challenges of action recognition. Moreover, since for action recognition the ordering of the poses is discriminative, the BOP model incorporates temporal information: in essence, groups of consecutive poses are considered together when computing the vocabulary and assignment. We tested our method on two well-known datasets: HumanEva and IXMAS, to demonstrate that weak poses aid to improve action recognition accuracies. The proposed method is scene-independent and is comparable with the state-of-art method.

  9. Estimation and Projection of Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonong ZOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to analyze lung cancer epidemiological trend and estimate lung cancer burden in China. Methods Lung cancer age specific mortality and incidence rate ratios in different areas and sexes were obtained from national cancer registration database in 2004 and 2005. Cancer crude mortalities were retrieved from the database of the third national death survey, 2004-2005. Age specific incidence rates of lung cancer were calculated using mortality and M/I ratios. Annual percent change (APC was estimated by log regression model using Joint Point software by analyzing pooled lung cancer incidence data from 10 cancer registries from 1988 to 2005. Results The total estimated new cases and deaths of lung cancer in 2005 were 536 407 and 475 768 which were higher in male than in female. There was 1.63% increase of lung cancer incidence per year from 1988 to 2005, however, the trend showed a slowdown by 0.55% annually after adjusted by age. Conclusion Lung cancer is one of major health issues in China and the burden is getting serious. Ageing population is main cause for increasing incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Effective cancer prevention and control is imperative. Especially, tobacco control should be carried out in statewide.

  10. An early history of human breast cancer: West meets East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-He

    2013-09-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a global issue. This is especially true in countries like China, where cancer incidence has increased likely because of changes in environment and lifestyle. However, cancer is not a modern disease; early cases have been recorded in ancient medical books in the West and in China. Here, we provide a brief history of cancer, focusing on cancer of the breast, and review the etymology of ai, the Chinese character for cancer. Notable findings from both Western and Chinese traditional medicine are presented to give an overview of the most important, early contributors to our evolving understanding of human breast cancer. We also discuss the earliest historical documents to record patients with breast cancer.

  11. Estimating the incidence of colorectal cancer in Sub–Saharan Africa: A systematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Graham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly two–thirds of annual mortality worldwide is attributable to non–communicable diseases (NCDs, with 70% estimated to occur in low– and middle–income countries (LMIC. Colorectal cancer (CRC accounts for over 600 000 deaths annually, but data concerning cancer rates in LMIC is very poor. This study analyses the data available to produce an estimate of the incidence of colorectal cancer in Sub–Saharan Africa (SSA.

  12. Estimating mobility using sparse data: Application to human genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loog, Liisa; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Kovacevic, Mirna; Manica, Andrea; Eriksson, Anders; Thomas, Mark G

    2017-11-14

    Mobility is one of the most important processes shaping spatiotemporal patterns of variation in genetic, morphological, and cultural traits. However, current approaches for inferring past migration episodes in the fields of archaeology and population genetics lack either temporal resolution or formal quantification of the underlying mobility, are poorly suited to spatially and temporally sparsely sampled data, and permit only limited systematic comparison between different time periods or geographic regions. Here we present an estimator of past mobility that addresses these issues by explicitly linking trait differentiation in space and time. We demonstrate the efficacy of this estimator using spatiotemporally explicit simulations and apply it to a large set of ancient genomic data from Western Eurasia. We identify a sequence of changes in human mobility from the Late Pleistocene to the Iron Age. We find that mobility among European Holocene farmers was significantly higher than among European hunter-gatherers both pre- and postdating the Last Glacial Maximum. We also infer that this Holocene rise in mobility occurred in at least three distinct stages: the first centering on the well-known population expansion at the beginning of the Neolithic, and the second and third centering on the beginning of the Bronze Age and the late Iron Age, respectively. These findings suggest a strong link between technological change and human mobility in Holocene Western Eurasia and demonstrate the utility of this framework for exploring changes in mobility through space and time. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Transposable Elements in Human Cancer: Causes and Consequences of Deregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sumadi Lukman; Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Lehmann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise nearly half of the human genome and play an essential role in the maintenance of genomic stability, chromosomal architecture, and transcriptional regulation. TEs are repetitive sequences consisting of RNA transposons, DNA transposons, and endogenous retroviruses that can invade the human genome with a substantial contribution in human evolution and genomic diversity. TEs are therefore firmly regulated from early embryonic development and during the entire course of human life by epigenetic mechanisms, in particular DNA methylation and histone modifications. The deregulation of TEs has been reported in some developmental diseases, as well as for different types of human cancers. To date, the role of TEs, the mechanisms underlying TE reactivation, and the interplay with DNA methylation in human cancers remain largely unexplained. We reviewed the loss of epigenetic regulation and subsequent genomic instability, chromosomal aberrations, transcriptional deregulation, oncogenic activation, and aberrations of non-coding RNAs as the potential mechanisms underlying TE deregulation in human cancers. PMID:28471386

  14. Transposable Elements in Human Cancer: Causes and Consequences of Deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumadi Lukman Anwar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs comprise nearly half of the human genome and play an essential role in the maintenance of genomic stability, chromosomal architecture, and transcriptional regulation. TEs are repetitive sequences consisting of RNA transposons, DNA transposons, and endogenous retroviruses that can invade the human genome with a substantial contribution in human evolution and genomic diversity. TEs are therefore firmly regulated from early embryonic development and during the entire course of human life by epigenetic mechanisms, in particular DNA methylation and histone modifications. The deregulation of TEs has been reported in some developmental diseases, as well as for different types of human cancers. To date, the role of TEs, the mechanisms underlying TE reactivation, and the interplay with DNA methylation in human cancers remain largely unexplained. We reviewed the loss of epigenetic regulation and subsequent genomic instability, chromosomal aberrations, transcriptional deregulation, oncogenic activation, and aberrations of non-coding RNAs as the potential mechanisms underlying TE deregulation in human cancers.

  15. Molecular concept in human oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U. S.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in...

  16. miR-134: A Human Cancer Suppressor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yu Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs approximately 20–25 nt in length, which play crucial roles through directly binding to corresponding 3′ UTR of targeted mRNAs. It has been reported that miRNAs are involved in numerous of diseases, including cancers. Recently, miR-134 has been identified to dysregulate in handles of human cancers, such as lung cancer, glioma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and so on. Increasing evidence indicates that miR-134 is essential for human carcinoma and participates in tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis, drug resistance, as well as cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Nevertheless, its roles in human cancer are still ambiguous, and its mechanisms are sophisticated as well, referring to a variety of targets and signal pathways, such as STAT5B, KRAS, MAPK/ERK signal pathway, Notch pathway, etc. Herein, we review the crucial roles of miR-134 in scores of human cancers via analyzing latest investigations, which might provide evidence for cancer diagnose, treatment, prognosis, or further investigations.

  17. Comparing the DNA hypermethylome with gene mutations in human colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornel E Schuebel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a transcriptome-wide approach to identify genes affected by promoter CpG island DNA hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing in colorectal cancer. By screening cell lines and validating tumor-specific hypermethylation in a panel of primary human colorectal cancer samples, we estimate that nearly 5% or more of all known genes may be promoter methylated in an individual tumor. When directly compared to gene mutations, we find larger numbers of genes hypermethylated in individual tumors, and a higher frequency of hypermethylation within individual genes harboring either genetic or epigenetic changes. Thus, to enumerate the full spectrum of alterations in the human cancer genome, and to facilitate the most efficacious grouping of tumors to identify cancer biomarkers and tailor therapeutic approaches, both genetic and epigenetic screens should be undertaken.

  18. Human factors estimation method in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nagasaka, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    It is need for improving a NPS reliability to prevent human-errors of operators in a control room. Especially, the time error or omission error may be often caused by a exceed of the mental work load. Therefore, in order to decrease such kinds of human errors, not only the planning of an equipment and a console is well considered about proper level of mental work load but also the exceeded mental work load must be let down by trainning etc. This paper present measurement techniques of the mental work load by physiological informations and the relation between the error rate and mental work load on the basis of the experiment by various modeled tasks. Following results are obtained. (1) TSF, the indicator of the mental work load, is well correlated to the subsidary task reaction time. Therefore it is able to estimate the TSF by subsidary tasks if the task was loaded instanteniously with main task. (2) The relation between the TSF and GSR pulses rate has a 0.81 correlation factor except the case of a parallel processing task. Because we can evaluate the mental work load by the measurement of the GSR pulses rate if the task was processed by a single channel. But if uses GSR, the atomospheric condition is kept constant and the arousal level must be at the well stage. (3) The human error is greatly increase when the TSF exceed above 60 %, that values are almost agreed to the tolerance limit of the TTS methods. (author)

  19. Human HRAD9B and testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, K.M.; Wang, X.; Berlin, A.; Thaker, H.M.; Lieberman, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The HRAD9 gene mediates radioresistance and regulates the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint induced by ionizing radiation. In this report, we describe the isolation of the human paralog of HRAD9, called HRAD9B. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, like HRAD9 protein, the HRAD9B gene product can coimmunoprecipitate with HRAD1, HRAD9, HHUS1 and HHUS1B proteins. However, HRAD9B is expressed predominantly in testis, whereas its paralog is expressed more universally in different tissues. And most notably, we demonstrate that HRAD9B exhibits markedly and consistently reduced expression in testicular seminomas, high levels of expression in normal adult testis, yet also shows expression in fetal testis cells where meiosis is not performed. These results suggest that HRAD9B could at the least serve as a marker for testicular cancer, and its expression may be causally related to the disease. Further studies are under way to determine the cause of the reduced expression of HRAD9B in germ cell tumors

  20. Towards the human colorectal cancer microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Marchesi

    Full Text Available Multiple factors drive the progression from healthy mucosa towards sporadic colorectal carcinomas and accumulating evidence associates intestinal bacteria with disease initiation and progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a first high-resolution map of colonic dysbiosis that is associated with human colorectal cancer (CRC. To this purpose, the microbiomes colonizing colon tumor tissue and adjacent non-malignant mucosa were compared by deep rRNA sequencing. The results revealed striking differences in microbial colonization patterns between these two sites. Although inter-individual colonization in CRC patients was variable, tumors consistently formed a niche for Coriobacteria and other proposed probiotic bacterial species, while potentially pathogenic Enterobacteria were underrepresented in tumor tissue. As the intestinal microbiota is generally stable during adult life, these findings suggest that CRC-associated physiological and metabolic changes recruit tumor-foraging commensal-like bacteria. These microbes thus have an apparent competitive advantage in the tumor microenvironment and thereby seem to replace pathogenic bacteria that may be implicated in CRC etiology. This first glimpse of the CRC microbiome provides an important step towards full understanding of the dynamic interplay between intestinal microbial ecology and sporadic CRC, which may provide important leads towards novel microbiome-related diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions.

  1. The incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Razi, Saeid; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Aziznejhad, Hojjat; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality estimates of ovarian cancer based on human development are essential for planning by policy makers. This study is aimed at investigating the standardised incidence rates (SIR) and standardised mortality rates (SMR) of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asian countries. Methods This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between SIR, age standardised rates (ASR), and HDI and their...

  2. Estimation of cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol drinking in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huijuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer constitutes a serious burden of disease worldwide and has become the second leading cause of death in China. Alcohol consumption is causally associated with the increased risk of certain cancers. Due to the current lack of data and the imperative need to guide policymakers on issues of cancer prevention and control, we aim to estimate the role of alcohol on the cancer burden in China in 2005. Methods We calculated the proportion of cancers attributable to alcohol use to estimate the burden of alcohol-related cancer. The population attributable fraction was calculated based on the assumption of no alcohol drinking. Data on alcohol drinking prevalence were from two large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risk were obtained from meta-analyses and large-scale studies. Results We found that a total of 78,881 cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol drinking in China in 2005, representing 4.40% of all cancers (6.69% in men, 0.42% in women. The corresponding figure for cancer incidence was 93,596 cases (3.63% of all cancer cases. Liver cancer was the main alcohol-related cancer, contributing more than 60% of alcohol-related cancers. Conclusions Particular attention needs to be paid to the harm of alcohol as well as its potential benefits when making public health recommendations on alcohol drinking.

  3. Apoptosis induction of epifriedelinol on human cervical cancer cell line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present investigation evaluates the antitumor activity of epifriedelinol for the management of cervical cancer by inducing process of apoptosis. Methods: Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line, C33A and HeLa were selected for study and treated with epifriedelinol at a concentration of (50-1000 μg/ml). Cytotoxicity of ...

  4. Identification of hormonal receptors in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa Pascual, M.; Lage, A.; Diaz, J.W.; Moreno, L.; Marta Diaz, T.

    1981-01-01

    The experience in the implementation of a technique for determining hormono-dependence of human breast cancer is presented. The results found with the use of the technique in 50 patients with malignant breast cancer treated at IOR are examined and discussed. (author)

  5. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-14

    Jul 14, 2012 ... names in a prepared sampling frame of each group of workers, and thereafter ... Following individual counseling of eligible participants, .... Stanley M. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccines versus cervical cancer screening.

  6. Cloning of Novel Oncogenes Involved in Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... In order to identify genes which may play a role in breast cancer we have begun a process of manufacturing cDNA expression libraries derived from human breast tumor cell lines in retroviral vectors...

  7. Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Pluska, Beata; Musial, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw; Bailo, Elena; Dieing, Thomas; Abramczyk, Halina

    2012-08-21

    The applications of spectroscopic methods in cancer detection open new possibilities in early stage diagnostics. Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging represent novel and rapidly developing tools in cancer diagnosis. In the study described in this paper Raman spectroscopy has been employed to examine noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissues of the same patient. The most significant differences between noncancerous and cancerous tissues were found in regions characteristic for the vibrations of carotenoids, lipids and proteins. Particular attention was paid to the role played by unsaturated fatty acids in the differentiation between the noncancerous and the cancerous tissues. Comparison of Raman spectra of the noncancerous and the cancerous tissues with the spectra of oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids has been presented. The role of sample preparation in the determination of cancer markers is also discussed in this study.

  8. Estimating Cardiac Exposure From Breast Cancer Radiotherapy in Clinical Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.W.; McGale, P.; Povall, J.M.; Thomas, E.; Kumar, S.; Dodwell, D.; Darby, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of maximum heart distance (MHD) in predicting the dose and biologically effective dose (BED) to the heart and the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery for left-tangential breast or chest wall irradiation. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 consecutive breast cancer patients given adjuvant left-tangential irradiation at a large U.K. radiotherapy center during 2006 were selected. For each patient, the following were derived using three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) planning: (1) mean dose and BED to the heart, (2) mean dose and BED to the LAD coronary artery, (3) MHD, (4) position of the CT slice showing the maximum area of the irradiated heart relative to the mid-plane slice, and (5) sternal and contralateral breast thickness (measures of body fat). Results: A strong linear correlation was found between the MHD and the mean heart dose. For every 1-cm increase in MHD, the mean heart dose increased by 2.9% on average (95% confidence interval 2.5-3.3). A strong linear-quadratic relationship was seen between the MHD and the mean heart BED. The mean LAD coronary artery dose and BED were also correlated with the MHD but the associations were weaker. These relationships were not affected by body fat. The mid-plane CT slice did not give a reliable assessment of cardiac irradiation. Conclusion: The MHD is a reliable predictor of the mean heart dose and BED and gives an approximate estimate of the mean LAD coronary artery dose and BED. Doses predicted by the MHD could help assess the risk of radiation-induced cardiac toxicity where individual CT-based cardiac dosimetry is not possible

  9. Calorimetric signatures of human cancer cells and their nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todinova, S. [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stoyanova, E. [Department of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shose Blvd. 73, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Krumova, S., E-mail: sakrumo@gmail.com [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Iliev, I. [Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Taneva, S.G. [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2016-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two temperature ranges are distinguished in the thermograms of cells/nuclei. • Different thermodynamic properties of cancer and normal human cells/nuclei. • Dramatic reduction of the enthalpy of the low-temperature range in cancer cells. • Oxaliplatin and 5-FU affect the nuclear matrix proteins and the DNA stability. - Abstract: The human cancer cell lines HeLa, JEG-3, Hep G2, SSC-9, PC-3, HT-29, MCF7 and their isolated nuclei were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric profiles differed from normal human fibroblast (BJ) cells in the two well distinguished temperature ranges—the high-temperature range (H{sub T}, due to DNA-containing structures) and the low-temperature range (L{sub T}, assigned to the nuclear matrix and cellular proteins). The enthalpy of the L{sub T} range, and, respectively the ratio of the enthalpies of the L{sub T}- vs. H{sub T}-range, ΔH{sub L}/ΔH{sub H}, is strongly reduced for all cancer cells compared to normal fibroblasts. On the contrary, for most of the cancer nuclei this ratio is higher compared to normal nuclei. The HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells/nuclei differed most drastically from normal human fibroblast cells/nuclei. Our data also reveal that the treatment of HT-29 cancer cells with cytostatic drugs affects not only the DNA replication but also the cellular proteome.

  10. Difficulties in estimating the human burden of canine rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Louise H; Hampson, Katie; Fahrion, Anna; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Nel, Louis H

    2017-01-01

    Current passive surveillance data for canine rabies, particularly for the regions where the burden is highest, are inadequate for appropriate decision making on control efforts. Poor enforcement of existing legislation and poor implementation of international guidance reduce the effectiveness of surveillance systems, but another set of problems relates to the fact that canine rabies is an untreatable condition which affects very poor sectors of society. This results in an unknown, but potentially large proportion of rabies victims dying outside the health system, deaths that are unlikely to be recorded by surveillance systems based on health center records. This article critically evaluates the potential sources of information on the number of human deaths attributable to canine rabies, and how we might improve the estimates required to move towards the goal of global canine rabies elimination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Patients with Testicular Cancer Undergoing CT Surveillance Demonstrate a Pitfall of Radiation-induced Cancer Risk Estimates: The Timing Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Jonathan D.; Lee, Richard J.; Gilmore, Michael E.; Turan, Ekin A.; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Kong, Chung Yin; Gazelle, G. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a limitation of lifetime radiation-induced cancer risk metrics in the setting of testicular cancer surveillance—in particular, their failure to capture the delayed timing of radiation-induced cancers over the course of a patient’s lifetime. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for the use of computed tomographic (CT) dosimetry data in this study. Informed consent was waived. This study was HIPAA compliant. A Markov model was developed to project outcomes in patients with testicular cancer who were undergoing CT surveillance in the decade after orchiectomy. To quantify effects of early versus delayed risks, life expectancy losses and lifetime mortality risks due to testicular cancer were compared with life expectancy losses and lifetime mortality risks due to radiation-induced cancers from CT. Projections of life expectancy loss, unlike lifetime risk estimates, account for the timing of risks over the course of a lifetime, which enabled evaluation of the described limitation of lifetime risk estimates. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the uncertainty of the results. Results: As an example of evidence yielded, 33-year-old men with stage I seminoma who were undergoing CT surveillance were projected to incur a slightly higher lifetime mortality risk from testicular cancer (598 per 100 000; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 302, 894) than from radiation-induced cancers (505 per 100 000; 95% UI: 280, 730). However, life expectancy loss attributable to testicular cancer (83 days; 95% UI: 42, 124) was more than three times greater than life expectancy loss attributable to radiation-induced cancers (24 days; 95% UI: 13, 35). Trends were consistent across modeled scenarios. Conclusion: Lifetime radiation risk estimates, when used for decision making, may overemphasize radiation-induced cancer risks relative to short-term health risks. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http

  12. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This model-based approach uses data from both the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to produce estimates of the prevalence rates of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors at the state, health service area, and county levels.

  13. Cortico-Cortical Receptive Field Estimates in Human Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen V Haak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Human visual cortex comprises many visual areas that contain a map of the visual field (Wandell et al 2007, Neuron 56, 366–383. These visual field maps can be identified readily in individual subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during experimental sessions that last less than an hour (Wandell and Winawer 2011, Vis Res 718–737. Hence, visual field mapping with fMRI has been, and still is, a heavily used technique to examine the organisation of both normal and abnormal human visual cortex (Haak et al 2011, ACNR, 11(3, 20–21. However, visual field mapping cannot reveal every aspect of human visual cortex organisation. For example, the information processed within a visual field map arrives from somewhere and is sent to somewhere, and visual field mapping does not derive these input/output relationships. Here, we describe a new, model-based analysis for estimating the dependence between signals in distinct cortical regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Just as a stimulus-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of the stimulus contrast, the neural-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of responses elsewhere in the nervous system. When applied to two cortical regions, this function can be called the cortico-cortical receptive field (CCRF. We model the CCRF as a Gaussian-weighted region on the cortical surface and apply the model to data from both stimulus-driven and resting-state experimental conditions in visual cortex.

  14. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrov, L.B.; Nik-Zainal, S.; Wedge, D.C.; Aparicio, S.A.; Behjati, S.; Biankin, A.V.; Bignell, G.R.; Bolli, N.; Borg, A.; Borresen-Dale, A.L.; Boyault, S.; Burkhardt, B.; Butler, A.P.; Caldas, C.; Davies, H.R.; Desmedt, C.; Eils, R.; Eyfjord, J.E.; Foekens, J.A.; Greaves, M.; Hosoda, F.; Hutter, B.; Ilicic, T.; Imbeaud, S.; Imielinsk, M.; Jager, N.; Jones, D.T.; Knappskog, S.; Kool, M.; Lakhani, S.R.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Martin, S.; Munshi, N.C.; Nakamura, H.; Northcott, P.A.; Pajic, M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Paradiso, A.; Pearson, J.V.; Puente, X.S.; Raine, K.; Ramakrishna, M.; Richardson, A.L.; Richter, J.; Rosenstiel, P.; Schlesner, M.; Schumacher, T.N.; Span, P.N.; Teague, J.W.; Totoki, Y.; Tutt, A.N.; Valdes-Mas, R.; Buuren, M.M. van; Veer, L. van 't; Vincent-Salomon, A.; Waddell, N.; Yates, L.R.; Zucman-Rossi, J.; Futreal, P.A.; McDermott, U.; Lichter, P.; Meyerson, M.; Grimmond, S.M.; Siebert, R.; Campo, E.; Shibata, T.; Pfister, S.M.; Campbell, P.J.; Stratton, M.R.; Schlooz-Vries, M.S.; Tol, J.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W. van; Sweep, F.C.; Bult, P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362

  15. The detection, diagnosis and therapy of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram covers clinical aspects of cancers of the lung and tracheo-bronchial tree, i.e., the lower respiratory tract. This includes primary lung cancer in both early and advanced disease status. The topic includes clinically relevant aspects of the prevention, detection, diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy of lung cancer. Certain aspects of metastatic lung disease treatment or therapy which involve aspects of interest to primary lung cancer are included. With certain exceptions, general pre-clinical or animal studies not directly related to the primary human disease are excluded

  16. Human Papilloma Viruses and Breast Cancer – Assessment of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James Sutherland; Glenn, Wendy K.; Whitaker, Noel James

    2016-01-01

    High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case–control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades. Further, HPV oncogenesis can be indirect. Despite these difficulties, the emergence of new evidence has made the assessment of HPV causality, in breast cancer, a practical proposition. With one exception, the evidence meets all the conventional criteria for a causal role of HPVs in breast cancer. The exception is “specificity.” HPVs are ubiquitous, which is the exact opposite of specificity. An additional reservation is that the prevalence of breast cancer is not increased in immunocompromised patients as is the case with respect to HPV-associated cervical cancer. This indicates that HPVs may have an indirect causal influence in breast cancer. Based on the overall evidence, high-risk HPVs may have a causal role in some breast cancers. PMID:27747193

  17. Human Papilloma Viruses and Breast Cancer - Assessment of Causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James Sutherland; Glenn, Wendy K; Whitaker, Noel James

    2016-01-01

    High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case-control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades. Further, HPV oncogenesis can be indirect. Despite these difficulties, the emergence of new evidence has made the assessment of HPV causality, in breast cancer, a practical proposition. With one exception, the evidence meets all the conventional criteria for a causal role of HPVs in breast cancer. The exception is "specificity." HPVs are ubiquitous, which is the exact opposite of specificity. An additional reservation is that the prevalence of breast cancer is not increased in immunocompromised patients as is the case with respect to HPV-associated cervical cancer. This indicates that HPVs may have an indirect causal influence in breast cancer. Based on the overall evidence, high-risk HPVs may have a causal role in some breast cancers.

  18. Current understanding of mdig/MINA in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Chitra; Chen, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Mineral dust-induced gene, mdig has recently been identified and is known to be overexpressed in a majority of human cancers and holds predictive power in the poor prognosis of the disease. Mdig is an environmentally expressed gene that is involved in cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation and immune regulation. With the advancement in deciphering the prognostic role of mdig in human cancers, our understanding on how mdig renders a normal cell to undergo malignant transformation is still very limited. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mdig gene in context to human neoplasias and its relation to the clinico-pathologic factors predicting the outcome of the disease in patients. It also emphasizes on the promising role of mdig that can serve as a potential candidate for biomarker discovery and as a therapeutic target in inflammation and cancers. Considering the recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tumor formation, more preclinical and clinical research is required to validate the potential of using mdig as a novel biological target of therapeutic and diagnostic value. Expression level of mdig influences the prognosis of several human cancers especially cancers of the breast and lung. Evaluation of mdig in cancers can offer novel biomarker with potential therapeutic interventions for the early assessment of cancer development in patients.

  19. BMI-1, a promising therapeutic target for human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN

    2015-01-01

    BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537

  20. Maintenance of prolactin receptors in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-David, M.; Dror, Y.; Biran, S.

    1981-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens of 110 women with various stages of breast cancer were tested in vitro to determine their specific binding sites for human prolactin. In contrast to the case of steroid receptors, binding sites for prolactin were found in the vast majority of breast cancer tissue. Distribution profiles giving amount of prolactin receptor and their affinity coefficients were found to be similar in the tissues of women whose ages, hormonal status, or stage of breast cancer varied. These findings show that in contrast to steroid receptors, human breast cancer tissue maintains binding sites for prolactin. The findings also indicate that there may be a higher dependency of breast cancer on prolactin than on steroids. Clinical trials must be carried out to determine the role of ''positive'' prolactin receptors in prognosis and prediction of response to future hormone therapy. (author)

  1. Comparing cancer screening estimates: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ann Goding; Liu, Benmei; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Fedewa, Stacey A

    2018-01-01

    Cancer screening prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), designed to provide state-level estimates, and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), designed to provide national estimates, are used to measure progress in cancer control. A detailed description of the extent to which recent cancer screening estimates vary by key demographic characteristics has not been previously described. We examined national prevalence estimates for recommended breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening using data from the 2012 and 2014 BRFSS and the 2010 and 2013 NHIS. Treating the NHIS estimates as the reference, direct differences (DD) were calculated by subtracting NHIS estimates from BRFSS estimates. Relative differences were computed by dividing the DD by the NHIS estimates. Two-sample t-tests (2-tails), were performed to test for statistically significant differences. BRFSS screening estimates were higher than those from NHIS for breast (78.4% versus 72.5%; DD=5.9%, pNHIS, each survey has a unique and important role in providing information to track cancer screening utilization among various populations. Awareness of these differences and their potential causes is important when comparing the surveys and determining the best application for each data source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhein Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yao Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human breast cancers cells overexpressing HER2/neu are more aggressive tumors with poor prognosis, and resistance to chemotherapy. This study investigates antiproliferation effects of anthraquinone derivatives of rhubarb root on human breast cancer cells. Of 7 anthraquinone derivatives, only rhein showed antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on both HER2-overexpressing MCF-7 (MCF-7/HER2 and control vector MCF-7 (MCF-7/VEC cells. Rhein induced dose- and time-dependent manners increase in caspase-9-mediated apoptosis correlating with activation of ROS-mediated activation of NF-κB- and p53-signaling pathways in both cell types. Therefore, this study highlighted rhein as processing anti-proliferative activity against HER2 overexpression or HER2-basal expression in breast cancer cells and playing important roles in apoptotic induction of human breast cancer cells.

  3. Defining the cellular precursors to human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Patricia J.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Skibinski, Adam; Logvinenko, Tanya; Klebba, Ina; Dong, Shumin; Smith, Avi E.; Prat, Aleix; Perou, Charles M.; Gilmore, Hannah; Schnitt, Stuart; Naber, Stephen P.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human breast cancers are broadly classified based on their gene-expression profiles into luminal- and basal-type tumors. These two major tumor subtypes express markers corresponding to the major differentiation states of epithelial cells in the breast: luminal (EpCAM+) and basal/myoepithelial (CD10+). However, there are also rare types of breast cancers, such as metaplastic carcinomas, where tumor cells exhibit features of alternate cell types that no longer resemble breast epithelium. Until now, it has been difficult to identify the cell type(s) in the human breast that gives rise to these various forms of breast cancer. Here we report that transformation of EpCAM+ epithelial cells results in the formation of common forms of human breast cancer, including estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors with luminal and basal-like characteristics, respectively, whereas transformation of CD10+ cells results in the development of rare metaplastic tumors reminiscent of the claudin-low subtype. We also demonstrate the existence of CD10+ breast cells with metaplastic traits that can give rise to skin and epidermal tissues. Furthermore, we show that the development of metaplastic breast cancer is attributable, in part, to the transformation of these metaplastic breast epithelial cells. These findings identify normal cellular precursors to human breast cancers and reveal the existence of a population of cells with epidermal progenitor activity within adult human breast tissues. PMID:21940501

  4. Object Detection and Tracking-Based Camera Calibration for Normalized Human Height Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized human height estimation algorithm using an uncalibrated camera. To estimate the normalized human height, the proposed algorithm detects a moving object and performs tracking-based automatic camera calibration. The proposed method consists of three steps: (i moving human detection and tracking, (ii automatic camera calibration, and (iii human height estimation and error correction. The proposed method automatically calibrates camera by detecting moving humans and estimates the human height using error correction. The proposed method can be applied to object-based video surveillance systems and digital forensic.

  5. Vaccines against human papilloma virus and cervical cancer: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of preventing human papilloma virus (HPV infection through currently approved vaccines, namely, Gardasil, manufactured by Merck and Co., Inc. (Whitehouse Station, NJ and Cervarix, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, Philadelphia holds tremendous promise for the developing countries in decreasing the burden of HPV infection and its sequelae, such as cervical cancer, genital warts and anogenital cancers. Effective screening programs that have reduced the burden of this killer disease in the developed countries are still lacking in India, despite the high incidence of cervical cancer and the implementation of the National Cancer Control Programme since 1975. The recent breakthrough in the global war against cervical cancer will provide new insight for meeting the future challenge of the prevention of cervical cancer in India.

  6. Human neural tuning estimated from compound action potentials in normal hearing human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Eric; Desloovere, Christian; Joris, Philip X.

    2015-12-01

    The sharpness of cochlear frequency tuning in humans is debated. Evoked otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical measurements suggest sharper tuning in humans than in laboratory animals [15], but this is disputed based on comparisons of behavioral and electrophysiological measurements across species [14]. Here we used evoked mass potentials to electrophysiologically quantify tuning (Q10) in humans. We combined a notched noise forward masking paradigm [9] with the recording of trans tympanic compound action potentials (CAP) from masked probe tones in awake human and anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta). We compare our results to data obtained with the same paradigm in cat and chinchilla [16], and find that CAP-Q10values in human are ˜1.6x higher than in cat and chinchilla and ˜1.3x higher than in monkey. To estimate frequency tuning of single auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in humans, we derive conversion functions from ANFs in cat, chinchilla, and monkey and apply these to the human CAP measurements. The data suggest that sharp cochlear tuning is a feature of old-world primates.

  7. KITENIN is associated with tumor progression in human gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ho-Seong; Park, Young-Lan; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hee; Cho, Sung-Bum; Lee, Wan-Sik; Chung, Ik-Joo; Kim, Kyung-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Joo, Young-Eun

    2010-09-01

    KAI1 COOH-terminal interacting tetraspanin (KITENIN) promotes tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis in colon, bladder, head and neck cancer. The aims of current study were to evaluate whether KITENIN affects tumor cell behavior in human gastric cancer cell line and to document the expression of KITENIN in a well-defined series of gastric tumors, including complete long-term follow-up, with special reference to patient prognosis. To evaluate the impact of KITENIN knockdown on behavior of a human gastric cancer cell line, AGS, migration, invasion and proliferation assays using small-interfering RNA were performed. The expression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) target genes and AP-1 transcriptional activity were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and luciferase reporter assay. The expression of KITENIN and AP-1 target genes by RT-PCR and Western blotting or immunohistochemistry was also investigated in human gastric cancer tissues. The knockdown of KITENIN suppressed tumor cell migration, invasion and proliferation in AGS cells. The mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and CD44 was reduced by knockdown of KITENIN in AGS. AP-1 transcriptional activity was significantly decreased by knockdown of KITENIN in AGS cells. KITENIN expression was significantly increased in human cancer tissues at RNA and protein levels. Expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, COX-2 and CD44 were significantly increased in human gastric cancer tissues. Immunostaining of KITENIN was predominantly identified in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Expression of KITENIN was significantly associated with tumor size, Lauren classification, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and poor survival. These results indicate that KITENIN plays an important role in human gastric cancer progression by AP-1 activation.

  8. Endocrine therapy of human breast cancer grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Osborne, C K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1987-01-01

    mice bearing transplanted human breast tumors have been proposed as such a model. This review therefore discusses the use of the athymic nude mouse model of the study of human breast cancer biology, and focuses on four subjects: 1. biological characteristics of heterotransplanted breast tumors; 2...

  9. Trends in all-cause five-year mortality after head and neck cancers diagnosed over a period of 33 years. Focus on estimated degree of association with human papillomavirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor S S

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, we examine whether any trend over time differed according to sex, stage, and age at diagnosis. RESULTS: All-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC has decreased over time. The greatest decrease was seen in the last decade (2000-2010) among patients with HNSCC at sites estimated to be strongly......-based cohort study of all 20 925 individuals diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in Denmark 1978-2010, we investigate secular trends in all-cause five-year mortality after HNSCC according to the anticipated degree of association with HPV using a Cox proportional hazards model...... associated with HPV, i.e. the base of the tongue and the tonsils, where a 28% decrease per five years (e.g. HRbase of tongue/tonsils=0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.81) was observed. When examining sex- and age-specific time trends, the decrease in mortality was most pronounced among male patients and patients below 60...

  10. Estimating the incidence of breast cancer in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeloye, Davies; Sowunmi, Olaperi Y.; Jacobs, Wura; David, Rotimi A; Adeosun, Adeyemi A; Amuta, Ann O.; Misra, Sanjay; Gadanya, Muktar; Auta, Asa; Harhay, Michael O; Chan, Kit Yee

    2018-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is estimated to be the most common cancer worldwide. We sought to assemble publicly available data from Africa to provide estimates of the incidence of breast cancer on the continent. Methods A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and African Journals Online (AJOL) was conducted. We included population- or hospital-based registry studies on breast cancer conducted in Africa, and providing estimates of the crude incidence of breast cancer among women. A random effects meta-analysis was employed to determine the pooled incidence of breast cancer across studies. Results The literature search returned 4648 records, with 41 studies conducted across 54 study sites in 22 African countries selected. We observed important variations in reported cancer incidence between population- and hospital-based cancer registries. The overall pooled crude incidence of breast cancer from population-based registries was 24.5 per 100 000 person years (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.1-28.9). The incidence in North Africa was higher at 29.3 per 100 000 (95% CI 20.0-38.7) than Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) at 22.4 per 100 000 (95% CI 17.2-28.0). In hospital-based registries, the overall pooled crude incidence rate was estimated at 23.6 per 100 000 (95% CI 18.5-28.7). SSA and Northern Africa had relatively comparable rates at 24.0 per 100 000 (95% CI 17.5-30.4) and 23.2 per 100 000 (95% CI 6.6-39.7), respectively. Across both registries, incidence rates increased considerably between 2000 and 2015. Conclusions The available evidence suggests a growing incidence of breast cancer in Africa. The representativeness of these estimates is uncertain due to the paucity of data in several countries and calendar years, as well as inconsistency in data collation and quality across existing cancer registries. PMID:29740502

  11. Environmental factors in causing human cancers: emphasis on tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankpal, Umesh T; Pius, Hima; Khan, Moeez; Shukoor, Mohammed I; Maliakal, Pius; Lee, Chris M; Abdelrahim, Maen; Connelly, Sarah F; Basha, Riyaz

    2012-10-01

    The environment and dietary factors play an essential role in the etiology of cancer. Environmental component is implicated in ~80 % of all cancers; however, the causes for certain cancers are still unknown. The potential players associated with various cancers include chemicals, heavy metals, diet, radiation, and smoking. Lifestyle habits such as smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to certain chemicals (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorines), metals and pesticides also pose risk in causing human cancers. Several studies indicated a strong association of lung cancer with the exposure to tobacco products and asbestos. The contribution of excessive sunlight, radiation, occupational exposure (e.g., painting, coal, and certain metals) is also well established in cancer. Smoking, excessive alcohol intake, consumption of an unhealthy diet, and lack of physical activity can act as risk factors for cancer and also impact the prognosis. Even though the environmental disposition is linked to cancer, the level and duration of carcinogen-exposure and associated cellular and biochemical aspects determine the actual risk. Modulations in metabolism and DNA adduct formation are considered central mechanisms in environmental carcinogenesis. This review describes the major environmental contributors in causing cancer with an emphasis on molecular aspects associated with environmental disposition in carcinogenesis.

  12. Cancer risks in BRCA2 families: estimates for sites other than breast and ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asperen, C. J.; Brohet, R. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Verhoef, S.; Vasen, H. F. A.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; Menko, F. H.; Gomez Garcia, E. B.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; van Houwelingen, J. C.; van't Veer, L. J.; Rookus, M. A.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2005-01-01

    In BRCA2 mutation carriers, increased risks have been reported for several cancer sites besides breast and ovary. As most of the families included in earlier reports were selected on the basis of multiple breast/ovarian cancer cases, it is possible that risk estimates may differ in mutation carriers

  13. The prognostic relevance of estimates of proliferative activity in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, B V; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knoop, A

    2003-01-01

    clinicopathological parameters at diagnosis in early breast cancer patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumour specimens from 365 consecutively treated breast cancer patients were immunostained for MIB-1 and evaluated under the microscope using systematic random sampling accomplished by the CAST-grid system.......RESULTS: The systematic random sampling technique resulted in MIB-1 estimates with very high interobserver and intraobserver reproducibilities (P

  14. A joint model of persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer risk: Implications for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katki, Hormuzd A; Cheung, Li C; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2015-10-01

    New cervical cancer screening guidelines in the US and many European countries recommend that women get tested for human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform decisions about screening intervals, we calculate the increase in precancer/cancer risk per year of continued HPV infection. However, both time to onset of precancer/cancer and time to HPV clearance are interval-censored, and onset of precancer/cancer strongly informatively censors HPV clearance. We analyze this bivariate informatively interval-censored data by developing a novel joint model for time to clearance of HPV and time to precancer/cancer using shared random-effects, where the estimated mean duration of each woman's HPV infection is a covariate in the submodel for time to precancer/cancer. The model was fit to data on 9,553 HPV-positive/Pap-negative women undergoing cervical cancer screening at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, data that were pivotal to the development of US screening guidelines. We compare the implications for screening intervals of this joint model to those from population-average marginal models of precancer/cancer risk. In particular, after 2 years the marginal population-average precancer/cancer risk was 5%, suggesting a 2-year interval to control population-average risk at 5%. In contrast, the joint model reveals that almost all women exceeding 5% individual risk in 2 years also exceeded 5% in 1 year, suggesting that a 1-year interval is better to control individual risk at 5%. The example suggests that sophisticated risk models capable of predicting individual risk may have different implications than population-average risk models that are currently used for informing medical guideline development.

  15. Human cancer protein-protein interaction network: a structural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Kar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction networks provide a global picture of cellular function and biological processes. Some proteins act as hub proteins, highly connected to others, whereas some others have few interactions. The dysfunction of some interactions causes many diseases, including cancer. Proteins interact through their interfaces. Therefore, studying the interface properties of cancer-related proteins will help explain their role in the interaction networks. Similar or overlapping binding sites should be used repeatedly in single interface hub proteins, making them promiscuous. Alternatively, multi-interface hub proteins make use of several distinct binding sites to bind to different partners. We propose a methodology to integrate protein interfaces into cancer interaction networks (ciSPIN, cancer structural protein interface network. The interactions in the human protein interaction network are replaced by interfaces, coming from either known or predicted complexes. We provide a detailed analysis of cancer related human protein-protein interfaces and the topological properties of the cancer network. The results reveal that cancer-related proteins have smaller, more planar, more charged and less hydrophobic binding sites than non-cancer proteins, which may indicate low affinity and high specificity of the cancer-related interactions. We also classified the genes in ciSPIN according to phenotypes. Within phenotypes, for breast cancer, colorectal cancer and leukemia, interface properties were found to be discriminating from non-cancer interfaces with an accuracy of 71%, 67%, 61%, respectively. In addition, cancer-related proteins tend to interact with their partners through distinct interfaces, corresponding mostly to multi-interface hubs, which comprise 56% of cancer-related proteins, and constituting the nodes with higher essentiality in the network (76%. We illustrate the interface related affinity properties of two cancer-related hub

  16. Burden and incidence of human papillomavirus-associated cancers and precancerous lesions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    the study period, and almost identical incidence rates were seen for women and men in the youngest birth cohorts. The current burden of HPV-associated lesions amounted to more than 5000 cases, the vast majority (85%) being severe precancerous lesions. The highest risk for HPV-associated cancers......AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in Denmark between 1978 and 2011, estimate the current absolute annual number (burden) of HPV-associated cancers (HPVaCa) and their precancerous lesions, and assess whether...... there is socioeconomic inequality in the risk of HPV-associated cancers. METHODS: From four nationwide population-based registries, information was collected on HPVaCa diagnosed during 1978-2011 and age-standardised incidence rate for each site by calendar year and birth cohort was calculated. Furthermore, the current...

  17. A framework for estimating radiation-related cancer risks in Japan from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, L; Zhang, W; Shore, R E; Auvinen, A; Laurier, D; Wakeford, R; Jacob, P; Gent, N; Anspaugh, L R; Schüz, J; Kesminiene, A; van Deventer, E; Tritscher, A; del Rosarion Pérez, M

    2014-11-01

    We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes, and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in

  18. Human factors estimation methods in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nagasaka, Akihiko; Ishii, Keichiro; Nakasa, Hiroyasu

    1985-01-01

    To improve the operational and maintenance work reliability, it is neccessary for workers to maintain his performance always at high level, that leads to decreasing mistaken judgements and operations. This paper inuolves the development and evaluation of ''Multi-Purpose Physiological Information Measurement system'' to estimate human performance and conditions with a highly fixed quantity. The following itemes is mentioned : (1) Most suitable physiological informations are selected to measure worker' performance in nuclear power plant with none-disturbance, ambulatory, continual, and multi channel measurement. (2) Relatively important physiological informations are measured with the real-time monitoring functions. (electrocardiogram, respirometric functions and EMG (electromyogram) pulse rete). (3) It is made to optimize the measurement condition and analysing methods in the use of a noise-cut function and a D.C. drift cutting method. (4) As a example, it is clear that, when the different weight is loaded to the arm and make it strech-bend motion, the EMG signal is measured and analysed by this system, the analysed EMG pulse rate and maximum amplitude is related to the arm loaded weight. (author)

  19. Comparison of additive (absolute) risk projection models and multiplicative (relative) risk projection models in estimating radiation-induced lifetime cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko

    1990-01-01

    Lifetime cancer risk estimates depend on risk projection models. While the increasing lengths of follow-up observation periods of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki bring about changes in cancer risk estimates, the validity of the two risk projection models, the additive risk projection model (AR) and multiplicative risk projection model (MR), comes into question. This paper compares the lifetime risk or loss of life-expectancy between the two projection models on the basis of BEIR-III report or recently published RERF report. With Japanese cancer statistics the estimates of MR were greater than those of AR, but a reversal of these results was seen when the cancer hazard function for India was used. When we investigated the validity of the two projection models using epidemiological human data and animal data, the results suggested that MR was superior to AR with respect to temporal change, but there was little evidence to support its validity. (author)

  20. Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in CT: Part II. Application to patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Colsher, James G.; Toncheva, Greta; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Frush, Donald P. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Department of Physics, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Current methods for estimating and reporting radiation dose from CT examinations are largely patient-generic; the body size and hence dose variation from patient to patient is not reflected. Furthermore, the current protocol designs rely on dose as a surrogate for the risk of cancer incidence, neglecting the strong dependence of risk on age and gender. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for estimating patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk from CT examinations. Methods: The study included two patients (a 5-week-old female patient and a 12-year-old male patient), who underwent 64-slice CT examinations (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis at our institution in 2006. For each patient, a nonuniform rational B-spine (NURBS) based full-body computer model was created based on the patient's clinical CT data. Large organs and structures inside the image volume were individually segmented and modeled. Other organs were created by transforming an existing adult male or female full-body computer model (developed from visible human data) to match the framework defined by the segmented organs, referencing the organ volume and anthropometry data in ICRP Publication 89. A Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated for dose simulation on the LightSpeed VCT scanner was used to estimate patient-specific organ dose, from which effective dose and risks of cancer incidence were derived. Patient-specific organ dose and effective dose were compared with patient-generic CT dose quantities in current clinical use: the volume-weighted CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and the effective dose derived from the dose-length product (DLP). Results: The effective dose for the CT examination of the newborn patient (5.7 mSv) was higher but comparable to that for the CT examination of the teenager patient (4.9 mSv) due to the size-based clinical CT protocols at our institution, which employ lower scan techniques for smaller

  1. Endocrine Disruption and Human Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risbridger, Gail

    2008-01-01

    .... In order to test the concept that Vinclozolin alters human prostate development and induces disease, we used our model system to study human prostate development and maturation over 8-12 weeks...

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause serious health problems, including ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  3. Comparison of breast cancer mucin (BCM) and CA 15-3 in human breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, M.B.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Wall, E. van der; Nortier, J.W.R.; Schornagel, J.H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Mucin (BCM) enzyme immunoassay utilizes two monoclonal antibodies (Mab), M85/34 and F36/22, for the identification of a mucin-like glycoprotein in serum of breast cancer patients. We have compared BCM with CA 15-3, another member of the human mammary epithelial antigen

  4. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Jackson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of ‘non-animal human tissue’ models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models.

  5. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Samuel J; Thomas, Gareth J

    2017-08-01

    Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of 'non-animal human tissue' models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Urinary acylcarnitines are altered in human kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Sheila; Taylor, Sandra L; Kim, Kyoungmi; Hoppel, Charles L; Guo, Lining; Yang, Joy; Evans, Christopher; Weiss, Robert H

    2012-06-15

    Kidney cancer often diagnosed at late stages when treatment options are severely limited. Thus, greater understanding of tumor metabolism leading ultimately to novel approaches to diagnosis is needed. Our laboratory has been utilizing metabolomics to evaluate compounds appearing in kidney cancer patients' biofluids at concentrations different from control patients. Here, we collected urine samples from kidney cancer patients and analyzed them by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Once normalized to control for urinary concentration, samples were analyzed by two independent laboratories. After technical validation, we now show differential urinary concentrations of several acylcarnitines as a function of both cancer status and kidney cancer grade, with most acylcarnitines being increased in the urine of cancer patients and in those patients with high cancer grades. This finding was validated in a mouse xenograft model of human kidney cancer. Biological validation shows carbon chain length-dependent effects of the acylcarnitines on cytotoxicity in vitro, and higher chain length acylcarnitines demonstrated inhibitory effects on NF-κB activation, suggesting an immune modulatory effect of these compounds. Thus, acylcarnitines in the kidney cancer urine may reflect alterations in metabolism, cell component synthesis and/or immune surveillance, and may help explain the profound chemotherapy resistance seen with this cancer. This study shows for the first time the value of a novel class of metabolites which may lead to new therapeutic approaches for cancer and may prove useful in cancer biomarker studies. Furthermore, these findings open up a new area of investigation into the metabolic basis of kidney cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  7. The sensitivity of the human breast to cancer induction by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Available evidence for the induction of cancer in the human breast by small doses of radiation is reviewed. A comparison is made of risk estimates for the frequency of breast cancer in excess of controls, per rad of ionizing radiation, resulting from multiple fluoroscopy, radiotherapy of non-malignant diseases of the breast, or the exposure of Japanese bomb survivors. The significance of the age at exposure is discussed, and consideration is given to the application of the evidence to practical problems in radiography, radiotherapy, screening by mammography, and radiological protection for occupational exposure. (U.K.)

  8. Sensitivity of the human breast to cancer induction by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mole, R H [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1978-06-01

    Available evidence for the induction of cancer in the human breast by small doses of radiation is reviewed. A comparison is made of risk estimates for the frequency of breast cancer in excess of controls, per rad of ionizing radiation, resulting from multiple fluoroscopy, radiotherapy of non-malignant diseases of the breast, or the exposure of Japanese bomb survivors. The significance of the age at exposure is discussed, and consideration is given to the application of the evidence to practical problems in radiography, radiotherapy, screening by mammography, and radiological protection for occupational exposure.

  9. Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and oropharyngeal cancer: One cause, two diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Tara A; Schiller, John T

    2017-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes greater than 5% of cancers worldwide, including all cervical cancers and an alarmingly increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). Despite markedly reduced cervical cancer incidence in industrialized nations with organized screening programs, cervical cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, as developing countries lack resources for universal, high-quality screening. In the United States, HPV-related OPC is only 1 of 5 cancers with a rising incidence since 1975 and now has taken over the cervix as the most common site of HPV-related cancer. Similar trends follow throughout North America and Europe. The need for early detection and prevention is paramount. Despite the common etiologic role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC, great disparity exists between incidence, screening modalities (or lack thereof), treatment, and prevention in these 2 very distinct cohorts. These differences in cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC and their impact are discussed here. Cancer 2017;123:2219-2229. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Psychological scaling of expert estimates of human error probabilities: application to nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, K.; Gaddy, C.D.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a project to evaluate psychological scaling techniques for use in generating estimates of human error probabilities. The project evaluated two techniques: direct numerical estimation and paired comparisons. Expert estimates were found to be consistent across and within judges. Convergent validity was good, in comparison to estimates in a handbook of human reliability. Predictive validity could not be established because of the lack of actual relative frequencies of error (which will be a difficulty inherent in validation of any procedure used to estimate HEPs). Application of expert estimates in probabilistic risk assessment and in human factors is discussed

  11. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.; Dinse, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  12. Estimating lung cancer risks of indoor radon: applications for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The epidemiologic evidence for a serious lung cancer hazard from radon exposure is very strong, and cumulative exposures accrued in residences may frequently overlap those accrued in underground miners. However, many uncertainties exist in extrapolating from mining to indoor risks because of differences in the populations, in radon exposure variables, and in other exposures. Risks are also considered for indoor radon exposures outside the home. There is already suggestive evidence of an association of lung cancer with radon levels in community settings, and several large-scale investigations are in progress. Some important questions regarding quantifying risk may not be approached, however; some further research needs are outlined including development of techniques for preventing or postponing lung cancer in individuals previously exposed to high radon levels. 31 references, 2 tables

  13. Decorin in Human Colon Cancer: Localization In Vivo and Effect on Cancer Cell Behavior In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Marie C; Sainio, Annele O; Pennanen, Mirka M; Lund, Riikka J; Vuorikoski, Sanna; Sundström, Jari T T; Järveläinen, Hannu T

    2015-09-01

    Decorin is generally recognized as a tumor suppressing molecule. Nevertheless, although decorin has been shown to be differentially expressed in malignant tissues, it has often remained unclear whether, in addition to non-malignant stromal cells, cancer cells also express it. Here, we first used two publicly available databases to analyze the current information about decorin expression and immunoreactivity in normal and malignant human colorectal tissue samples. The analyses demonstrated that decorin expression and immunoreactivity may vary in cancer cells of human colorectal tissues. Therefore, we next examined decorin expression in normal, premalignant and malignant human colorectal tissues in more detail using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for decorin. Our results invariably demonstrate that malignant cells within human colorectal cancer tissues are devoid of both decorin mRNA and immunoreactivity. Identical results were obtained for cells of neuroendocrine tumors of human colon. Using RT-qPCR, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines are also decorin negative, in accordance with the above in vivo results. Finally, we demonstrate that decorin transduction of human colon cancer cell lines causes a significant reduction in their colony forming capability. Thus, strategies to develop decorin-based adjuvant therapies for human colorectal malignancies are highly rational. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Radon, smoking and human papilloma virus as risk factors for lung cancer in an environmental epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Malinovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study: to analyze the risk of lung cancer caused by exposure to indoor radon using an environmental study, taking into account recent data on the possible effect of Human Papillomavirus, based on lung cancer mortality and radon exposure in the Russian regions.Materials and methods: in the analysis, linear dependencies of lung cancer against influencing factors were used. The average radon concentration for the regions of Russia was earlier reconstructed on the basis of the annual reports of the form 4-DOZ. Information on morbidity and mortality from malignant neoplasms in Russia was obtained from annual reports issued by the Р. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute. As a surrogate of the level of infection with Human Papillomavirus, the incidence of cervix cancer was used. The smoking prevalence was estimated applying data on the incidence of tongue cancer.Results: taking into account smoking and infection with Human Papillomavirus, it is possible to obtain estimates of lung cancer excess relative risk when induced by radon in dwellings consistent with the results of case-control studies.Conclusion: the analysis of regionally aggregated data on deaths from lung cancer in Russia, the average level of indoor radon concentrations and significant risk factors for lung cancer confirms the linear threshold-free concept of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  15. Frequency of human papillomavirus infection in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Cano-Contreras, A D; Sánchez-Maza, Y J; Espinosa-González, J M; Vázquez-Prieto, M Á; Valdés-de la O, E J; Díaz-Roesch, F; Carrasco-Arroniz, M Á; Cruz-Palacios, A; Grube-Pagola, P; Sumoza-Toledo, A; Vivanco-Cid, H; Mellado-Sánchez, G; Meixueiro-Daza, A; Silva-Cañetas, C S; Carrillo-Toledo, M G; Lagunes-Torres, R; Amieva-Balmori, M; Gómez-Castaño, P C; Reyes-Huerta, J U; Remes-Troche, J M

    2018-02-15

    Cancer is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It has recently been related to viral infections, one of which is human papillomavirus. The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of human papillomavirus infection in patients with digestive system cancers. A prospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted on patients with gastrointestinal cancer at 2public healthcare institutes in Veracruz. Two tumor samples were taken, one for histologic study and the other for DNA determination of human papillomavirus and its genotypes. Anthropometric variables, risk factors, sexual habits, tumor location, and histologic type of the cancer were analyzed. Absolute and relative frequencies were determined using the SPSS version 24.0 program. Fifty-three patients were studied. They had gastrointestinal cancer located in: the colon (62.26%), stomach (18.87%), esophagus (7.55%), rectum (7.55%), and small bowel (3.77%). Human papillomavirus was identified in 11.32% of the patients, 66.7% of which corresponded to squamous cell carcinoma and 33.3% to adenocarcinoma. Only genotype 18 was identified. Mean patient age was 61.8±15.2 years, 56.60% of the patients were men, and 43.40% were women. A total of 15.8% of the patients had a family history of cancer and 31.6% had a personal history of the disease, 38.6% were tobacco smokers, and 61.4% consumed alcohol. Regarding sex, 5.3% of the patients said they were homosexual, 3.5% were bisexual, 29.8% engaged in oral sex, and 24.6% in anal sex. Our study showed that human papillomavirus infection was a risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancer, especially of squamous cell origin. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. The Application of Extended Cox Proportional Hazard Method for Estimating Survival Time of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Hartina; Astuti Thamrin, Sri; Tahir, Sulaiha; Mukhlisin, Ahmad; Mirna Apriani, M.

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is one type of cancer that is the leading cause of death worldwide. This study aims to model the factors that affect the survival time and rate of cure of breast cancer patients. The extended cox model, which is a modification of the proportional hazard cox model in which the proportional hazard assumptions are not met, is used in this study. The maximum likelihood estimation approach is used to estimate the parameters of the model. This method is then applied to medical record data of breast cancer patient in 2011-2016, which is taken from Hasanuddin University Education Hospital. The results obtained indicate that the factors that affect the survival time of breast cancer patients are malignancy and leukocyte levels.

  17. Uncertainties in estimating heart doses from 2D-tangential breast cancer radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugaard Lorenzen, Ebbe; Brink, Carsten; Taylor, Carolyn W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We evaluated the accuracy of three methods of estimating radiation dose to the heart from two-dimensional tangential radiotherapy for breast cancer, as used in Denmark during 1982-2002. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three tangential radiotherapy regimens were reconstructed using CT......-based planning scans for 40 patients with left-sided and 10 with right-sided breast cancer. Setup errors and organ motion were simulated using estimated uncertainties. For left-sided patients, mean heart dose was related to maximum heart distance in the medial field. RESULTS: For left-sided breast cancer, mean...... to the uncertainty of estimates based on individual CT-scans. For right-sided breast cancer patients, mean heart dose based on individual CT-scans was always

  18. Foxp3 expression in human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 specifically characterizes the thymically derived naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs. Limited evidence indicates that it is also expressed, albeit to a lesser extent, in tissues other than thymus and spleen, while, very recently, it was shown that Foxp3 is expressed by pancreatic carcinoma. This study was scheduled to investigate whether expression of Foxp3 transcripts and mature protein occurs constitutively in various tumor types. Materials and methods Twenty five tumor cell lines of different tissue origins (lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, erythroid leukemia, acute T-cell leukemia were studied. Detection of Foxp3 mRNA was performed using both conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR while protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using different antibody clones. Results Foxp3 mRNA as well as Foxp3 protein was detected in all tumor cell lines, albeit in variable levels, not related to the tissue of origin. This expression correlated with the expression levels of IL-10 and TGFb1. Conclusion We offer evidence that Foxp3 expression, characterizes tumor cells of various tissue origins. The biological significance of these findings warrants further investigation in the context of tumor immune escape, and especially under the light of current anti-cancer efforts interfering with Foxp3 expression.

  19. Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and ... The morphology of the HepG2 cell nucleus was investigated by Hoechst 33342, ..... Gong F, Liang Y, Xie P, Chau F. Information theory.

  20. (Asteraceae) Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of crude and dichloromethane fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and L929). Methods: A. sieberi was extracted with methanol and further purification was carried out using liquidliquid extraction ...

  1. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  2. Autophagy Therapeutic Potential of Garlic in Human Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Lin Chu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic 大 蒜 Dà Suàn; Allium sativum, is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients.

  3. REVIEW OF DRAFT REVISED BLUE BOOK ON ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1994, EPA published a report, referred to as the “Blue Book,” which lays out EPA’s current methodology for quantitatively estimating radiogenic cancer risks. A follow-on report made minor adjustments to the previous estimates and presented a partial analysis of the uncertainti...

  4. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  5. Immunological responses against human papilloma virus and human papilloma virus induced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sakazaki, T; Ono, T; Kurita, T; Mihashi, H; Nakashima, T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the local immune status in the larynx in the presence of infection or carcinogenesis associated with human papilloma virus. Cytological samples (for human papilloma virus detection) and laryngeal secretions (for immunoglobulin assessment) were obtained from 31 patients with laryngeal disease, during microscopic laryngeal surgery. On histological examination, 12 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had laryngeal papilloma and 15 had other benign laryngeal disease. Cytological samples were tested for human papilloma virus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay. High risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 25 per cent of patients (three of 12) with laryngeal cancer. Low risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected only in three laryngeal papilloma patients. The mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A in human papilloma virus DNA positive patients were more than twice those in human papilloma virus DNA negative patients. A statistically significant difference was observed between the secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations in the two groups. Patients with laryngeal cancer had higher laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type, compared with patients with benign laryngeal disease. The study assessed the mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type in the 12 laryngeal cancer patients, comparing human papilloma virus DNA positive patients (n = 3) and human papilloma virus DNA negative patients (n = 9); the mean concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A tended to be greater in human papilloma virus DNA positive cancer patients, compared with human papilloma virus DNA negative cancer patients. These results suggest that the local laryngeal immune response is activated by infection or carcinogenesis due to human papilloma virus. The findings strongly suggest that secretory IgA has inhibitory activity

  6. An Estimation of Radiobiological Parameters for Head-and-Neck Cancer Cells and the Clinical Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Yang, Qiuhui; Lee, Steve P.; Li, X. Allen; Wang, Dian

    2012-01-01

    In vitro survival measurements using two human head-and-neck cancer (HNC) cell lines were performed. The specially designed split-dose surviving fraction was obtained and fitted to the linear-quadratic formalism. The repair halftime (Tr), the potential doubling time (T d ), α/β and radiosensitivity α, were estimated. Other radiobiological models: EUD, BED, TCP, etc., were used to examine the potential treatment effectiveness of different IMRT techniques. Our data indicated the repair halftime of ~17 min based on two HNC cell lines. The combined α/β, α and T d are α/β = 8.1 ± 4.1 Gy, α = 0.22 ± 0.08 Gy −1 , T d = 4.0 ± 1.8 day, respectively. The prolonged IMRT dose delivery for entire HNC treatment course could possibly result in the loss of biological effectiveness, i.e., the target EUDs decreased by 11% with fraction dose delivery time varying from 5 to 30 min. We determined the sublethal damage repair halftime and other radiobiological parameters for HNC cells, and to evaluate treatment effectiveness of the prolonged dose delivery times associated with different IMRT techniques. The estimated repair halftime for HNC is relatively short and may be comparable to the step-and-shoot IMRT fraction dose delivery time. The effectiveness of IMRT treatment may be improved by reducing the fraction delivery time for HNC treatment

  7. A simple method to estimate the episode and programme sensitivity of breast cancer screening programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Guzzinati, Stefano; Puliti, Donella; Paci, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of breast cancer screening sensitivity is a major aim in the quality assessment of screening programmes. The proportional incidence method for the estimation of the sensitivity of breast cancer screening programmes is rarely used to estimate the underlying incidence rates. We present a method to estimate episode and programme sensitivity of screening programmes, based solely on cancers detected within screening cycles (excluding breast cancer cases at prevalent screening round) and on the number of incident cases in the total target population (steady state). The assumptions, strengths and limitations of the method are discussed. An example of calculation of episode and programme sensitivities is given, on the basis of the data from the IMPACT study, a large observational study of breast cancer screening programmes in Italy. The programme sensitivity from the fifth year of screening onwards ranged between 41% and 48% of the total number of cases in the target population. At steady state episode sensitivity was 0.70, with a trend across age groups, with lowest values in women aged 50-54 years (0.52) and highest in those 65-69 (0.77). The method is a very serviceable tool for estimating sensitivity in service screening programmes, and the results are comparable with those of other methods of estimation.

  8. Genetic and environmental factors in experimental and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, S.; Takebe, H.; Gelboin, H.V.; MaChahon, B.; Matsushima, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Recently technological advances in assaying mutagenic principles have revealed that there are many mutagens in the environment, some of which might be carcinogenic to human beings. Other advances in genetics have shown that genetic factors might play an important role in the induction of cancer in human beings, e.g., the high incidence of skin cancers in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. These proceedings deal with the relationships between genetic and environmental factors in carcinogenesis. The contributors cover mixed-function oxidases, pharmacogenetics, twin studies, DNA repair, immunology, and epidemiology.

  9. lacZ transduced human breast cancer xenografts as an in vivo model for the study of invasion and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Thompson, E W; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1992-01-01

    in the animals by usual histological procedures would require extensive sectioning of the whole animal. To overcome this problem, we transduced human breast cancer cells with a replication-defective Moloney murine leukaemia retroviral vector (M-MuLV) containing both neoR (neomycin resistance) and lacZ genes...... but not the surrounding mouse tissue on either whole tissue blocks or histological sections. The staining procedure was highly sensitive, allowing detection of microfoci of human cancer cells, and quantitative estimation of the metastatic capacity of the cells. These results indicate that lacZ transduction of human...

  10. Targeting Human Papillomavirus to Reduce the Burden of Cervical, Vulvar and Vaginal Cancer and Pre-Invasive Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygard, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...... with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order...... to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias...

  11. Probabilistic methodology for estimating radiation-induced cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Williams, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The RICRAC computer code was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a versatile and convenient methodology for radiation risk assessment. The code allows as input essentially any dose pattern commonly encountered in risk assessments for either acute or chronic exposures, and it includes consideration of the age structure of the exposed population. Results produced by the analysis include the probability of one or more radiation-induced cancer deaths in a specified population, expected numbers of deaths, and expected years of life lost as a result of premature fatalities. These calculatons include consideration of competing risks of death from all other causes. The program also generates a probability frequency distribution of the expected number of cancers in any specified cohort resulting from a given radiation dose. The methods may be applied to any specified population and dose scenario

  12. AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2018-01-18

    The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This special issue of Cancers initially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. The first few articles focus on the use of novel AR-targeting therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to novel antiandrogens, and they also outline the interaction between AR and other cellular pathways, including PI3 kinase signaling, transcriptional regulation, angiogenesis, stromal factors, Wnt signaling, and epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer. The next several articles review the possible role of androgens and AR signaling in breast cancer, bladder cancer, salivary gland cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the potential treatment implications of using antiandrogen therapies in these non-prostatic malignancies.

  13. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1......Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  14. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  15. Anticancer Properties of Capsaicin Against Human Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2016-03-01

    There is persuasive epidemiological and experimental evidence that dietary phytochemicals have anticancer activity. Capsaicin is a bioactive phytochemical abundant in red and chili peppers. While the preponderance of the data strongly indicates significant anticancer benefits of capsaicin, more information to highlight molecular mechanisms of its action is required to improve our knowledge to be able to propose a potential therapeutic strategy for use of capsaicin against cancer. Capsaicin has been shown to alter the expression of several genes involved in cancer cell survival, growth arrest, angiogenesis and metastasis. Recently, many research groups, including ours, found that capsaicin targets multiple signaling pathways, oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in various types of cancer models. In this review article, we highlight multiple molecular targets responsible for the anticancer mechanism of capsaicin. In addition, we deal with the benefits of combinational use of capsaicin with other dietary or chemotherapeutic compounds, focusing on synergistic anticancer activities. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Valuing productivity costs in a changing macroeconomic environment: the estimation of colorectal cancer productivity costs using the friction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Koopmanschap, Marc; Sharp, Linda

    2016-06-01

    The friction cost approach (FCA) has been proposed as an alternative to the human capital approach for productivity cost valuation. However, FCA estimates are context dependent and influenced by extant macroeconomic conditions. We applied the FCA to estimate colorectal cancer labor productivity costs and assessed the impact of a changing macroeconomic environment on these estimates. Data from colorectal cancer survivors (n = 159) derived from a postal survey undertaken in Ireland March 2010 to January 2011 were combined with national wage data, population-level survival data, and occupation-specific friction periods to calculate temporary and permanent disability, and premature mortality costs using the FCA. The effects of changing labor market conditions between 2006 and 2013 on the friction period were modeled in scenario analyses. Costs were valued in 2008 euros. In the base-case, the total FCA per-person productivity cost for incident colorectal cancer patients of working age at diagnosis was €8543. In scenario 1 (a 2.2 % increase in unemployment), the fall in the friction period caused total productivity costs to decrease by up to 18 % compared to base-case estimates. In scenario 2 (a 9.2 % increase in unemployment), the largest decrease in productivity cost was up to 65 %. Adjusting for the vacancy rate reduced the effect of unemployment on the cost results. The friction period used in calculating labor productivity costs greatly affects the derived estimates; this friction period requires reassessment following changes in labor market conditions. The influence of changes in macroeconomic conditions on FCA-derived cost estimates may be substantial.

  17. Psychological impact of providing women with personalised 10-year breast cancer risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Southworth, Jake; Howell, Anthony; Harvie, Michelle; Stavrinos, Paula; Watterson, Donna; Sampson, Sarah; Evans, D Gareth; Donnelly, Louise S

    2018-05-08

    The Predicting Risk of Cancer at Screening (PROCAS) study estimated 10-year breast cancer risk for 53,596 women attending NHS Breast Screening Programme. The present study, nested within the PROCAS study, aimed to assess the psychological impact of receiving breast cancer risk estimates, based on: (a) the Tyrer-Cuzick (T-C) algorithm including breast density or (b) T-C including breast density plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), versus (c) comparison women awaiting results. A sample of 2138 women from the PROCAS study was stratified by testing groups: T-C only, T-C(+SNPs) and comparison women; and by 10-year risk estimates received: 'moderate' (5-7.99%), 'average' (2-4.99%) or 'below average' (<1.99%) risk. Postal questionnaires were returned by 765 (36%) women. Overall state anxiety and cancer worry were low, and similar for women in T-C only and T-C(+SNPs) groups. Women in both T-C only and T-C(+SNPs) groups showed lower-state anxiety but slightly higher cancer worry than comparison women awaiting results. Risk information had no consistent effects on intentions to change behaviour. Most women were satisfied with information provided. There was considerable variation in understanding. No major harms of providing women with 10-year breast cancer risk estimates were detected. Research to establish the feasibility of risk-stratified breast screening is warranted.

  18. Development and prospective validation of a model estimating risk of readmission in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carl R; Hefner, Jennifer; McAlearney, Ann S; Graham, Lisa; Johnson, Kristen; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan; Huerta, Timothy; Pawlik, Timothy M; White, Susan

    2018-02-26

    Hospital readmissions among cancer patients are common. While several models estimating readmission risk exist, models specific for cancer patients are lacking. A logistic regression model estimating risk of unplanned 30-day readmission was developed using inpatient admission data from a 2-year period (n = 18 782) at a tertiary cancer hospital. Readmission risk estimates derived from the model were then calculated prospectively over a 10-month period (n = 8616 admissions) and compared with actual incidence of readmission. There were 2478 (13.2%) unplanned readmissions. Model factors associated with readmission included: emergency department visit within 30 days, >1 admission within 60 days, non-surgical admission, solid malignancy, gastrointestinal cancer, emergency admission, length of stay >5 days, abnormal sodium, hemoglobin, or white blood cell count. The c-statistic for the model was 0.70. During the 10-month prospective evaluation, estimates of readmission from the model were associated with higher actual readmission incidence from 20.7% for the highest risk category to 9.6% for the lowest. An unplanned readmission risk model developed specifically for cancer patients performs well when validated prospectively. The specificity of the model for cancer patients, EMR incorporation, and prospective validation justify use of the model in future studies designed to reduce and prevent readmissions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Strategies for estimating human exposure to mycotoxins via food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, De M.; Mengelers, M.J.B.; Boon, P.E.; Heyndrickx, E.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Lopez, P.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, five strategies to estimate mycotoxin exposure of a (sub-)population via food, including data collection, are discussed with the aim to identify the added values and limitations of each strategy for risk assessment of these chemicals. The well-established point estimate, observed

  20. Deoxyribonucleic-binding homeobox proteins are augmented in human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Mercurio, A M; Chung, S Y

    1990-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression during embryonic development. In this study, we examined the expression of homeobox proteins in human cancer. Antiserum was obtained against a synthetic peptide derived from...... was then isolated and used to elicit a rabbit antiserum. In immunostaining, both antisera reacted with the nuclei of cultured tumor cells. In tissue sections of human carcinoma, nuclear immunoreactivity was observed in the tumor cells in 40 of 42 cases examined. Adjacent normal epithelial tissue obtained from......, the presence of the homeobox transcript in human carcinoma was documented by in situ hybridization and RNase protection mapping. These results demonstrate that human cancer is associated with the expression of homeobox proteins. Such homeobox proteins, as well as other regulatory proteins, could be involved...

  1. Estimating Target Orientation with a Single Camera for Use in a Human-Following Robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a monocular vision-based technique for extracting orientation information from a human torso for use in a robotic human-follower. Typical approaches to human-following use an estimate of only human position for navigation...

  2. Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi-Jarrahi Yasaman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. Methods Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available from the International Labor Organization (ILO website. The prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in each industry was estimated using exposure data from the CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure database, an international occupational carcinogen information system kept and maintained by the European Union. The magnitude of the relative risk of lung cancer for each carcinogen was estimated from local and international literature. Using the Levin modified population attributable risk (incidence fraction, lung cancer incidence (as estimated by the Tehran Population-Based Cancer Registry attributable to workplace exposure to carcinogens was estimated. Results The total workforce in Iran according to the 1995 census identified 12,488,020 men and 677,469 women. Agriculture is the largest sector with 25% of the male and 0.27% of female workforce. After applying the CAREX exposure estimate to each sector, the proportion exposed to lung carcinogens was 0.08% for male workers and 0.02% for female workers. Estimating a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI of 1.7–2.1 for high exposure and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2–1.4 for low exposure, and employing the Levin modified formula, the fraction of lung cancer attributed to carcinogens in the workplace was 1.5% (95% CI of 1.2–1.9 for females and 12% (95% CI of 10–15 for males. These fractions correspond to an estimated incidence of 1.3 and 0.08 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 population for males and females, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of lung cancer due to occupational exposure is low in

  3. Age estimation by amino acid racemization in human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2010-11-01

    When an unidentified body is found, it is essential to establish the personal identity of the body in addition to investigating the cause of death. Identification is one of the most important functions of forensic dentistry. Fingerprint, dental, and DNA analysis can be used to accurately identify a body. However, if no information is available for identification, age estimation can contribute to the resolution of a case. The authors have been using aspartic acid racemization rates in dentin (D-aspartic acid/L-aspartic acid: D/L Asp) as an index for age estimation and have obtained satisfactory results. We report five cases of age estimation using the racemization method. In all five cases, estimated ages were accurate within a range ±3 years. We conclude that the racemization method is a reliable and practical method for estimating age. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    These model-based estimates use two surveys, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The two surveys are combined using novel statistical methodology.

  5. Concepts in causality: chemically induced human urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, G.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A significant portion of the incidence of human urinary bladder cancer can be attributed to occupational and cultural (tobacco smoking) situations associated with exposures to various arylamines, many of which represent established human carcinogens. A brief historical overview of research in bladder cancer causality indicates that the identification of causal agents and causal mechanism has been approached and rests upon information gathered at the organismal (geographical/historical), cellular, and molecular levels of biologic organization. This viewpoint speaks of a natural evolution within the biomedical sciences; a natural evolution from descriptive approaches to mechanistic approaches; and a natural evolution from more or less independent discipline-oriented approaches to hierarchically organized multidisciplinary approaches. Available information relevant to bladder cancer causality can be readily integrated into general conceptual frameworks to yield a hierarchial view of the natural history of urinary bladder cancer, a view consistent with contemporary natural systems and information theory and perhaps relevant also to other chemically induced epithelial cancers. Such frameworks are useful in appreciating the spatial and temporal boundaries and interrelationships in causality and the conceptual interrelationships within the biomedical sciences. Recent approaches in molecular epidemiology and the assessment of relative individual susceptibility to bladder cancer indicate that such frameworks are useful in forming hypotheses

  6. Characterization of human breast cancer by scanning acoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Malyarenko, Eugene; Seviaryn, Fedar; Yuan, Ye; Sherman, Mark; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Gierach, Gretchen; Greenway, Christopher W.; Maeva, Elena; Strumban, Emil; Duric, Neb; Maev, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to characterize human breast cancer tissues by the measurement of microacoustic properties. Methods: We investigated eight breast cancer patients using acoustic microscopy. For each patient, seven blocks of tumor tissue were collected from seven different positions around a tumor mass. Frozen sections (10 micrometer, μm) of human breast cancer tissues without staining and fixation were examined in a scanning acoustic microscope with focused transducers at 80 and 200 MHz. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stained sections from the same frozen breast cancer tissues were imaged by optical microscopy for comparison. Results: The results of acoustic imaging showed that acoustic attenuation and sound speed in cancer cell-rich tissue regions were significantly decreased compared with the surrounding tissue regions, where most components are normal cells/tissues, such as fibroblasts, connective tissue and lymphocytes. Our observation also showed that the ultrasonic properties were influenced by arrangements of cells and tissue patterns. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that attenuation and sound speed imaging can provide biomechanical information of the tumor and normal tissues. The results also demonstrate the potential of acoustic microscopy as an auxiliary method for operative detection and localization of cancer affected regions.

  7. Demonstration Integrated Knowledge-Based System for Estimating Human Error Probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflick, Jack L.

    1999-04-21

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is currently comprised of at least 40 different methods that are used to analyze, predict, and evaluate human performance in probabilistic terms. Systematic HRAs allow analysts to examine human-machine relationships, identify error-likely situations, and provide estimates of relative frequencies for human errors on critical tasks, highlighting the most beneficial areas for system improvements. Unfortunately, each of HRA's methods has a different philosophical approach, thereby producing estimates of human error probabilities (HEPs) that area better or worse match to the error likely situation of interest. Poor selection of methodology, or the improper application of techniques can produce invalid HEP estimates, where that erroneous estimation of potential human failure could have potentially severe consequences in terms of the estimated occurrence of injury, death, and/or property damage.

  8. DNA repair, human cancer and assessment of radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, M.C.; Myers, D.K.

    1979-09-01

    Cancers, like genetic defects, are thought to be caused primarily by changes in DNA. Part of the evidence in support of this hypothesis derives from the study of certain rare hereditary disorders in man associated with high risk of cancer. Cells derived from patients suffering from at least one of these disorders, ataxia telangiectasia, appear to be defective in their ability to repair the damage caused by radiation and/or certain other environmental agents. Studies of the consequences of DNA repair suggest that currently accepted estimates of the carcinogenic hazards of low level radiation are substantially correct. There would appear to be some margin of safety involved in these risk estimates for the majority of the population, but any major reduction in the currently accepted risk estimates appears inadvisable in view of the existence of potentially radiosensitive subgroups forming a minority in the general population. (author)

  9. Ionizing radiation decreases human cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    Information from nine studies with exposed nuclear workers and military observers of atmospheric bomb explosions confirms the results from animal studies which showed that low doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial. The usual ''healthy worker effect'' was eliminated by using carefully selected control populations. The results from 13 million person-years show the cancer mortality rate of exposed persons is only 65.6% that of carefully selected unexposed controls. This overwhelming evidence makes it politically untenable and morally wrong to withhold public health benefits of low dose irradiation. Safe supplementation of ionizing radiation should become a public health service. (author)

  10. Resveratrol: A review of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athar, Mohammad; Back, Jung Ho; Tang Xiuwei; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kopelovich, Levy; Bickers, David R.; Kim, Arianna L.

    2007-01-01

    The search for novel and effective cancer chemopreventive agents has led to the identification of various naturally occurring compounds one of which is resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin derived from the skin of grapes and other fruits. Resveratrol is known to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and to inhibit platelet aggregation and the growth of a variety of cancer cells. Its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities have been demonstrated in all three stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression), in both chemically and UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice, as well as in various murine models of human cancers. Evidence from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies has confirmed its ability to modulate various targets and signaling pathways. This review discusses the current preclinical and mechanistic data available and assesses resveratrol's anticancer effects to support its potential as an anticancer agent in human populations

  11. Sulphur XANES Analysis of Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Podgorczyk, M.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Balerna, A.; Kisiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men throughout the world. It is believed that changes to the structure of protein binding sites, altering its metabolism, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. Sulphur, often present in binding sites, can influence such changes through its chemical speciation. Hence there is a need for precise investigation of coordination environment of sulphur. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy offers such possibility. Cell culture samples offer histologically well defined areas of good homogeneity, suitable for successful and reliable X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. This paper presents sulphur speciation data collected from three different human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145). Sulphur X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was performed on K-edge structure. The spectra of cells were compared with those of cancerous tissue and with organic substances as well as inorganic compounds. (authors)

  12. Counselees’ expressed level of understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation are not associated with breast cancer surveillance adherence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Dulmen, S. van; Dijkstra, H.; Wieffer, I.; Witkamp, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    We studied counselees’ expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were

  13. Estimating cancer risks induced by CT screening for Korea population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Yang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has been used to diagnose early stages of cancer and other diseases. Since the number of CT screening has been increasing, there is now a debate about the possible benefits and risks of CT screening on asymptomatic individuals. CT screening has definite benefits, however the radiation risk of screening an asymptomatic individual is a serious problem that cannot be overlooked. Despite its potential risks, CT screening for asymptomatic individual has been gradually increased in Korea and it is attributed to increase collective effective dose. Therefore, we reported the risk level of each organ which is included in scan field for CT screening and analyzed and then evaluated the risk level of Korean population comparison to others, Hong Kong, U.S. and U.K. populations. LARs are lower with older ages for all populations of both sexes. We recommend CT screening after the age of 40 because from that age, LAR decreases and the danger of top 5 cancer increases.

  14. Endothelium specific matrilysin (MMP-7) expression in human cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sier, C.F.M.; Hawinkels, L.J.A.C.; Zijlmans, H.J.M.A.A.; Zuidwijk, K.; Jonge de; Muller, E.S.M.; Ferreira, V.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Mulder-Stapel, A.A.; Kenter, G.G.; Verspaget, H.W.; Gorter, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over-expression of matrilysin (MMP-7) is predominantly associated with epithelial (pre)malignant cells. In the present study MMP-7 expression is also found in endothelial cells in various human cancer types. Endothelial MMP-7 was associated with CD34 and/or CD105 expression. These

  15. Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on respondents' biodata, knowledge of STIs, human papilloma virus and cervical cancer, health and communication resources in their communities. This was supplemented by focus group discussions among religious and tribal groups within the urban and rural communities. We found a low level of awareness about HPV ...

  16. Viruses and human cancers: challenges for preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de The, G

    1995-01-01

    Virus-associated human cancers provide unique opportunities for preventive strategies. The role of human papilloma viruses (HPV 16 and 18), hepatitis B virus (HBV), Epstein-Barr herpes virus (EBV), and retroviruses (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus [HTLV]) in the development of common carcinomas and lymphomas represents a major cancer threat, particularly among individuals residing in developing countries, which account for 80% of the world's population. Even though these viruses are not the sole etiological agents of these cancers (as would be the case for infectious diseases), different approaches can be implemented to significantly decrease the incidence of virus-associated malignancies. The first approach is vaccination, which is available for HBV and possibly soon for EBV. The long delay between primary viral infection and development of associated tumors as well as the cost involved with administering vaccinations detracts from the feasibility of such an approach within developing countries. The second approach is to increase efforts to detect pre-cancerous lesions or early tumors using immunovirological means. This would allow early diagnosis and better treatment. The third strategy is linked to the existence of disease susceptibility genes, and suggests that counseling be provided for individuals carrying these genes to encourage them to modify their lifestyles and other conditions associated with increased cancer risks (predictive oncology). Specific recommendations include: a) increase international studies that explore the causes of the large variations in prevalence of common cancers throughout the world; b) conduct interdisciplinary studies involving laboratory investigation and social sciences, which may suggest hypotheses that may then be tested experimentally; and c) promote more preventive and health enhancement strategies in addition to curative and replacement therapies. PMID:8741797

  17. Identification of DNA methylation changes associated with human gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jung-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic alteration of gene expression is a common event in human cancer. DNA methylation is a well-known epigenetic process, but verifying the exact nature of epigenetic changes associated with cancer remains difficult. Methods We profiled the methylome of human gastric cancer tissue at 50-bp resolution using a methylated DNA enrichment technique (methylated CpG island recovery assay in combination with a genome analyzer and a new normalization algorithm. Results We were able to gain a comprehensive view of promoters with various CpG densities, including CpG Islands (CGIs, transcript bodies, and various repeat classes. We found that gastric cancer was associated with hypermethylation of 5' CGIs and the 5'-end of coding exons as well as hypomethylation of repeat elements, such as short interspersed nuclear elements and the composite element SVA. Hypermethylation of 5' CGIs was significantly correlated with downregulation of associated genes, such as those in the HOX and histone gene families. We also discovered long-range epigenetic silencing (LRES regions in gastric cancer tissue and identified several hypermethylated genes (MDM2, DYRK2, and LYZ within these regions. The methylation status of CGIs and gene annotation elements in metastatic lymph nodes was intermediate between normal and cancerous tissue, indicating that methylation of specific genes is gradually increased in cancerous tissue. Conclusions Our findings will provide valuable data for future analysis of CpG methylation patterns, useful markers for the diagnosis of stomach cancer, as well as a new analysis method for clinical epigenomics investigations.

  18. Development of cancer risk estimates from epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation risk estimates may be made for an increase in mortality from, or for an increase in incidence of, particular types of disease. For both endpoints, two numerical systems of risk expression are used: the absolute risk system (usually the excess deaths or cases per million persons per year per rad), and the relative risk system (usually excess deaths or cases per year per rad expressed as a percentage of those normally expected). Risks may be calculated for specific age groups or for a general population. An alternative in both risk systems is the estimation of cumulative of lifetime risk rather than annual risk (e.g. in excess deaths per million per rad over a specified long period including the remainder of lifespan). The derivation of both absolute and relative risks is illustrated by examples. The effects on risk estimates of latent period, follow-up time, age at exposure and age standardization within dose groups are illustrated. The dependence of the projected cumulative (lifetime) risk on the adoption of a constant absolute risk or constant relative risk is noted. The use of life-table data in the adjustment of cumulative risk for normal mortality following single or annual doses is briefly discussed

  19. Toxicity of diuron in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Marjo; Loikkanen, Jarkko; Naarala, Jonne; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    Diuron is a substituted phenylurea used as a herbicide to control broadleaf and grass weeds and as a biocidal antifouling agent. Diuron is carcinogenic in rat urinary bladder and toxic to the reproductive system of oysters, sea urchins and lizards. The few studies carried out in human cells do not include the genotoxicity of diuron. We have investigated the toxicity of diuron in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was statistically significantly increased in both cell lines but only at the highest 200 μM concentration. Diuron clearly reduced the viability of BeWo, but not MCF-7 cells. The relative cell number was decreased in both cell lines indicative of inhibition of cell proliferation. In the Comet assay, diuron increased DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 but not in BeWo cells. The expressions of p53 protein, a marker for cell stress, and p21 protein, a transcriptional target of p53, were increased, but only in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that diuron is cytotoxic and potentially genotoxic in a tissue-specific manner and that ROS play a role in its toxicity. Thus, exposure to diuron may exert harmful effects on fetal development and damage human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimated risk of radiation-induced cancer from paediatric chest CT: two-year cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Tilo [Cantonal Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Colas, Lucie; Santangelo, Teresa; Faivre, Jean Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Roser, Hans W.; Bremerich, Jens [University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    The increasing absolute number of paediatric CT scans raises concern about the safety and efficacy and the effects of consecutive diagnostic ionising radiation. To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single low-dose helical chest CT in a two-year patient cohort. A two-year cohort of 522 paediatric helical chest CT scans acquired using a dedicated low-dose protocol were analysed retrospectively. Patient-specific estimations of radiation doses were modelled using three different mathematical phantoms. Per-organ attributable cancer risk was then estimated using epidemiological models. Additional comparison was provided for naturally occurring risks. Total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence remains low for all age and sex categories, being highest in female neonates (0.34%). Summation of all cancer sites analysed raised the relative lifetime attributable risk of organ cancer incidence up to 3.6% in female neonates and 2.1% in male neonates. Using dedicated scan protocols, total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and mortality for chest CT is estimated low for paediatric chest CT, being highest for female neonates. (orig.)

  1. [The estimation of systemic chemotherapy treatment administered in breast cancer on lysozyme activity in tears--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Jurowski, Piotr; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Rózalska, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of cytostatics influence used in breast cancer treatment on lysozyme activity in human tears depend on time of treatment. 8 women were treated at the base of chemotherapy schema: docetaxel with doxorubicin and 4 women treated with schema CMF: cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil. Lysozyme activity in tears was assessed by measurement of diameter zone of Micrococcus lysodeicticus growth inhibition. It was revealed that both chemotherapy schema caused statistically significant reduction of diameter zone of M. lysodeicticus growth inhibition, after first and second course of chemotherapy treatment. After second chemotherapy course CMF schema induced loss of lysozyme activity in patient's tears (zero mm of M. lysodeicticus diameter zone growth inhibition). Systemic chemotherapy administered in breast cancer induce reduction of lysozyme activity in tears, that may cause higher morbidity of ocular surface infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Clinicopathological significance of PTPN12 expression in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xunyi; Yuan, Zhentao; Jiang, Dandan; Li, Funian

    2012-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene (TSG) that is frequently compromised in human triple-negative breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PTPN12 protein by patients with breast cancer in a Chinese population and the relationship between PTPN12 expression levels and patient clinicopathological features and prognosis. Additionally, we explored the underlying down-regulation mechanism from the perspective of an epigenetic alteration. We examined PTPN12 mRNA expression in five breast cancer cell lines using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and detected PTPN12 protein expression using immunohistochemistry in 150 primary invasive breast cancer cases and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Methylation-specific PCR was performed to analyze the promoter CpG island methylation status of PTPN12. PTPN12 was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer cases (48/150) compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues (17/150; P < 0.05). Furthermore, low expression of PTPN12 showed a significant positive correlation with tumor size (P = 0.047), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), distant metastasis (P = 0.009), histological grade (P = 0.012), and survival time (P = 0.019). Additionally, promoter CpG island hypermethylation occurs more frequently in breast cancer cases and breast cancer cell lines with low PTPN12 expression. Our findings suggest that PTPN12 is potentially a methylation-silenced TSG for breast cancer that may play an important role in breast carcinogenesis and could potentially serve as an independent prognostic factor for invasive breast cancer patients

  3. Bladder cancer in cancer patients: population-based estimates from a large Swedish study

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo, J Lorenzo; Sundquist, J; Hemminki, K

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study quantified the risk of urinary bladder neoplasms in cancer patients taking into account the age at first diagnosis, the gender of the patients and the lead time between diagnoses. Methods: We used standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare the incidence of bladder tumours in 967?767 cancer patients with the incidence rate in the general Swedish population. A total of 3324 male and 1560 female patients developed bladder tumours at least 1 year after first cancer dia...

  4. Productivity Losses Associated with Head and Neck Cancer Using the Human Capital and Friction Cost Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alison M; Hanly, Paul; Timmons, Aileen; Walsh, Paul M; O'Neill, Ciaran; O'Sullivan, Eleanor; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Gallagher, Pamela; Sharp, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that productivity losses associated with head and neck cancer (HNC) are higher than in other cancers. These studies have only assessed a single aspect of productivity loss, such as temporary absenteeism or premature mortality, and have only used the Human Capital Approach (HCA). The Friction Cost Approach (FCA) is increasingly recommended, although has not previously been used to assess lost production from HNC. The aim of this study was to estimate the lost productivity associated with HNC due to different types of absenteeism and premature mortality, using both the HCA and FCA. Survey data on employment status were collected from 251 HNC survivors in Ireland and combined with population-level survival estimates and national wage data. The cost of temporary and permanent time off work, reduced working hours and premature mortality using both the HCA and FCA were calculated. Estimated total productivity losses per employed person of working age were EUR253,800 using HCA and EUR6800 using FCA. The main driver of HCA costs was premature mortality (38% of total) while for FCA it was temporary time off (73% of total). The productivity losses associated with head and neck cancer are substantial, and return to work assistance could form an important part of rehabilitation. Use of both the HCA and FCA approaches allowed different drivers of productivity losses to be identified, due to the different assumptions of the two methods. For future estimates of productivity losses, the use of both approaches may be pragmatic.

  5. Estimation of temperature change in human body using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikawa, Yoshio; Nakamura, Suguru

    2016-01-01

    In the field of traditional oriental medicine, two types of treatment style, which are an acupuncture treatment and a moxibustion treatment have been performed. These treatments are used and effected by doctor or acupuncturist in their clinic or hospital and are widely spread. In spite of such a general treatment, it is not deeply discussed about mechanism of heat transfer modality and about temperature distribution in the treatment of moxibustion. Also, it is not discussed about temperature distribution deep inside human tissue during acupuncture treatment. It comes from the difficulty of noninvasive measurement of temperature deep inside human body. In this study, a temperature distribution for acupuncture and moxibustion treatment is measured and analyzed using thermograph and MRI by measuring the phase of longitudinal relaxation time of protons. The experimental results of measured temperature distribution under the human legs have been demonstrated. The result of temperature analysis in the human body is also reported. (author)

  6. Estimating the probability that the Taser directly causes human ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Haemmerich, D; Rahko, P S; Webster, J G

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes the first methodology and results for estimating the order of probability for Tasers directly causing human ventricular fibrillation (VF). The probability of an X26 Taser causing human VF was estimated using: (1) current density near the human heart estimated by using 3D finite-element (FE) models; (2) prior data of the maximum dart-to-heart distances that caused VF in pigs; (3) minimum skin-to-heart distances measured in erect humans by echocardiography; and (4) dart landing distribution estimated from police reports. The estimated mean probability of human VF was 0.001 for data from a pig having a chest wall resected to the ribs and 0.000006 for data from a pig with no resection when inserting a blunt probe. The VF probability for a given dart location decreased with the dart-to-heart horizontal distance (radius) on the skin surface.

  7. Human cancers converge at the HIF-2alpha oncogenic axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franovic, Aleksandra; Holterman, Chet E; Payette, Josianne; Lee, Stephen

    2009-12-15

    Cancer development is a multistep process, driven by a series of genetic and environmental alterations, that endows cells with a set of hallmark traits required for tumorigenesis. It is broadly accepted that growth signal autonomy, the first hallmark of malignancies, can be acquired through multiple genetic mutations that activate an array of complex, cancer-specific growth circuits [Hanahan D, Weinberg RA (2000) The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100:57-70; Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW (2004) Cancer genes and the pathways they control. Nat Med 10:789-799]. The superfluous nature of these pathways is thought to severely limit therapeutic approaches targeting tumor proliferation, and it has been suggested that this strategy be abandoned in favor of inhibiting more systemic hallmarks, including angiogenesis (Ellis LM, Hicklin DJ (2008) VEGF-targeted therapy: Mechanisms of anti-tumor activity. Nat Rev Cancer 8:579-591; Stommel JM, et al. (2007) Coactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases affects the response of tumor cells to targeted therapies. Science 318:287-290; Kerbel R, Folkman J (2002) Clinical translation of angiogenesis inhibitors. Nat Rev Cancer 2:727-739; Kaiser J (2008) Cancer genetics: A detailed genetic portrait of the deadliest human cancers. Science 321:1280-1281]. Here, we report the unexpected observation that genetically diverse cancers converge at a common and obligatory growth axis instigated by HIF-2alpha, an element of the oxygen-sensing machinery. Inhibition of HIF-2alpha prevents the in vivo growth and tumorigenesis of highly aggressive glioblastoma, colorectal, and non-small-cell lung carcinomas and the in vitro autonomous proliferation of several others, regardless of their mutational status and tissue of origin. The concomitant deactivation of select receptor tyrosine kinases, including the EGFR and IGF1R, as well as downstream ERK/Akt signaling, suggests that HIF-2alpha exerts its proliferative effects by endorsing these major pathways. Consistently

  8. Human papillomavirus type-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L W; Zhang, S K; Liu, S Z; Chen, Q; Zhang, M; Quan, P L; Lu, J B; Sun, X B

    2016-02-01

    Globally, the prevalence of oesophageal cancer cases is particularly high in China. Since 1982, oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) has been hypothesized as a risk factor for oesophageal cancer, but no firm evidence of HPV infection in oesophageal cancer has been established to date. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the high-risk HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer in the Chinese population. Eligible studies published from 1 January 2005 to 12 July 2014 were retrieved via computer searches of English and Chinese literature databases (including Medline, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform). A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 2556 oesophageal cancer cases from 19 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled HPV-18 prevalence in oesophageal cancer cases was 4·1% (95% CI 2·7-5·5) in China, 6·1% (95% CI 2·9-9·3) in fresh or frozen biopsies and 4·0% (95% CI 2·3-5·8) in paraffin-embedded fixed biopsies, 8·2% (95% CI 4·6-11·7) by the E6/E7 region and 2·2% (95% CI 0·9-3·6) by the L1 region of the HPV gene. This meta-analysis indicated that China has a moderate HPV-18 prevalence of oesophageal cancer compared to cervical cancer, although there is variation between different variables. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of HPV in oesophagus carcinogenesis with careful consideration of study design and laboratory detection method, providing more accurate assessment of HPV status in oesophageal cancer.

  9. Estimation of T2 relaxation time of breast cancer: Correlation with clinical, imaging and pathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu; Jahng, Geon Ho; Rhee, Sun Jung; Oh, Jang Hoon; Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the T2* relaxation time in breast cancer, and to evaluate the association between the T2* value with clinical-imaging-pathological features of breast cancer. Between January 2011 and July 2013, 107 consecutive women with 107 breast cancers underwent multi-echo T2*-weighted imaging on a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the T2* values of cancer for different groups, based on the clinical-imaging-pathological features. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find independent predictive factors associated with the T2* values. Of the 107 breast cancers, 92 were invasive and 15 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean T2* value of invasive cancers was significantly longer than that of DCIS (p = 0.029). Signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers showed significant correlation with T2* relaxation time in univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer groups with higher signal intensity on T2WI showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.005). Cancer groups with higher histologic grade showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.017). The T2* value is significantly longer in invasive cancer than in DCIS. In invasive cancers, T2* relaxation time is significantly longer in higher histologic grades and high signal intensity on T2WI. Based on these preliminary data, quantitative T2* mapping has the potential to be useful in the characterization of breast cancer.

  10. Accounting for individualized competing mortality risks in estimating postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Li, Vicky W.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Davis, Roger B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accurate risk assessment is necessary for decision-making around breast cancer prevention. We aimed to develop a breast cancer prediction model for postmenopausal women that would take into account their individualized competing risk of non-breast cancer death. Methods We included 73,066 women who completed the 2004 Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) questionnaire (all ≥57 years) and followed participants until May 2014. We considered 17 breast cancer risk factors (health behaviors, demographics, family history, reproductive factors), 7 risk factors for non-breast cancer death (comorbidities, functional dependency), and mammography use. We used competing risk regression to identify factors independently associated with breast cancer. We validated the final model by examining calibration (expected-to-observed ratio of breast cancer incidence, E/O) and discrimination (c-statistic) using 74,887 subjects from the Women’s Health Initiative Extension Study (WHI-ES; all were ≥55 years and followed for 5 years). Results Within 5 years, 1.8% of NHS participants were diagnosed with breast cancer (vs. 2.0% in WHI-ES, p=0.02) and 6.6% experienced non-breast cancer death (vs. 5.2% in WHI-ES, prisk factors, 5 comorbidities, functional dependency, and mammography use. The model’s c-statistic was 0.61 (95% CI [0.60–0.63]) in NHS and 0.57 (0.55–0.58) in WHI-ES. On average our model under predicted breast cancer in WHI-ES (E/O 0.92 [0.88–0.97]). Conclusions We developed a novel prediction model that factors in postmenopausal women’s individualized competing risks of non-breast cancer death when estimating breast cancer risk. PMID:27770283

  11. The assay of estrogen receptors in three components of human breast cancer tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hanping; Gui Zhining

    1992-01-01

    The binding capacities of estrogen receptors in nuclear matrix, nuclei and cytosol of human breast cancer tissue (EmR, EnR, EcR) were estimated with radioligand binding assay of receptors. The average B max values of these components in 21 breast cancer specimens are 417.54 ± 170.95, 147.75 ± 98.32, 7.34 ± 5.33 fmol/mg protein, and those in 10 normal breast tissue specimens are 42.33 ± 8.49, 25.05 ± 7.81, 5.91 ± 2.28 fmol/mg protein. Comparing the cancer and normal breast tissues, there is significant difference in B max values of EmR and EnR (P max values of EcR (P > 0.10). The EmR/EnR value of 21 breast cancer tissue is 0.65 ± 0.10, and that of 10 normal breast tissue is 0.42 ± 0.04. There is statistical difference between the cancer and normal. 10 of 13 (77%) patients, who are EcR-positive, have higher EmR/EnR values (≥0.50). The results suggest that estrogen receptors are mainly located at the nuclear matrix, ER levels in nucleus, especially in nuclear matrix of breast cancer tissue are valuable parameters and may be useful for predicting whether the patient will be responsible to endocrine therapy

  12. Estimate of the global burden of cervical adenocarcinoma and potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, Jeanne M; Galindo, Claudia; Jenkins, David; Taylor, Sylvia M

    2013-01-01

    Data on the current burden of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and histology-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution are relevant to predict the future impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines. We estimate the proportion of ADC in invasive cervical cancer, the global number of cases of cervical ADC in 2015, the effect of cervical screening on ADC, the number of ADC cases attributable to high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -45, -31 and -33, and the potential impact of HPV vaccination using a variety of data sources including: GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) Volume IX, cervical screening data from the World Health Organization/Institut Català d'Oncologia Information Centre on HPV and cervical cancer, and published literature. ADC represents 9.4% of all ICC although its contribution varies greatly by country and region. The global crude incidence rate of cervical ADC in 2015 is estimated at 1.6 cases per 100,000 women, and the projected worldwide incidence of ADC in 2015 is 56,805 new cases. Current detection rates for HPV DNA in cervical ADC tend to range around 80–85%; the lower HPV detection rates in cervical ADC versus squamous cell carcinoma may be due to technical artefacts or to misdiagnosis of endometrial carcinoma as cervical ADC. Published data indicate that the five most common HPV types found in cervical ADC are HPV-16 (41.6%), -18 (38.7%), -45 (7.0%), -31 (2.2%) and -33 (2.1%), together comprising 92% of all HPV positive cases. Future projections using 2015 data, assuming 100% vaccine coverage and a true HPV causal relation of 100%, suggest that vaccines providing protection against HPV-16/18 may theoretically prevent 79% of new HPV-related ADC cases (44,702 cases annually) and vaccines additionally providing cross-protection against HPV-31/33/45 may prevent 89% of new HPV-related ADC cases (50,769 cases annually). It is predicted that the currently available HPV vaccines will be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cervical

  13. Impact of microbial count distributions on human health risk estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Nauta, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) is influenced by the choice of the probability distribution used to describe pathogen concentrations, as this may eventually have a large effect on the distribution of doses at exposure. When fitting a probability distribution to microbial...... enumeration data, several factors may have an impact on the accuracy of that fit. Analysis of the best statistical fits of different distributions alone does not provide a clear indication of the impact in terms of risk estimates. Thus, in this study we focus on the impact of fitting microbial distributions...... on risk estimates, at two different concentration scenarios and at a range of prevalence levels. By using five different parametric distributions, we investigate whether different characteristics of a good fit are crucial for an accurate risk estimate. Among the factors studied are the importance...

  14. Using Supervised Deep Learning for Human Age Estimation Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnyh, K. A.; Polovinkin, A. N.

    2017-05-01

    Automatic facial age estimation is a challenging task upcoming in recent years. In this paper, we propose using the supervised deep learning features to improve an accuracy of the existing age estimation algorithms. There are many approaches solving the problem, an active appearance model and the bio-inspired features are two of them which showed the best accuracy. For experiments we chose popular publicly available FG-NET database, which contains 1002 images with a broad variety of light, pose, and expression. LOPO (leave-one-person-out) method was used to estimate the accuracy. Experiments demonstrated that adding supervised deep learning features has improved accuracy for some basic models. For example, adding the features to an active appearance model gave the 4% gain (the error decreased from 4.59 to 4.41).

  15. [Soy isoflavones and human health: breast cancer and puberty timing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Luis; Garrido, Argelia; Sierralta, Walter

    2012-04-01

    Accumulated exposure to high levels of estrogen is associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer. Thus, factors such as early puberty, late menopause and hormone replacement therapy are considered to be risk factors, whereas early childbirth, breastfeeding and puberty at a later age are known to consistently decrease the lifetime breast cancer risk. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of isoflavones correlates with a lower incidence of breast cancer. Data from human intervention studies show that the effects of isoflavones on early breast cancer markers differ between pre- and post-menopausal women. The reports from experimental animals (rats and mice) on mammary tumors are variable. These results taken together with heterogeneous outcomes of human interventions, have led to a controversy surrounding the intake of isoflavones to reduce breast cancer risk. This review summarizes recent studies and analyzes factors that could explain the variability of results. In mammary tissue, from the cellular endocrine viewpoint, we analyze the effect of isoflavones on the estrogen receptor and their capacity to act as agonists or antagonists. On the issue of puberty timing, we analyze the mechanisms by which girls, but not boys, with higher prepuberal isoflavone intakes appear to enter puberty at a later age.

  16. Human cancer stem cells are a target for cancer prevention using (-)-epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Rawangkan, Anchalee; Suganuma, Masami

    2017-12-01

    Our previous experiments show that the main constituent of green-tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), completely prevents tumor promotion on mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by okadaic acid and that EGCG and green tea extract prevent cancer development in a wide range of target organs in rodents. Therefore, we focused our attention on human cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets of cancer prevention and treatment with EGCG. The numerous reports concerning anticancer activity of EGCG against human CSCs enriched from cancer cell lines were gathered from a search of PubMed, and we hope our review of the literatures will provide a broad selection for the effects of EGCG on various human CSCs. Based on our theoretical study, we discuss the findings as follows: (1) Compared with the parental cells, human CSCs express increased levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, CD44, CD133, as well as the EMT markers, Twist, Snail, vimentin, and also aldehyde dehydrogenase. They showed decreased levels of E-cadherin and cyclin D1. (2) EGCG inhibits the transcription and translation of genes encoding stemness markers, indicating that EGCG generally inhibits the self-renewal of CSCs. (3) EGCG inhibits the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotypes of human CSCs. (4) The inhibition of EGCG of the stemness of CSCs was weaker compared with parental cells. (5) The weak inhibitory activity of EGCG increased synergistically in combination with anticancer drugs. Green tea prevents human cancer, and the combination of EGCG and anticancer drugs confers cancer treatment with tissue-agnostic efficacy.

  17. Isoforms of thyroxine-binding globulin as a model for molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovaty, A.S.; Lapko, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The novel field of molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk has added a new branch to classical epidemiology by providing a direct link between human cancer and carcinogen exposure. It was estimated that about 80% of cancers are due to environmental factors. The blood proteins are almost certainly targets for modification in human cancer, and their identification and characterization will be of primary importance in the development of the new and rapidly evolving field of molecular epidemiology. Among blood proteins that are altered in human cancer, TBG occupies a special place because the level of human blood TBG is the most sensitive to intensification of biosynthesis and proliferation processes in organisms in different types of cancer. The increase of TBG concentration in cancer can be result from both activation of TBG biosynthesis in liver or altering of post translation glycosylation that prolongs protein survival time. The molecular basis for the change in the properties of TBG in cancer is unknown. These distinctive changes could have important consequences for the function of TBG in cancer and may help to develop more precise markers for monitoring pathological progression in this disease. Considerable variability and subtlety can occur in the carbohydrate composition and structure of serum glycoproteins in disease. This can be either as a major change, such as an increase in the number of oligosaccharide branches at a particular glycosylation site or as a minor change such as the addition of an extra fucose or sialic acid residue. Increased fucosylation has also been reported for transferrin and alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer; thyroglobulin in thyroid cancer, IgG in myeloma, haptoglobin in ovarian cancer. The last own studies have shown that in clinically healthy teenagers born in Khojniki (137 Cs 185-555 kBq/m), we have found an unusual thyroid profile exhibiting increased levels of total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), and thyroxine

  18. ADAPTIVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF PERSON RECOGNITION MODEL IN A STOCHASTIC HUMAN TRACKING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    W. Nakanishi; T. Fuse; T. Ishikawa

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at an estimation of parameters of person recognition models using a sequential Bayesian filtering method. In many human tracking method, any parameters of models used for recognize the same person in successive frames are usually set in advance of human tracking process. In real situation these parameters may change according to situation of observation and difficulty level of human position prediction. Thus in this paper we formulate an adaptive parameter estimation ...

  19. [HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) implication in other cancers than gynaecological].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoual, C; Tartour, E; Roussel, H; Bats, A S; Pavie, J; Pernot, S; Weiss, L; Mohamed, A Si; Thariat, J; Hoffmann, C; Péré, H

    2015-08-01

    Worldwide, approximately 5 to 10% of the population is infected by a Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Some of these viruses, with a high oncogenic risk (HPV HR), are responsible for about 5% of cancer. It is now accepted that almost all carcinomas of the cervix and the vulva are due to an HPV HR (HPV16 and 18) infection. However, these viruses are known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of many other cancers (head and neck [SCCHN], penis, anus). For head and neck cancer, HPV infection is considered as a good prognostic factor. The role of HPV HR in anal cancer is also extensively studied in high-risk patient's population. The role of HPV infection in the carcinogenesis of esophageal, bladder, lung, breast or skin cancers is still debated. Given the multiple possible locations of HPV HR infection, the question of optimizing the management of patients with a HPV+ cancer arises in the implementation of a comprehensive clinical and biological monitoring. It is the same in therapeutics with the existence of a preventive vaccination, for example. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. ANALYSES ON DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xu-li; DING Xiao-wen; XU Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular etiology of breast cancer by way of studying the differential expression and initial function of the related genes in the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight human tumor related genes were chosen for preparation of the oligochips probe. mRNA was extracted from 16 breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal breast tissues, and cDNA probe was prepared through reverse-transcription and hybridized with the gene chip. A laser focused fluorescent scanner was used to scan the chip. The different gene expressions were thereafter automatically compared and analyzed between the two sample groups. Cy3/Cy5>3.5 meant significant up-regulation. Cy3/Cy5<0.25 meant significant down-regulation. Results: The comparison between the breast cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues showed that 84 genes had differential expression in the Chip. Among the differently expressed genes, there were 4 genes with significant down-regulation and 6 with significant up-regulation. Compared with normal breast tissues, differentially expressed genes did partially exist in the breast cancer tissues. Conclusion: Changes in multi-gene expression regulations take place during the occurrence and development of breast cancer; and the research on related genes can help understanding the mechanism of tumor occurrence.

  1. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the -Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species 5 (HPV51), 6 (HPV56), 7 (H...

  2. Estimation of shear wave speed in the human uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, L C; Feltovich, H; Palmeri, M L; Dahl, J J; Munoz del Rio, A; Hall, T J

    2014-04-01

    To explore spatial variability within the cervix and the sensitivity of shear wave speed (SWS) to assess softness/stiffness differences in ripened (softened) vs unripened tissue. We obtained SWS estimates from hysterectomy specimens (n = 22), a subset of which were ripened (n = 13). Multiple measurements were made longitudinally along the cervical canal on both the anterior and posterior sides of the cervix. Statistical tests of differences in the proximal vs distal, anterior vs posterior and ripened vs unripened cervix were performed with individual two-sample t-tests and a linear mixed model. Estimates of SWS increase monotonically from distal to proximal longitudinally along the cervix, they vary in the anterior compared to the posterior cervix and they are significantly different in ripened vs unripened cervical tissue. Specifically, the mid position SWS estimates for the unripened group were 3.45 ± 0.95 m/s (anterior; mean ± SD) and 3.56 ± 0.92 m/s (posterior), and 2.11 ± 0.45 m/s (anterior) and 2.68 ± 0.57 m/s (posterior) for the ripened group (P < 0.001). We propose that SWS estimation may be a valuable research and, ultimately, diagnostic tool for objective quantification of cervical stiffness/softness. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A statistical regression model for the estimation of acrylamide concentrations in French fries for excess lifetime cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jen; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Ju, Wei-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Human exposure to acrylamide (AA) through consumption of French fries and other foods has been recognized as a potential health concern. Here, we used a statistical non-linear regression model, based on the two most influential factors, cooking temperature and time, to estimate AA concentrations in French fries. The R(2) of the predictive model is 0.83, suggesting the developed model was significant and valid. Based on French fry intake survey data conducted in this study and eight frying temperature-time schemes which can produce tasty and visually appealing French fries, the Monte Carlo simulation results showed that if AA concentration is higher than 168 ppb, the estimated cancer risk for adolescents aged 13-18 years in Taichung City would be already higher than the target excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), and that by taking into account this limited life span only. In order to reduce the cancer risk associated with AA intake, the AA levels in French fries might have to be reduced even further if the epidemiological observations are valid. Our mathematical model can serve as basis for further investigations on ELCR including different life stages and behavior and population groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A systems biology approach to predict and characterize human gut microbial metabolites in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, QuanQiu; Li, Li; Xu, Rong

    2018-04-18

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. It is estimated that about half the cases of CRC occurring today are preventable. Recent studies showed that human gut microbiota and their collective metabolic outputs play important roles in CRC. However, the mechanisms by which human gut microbial metabolites interact with host genetics in contributing CRC remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that computational approaches that integrate and analyze vast amounts of publicly available biomedical data have great potential in better understanding how human gut microbial metabolites are mechanistically involved in CRC. Leveraging vast amount of publicly available data, we developed a computational algorithm to predict human gut microbial metabolites for CRC. We validated the prediction algorithm by showing that previously known CRC-associated gut microbial metabolites ranked highly (mean ranking: top 10.52%; median ranking: 6.29%; p-value: 3.85E-16). Moreover, we identified new gut microbial metabolites likely associated with CRC. Through computational analysis, we propose potential roles for tartaric acid, the top one ranked metabolite, in CRC etiology. In summary, our data-driven computation-based study generated a large amount of associations that could serve as a starting point for further experiments to refute or validate these microbial metabolite associations in CRC cancer.

  5. Estimation of an optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate for cancer: setting an evidence-based benchmark for quality cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

    2015-02-01

    There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by

  6. Evidence-based estimate of appropriate radiotherapy utilization rate for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroudi, Farshad; Tyldesley, Scott; Barbera, Lisa; Huang, Jenny; Mackillop, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Current estimates of the proportion of cancer patients who will require radiotherapy (RT) are based almost entirely on expert opinion. The objective of this study was to use an evidence-based approach to estimate the proportion of incident cases of prostate cancer that should receive RT at any point in the evolution of the illness. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify indications for RT for prostate cancer and to ascertain the level of evidence that supported each indication. An epidemiologic approach was then used to estimate the incidence of each indication for RT in a typical North American population of prostate cancer patients. The effect of sampling error on the estimated appropriate rate of RT was calculated mathematically, and the effect of systematic error using alternative sources of information was estimated by sensitivity analysis. Results: It was estimated that 61.2% ±5.6% of prostate cancer cases develop one or more indications for RT at some point in the course of the illness. The plausible range for this rate was 57.3%-69.8% on sensitivity analysis. Of all prostate cancer patients, 32.2%±3.8% should receive RT in their initial treatment and 29.0% ± 4.1% later for recurrence or progression. The proportion of cases that ever require RT is risk grouping dependent; 43.9%±2.2% in low-risk disease, 68.7%± .5% in intermediate-risk disease; and 79.0% ± 3.8% in high-risk locoregional disease. For metastatic disease, the predicted rate was 66.4%±0.3%. Conclusion: This method provides a rational starting point for the long-term planning of radiation services and for the audit of access to RT at the population level. By completing such evaluations in major cancer sites, it will be possible to estimate the appropriate RT rate for the cancer population as a whole

  7. Identification of Human HK Genes and Gene Expression Regulation Study in Cancer from Transcriptomics Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. PMID:23382867

  8. Sampling strategy for estimating human exposure pathways to consumer chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan A.; Collins, Chris D.; Cousins, Ian T.; Covaci, Adrian; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Leonards, Pim E.G.; Voorspoels, Stefan; Thomsen, Cathrine; Harrad, Stuart; Haug, Line S.

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to consumer chemicals has become a worldwide concern. In this work, a comprehensive sampling strategy is presented, to our knowledge being the first to study all relevant exposure pathways in a single cohort using multiple methods for assessment of exposure from each exposure pathway.

  9. Estimation of lifetime cumulative incidence and mortality risk of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Yukari; Katanoda, Kota; Charvat, Hadrien; Hori, Megumi; Ohno, Yuko; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-11-01

    To estimate cumulative incidence and mortality risk for gastric cancer by risk category. Risk was classified into four types according to the presence/absence of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis: in order of lowest to highest risk, Group A: H. pylori(-) and atrophic gastritis(-); Group B: H. pylori(+) and atrophic gastritis(-); Group C:H. pylori(+) and atrophic gastritis(+); and, Group D: H. pylori(-) and atrophic gastritis(+). We used vital statistics for the crude all-cause and crude gastric cancer mortality rates in 2011 and data from population-based cancer registries (the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan) for gastric cancer incidence in 2011. For relative risk and prevalence, we used the results of a meta-analysis integrating previous studies and data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation, respectively (baseline survey 2011-16). We calculated the crude incidence and mortality rates and estimated the cumulative risk using a life-table method. The estimated lifetime cumulative incidence risk was 11.4% for men and 5.7% for women. The estimated risk for Groups A, B, C and D was 2.4%, 10.8%, 26.7% and 35.5% for men, and 1.2%, 5.5%, 13.5% and 18.0% for women, respectively. Similarly, the estimated lifetime cumulative mortality risk was 3.9% for men and 1.8% for women. The estimated risk of mortality for Groups A, B, C and D was 0.8%, 3.6%, 9.0% and 12.0% for men, and 0.4%, 1.7%, 4.2% and 5.7% for women, respectively. Our results may be useful for designing individually tailored prevention programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Estimating individual glomerular volume in the human kidney: clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Zimanyi, Monika A; Samuel, Terence; Hughson, Michael D; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F; Armitage, James A

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of individual glomerular volumes (IGV) has allowed the identification of drivers of glomerular hypertrophy in subjects without overt renal pathology. This study aims to highlight the relevance of IGV measurements with possible clinical implications and determine how many profiles must be measured in order to achieve stable size distribution estimates. We re-analysed 2250 IGV estimates obtained using the disector/Cavalieri method in 41 African and 34 Caucasian Americans. Pooled IGV analysis of mean and variance was conducted. Monte-Carlo (Jackknife) simulations determined the effect of the number of sampled glomeruli on mean IGV. Lin's concordance coefficient (R(C)), coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of error (CE) measured reliability. IGV mean and variance increased with overweight and hypertensive status. Superficial glomeruli were significantly smaller than juxtamedullary glomeruli in all subjects (P IGV mean and variability. Overall, mean IGV was particularly reliable with nine or more sampled glomeruli (R(C) > 0.95, IGV and estimated total glomerular number. Multiple comorbidities for CKD are associated with increased IGV mean and variance within subjects, including overweight, obesity and hypertension. Zonal selection and the number of sampled glomeruli do not represent drawbacks for future longitudinal biopsy-based studies of glomerular size and distribution.

  11. Estimation of human core temperature from sequential heart rate observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, Mark J; Tharion, William J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J; Kenefick, Robert W; Castellani, John; Latzka, William A; Hoyt, Reed W; Roberts, Warren S; Richter, Mark; Jenkins, Odest Chadwicke

    2013-01-01

    Core temperature (CT) in combination with heart rate (HR) can be a good indicator of impending heat exhaustion for occupations involving exposure to heat, heavy workloads, and wearing protective clothing. However, continuously measuring CT in an ambulatory environment is difficult. To address this problem we developed a model to estimate the time course of CT using a series of HR measurements as a leading indicator using a Kalman filter. The model was trained using data from 17 volunteers engaged in a 24 h military field exercise (air temperatures 24–36 °C, and 42%–97% relative humidity and CTs ranging from 36.0–40.0 °C). Validation data from laboratory and field studies (N = 83) encompassing various combinations of temperature, hydration, clothing, and acclimation state were examined using the Bland–Altman limits of agreement (LoA) method. We found our model had an overall bias of −0.03 ± 0.32 °C and that 95% of all CT estimates fall within ±0.63 °C (>52 000 total observations). While the model for estimating CT is not a replacement for direct measurement of CT (literature comparisons of esophageal and rectal methods average LoAs of ±0.58 °C) our results suggest it is accurate enough to provide practical indication of thermal work strain for use in the work place. (paper)

  12. Estimation of human core temperature from sequential heart rate observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Mark J; Tharion, William J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J; Kenefick, Robert W; Castellani, John; Latzka, William A; Roberts, Warren S; Richter, Mark; Jenkins, Odest Chadwicke; Hoyt, Reed W

    2013-07-01

    Core temperature (CT) in combination with heart rate (HR) can be a good indicator of impending heat exhaustion for occupations involving exposure to heat, heavy workloads, and wearing protective clothing. However, continuously measuring CT in an ambulatory environment is difficult. To address this problem we developed a model to estimate the time course of CT using a series of HR measurements as a leading indicator using a Kalman filter. The model was trained using data from 17 volunteers engaged in a 24 h military field exercise (air temperatures 24-36 °C, and 42%-97% relative humidity and CTs ranging from 36.0-40.0 °C). Validation data from laboratory and field studies (N = 83) encompassing various combinations of temperature, hydration, clothing, and acclimation state were examined using the Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LoA) method. We found our model had an overall bias of -0.03 ± 0.32 °C and that 95% of all CT estimates fall within ±0.63 °C (>52 000 total observations). While the model for estimating CT is not a replacement for direct measurement of CT (literature comparisons of esophageal and rectal methods average LoAs of ±0.58 °C) our results suggest it is accurate enough to provide practical indication of thermal work strain for use in the work place.

  13. STAFF AND COMPANY VALUE MANAGEMENT ON THE BASIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokukina S. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The statement «the main asset of any company is its staff» has already become axiomatic. People is the only competitive advantage the companies have now, although for many years the possession of technologies is considered as a competitive advantage. The article covers essential questions connecting with staff management to executive strategy of value based management. The problems connected with the estimation of human capital as long-term factor of the company’s value growth are described. However one can implement in practice only in condition that it may be estimated or measured. The author puts forth his conception of the technique of human capital estimation. Approaches and methods of the estimation of human capital of company are systematized and described. The estimation of human capital elements allows to find out the potential of this intangible asset in order to increase the value of company.

  14. Radiation sensitivity of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.; Degraff, W.G.; Gamson, J.; Russo, G.; Mitchell, J.B.; Gazdar, A.F.; Minna, J.D.; Levitt, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    X-Ray survival curves were determined using a panel of 17 human lung cancer cell lines, with emphasis on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In contrast to classic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, NSCLC cell lines were generally less sensitive to radiation as evidenced by higher radiation survival curve extrapolation numbers, surviving fraction values following a 2Gy dose (SF2) and the mean inactivation dose values (D) values. The spectrum of in vitro radiation responses observed was similar to that expected in clinical practice, although mesothelioma was unexpectedly sensitive in vitro. Differences in radiosensitivity were best distinguished by comparison of SF2 values. Some NSCLC lines were relatively sensitive, and in view of this demonstrable variability in radiation sensitivity, the SF2 value may be useful for in vitro predictive assay testing of clinical specimens. (author)

  15. Distribution of Human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Serbia are among the highest in Europe and data on Human papilloma virus (HPV type distribution are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV types in archival specimens of cervical cancer tissues of women in the Serbian population. A total of 45 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of cervical carcinoma were used in this study. The procedure included deparaffinization of tissue samples, DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. HPV was detected in 32 samples (71%. Genotyping revealed the presence of 6 high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 33, 45, 53 and 58, where HPV type 16 was the most prevalent type (73.7%. The results of this study and further studies will provide more detailed information about HPV genotype distribution and may contribute to the formulation of national guidelines for the prevention of cervical cancer. [175073

  16. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health

  17. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  18. Estimating the human influence on Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, M. F.; Patricola, C. M.; Risser, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Attribution of the human-induced climate change influence on the physical characteristics of individual extreme weather events has become an advanced science over the past decade. However, it is only recently that such quantification of anthropogenic influences on event magnitudes and probability of occurrence could be applied to very extreme storms such as hurricanes. We present results from two different classes of attribution studies for the impactful Atlantic hurricanes of 2017. The first is an analysis of the record rainfall amounts during Hurricane Harvey in the Houston, Texas area. We analyzed observed precipitation from the Global Historical Climatology Network with a covariate-based extreme value statistical analysis, accounting for both the external influence of global warming and the internal influence of ENSO. We found that human-induced climate change likely increased Hurricane Harvey's total rainfall by at least 19%, and likely increased the chances of the observed rainfall by a factor of at least 3.5. This suggests that changes exceeded Clausius-Clapeyron scaling, motivating attribution studies using dynamical climate models. The second analysis consists of two sets of hindcast simulations of Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) at 4.5 km resolution. The first uses realistic boundary and initial conditions and present-day greenhouse gas forcings while the second uses perturbed conditions and pre-industrial greenhouse has forcings to simulate counterfactual storms without anthropogenic influences. These simulations quantify the fraction of Harvey's precipitation attributable to human activities and test the super Clausius-Clapeyron scaling suggested by the observational analysis. We will further quantify the human influence on intensity for Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

  19. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRIs of breast cancer patients: Impact on tumor size estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Ji Eun; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Ah Won

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether the degree of background parenchymal enhancement affects the accuracy of tumor size estimation based on breast MRI. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-two patients who had known breast cancer and underwent breast MRIs were recruited in our study. The total number of breast cancer cases was 339. All images were assessed retrospectively for the level of background parenchymal enhancement based on the BI-RADS criteria. Maximal lesion diameters were measured on the MRIs, and tumor types (mass vs. non-mass) were assessed. Tumor size differences between the MRI-based estimates and estimates based on pathological examinations were analyzed. The relationship between accuracy and tumor types and clinicopathologic features were also evaluated. Results: The cases included minimal (47.5%), mild (28.9%), moderate (12.4%) and marked background parenchymal enhancement (11.2%). The tumors of patients with minimal or mild background parenchymal enhancement were more accurately estimated than those of patients with moderate or marked enhancement (72.1% vs. 56.8%; p = 0.003). The tumors of women with mass type lesions were significantly more accurately estimated than those of the women with non-mass type lesions (81.6% vs. 28.6%; p < 0.001). The tumor of women negative for HER2 was more accurately estimated than those of women positive for HER2 (72.2% vs. 51.6%; p = 0.047). Conclusion: Moderate and marked background parenchymal enhancement is related to the inaccurate estimation of tumor size based on MRI. Non-mass type breast cancer and HER2-positive breast cancer are other factors that may cause inaccurate assessment of tumor size

  20. Estimating the Need for Radiotherapy for Patients With Prostate, Breast, and Lung Cancers: Verification of Model Estimates of Need With Radiotherapy Utilization Data From British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyldesley, Scott; Delaney, Geoff; Foroudi, Farshad; Barbera, Lisa; Kerba, Marc; Mackillop, William

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Estimates of the need for radiotherapy (RT) using different methods (criterion based benchmarking [CBB] and the Canadian [C-EBEST] and Australian [A-EBEST] epidemiologically based estimates) exist for various cancer sites. We compared these model estimates to actual RT rates for lung, breast, and prostate cancers in British Columbia (BC). Methods and Materials: All cases of lung, breast, and prostate cancers in BC from 1997 to 2004 and all patients receiving RT within 1 year (RT 1Y ) and within 5 years (RT 5Y ) of diagnosis were identified. The RT 1Y and RT 5Y proportions in health regions with a cancer center for the most recent year were then calculated. RT rates were compared with CBB and EBEST estimates of RT needs. Variation was assessed by time and region. Results: The RT 1Y in regions with a cancer center for lung, breast, and prostate cancers were 51%, 58%, and 33% compared with 45%, 57%, and 32% for C-EBEST and 41%, 61%, and 37% for CBB models. The RT 5Y rates in regions with a cancer center for lung, breast, and prostate cancers were 59%, 61%, and 40% compared with 61%, 66%, and 61% for C-EBEST and 75%, 83%, and 60% for A-EBEST models. The RT 1Y rates increased for breast and prostate cancers. Conclusions: C-EBEST and CBB model estimates are closer to the actual RT rates than the A-EBEST estimates. Application of these model estimates by health care decision makers should be undertaken with an understanding of the methods used and the assumptions on which they were based.

  1. Fenton reaction induced cancer in wild type rats recapitulates genomic alterations observed in human cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Akatsuka

    Full Text Available Iron overload has been associated with carcinogenesis in humans. Intraperitoneal administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate initiates a Fenton reaction in renal proximal tubules of rodents that ultimately leads to a high incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC after repeated treatments. We performed high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization to identify characteristics in the genomic profiles of this oxidative stress-induced rat RCCs. The results revealed extensive large-scale genomic alterations with a preference for deletions. Deletions and amplifications were numerous and sometimes fragmented, demonstrating that a Fenton reaction is a cause of such genomic alterations in vivo. Frequency plotting indicated that two of the most commonly altered loci corresponded to a Cdkn2a/2b deletion and a Met amplification. Tumor sizes were proportionally associated with Met expression and/or amplification, and clustering analysis confirmed our results. Furthermore, we developed a procedure to compare whole genomic patterns of the copy number alterations among different species based on chromosomal syntenic relationship. Patterns of the rat RCCs showed the strongest similarity to the human RCCs among five types of human cancers, followed by human malignant mesothelioma, an iron overload-associated cancer. Therefore, an iron-dependent Fenton chemical reaction causes large-scale genomic alterations during carcinogenesis, which may result in distinct genomic profiles. Based on the characteristics of extensive genome alterations in human cancer, our results suggest that this chemical reaction may play a major role during human carcinogenesis.

  2. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  3. Prevention of human cancer by modulation of chronic inflammatory processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Hiroshi [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)]. E-mail: ohshima@iarc.fr; Tazawa, Hiroshi [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Sylla, Bakary S. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Sawa, Tomohiro [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)

    2005-12-11

    Chronic inflammation induced by biological, chemical and physical factors has been associated with increased risk of human cancer at various sites. Inflammation facilitates the initiation of normal cells and their growth and progression to malignancy through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and diverse reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. These also activate signaling molecules involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis such as nuclear transcription factor (NF-{kappa}B), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Several chemopreventive agents act through inhibition of signaling pathways (e.g. NF-{kappa}B), inhibition of oxidant-generating enzymes (e.g. iNOS) and mediators of inflammation (e.g. COX-2), scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (especially phase II enzyme induction). Some anti-inflammatory drugs have been tested in clinical trials to prevent human cancer at several sites. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which chronic inflammation increases cancer risk will lead to further development of new strategies for cancer prevention at many sites.

  4. Frizzled Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Human Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Mian Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Frizzled receptors (FZDs are a family of seven-span transmembrane receptors with hallmarks of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that serve as receptors for secreted Wingless-type (WNT ligands in the WNT signaling pathway. Functionally, FZDs play crucial roles in regulating cell polarity, embryonic development, cell proliferation, formation of neural synapses, and many other processes in developing and adult organisms. In this review, we will introduce the basic structural features and review the biological function and mechanism of FZDs in the progression of human cancers, followed by an analysis of clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of FZDs. We will focus on the development of antibody-based and small molecule inhibitor-based therapeutic strategies by targeting FZDs for human cancers.

  5. Studies of rhodamine-123: effect on rat prostate cancer and human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, J A; Narayan, K S; Techy, G; Ng, C P; Saroufeem, R M; Jones, L W

    1995-06-01

    The effect of the lipophilic, cationic dye, Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), on prostate cancer in rats, and on three tumor cell lines in vitro is reported here. The general toxicity of Rh-123 in mice has been found to be minimal. Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rats with the autochthonous prostate cancer of Pollard were treated for six doses with Rh-123 at a dose of 15 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day. Microscopic examination of the tumors revealed cellular and acinar destruction. The effectiveness of Rh-123 as a cytotoxic agent was tested by clonogenic and viability assays in vitro with three human prostate cancer cell lines. Severe (60-95%) growth inhibition was observed following Rh-123 exposure for 2-5 days at doses as low as 1.6 micrograms/ml in all three prostate cancer cell lines.

  6. Lnc2Cancer: a manually curated database of experimentally supported lncRNAs associated with various human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shangwei; Zhang, Jizhou; Wang, Peng; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Jianjian; Liu, Yue; Gao, Yue; Guo, Maoni; Yue, Ming; Wang, Lihua; Li, Xia

    2016-01-04

    Lnc2Cancer (http://www.bio-bigdata.net/lnc2cancer) is a manually curated database of cancer-associated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with experimental support that aims to provide a high-quality and integrated resource for exploring lncRNA deregulation in various human cancers. LncRNAs represent a large category of functional RNA molecules that play a significant role in human cancers. A curated collection and summary of deregulated lncRNAs in cancer is essential to thoroughly understand the mechanisms and functions of lncRNAs. Here, we developed the Lnc2Cancer database, which contains 1057 manually curated associations between 531 lncRNAs and 86 human cancers. Each association includes lncRNA and cancer name, the lncRNA expression pattern, experimental techniques, a brief functional description, the original reference and additional annotation information. Lnc2Cancer provides a user-friendly interface to conveniently browse, retrieve and download data. Lnc2Cancer also offers a submission page for researchers to submit newly validated lncRNA-cancer associations. With the rapidly increasing interest in lncRNAs, Lnc2Cancer will significantly improve our understanding of lncRNA deregulation in cancer and has the potential to be a timely and valuable resource. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. BAYES-HEP: Bayesian belief networks for estimation of human error probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthick, M.; Senthil Kumar, C.; Paul, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Human errors contribute a significant portion of risk in safety critical applications and methods for estimation of human error probability have been a topic of research for over a decade. The scarce data available on human errors and large uncertainty involved in the prediction of human error probabilities make the task difficult. This paper presents a Bayesian belief network (BBN) model for human error probability estimation in safety critical functions of a nuclear power plant. The developed model using BBN would help to estimate HEP with limited human intervention. A step-by-step illustration of the application of the method and subsequent evaluation is provided with a relevant case study and the model is expected to provide useful insights into risk assessment studies

  8. Resources for Precision Analysis of Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    correlation chemistry are necessary to confirm this observation, the, is different between the in vitro and in vivo situations, pattern of expression is...Feunteun 44. Mandinova A, Atar D, Schafer BW, Spiess M, Aebi U, Heizmann C1 J, Schnitt S, Livingston DM: Location of BRCA1 in human breast and Distinct...with progression-free survival, in prostate cancer [20]. expression but strong staining by immunohisto-S • chemistry were positive by western blot

  9. EMT is the dominant program in human colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollenaar Rob AEM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer has been classically described by clinicopathologic features that permit the prediction of outcome only after surgical resection and staging. Methods We performed an unsupervised analysis of microarray data from 326 colon cancers to identify the first principal component (PC1 of the most variable set of genes. PC1 deciphered two primary, intrinsic molecular subtypes of colon cancer that predicted disease progression and recurrence. Results Here we report that the most dominant pattern of intrinsic gene expression in colon cancer (PC1 was tightly correlated (Pearson R = 0.92, P -135 with the EMT signature-- both in gene identity and directionality. In a global micro-RNA screen, we further identified the most anti-correlated microRNA with PC1 as MiR200, known to regulate EMT. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the biology underpinning the native, molecular classification of human colon cancer--previously thought to be highly heterogeneous-- was clarified through the lens of comprehensive transcriptome analysis.

  10. Estimating neuromuscular stimulation within the human torso with Taser stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyu; Webster, John G

    2007-11-07

    Designers of electromuscular incapacitation devices need to know efficacy. Which areas of nerve and muscle are stimulated and are these areas adequate to cause incapacitation? This paper focuses on efficacy, which used a torso-sized finite element model with a mesh of about 5 mm. To estimate the neuromuscular regions stimulated by the Taser X26, calculations of electric current density and field strength values with 1 A inserted into the torso using the Utah 3D mesh were made. Field-times-duration values for given Taser stimulation were calculated. Then the region where the motor nerve was stimulated by the Taser was estimated by using a field-times-duration threshold from Reilly (1998 'Applied Bioelectricity: From Electrical Stimulation to Electropathology ' (New York: Springer)). Neuromuscular stimulation occurred up to about 19 cm away from the darts and included the spinal cord. The current density at the heart for dart separation less than 10 cm was smaller than for larger dart separation. Users of finite element computer models will find information for torso models and their creation, meshing and operation.

  11. Human Papillomavirus Genome Integration and Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinatti, L M; Walline, H M; Carey, T E

    2018-06-01

    We conducted a critical review of human papillomavirus (HPV) integration into the host genome in oral/oropharyngeal cancer, reviewed the literature for HPV-induced cancers, and obtained current data for HPV-related oral and oropharyngeal cancers. In addition, we performed studies to identify HPV integration sites and the relationship of integration to viral-host fusion transcripts and whether integration is required for HPV-associated oncogenesis. Viral integration of HPV into the host genome is not required for the viral life cycle and might not be necessary for cellular transformation, yet HPV integration is frequently reported in cervical and head and neck cancer specimens. Studies of large numbers of early cervical lesions revealed frequent viral integration into gene-poor regions of the host genome with comparatively rare integration into cellular genes, suggesting that integration is a stochastic event and that site of integration may be largely a function of chance. However, more recent studies of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) suggest that integration may represent an additional oncogenic mechanism through direct effects on cancer-related gene expression and generation of hybrid viral-host fusion transcripts. In HNSCC cell lines as well as primary tumors, integration into cancer-related genes leading to gene disruption has been reported. The studies have shown that integration-induced altered gene expression may be associated with tumor recurrence. Evidence from several studies indicates that viral integration into genic regions is accompanied by local amplification, increased expression in some cases, interruption of gene expression, and likely additional oncogenic effects. Similarly, reported examples of viral integration near microRNAs suggest that altered expression of these regulatory molecules may also contribute to oncogenesis. Future work is indicated to identify the mechanisms of these events on cancer cell behavior.

  12. Sampling strategy for estimating human exposure pathways to consumer chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papadopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to consumer chemicals has become a worldwide concern. In this work, a comprehensive sampling strategy is presented, to our knowledge being the first to study all relevant exposure pathways in a single cohort using multiple methods for assessment of exposure from each exposure pathway. The selected groups of chemicals to be studied are consumer chemicals whose production and use are currently in a state of transition and are; per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs, traditional and “emerging” brominated flame retardants (BFRs and EBFRs, organophosphate esters (OPEs and phthalate esters (PEs. Information about human exposure to these contaminants is needed due to existing data gaps on human exposure intakes from multiple exposure pathways and relationships between internal and external exposure. Indoor environment, food and biological samples were collected from 61 participants and their households in the Oslo area (Norway on two consecutive days, during winter 2013-14. Air, dust, hand wipes, and duplicate diet (food and drink samples were collected as indicators of external exposure, and blood, urine, blood spots, hair, nails and saliva as indicators of internal exposure. A food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and indoor environment questionnaire were also implemented. Approximately 2000 samples were collected in total and participant views on their experiences of this campaign were collected via questionnaire. While 91% of our participants were positive about future participation in a similar project, some tasks were viewed as problematic. Completing the food diary and collection of duplicate food/drink portions were the tasks most frequent reported as “hard”/”very hard”. Nevertheless, a strong positive correlation between the reported total mass of food/drinks in the food record and the total weight of the food/drinks in the collection bottles was observed, being an indication of accurate performance

  13. Induction of apoptosis by eugenol in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidhya, N.; Niranjali Devaraj, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, potential anticancer effect of eugenol on inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells was investigated. Induction of cell death by eugenol was evaluated following MTT assay and monitoring lactate dehydrogenase released into the culture medium for cell viability and cytotoxicity, giemsa staining for morphological alterations, fluorescence microscopy analysis of cells using ethidium bromide and acridine orange and quantitation of DNA fragments for induction of apoptosis. Effect of eugenol on intracellular redox status of the human breast cancer cells was assessed by determining the level of glutathione and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS). Eugenol treatment inhibited the growth and proliferation of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells through induction of cell death, which was dose and time dependent. Microscopic examination of eugenol treated cells showed cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and apoptotic body formation. Further, eugenol treatment also depleted the level of intracellular glutathione and increased the level of lipid peroxidation. The dose dependent increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells and DNA fragments suggested that apoptosis was involved in eugenol induced cell death and apoptosis might have played a role in the chemopreventive action of eugenol. (author)

  14. Imaging Proteolysis by Living Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Sameni

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant progression is accompanied by degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we describe a novel confocal assay in which we can observe proteolysis by living human breast cancer cells (BT20 and BT549 through the use of quenchedfluorescent protein substrates. Degradation thus was imaged, by confocal optical sectioning, as an accumulation of fluorescent products. With the BT20 cells, fluorescence was localized to pericellular focal areas that coincide with pits in the underlying matrix. In contrast, fluorescence was localized to intracellular vesicles in the BT549 cells, vesicles that also label for lysosomal markers. Neither intracellular nor pericellular fluorescence was observed in the BT549 cells in the presence of cytochalasin B, suggesting that degradation occurred intracellularly and was dependent on endocytic uptake of substrate. In the presence of a cathepsin 13-selective cysteine protease inhibitor, intracellular fluorescence was decreased ~90% and pericellular fluorescence decreased 67% to 96%, depending on the protein substrate. Matrix metallo protease inhibitors reduced pericellular fluorescence ~50%, i.e., comparably to a serine and a broad spectrum cysteine protease inhibitor. Our results suggest that: 1 a proteolytic cascade participates in pericellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells, and 2 the cysteine protease cathepsin B participates in both pericellular and intracellular digestion of matrix proteins by living human breast cancer cells.

  15. Estimation of enhanced cancer risk with 18FDG PET/CT investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Aruna; Mishra, Anil K.; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Dwarakanath, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) investigation involves internal administration of 18 FDG and use of CT X-rays for the purpose of obtaining functional and anatomical information of a patient. However, the radiation exposure from undergoing PET/CT investigation may enhance the risk of cancer incidence as per the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model. The objective of the present study was to quantify the risk of cancer incidence associated with radiation exposure from 18 FDG PET/CT investigations. The organ doses from internally administered 18 FDG were estimated using OLINDA/EXM Code by performing dynamic PET scans in different regions of the body in a total of forty-nine patients. Organ doses from the CT component were calculated using the software CT-Expo. The associated cancer risk was calculated in terms of life time risk of cancer incidence resulting from a specified dose of ionizing radiation and was expressed in terms of Lifetime Attributable Risk (LAR). LAR values and the organ doses estimated for males and females were used to estimate the lifetime risk of cancer incidence from whole body 18 FDG PET/CT scan. Since from 18 FDG whole body PET/CT investigations, various tissues of the body receive substantially different doses, the site specific risk of cancer incidence was estimated and summed to obtain the total risk. This was compared with the baseline lifetime risk of cancer incidence in Indian population. LAR of cancer incidence was observed to be relatively higher in females as compared to males. The risk estimates ranged from 0.36% to 0.49% for a 20 year old male and 0.58% to 0.79% for a 20 year old female and were observed to be higher in younger ages and decreased with age. 18 FDG whole body PET/CT investigation was observed to be associated with non-negligible radiation risk as compared to the risks associated with other diagnostic modalities. (author)

  16. Individualized estimation of human core body temperature using noninvasive measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Rakesh, Vineet; Oyama, Tatsuya; Kazman, Josh B; Yanovich, Ran; Ketko, Itay; Epstein, Yoram; Morrison, Shawnda; Reifman, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    A rising core body temperature (T c ) during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate T c in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries. However, real-time field assessment of T c requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between T c and noninvasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature, and two environmental variables (ambient temperature and relative humidity). A Kalman filter adapts the model parameters to each individual and provides real-time personalized T c estimates. Using data from three distinct studies, comprising 166 subjects who performed treadmill and cycle ergometer tasks under different experimental conditions, we assessed model performance via the root mean squared error (RMSE). The individualized model yielded an overall average RMSE of 0.33 (SD = 0.18)°C, allowing us to reach the same conclusions in each study as those obtained using the T c measurements. Furthermore, for 22 unique subjects whose T c exceeded 38.5°C, a potential lower T c limit of clinical relevance, the average RMSE decreased to 0.25 (SD = 0.20)°C. Importantly, these results remained robust in the presence of simulated real-world operational conditions, yielding no more than 16% worse RMSEs when measurements were missing (40%) or laden with added noise. Hence, the individualized model provides a practical means to develop an early warning system for reducing heat-injury risk. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A model that uses an individual's noninvasive measurements and environmental variables can continually "learn" the individual's heat-stress response by automatically adapting the model parameters on the fly to provide real-time individualized core body temperature estimates. This

  17. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  18. More than 9,000,000 unique genes in human gut bacterial community: estimating gene numbers inside a human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Xie, Lu; Li, Yixue; Wei, Chaochun

    2009-06-29

    Estimating the number of genes in human genome has been long an important problem in computational biology. With the new conception of considering human as a super-organism, it is also interesting to estimate the number of genes in this human super-organism. We presented our estimation of gene numbers in the human gut bacterial community, the largest microbial community inside the human super-organism. We got 552,700 unique genes from 202 complete human gut bacteria genomes. Then, a novel gene counting model was built to check the total number of genes by combining culture-independent sequence data and those complete genomes. 16S rRNAs were used to construct a three-level tree and different counting methods were introduced for the three levels: strain-to-species, species-to-genus, and genus-and-up. The model estimates that the total number of genes is about 9,000,000 after those with identity percentage of 97% or up were merged. By combining completed genomes currently available and culture-independent sequencing data, we built a model to estimate the number of genes in human gut bacterial community. The total number of genes is estimated to be about 9 million. Although this number is huge, we believe it is underestimated. This is an initial step to tackle this gene counting problem for the human super-organism. It will still be an open problem in the near future. The list of genomes used in this paper can be found in the supplementary table.

  19. Treatment deintensification in human papillomavirus-positive oropharynx cancer: Outcomes from the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghlou, Shayan; Yu, Phoebe K; Otremba, Michael D; Park, Henry S; Bhatia, Aarti; Zogg, Cheryl K; Mehra, Saral; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Judson, Benjamin L

    2018-02-15

    The growing epidemic of human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal cancer and the favorable prognosis of this disease etiology have led to a call for deintensified treatment for some patients with HPV+ cancers. One of the proposed methods of treatment deintensification is the avoidance of chemotherapy concurrent with definitive/adjuvant radiotherapy. To the authors' knowledge, the safety of this form of treatment de-escalation is unknown and the current literature in this area is sparse. The authors investigated outcomes after various treatment combinations stratified by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) eighth edition disease stage using patients from the National Cancer Data Base. A retrospective study of 4443 patients with HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer in the National Cancer Data Base was conducted. Patients were stratified into AJCC eighth edition disease stage groups. Multivariate Cox regressions as well as univariate Kaplan-Meier analyses were conducted. For patients with stage I disease, treatment with definitive radiotherapy was associated with diminished survival compared with chemoradiotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.798; P = .029), surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy (HR, 2.563; P = .002), or surgery with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (HR, 2.427; P = .001). For patients with stage II disease, compared with treatment with chemoradiotherapy, patients treated with a single-modality (either surgery [HR, 2.539; P = .009] or radiotherapy [HR, 2.200; P = .030]) were found to have poorer survival. Among patients with stage III disease, triple-modality therapy was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.518; P = .024) compared with treatment with chemoradiotherapy. Deintensification of treatment from chemoradiotherapy to radiotherapy or surgery alone in cases of HPV+ AJCC eighth edition stage I or stage II disease may compromise patient safety. Treatment intensification to triple-modality therapy for patients with stage III disease may improve survival in

  20. Estimation of the cost of treatment by chemotherapy for early breast cancer in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb Saber

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the first cancer in women both in incidence and mortality. The treatment of breast cancer benefited from the progress of chemotherapy and targeted therapies, but there was a parallel increase in treatment costs. Despite a relatively high incidence of many sites of cancer, so far, there is no national register for this disease in Morocco. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the total cost of chemotherapy in the early stages of breast cancer due to its frequency and the chances of patients being cured. This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of antimitotics and trastuzumab in Morocco. Method We start by evaluating the individual cost according to the therapeutic sub-groups, namely: 1. Patients needing chemotherapy with only anthracycline-based therapy. 2. Patients needing chemotherapy with both anthracycline and taxane but without trastuzumab. 3. Patients needing trastuzumab in addition to chemotherapy. For each sub-group, the protocol of treatment is described, and the individual costs per unit, and for the whole cycle, are evaluated. Then we estimate the number of women suffering from breast cancer on the basis of two data bases available in Morocco. Finally, we calculate the total annual cost of treatment of breast cancer in Morocco. Results The total cost of breast cancer in Morocco is given in Moroccan dirhams (MAD, the US dollar at the current exchange rate (MAD 10 = USD 1.30 and in international dollars or purchasing power parity (MAD 10 = PPP 1.95. The cost of a therapy with trastuzumab is 8.4 times the cost of a sequential chemotherapy combining anthracycline and taxane, and nearly 60 times the cost of chemotherapy based on anthracycline alone. Globally, between USD 13.3 million and USD 28.6 million need to be devoted every year by the Moroccan health authorities to treat

  1. Estimation of the optimal number of radiotherapy fractions for breast cancer: A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Karen; Delaney, Geoff P; Barton, Michael B

    2015-08-01

    There is variation in radiotherapy fractionation practice, however, there is no evidence-based benchmark for appropriate activity. An evidence-based model was constructed to estimate the optimal number of fractions for the first course of radiotherapy for breast cancer to aid in services planning and performance benchmarking. The published breast cancer radiotherapy utilisation model was adapted. Evidence-based number of fractions was added to each radiotherapy indication. The overall optimal number of fractions was calculated based on the frequency of specific clinical conditions where radiotherapy is indicated and the recommended number of fractions for each condition. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impact of uncertainties on the model. For the entire Australian breast cancer patient population, the estimated optimal number of fractions per patient was 16.8, 14.6, 13.7 and 0.8 for ductal carcinoma in situ, early, advanced and metastatic breast cancer respectively. Overall, the optimal number of fractions per patient was 14.4 (range 14.4-18.7). These results allow comparison with actual practices, and workload prediction to aid in services planning. The model can be easily adapted to other countries by inserting population-specific epidemiological data, and to future changes in cancer incidence, stage distribution and fractionation recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Excess cases of prostate cancer and estimated overdiagnosis associated with PSA testing in East Anglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Powles, J; Brown, C; Duffy, S W

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the extent of ‘overdiagnosis' of prostate cancer attributable to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the Cambridge area between 1996 and 2002. Overdiagnosis was defined conceptually as detection of prostate cancer through PSA testing that otherwise would not have been diagnosed within the patient's lifetime. Records of PSA tests in Addenbrookes Hospital were linked to prostate cancer registrations by NHS number. Differences in prostate cancer registration rates between those receiving and not receiving prediagnosis PSA tests were calculated. The proportion of men aged 40 years or over with a prediagnosis PSA test increased from 1.4 to 5.2% from 1996 to 2002. The rate of diagnosis of prostate cancer was 45% higher (rate ratios (RR)=1.45, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02–2.07) in men with a history of prediagnosis PSA testing. Assuming average lead times of 5 to 10 years, 40–64% of the PSA-detected cases were estimated to be overdiagnosed. In East Anglia, from 1996 to 2000, a 1.6% excess of cases was associated with PSA testing (around a quarter of the 5.3% excess incidence cases observed in East Anglia from 1996 to 2000). Further quantification of the overdiagnosis will result from continued surveillance and from linkage of incidence to testing in other hospitals. PMID:16832417

  3. Human age estimation combining third molar and skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Kaur, J; Willems, G

    2012-03-01

    The wide prediction intervals obtained with age estimation methods based on third molar development could be reduced by combining these dental observations with age-related skeletal information. Therefore, on cephalometric radiographs, the most accurate age-estimating skeletal variable and related registration method were searched and added to a regression model, with age as response and third molar stages as explanatory variable. In a pilot set up on a dataset of 496 (283 M; 213 F) cephalometric radiographs, the techniques of Baccetti et al. (2005) (BA), Seedat et al. (2005) (SE), Caldas et al. (2007) and Rai et al. (2008) (RA) were verified. In the main study, data from 460 (208 F, 224 M) individuals in an age range between 3 and 26 years, for which at the same day an orthopantogram and a cephalogram were taken, were collected. On the orthopantomograms, the left third molar development was registered using the scoring system described by Gleiser and Hunt (1955) and modified by Köhler (1994) (GH). On the cephalograms, cervical vertebrae development was registered according to the BA and SE techniques. A regression model, with age as response and the GH scores as explanatory variable, was fitted to the data. Next, information of BA, SE and BA + SE was, respectively, added to this model. From all obtained models, the determination coefficients and the root mean squared errors were calculated. Inclusion of information from cephalograms based on the BA, as well as the SE, technique improved the amount of explained variance in age acquired from panoramic radiographs using the GH technique with 48%. Inclusion of cephalometric BA + SE information marginally improved the previous result (+1%). The RMSE decreased with 1.93, 1.85 and 2.03 years by adding, respectively, BA, SE and BA + SE information to the GH model. The SE technique allows clinically the fastest and easiest registration of the degree of development of the cervical vertebrae. Therefore, the choice of

  4. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate survival in patients with colorectal cancer: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate absolute and conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study.\\ud \\ud Setting: General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database linked to the national cancer registry.\\ud \\ud Participants: 44 145 patients aged 15-99 with colorectal cancer from 947 practices to derive the equations. The equations were validated in 15 214 patients with colorectal cancer ...

  5. Estimating the effect of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage on oral cancer in India using marginal structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Rao, Sreevidya; Mejia, Gloria C; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Logan, Richard M; Kamath, Veena; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Mittinty, Murthy N

    2015-07-01

    Early life socioeconomic disadvantage could affect adult health directly or indirectly. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of the direct effect of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer occurrence in adult life. We conducted a multicenter, hospital-based, case-control study in India between 2011 and 2012 on 180 histopathologically confirmed incident oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer cases, aged 18 years or more, and 272 controls that included hospital visitors, who were not diagnosed with any cancer in the same hospitals. Life-course data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, risk factors, and parental behavior through interview employing a life grid. The early life socioeconomic conditions measure was determined by occupation of the head of household in childhood. Adult socioeconomic measures included participant's education and current occupation of the head of household. Marginal structural models with stabilized inverse probability weights were used to estimate the controlled direct effects of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer. The total effect model showed that those in the low socioeconomic conditions in the early years of childhood had 60% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.4, 1.9]) increased risk of oral cancer. From the marginal structural models, the estimated risk for developing oral cancer among those in low early life socioeconomic conditions was 50% (RR = 1.5 [95% CI = 1.4, 1.5]), 20% (RR = 1.2 [95% CI = 0.9, 1.7]), and 90% (RR = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.7, 2.2]) greater than those in the high socioeconomic conditions when controlled for smoking, chewing, and alcohol, respectively. When all the three mediators were controlled in a marginal structural model, the RR was 1.3 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.6). Early life low socioeconomic condition had a controlled direct effect on oral cancer when smoking, chewing tobacco, and alcohol were separately adjusted in marginal structural models.

  6. Estimates of cancer deaths attributable to behavioural risk factors in Italy, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Francesca; Carreras, Giulia; Grassi, Tommaso; Chellini, Elisabetta; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    "Non-communicable diseases cause more than 80% of deaths in europe and, among these, 20% are caused by cancer. Modifiable lifestyle factors considered in the italian national programme "Guadagnare salute" (Gaining health), such as tobacco smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, overweight, and excessive alcohol use, are amongst the major causes of cancer deaths. The aims of this study was to estimate the number of deaths attributable to lifestyle factors for italy and for italian regions in 2013 and to describe its variation in relation to the regional prevalence of risk factors exposure. For Italy and for each italian region, deaths attributable to lifestyle factors were estimated using the methodology of the Global Burden of disease (GBd) study. italian mortality data of 2013 and risks attributable to these lifestyle factors for each cancer site for italy from the GBd study were used. Prevalence of exposure to lifestyles in Italy and in each Italian Region was collected for the period 2008-2013. In 2013, at least 66,605 cancer deaths in italy were attributable to lifestyle factors, accounting for 37.9% of all cancer deaths: 34.1% of cancer deaths in men and 9.0% in women were attributable to smoking; in men and women, respectively, 3.3% and 2.8% were attributable to excessive alcohol consumption; 5.3 % and 6.7% to overweight; 10.1% and 7.1% to dietary risk factors; 1.9% and 4.2% to physical inactivity. A moderate variability of percentage of deaths attributable to modifi able lifestyle factors by region was also detected due to different prevalence values of exposure to lifestyles occurred in last decades. At least 45,000 cancer deaths in men and 21,000 in women occurred in 2013 were attributable to modifi able risk factors, whose prevalence varied by region and which could be averted through the implementation of primary prevention interventions."

  7. Estimation of lung cancer risk from environmental exposure to airborne plutonium from the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    A three-phase study was undertaken to (1) determine the nature of disagreement among scientists concerning risk of environmental release of plutonium, (2) develop an analytic procedure for determining risk based on clearly stated principles defensible by reference to the literature, and (3) develop estimates of radiation dose to the lung from exposure to plutonium in ambient air for the purpose of evaluating risk to an individual with a specified age and smoking history. Eleven epidemiologists, biostatisticians and radiation scientists participated in Phase I of the study. It was shown that no clearly stated analytical principles for risk estimation were in common use, resulting in widely divergent risk estimates. Five of these disagreeing scientists in Phase I (including all cancer epidemiologists in the Denver metropolitan area) were chosen for Phase II of the study. A single analytic procedure was developed which was unanimously agreed upon. This procedure was dependent on the estimate of dose to the lung from ambient air levels of Rocky Flats plutonium. In Phase III of the study, a panel of four radiation scientists developed a procedure for estimation of dose to the lung from chronic exposure to plutonium ambient air levels. Results from all phases of the study were used to develop a method for estimation of relative risk of lung cancer for an individual, given plutonium dose to the lung, age, smoking history and other radiation exposure

  8. Simultaneous estimation of human and exoskeleton motion: A simplified protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M T; Torricelli, D; Del-Ama, A J; Pinto, D; Gonzalez-Vargas, J; Moreno, J C; Gil-Agudo, A; Pons, J L

    2017-07-01

    Adequate benchmarking procedures in the area of wearable robots is gaining importance in order to compare different devices on a quantitative basis, improve them and support the standardization and regulation procedures. Performance assessment usually focuses on the execution of locomotion tasks, and is mostly based on kinematic-related measures. Typical drawbacks of marker-based motion capture systems, gold standard for measure of human limb motion, become challenging when measuring limb kinematics, due to the concomitant presence of the robot. This work answers the question of how to reliably assess the subject's body motion by placing markers over the exoskeleton. Focusing on the ankle joint, the proposed methodology showed that it is possible to reconstruct the trajectory of the subject's joint by placing markers on the exoskeleton, although foot flexibility during walking can impact the reconstruction accuracy. More experiments are needed to confirm this hypothesis, and more subjects and walking conditions are needed to better characterize the errors of the proposed methodology, although our results are promising, indicating small errors.

  9. Human circadian phase estimation from signals collected in ambulatory conditions using an autoregressive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, Enrique A; Aubert, Xavier L; Møst, Els I S; Beersma, Domien G M

    Phase estimation of the human circadian rhythm is a topic that has been explored using various modeling approaches. The current models range from physiological to mathematical, all attempting to estimate the circadian phase from different physiological or behavioral signals. Here, we have focused on

  10. A joint model of persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer risk: Implications for cervical cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Katki, Hormuzd A.; Cheung, Li C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2015-01-01

    New cervical cancer screening guidelines in the US and many European countries recommend that women get tested for human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform decisions about screening intervals, we calculate the increase in precancer/cancer risk per year of continued HPV infection. However, both time to onset of precancer/cancer and time to HPV clearance are interval-censored, and onset of precancer/cancer strongly informatively censors HPV clearance. We analyze this bivariate informatively interv...

  11. c-Myc-Dependent Cell Competition in Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish S; Shah, Heta S; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2017-07-01

    Cell Competition is an interaction between cells for existence in heterogeneous cell populations of multicellular organisms. This phenomenon is involved in initiation and progression of cancer where heterogeneous cell populations compete directly or indirectly for the survival of the fittest based on differential gene expression. In Drosophila, cells having lower dMyc expression are eliminated by cell competition through apoptosis when present in the milieu of cells having higher dMyc expression. Thus, we designed a study to develop c-Myc (human homolog) dependent in vitro cell competition model of human cancer cells. Cells with higher c-Myc were transfected with c-myc shRNA to prepare cells with lower c-Myc and then co-cultured with the same type of cells having a higher c-Myc in equal ratio. Cells with lower c-Myc showed a significant decrease in numbers when compared with higher c-Myc cells, suggesting "loser" and "winner" status of cells, respectively. During microscopy, engulfment of loser cells by winner cells was observed with higher expression of JNK in loser cells. Furthermore, elimination of loser cells was prevented significantly, when co-cultured cells were treated with the JNK (apoptosis) inhibitor. Above results indicate elimination of loser cells in the presence of winner cells by c-Myc-dependent mechanisms of cell competition in human cancer cells. This could be an important mechanism in human tumors where normal cells are eliminated by c-Myc-overexpressed tumor cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1782-1791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Human papillomavirus detection in paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Amicizia, Daniela; Martinelli, Marianna; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Brisigotti, Maria Pia; Colzani, Daniela; Fasoli, Ester; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a well-recognized aetiological role in the development of cervical cancer and other anogenital tumours. Recently, an association between colorectal cancer and HPV infection has been suggested, although this is still controversial. This study aimed at detecting and characterizing HPV infection in 57 paired biopsies from colorectal cancers and adjacent intact tissues using a degenerate PCR approach. All amplified fragments were genotyped by means of sequencing. Overall, HPV prevalence was 12.3 %. In particular, 15.8 % of tumour tissues and 8.8 % of non-cancerous tissue samples were HPV DNA-positive. Of these samples, 85.7 % were genotyped successfully, with 41.7 % of sequences identifying four genotypes of the HR (high oncogenic risk) clade Group 1; the remaining 58.3 % of HPV-genotyped specimens had an unclassified β-HPV. Examining additional cases and analysing whole genomes will help to outline the significance of these findings.

  13. Breast Cancer Mortality In Brazil: Correlation With Human Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rejane Barroso Barcelos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality from breast cancer decreased in high-income countries, while countries with middle and low incomes as Brazil still has upward trend. However, large geographical variations among the federal units are observed in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate the trend of specific mortality from breast cancer in women over 20 years old years among different states of Brazil from 1996 to 2012.  Methods and Findings: Ecological study, using linear regression model for temporal analysis of specific mortality coefficient from malignant neoplasm of breast. We also checked the degree of its correlation with the HDI for the states of Brazil during the stated period. There was an increase in the specific mortality rate for malignant neoplasm of the breast in order of 33%, with range from 23.2 to 30.8 / 100,000 inhabitants. The states with the highest human development HDI in 2010, showed the largest specific mortality rates of breast cancer. Conclusion: Taking the trends of mortality from cancer an important role, this study confirms the need for improvements in mammography coverage, following radiological lesions suspected and access to appropriate therapy.

  14. Zinc in human prostate gland. Normal, hyperplastic and cancerous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.Ye.; Sviridova, T.V.; Zaichick, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Zinc concentration in a prostate gland is much higher than that in other human tissues. Data about zinc changes for different prostate diseases are limited and greatly contradictory. Zinc content was determined for biopsy and resected materials of transrectal puncture tissues from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. There were 109 patients (50 BPH and 59 cancer) available for the present study. Control group consisted of 37 intact glands of men died an unexpected death (accident, murder, acute cardiac insufficiency, etc.). All materials studied were divided into two parts. One of them was morphologically examined, while another one was subjected to zinc analysis by INAA. Zinc contents (M ± SE) of normal, benign hyperplastic and cancerous prostate glands were found to be 1018 ± 124, 1142 ± 77, and 146 ± 10 μg/g dry tissue, respectively. It was shown that zinc assessments in the materials of transrectal puncture biopsy of indurated prostate sites can be used as an additional test for differential diagnostics of BPH and cancer. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the test are 98 ± 2%. (author)

  15. Dose-response relationships and risk estimates for the induction of cancer due to low doses of low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaguppillai, V.

    1981-01-01

    Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer at low doses can be obtained only by extrapolation from the known effects at high doses and high dose rates, using a suitable dose-response model. The applicability of three different models, linear, sublinear and supralinear, are discussed in this paper. Several experimental studies tend to favour a sublinear dose-response model (linear-quadratic model) for low-LET radiation. However, human epidemiological studies do not exclude any of the dose-response relationships. The risk estimates based on linear and linear quadratic dose-response models are compared and it is concluded that, for low-LET radiation, the linear dose-response model would probably over-estimate the actual risk of cancer by a factor of two or more. (author)

  16. Effect of primarily cultured human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts on radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaoqin; Ji Jiang; Chen Yongbing; Shan Fang; Lu Xueguan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when CAF is placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung CAF was obtained from fresh human lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens by primary culture and subculture and was then identified by immunofluorescence staining. The CAF was placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer A 549 and H 1299 cells, and the effects of CAF on the radiosensitivity of A 549 and H 1299 cells were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Results: The human lung CAF obtained by adherent culture could stably grow and proliferate, and it had specific expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and fibroblast activation protein,but without expression of cytokeratin-18. The plating efficiency (PE, %) of A 549 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.0 ± 3.9)% when cultured alone versus (32.3 ± 5.5)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=3.16, P<0.05), and the PE of H 1299 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.6 ± 3.1)% when cultured alone versus (35.2 ± 2.3)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=6.55, P<0.05). The cell survival rate at 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2 ) of A 549 cells was 0.727 ±0.061 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.089 when co-cultured with CAF (t=0.88, P>0.05), and the SF 2 of H 1299 cells was 0.692 ±0.065 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.037 when co-cultured with CAF (t=2.08, P>0.05). The protection enhancement ratios of human lung CAF for A 549 cells and H 1299 cells were 1.29 and 1.25, respectively. Conclusions: Human lung CAF reduces the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when placed in direct contact co-culture with them, and the radioprotective effect may be attributed to CAF promoting the proliferation of lung cancer cells. (authors)

  17. Differential expression of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in human colorectal cancer: A comparison with colon and rectal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, SHUAI; CHEN, YIJUN; ZHU, ZHANMENG; DING, YUNLONG; REN, SHUANGYI; ZUO, YUNFEI

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality, being the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men and the second among women. Accumulating evidence regarding carbohydrate antigen (CA) demonstrated that tumor-associated antigens are clinically useful for the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of human gastrointestinal cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. There has been an extensive investigation for sensitive and specific markers of this disease. Currently, the gastrointestinal cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is the most widely applied tumor marker in cancer diagnosis. Despite a similar etiology and cancer incidence rates, there are anatomical and clinical differences between colon and rectal cancer, as well as differences regarding tumor progression and adjuvant treatments. To investigate whether CA19-9 is differentially expressed between colon and rectal cancer, we conducted a differential analysis of serum CA19-9 levels among 227 cases of colorectal cancer, analyzing gender, age, Dukes’ stage and distant metastasis for human colon and rectal cancer as a single entity, separately and as matched pairs. We demonstrated that the serum CA19-9 levels in colorectal cancer were upregulated in advanced stages with distant metastasis. By contrast, the serum CA19-9 levels in colon cancer displayed a differential and upregulated behavior in advanced stages with distant metastasis. By analyzing as matched pairs, the upregulated serum CA19-9 levels in rectal cancer during the early stages without distant metastasis further supported our hypothesis that the expression of CA19-9 displays a site-specific differential behavior. The integrative analysis suggested a significant difference between human colon and rectal cancer, justifying individualized therapy for these two types of cancer. PMID:24649295

  18. Breast and prostate cancer productivity costs: a comparison of the human capital approach and the friction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Timmons, Aileen; Walsh, Paul M; Sharp, Linda

    2012-05-01

    Productivity costs constitute a substantial proportion of the total societal costs associated with cancer. We compared the results of applying two different analytical methods--the traditional human capital approach (HCA) and the emerging friction cost approach (FCA)--to estimate breast and prostate cancer productivity costs in Ireland in 2008. Data from a survey of breast and prostate cancer patients were combined with population-level survival estimates and a national wage data set to calculate costs of temporary disability (cancer-related work absence), permanent disability (workforce departure, reduced working hours), and premature mortality. For breast cancer, productivity costs per person using the HCA were € 193,425 and those per person using the FCA were € 8,103; for prostate cancer, the comparable estimates were € 109,154 and € 8,205, respectively. The HCA generated higher costs for younger patients (breast cancer) because of greater lifetime earning potential. In contrast, the FCA resulted in higher productivity costs for older male patients (prostate cancer) commensurate with higher earning capacity over a shorter time period. Reduced working hours postcancer was a key driver of total HCA productivity costs. HCA costs were sensitive to assumptions about discount and growth rates. FCA costs were sensitive to assumptions about the friction period. The magnitude of the estimates obtained in this study illustrates the importance of including productivity costs when considering the economic impact of illness. Vastly different results emerge from the application of the HCA and the FCA, and this finding emphasizes the importance of choosing the study perspective carefully and being explicit about assumptions that underpin the methods. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  20. Apoptosis induced by GanoPoly in human gastric cancer cell line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... ... cancer's active therapy. Key words: Apoptosis, polysaccharide, human gastric cancer cells. ... The active components of polysaccharides are all glucans, which have a ... for the treatment of alleviated fatigue, night sweating,.

  1. Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  2. Review of colorectal cancer and its metastases in rodent models: comparative aspects with those in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobaek-Larsen, M; Thorup, I; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancer forms developing in industrialized countries, and its incidence appears to be rising. Studies of human population groups provide insufficient information about carcinogenesis, pathogenesis, and treatment of CRC...

  3. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot......’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...

  4. Stochastic estimation of human shoulder impedance with robots: an experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungbin; Chang, Pyung Hun

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies assumed the shoulder as a hinge joint during human arm impedance measurement. This is obviously a vast simplification since the shoulder is a complex of several joints with multiple degrees of freedom. In the present work, a practical methodology for more general and realistic estimation of human shoulder impedance is proposed and validated with a spring array. It includes a gravity compensation scheme, which is developed and used for the experiments with a spatial three degrees of freedom PUMA-type robot. The experimental results were accurate and reliable, and thus it has shown a strong potential of the proposed methodology in the estimation of human shoulder impedance. © 2011 IEEE

  5. Introduction to dosimetry and risk estimation of second cancer induction following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    This brief review of dosimetry in second cancer dosimetry introduces work carried out by Working Group 9 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry in Medicine) of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS). The work described in the following papers in this edition was presented at a Workshop on Dosimetry for Second Cancer Risk Estimation given at the EURADOS Annual meeting in Vienna on February 8th 2012. The work concentrates on the measurement of out-of-field doses in water tanks and BOMAB-like phantoms using a variety of dosimeters to measure photon and neutron doses. These include optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), radiophotoluminescence (RPL) and thermoluminescence (TLD) dosimeters for photon dosimetry (together with ion chambers for reference measurements traceable to primary standards) and track etch and bubble detectors for neutron measurements. A discussion of the various phantoms available for these measurements is presented together with a brief introduction to a model for the relationship between organ doses and the risk of induction of second cancers. The estimation of second cancer risks is not trivial and involves processes which are currently incompletely understood. However, progress in this field requires a robust foundation and methodology for the measurement or calculation of organ doses following radiotherapy, so that risks can be placed in perspective, algorithms for out-of-field doses can be compared with measured data, and future epidemiological studies may have a reliable foundation of organ dosimetry for retrospective dosimetry studies. -- Highlights: ► Brief review of second cancer induction following radiotherapy. ► Out-of-field doses for estimating risks to remote organs. ► Introduction to dosimetry techniques and dosimeters used. ► Out-of-field dose measurements in phantoms

  6. Age- and Tumor Subtype-Specific Breast Cancer Risk Estimates for CHEK2*1100delC Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marjanka K; Hogervorst, Frans; van Hien, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a well-established breast cancer risk variant that is most prevalent in European populations; however, there are limited data on risk of breast cancer by age and tumor subtype, which limits its usefulness in breast cancer risk prediction. We aimed to generate tumor...... subtype- and age-specific risk estimates by using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 44,777 patients with breast cancer and 42,997 controls from 33 studies genotyped for CHEK2*1100delC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CHEK2*1100delC genotyping was mostly done by a custom Taqman assay....... Breast cancer odds ratios (ORs) for CHEK2*1100delC carriers versus noncarriers were estimated by using logistic regression and adjusted for study (categorical) and age. Main analyses included patients with invasive breast cancer from population- and hospital-based studies. RESULTS: Proportions...

  7. Probability estimation of potential harm to human health and life caused by a hypothetical nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviov, Vladyslav; Pysmenniy, Yevgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes some general methodological aspects of the assessment of the damage to human life and health caused by a hypothetical nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant (NPP). Probability estimation of death (due to cancer and non-cancer effects of radiation injury), disability and incapacity of individuals were made by taking into account the regulations of Ukraine. According to the assessment, the probability of death due to cancer and non-cancer effects of radiation damage to individuals who received radiation dose of 1 Sv is equal to 0.09. Probability of disability of 1, 2 or 3 group regardless of the radiation dose is 0.009, 0.0054, 0.027, respectively. Probability of temporary disability of the individual who received dose equal to 33 mSv (the level of potential exposure in a hypothetical nuclear accident at the NPP) is equal 0.16. This probability estimation of potential harm to human health and life caused by a hypothetical nuclear accident can be used for NPP in different countries using requirements of regulations in these countries. And also to estimate the amount of insurance payments due to the nuclear damage in the event of a nuclear accident at the NPP or other nuclear industry enterprise. (author)

  8. Estimation and Projection of Prevalence of Colorectal Cancer in Iran, 2015–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Molavi Vardanjani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging and more prevalent westernized lifestyle would be expected to result in a markedly rising burden of colorectal cancer (CRC in the future years. The aim of this study is to estimate the limited-time prevalence of CRC in Iran between 2015 and 2020. Materials and Methods: Aggregated CRC incidence data were extracted from the Iranian national cancer registry (IR.NCR reports for 2003–2009 and from GLOBOCAN-2012 database for 2012. Incidence trends were analyzed by age groups, genders, histopathologic, and topographic subtypes to estimate annual percentage changes. Incidence was projected for 2020. The prevalence was estimated applying an adopted version of a previously introduced equation to estimate limited–time prevalence based on the incidence and survival data. Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses were applied to estimate 95% uncertainty levels (ULs. In each scenario, incidence, survival, annual percentage changes, and completeness of case ascertainment at IR.NCR were replaced under pre-assumed distributions. Results: Number of estimated within 1, 2-3 and 4-5-year CRC patients in 2015 were 13676 (95% UL: 10051–18807, 20964 (15835–28268, and 14485 (11188–19293, respectively. Estimated 5-year prevalence for 2020 (99463; 75150–134744 was 2.03 times of that for 2015. Highest 5-year prevalence was estimated in ages 55–59 for females and 75 + for males. Adenocarcinoma (41376; 31227 55898 was the most prevalent histologic subtype. The most prevalent tumor location was colon (30822, 23262–41638. Conclusion: A substantial growth in the prevalence of CRC survivors is highly expected for future years in Iran. Establishment of specialized institutes is highly recommended to provide medical and especially social supports for Iranian CRC survivors.

  9. Estimation and Projection of Prevalence of Colorectal Cancer in Iran, 2015-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanjani, Hossein Molavi; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Bagheri-Lankarani, Kamran; Hadipour, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Population aging and more prevalent westernized lifestyle would be expected to result in a markedly rising burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the future years. The aim of this study is to estimate the limited-time prevalence of CRC in Iran between 2015 and 2020. Aggregated CRC incidence data were extracted from the Iranian national cancer registry (IR.NCR) reports for 2003-2009 and from GLOBOCAN-2012 database for 2012. Incidence trends were analyzed by age groups, genders, histopathologic, and topographic subtypes to estimate annual percentage changes. Incidence was projected for 2020. The prevalence was estimated applying an adopted version of a previously introduced equation to estimate limited-time prevalence based on the incidence and survival data. Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses were applied to estimate 95% uncertainty levels (ULs). In each scenario, incidence, survival, annual percentage changes, and completeness of case ascertainment at IR.NCR were replaced under pre-assumed distributions. Number of estimated within 1, 2-3 and 4-5-year CRC patients in 2015 were 13676 (95% UL: 10051-18807), 20964 (15835-28268), and 14485 (11188-19293), respectively. Estimated 5-year prevalence for 2020 (99463; 75150-134744) was 2.03 times of that for 2015. Highest 5-year prevalence was estimated in ages 55-59 for females and 75 + for males. Adenocarcinoma (41376; 31227 55898) was the most prevalent histologic subtype. The most prevalent tumor location was colon (30822, 23262-41638). A substantial growth in the prevalence of CRC survivors is highly expected for future years in Iran. Establishment of specialized institutes is highly recommended to provide medical and especially social supports for Iranian CRC survivors.

  10. Estimation and Projection of Prevalence of Colorectal Cancer in Iran, 2015–2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanjani, Hossein Molavi; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Bagheri-Lankarani, Kamran; Hadipour, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Background: Population aging and more prevalent westernized lifestyle would be expected to result in a markedly rising burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the future years. The aim of this study is to estimate the limited-time prevalence of CRC in Iran between 2015 and 2020. Materials and Methods: Aggregated CRC incidence data were extracted from the Iranian national cancer registry (IR.NCR) reports for 2003–2009 and from GLOBOCAN-2012 database for 2012. Incidence trends were analyzed by age groups, genders, histopathologic, and topographic subtypes to estimate annual percentage changes. Incidence was projected for 2020. The prevalence was estimated applying an adopted version of a previously introduced equation to estimate limited–time prevalence based on the incidence and survival data. Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses were applied to estimate 95% uncertainty levels (ULs). In each scenario, incidence, survival, annual percentage changes, and completeness of case ascertainment at IR.NCR were replaced under pre-assumed distributions. Results: Number of estimated within 1, 2-3 and 4-5-year CRC patients in 2015 were 13676 (95% UL: 10051–18807), 20964 (15835–28268), and 14485 (11188–19293), respectively. Estimated 5-year prevalence for 2020 (99463; 75150–134744) was 2.03 times of that for 2015. Highest 5-year prevalence was estimated in ages 55–59 for females and 75 + for males. Adenocarcinoma (41376; 31227 55898) was the most prevalent histologic subtype. The most prevalent tumor location was colon (30822, 23262–41638). Conclusion: A substantial growth in the prevalence of CRC survivors is highly expected for future years in Iran. Establishment of specialized institutes is highly recommended to provide medical and especially social supports for Iranian CRC survivors. PMID:29456991

  11. An Estimation of Human Error Probability of Filtered Containment Venting System Using Dynamic HRA Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seunghyun; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The human failure events (HFEs) are considered in the development of system fault trees as well as accident sequence event trees in part of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). As a method for analyzing the human error, several methods, such as Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR), and Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) are used and new methods for human reliability analysis (HRA) are under developing at this time. This paper presents a dynamic HRA method for assessing the human failure events and estimation of human error probability for filtered containment venting system (FCVS) is performed. The action associated with implementation of the containment venting during a station blackout sequence is used as an example. In this report, dynamic HRA method was used to analyze FCVS-related operator action. The distributions of the required time and the available time were developed by MAAP code and LHS sampling. Though the numerical calculations given here are only for illustrative purpose, the dynamic HRA method can be useful tools to estimate the human error estimation and it can be applied to any kind of the operator actions, including the severe accident management strategy.

  12. Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in helical CT for pulmonary tuberculosis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleye Bamise

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preference for computed tomography (CT for the clinical assessment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB infections has increased the concern about the potential risk of cancer in exposed patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cancer risk and radiation doses from different CT scanners, assuming an equivalent scan protocol. Radiation doses from three 16-slice units were estimated using the CT-Expo dosimetry software version 2.4 and standard CT scan protocol for patients with suspected PTB infections. The lifetime risk of cancer for each scanner was determined using the methodology outlined in the BEIR VII report. Organ doses were significantly different (P < 0.05 between the scanners. The calculated effective dose for scanner H2 is 34% and 37% higher than scanners H3 and H1 respectively. A high and statistically significant correlation was observed between estimated lifetime cancer risk for both male (r2 = 0.943, P < 0.05 and female patients (r2 = 0.989, P < 0.05. The risk variation between the scanners was slightly higher than 2% for all ages but was much smaller for specific ages for male and female patients (0.2% and 0.7%, respectively. These variations provide an indication that the use of a scanner optimizing protocol is imperative.

  13. Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in helical CT for pulmonary tuberculosis infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Bamise; Chetty, Naven

    2017-12-01

    The preference for computed tomography (CT) for the clinical assessment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) infections has increased the concern about the potential risk of cancer in exposed patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cancer risk and radiation doses from different CT scanners, assuming an equivalent scan protocol. Radiation doses from three 16-slice units were estimated using the CT-Expo dosimetry software version 2.4 and standard CT scan protocol for patients with suspected PTB infections. The lifetime risk of cancer for each scanner was determined using the methodology outlined in the BEIR VII report. Organ doses were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the scanners. The calculated effective dose for scanner H2 is 34% and 37% higher than scanners H3 and H1 respectively. A high and statistically significant correlation was observed between estimated lifetime cancer risk for both male (r2 = 0.943, P < 0.05) and female patients (r2 = 0.989, P < 0.05). The risk variation between the scanners was slightly higher than 2% for all ages but was much smaller for specific ages for male and female patients (0.2% and 0.7%, respectively). These variations provide an indication that the use of a scanner optimizing protocol is imperative.

  14. Cigarette use and the estimation of lung cancer attributable to radon in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, J.H.; Steindorf, K.

    1995-01-01

    Residential exposure to radioactive radon and its decay products has been estimated to account for 10-12% of all lung cancer deaths in the US. It has been difficult to evaluate fully the impact of cigarette smoking, the most important cause of lung cancer, on this estimate, because factors for patterns of tobacco use have not been included in the risk models, since risk models are derived from studies of underground miners exposed to radon and detailed data on smoking are limited. Lung cancer risk estimates for exposure to radon progeny in smoker and non-smoker populations are obtained by applying the same risk model to each population group, thereby assuming the joint effects of smoking and exposure to radon progeny are multiplicative. However, in miners, joint relative risks (RR) for the two exposures are most consistent with an intermediate relationship between multiplicative and additive, so that the present approach likely results in an overestimate of risk in smokers and an underestimate of risk in nonsmokers. One approach for adjusting risk models to incorporate smoking status is based on the relative magnitude of the effects of radon progeny in smokers and nonsmokers and therefore may not be applicable to non-miner populations if the proportion of smokers and the RR for smoking differ. We show that the modification can be derived explicitly by assuming an arithmetic mixture model for the joint RR for smoking and exposure to radon progeny. In this way, smoking parameters in the population of interest (the proportion of smokers and the RR of smoking) can be used directly to adjust radon progeny risk models and obtain risk estimates that are specific for smokers and nonsmokers. With an intermediate RR relationship for smoking and radon progeny, the attributable percentage of lung cancer deaths from residential radon may be twofold greater in nonsmokers than in smokers. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Human Papillomavirus and Tonsillar and Base of Tongue Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn Ramqvist

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 was recognized as a risk factor by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, where tonsillar and base of tongue cancer (TSCC and BOTSCC dominate. Furthermore, patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC, had a much better clinical outcome than those with corresponding HPV-negative cancer and other head and neck cancer. More specifically, survival was around 80% for HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC vs. 40% five-year disease free survival, for the corresponding HPV-negative tumors with conventional radiotherapy and surgery, while this could not be observed for HPV-positive OSCC at other sites. In addition, the past 20–40 years in many Western Countries, the incidence of HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC has risen, and >70% are men. This has resulted in a relative increase of patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC that may not need the intensified chemo-radiotherapy (with many more severe debilitating side effects often given today to patients with head and neck cancer. However, before tapering therapy, one needs to enable selection of patients for such treatment, by identifying clinical and molecular markers that together with HPV-positive status will better predict patient prognosis and response to therapy. To conclude, there is a new increasing group of patients with HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC with good clinical outcome, where options for better-tailored therapy are needed. For prevention, it would be of benefit to vaccinate both girls and boys against HPV16 infection. For potential future screening the ways to do so need optimizing.

  16. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Kidney

    Full Text Available Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers' estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will

  17. Phase I study of anticolon cancer humanized antibody A33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, Sydney; Ritter, Gerd; Williams, Clarence; Cohen, Leonard S; John, Mary; Jungbluth, Achim; Richards, Elizabeth A; Old, Lloyd J; Kemeny, Nancy E

    2003-04-01

    Humanized A33 (huA33; IgG1) monoclonal antibody detects a determinant expressed by 95% of colorectal cancers and can activate immune cytolytic mechanisms. The present study was designed to (a) define the toxicities and maximum tolerated dose of huA33 and (b) determine huA33 immunogenicity. Patients (n = 11) with advanced chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer received 4-week cycles of huA33 at 10, 25, or 50 mg/m(2)/week. Serum samples were analyzed using biosensor technology for evidence of human antihuman antibody (HAHA) response. Eight of 11 patients developed a HAHA response. Significant toxicity was limited to four patients who developed high HAHA titers. In two of these cases, infusion-related reactions such as fevers, rigors, facial flushing, and changes in blood pressure were observed, whereas in the other two cases, toxicity consisted of skin rash, fever, or myalgia. Of three patients who remained HAHA negative, one achieved a radiographic partial response, with reduction of serum carcinoembryonic antigen from 80 to 3 ng/ml. Four patients had radiographic evidence of stable disease (2, 4, 6, and 12 months), with significant reductions (>25%) in serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels in two cases. The complementarity-determining region-grafted huA33 antibody is immunogenic in the majority of colon cancer patients (73%). HAHA activity can be measured reproducibly and quantitatively by BIACORE analysis. Whereas the huA33 construct tested here may be too immunogenic for further clinical development, the antitumor effects observed in the absence of antibody-mediated toxicity and in this heavily pretreated patient population warrant clinical testing of other IgG1 humanized versions of A33 antibody.

  18. 1082-39, an analogue of sorafenib, inhibited human cancer cell growth more potently than sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jia-Hui; Zhao, Cui-Rong; Song, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Rui-Qi; Qin, Yi-Zhuo; Li, Wen-Bao; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-04-01

    1082-39, an analogue of sorafenib, is a derivative of indazole diarylurea. We evaluated the activity of 1082-39 against human cancer cell growth. Its effects and mechanisms of action were then compared with those of sorafenib. The experiments were performed in human melanoma M21 cells. Cell viability was estimated by using the colorimetric assay. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay was used to recognize the apoptotic cells. Further analysis of the mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) was performed by the JC-1 fluorescence probe staining. The levels of apoptotic proteins and kinases related to cancer proliferation were determined by western blotting assay. 1082-39 possessed the activity against cancer cell proliferation with time- and dose-dependent manner. 1082-39 induced M21 cell to apoptosis, showing the increase of annexin V-FITC/PI staining cells, the MMP collapse and releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria. Western blotting analysis showed the activation of the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway, showing the increase of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. Statistical analysis suggested that 1082-39 possessed greater activities than sorafenib in the inhibition of M21 proliferation and induction of apoptosis. These effects of 1082-39 might arise from its activity of regulation the PI3K/Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. 1082-39 is a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that

  20. Reassurance against future risk of precancer and cancer conferred by a negative human papillomavirus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Schiffman, Mark; Katki, Hormuzd A; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Kinney, Walter K

    2014-08-01

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing (without concurrent Pap tests) every 3 years is under consideration in the United States as an alternative to the two recommended cervical cancer screening strategies: primary Pap testing every 3 years, or concurrent Pap and HPV testing ("cotesting") every 5 years. Using logistic regression and Weibull survival models, we estimated and compared risks of cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) for the three strategies among 1011092 women aged 30 to 64 years testing HPV-negative and/or Pap-negative in routine screening at Kaiser Permanente Northern California since 2003. All statistical tests were two sided. Three-year risks following an HPV-negative result were lower than 3-year risks following a Pap-negative result (CIN3+ = 0.069% vs 0.19%, P < .0001; Cancer = 0.011% vs 0.020%, P < .0001) and 5-year risks following an HPV-negative/Pap-negative cotest (CIN3+ = 0.069% vs 0.11%, P < .0001; Cancer = 0.011% vs 0.014%, P = .21). These findings suggest that primary HPV testing merits consideration as another alternative for cervical screening. © Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  1. SL-01, an oral derivative of gemcitabine, inhibited human breast cancer growth through induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Qin, Yi-Zhuo; Wang, Rui-Qi; Li, Wen-Bao; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine. •SL-01 possessed activity against human breast cancer growth via apoptotic induction. •SL-01’s activity was more potently than that of gemcitabine. •SL-01 inhibited cancer growth without toxicity to mice. -- Abstract: SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine that was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl) pyrazine-2-carbonyl at N4-position on cytidine ring of gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on human breast cancer growth. SL-01 significantly inhibited MCF-7 proliferation as estimated by colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry assay indicated the apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. SL-01 modulated the expressions of p-ATM, p53 and p21 and decrease of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 cells. Further experiments were performed in a MCF-7 xenografts mouse model. SL-01 by oral administration strongly inhibited MCF-7 xenografts growth. This effect of SL-01 might arise from its roles in the induction of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the increase of TUNEL staining cells. Western blotting indicated the modulation of apoptotic proteins in SL-01-treated xenografts. During the course of study, there was no evidence of toxicity to mice. In contrast, the decrease of neutrophil cells in peripheral and increase of AST and ALT levels in serum were observed in the gemcitabine-treated mice. Conclusion: SL-01 possessed similar activity against human breast cancer growth with gemcitabine, whereas, with lower toxicity to gemcitabine. SL-01 is a potent oral agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine

  2. Large-Scale Analysis of Network Bistability for Human Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tetsuya; Matsuyama, Shinako; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein interaction and gene regulatory networks are likely to be locked in a state corresponding to a disease by the behavior of one or more bistable circuits exhibiting switch-like behavior. Sets of genes could be over-expressed or repressed when anomalies due to disease appear, and the circuits responsible for this over- or under-expression might persist for as long as the disease state continues. This paper shows how a large-scale analysis of network bistability for various human cancers can identify genes that can potentially serve as drug targets or diagnosis biomarkers. PMID:20628618

  3. Biological relevance of human papillomaviruses in vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halec, Gordana; Alemany, Laia; Quiros, Beatriz; Clavero, Omar; Höfler, Daniela; Alejo, Maria; Quint, Wim; Pawlita, Michael; Bosch, Francesc X; de Sanjose, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    The carcinogenic role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types in the increasing subset of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and vulvar cancer in young women has been established. However, the actual number of vulvar cancer cases attributed to HPV is still imprecisely defined. In an attempt to provide a more precise definition of HPV-driven vulvar cancer, we performed HPV-type-specific E6*I mRNA analyses available for 20 HR-/possible HR (pHR)-HPV types, on tissue samples from 447 cases of vulvar cancer. HPV DNA genotyping was performed using SPF10-LiPA 25 assay due to its high sensitivity in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Data on p16 INK4a expression was available for comparative analysis via kappa statistics. The use of highly sensitive assays covering the detection of HPV mRNA in a broad spectrum of mucosal HPV types resulted in the detection of viral transcripts in 87% of HPV DNA+ vulvar cancers. Overall concordance between HPV mRNA+ and p16 INK4a upregulation (strong, diffuse immunostaining in >25% of tumor cells) was 92% (K=0.625, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.531-0.719). Among these cases, 83% were concordant pairs of HPV mRNA+ and p16 INK4a + and 9% were concordant pairs of HPV mRNA- and p16 INK4a -. Our data confirm the biological role of HR-/pHR-HPV types in the great majority of HPV DNA+ vulvar cancers, resulting in an HPV-attributable fraction of at least 21% worldwide. Most HPV DNA+ vulvar cancers were associated with HPV16 (85%), but a causative role for other, less frequently occurring mucosal HPV types (HPV26, 66, 67, 68, 70 and 73) was also confirmed at the mRNA level for the first time. These findings should be taken into consideration for future screening options as HPV-associated vulvar preneoplastic lesions have increased in incidence in younger women and require different treatment than vulvar lesions that develop from rare autoimmune-related mechanisms in older women.

  4. Estimation of radiation exposure from lung cancer screening program with low-dose computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan [Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with Low-dose Computed Tomography (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer mortality in a high-risk population. Recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) gave a B recommendation for annual LDCT screening for individuals at high-risk. With the promising results, Korea developed lung cancer screening guideline and is planning a pilot study for implementation of national lung cancer screening. With widespread adoption of lung cancer screening with LDCT, there are concerns about harms of screening, including high false-positive rates and radiation exposure. Over the 3 rounds of screening in the NLST, 96.4% of positive results were false-positives. Although the initial screening is performed at low dose, subsequent diagnostic examinations following positive results additively contribute to patient's lifetime exposure. As with implementing a large-scale screening program, there is a lack of established risk assessment about the effect of radiation exposure from long-term screening program. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate cumulative radiation exposure of annual LDCT lung cancer screening program over 20-year period.

  5. Estimated risks and optimistic self-perception of breast cancer risk in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, ChaeWeon; Lee, Suk Jeong

    2013-11-01

    To determine women's perceived personal and comparative risks of breast cancer, and to examine the relationships with risk factors. Despite the increasing incidence of breast cancer in younger women and the availability of screening, women's health behaviors have not advanced accordingly. A cross-sectional survey design utilized a convenience sample of 222 women in their 30s and 40s recruited from community settings in Seoul. Self-administered questionnaire data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, the chi-squared test, and ANOVA. Risk perception levels differed significantly by breast cancer risk factors. Half of the women were optimistic about their breast cancer risk, while perceived personal risk did not reflect women's own risk factors and comparative risk differed only by the practice of clinical breast exam. Women's knowledge and awareness of their breast cancer risk factors need to be improved for appropriate risk perception and health behaviors, and accurate risk estimation could be utilized to educate them in clinical settings. © 2013.

  6. Mathematical simulation for estimating reduction of breast cancer mortality in mass screening using mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Tohru; Tateno, Yukio

    1999-01-01

    In Japan it is considered that mammography should be introduced with physical examination for the mass screening of breast cancer instead of physical examination alone, which is performed at present. Before the introduction of mammography, a mathematical simulation should be performed to show the reduction in breast cancer mortality by mass screening compared with an unscreened population. A mathematical model of cancer screening devised by the authors was used to estimate the number of deaths due to breast cancer (A) in the screened group and those (B) in the unscreened group within the same population. Then the relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (RD) were calculated as (A/B) and (B-A) respectively. Three methods of mass screening were compared: (1) physical examination (1-year interval), (2) mammography with physical examination (1-year interval), (3) mammography with physical examination (2-year interval). The calculated RR values were 0.85 for (1), 0.60 for (2) and 0.69 for (3). Assuming that the incidence of breast cancer was 100/10 5 person-years, the calculated RD values were 3.0, 8.1 and 6.2 persons/10 5 person-years for (1), (2) and (3), respectively. The 95% confidence interval of RR for three methods was over 1.0, and thus the reduction of breast cancer mortality was not statistically significant in the present population. In conclusion, mammography with physical examination may reduce breast cancer mortality in comparison with physical examination alone, but a larger number of women must be screened in order to obtain a significant RR value. (author)

  7. Estimated risk for secondary cancer in the contra-lateral breast following radiation therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Safora; Danielsen, Turi; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To facilitate a discussion about the impact of dose heterogeneity on the risk for secondary contralateral breast (CB) cancer predicted with linear and non linear models associated with primary breast irradiation. Methods and materials. Dose volume statistics of the CB calculated for eight patients using a collapsed cone algorithm were used to predict the excess relative risk (ERR) for cancer induction in CB. Both linear and non-linear models were employed. A sensitivity analysis demonstrating the impact of different parameter values on calculated ERR for the eight patients was also included in this study. Results. A proportionality assumption was established to make the calculations with a linear and non-linear model comparable. ERR of secondary cancer predicted by the linear model varied considerably between the patients, while the predicted ERR for the same patients using the non-linear model showed very small variation. The predicted ERRs by the two models were indistinguishable for small doses, i.e. below ∼3 Gy. The sensitivity analysis showed that the quadratic component of the radiation-induction pre-malignant cell term is negligible for lower dose level. The ERR is highly sensitive to the value of agr1 and agr2. Conclusions. Optimization of breast cancer radiation therapy, where also the risk for radiation induced secondary malignancies in the contralateral breast is taken into account, requires robust and valid risk assessment. The linear dose-risk model does not account for the complexity in the mechanisms underlying the development of secondary malignancies following exposure to radiation; this is particularly important when estimating risk associated with highly heterogeneous dose distributions as is the case in the contralateral breast of women receiving breast cancer irradiation

  8. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Lyraraki, Efrossyni [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10{sup −5} to 837.4 × 10{sup −5} depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10{sup −5}. The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10{sup −5} and 110.3 × 10{sup −5} for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10{sup −5}.Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by

  9. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John; Lyraraki, Efrossyni

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10 −5 to 837.4 × 10 −5 depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10 −5 . The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10 −5 and 110.3 × 10 −5 for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10 −5 .Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by the treatment parameters, organ

  10. Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD): A collection of plants with anti-human cancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Ateeq Ahmed

    2018-01-30

    Several anticancer drugs have been developed from natural products such as plants. Successful experiments in inhibiting the growth of human cancer cell lines using Saudi plants were published over the last three decades. Up to date, there is no Saudi anticancer plants database as a comprehensive source for the interesting data generated from these experiments. Therefore, there was a need for creating a database to collect, organize, search and retrieve such data. As a result, the current paper describes the generation of the Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD). The database contains most of the reported information about the naturally growing Saudi anticancer plants. SACPD comprises the scientific and local names of 91 plant species that grow naturally in Saudi Arabia. These species belong to 38 different taxonomic families. In Addition, 18 species that represent16 family of medicinal plants and are intensively sold in the local markets in Saudi Arabia were added to the database. The website provides interesting details, including plant part containing the anticancer bioactive compounds, plants locations and cancer/cell type against which they exhibit their anticancer activity. Our survey revealed that breast, liver and leukemia were the most studied cancer cell lines in Saudi Arabia with percentages of 27%, 19% and 15%, respectively. The current SACPD represents a nucleus around which more development efforts can expand to accommodate all future submissions about new Saudi plant species with anticancer activities. SACPD will provide an excellent starting point for researchers and pharmaceutical companies who are interested in developing new anticancer drugs. SACPD is available online at https://teeqrani1.wixsite.com/sapd.

  11. Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jung Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP. The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells. These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells.

  12. Organoid Models of Human and Mouse Ductal Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boj, Sylvia F.; Hwang, Chang-Il; Baker, Lindsey A.; Chio, Iok In Christine; Engle, Dannielle D.; Corbo, Vincenzo; Jager, Myrthe; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Tiriac, Hervé; Spector, Mona S.; Gracanin, Ana; Oni, Tobiloba; Yu, Kenneth H.; van Boxtel, Ruben; Huch, Meritxell; Rivera, Keith D.; Wilson, John P.; Feigin, Michael E.; Öhlund, Daniel; Handly-Santana, Abram; Ardito-Abraham, Christine M.; Ludwig, Michael; Elyada, Ela; Alagesan, Brinda; Biffi, Giulia; Yordanov, Georgi N.; Delcuze, Bethany; Creighton, Brianna; Wright, Kevin; Park, Youngkyu; Morsink, Folkert H.M.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Borel Rinkes, Inne H.; Cuppen, Edwin; Hao, Yuan; Jin, Ying; Nijman, Isaac J.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Leach, Steven D.; Pappin, Darryl J.; Hammell, Molly; Klimstra, David S.; Basturk, Olca; Hruban, Ralph H.; Offerhaus, George Johan; Vries, Robert G.J.; Clevers, Hans; Tuveson, David A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies due to its late diagnosis and limited response to treatment. Tractable methods to identify and interrogate pathways involved in pancreatic tumorigenesis are urgently needed. We established organoid models from normal and neoplastic murine and human pancreas tissues. Pancreatic organoids can be rapidly generated from resected tumors and biopsies, survive cryopreservation and exhibit ductal- and disease stage-specific characteristics. Orthotopically transplanted neoplastic organoids recapitulate the full spectrum of tumor development by forming early-grade neoplasms that progress to locally invasive and metastatic carcinomas. Due to their ability to be genetically manipulated, organoids are a platform to probe genetic cooperation. Comprehensive transcriptional and proteomic analyses of murine pancreatic organoids revealed genes and pathways altered during disease progression. The confirmation of many of these protein changes in human tissues demonstrates that organoids are a facile model system to discover characteristics of this deadly malignancy. PMID:25557080

  13. Human Papilloma Virus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvadi Kermani, I; Seifi, SH; Dolatkhah, R; Sakhinia, E; Dastgiri, S; Ebrahimi, A; Lotfy, A; Esmaeili, HA; G, Mohammadi; M, Naderpour; SH, Hajalipour; Haggi A, Asghari; M, Nadri

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic and molecular evidences have established a strong link between high risk types of Human Papilloma Virus and a subgroup of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas (HNSCC). We evaluated the frequency of HPV positivity in HNSCC and its relationship to demographic and some risk factor variables in an open case- control study. Methods Fourteen recently diagnosed patients with squamous cell cancer of oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx aged 18-50 years were examined from 2008-2010 in Tabriz, Iran. HPV DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded blocks of each patient's sample for PCR evaluation. Saliva samples of 94 control cancer-free subjects were collected for DNA analysis. Multivariable logistic regression method was used to calculate odds ratio for case-control comparisons. Results High risk HPV was detected in 6(42.8%) patients, and 6(5.3%) control subjects which was statistically significant (p<0.0001). HPV-18 was the most frequent type both in the cases and controls. HPV-16 DNA was detected in two patients of the case group, but it was not detected in any of the controls. The relation between demographic and risk factor variables was not statistically significant. Conclusion HPV infection has a significant impact on HNSCC. Despite HPV-16 stronger impact, HPV-18 is more likely to cause malignant degeneration in such cancers amongst some communities. It is vital to introduce and conduct immunization schedules in health care systems to protect communities to some extent. PMID:25780535

  14. Defining Driver DNA Methylation Changes in Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd P. Pfeifer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human malignant tumors are characterized by pervasive changes in the patterns of DNA methylation. These changes include a globally hypomethylated tumor cell genome and the focal hypermethylation of numerous 5′-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3′ (CpG islands, many of them associated with gene promoters. It has been challenging to link specific DNA methylation changes with tumorigenesis in a cause-and-effect relationship. Some evidence suggests that cancer-associated DNA hypomethylation may increase genomic instability. Promoter hypermethylation events can lead to silencing of genes functioning in pathways reflecting hallmarks of cancer, including DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, promotion of apoptosis or control of key tumor-relevant signaling networks. A convincing argument for a tumor-driving role of DNA methylation can be made when the same genes are also frequently mutated in cancer. Many of the most commonly hypermethylated genes encode developmental transcription factors, the methylation of which may lead to permanent gene silencing. Inactivation of such genes will deprive the cells in which the tumor may initiate from the option of undergoing or maintaining lineage differentiation and will lock them into a perpetuated stem cell-like state thus providing an additional window for cell transformation.

  15. Current status of immunologic studies in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.L.

    1978-06-01

    Several aspects of the immunology of human malignancy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on relevant findings in lung cancer. The existence of tumor-specific cell-mediated immune responses in patients with cancer has been demonstrated in numerous tumor types. Of more relevance in clinical situations is the association of generalized immunologic depression with malignancy. In the vast majority of cases, progressive declines in both tumor-specific and nonspecific immunologic parameters are observed with advancing disease. The approach to the immunologic evaluation of cancer patients and the potential usefulness of this approach to the diagnosis, prognosis, management, and assessment of therapeutic response are discussed. Evidence aimed at elucidating the mechanism of immunosuppression in malignancy, such as serum-blocking factors, immunoregulatory alpha globulins, and suppressor cells, is presented. Finally, emphasis is placed on the various forms of immunotherapy, including both specific active methods such as tumor cell or tumor antigen vaccines and nonspecific active immunotherapy involving agents like Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and levamisole. Early results from clinical immunotherapeutic trials are discussed.

  16. Targeting telomerase and DNA repair in human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash Hande, M.

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase reactivation is essential for telomere maintenance in human cancer cells ensuring indefinite proliferation. Targeting telomere homeostasis has become one of the promising strategies in the therapeutic management of tumours. One major potential drawback, however, is the time lag between telomerase inhibition and critically shortened telomeres triggering cell death, allowing cancer cells to acquire drug resistance. Numerous studies over the last decade have highlighted the role of DNA repair proteins such as Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) in the maintenance of telomere homoeostasis. Dysfunctional telomeres, resulting from the loss of telomeric DNA repeats or the loss of function of telomere-associated proteins trigger DNA damage responses similar to that observed for double strand breaks. We have been working on unravelling such synthetic lethality in cancer cells and this talk would be on one such recently concluded study that demonstrates that inhibition of DNA repair pathways, i.e., NHEJ pathway and that of telomerase could be an alternative strategy to enhance anti-tumour effects and circumvent the possibility of drug resistance. (author)

  17. Prolactin-inducible proteins in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, R.P.; Iwasiow, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanism of action of prolactin in target cells and the role of prolactin in human breast cancer are poorly understood phenomena. The present study examines the effect of human prolactin (hPRL) on the synthesis of unique proteins by a human breast cancer cell line, T-47D, in serum-free medium containing bovine serum albumin. [ 35 S]Methionine-labeled proteins were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Treatment of cells with hPRL (1-1000 ng/ml) and hydrocortisone (1 microgram/ml) for 36 h or longer resulted in the synthesis and secretion of three proteins having molecular weights of 11,000, 14,000, and 16,000. Neither hPRL nor hydrocortisone alone induced these proteins. Of several other peptide hormones tested, only human growth hormone, a hormone structurally and functionally similar to hPRL, could replace hPRL in causing protein induction. These three proteins were, therefore, referred to as prolactin-inducible proteins (PIP). Each of the three PIPs was purified to homogeneity by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and specific antibodies were generated to them in rabbits. By immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting (Western blot) of proteins secreted by T-47D cells, it was demonstrated that the three PIPs were immunologically identical to one another. In addition, the 16-kDa and 14-kDa proteins (PIP-16 and PIP-14), and not the 11-kDa protein (PIP-11), incorporated [ 3 H]glycosamine. Furthermore, 2-deoxyglucose (2 mM) and tunicamycin (0.5 micrograms/ml), two compounds known to inhibit glycosylation, blocked the production of PIP-16 and PIP-14, with a concomitant increase in the accumulation of PIP-11

  18. Procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes and evaluates several procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. These HEPs are currently needed for several purposes, particularly for probabilistic risk assessments. Data do not exist for estimating these HEPs, so expert judgment can provide these estimates in a timely manner. Five judgmental procedures are described here: paired comparisons, ranking and rating, direct numerical estimation, indirect numerical estimation and multiattribute utility measurement. These procedures are evaluated in terms of several criteria: quality of judgments, difficulty of data collection, empirical support, acceptability, theoretical justification, and data processing. Situational constraints such as the number of experts available, the number of HEPs to be estimated, the time available, the location of the experts, and the resources available are discussed in regard to their implications for selecting a procedure for use

  19. A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Moor Bart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has allowed to molecularly characterize many different cancer sites. This technology has the potential to individualize therapy and to discover new drug targets. However, due to technological differences and issues in standardized sample collection no study has evaluated the molecular profile of epithelial human cancer in a large number of samples and tissues. Additionally, it has not yet been extensively investigated whether metastases resemble their tissue of origin or tissue of destination. Methods We studied the expression profiles of a series of 1566 primary and 178 metastases by unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The clustering profile was subsequently investigated and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Statistical enrichment of clinico-pathological annotations of groups of samples was investigated using Fisher exact test. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and DAVID functional enrichment analysis were used to investigate the molecular pathways. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests were used to investigate prognostic significance of gene signatures. Results Large clusters corresponding to breast, gastrointestinal, ovarian and kidney primary tissues emerged from the data. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma clustered together with follicular differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which supports recent morphological descriptions of thyroid follicular carcinoma-like tumors in the kidney and suggests that they represent a subtype of chromophobe carcinoma. We also found an expression signature identifying primary tumors of squamous cell histology in multiple tissues. Next, a subset of ovarian tumors enriched with endometrioid histology clustered together with endometrium tumors, confirming that they share their etiopathogenesis, which strongly differs from serous ovarian tumors. In addition, the clustering of colon and breast tumors correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics

  20. Clonal composition of human ovarian cancer based on copy number analysis reveals a reciprocal relation with oncogenic mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuko; Ukita, Masayo; Schmidt, Jeanette; Wu, Longyang; De Velasco, Marco A; Roter, Alan; Jevons, Luis; Nishio, Kazuto; Mandai, Masaki

    2017-10-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity of cancer cells remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated the composition of ovarian cancer and its biological relevance. A whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array was applied to detect the clonal composition of 24 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of human ovarian cancer. Genome-wide segmentation data consisting of the log2 ratio (log2R) and B allele frequency (BAF) were used to calculate an estimate of the clonal composition number (CC number) for each tumor. Somatic mutation profiles of cancer-related genes were also determined for the same 24 samples by next-generation sequencing. The CC number was estimated successfully for 23 of the 24 cancer samples. The mean ± SD value for the CC number was 1.7 ± 1.1 (range of 0-4). A somatic mutation in at least one gene was identified in 22 of the 24 ovarian cancer samples, with the mutations including those in the oncogenes KRAS (29.2%), PIK3CA (12.5%), BRAF (8.3%), FGFR2 (4.2%), and JAK2 (4.2%) as well as those in the tumor suppressor genes TP53 (54.2%), FBXW7 (8.3%), PTEN (4.2%), and RB1 (4.2%). Tumors with one or more oncogenic mutations had a significantly lower CC number than did those without such a mutation (1.0 ± 0.8 versus 2.3 ± 0.9, P = 0.0027), suggesting that cancers with driver oncogene mutations are less heterogeneous than those with other mutations. Our results thus reveal a reciprocal relation between oncogenic mutation status and clonal composition in ovarian cancer using the established method for the estimation of the CC number. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-level radiation: a review of current estimates of hazards to human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1977-12-01

    Mankind has always lived with low levels of ionizing radiation from natural sources. This ionizing radiation may induce cancers in irradiated persons and genetic defects in the descendents of irradiated persons. The internationally accepted estimates of risks suggest that the numbers of cancers and genetic defects induced in the general population by natural background radiation are not more than about 1% of the numbers of cancers and genetic defects normally present in the general population. The added risks to the general public due to any prospective nuclear power program are minute compared to those from background radiation. At the maximum permissible levels of radiation exposures for occupational workers, the predicted number of fatal cancers induced would lead to a reduction in average life-span from 73.0 years to about 72.7 years. Since occupational exposures are usually much less than maximum permissible levels, the risks are correspondingly reduced. These occupational risks are comparable to those in most other industries and occupations. Some areas of uncertainty in the accepted risk estimates are discussed in detail in this review. (author)

  2. Roles of the Y chromosome genes in human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Kido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male and female differ genetically by their respective sex chromosome composition, that is, XY as male and XX as female. Although both X and Y chromosomes evolved from the same ancestor pair of autosomes, the Y chromosome harbors male-specific genes, which play pivotal roles in male sex determination, germ cell differentiation, and masculinization of various tissues. Deletions or translocation of the sex-determining gene, SRY, from the Y chromosome causes disorders of sex development (previously termed as an intersex condition with dysgenic gonads. Failure of gonadal development results not only in infertility, but also in increased risks of germ cell tumor (GCT, such as gonadoblastoma and various types of testicular GCT. Recent studies demonstrate that either loss of Y chromosome or ectopic expression of Y chromosome genes is closely associated with various male-biased diseases, including selected somatic cancers. These observations suggest that the Y-linked genes are involved in male health and diseases in more frequently than expected. Although only a small number of protein-coding genes are present in the male-specific region of Y chromosome, the impacts of Y chromosome genes on human diseases are still largely unknown, due to lack of in vivo models and differences between the Y chromosomes of human and rodents. In this review, we highlight the involvement of selected Y chromosome genes in cancer development in men.

  3. [High oncogenic risk human papillomavirus and urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, O B; Sinyakova, L A; Gundorova, L V; Kosov, V A; Kosova, I V; Pogodina, I E; Kolbasov, D N

    2017-07-01

    To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) of high oncogenic risk in the development of urinary bladder cancer. 100 patients (72 men and 28 women) aged 38 to 90 years (mean age 65+/-10 years) diagnosed with bladder cancer were examined and underwent treatment. Clinical assessment was complemented by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antiviral antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), urethra scraping for detecting high oncogenic risk HPV. Tumor tissue was sampled for PCR virus detection. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to evaluate the components of lymphocyte-plasmocyte and leukocyte infiltrates and cytopathic changes in tumor tissue. There were positive correlations between cytopathic cell changes (koylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions, as manifestations of HPV) and the level of antiviral antibodies, the presence of viruses in the tumor, as well as with the components of the lymphoid-plasmocyte infiltrate. Negative correlations were found between the presence of papillomatosis and the above changes. Human papillomavirus is believed to be a trigger for the initiation of a tumor in young patients with a latent infection (CMV and EBV, HSV, HPV). Cytopathic changes (kylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions) were associated with the activity and morphological features of herpes-viral infections. Their degree varied depending on the stage of the process, but not on the anaplasia degree. Papillomatosis is associated with a more favorable course of the tumor process.

  4. Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprakaisang, Siriporn; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2013-09-01

    Glyphosate is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide and it is believed to be less toxic than other pesticides. However, several recent studies showed its potential adverse health effects to humans as it may be an endocrine disruptor. This study focuses on the effects of pure glyphosate on estrogen receptors (ERs) mediated transcriptional activity and their expressions. Glyphosate exerted proliferative effects only in human hormone-dependent breast cancer, T47D cells, but not in hormone-independent breast cancer, MDA-MB231 cells, at 10⁻¹² to 10⁻⁶M in estrogen withdrawal condition. The proliferative concentrations of glyphosate that induced the activation of estrogen response element (ERE) transcription activity were 5-13 fold of control in T47D-KBluc cells and this activation was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist, ICI 182780, indicating that the estrogenic activity of glyphosate was mediated via ERs. Furthermore, glyphosate also altered both ERα and β expression. These results indicated that low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity. Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for soybean cultivation, and our results also found that there was an additive estrogenic effect between glyphosate and genistein, a phytoestrogen in soybeans. However, these additive effects of glyphosate contamination in soybeans need further animal study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential Therapeutic Roles of Tanshinone IIA in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chun Chiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA, one of the major lipophilic components isolated from the root of Salviae Miltiorrhizae, has been found to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cells. We have demonstrated that Tan-IIA induces apoptosis in several human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways. Here we explored the anticancer effect of Tan-IIA in human bladder cancer cell lines. Our results showed that Tan-IIA caused bladder cancer cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tan-IIA induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in these bladder cancer cells. Tan-IIA also suppressed the migration of bladder cancer cells as revealed by the wound healing and transwell assays. Finally, combination therapy of Tan-IIA with a lower dose of cisplatin successfully killed bladder cancer cells, suggesting that Tan-IIA can serve as a potential anti-cancer agent in bladder cancer.

  6. Attributable causes of cancer in Japan in 2005--systematic assessment to estimate current burden of cancer attributable to known preventable risk factors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Sawada, N; Matsuda, T; Iwasaki, M; Sasazuki, S; Shimazu, T; Shibuya, K; Tsugane, S

    2012-05-01

    To contribute to evidence-based policy decision making for national cancer control, we conducted a systematic assessment to estimate the current burden of cancer attributable to known preventable risk factors in Japan in 2005. We first estimated the population attributable fractions (PAFs) of each cancer attributable to known risk factors from relative risks derived primarily from Japanese pooled analyses and large-scale cohort studies and the prevalence of exposure in the period around 1990. Using nationwide vital statistics records and incidence estimates, we then estimated the attributable cancer incidence and mortality in 2005. In 2005, ≈ 55% of cancer among men was attributable to preventable risk factors in Japan. The corresponding figure was lower among women, but preventable risk factors still accounted for nearly 30% of cancer. In men, tobacco smoking had the highest PAF (30% for incidence and 35% for mortality, respectively) followed by infectious agents (23% and 23%). In women, in contrast, infectious agents had the highest PAF (18% and 19% for incidence and mortality, respectively) followed by tobacco smoking (6% and 8%). In Japan, tobacco smoking and infections are major causes of cancer. Further control of these factors will contribute to substantial reductions in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan.

  7. Ribosomopathy-like properties of murine and human cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucheta Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Ribosomopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of hematologic and developmental disorders, often characterized by bone marrow failure, skeletal and other developmental abnormalities and cancer predisposition. They are associated with mutations and/or haplo-insufficiencies of ribosomal proteins (RPs and inefficient ribosomal RNA (rRNA processing. The resulting ribosomal stress induces the canonical p19ARF/Mdm2/p53 tumor suppressor pathway leading to proliferative arrest and/or apoptosis. It has been proposed that this pathway is then inactivated during subsequent neoplastic evolution. We show here that two murine models of hepatoblastoma (HB and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC unexpectedly possess features that mimic the ribosomopathies. These include loss of the normal stoichiometry of RP transcripts and proteins and the accumulation of unprocessed rRNA precursors. Silencing of p19ARF, cytoplasmic sequestration of p53, binding to and inactivation of Mdm2 by free RPs, and up-regulation of the pro-survival protein Bcl-2 may further cooperate to drive tumor growth and survival. Consistent with this notion, re-instatement of constitutive p19ARF expression in the HB model completely suppressed tumorigenesis. In >2000 cases of human HCC, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer, RP transcript deregulation was a frequent finding. In HCC and breast cancer, the severity of this dysregulation was associated with inferior survival. In HCC, the presence of RP gene mutations, some of which were identical to those previously reported in ribosomopathies, were similarly negatively correlated with long-term survival. Taken together, our results indicate that many if not all cancers possess ribosomopathy-like features that may affect their biological behaviors.

  8. Hierarchical graphical-based human pose estimation via local multi-resolution convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aichun; Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses the problems of the graphical-based human pose estimation in still images, including the diversity of appearances and confounding background clutter. We present a new architecture for estimating human pose using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Firstly, a Relative Mixture Deformable Model (RMDM) is defined by each pair of connected parts to compute the relative spatial information in the graphical model. Secondly, a Local Multi-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (LMR-CNN) is proposed to train and learn the multi-scale representation of each body parts by combining different levels of part context. Thirdly, a LMR-CNN based hierarchical model is defined to explore the context information of limb parts. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed deep learning approach for human pose estimation.

  9. Hierarchical graphical-based human pose estimation via local multi-resolution convolutional neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aichun Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems of the graphical-based human pose estimation in still images, including the diversity of appearances and confounding background clutter. We present a new architecture for estimating human pose using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN. Firstly, a Relative Mixture Deformable Model (RMDM is defined by each pair of connected parts to compute the relative spatial information in the graphical model. Secondly, a Local Multi-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (LMR-CNN is proposed to train and learn the multi-scale representation of each body parts by combining different levels of part context. Thirdly, a LMR-CNN based hierarchical model is defined to explore the context information of limb parts. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed deep learning approach for human pose estimation.

  10. The impact of advances in human molecular biology on radiation genetic risk estimation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the conceptual framework, the data base, methods and assumptions used thus far to assess the genetic risks of exposure of human populations to ionising radiation. These are then re-examined in the contemporary context of the rapidly expanding knowledge of the molecular biology of human mendelian diseases. This re-examination reveals that (i) many of the assumptions used thus far in radiation genetic risk estimation may not be fully valid and (ii) the current genetic risk estimates are probably conservative, but provide an adequate margin of safety for radiological protection. The view is expressed that further advances in the field of genetic risk estimation will be largely driven by advances in the molecular biology of human genetic diseases. (author). 37 refs., 5 tabs

  11. Use of health plan data to estimate cost and outcomes of a breast cancer population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To compare insurance billing data with tumor registry data for estimating date of diagnosis and date of recurrence. To collect and estimate cost of treatment from billing data as a step towards performing cost-effective or cost-utility analysis. To correlate first year treatment cost first year with overall cost to enable the former to serve as a proxy for the latter for patients migrating out of insurance plans. Materials and Methods: Billing data for patients(pts.) diagnosed with breast cancer between 1990-1992 was obtained from Paramount Health Plans, a NCQA accredited health plan in Northwest Ohio. Tumor registry and hospital records were surveyed for the clinical data. Total cost of care received by pts., cost of care associated with treatment of breast cancer, and cost of care billed as breast cancer care was collected for each 12 month period from the date of diagnosis. Costs were measured from a payers, i.e. health plans, perspective. Net present value (NPV) costs discounted at a rate of 3% to the year of diagnosis are reported. Pts. were considered in the plan for the entire duration of the study if they were in the plan from the time of diagnosis to the end of the analysis, (12(96)). Students t-test was used to determined statistical differences between groups analyzed. Results: Paramount Health Plan was a small health plan with approximately 10,000-13,000 female enrolees during the study period. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 21 women during 1990-1992 with 18 pts. diagnosed while in the insurance plan and 3 diagnosed prior to entry into the plan. (12(18)) pts. were in the plan for the entire duration of the study. The mean deviation for the date of diagnosis as recorded from tumor registry data, compared to the first date that a diagnosis of breast cancer appears on the billing record is 18 days (range:0-158). Four pts. experienced a recurrence. A determination of a recurrence from insurance records was only possible in (1(4)) pts. who

  12. ESTIMATION OF SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED OVARIAN CANCER – ABSTRACT OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Smrkolj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morbidity and mortality caused by cancer persist to be an important health problem world- wide and in the European Union member states as well. In Slovenia, most ovarian cancer cases are detected in advanced stages, hence a rather high mortality rate. Aims: The purpose of this research project is to analyze the primary cytoreduction in the patients with advanced ovarian cancer. The main objective of the project is to assess the use of lap- aroscopy in the prediction of optimal cytoreduction in these patients. Applicative research project ‘Estimation of survial in patients with advanced ovarian can- cer based on primary laparoscopical assessment of optimal cytoreduction’ (L3-2371 was approved and has been financed by the Slovene Research Agency and co-financed by the Ministry of Health of RS; Duration: May 1, 2009–April 30, 2012. Methods: The research project will consist of retrospective and prospective study. In all the patients with advanced ovarian cancer managed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecol- ogy, University Medical Centre Ljubljana in the years 2003–2008, and in whom optimal primary cytoreduction was made using either laparoscopy or laparotomy, certain clinical and pathomorphological factors will be compared, and the effects of all analyzed factors on the outcome of treatment assessed. In the prospective study, we will aim at assessing the use of laparoscopy in the prediction of optimal cytoreduction in all newly detected cases using a laparoscopy-based score (Fagotti’s scoring system. Conclusions: The standard management of advanced ovarian cancer patients consists of primary surgical optimal and/or suboptimal cytoreduction followed by aggressive cytotoxic chemotherapy. In line with our experience and with that published most recently, laparoscopy seems to be a promising method with which we will attempt to most accurately assess the optimal cytoreduction in surgical treatment of ovarian cancer patients.

  13. Impact of work-related cancers in Taiwan-Estimation with QALY (quality-adjusted life year) and healthcare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Hung, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-12-01

    This study estimates the annual numbers of eight work-related cancers, total losses of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and lifetime healthcare expenditures that possibly could be saved by improving occupational health in Taiwan. Three databases were interlinked: the Taiwan Cancer Registry, the National Mortality Registry, and the National Health Insurance Research Database. Annual numbers of work-related cancers were estimated based on attributable fractions (AFs) abstracted from a literature review. The survival functions for eight cancers were estimated and extrapolated to lifetime using a semi-parametric method. A convenience sample of 8846 measurements of patients' quality of life with EQ-5D was collected for utility values and multiplied by survival functions to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALEs). The loss-of-QALE was obtained by subtracting the QALE of cancer from age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national vital statistics. The lifetime healthcare expenditures were estimated by multiplying the survival probability with mean monthly costs paid by the National Health Insurance for cancer diagnosis and treatment and summing this for the expected lifetime. A total of 3010 males and 726 females with eight work-related cancers were estimated in 2010. Among them, lung cancer ranked first in terms of QALY loss, with an annual total loss-of-QALE of 28,463 QALYs and total lifetime healthcare expenditures of US$36.6 million. Successful prevention of eight work-related cancers would not only avoid the occurrence of 3736 cases of cancer, but would also save more than US$70 million in healthcare costs and 46,750 QALYs for the Taiwan society in 2010.

  14. Screening effects on thyroid cancer risk estimates for populations affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J. C.; Vavilov, S.E.; Bogdanova, T.; Tronko, N. D.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftemath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the influence of the introduction of ultrasound devices and enhanced medical surveillance on the detection and reporting of thyroid cancer cases was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of one million children in a total of 744 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The dose distributions simulate the distributions similar to those used in previous ecologic studies of the thyroid cancer risk in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. The ecologic bias was defined as the ratio of risk coefficients derived from an ecological study to the corresponding risk factor in the underlying risl model. the ecologic bias was estimated for each of the screening scenarios. Analytical equations were derived that allow the exact numerical compuation of the bias which is determined by covariance terms between the increased detection and reporting on one side and thyroid dose values (individual and averaged for the settlements) on the other side. Nested in th epopulation data, a cohort study was simulated with 10 000 individuals and an average thyroid dose of 0.3 Gy. the present study underlines the different scopes of the ecologic and cohort study designs perfomed in the aftermed of the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the ecologic studies give an estimate of the excess thyroid cancer risks per unit dose under the conditions of a health care system as it is typical for the affected countries after the Chernobyl accident, the cohort study gives risk estimates within a well screened cohort. Due to the strong screening effects, excess absoulte risks in the ecological study cohort are

  15. Imitation of human expressions based on emotion estimation by mental simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Horii Takato; Nagai Yukie; Asada Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Humans can express their own emotion and estimate the emotional states of others during communication. This paper proposes a unified model that can estimate the emotional states of others and generate emotional self-expressions. The proposed model utilizes a multimodal restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) —a type of stochastic neural network. RBMs can abstract latent information from input signals and reconstruct the signals from it. We use these two characteristics to r...

  16. Parameters Estimation For A Patellofemoral Joint Of A Human Knee Using A Vector Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszkiewicz, A.; Knapczyk, J.

    2015-08-01

    Position and displacement analysis of a spherical model of a human knee joint using the vector method was presented. Sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation were performed using the evolutionary algorithm method. Computer simulations for the mechanism with estimated parameters proved the effectiveness of the prepared software. The method itself can be useful when solving problems concerning the displacement and loads analysis in the knee joint.

  17. Bomb survivor selection and consequences for estimates of population cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Charles, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Health records of the Japanese bomb survivor population [with the 1965 (T65D) and 1986 (DS86) dosimetry systems] have been analyzed and some evidence found for the selection effect hypothesized by Stewart and Kneale. This is found to be significant in only the first of the periods examined (1950-1958), and the effect diminishes in magnitude thereafter. There are indications that the effect might be an artifact of the T65D dosimetry, in which it is observed more strongly than in the DS86 data. There is no evidence to suggest that selection on this basis might confer correspondingly reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer. If, however, one makes this assumption, as suggested by Stewart and Kneale, then current estimates of population cancer risks might need to be inflated by between 5% and 35% (for excess cancer deaths, Gy-1) or between 8% and 40% (for years of life lost, Gy-1) to account for this. It is likely that these figures, even assuming them not to be simply an artifact of the T65D dosimetry, overestimate the degree of adjustment required to the risk estimates

  18. Long-term survival outcomes in patients with surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer and defined human papilloma virus status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, O T; Sood, S; Shah, K A; Han, C; Rapozo, D; Mehanna, H; Winter, S C

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated long-term survival outcomes in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients with known human papilloma virus status. A case note review was performed of all patients undergoing primary surgery for oropharyngeal cancer in a single centre over a 10-year period. Human papilloma virus status was determined via dual modality testing. Associations between clinicopathological variables and survival were identified using a log-rank test. Of the 107 cases in the study, 40 per cent (n = 41) were human papilloma virus positive. The positive and negative predictive values of p16 immunohistochemistry for human papilloma virus status were 57 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively. At a mean follow up of 59.5 months, 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates were 78 per cent and 69 per cent, respectively. Human papilloma virus status (p = 0.014), smoking status (p = 0.021) and tumour stage (p = 0.03) were significant prognostic indicators. The long-term survival rates in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients were comparable to other studies. Variables including human papilloma virus status and tumour stage were associated with survival in patients treated with primary surgery; however, nodal stage and presence of extracapsular spread were non-prognostic.

  19. Comparing NASA and ESA Cost Estimating Methods for Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; vanPelt, Michel O.

    2004-01-01

    To compare working methodologies between the cost engineering functions in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ESA European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), as well as to set-up cost engineering capabilities for future manned Mars projects and other studies which involve similar subsystem technologies in MSFC and ESTEC, a demonstration cost estimate exercise was organized. This exercise was a direct way of enhancing not only cooperation between agencies but also both agencies commitment to credible cost analyses. Cost engineers in MSFC and ESTEC independently prepared life-cycle cost estimates for a reference human Mars project and subsequently compared the results and estimate methods in detail. As a non-sensitive, public domain reference case for human Mars projects, the Mars Direct concept was chosen. In this paper the results of the exercise are shown; the differences and similarities in estimate methodologies, philosophies, and databases between MSFC and ESTEC, as well as the estimate results for the Mars Direct concept. The most significant differences are explained and possible estimate improvements identified. In addition, the Mars Direct plan and the extensive cost breakdown structure jointly set-up by MSFC and ESTEC for this concept are presented. It was found that NASA applied estimate models mainly based on historic Apollo and Space Shuttle cost data, taking into account the changes in technology since then. ESA used models mostly based on European satellite and launcher cost data, taking into account the higher equipment and testing standards for human space flight. Most of NASA's and ESA s estimates for the Mars Direct case are comparable, but there are some important, consistent differences in the estimates for: 1) Large Structures and Thermal Control subsystems; 2) System Level Management, Engineering, Product Assurance and Assembly, Integration and Test/Verification activities; 3) Mission Control; 4) Space Agency Program Level

  20. Bioanalytical HPTLC Method for Estimation of Zolpidem Tartrate from Human Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Abhay R. Shirode; Bharti G. Jadhav; Vilasrao J. Kadam

    2016-01-01

    A simple and selective high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of zolpidem tartrate from human plasma using eperisone hydrochloride as an internal standard (IS). Analyte and IS were extracted from human plasma by liquid liquid extraction (LLE) technique. The Camag HPTLC system, employed with software winCATS (ver.1.4.1.8) was used for the proposed bioanalytical work. Planar chromatographic development was carried out with the h...

  1. Robustness of Input features from Noisy Silhouettes in Human Pose Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Fihl, Preben; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, we explore this problem. First, We compare performances of several image features widely used for human pose estimation and explore their performances against each other and select one with best performance. Second, iterative closest point algorithm is introduced for a new quantitative...... of silhouette samples of different noise levels and compare with the selected feature on a public dataset: Human Eva dataset....

  2. Human processor modelling language (HPML): Estimate working memory load through interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, J.; Scheben, C.

    2007-01-01

    To operate machines over their user interface may cause high load on human's working memory. This load can decrease performance in the working task significantly if this task is a cognitive challenging one, e. g. diagnosis. With the »Human Processor Modelling Language« (HPML) the interaction activity can be modelled with a directed graph. From such models a condensed indicator value for working memory load can be estimated. Thus different user interface solutions can get compared with respect...

  3. Gene expression analysis in human breast cancer associated blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan T Jones

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5-72 fold in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of

  4. Annual national direct and indirect cost estimates of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Itria, Alexander; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Rama, Cristina Helena; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil. METHODS: This cost description study used a "gross-costing" methodology and adopted the health system and societal perspectives. The estimates were grouped into sets of procedures performed in phases of cervical cancer care: the screening, diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions and the treatment of cervical cancer. The costs were estimated for the public and private health systems, using data from national health information systems, population surveys, and literature reviews. The cost estimates are presented in 2006 USD. RESULTS: From the societal perspective, the estimated total costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer amounted to USD $1,321,683,034, which was categorized as follows: procedures (USD $213,199,490), visits (USD $325,509,842), transportation (USD $106,521,537) and productivity losses (USD $676,452,166). Indirect costs represented 51% of the total costs, followed by direct medical costs (visits and procedures) at 41% and direct non-medical costs (transportation) at 8%. The public system represented 46% of the total costs, and the private system represented 54%. CONCLUSION: Our national cost estimates of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, indicating the economic importance of cervical cancer screening and care, will be useful in monitoring the effect of the HPV vaccine introduction and are of interest in research and health care management. PMID:26017797

  5. Modulation of TIP60 by Human Papilloma Virus in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    1 AG________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0687 Title Modulation of TIP60 by Human Papilloma Virus in Breast Cancer... Human Papilloma Virus in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 1 H 11 1 06 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Betty Diamond 5d. PROJECT...virus (EBV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human Papilloma virus (HPV), Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and Kaposi’s

  6. Some statistical considerations related to the estimation of cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Pierce, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical theory and methodology provide the logical structure for scientific inference about the cancer risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. Although much is known about radiation carcinogenesis, the risk associated with low-level exposures is difficult to assess because it is too small to measure directly. Estimation must therefore depend upon mathematical models which relate observed risks at high exposure levels to risks at lower exposure levels. Extrapolated risk estimates obtained using such models are heavily dependent upon assumptions about the shape of the dose-response relationship, the temporal distribution of risk following exposure, and variation of risk according to variables such as age at exposure, sex, and underlying population cancer rates. Expanded statistical models, which make explicit certain assumed relationships between different data sets, can be used to strengthen inferences by incorporating relevant information from diverse sources. They also allow the uncertainties inherent in information from related data sets to be expressed in estimates which partially depend upon that information. To the extent that informed opinion is based upon a valid assessment of scientific data, the larger context of decision theory, which includes statistical theory, provides a logical framework for the incorporation into public policy decisions of the informational content of expert opinion

  7. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 1 of this report provides a brief overview of the background of the project, the procedure for using psychological scaling techniques to generate HEP estimates and conclusions from evaluation of the techniques. Results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. In addition, HEP estimates for 35 tasks related to boiling water reactors (BMRs) were obtained as part of the evaluation. These HEP estimates are also included in the report

  8. Clarifying the impact of polycomb complex component disruption in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiya; Abe, Akihiro; Emi, Nobuhiko

    2014-04-01

    The dysregulation of proper transcriptional control is a major cause of developmental diseases and cancers. Polycomb proteins form chromatin-modifying complexes that transcriptionally silence genome regions in higher eukaryotes. The BCL6 corepressor (BCOR) complex comprises ring finger protein 1B (RNF2/RING1B), polycomb group ring finger 1 (PCGF1), and lysine-specific demethylase 2B (KDM2B) and is uniquely recruited to nonmethylated CpG islands, where it removes histone H3K36me2 and induces repressive histone H2A monoubiquitylation. Germline BCOR mutations have been detected in patients with oculofaciocardiodental and Lenz microphthalmia syndromes, which are inherited conditions. Recently, several variants of BCOR and BCOR-like 1 (BCORL1) chimeric fusion transcripts were reported in human cancers, including acute promyelocytic leukemia, bone sarcoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, massively parallel sequencing has identified inactivating somatic BCOR and BCORL1 mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, medulloblastoma, and retinoblastoma. More importantly, patients with AML and MDS with BCOR mutations exhibit poor prognosis. This perspective highlights the detection of BCOR mutations and fusion transcripts of BCOR and BCORL1 and discusses their importance for diagnosing cancer subtypes and estimating the treatment responses of patients. Furthermore, this perspective proposes the need for additional functional studies to clarify the oncogenic mechanism by which BCOR and BCORL1 are disrupted in cancers, and how this may lead to the development of novel therapeutics. Mol Cancer Res; 12(4); 479-84. ©2014 AACR.

  9. Prevalence and Predictors of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination among Young Women Surviving Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L.; Favaro, Brianne; Peck, Kelly R.; Simmons, Jessica L.; Russell, Kathryn M.; Green, Daniel M.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection and the cause of cervical and other cancers. Vaccination is available to protect against genital HPV and is recommended for individuals aged 9-26 years. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HPV vaccination among childhood cancer survivors and to identify factors associated with vaccine outcomes. Methods Young adult females with (n = 114; M age =21.18 years, SD =2.48) and without (n = 98; M age = 20.65 years, SD = 2.29) a childhood cancer history completed surveys querying HPV vaccination initiation/completion, as well as sociodemographic, medical, and health belief factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vaccine outcomes. Results Among survivors, 38.6% (44/114) and 26.3% (30/114) initiated or completed vaccination compared to 44.9% (44/98) and 28.6% (28/98) among controls, respectively. In the combined survivor/control group, physician recommendation (OR = 11.24, 95% CI, 3.15 – 40.14), and familial HPV communication (OR = 7.28, 95% CI, 1.89 – 28.05) associated with vaccine initiation. Perceptions of vaccine benefit associated with vaccine completion (OR = 10.55, 95% CI, 1.59 – 69.92), whereas perceptions of HPV-related severity associated with non-completion (OR = 0.14, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.71). Conclusion Despite their increased risk for HPV-related complication, a minority of childhood cancer survivors have initiated or completed HPV vaccination. Modifiable factors associating with vaccine outcomes were identified. Implications HPV vaccination is a useful tool for cancer prevention in survivorship, and interventions to increase vaccine uptake are warranted. PMID:26572902

  10. Human prostatic cancer cells, PC3, elaborate mitogenic activity which selectively stimulates human bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkel, V.S.; Mohan, S.; Herring, S.J.; Baylink, D.J.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Prostatic cancer typically produces osteoblastic metastases which are not attended by marrow fibrosis. In the present study we sought to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer cells produce factor(s) which act selectively on human osteoblasts. Such a paracrine mechanism would explain the observed increase in osteoblasts, unaccompanied by an increase in marrow fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis we investigated the mitogenic activity released by the human prostatic tumor cell line, PC3. PC3 cells have been reported previously to produce mitogenic activity for cells that was relatively specific for rat osteoblasts compared to rat fibroblasts. However, the effects of this activity on human cells has not been examined previously. PC3-conditioned medium (CM) (5-50 micrograms CM protein/ml) stimulated human osteoblast proliferation by 200-950% yet did not stimulate human fibroblast proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation). PC3 CM also increased cell numbers in human osteoblast but not fibroblast cell cultures. To determine whether the osteoblast-specific mitogenic activity could be attributed to known bone growth factors, specific assays for these growth factors were performed. PC3 CM contained 10 pg insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, less than 2 pg IGF II, 54 pg basic fibroblast growth factor, and 16 pg transforming growth factor beta/microgram CM protein. None of these growth factors alone or in combination could account for the observed osteoblast-specific PC3 cell-derived mitogenic activity. Furthermore, when 5 micrograms/ml PC3 CM was tested in combination with maximally effective concentrations of either basic fibroblast growth factor, IGF I, IGF II, or transforming growth factor beta, it produced an additive effect suggesting that PC3 CM stimulates osteoblast proliferation by a mechanism independent of these bone mitogens

  11. Anti-cancer effects of bioactive compounds from rose hip fruit in human breast cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Lijie

    2017-01-01

    Rose hips have long been used in human diets as a food ingredient and supplement. Their multiple medical properties, which have been attributed to their abundant carotenoid composition, have attracted widespread scientific attention. This thesis examined the carotenoid composition in rose hips from five rose species. The anti-cancer effect of different carotenoid fractions from rose hips was investigated in human breast cancer cell lines, using the natural variation in carotenoid content in h...

  12. Cardiac dose estimates from Danish and Swedish breast cancer radiotherapy during 1977-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Carolyn W.; Bronnum, Dorthe; Darby, Sarah C.; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Hall, Per; Jensen, Maj-Britt; McGale, Paul; Nisbet, Andrew; Ewertz, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To estimate target and cardiac doses from breast cancer radiotherapy in Denmark and in the Stockholm and Umea areas of Sweden during 1977-2001. Methods: Representative samples of irradiated women were identified from the databases of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and the Swedish Nationwide Cancer Registry. Virtual simulation, computed tomography planning and manual planning were used to reconstruct radiotherapy regimens on a typical woman. Estimates of target dose and various measures of cardiac dose were derived from individual radiotherapy charts. Results: Doses were estimated in 681 Danish and 130 Swedish women. Mean heart dose for individual women varied from 1.6 to 14.9 Gray in Denmark and from 1.2 to 22.1 Gray in Sweden. In Denmark, mean target doses averaged across women increased from 40.6 to 53.8 Gray during 1977-2001 but, despite this, mean heart dose averaged across women remained around 6 Gy for left-sided and 2-3 Gray for right-sided radiotherapy. In Sweden mean target dose averaged across women increased from 38.7 to 46.6 Gray during 1977-2001, while mean heart dose averaged across women decreased from 12.0 to 7.3 Gray for left-sided and from 3.6 to 3.2 Gray for right-sided radiotherapy. Temporal trends for mean biologically effective dose [BED] to the heart, mean dose to the left anterior descending coronary artery, the right coronary artery and the circumflex coronary artery were broadly similar. Conclusions: Cardiac doses in Denmark were low relative to those in Sweden. In both countries, target dose increased during 1977-2001. Despite this, cardiac doses remained constant in Denmark and decreased in Sweden.

  13. Establishing the pig as a large animal model for vaccine development against human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Welner, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has increased overall survival of metastatic cancer patients, and cancer antigens are promising vaccine targets. To fulfill the promise, appropriate tailoring of the vaccine formulations to mount in vivo cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses toward co-delivered cancer antigens is essential...... and the porcine immunome is closer related to the human counterpart, we here introduce pigs as a supplementary large animal model for human cancer vaccine development. IDO and RhoC, both important in human cancer development and progression, were used as vaccine targets and 12 pigs were immunized with overlapping......C-derived peptides across all groups with no adjuvant being superior. These findings support the further use of pigs as a large animal model for vaccine development against human cancer....

  14. Microbiota dysbiosis in select human cancers: Evidence of association and causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Domingue, Jada C; Sears, Cynthia L

    2017-08-01

    The human microbiota is a complex ecosystem of diverse microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing predominantly in epidermal and mucosal habitats across the body, such as skin, oral cavity, lung, intestine and vagina. These symbiotic communities in health, or dysbiotic communities in disease, display tremendous interaction with the local environment and systemic responses, playing a critical role in the host's nutrition, immunity, metabolism and diseases including cancers. While the profiling of normal microbiota in healthy populations is useful and necessary, more recent studies have focused on the microbiota associated with disease, particularly cancers. In this paper, we review current evidence on the role of the human microbiota in four cancer types (colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer) proposed as affected by both the oral and gut microbiota, and provide a perspective on current gaps in the knowledge of the microbiota and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 99MTC Alpha-Fetoprotein: A Novel, Specific Agent for the Detection of Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Line, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    .... We have demonstrated that technetium-99m radiolabeled human alpha-fetoprotein (99mTc AFP) localizes in human breast cancer cells in-vivo, most likely concentrating in breast cancer cells due to a specific receptor not found in normal adult breast tissue...

  16. 99MTC Alpha-Fetoprotein: A Novel, Specific Agent for the Detection of Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Line, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    .... We have demonstrated that technetium-99m radiolabeled human alpha-fetoprotein (99mTc AFP) localizes in human breast cancer cells in-vivo, most likely concentrating in breast cancer cells due to a specific receptor not found in normal adult breast tissue...

  17. Rhein induces apoptosis of HCT-116 human colon cancer cells via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhein, a major compound in rhubarb, has been found to have anti-tumor properties in many human cancer cells. However, the details about rhein suppressing the growth of human colon cancer cells remained elusive. In this paper, we explored the potential of rhein as a chemotherapeutic agent on HCT- 116 cells and ...

  18. Apoptosis induced by GanoPoly in human gastric cancer cell line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate polysaccharide effect on the cultured human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901), DNA ladder, flow cytometry and western blot were used to examine the morpholog, proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells when they were affected by polysaccharide. Results show that ...

  19. Estimating the cost of skin cancer detection by dermatology providers in a large health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Martha; Secrest, Aaron; Anderson, Alyce; Saul, Melissa I; Ho, Jonhan; Kirkwood, John M; Ferris, Laura K

    2018-04-01

    Data on the cost and efficiency of skin cancer detection through total body skin examination are scarce. To determine the number needed to screen (NNS) and biopsy (NNB) and cost per skin cancer diagnosed in a large dermatology practice in patients undergoing total body skin examination. This is a retrospective observational study. During 2011-2015, a total of 20,270 patients underwent 33,647 visits for total body skin examination; 9956 lesion biopsies were performed yielding 2763 skin cancers, including 155 melanomas. The NNS to detect 1 skin cancer was 12.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.7-12.6) and 1 melanoma was 215 (95% CI 185-252). The NNB to detect 1 skin cancer was 3.0 (95% CI 2.9-3.1) and 1 melanoma was 27.8 (95% CI 23.3-33.3). In a multivariable model for NNS, age and personal history of melanoma were significant factors. Age switched from a protective factor to a risk factor at 51 years of age. The estimated cost per melanoma detected was $32,594 (95% CI $27,326-$37,475). Data are from a single health care system and based on physician coding. Melanoma detection through total body skin examination is most efficient in patients ≥50 years of age and those with a personal history of melanoma. Our findings will be helpful in modeling the cost effectiveness of melanoma screening by dermatologists. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation Using Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Kontos, Despina; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture has been shown to correlate with genetic markers of developing breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique in which tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple source projections acquired at different angles of the x-ray tube. Compared to digital mammography (DM), DBT eliminates breast tissue overlap, offering superior parenchymal tissue visualization. We hypothesize that texture analysis in DBT could potentially provide a better assessment of parenchymal texture and ultimately result in more accurate assessment of breast cancer risk. As a first step towards validating this hypothesis, we investigated the association between DBT parenchymal texture and breast percent density (PD), a known breast cancer risk factor, and compared it to DM. Bilateral DBT and DM images from 71 women participating in a breast cancer screening trial were analyzed. Filtered-backprojection was used to reconstruct DBT tomographic planes in 1 mm increments with 0.22 mm in-plane resolution. Corresponding DM images were acquired at 0.1 mm pixel resolution. Retroareolar regions of interest (ROIs) equivalent to 2.5 cm 3 were segmented from the DBT images and corresponding 2.5 cm 2 ROIs were segmented from the DM images. Breast PD was mammographically estimated using the Cumulus scale. Overall, DBT texture features demonstrated a stronger correlation than DM to PD. The Pearson correlation coefficients for DBT were r = 0.40 (p 2 = 0.39) compared to DM (R 2 = 0.33). We attribute these observations to the superior parenchymal tissue visualization in DBT. Our study is the first to perform DBT texture analysis in a screening population of women, showing that DBT could potentially provide better breast cancer risk assessment in the future.

  1. Estimating radiation-induced cancer risk using MVK two-stage model for carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Kusama, T.; Aoki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based on the carcinogenesis model as proposed by Moolgavkar et al., time-dependent relative risk models were derived for projecting the time variation in excess relative risk. If it is assumed that each process is described by time-independent linear dose-response relationship, the time variation in excess relative risk is influenced by the parameter related with the promotion process. The risk model based carcinogenesis theory would play a marked role in estimating radiation-induced cancer risk in constructing a projection model or transfer model

  2. Primary Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Emily A.; Guiou, Michael; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Vaughan, Andrew; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Chen, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 12 patients with serologic evidence of HIV who subsequently underwent radiation therapy to a median dose of 68 Gy (range, 64-72 Gy) for newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. Six patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in 6 cases (50%). All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of 80 or 90. Nine patients (75%) were receiving antiretroviral therapies at the time of treatment, and the median CD4 count was 460 (range, 266-800). Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The 3-year estimates of overall survival and local-regional control were 78% and 92%, respectively. Acute Grade 3+ toxicity occurred in 7 patients (58%), the most common being confluent mucositis (5 patients) and moist skin desquamation (4 patients). Two patients experienced greater than 10% weight loss, and none experienced more than 15% weight loss from baseline. Five patients (42%) experienced treatment breaks in excess of 10 cumulative days, although none required hospitalization. There were no treatment-related fatalities. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer seems to be relatively well tolerated among appropriately selected patients with HIV. The observed rates of toxicity were comparable to historical controls without HIV.

  3. Analysis of Knowledge Level in Brazilian Students about Human Papillomavirus Infection and Development of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, George Kemil; Fajardo, Emanuella Francisco; Gomes, Bruno Belmonte Martinelli; Bianco, Thiago Mantello; Salge, Ana Karina Marques; Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Dos Reis, Marlize Moura; Abrahão, Dayana Pousa Siqueira; Abdalla, Douglas Reis

    2017-05-01

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV), belonging to the Papovavirida family, is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease (STD) agent worldwide. In Brazil, it is estimated that there are 3-6 million people infected with HPV. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young male students about penis cancer related to HPV infection. Methods: This exploratory and quantitative study was conducted to analyze answers of 242 male students attending a private college located in Uberaba city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during 2015. Results: Most of the 242 participants (88.8%) affirmed having started sexual life very early, the majority (79.3%) were currently married and 69.8% had a single sexual partner. Regardless of their knowledge about HPV virus and its relationship with penis cancer, our data showed a general lack of awareness of the participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that despite efforts to propagate information about HPV infection and its relation to penis cancer, the level of knowledge of students is low. Because of that, it is important to improve the information spread by media, emphasizing prevention and treatment of HPV infection in men. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. Analysis of Knowledge Level in Brasilian Students about Human Papillomavirus Infection and Development of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, George Kemil; Fajardo, Emanuella Francisco; Gomes, Bruno Belmonte Martinelli; Bianco, Thiago Mantello; Salge, Ana Karina Marques; de Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira; Reis, Marlize Moura Dos; Abrahão, Dayana Pousa Siqueira; Abdalla, Douglas Reis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV), belonging to the Papovavirida family, is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease (STD) agent worldwide. In Brazil, it is estimated that there are 3-6 million people infected with HPV. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young male students about penis cancer related to HPV infection. Methods: This exploratory and quantitative study was conducted to analyze answers of 242 male students attending a private college located in Uberaba city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during 2015. Results: Most of the 242 participants (88.8%) affirmed having started sexual life very early, the majority (79.3%) were currently married and 69.8% had a single sexual partner. Regardless of their knowledge about HPV virus and its relationship with penis cancer, our data showed a general lack of awareness of the participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that despite efforts to propagate information about HPV infection and its relation to penis cancer, the level of knowledge of students is low. Because of that, it is important to improve the information spread by media, emphasizing prevention and treatment of HPV infection in men. PMID:28612588

  5. Global Incidence and Mortality Rates of Stomach Cancer and the Human Development Index: an Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Soheylizad, Mokhtar; Khazaei, Somayeh; Biderafsh, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer (SC) is the second leading cause of cancer death with the rate of 10.4% in the world. The correlation between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and human development index (HDI) has not been globally determined. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between the incidence and mortality rates of SC and HDI in various regions. In this global ecological study, we used the data about the incidence and mortality rate of SC and HDI from the global cancer project and the United Nations Development Programme database, respectively. In 2012, SCs were estimated to have affected a total of 951,594 individuals (crude rate: 13.5 per 100,000 individuals) with a male/female ratio of 1.97, and caused 723,073 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 10.2 per 100,000 individuals). There was a positive correlation between the HDI and both incidence (r=0.28, countries with high and very high HDI is remarkable which should be the top priority of interventions for global health policymakers. In addition, health programs should be provided to reduce the burden of this disease in the regions with high incidence and mortality rates of SC.

  6. Long-term survival, prevalence, and cure of cancer: a population-based estimation for 818 902 Italian patients and 26 cancer types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maso, L.; Guzzinati, S.; Buzzoni, C.; Capocaccia, R.; Serraino, D.; Caldarella, A.; Dei Tos, A. P.; Falcini, F.; Autelitano, M.; Masanotti, G.; Ferretti, S.; Tisano, F.; Tirelli, U.; Crocetti, E.; De Angelis, R.; Virdone, S.; Zucchetto, A.; Gigli, A.; Francisci, S.; Baili, P.; Gatta, G.; Castaing, M.; Zanetti, R.; Contiero, P.; Bidoli, E.; Vercelli, M.; Michiara, M.; Federico, M.; Senatore, G.; Pannozzo, F.; Vicentini, M.; Bulatko, A.; Pirino, D. R.; Gentilini, M.; Fusco, M.; Giacomin, A.; Fanetti, A. C.; Cusimano, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Persons living after a cancer diagnosis represent 4% of the whole population in high-income countries. The aim of the study was to provide estimates of indicators of long-term survival and cure for 26 cancer types, presently lacking. Patients and methods Data on 818 902 Italian cancer patients diagnosed at age 15–74 years in 1985–2005 were included. Proportions of patients with the same death rates of the general population (cure fractions) and those of prevalent patients who were not at risk of dying as a result of cancer (cure prevalence) were calculated, using validated mixture cure models, by cancer type, sex, and age group. We also estimated complete prevalence, conditional relative survival (CRS), time to reach 5- and 10-year CRS >95%, and proportion of patients living longer than those thresholds. Results The cure fractions ranged from >90% for patients aged cancers to cancers of all ages. Five- or 10-year CRS >95% were both reached in cancers of the stomach, colon–rectum, pancreas, corpus and cervix uteri, brain, and Hodgkin lymphoma. For breast cancer patients, 5- and 10-year CRSs reached >95% after 19 and 25 years, respectively, and in 15 and 18 years for prostate cancer patients. Five-year CRS remained 25 years after cancer diagnosis in patients with liver and larynx cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, and leukaemia. Overall, the cure prevalence was 67% for men and 77% for women. Therefore, 21% of male and 31% of female patients had already reached 5-year CRS >95%, whereas 18% and 25% had reached 10-year CRS >95%. Conclusions A quarter of Italian cancer patients can be considered cured. This observation has a high potential impact on health planning, clinical practice, and patients' perspective. PMID:25149707

  7. Glucose Metabolism of Human Prostate Cancer Mouse Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jadvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the glucose metabolism of prostate cancer is modulated by androgen. We performed in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies of [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG accumulation in androgen-sensitive (CWR-22 and androgen-independent (PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts implanted in castrated and noncastrated male athymic mice. The growth pattern of the CWR-22 tumor was best approximated by an exponential function (tumor size in mm3 = 14.913 e0.108 × days, R2 = .96, n = 5. The growth pattern of the PC-3 tumor was best approximated by a quadratic function (tumor size in mm3 = 0.3511 × days2 + 49.418 × day −753.33, R2 = .96, n = 3. The FDG accumulation in the CWR-22 tumor implanted in the castrated mice was significantly lower, by an average of 55%, in comparison to that implanted in the noncastrated host (1.27 vs. 2.83, respectively, p < .05. The 3-week maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax was 0.99 ± 0.43 (mean ± SD for CWR-22 and 1.21 ± 0.32 for PC-3, respectively. The 5-week SUVmax was 1.22 ± 0.08 for CWR-22 and 1.35 ± 0.17 for PC-3, respectively. The background muscle SUVmax was 0.53 ± 0.11. Glucose metabolism was higher in the PC-3 tumor than in the CWR-22 tumor at both the 3-week (by 18% and the 5-week (by 9.6% micro-PET imaging sessions. Our results support the notions that FDG PET may be useful in the imaging evaluation of response to androgen ablation therapy and in the early prediction of hormone refractoriness in men with metastatic prostate cancer.

  8. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  9. Estimation of selenium bioavailability from human, cow's, goat and sheep milk by an in vitro method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Dael, van P.; Luten, J.; Deelstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) has been recognized to be essential for human health. The dependence of infants on milk as their principal food source, generally low in Se content, makes them more vulnerable to inadequate Se intake. The present study compared the Se availability as estimated by a

  10. Adaptive Parameter Estimation of Person Recognition Model in a Stochastic Human Tracking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, W.; Fuse, T.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims at an estimation of parameters of person recognition models using a sequential Bayesian filtering method. In many human tracking method, any parameters of models used for recognize the same person in successive frames are usually set in advance of human tracking process. In real situation these parameters may change according to situation of observation and difficulty level of human position prediction. Thus in this paper we formulate an adaptive parameter estimation using general state space model. Firstly we explain the way to formulate human tracking in general state space model with their components. Then referring to previous researches, we use Bhattacharyya coefficient to formulate observation model of general state space model, which is corresponding to person recognition model. The observation model in this paper is a function of Bhattacharyya coefficient with one unknown parameter. At last we sequentially estimate this parameter in real dataset with some settings. Results showed that sequential parameter estimation was succeeded and were consistent with observation situations such as occlusions.

  11. Multi-view 3D Human Pose Estimation in Complex Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a framework for unconstrained 3D human upper body pose estimation from multiple camera views in complex environment. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single-frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model texture adaptation. Single-frame pose recovery

  12. Current status of cancer immunodetection with radiolabeled human monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, R; Abdel-Nabi, H; Serafini, A; Pecking, A; Klein, J L; Hanna, M G

    1993-04-01

    The use of radiolabeled murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) for cancer immunodetection has been limited by the development of human antimouse antibodies (HAMA). Human monoclonal antibodies do not elicit a significant human antihuman (HAHA) response. The generation and production of human monoclonal antibodies met with technical difficulties that resulted in delaying their clinical testing. Human monoclonal antibodies of all isotypes have been obtained. Most were immunoglobulin (Ig) M directed against intracellular antigens. Two antibodies, 16.88 (IgM) and 88BV59 (IgG3k), recognize different epitopes on a tumor-associated antigen, CTA 16.88, homologous to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. CTA 16.88 is expressed by most epithelial-derived tumors including carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, breast, ovary, and lung. The in vivo targeting by these antibodies is related to their localization in nonnecrotic areas of tumors. Repeated administration of 16.88 over 5 weeks to a cumulative dose of 1,000 mg did not elicit a HAHA response. Two of 53 patients developed a low titer of HAHA 1 to 3 months after a single administration of 88BV59. Planar imaging of colorectal cancer with Iodine-131 (131I)-16.88 was positive in two studies in 9 of 12 and 16 of 20 patients preselected by immunohistochemistry. Tumors less than 2 cm in diameter are usually not detected. The lack of immunogenicity and long tumor residence time (average = 17 days) makes 16.88 a good candidate for therapy. Radioimmunlymphoscintigraphy with indium-111 (111In)-LiLo-16.88 administered by an intramammary route was used in the presurgical staging of primary breast cancer. The negative predictive value of lymph node metastases for tumors less than 3 cm was 90.5%. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography imaging of colorectal carcinoma with technetium-99m (99mTc) 88BV59 was compared with computed tomography (CT) scan in 36 surgical patients. The antibody scan was more sensitive than the CT scan in detecting

  13. Pyrimidine dimer excision in human cells and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Smith, D.P.; Waters, R.

    1977-01-01

    We have compared three different methods for estimating the induction and removal of uv induced pyrimidine dimers from the DNA of human fibroblasts. Results indicate that after uv doses of 5-20 J/m 2 50% of the dimers are removed by 24 hours after irradiation. Almost complete excision can be observed if the cells are incubated for periods not less than 72 hours after 5 J/m 2 . After higher doses it probably takes even longer fr such complete removal to be seen

  14. Generation and characterization of recombinant human antibodies specific for native laminin epitopes. Potential application in cancer therapy. Cancer Immunol. Immunother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Laura; Kristensen, Peter; Russell, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    of human-derived antibody fragments able to modulate laminin-regulated biological functions would allow the development of new strategies to improve treatment of cancer patients. In this report, we explore the use of phage display technology to isolate human anti-laminin antibody fragments. A library...... to mouse, rat and human laminin. and show strong immunohistochemical reactivity with basement membranes in human and murine tissue sections. Their properties make them ideal candidates for in vivo applications....

  15. Targeting MEK5 Enhances Radiosensitivity of Human Prostate Cancer and Impairs Tumor-Associated Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    analysis of tumor necrosis factor - alpha resistant human breast cancer cells reveals a MEK5/Erk5-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0296 TITLE: Targeting MEK5 Enhances Radiosensitivity of Human Prostate Cancer and Impairs Tumor - Associated...Cancer and Impairs Tumor -Associated Angiogenesis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0296 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  16. Is Human Papillomavirus Associated with Prostate Cancer Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosa Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of human papillomavirus (HPV in prostate carcinogenesis is highly controversial: some studies suggest a positive association between HPV infection and an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa, whereas others do not reveal any correlation. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of HPV infection on survival in 150 primary PCa patients. One hundred twelve (74.67% patients had positive expression of HPV E7 protein, which was evaluated in tumour tissue by immunohistochemistry. DNA analysis on a subset of cases confirmed HPV infection and revealed the presence of genotype 16. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, HPV-positive cancer patients showed worse overall survival (OS (median 4.59 years compared to HPV-negative (median 8.24 years, P=0.0381. In multivariate analysis age (P<0.001, Gleason score (P<0.001, nuclear grading (P=0.002, and HPV status (P=0.034 were independent prognostic factors for OS. In our cohort, we observed high prevalence of HPV nuclear E7 oncoprotein and an association between HPV infection and PCa survival. In the debate about the oncogenic activity of HPV in PCa, our results further confirm the need for additional studies to clarify the possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis.

  17. STAT3 Target Genes Relevant to Human Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery, the STAT3 transcription factor has been extensively studied for its function as a transcriptional regulator and its role as a mediator of development, normal physiology, and pathology of many diseases, including cancers. These efforts have uncovered an array of genes that can be positively and negatively regulated by STAT3, alone and in cooperation with other transcription factors. Through regulating gene expression, STAT3 has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in many cellular processes including oncogenesis, tumor growth and progression, and stemness. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that STAT3 may behave as a tumor suppressor by activating expression of genes known to inhibit tumorigenesis. Additional evidence suggested that STAT3 may elicit opposing effects depending on cellular context and tumor types. These mixed results signify the need for a deeper understanding of STAT3, including its upstream regulators, parallel transcription co-regulators, and downstream target genes. To help facilitate fulfilling this unmet need, this review will be primarily focused on STAT3 downstream target genes that have been validated to associate with tumorigenesis and/or malignant biology of human cancers

  18. Establishment of Cancer Stem Cell Cultures from Human Conventional Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmini, Gaia; Zonefrati, Roberto; Mavilia, Carmelo; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Luzi, Ettore; Marini, Francesca; Franchi, Alessandro; Capanna, Rodolfo; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-14

    The current improvements in therapy against osteosarcoma (OS) have prolonged the lives of cancer patients, but the survival rate of five years remains poor when metastasis has occurred. The Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) theory holds that there is a subset of tumor cells within the tumor that have stem-like characteristics, including the capacity to maintain the tumor and to resist multidrug chemotherapy. Therefore, a better understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis is needed in order to advance the development of targeted therapies to eradicate this particular subset and to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients. Isolating CSCs, establishing cell cultures of CSCs, and studying their biology are important steps to improving our understanding of OS biology and pathogenesis. The establishment of human-derived OS-CSCs from biopsies of OS has been made possible using several methods, including the capacity to create 3-dimensional stem cell cultures under nonadherent conditions. Under these conditions, CSCs are able to create spherical floating colonies formed by daughter stem cells; these colonies are termed "cellular spheres". Here, we describe a method to establish CSC cultures from primary cell cultures of conventional OS obtained from OS biopsies. We clearly describe the several passages required to isolate and characterize CSCs.

  19. Trends in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Moran; Ilana, Kaplan; Avraham, Sharon Pelles; Binenbaum, Yoav; Bachar, Gideon; Billan, Salem; Zaarura, Suliman; Czerninski, Rakefet; Bar-Tov, Matan; Maly, Alexander; Akrish, Sharon; Gil, Ziv

    2016-04-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in oropharyngeal cancer (SCC) is well established. The annual incidence of oropharyngeal SCC in Israel is considerably lower than that in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of HPV-related oropharyngeal SCC in Israel. The cohort included patients with oropharyngeal SCC who were treated during 1999 to 2011 in Israel. HPV typing was carried out using reverse hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Of the 74 patients analyzed, 25 (33.7%) had detectable HPV DNA. Patients in the HPV-positive group tended to be younger, with a higher rate of nodal metastases, and no history of smoking (p Israel as approximately 3-fold lower than in Western countries. Low exposure to HPV-16, a lower rate of transformation, to cancer or protective genetic factors may contribute to the lower rate of oropharyngeal SCC in Israel. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E274-E278, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Human papilloma virus and its association with oral cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell E; Castañeda-Castaneira, Raúl E; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Pérez-Rodríguez, Eréndira

    2006-01-01

    Oral cancer it a pathology of multifactorial etiology, where some factors such as age, sex, race, genetic predisposition, nutrition, and the use of tobacco and alcohol have a bearing on. In the last years, some authors showed the implication of the human papilloma virus (HPV) in the development of precarcinogenic lesions and of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The infection by HPV has been associated to hyperplastic epithelial lesions, papilloma and warty carcinoma in skin and in different types of mucosa, including the anus-genital, cervical, urethral, tracheobronchial, nasal, laryngeal and oral mucosa tracts. The viral high-risk geno-types (oncogenic) such as 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 are frequently associated to leukoplakia and squamous carcinoma. An association of HPV with oral squamous carcinoma in patients that consume tobacco and alcohol has been fundamentally established. It is important to study and to frequently review the role that viral infections and cancer have, and maybe in the future, it would be possible to create a vaccine that diminishes the frequency of oncological problems.

  1. An estimate of the doubling dose of ionizing radiation for humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    All accumulated data on the children of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors have been analyzed employing the revised procedures for estimating gonadal radiation exposures that became effective in 1986. The basic statistical procedure employed has been to obtain a linear regression of indicator on the combined gonadal exposures of the parents. There is no statistically significant regression of indicator on dose for any of the indicators; however, it is accepted that some mutations were produced in the survivors of the bombings. The implications of the data for the genetic doubling dose of radiation for humans have been explored. The appropriate dose rate factor to be applied in extrapolating to the effect of chronic radiation is 2. This leads to a doubling dose estimate for the chronic irradiation of humans of between 3.4 and 4.5 Sv. The error is large but indeterminate, but the estimate is based on conservative assumptions. (3 tabs.)

  2. A Monoclonal Antibody against Wnt-1 Induces Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of the Wingless-type (Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is associated with a variety of human cancers. Little is known regarding the role that Wnt ligands play in human carcinogenesis. To test whether a Wnt-1 signal is a survival factor in human cancer cells and thus may serve as a potential cancer therapeutic target, we investigated the effect of inhibition of Wnt-1 signaling in a variety of human cancer cell lines, including non small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, mesothelioma, and sarcoma. Both monoclonal antibody and RNA interference (RNAi were used to inhibit Wnt-1 signaling. We found that incubation of a monoclonal anti-Wnt-1 antibody induced apoptosis and caused downstream protein changes in cancer cells overexpressing Wnt-1. In contrast, apoptosis was not detected in cells lacking or having minimal Wnt-1 expression after the antibody incubation. RNAi targeting of Wnt-1 in cancer cells overexpressing Wnt-1 demonstrated similar downstream protein changes and induction of apoptosis. The antibody also suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Our results indicate that both monoclonal anti-Wnt-1 antibody and Wnt-1 siRNA inhibit Wnt-1 signaling and can induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. These findings hold promise as a novel therapeutic strategy for cancer.

  3. Characterization of human mesothelin transcripts in ovarian and pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminova, Zhanat E; Strong, Theresa V; Shaw, Denise R

    2004-01-01

    Mesothelin is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy due to its restricted expression in normal tissues and high level expression in several tumor types including ovarian and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Three mesothelin transcript variants have been reported, but their relative expression in normal tissues and tumors has been poorly characterized. The goal of the present study was to clarify which mesothelin transcript variants are commonly expressed in human tumors. Human genomic and EST nucleotide sequences in the public databases were used to evaluate sequences reported for the three mesothelin transcript variants in silico. Subsequently, RNA samples from normal ovary, ovarian and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, and primary ovarian tumors were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing to directly identify expressed transcripts. In silico comparisons of genomic DNA sequences with available EST sequences supported expression of mesothelin transcript variants 1 and 3, but there were no sequence matches for transcript variant 2. Newly-derived nucleotide sequences of RT-PCR products from tissues and cell lines corresponded to mesothelin transcript variant 1. Mesothelin transcript variant 2 was not detected. Transcript variant 3 was observed as a small percentage of total mesothelin amplification products from all studied cell lines and tissues. Fractionation of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA indicated that variant 3 was present primarily in the nuclear fraction. Thus, mesothelin transcript variant 3 may represent incompletely processed hnRNA. Mesothelin transcript variant 1 represents the predominant mature mRNA species expressed by both normal and tumor cells. This conclusion should be important for future development of cancer immunotherapies, diagnostic tests, and gene microarray studies targeting mesothelin

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates tumor angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunamura, Makoto; Duda, Dan G; Ghattas, Maivel H; Lozonschi, Lucian; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Yamauchi, Jun-Ichiro; Matsuno, Seiki; Shibahara, Shigeki; Abraham, Nader G

    2003-01-01

    Angiogenesis is necessary for the continued growth of solid tumors, invasion and metastasis. Several studies clearly showed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in angiogenesis. In this study, we used the vital microscope system, transparent skinfold model, lung colonization model and transduced pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1)/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) cells, to precisely analyze, for the first time, the effect of hHO-1 gene on tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our results revealed that HO-1 stimulates angiogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma in severe combined immune deficient mice. Overexpression of human hHO-1 after its retroviral transfer into Panc-1 cells did not interfere with tumor growth in vitro. While in vivo the development of tumors was accelerated upon transfection with hHO-1. On the other hand, inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO) activity by stannous mesoporphyrin was able transiently to delay tumor growth in a dose dependent manner. Tumor angiogenesis was markedly increased in Panc-1/hHO-1 compared to mock transfected and wild type. Lectin staining and Ki-67 proliferation index confirmed these results. In addition hHO-1 stimulated in vitro tumor angiogenesis and increased endothelial cell survival. In a lung colonization model, overexpression of hHO-1 increased the occurrence of metastasis, while inhibition of HO activity by stannous mesoporphyrin completely inhibited the occurrence of metastasis. In conclusion, overexpression of HO-1 genes potentiates pancreatic cancer aggressiveness, by increasing tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis and that the inhibition of the HO system may be of useful benefit for the future treatment of the disease.

  5. A classification scheme of erroneous behaviors for human error probability estimations based on simulator data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2017-01-01

    Because it has been indicated that empirical data supporting the estimates used in human reliability analysis (HRA) is insufficient, several databases have been constructed recently. To generate quantitative estimates from human reliability data, it is important to appropriately sort the erroneous behaviors found in the reliability data. Therefore, this paper proposes a scheme to classify the erroneous behaviors identified by the HuREX (Human Reliability data Extraction) framework through a review of the relevant literature. A case study of the human error probability (HEP) calculations is conducted to verify that the proposed scheme can be successfully implemented for the categorization of the erroneous behaviors and to assess whether the scheme is useful for the HEP quantification purposes. Although continuously accumulating and analyzing simulator data is desirable to secure more reliable HEPs, the resulting HEPs were insightful in several important ways with regard to human reliability in off-normal conditions. From the findings of the literature review and the case study, the potential and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. - Highlights: • A taxonomy of erroneous behaviors is proposed to estimate HEPs from a database. • The cognitive models, procedures, HRA methods, and HRA databases were reviewed. • HEPs for several types of erroneous behaviors are calculated as a case study.

  6. Clinicopathological aspects and prevalence of human papillomavirus in anal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tayla Mesquita Aguiar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anal cancer is relatively rare; however, its incidence has increased in recent years. Several risk factors are associated with the development of anal cancer, including age older than 50 years, low-fiber diet, chronic anal fistulas, smoking, multiple partners, anal intercourse practice, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immunosuppression. However, the presence of human papillomavirus represents the main risk factor for the development of anal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological aspects of a series of patients with anal carcinomas diagnosed in Hospital Araújo Jorge, Goiânia-Goiás, as well as the prevalence of human papillomavirus genome in these tumors. Clinical, pathological and socio-demographic data were collected from the respective medical files and paraffin blocks containing anal carcinomas specimens were used for DNA extraction and detection of human papillomavirus, by means of polymerase chain reaction, using short PCR fragment primers. Forty-three cases were selected and had the data analyzed, while 38 cases were tested for human papillomavirus genome detection. Among the evaluated patients, 62.8% were women; 53.4% of tumors were squamous cell carcinoma and 46.5% of the patients were aged between 60 and 75 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (39.5% and alcoholism (20.9% were recorded in the studied group. Lymph node metastases were detected in 30.2% of cases and 7.0% had distant metastasis. The detection of human papillomavirus DNA was positive in 76% of cases assessed and this was significantly associated with squamous cell carcinomas. Aggressive behavior and advanced stage of anal cancer described in this study highlight the need for preventive measures that contemplate these tumors, including vaccination against human papillomavirus. Resumo: O câncer anal é relativamente raro, entretanto, sua incidência aumentou nos últimos anos. Vários fatores de risco são associados ao

  7. Adequacy of relative and absolute risk models for lifetime risk estimate of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, M.; Coldman, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report examines the applicability of the relative (multiplicative) and absolute (additive) models in predicting lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer. A review of the epidemiologic literature, and a discussion of the mathematical models of carcinogenesis and their relationship to these models of lifetime risk, are included. Based on the available data, the relative risk model for the estimation of lifetime risk is preferred for non-sex-specific epithelial tumours. However, because of lack of knowledge concerning other determinants of radiation risk and of background incidence rates, considerable uncertainty in modelling lifetime risk still exists. Therefore, it is essential that follow-up of exposed cohorts be continued so that population-based estimates of lifetime risk are available

  8. Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefuye, Peter O; Broutet, Nathalie J; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Denny, Lynette A

    2013-12-29

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), accounting for about 50,000 deaths annually. Until recently, cytology was the gold standard for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. This method of screening has not been successful in SSA due to a lack of human, financial and material resources and poor health care infrastructure. It is estimated that less than 5% of at risk women have ever being screened. In the past two decades alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer screening have been evaluated in low- and medium-income countries. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugol's iodine (VILI) have been shown to have adequate sensitivity, although low specificity, in a number of cross-sectional research and demonstration projects. Visual inspection methods require minimal resources, are technologically accessible, and are feasible for screening for precancerous lesions. Linking screening with VIA/VILI to treatment with cryotherapy may enable screening and treatment to take place in one visit, but this is likely to result in large numbers of women being subjected to unnecessary treatment. A number of studies have shown that cryotherapy is not associated with significant side effects or complications and is well tolerated. Creating the infrastructure for screening of older women is considered desirable, despite the limitations of visual inspection methods as screening tests. Understanding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer and the discovery of HPV rapid test kits, as well as the development of vaccines against the HPV oncogenic types, have created new opportunities for prevention of cervical cancer. Trials and projects have established (and are still ongoing) the feasibility of using these molecular tests for screening. The ultimate in prevention method is primary prevention, offered by the advent of prophylactic vaccines

  9. Lack of association between level of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and estimates of tumor angiogenesis in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Riisbro, Rikke; Knoop, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is involved in tumor invasion and progression. High levels of PAI-1 are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, and PAI-1 has been shown to play a role in angiogenic processes. Since estimates of tumor angiogenesis may predict poor prognosis...... we studied the relationship between PAI-1 and estimates of angiogenesis in breast cancer. Tumor tissue specimens from 438 breast cancer patients were included. Median follow-up was 10.3 years. Protein levels of PAI-1 were measured using an ELISA. Angiogenesis scores were performed using a Chalkley.......009) were independent markers of death from breast cancer. This study confirms high PAI-1 or high Chalkley counts as markers of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients, and suggests that the prognostic impact of PAI-1 is independent of its supposed involvement in tumor angiogenesis. Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  10. Estimation of utility weights for human papilloma virus-related health states according to disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, Minsu; Park, Jeong-Yeol; Son, Woo-Seung; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Kim, Seon-Ha; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-11-28

    A cost-utility study of a human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine requires that the utility weights for HPV-related health states (i.e., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cervical cancer, and condyloma) be evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the utility weights for HPV-related health states. Hypothetical standardised health states related to HPV were developed based on patient education material and previous publications. To fully reflect disease progression from diagnosis to prognosis, each health state comprised four parts (diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and progression and prognosis). Nine-hundred members from the Korean general population evaluated the HPV-related health states using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a standard gamble (SG) approach, which were administered face-to-face via computer-assisted interview. The mean utility values were calculated for each HPV-related health state. According to the VAS, the highest utility (0.73) was HPV-positive status, followed by condyloma (0.66), and CIN grade I (0.61). The lowest utility (0.18) was cervical cancer requiring chemotherapy without surgery, followed by cervical cancer requiring chemoradiation therapy (0.42). SG revealed that the highest utility (0.83) was HPV-positive status, followed by condyloma (0.78), and CIN grade I (0.77). The lowest utility (0.43) was cervical cancer requiring chemotherapy without surgery, followed by cervical cancer requiring chemoradiation therapy (0.60). This study was based on a large sample derived from the general Korean population; therefore, the calculated utility weights might be useful for evaluating the economic benefit of cancer screening and HPV vaccination programs.

  11. Timely disclosure of progress in long-term cancer survival: the boomerang method substantially improved estimates in a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Hermann; Jansen, Lina

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring cancer survival is a key task of cancer registries, but timely disclosure of progress in long-term survival remains a challenge. We introduce and evaluate a novel method, denoted "boomerang method," for deriving more up-to-date estimates of long-term survival. We applied three established methods (cohort, complete, and period analysis) and the boomerang method to derive up-to-date 10-year relative survival of patients diagnosed with common solid cancers and hematological malignancies in the United States. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 9 database, we compared the most up-to-date age-specific estimates that might have been obtained with the database including patients diagnosed up to 2001 with 10-year survival later observed for patients diagnosed in 1997-2001. For cancers with little or no increase in survival over time, the various estimates of 10-year relative survival potentially available by the end of 2001 were generally rather similar. For malignancies with strongly increasing survival over time, including breast and prostate cancer and all hematological malignancies, the boomerang method provided estimates that were closest to later observed 10-year relative survival in 23 of the 34 groups assessed. The boomerang method can substantially improve up-to-dateness of long-term cancer survival estimates in times of ongoing improvement in prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and their tropism to human ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liru Li

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I, but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II. RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn't have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer.

  13. Organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risk estimates due to radiotherapy for benign pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2016-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign disease affecting synovial membranes of young and middle-aged adults. The aggressive treatment of this disorder often involves external-beam irradiation. This study was motivated by the lack of data relating to the radiation exposure of healthy tissues and radiotherapy-induced cancer risk. Monte Carlo methodology was employed to simulate a patient’s irradiation for PVNS in the knee and hip joints with a 6 MV photon beam. The average radiation dose received by twenty-two out-of-field critical organs of the human body was calculated. These calculations were combined with the appropriate organ-, age- and gender-specific risk coefficients of the BEIR-VII model to estimate the lifetime probability of cancer development. The risk for carcinogenesis to colon, which was partly included in the treatment fields used for hip irradiation, was determined with a non-linear mechanistic model and differential dose-volume histograms obtained by CT-based 3D radiotherapy planning. Risk assessments were compared with the nominal lifetime intrinsic risk (LIR) values. Knee irradiation to 36 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 0.2-24.6 mGy. The corresponding range from hip radiotherapy was 1.2-455.1 mGy whereas the organ equivalent dose for the colon was up to 654.9 mGy. The organ-specific cancer risks from knee irradiation for PVNS were found to be inconsequential since they were at least 161.5 times lower than the LIRs irrespective of the patient’s age and gender. The bladder and colon cancer risk from radiotherapy in the hip joint was up to 3.2 and 6.6 times smaller than the LIR, respectively. These cancer risks may slightly elevate the nominal incidence rates and they should not be ignored during the patient’s treatment planning and follow-up. The probabilities for developing any other solid tumor were more than 20 times lower than the LIRs and, therefore, they may be considered as small.

  14. Estimating Water Supply Arsenic Levels in the New England Bladder Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Lubin, Jay H.; Airola, Matthew S.; Baris, Dalsu; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Taylor, Anne; Paulu, Chris; Karagas, Margaret R.; Colt, Joanne; Ward, Mary H.; Huang, An-Tsun; Bress, William; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Cantor, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ingestion of inorganic arsenic in drinking water is recognized as a cause of bladder cancer when levels are relatively high (≥ 150 µg/L). The epidemiologic evidence is less clear at the low-to-moderate concentrations typically observed in the United States. Accurate retrospective exposure assessment over a long time period is a major challenge in conducting epidemiologic studies of environmental factors and diseases with long latency, such as cancer. Objective: We estimated arsenic concentrations in the water supplies of 2,611 participants in a population-based case–control study in northern New England. Methods: Estimates covered the lifetimes of most study participants and were based on a combination of arsenic measurements at the homes of the participants and statistical modeling of arsenic concentrations in the water supply of both past and current homes. We assigned a residential water supply arsenic concentration for 165,138 (95%) of the total 173,361 lifetime exposure years (EYs) and a workplace water supply arsenic level for 85,195 EYs (86% of reported occupational years). Results: Three methods accounted for 93% of the residential estimates of arsenic concentration: direct measurement of water samples (27%; median, 0.3 µg/L; range, 0.1–11.5), statistical models of water utility measurement data (49%; median, 0.4 µg/L; range, 0.3–3.3), and statistical models of arsenic concentrations in wells using aquifers in New England (17%; median, 1.6 µg/L; range, 0.6–22.4). Conclusions: We used a different validation procedure for each of the three methods, and found our estimated levels to be comparable with available measured concentrations. This methodology allowed us to calculate potential drinking water exposure over long periods. PMID:21421449

  15. Biologic activities of recombinant human-beta-defensin-4 toward cultured human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, O L; Zhuravel, E V; Skachkova, O V; Khranovska, N N; Filonenko, V V; Pogrebnoy, P V; Soldatkina, M A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was in vitro analysis of biological activity of recombinant human beta-defensin-4 (rec-hBD-4). hBD-4 cDNA was cloned into pGEX-2T vector, and recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. To purify soluble fusion GST-hBD-4 protein, affinity chromatography was applied. Rec-hBD-4 was cleaved from the fusion protein with thrombin, and purified by reverse phase chromatography on Sep-Pack C18. Effects of rec-hBD-4 on proliferation, viability, cell cycle distribution, substrate-independent growth, and mobility of cultured human cancer cells of A431, A549, and TPC-1 lines were analyzed by direct cell counting technique, MTT assay, flow cytofluorometry, colony forming assay in semi-soft medium, and wound healing assay. Rec-hBD-4 was expressed in bacterial cells as GST-hBD-4 fusion protein, and purified by routine 3-step procedure (affine chromatography on glutathione-agarose, cleavage of fusion protein by thrombin, and reverse phase chromatography). Analysis of in vitro activity of rec-hBD-4 toward three human cancer cell lines has demonstrated that the defensin is capable to affect cell behaviour in concentration-dependent manner. In 1-100 nM concentrations rec-hBD-4 significantly stimulates cancer cell proliferation and viability, and promotes cell cycle progression through G2/M checkpoint, greatly enhances colony-forming activity and mobility of the cells. Treatment of the cells with 500 nM of rec-hBD-4 resulted in opposite effects: significant suppression of cell proliferation and viability, blockage of cell cycle in G1/S checkpoint, significant inhibition of cell migration and colony forming activity. Recombinant human beta-defensin-4 is biologically active peptide capable to cause oppositely directed effects toward biologic features of cancer cells in vitro dependent on its concentration.

  16. Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Qifeng; Haffty, Bruce G.; Li, Xiaoyan; Moran, Meena S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ► Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy ± fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 ± 0.013 vs. 0.622 ± 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 ± 0.045 vs. 0.475 ± 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 ± 0.021 vs. 0.380 ± 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT

  17. Emergence of fractal geometry on the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokukin, M E; Sokolov, I; Guz, N V; Woodworth, C D

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation. (paper)

  18. Epigenetic modulation of cancer-germline antigen gene expression in tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells: implications for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Burns, Jorge S; Nielsen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Cancer-germline antigens are promising targets for cancer immunotherapy, but whether such therapies will also eliminate the primary tumor stem cell population remains undetermined. We previously showed that long-term cultures of telomerized adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can...... spontaneously evolve into tumor-initiating, mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT20), which have characteristics of clinical sarcoma cells. In this study, we used the hMSC-TERT20 tumor stem cell model to investigate the potential of cancer-germline antigens to serve as tumor stem cell targets. We found...... of cancer-germline antigens in hMSC-TERT20 cells, while their expression levels in primary human mesenchymal stem cells remained unaffected. The expression pattern of cancer-germline antigens in tumorigenic mesenchymal stem cells and sarcomas, plus their susceptibility to enhancement by epigenetic...

  19. Epidemiology of cervical cancer and human papilloma virus infection among Iranian women - analyses of national data and systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasanizadeh, Faezeh; Hassanloo, Jaleh; Khaksar, Nafiseh; Mohammad Taheri, Somayeh; Marzaban, Maryam; H Rashidi, Batool; Akbari Sari, Ali; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2013-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the epidemiology of cervical cancer in low risk Muslim countries, where the prognosis of cervical cancer is poor and which lack an organized cervical screening program. We studied incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer and the prevalence of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in the Islamic Republic (I.R.) of Iran. We analyzed national cancer and mortality registration data and estimated age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates and age-specific patterns of cervical cancer. Furthermore, based on a systematic review we estimated prevalence of HPV infection in Iran. The mean cervical cancer ASR was 2.5 per 100,000 in pathology-based cancer registries. However, ASRs were almost double in the population-based cancer registry and reached 6 per 100,000. The mean cervical cancer ASMR for Iran was 1.04 per 100,000. The mortality to incidence ratio was 42%. The cervical cancer incidence rate increased after age 30 and peaked between ages 55 and 65. The prevalence of HPV infection was 76% in cervical cancer patients and 7% among healthy Iranian women. Of the HPV types isolated, HPV 16 (54%), 18 (14%), and 31 (6%) were the most commonly detected in Iranian cervical cancer patients. An organized prevention program is needed to fight against cervical cancer in Iran and other low incidence countries. We suggest a screening program starting after age 30 and with at least three screenings tests over each woman's lifetime. With a reservation on cost-effectiveness issue, available HPV vaccine will prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer in Iran. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and School of Radiotherapy, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    contralateral breast doses and LAR were comparable to WBRT, despite their added complexity. The smaller irradiated volume of the ABPI plan contributed to a halving of LAR for contralateral breast compared with the other plan types. Daily image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for a left breast protocol using kilovoltage CBCT contributed <10% to LAR for the majority of organs, and did not exceed 22% of total organ dose. Conclusions: Phantom measurements and calculations of LAR from the BEIR VII models predict that complex breast radiotherapy techniques do not increase the theoretical risk of second cancer incidence for organs distant from the treated breast, or the contralateral breast where appropriate plan constraints are applied. Complex SIB treatments are predicted to increase the risk of second cancer incidence in the lungs compared to standard whole breast radiotherapy; this is outweighed by the threefold reduction in 5 yr local recurrence risk for patients of high risk of recurrence, and young age, from the use of radiotherapy. APBI may have a favorable impact on risk of second cancer in the contralateral breast and lung for older patients at low risk of recurrence. Intensive use of IGRTincreased the estimated values of LAR but these are dominated by the effect of the dose from the radiotherapy, and any increase in LAR from IGRT is much lower than the models' uncertainties.

  1. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    contralateral breast doses and LAR were comparable to WBRT, despite their added complexity. The smaller irradiated volume of the ABPI plan contributed to a halving of LAR for contralateral breast compared with the other plan types. Daily image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for a left breast protocol using kilovoltage CBCT contributed <10% to LAR for the majority of organs, and did not exceed 22% of total organ dose. Conclusions: Phantom measurements and calculations of LAR from the BEIR VII models predict that complex breast radiotherapy techniques do not increase the theoretical risk of second cancer incidence for organs distant from the treated breast, or the contralateral breast where appropriate plan constraints are applied. Complex SIB treatments are predicted to increase the risk of second cancer incidence in the lungs compared to standard whole breast radiotherapy; this is outweighed by the threefold reduction in 5 yr local recurrence risk for patients of high risk of recurrence, and young age, from the use of radiotherapy. APBI may have a favorable impact on risk of second cancer in the contralateral breast and lung for older patients at low risk of recurrence. Intensive use of IGRTincreased the estimated values of LAR but these are dominated by the effect of the dose from the radiotherapy, and any increase in LAR from IGRT is much lower than the models’ uncertainties.

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy for throat cancer detection using human saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Singh, Ashutosh; Zaffar, Mohammad; Pradhan, Asima

    2018-02-01

    Throat precancer detection using fluorescence from human saliva is reported here. It may be noted that accessing the throat for investigation is cumbersome and use of saliva as a diagnostic medium may ease the process. The study has been conducted on three groups of patients: oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), dysplasia, and normal (control). An in-house developed compact set-up has been used for fluorescence measurements. The compact system consist of a 375 nm laser diode, collimating lens, long pass filter, fibers, and cuvette holder. Major and minor bands of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and porphyrin are observed in the spectra. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis has been used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Area under the spectra has been chosen for discrimination among the groups and is able to differentiate OSCC to normal, dysplasia to normal, and OSCC to dysplasia with sensitivities 100% (48/48), 92% (32/35), 77% (37/48), and specificities 96% (50/52), 96% (50/52), 89% (31/35) with the accuracy of 98%, 94% and 82% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity, when differentiating OSCC to normal and dysplasia to normal, are significantly large, which indicates that human saliva may be an excellent diagnostic medium for early detection of throat cancer.

  3. Internal Motion Estimation by Internal-external Motion Modeling for Lung Cancer Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Zhong, Zichun; Yang, Yiwei; Chen, Jiawei; Zhou, Linghong; Zhen, Xin; Gu, Xuejun

    2018-02-27

    The aim of this study is to develop an internal-external correlation model for internal motion estimation for lung cancer radiotherapy. Deformation vector fields that characterize the internal-external motion are obtained by respectively registering the internal organ meshes and external surface meshes from the 4DCT images via a recently developed local topology preserved non-rigid point matching algorithm. A composite matrix is constructed by combing the estimated internal phasic DVFs with external phasic and directional DVFs. Principle component analysis is then applied to the composite matrix to extract principal motion characteristics, and generate model parameters to correlate the internal-external motion. The proposed model is evaluated on a 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) synthetic phantom and 4DCT images from five lung cancer patients. For tumor tracking, the center of mass errors of the tracked tumor are 0.8(±0.5)mm/0.8(±0.4)mm for synthetic data, and 1.3(±1.0)mm/1.2(±1.2)mm for patient data in the intra-fraction/inter-fraction tracking, respectively. For lung tracking, the percent errors of the tracked contours are 0.06(±0.02)/0.07(±0.03) for synthetic data, and 0.06(±0.02)/0.06(±0.02) for patient data in the intra-fraction/inter-fraction tracking, respectively. The extensive validations have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed model in motion tracking for both the tumor and the lung in lung cancer radiotherapy.

  4. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  5. Altered serotonin physiology in human breast cancers favors paradoxical growth and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Marshall, Aaron M; Hernandez, Laura L; Buckley, Arthur R; Horseman, Nelson D

    2009-01-01

    The breast microenvironment can either retard or accelerate the events associated with progression of latent cancers. However, the actions of local physiological mediators in the context of breast cancers are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical local regulator of epithelial homeostasis in the breast and other organs. Herein, we report complex alterations in the intrinsic mammary gland serotonin system of human breast cancers. Serotonin biosynthetic capacity was analyzed in human breast tumor tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Serotonin receptors (5-HT1-7) were analyzed in human breast tumors using the Oncomine database. Serotonin receptor expression, signal transduction, and 5-HT effects on breast cancer cell phenotype were compared in non-transformed and transformed human breast cells. In the context of the normal mammary gland, 5-HT acts as a physiological regulator of lactation and involution, in part by favoring growth arrest and cell death. This tightly regulated 5-HT system is subverted in multiple ways in human breast cancers. Specifically, TPH1 expression undergoes a non-linear change during progression, with increased expression during malignant progression. Correspondingly, the tightly regulated pattern of 5-HT receptors becomes dysregulated in human breast cancer cells, resulting in both ectopic expression of some isoforms and suppression of others. The receptor expression change is accompanied by altered downstream signaling of 5-HT receptors in human breast cancer cells, resulting in resistance to 5-HT-induced apoptosis, and stimulated proliferation. Our data constitutes the first report of direct involvement of 5-HT in human breast cancer. Increased 5-HT biosynthetic capacity accompanied by multiple changes in 5-HT receptor expression and signaling favor malignant progression of human breast cancer cells (for example, stimulated proliferation, inappropriate cell survival). This occurs

  6. Myxoma and vaccinia viruses exploit different mechanisms to enter and infect human cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Nancy Y.; Bartee, Eric; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Barrett, John W.; McFadden, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Myxoma (MYXV) and vaccinia (VACV) viruses have recently emerged as potential oncolytic agents that can infect and kill different human cancer cells. Although both are structurally similar, it is unknown whether the pathway(s) used by these poxviruses to enter and cause oncolysis in cancer cells are mechanistically similar. Here, we compared the entry of MYXV and VACV-WR into various human cancer cells and observed significant differences: 1 - low-pH treatment accelerates fusion-mediated entry of VACV but not MYXV, 2 - the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits entry of VACV, but not MYXV, 3 - knockdown of PAK1 revealed that it is required for a late stage event downstream of MYXV entry into cancer cells, whereas PAK1 is required for VACV entry into the same target cells. These results suggest that VACV and MYXV exploit different mechanisms to enter into human cancer cells, thus providing some rationale for their divergent cancer cell tropisms.

  7. Efficacy of laser capture microdissection plus RT-PCR technique in analyzing gene expression levels in human gastric cancer and colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Danenberg, Kathleen; Danenberg, Peter V; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, thymidine phosphorylase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene expressions are reported to be valid predictive markers for 5-fluorouracil sensitivity to gastrointestinal cancer. For more reliable predictability, their expressions in cancer cells and stromal cells in the cancerous tissue (cancerous stroma) have been separately investigated using laser capture microdissection. Thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, thymidine phosphorylase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase mRNA in cancer cells and cancerous stroma from samples of 47 gastric and 43 colon cancers were separately quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after laser capture microdissection. In both gastric and colon cancers, thymidylate synthase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase mRNA expressions were higher (p < 0.0001, p <0.0001 respectively in gastric cancer and P = 0.0002, p < 0.0001 respectively in colon cancer) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase mRNA expressions were lower in cancer cells than in cancerous stroma (P = 0.0136 in gastric cancer and p < 0.0001 in colon cancer). In contrast, thymidine phosphorylase mRNA was higher in cancer cells than in cancerous stroma in gastric cancer (p < 0.0001) and lower in cancer cells than in cancerous stroma in colon cancer (P = 0.0055). By using this method, we could estimate gene expressions separately in cancer cells and stromal cells from colon and gastric cancers, in spite of the amount of stromal tissue. Our method is thought to be useful for accurately evaluating intratumoral gene expressions

  8. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  9. Human papillomavirus-associated subsequent malignancies among long-term survivors of pediatric and young adult cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit P Ojha

    Full Text Available Long-term survivors of pediatric and young adult (PAYA cancers have a high incidence of subsequent neoplasms, but few risk factors other than cancer treatment have been identified. We aimed to describe the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV-associated malignancies among survivors of PAYA cancers to assess whether HPV infections might be a reasonable area of future etiologic research on subsequent malignancies in this population. We used longitudinal data from 9 population-based registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program collected between 1973 and 2010 to assemble a cohort of individuals who were diagnosed with any cancer between the ages of 0 and 29 years and survived at least 5 years post-diagnosis. We estimated sex-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL of HPV-associated subsequent malignancies (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal, tongue, tonsillar, and oropharyngeal. Our study population comprised 64,547 long-term survivors of PAYA cancers diagnosed between 1973 and 2010. Compared with females in the general US population, female PAYA cancer survivors had a 40% relative excess of HPV-associated malignancies overall (SIR = 1.4, 95% CL: 1.2, 1.8. Compared with males in the general US population, male PAYA cancer survivors had a 150% relative excess of HPV-associated malignancies overall (SIR = 2.5, 95% CL: 1.9, 3.4. Our findings suggest an excess of HPV-associated malignancies among PAYA cancer survivors compared with the general US population. We hypothesize that a portion of subsequent malignancies among PAYA cancer survivors may be directly attributable to HPV infection. This hypothesis warrants exploration in future studies.

  10. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  11. Human Age Estimation Method Robust to Camera Sensor and/or Face Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human age can be employed in many useful real-life applications, such as customer service systems, automatic vending machines, entertainment, etc. In order to obtain age information, image-based age estimation systems have been developed using information from the human face. However, limitations exist for current age estimation systems because of the various factors of camera motion and optical blurring, facial expressions, gender, etc. Motion blurring can usually be presented on face images by the movement of the camera sensor and/or the movement of the face during image acquisition. Therefore, the facial feature in captured images can be transformed according to the amount of motion, which causes performance degradation of age estimation systems. In this paper, the problem caused by motion blurring is addressed and its solution is proposed in order to make age estimation systems robust to the effects of motion blurring. Experiment results show that our method is more efficient for enhancing age estimation performance compared with systems that do not employ our method.

  12. Human Nanog pseudogene8 promotes the proliferation of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Keita, E-mail: uchino13@intmed1.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirano, Gen [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirahashi, Minako [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Isobe, Taichi; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Baba, Eishi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Akashi, Koichi [Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2012-09-10

    There is emerging evidence that human solid tumor cells originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs). In cancer cell lines, tumor-initiating CSCs are mainly found in the side population (SP) that has the capacity to extrude dyes such as Hoechst 33342. We found that Nanog is expressed specifically in SP cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that NanogP8 but not Nanog was expressed in GI cancer cells. Transfection of NanogP8 into GI cancer cell lines promoted cell proliferation, while its inhibition by anti-Nanog siRNA suppressed the proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining of primary GI cancer tissues revealed NanogP8 protein to be strongly expressed in 3 out of 60 cases. In these cases, NanogP8 was found especially in an infiltrative part of the tumor, in proliferating cells with Ki67 expression. These data suggest that NanogP8 is involved in GI cancer development in a fraction of patients, in whom it presumably acts by supporting CSC proliferation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog maintains pluripotency by regulating embryonic stem cells differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is expressed in cancer stem cells of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleotide sequencing revealed that Nanog pseudogene8 but not Nanog was expressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 promotes cancer stem cells proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog pseudogene8 is involved in gastrointestinal cancer development.

  13. Human Nanog pseudogene8 promotes the proliferation of gastrointestinal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Keita; Hirano, Gen; Hirahashi, Minako; Isobe, Taichi; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Baba, Eishi; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Akashi, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that human solid tumor cells originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs). In cancer cell lines, tumor-initiating CSCs are mainly found in the side population (SP) that has the capacity to extrude dyes such as Hoechst 33342. We found that Nanog is expressed specifically in SP cells of human gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that NanogP8 but not Nanog was expressed in GI cancer cells. Transfection of NanogP8 into GI cancer cell lines promoted cell proliferation, while its inhibition by anti-Nanog siRNA suppressed the proliferation. Immunohistochemical staining of primary GI cancer tissues revealed NanogP8 protein to be strongly expressed in 3 out of 60 cases. In these cases, NanogP8 was found especially in an infiltrative part of the tumor, in proliferating cells with Ki67 expression. These data suggest that NanogP8 is involved in GI cancer development in a fraction of patients, in whom it presumably acts by supporting CSC proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Nanog maintains pluripotency by regulating embryonic stem cells differentiation. ► Nanog is expressed in cancer stem cells of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. ► Nucleotide sequencing revealed that Nanog pseudogene8 but not Nanog was expressed. ► Nanog pseudogene8 promotes cancer stem cells proliferation. ► Nanog pseudogene8 is involved in gastrointestinal cancer development.

  14. Estimation and harvesting of human heat power for wearable electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziurdzia, P; Brzozowski, I; Bratek, P; Gelmuda, W; Kos, A

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of self-powered wearable electronic devices that are capable of harvesting free available energy dissipated by the user in the form of human heat. The free energy source is intended to be used as a secondary power source supporting primary battery in a sensor bracelet. The main scope of the article is a presentation of the concept for a measuring setup used to quantitative estimation of heat power sources in different locations over the human body area. The crucial role in the measurements of the human heat plays a thermoelectric module working in the open circuit mode. The results obtained during practical tests are confronted with the requirements of the dedicated thermoelectric generator. A prototype design of a human warmth energy harvester with an ultra-low power DC-DC converter based on the LTC3108 circuit is analysed

  15. MNS16A tandem repeats minisatellite of human telomerase gene: a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Philipp; Baierl, Andreas; Feik, Elisabeth; Führlinger, Gerhard; Leeb, Gernot; Mach, Karl; Holzmann, Klaus; Micksche, Michael; Gsur, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Telomerase reactivation and expression of human telomerase gene [human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)] are hallmarks of unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells. A polymorphic tandem repeats minisatellite of hTERT gene, termed MNS16A was reported to influence hTERT expression. To assess the role of MNS16A as potential biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC), we investigated for the first time the association of MNS16A genotypes with risk of colorectal polyps and CRC. In the ongoing colorectal cancer study of Austria (CORSA), 3842 Caucasian participants were recruited within a large screening project in the province Burgenland including 90 CRC cases, 308 high-risk polyps, 1022 low-risk polyps and 1822 polyp free controls verified by colonoscopy. MNS16A genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA. Associations of MNS16A genotypes with CRC risk were estimated by logistic regression analysis computing odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified five different variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) of MNS16A including VNTR-364, a newly discovered rare variant. VNTR-274 allele was associated with a 2.7-fold significantly increased risk of CRC compared with the VNTR-302 wild-type (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.11-6.50; P = 0.028). In our CORSA study, the medium length VNTR-274 was identified as risk factor for CRC. Although, this population-based study herewith reports the largest cohort size concerning MNS16A thus far, further large-scale studies in diverse populations are warranted to confirm hTERT MNS16A genotype as potential biomarker for assessment of CRC risk.

  16. Gut microbiota modulate T cell trafficking into human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Eleonora; Governa, Valeria; Garzon, Jesus Francisco Glaus; Mele, Valentina; Amicarella, Francesca; Muraro, Manuele Giuseppe; Trella, Emanuele; Galati-Fournier, Virginie; Oertli, Daniel; Däster, Silvio Raffael; Droeser, Raoul A; Weixler, Benjamin; Bolli, Martin; Rosso, Raffaele; Nitsche, Ulrich; Khanna, Nina; Egli, Adrian; Keck, Simone; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Terracciano, Luigi M; Zajac, Paul; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Borsig, Lubor; Iezzi, Giandomenica

    2018-02-06

    Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers. Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues. Chemokine receptor expression on TILs was evaluated by flow cytometry on cell suspensions from digested tissues. Chemokine production by CRC cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, on generation of intraperitoneal or intracecal tumour xenografts in immune-deficient mice. T cell trafficking was assessed on adoptive transfer of human TILs into tumour-bearing mice. Gut flora composition was analysed by 16SrRNA sequencing. CRC infiltration by distinct T cell subsets was associated with defined chemokine gene signatures, including CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 for cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T-helper (Th)1 cells; CCL17, CCL22 and CXCL12 for Th1 and regulatory T cells; CXCL13 for follicular Th cells; and CCL20 and CCL17 for interleukin (IL)-17-producing Th cells. These chemokines were expressed by tumour cells on exposure to gut bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Their expression was significantly higher in intracecal than in intraperitoneal xenografts and was dramatically reduced by antibiotic treatment of tumour-bearing mice. In clinical samples, abundance of defined bacteria correlated with high chemokine expression, enhanced T cell infiltration and improved survival. Gut microbiota stimulate chemokine production by CRC cells, thus favouring recruitment of beneficial T cells into tumour tissues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Ortendahl, J; van der Ham, E; Sy, S; Kim, J J

    2012-01-01

    To assess the health and economic outcomes of various screening and vaccination strategies for cervical cancer prevention. Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Thailand. Females aged 9 years and older. Using a mathematical model of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer, calibrated to epidemiological data from Thailand, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of pre-adolescent HPV vaccination, screening [visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), HPV DNA testing, and cytology] between one and five times per lifetime in adulthood, and combined pre-adolescent vaccination and screening. Vaccine efficacy, coverage, cost, and screening frequency were varied in sensitivity analyses. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, expressed as cost per year of life saved (YLS). Assuming lifelong efficacy and 80% coverage, pre-adolescent HPV vaccination alone was projected to reduce the lifetime risk of cervical cancer by 55%, which was greater than any strategy of screening alone. When cost per vaccinated girl was I$10 (approximately $2 per dose) or less, HPV vaccination alone was cost saving. Pre-adolescent vaccination and HPV DNA testing five times per lifetime, starting at age 35 years, reduced the lifetime cervical cancer risk by 70%, and had a cost-effectiveness ratio less than Thailand's GDP per capita (I$8100), provided the cost per vaccinated girl was I$200 or less. Low cost pre-adolescent HPV vaccination followed by HPV screening five times per lifetime is an efficient strategy for Thailand. Costs may need to be lower, however, for this strategy to be affordable. If vaccination is not feasible, HPV DNA testing five times per lifetime is efficient. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs in human male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schipper Elisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of small non-coding RNAs and the subsequent analysis of microRNA expression patterns in human cancer specimens have provided completely new insights into cancer biology. Genetic and epigenetic data indicate oncogenic or tumor suppressor function of these pleiotropic regulators. Therefore, many studies analyzed the expression and function of microRNA in human breast cancer, the most frequent malignancy in females. However, nothing is known so far about microRNA expression in male breast cancer, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Methods The expression of 319 microRNAs was analyzed in 9 primary human male breast tumors and in epithelial cells from 15 male gynecomastia specimens using fluorescence-labeled bead technology. For identification of differentially expressed microRNAs data were analyzed by cluster analysis and selected statistical methods. Expression levels were validated for the most up- or down-regulated microRNAs in this training cohort using real-time PCR methodology as well as in an independent test cohort comprising 12 cases of human male breast cancer. Results Unsupervised cluster analysis separated very well male breast cancer samples and control specimens according to their microRNA expression pattern indicating cancer-specific alterations of microRNA expression in human male breast cancer. miR-21, miR519d, miR-183, miR-197, and miR-493-5p were identified as most prominently up-regulated, miR-145 and miR-497 as most prominently down-regulated in male breast cancer. Conclusions Male breast cancer displays several differentially expressed microRNAs. Not all of them are shared with breast cancer biopsies from female patients indicating male breast cancer specific alterations of microRNA expression.

  19. Oncogenic impact of human papilloma virus in head and neck cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heffernan, C B

    2012-02-01

    There is considerable debate within the literature about the significance of human papilloma virus in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and its potential influence on the prevention, diagnosis, grading, treatment and prognosis of these cancers. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have traditionally been cited as the main risk factors for head and neck cancers. However, human papilloma virus, normally associated with cervical and other genital carcinomas, has emerged as a possible key aetiological factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, especially oropharyngeal cancers. These cancers pose a significant financial burden on health resources and are increasing in incidence. The recent introduction of vaccines targeted against human papilloma virus types 16 and 18, to prevent cervical cancer, has highlighted the need for ongoing research into the importance of human papilloma virus in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Glucocorticoid receptor beta increases migration of human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeth, Lucien; Nwaneri, Assumpta C; Grabnar, Maria; Demeter, Jonathan; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-05-10

    Bladder cancer is observed worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Recent investigations on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling point to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. Here we show an inverse effect on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform signaling that may lead to bladder cancer. We found similar GRα expression levels in the transitional uroepithelial cancer cell lines T24 and UMUC-3. However, the T24 cells showed a significant (p bladder cancer cells. Therefore, GRβ may have a significant role in bladder cancer, and possibly serve as a therapeutic target for the disease.

  1. Estimation of incidence and social cost of colon cancer due to nitrate in drinking water in the EU: a tentative cost-benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Rabl, Ari; de Kok, Theo M

    2010-10-06

    Presently, health costs associated with nitrate in drinking water are uncertain and not quantified. This limits proper evaluation of current policies and measures for solving or preventing nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The cost for society associated with nitrate is also relevant for integrated assessment of EU nitrogen policies taking a perspective of welfare optimization. The overarching question is at which nitrogen mitigation level the social cost of measures, including their consequence for availability of food and energy, matches the social benefit of these measures for human health and biodiversity. Epidemiological studies suggest colon cancer to be possibly associated with nitrate in drinking water. In this study risk increase for colon cancer is based on a case-control study for Iowa, which is extrapolated to assess the social cost for 11 EU member states by using data on cancer incidence, nitrogen leaching and drinking water supply in the EU. Health costs are provisionally compared with nitrate mitigation costs and social benefits of fertilizer use. For above median meat consumption the risk of colon cancer doubles when exposed to drinking water exceeding 25 mg/L of nitrate (NO3) for more than ten years. We estimate the associated increase of incidence of colon cancer from nitrate contamination of groundwater based drinking water in EU11 at 3%. This corresponds to a population-averaged health loss of 2.9 euro per capita or 0.7 euro per kg of nitrate-N leaching from fertilizer. Our cost estimates indicate that current measures to prevent exceedance of 50 mg/L NO3 are probably beneficial for society and that a stricter nitrate limit and additional measures may be justified. The present assessment of social cost is uncertain because it considers only one type of cancer, it is based on one epidemiological study in Iowa, and involves various assumptions regarding exposure. Our results highlight the need for improved epidemiological studies.

  2. Estimating cancer risk in relation to tritium exposure from routine operation of a nuclear-generating station in Pickering, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigaratne, S; Holowaty, E; Jiang, H; Norwood, T A; Pietrusiak, M A; Brown, P

    2013-09-01

    Evidence suggests that current levels of tritium emissions from CANDU reactors in Canada are not related to adverse health effects. However, these studies lack tritium-specific dose data and have small numbers of cases. The purpose of our study was to determine whether tritium emitted from a nuclear-generating station during routine operation is associated with risk of cancer in Pickering, Ontario. A retrospective cohort was formed through linkage of Pickering and north Oshawa residents (1985) to incident cancer cases (1985-2005). We examined all sites combined, leukemia, lung, thyroid and childhood cancers (6-19 years) for males and females as well as female breast cancer. Tritium estimates were based on an atmospheric dispersion model, incorporating characteristics of annual tritium emissions and meteorology. Tritium concentration estimates were assigned to each cohort member based on exact location of residence. Person-years analysis was used to determine whether observed cancer cases were higher than expected. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine whether tritium was associated with radiation-sensitive cancers in Pickering. Person-years analysis showed female childhood cancer cases to be significantly higher than expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.38). The issue of multiple comparisons is the most likely explanation for this finding. Cox models revealed that female lung cancer was significantly higher in Pickering versus north Oshawa (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.23-4.46) and that tritium was not associated with increased risk. The improved methodology used in this study adds to our understanding of cancer risks associated with low-dose tritium exposure. Tritium estimates were not associated with increased risk of radiationsensitive cancers in Pickering.

  3. Framework for estimating response time data to conduct a seismic human reliability analysis - its feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Kin, Yochan; Jung, Wondea; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This is because the PSA has been used for several decades as the representative tool to evaluate the safety of NPPs. To this end, it is inevitable to evaluate human error probabilities (HEPs) in conducting important tasks being considered in the PSA framework (i.e., HFEs; human failure events), which are able to significantly affect the safety of NPPs. In addition, it should be emphasized that the provision of a realistic human performance data is an important precondition for calculating HEPs under a seismic condition. Unfortunately, it seems that HRA methods being currently used for calculating HEPs under a seismic event do not properly consider the performance variation of human operators. For this reason, in this paper, a framework to estimate response time data that are critical for calculating HEPs is suggested with respect to a seismic intensity. This paper suggested a systematic framework for estimating response time data that would be one of the most critical for calculating HEPs. Although extensive review of existing literatures is indispensable for identifying response times of human operators who have to conduct a series of tasks prescribed in procedures based on a couple of wrong indications, it is highly expected that response time data for seismic HRA can be properly secured through revisiting response time data collected from diverse situations without concerning a seismic event

  4. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging of human ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Korde, Vrushali; Winkler, Amy M.; Hatch, Kenneth; Brewer, Molly; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women. If diagnosed at early stages, 5-year survival rate is 94%, but drops to 68% for regional disease and 29% for distant metastasis; only 19% of cases are diagnosed at early, localized stages. Optical coherence tomography is a recently emerging non-destructive imaging technology, achieving high axial resolutions (10-20 µm) at imaging depths up to 2 mm. Previously, we studied OCT in normal and diseased human ovary ex vivo. Changes in collagen were suggested with several images that correlated with changes in collagen seen in malignancy. Areas of necrosis and blood vessels were also visualized using OCT, indicative of an underlying tissue abnormality. We recently developed a custom side-firing laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) probe fabricated for in vivo imaging. The LOCT probe, consisting of a 38 mm diameter handpiece terminated in a 280 mm long, 4.6 mm diameter tip for insertion into the laparoscopic trocar, is capable of obtaining up to 9.5 mm image lengths at 10 µm axial resolution. In this pilot study, we utilize the LOCT probe to image one or both ovaries of 17 patients undergoing laparotomy or transabdominal endoscopy and oophorectomy to determine if OCT is capable of differentiating normal and neoplastic ovary. We have laparoscopically imaged the ovaries of seventeen patients with no known complications. Initial data evaluation reveals qualitative distinguishability between the features of undiseased post-menopausal ovary and the cystic, non-homogenous appearance of neoplastic ovary such as serous cystadenoma and endometroid adenocarcinoma.

  5. Effects of hypoxia on human cancer cell line chemosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Environment inside even a small tumor is characterized by total (anoxia) or partial oxygen deprivation, (hypoxia). It has been shown that radiotherapy and some conventional chemotherapies may be less effective in hypoxia, and therefore it is important to investigate how different drugs act in different microenvironments. In this study we perform a large screening of the effects of 19 clinically used or experimental chemotherapeutic drugs on five different cell lines in conditions of normoxia, hypoxia and anoxia. Methods A panel of 19 commercially available drugs: 5-fluorouracil, acriflavine, bortezomib, cisplatin, digitoxin, digoxin, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, irinotecan, melphalan, mitomycin c, rapamycin, sorafenib, thalidomide, tirapazamine, topotecan and vincristine were tested for cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell lines A2780 (ovarian), ACHN (renal), MCF-7 (breast), H69 (SCLC) and U-937 (lymphoma). Parallel aliquots of the cells were grown at different oxygen pressures and after 72 hours of drug exposure viability was measured with the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Results Sorafenib, irinotecan and docetaxel were in general more effective in an oxygenated environment, while cisplatin, mitomycin c and tirapazamine were more effective in a low oxygen environment. Surprisingly, hypoxia in H69 and MCF-7 cells mostly rendered higher drug sensitivity. In contrast ACHN appeared more sensitive to hypoxia, giving slower proliferating cells, and consequently, was more resistant to most drugs. Conclusions A panel of standard cytotoxic agents was tested against five different human cancer cell lines cultivated at normoxic, hypoxic and anoxic conditions. Results show that impaired chemosensitivity is not universal, in contrast different cell lines behave different and some drugs appear even less effective in normoxia than hypoxia. PMID:23829203

  6. Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Shiqin [College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University-Daqing, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319 (China); Chen, Xiangmei, E-mail: xm_chen6176@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Fengmin [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The expression of Fbx4 was significantly lower in HCC tissues. • Novel splicing variants of Fbx4 were identified. • These novel variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cells. • The novel Fbx4 isoforms could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • These isoforms showed less capability for cyclin D1 binding and degradation. - Abstract: Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4α and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4β have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4γ (missing 168–245nt of exon1), Fbx4δ (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ and Fbx4δ could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4α that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ, and Fbx4δ locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant

  7. Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing; Sun, Shiqin; Chen, Xiangmei; Lu, Fengmin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expression of Fbx4 was significantly lower in HCC tissues. • Novel splicing variants of Fbx4 were identified. • These novel variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cells. • The novel Fbx4 isoforms could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • These isoforms showed less capability for cyclin D1 binding and degradation. - Abstract: Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4α and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4β have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4γ (missing 168–245nt of exon1), Fbx4δ (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ and Fbx4δ could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4α that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ, and Fbx4δ locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant

  8. Decreased glucose uptake by hyperglycemia is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Kyun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Yong Jin; Hong, Mee Kyoung; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To clarify the difference in glucose uptake between human cancer cells and monocytes, we studied ({sup 18}F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in three human colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5), one human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H522), and human peripheral blood monocytes. The FDG uptake of both cancer cells and monocytes was increased in glucose-free medium, but decreased in the medium containing 16.7 mM glucose (hyperglycemic). The level of Glut1 mRNA decreased in human colon cancer cells and NCI-H522 under hyperglycemic condition. Glut1 protein expression was also decreased in the four human cancer cell lines under hyperglycemic condition, whereas it was consistently undetectable in monocytes. SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and NCI-H522 showed a similar level of hexokinase activity (7.5-10.8 mU/mg), while SNU-C5 and moncytes showed lower range of hexokinase activity (4.3-6.5 mU/mg). These data suggest that glucose uptake is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes.

  9. Decreased glucose uptake by hyperglycemia is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes