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Sample records for human calf muscle

  1. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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    Oezdemir, Mahir S [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Reyngoudt, Harmen [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium); Deene, Yves de [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium); Sazak, Hakan S [Department of Statistics, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Fieremans, Els [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Delputte, Steven [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); D' Asseler, Yves [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Derave, Wim [Department of Movement and Sports Science, Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, Ghent (Belgium); Lemahieu, Ignace [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium)

    2007-12-07

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pH{sub i} range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 {+-} 0.57/4.8 {+-} 1.59 mM (mean {+-} SD) for athletes and 2.58 {+-} 0.65/3.3 {+-} 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that {sup 1}H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  2. Interstitial and arterial-venous [K+] in human calf muscle during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Stefan Mathias; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the concentration of interstitial K+ surrounding skeletal muscle fibres ([K+]I) probably play some role in the regulation of cardiovascular adjustments to muscular activity, as well as in the aetiology of muscle pain and fatigue during high-intensity exercise. However, there is very...... little information on the response of [K+]I to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Five young healthy subjects performed plantar flexion exercise for four 5 min periods at increasing power outputs ( approximately 1-6 W) with 10 min intervening recovery periods, as well as for two 5 min periods......+. Calf muscle pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale. On average, [K+]I was 4.4 mmol l(-1) at rest and increased during minutes 3-5 of incremental exercise by approximately 1-7 mmol l(-1) as a positive function of power output. K+ release also increased as a function of exercise intensity...

  3. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

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    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Green, Stefan Mathias

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... with a rise in leg vascular conductance and microvascular haemoglobin volume, despite elevated systemic vascular resistance. 4. The parallel rise in calf muscle and peritendinous blood flow and fall in O2 saturation during exercise indicate that blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism in both tissue...... by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous flow...

  4. In vivo imaging of the time-dependent apparent diffusional kurtosis in the human calf muscle.

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    Marschar, Anja Maria; Kuder, Tristan Anselm; Stieltjes, Bram; Nagel, Armin Michael; Bachert, Peter; Laun, Frederik Bernd

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the time dependency of apparent diffusion coefficient Dapp and apparent diffusional kurtosis Kapp in vivo in the human calf. Diffusion-weighted images of five healthy male volunteers were acquired using a 1.5T MR scanner. A stimulated echo sequence with echo planar imaging readout was used with diffusion gradients oriented along the three main axes. Mixing times (TM) of 100, 300, 500, and 700 ms and b-values ranging from 0 to 5600 s/mm(2) were used. Dapp and Kapp were determined. Dapp and Kapp decreased with increasing TM. As an example for absolute values, Dapp of the tibialis anterior drops from 1.18 ± 0.04 μm(2) /ms (TM = 100 ms) to 0.86 ± 0.02 μm(2) /ms (TM = 700 ms) (P = 0.001) and Kapp from 0.38 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.03 (P = 0.046) for a diffusion weighting along the left-right direction. Kapp was smaller than 0.43 in all muscles and at all TMs. The clearly observed time-dependence of Dapp and Kapp is an indicator of restricted diffusion in muscle tissue and may thus be a promising marker to investigate alterations of the microstructure. Compared to typical kurtosis values in white matter tissue of the brain, the kurtosis in muscle tissue is much smaller, which we attribute to the absence of the almost impermeable myelin sheath. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Improving the spectral resolution and spectral fitting of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle by the SPREAD technique.

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    Dong, Zhengchao; Zhang, Yudong; Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1) H MRSI) has been used for the in vivo measurement of intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) in human calf muscle for almost two decades, but the low spectral resolution between extramyocellular lipids (EMCLs) and IMCLs, partially caused by the magnetic field inhomogeneity, has hindered the accuracy of spectral fitting. The purpose of this paper was to enhance the spectral resolution of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle using the SPREAD (spectral resolution amelioration by deconvolution) technique and to assess the influence of improved spectral resolution on the accuracy of spectral fitting and on in vivo measurement of IMCLs. We acquired MRI and (1) H MRSI data from calf muscles of three healthy volunteers. We reconstructed spectral lineshapes of the (1) H MRSI data based on field maps and used the lineshapes to deconvolve the measured MRS spectra, thereby eliminating the line broadening caused by field inhomogeneities and improving the spectral resolution of the (1) H MRSI data. We employed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with 200 noise realizations to measure the variations of spectral fitting parameters and used an F-test to evaluate the significance of the differences of the variations between the spectra before SPREAD and after SPREAD. We also used Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) to assess the improvements of spectral fitting after SPREAD. The use of SPREAD enhanced the separation between EMCL and IMCL peaks in (1) H MRSI spectra from human calf muscle. MC simulations and F-tests showed that the use of SPREAD significantly reduced the standard deviations of the estimated IMCL peak areas (p < 10(-8) ), and the CRLBs were strongly reduced (by ~37%). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. High-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation: effects of frequency of current on blood flow in the human calf muscle.

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    Heath, M E; Gibbs, S B

    1992-06-01

    1. Twelve healthy subjects received high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation (115-475 V d.c.) delivered in separate treatments of 2, 32 and 128 pulses/s for 10 min at the subject's maximum tolerable voltage while calf muscle blood flow was measured by non-invasive Whitney strain-gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. 2. The high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation was administered with negative polarity by an intermittent mode of 30 s on, 30 s off. Measurements of calf muscle blood flow were made during each 30 s period when the stimulus was off. The effect of one 30 s maximum isometric contraction of the calf muscles on blood flow was used as a standard for evaluating the effectiveness of high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation on calf muscle blood flow. 3. Significant (paired t-tests; P less than 0.05) increases in calf muscle blood flow over the preceding baseline levels occurred for the isometric contraction (322%) and for frequencies of 2 pulses/s (33.5%) and 128 pulses/s (13.36%), but not for a frequency of 32 pulses at which calf muscle blood flow increased in only six of 12 subjects. The mean increases in calf muscle blood flow at 2 and 128 pulses/s represented 11.63% and 4.0%, respectively, of that resulting from the isometric contraction. 4. A clear positive correlation between voltage level and the magnitude of increase in calf muscle blood flow was demonstrated but differed for each frequency used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Short-term resistance training with blood flow restriction enhances microvascular filtration capacity of human calf muscles.

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    Evans, Colin; Vance, Steven; Brown, Maggie

    2010-07-01

    Resistance training increases muscle strength and endurance but may require high intensity and long duration to enhance capillarity. Vascular occlusion during low-load resistance training augments the strength and endurance gains compared with low-load resistance training alone, but in this study we investigated whether it also promotes microvascular filtration capacity, an index of capillarity. Nine healthy males performed short-term low-intensity resistance training of the calf muscles (four sets of 50 heel raises, three times a week for 4 weeks) under restricted (thigh cuff inflated to 150 mmHg on the non-dominant leg) or unrestricted (dominant leg without thigh cuff) blood flow conditions. Before and after resistance training, calf filtration capacity and resting blood flow were assessed by strain gauge plethysmography, and calf muscle strength and fatigue were assessed respectively by maximal voluntary contraction and force decline during electrically evoked ischaemic contractions in both legs. Calf filtration capacity increased by 26% in the restricted leg but did not increase significantly in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle strength was 18% greater in the restricted leg but unchanged in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle fatigue and resting blood flow did not change in either leg. Resistance training promoted microvascular filtration capacity, an effect that was somewhat enhanced by blood flow restriction, and could be due to increased capillarization.

  8. Time-resolved phosphorous magnetization transfer of the human calf muscle at 3 T and 7 T: A feasibility study

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    Valkovič, Ladislav, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Chmelík, Marek, E-mail: marek.chmelik@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Just Kukurova, Ivica, E-mail: ivica.kukurova@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Krššák, Martin, E-mail: martin.krssak@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Gruber, Stephan, E-mail: stephan@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Frollo, Ivan, E-mail: umerollo@savba.sk [Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Trattnig, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Bogner, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Phosphorous ({sup 31}P) magnetization transfer (MT) experiments enable the non-invasive investigation of human muscle metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of time-resolved MT, and to compare the results of MT experiments at 3 T and 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner using the same setup and identical measurement protocols. In the calf muscle of all volunteers, four separate MT experiments (each ∼10 min duration) were performed in one session. The forward rate constant of the ATP synthesis reaction (k{sub ATP}) and creatine kinase reaction (k{sub CK}), as well as corresponding metabolic fluxes (F{sub ATP}, F{sub CK}), were estimated. A comparison of these exchange parameters, apparent T{sub 1}s, data quality, quantification precision, and reproducibility was performed. The data quality and reproducibility of the same MT experiments at 7 T was significantly higher (i.e., k{sub ATP} 2.7 times higher and k{sub CK} 3.4 times higher) than at 3 T (p < 0.05). The values for k{sub ATP} (p = 0.35) and k{sub CK} (p = 0.09) at both field strengths were indistinguishable. Even a single MT experiment at 7 T provided better data quality than did a 4 times-longer MT experiment at 3 T. The minimal time-resolution to reliably quantify both F{sub ATP} and F{sub CK} at 7 T was ∼6 min. Our results show that MT experiments at 7 T can be at least 4 times faster than 3 T MT experiments and still provide significantly better quantification. This enables time-resolved MT experiments for the observation of slow metabolic changes in the human calf muscle at 7 T.

  9. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich

    2000-01-01

    , and (2) whether blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism. 2. Seven individuals performed dynamic plantar flexion from 1 to 9 W. Radial artery and popliteal venous blood were sampled for O2, peritendinous blood flow was determined by 133Xe-washout, calf blood flow by plethysmography, cardiac output...

  10. Vibration-induced extra torque during electrically-evoked contractions of the human calf muscles

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    Kohn André F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-frequency trains of electrical stimulation applied over the lower limb muscles can generate forces higher than would be expected from a peripheral mechanism (i.e. by direct activation of motor axons. This phenomenon is presumably originated within the central nervous system by synaptic input from Ia afferents to motoneurons and is consistent with the development of plateau potentials. The first objective of this work was to investigate if vibration (sinusoidal or random applied to the Achilles tendon is also able to generate large magnitude extra torques in the triceps surae muscle group. The second objective was to verify if the extra torques that were found were accompanied by increases in motoneuron excitability. Methods Subjects (n = 6 were seated on a chair and the right foot was strapped to a pedal attached to a torque meter. The isometric ankle torque was measured in response to different patterns of coupled electrical (20-Hz, rectangular 1-ms pulses and mechanical stimuli (either 100-Hz sinusoid or gaussian white noise applied to the triceps surae muscle group. In an additional investigation, Mmax and F-waves were elicited at different times before or after the vibratory stimulation. Results The vibratory bursts could generate substantial self-sustained extra torques, either with or without the background 20-Hz electrical stimulation applied simultaneously with the vibration. The extra torque generation was accompanied by increased motoneuron excitability, since an increase in the peak-to-peak amplitude of soleus F waves was observed. The delivery of electrical stimulation following the vibration was essential to keep the maintained extra torques and increased F-waves. Conclusions These results show that vibratory stimuli applied with a background electrical stimulation generate considerable force levels (up to about 50% MVC due to the spinal recruitment of motoneurons. The association of vibration and electrical

  11. Bioenergetics of the calf muscle in Friedreich ataxia patients measured by 31P-MRS before and after treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin.

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    Wolfgang Nachbauer

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is caused by a GAA repeat expansion in the FXN gene leading to reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO is suggested to increase frataxin levels, alter mitochondrial function and improve clinical scores in FRDA patients. Aim of the present pilot study was to investigate mitochondrial metabolism of skeletal muscle tissue in FRDA patients and examine effects of rhuEPO administration by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS. Seven genetically confirmed FRDA patients underwent 31P MRS of the calf muscles using a rest-exercise-recovery protocol before and after receiving 3000 IU of rhuEPO for eight weeks. FRDA patients showed more rapid phosphocreatine (PCr depletion and increased accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi during incremental exercise as compared to controls. After maximal exhaustive exercise prolonged regeneration of PCR and slowed decline in Pi can be seen in FRDA. PCr regeneration as hallmark of mitochondrial ATP production revealed correlation to activity of complex II/III of the respiratory chain and to demographic values. PCr and Pi kinetics were not influenced by rhuEPO administration. Our results confirm mitochondrial dysfunction and exercise intolerance due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle tissue of FRDA patients. MRS did not show improved mitochondrial bioenergetics after eight weeks of rhuEPO exposition in skeletal muscle tissue of FRDA patients.EU Clinical Trials Register2008-000040-13.

  12. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

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    Lizeth H Sloot

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally

  13. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, L.H.; van den Noort, J.C.; van der Krogt, M.M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Harlaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles,

  14. 3D-Mapping of Phosphocreatine Concentration in the Human Calf Muscle at 7T: Comparison to 3T

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    Parasoglou, Prodromos; Xia, Ding; Chang, Gregory; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The development and implementation of a spectrally selective 3D-Turbo Spin Echo sequence for quantitative mapping of phosphocreatine concentration in different muscles of the lower leg of healthy volunteers both at 3T and 7T. Methods Nine healthy volunteers were recruited, all of whom where scanned at 3T and 7T. Three dimensional phosphocreatine concentration maps were obtained after images were corrected for B1 inhomogeneities, T1 relaxation weighting, and partial volume of fatty tissue in the muscles. Two volunteers performed plantar flexions inside the magnet, and the oxidative capacity of their muscles was estimated. Results Three dimensional phosphocreatine concentration maps were obtained, with full muscle coverage and nominal voxel size of 0.52 mL at both fields. At 7T a 2.7 fold increase of signal-to-noise ratio was achieved compared to 3T. Conclusion Imaging 31P metabolites at 7T allowed for significant increase in SNR compared to imaging at 3T, while quantification of the phosphocreatine concentration remained unaffected. The importance of such an increase in SNR is twofold, first higher resolution images with reduced partial volume effects can be acquired, and second multiple measurements such as dynamic imaging of phosphocreatine post exercise, 31P magnetization transfer, or other 1H measurements, can be acquired in a single imaging session. PMID:23390003

  15. Congenital absence of superficial posterior compartment calf muscles.

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    Tibrewal, Saket; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    2014-06-01

    Although various congenital abnormalities have been described, congenital absence of calf musculature is extremely rare, with only one report on its complete absence. We are the first to describe a case of congenital absence of muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the calf presenting in a toddler. The child presented with a history of a painless limp, however no significant difference was found in functional gait analysis. We suggest that such cases should be monitored and parents can be reassured that no immediate treatment is required.

  16. Effect of exercise on calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous disease.

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    Yang, D; Vandongen, Y K; Stacey, M C

    1999-03-01

    Musculoskeletal dysfunction may be associated with poor calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous ulceration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on calf muscle pump function. Twenty patients were recruited into a 6-week intensive exercise programme. Calf muscle function and calf muscle pump function were assessed using an isokinetic device and air plethysmography respectively, before and after the exercise programme. There was significant improvement in calf muscle pump function, measured as increased ejection fraction and decreased residual fraction (P venous reflux was not altered (P > 0.05). Calf muscle strength and endurance parameters all increased, but not significantly (P > 0.05). Poor calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous ulceration can be improved by physical exercise.

  17. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Calf Muscle Localization

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    Laura Bourdeanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL usually occurs in the lymph nodes, approximately 30–40% of the time it can have an extranodal site of involvement and it can arise in nearly every body site such as intestine, bone, breast, liver, skin, lung, and central nervous system. Muscle involvement of DLBCL is especially uncommon, comprising 0.5% of extranodal NHL. We report a case of a 72-year-old man with extranodal DLBCL of a unique manifestation in the calf muscle, involving predominantly the gastrocnemius muscle. The patient achieved complete response and remained free of local recurrence or metastasis following diagnosis.

  18. Reversal of lower limb edema by calf muscle pump stimulation.

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    Goddard, Ayana A; Pierce, Carolyn S; McLeod, Kenneth J

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral edema (PE) is commonly coupled with heart failure, restrictive cardiomyopathy, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, and hypoproteinemia. Diuretics and/or limb elevation, although commonly prescribed to treat PE, are often insufficient to remove sufficient fluid to prevent complications. We assessed the ability of the calf muscle pump (CMP) stimulation to reverse PE. Fluid volume was evaluated by air plethysmography in the right legs of 54 adult women (mean age 46.7 +/- 1.5 years) following venous status assessment. Change in calf volume was assessed during 30 minutes of quiet sitting, followed by 30 minutes of sitting with CMP stimulation via micromechanical stimulation of the plantar surface. Leg volume changes demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Leg volume decreased during quiet sitting in 56% of the study group, whereas in 44% of the group, significant lower leg fluid pooling was evident (increase in calf volume of 14.0 +/- 0.3 mL/h). CMP stimulation reversed the fluid pooling in the edematous group (-2.7 +/- 0.1 mL/h) and was able to accelerate fluid removal in the nonedematous group. Approximately two fifths of adult women experience substantial pooling when their lower limbs are maintained in a dependent position. Lower-extremity edema exhibited by these women may primarily be due to inadequate calf muscle tone because exogenous stimulation of the CMP was sufficient to halt and reverse fluid pooling. Whether CMP stimulation would provide a means to treat PE in individuals with edema-related health complications, such as congestive heart failure, merits further investigation.

  19. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf

  20. Electrically induced short-lasting tetanus of the calf muscles for prevention of deep vein thrombosis.

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    Lindström, B; Korsan-Bengtsen, K; Jonsson, O; Petruson, B; Pettersson, S; Wikstrand, J

    1982-04-01

    Electrical calf muscle stimulation during surgery has been used for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with varied results in several studies. This effect is mainly achieved by the reduction of venous stasis in the legs. Another possible beneficial effect might be an increased fibrinolytic activity of the blood secondary to the muscle contractions. Previously, single electrical impulses have been used for stimulation, giving rise to 'single twitches' in the muscles. In the present study the effect on calf volume of muscle stimulation with groups of impulses giving a short-lasting tetanus was investigated. Changes in calf volume were recorded by strain gauge plethysmography. Optimal values for duration, number and frequency of the impulses within the groups were determined. Stimulation with groups of impulses reduced calf venous volume approximately three times more efficiently than stimulation with single impulses. Calf muscle stimulation did not enhance the increase in fibrinolytic activity of venous blood observed after oesophago- or laryngoscopies under general anaesthesia.

  1. Muscle-specific changes in length-force characteristics of the calf muscles in the spastic Han-Wistar rat.

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    Olesen, Annesofie T; Jensen, Bente R; Uhlendorf, Toni L; Cohen, Randy W; Baan, Guus C; Maas, Huub

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mechanical properties and mechanical interaction between muscles in the lower hindlimb of the spastic mutant rat. Length-force characteristics of gastrocnemius (GA), soleus (SO), and plantaris (PL) were assessed in anesthetized spastic and normally developed Han-Wistar rats. In addition, the extent of epimuscular myofascial force transmission between synergistic GA, SO, and PL, as well as between the calf muscles and antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA), was investigated. Active length-force curves of spastic GA and PL were narrower with a reduced maximal active force. In contrast, active length-force characteristics of spastic SO were similar to those of controls. In reference position (90° ankle and knee angle), higher resistance to ankle dorsiflexion and increased passive stiffness was found for the spastic calf muscle group. At optimum length, passive stiffness and passive force of spastic GA were decreased, whereas those of spastic SO were increased. No mechanical interaction between the calf muscles and TA was found. As GA was lengthened, force from SO and PL declined despite a constant muscle-tendon unit length of SO and PL. However, the extent of this interaction was not different in spastic rats. In conclusion, the effects of spasticity on length-force characteristics were muscle specific. The changes observed for GA and PL muscles are consistent with the changes in limb mechanics reported for human patients. Our results indicate that altered mechanics in spastic rats cannot be attributed to differences in mechanical interaction, but originate from individual muscular structures. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Calf muscle volume estimates: Implications for Botulinum toxin treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Thomsen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    An optimal botulinum toxin dose may be related to the volume of the targeted muscle. We investigated the suitability of using ultrasound and anthropometry to estimate gastrocnemius and soleus muscle volume. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle thickness was measured in 11 cadaveric human legs, using u...

  3. Muscle specific changes in length-force characteristics of the calf muscles in the spastic Han-Wistar rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annesofie Thorup; Jensen, Bente Rona; Uhlendorf, Toni L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mechanical properties and mechanical interaction between muscles in the lower hindlimb of the spastic mutant rat. Length-force characteristics of gastrocnemius (GA), soleus (SO) and plantaris (PL) were assessed in anesthetized spastic......, the extent of this interaction was not different in the spastic rats. In conclusion, the effects of spasticity on length-force characteristics were muscle specific. The changes seen for GA and PL muscles are consistent with the changes in limb mechanics reported for human patients. Our results indicate...... and normally-developed Han-Wistar rats. In addition, the extent of epimuscular myofascial force transmission between synergistic GA, SO and PL, as well as between the calf muscles and antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA) was investigated. Active length-force characteristics of spastic GA and PL were narrower...

  4. Congenital agenesis of the superficial posterior compartment calf muscles in a 13-month-old infant.

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    Kang, Jin Young; Jang, Dae-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    Muscle agenesis may induce cosmetic and functional deficits, particularly if the muscle is an axial limb or a large muscle. Limb muscle agenesis is a rare condition. Here, the authors report the case of a 13-mo-old girl with unilateral atrophic calf and gait abnormality. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed agenesis of the posterior superficial compartment of the calf. The patient showed an out-toeing calcaneal gait and fibular length discrepancy secondarily during growth. Normal embryology and the differential diagnostic point of foot deformity as well as the clinical implications of calf agenesis are described.

  5. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

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    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers.

  6. EFFECT OF MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING AND CALF MUSCLES AND SPRINTING PERFORMANCE IN SPRINTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prasad Naik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muscle energy technique is used for restoring normal tone in hypertonic muscles, strengthening weak muscles, preparing muscle for subsequent stretching, one of the main uses of this method is to normalize joint range which may help in increase flexibility and performance in sprinters. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of muscle energy technique on flexibility of hamstrings and calf muscles and sprinting performance in sprinters. The objective of the study is to determine the muscle energy technique on hamstrings and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance in sprinters by using goniometer and timing of sprinting performance. Method: The study design is an experimental study in which 30 male sprinters were recruited in this study. The study sample included all male healthy sprinters, aged between 15 -30 years. All subjects received warm up, muscle energy technique and cool down exercises daily for a period of 6weeks.The outcome measures are 90°-90°popliteal angle for assessing hamstring flexibility and ROM of ankle joint for calf muscles by universal goniometer and sprinting performance time by using stopwatch. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test are used to analyse the data. A significant difference was found between pre and post values of hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance after the analysis in this study. Conclusion: This study shows that there was a significant effect of MET on hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance.

  7. Calf muscle strain injuries in sport: a systematic review of risk factors for injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brady; Pizzari, Tania

    2017-08-01

    To systematically review the literature to identify risk factors for calf strain injury, and to direct future research into calf muscle injuries. Systematic review DATA SOURCES: Database searches conducted for Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, AUSPORT, SportDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library. Manual reference checks, ahead of press searches, citation tracking. From inception to June 2016. Studies evaluating and presenting data related to intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors for sustaining future calf injury. Ten studies were obtained for review. Subjects across football, Australian football, rugby union, basketball and triathlon were reported on, representing 5397 athletes and 518 calf/ lower leg muscle injuries. Best evidence synthesis highlights chronological age and previous history of calf strain are the strongest risk factors for future calf muscle injury. Previous lower limb injuries (hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, knee) show some limited evidence for an association. Numerous factors lack evidence of an association, including height, weight, gender and side dominance. Increasing age and previous calf strain injury are the most predictive of future calf injury. The overall paucity of evidence and the trend for studies of a high risk of bias show that further research needs to be undertaken. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Dynamic 31P–MRSI using spiral spectroscopic imaging can map mitochondrial capacity in muscles of the human calf during plantar flexion exercise at 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovič, Ladislav; Chmelík, Marek; Meyerspeer, Martin; Gagoski, Borjan; Rodgers, Christopher T.; Krššák, Martin; Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Phosphorus MRSI (31P–MRSI) using a spiral‐trajectory readout at 7 T was developed for high temporal resolution mapping of the mitochondrial capacity of exercising human skeletal muscle. The sensitivity and localization accuracy of the method was investigated in phantoms. In vivo performance was assessed in 12 volunteers, who performed a plantar flexion exercise inside a whole‐body 7 T MR scanner using an MR‐compatible ergometer and a surface coil. In five volunteers the knee was flexed (~60°) to shift the major workload from the gastrocnemii to the soleus muscle. Spiral‐encoded MRSI provided 16–25 times faster mapping with a better point spread function than elliptical phase‐encoded MRSI with the same matrix size. The inevitable trade‐off for the increased temporal resolution was a reduced signal‐to‐noise ratio, but this was acceptable. The phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion caused by exercise at 0° knee angulation was significantly higher in both gastrocnemii than in the soleus (i.e. 64.8 ± 19.6% and 65.9 ± 23.6% in gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis versus 15.3 ± 8.4% in the soleus). Spiral‐encoded 31P–MRSI is a powerful tool for dynamic mapping of exercising muscle oxidative metabolism, including localized assessment of PCr concentrations, pH and maximal oxidative flux with high temporal and spatial resolution. PMID:27862510

  9. Dynamic31P-MRSI using spiral spectroscopic imaging can map mitochondrial capacity in muscles of the human calf during plantar flexion exercise at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovič, Ladislav; Chmelík, Marek; Meyerspeer, Martin; Gagoski, Borjan; Rodgers, Christopher T; Krššák, Martin; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus MRSI ( 31 P-MRSI) using a spiral-trajectory readout at 7 T was developed for high temporal resolution mapping of the mitochondrial capacity of exercising human skeletal muscle. The sensitivity and localization accuracy of the method was investigated in phantoms. In vivo performance was assessed in 12 volunteers, who performed a plantar flexion exercise inside a whole-body 7 T MR scanner using an MR-compatible ergometer and a surface coil. In five volunteers the knee was flexed (~60°) to shift the major workload from the gastrocnemii to the soleus muscle. Spiral-encoded MRSI provided 16-25 times faster mapping with a better point spread function than elliptical phase-encoded MRSI with the same matrix size. The inevitable trade-off for the increased temporal resolution was a reduced signal-to-noise ratio, but this was acceptable. The phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion caused by exercise at 0° knee angulation was significantly higher in both gastrocnemii than in the soleus (i.e. 64.8 ± 19.6% and 65.9 ± 23.6% in gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis versus 15.3 ± 8.4% in the soleus). Spiral-encoded 31 P-MRSI is a powerful tool for dynamic mapping of exercising muscle oxidative metabolism, including localized assessment of PCr concentrations, pH and maximal oxidative flux with high temporal and spatial resolution. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. No change in calf muscle passive stiffness after botulinum toxin injection in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusaini, Adel A A; Crosbie, Jack; Shepherd, Roberta B; Dean, Catherine M; Scheinberg, Adam

    2011-06-01

    Stiffness and shortening of the calf muscle due to neural or mechanical factors can profoundly affect motor function. The aim of this study was to investigate non-neurally mediated calf-muscle tightness in children with cerebral palsy (CP) before and after botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection. Sixteen children with spastic CP (seven females, nine males; eight at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, eight at level II; age range 4-10 y) and calf muscle spasticity were tested before and during the pharmaceutically active phase after injection of BoNT-A. Measures of passive muscle compliance and viscoelastic responses, hysteresis, and the gradient of the torque-angle curve were computed and compared before and after injection. Although there was a slight, but significant increase in ankle range of motion after BoNT-A injection and a small, significant decrease in the torque required to achieve plantigrade and 5° of dorsiflexion, no significant difference in myotendinous stiffness or hysteresis were detected after BoNT-A injection. Despite any effect on neurally mediated responses, the compliance of the calf muscle was not changed and the muscle continued to offer significant resistance to passive motion of the ankle. These findings suggest that additional treatment approaches are required to supplement the effects of BoNT-A injections when managing children with calf muscle spasticity. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No continued improvement in calf muscle performance

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction in calf muscles of patients with combined peripheral arterial disease and diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Pedersen, Brian; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study elucidate the effects on muscle mitochondrial function in patients suffering from combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relation to patient symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) calf muscle exercise tests...... tested applying high resolution oxygraphy on isolated muscle fibers. RESULTS: The NIRS exercise tests showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in the PAD+T2D group by a longer recovery of the deoxygenation resulting from exercise in spite of a higher exercise oxygenation level compared to the PAD...... were conducted on Forty subjects, 15 (PAD), 15 (PAD+T2D) and 10 healthy age matched controls (CTRL) recruited from the vascular outpatient clinic at Gentofte County Hospital, Denmark. Calf muscle biopsies (~ 80 mg) (Gastrocnemius and Anterior tibial muscles) were sampled and mitochondrial function...

  13. Relationship between passive properties of the calf muscles and plantarflexion concentric isokinetic torque characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, Richard L

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a model of aging to examine the relationships between passive properties of the calf muscles and plantarflexion concentric isokinetic torque characteristics. Eighty-one active women 20-84 years of age were tested using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer interfaced with electromyography (EMG). The passive properties were tested by stretching the muscles from relaxed plantarflexion to a maximal dorsiflexion (DF) angle at a rate of 5 degrees.s(-1) (0.087 rad.s(-1)) with minimal raw EMG activity (plantarflexion at four randomly ordered velocities of 30, 60, 120, and 180 degrees.s(-1). Pearson correlation coefficients (Bonferroni adjusted) indicated a hierarchical order of high to moderate positive correlations between four passive properties and the peak and mean concentric torque for all test velocities. Correlation coefficients for the four passive properties ranged from 0.50 to 0.78 ( P<0.001), and the coefficients of determination ( r(2)) from higher to lower were: (1) maximal DF passive resistive torque ( r(2): 0.50-0.62), (2) length extensibility ( r(2): 0.40-0.49), (3) maximal muscle length ( r(2): 0.28-0.41), and (4) passive elastic stiffness in the last half of the full-stretch range of motion ( r(2): 0.25-0.31). The maximal DF passive resistive torque and the length extensibility accounted for 50-62% and 40-49% of the variability in the concentric torque, respectively. The results indicate that the concentrically stronger calf muscles of active women were positively correlated with passively stronger, longer, and stiffer calf muscles, which are characteristics of the calf muscles of younger women. Further studies are needed to examine whether therapeutic interventions, such as stretching and strengthening, can promote adaptations in the calf muscles of older women to attain these more youthful characteristics.

  14. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  15. Hip, thigh and calf muscle atrophy and bone loss after 5-week bedrest inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Hans E; Eiken, Ola; Miklavcic, Lucijan; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2007-02-01

    Unloaded inactivity induces atrophy and functional deconditioning of skeletal muscle, especially in the lower extremities. Information is scarce, however, regarding the effect of unloaded inactivity on muscle size and function about the hip. Regional bone loss has been demonstrated in hips and knees of elderly orthopaedic patients, as quantified by computerized tomography (CT). This method remains to be validated in healthy individuals rendered inactive, including real or simulated weightlessness. In this study, ten healthy males were subjected to 5 weeks of experimental bedrest and five matched individuals served as ambulatory controls. Maximum voluntary isometric hip and knee extension force were measured using the strain gauge technique. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of hip, thigh and calf muscles, and radiological density (RD) of the proximal tibial bone were measured using CT. Bedrest decreased (P muscle strength by 20 (8)% in knee extension, and by 22 (12)% in hip extension. Bedrest induced atrophy (P muscles in the gluteal region, thigh and calf, ranging from 2 to 12%. Atrophy was more pronounced in the knee extensors [9 (4)%] and ankle plantar flexors [12 (3)%] than in the gluteal extensor muscles [2 (2)%]. Bone density of the proximal tibia decreased (P muscle or bone indices (P > 0.05), when examined at similar time intervals. The present findings of a substantial loss in hip extensor strength and a smaller, yet significant atrophy of these muscles, demonstrate that hip muscle deconditioning accompanies losses in thigh and calf muscle mass after bedrest. This suggests that comprehensive quantitative studies on impaired locomotor function after inactivity should include all joints of the lower extremity. Our results also demonstrate that a decreased RD, indicating bone mineral loss, can be shown already after 5 weeks of unloaded bedrest, using a standard CT technique.

  16. Changes in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf blood flow during static handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M; Mano, T; Iwase, S

    1990-01-01

    To test the function of sympathetic vasco-constrictor nerves on blood flow in resting limbs during static muscle contraction, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to the leg muscle was recorded from the tibial nerve microneurographically before, during and after 2 min of static handgrip (SHG). Simultaneously, calf blood flow (CBF) was measured by strain gauge plethysmography. An increase in MSNA, a decrease in CBF and an increase in calf vascular resistance (CVR) in the same resting limb occurred concomitantly during SHG. However, the increase in CVR was blunted in the second minute of handgrip when MSNA was still increasing. The results indicated that the decrease of CBF during SHG reflects the increase in MSNA, while the dissociation between MSNA and CVR at the later period of SHG may be related to metabolic change produced by the vasoconstriction.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to the calf muscle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, George; Ting, Amy Y I; Jhamb, Ashu; Connell, David; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2007-10-01

    The objective was to describe the imaging findings following acute injury to the calf musculature. We retrospectively reviewed 59 MR examinations in patients who sustained injuries to the calf muscle from April 2001 to September 2004 (48 men, 11 women), with an average age of 31 and 47 years respectively (range in men 20-53; range in women 33-63). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the musculotendinous unit and the extent of the injury. A total of 79 separate sites of strain injury were identified (39 solitary, 20 dual). Of the 39 isolated strains, injury to the gastrocnemius was most common (19 out of 39; 48.7%), preferentially involving the medial head in 18 cases and the lateral head in 1 case. The soleus was also commonly involved (18 out of 39; 46.2%), with 2 cases (5.1%) of distal avulsions of the plantaris. Of the 20 dual injuries, a combination of gastrocnemius injury with soleus injury was the most frequent finding (12 out of 20; 60%). Dual injuries of both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles were demonstrated in 4 cases (20%), with the soleus and tibialis posterior injured in 3 cases (15%). A combination of soleus and flexor hallucis longus injury was seen in 1 case (5%). This retrospective study utilizing MRI demonstrates that the medial head of the gastrocnemius is the most commonly injured muscle of the calf, closely followed by the soleus, the latter finding rarely reported in the sonographic literature. Dual injuries of the calf muscle complex occur much more commonly than previously reported and may be of prognostic significance.

  18. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-07-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using...... a computerized cuff algometer. Analyses of variance on the per-protocol population (defined as participants that adhered to the protocol) were used to assess group differences in the changes from baseline. RESULT: Forty healthy volunteers were included, of which 34 participants adhered to the protocol (15...... intervention group/19 control group). No statistically significant group differences in the changes from baseline were found regarding PPT and TS measurements for the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and the arm. CONCLUSION: Four weeks of regular stretching of the calf muscles does not affect pressure...

  20. A novel approach to sonographic examination in a patient with a calf muscle tear: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Carl PC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rupture of the distal musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, also known as "tennis leg", can be readily examined using a soft tissue ultrasound. Loss of muscle fiber continuity and the occurrence of bloody fluid accumulation can be observed using ultrasound with the patient in the prone position; however, some cases may have normal ultrasound findings in this conventional position. We report a case of a middle-aged man with tennis leg. Ultrasound examination had normal findings during the first two attempts. During the third attempt, with the patient's calf muscles examined in an unconventional knee flexed position, sonographic findings resembling tennis leg were detected. Case presentation A 60-year-old man in good health visited our rehabilitation clinic complaining of left calf muscle pain. On suspicion of a ruptured left medial head gastrocnemius muscle, a soft tissue ultrasound examination was performed. An ultrasound examination revealed symmetrical findings of bilateral calf muscles without evidence of muscle rupture. A roentgenogram of the left lower limb did not reveal any bony lesions. An ultrasound examination one week later also revealed negative sonographic findings. However, he still complained of persistent pain in his left calf area. A different ultrasound examination approach was then performed with the patient lying in the supine position with his knee flexed at 90 degrees. The transducer was then placed pointing upwards to examine the muscles and well-defined anechoic fluid collections with areas of hypoechoic surroundings were observed. Conclusion For patients suffering from calf muscle area pain and suspicion of tennis leg, a soft tissue ultrasound is a simple tool to confirm the diagnosis. However, in the case of negative sonographic findings, we recommend trying a different positional approach to examine the calf muscles by ultrasound before the diagnosis of tennis leg can

  1. Effects of repeated ankle stretching on calf muscle-tendon and ankle biomechanical properties in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Ren, Yupeng; Roth, Elliot J; Harvey, Richard; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in active and passive biomechanical properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit induced by controlled ankle stretching in stroke survivors. Ten stroke survivors with ankle spasticity/contracture and ten healthy control subjects received intervention of 60-min ankle stretching. Joint biomechanical properties including resistance torque, stiffness and index of hysteresis were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Achilles tendon length was measured using ultrasonography. The force output of the triceps surae muscles was characterized via the torque-angle relationship, by stimulating the calf muscles at a controlled intensity across different ankle positions. Compared to healthy controls, the ankle position corresponding to the peak torque of the stroke survivors was shifted towards plantar flexion (Pstretching intervention, especially in dorsiflexion (P=0.013). Stretching significantly improved the force output of the impaired calf muscles in stroke survivors under matched stimulations (Pstretching (Pstretching loosened the ankle joint with increased passive joint range of motion and decreased joint stiffness. At the muscle-tendon level, repeated stretching improved calf muscle force output, which might be associated with decreased muscle fascicle stiffness, increased fascicle length and shortening of the Achilles tendon. The study provided evidence of improvement in muscle tendon properties through stretching intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ankle-foot orthoses that restrict dorsiflexion improve walking in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeger, Hilde E; Bus, Sicco A; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Nollet, Frans

    2014-07-01

    In polio survivors with calf muscle weakness, dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (DR-AFOs) aim to improve gait in order to reduce walking-related problems such as instability or increased energy cost. However, evidence on the efficacy of DR-AFOs in polio survivors is lacking. We investigated the effect of DR-AFOs on gait biomechanics, walking energy cost, speed, and perceived waking ability in this patient group. Sixteen polio survivors with calf muscle weakness underwent 3D-gait analyses to assess gait biomechanics when walking with a DR-AFOs and with shoes only. Ambulant registration of gas-exchange during a 6 min walk test determined walking energy cost, and comfortable gait speed was calculated from the walked distance during this test. Perceived walking ability was assessed using purposely-designed questionnaires. Compared with shoes-only, walking with the DR-AFOs significantly increased forward progression of the center of pressure (CoP) in mid-stance and it reduced ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion in mid- and terminal stance (p muscle weakness, DR-AFOs improved gait biomechanics, speed, and perceived walking ability, compared to shoes-only. Effects may depend on the shoes-only gait pattern, therefore further study is needed to determine which patients benefit most from the DR-AFO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Venous capacity, venous refill time and the effectiveness of the calf muscle pump in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendsen, G J; van den Berg, J W

    1984-03-01

    With strain gauge plethysmography various procedures to assess the competence of the venous system in the lower leg were compared in 10 normal subjects. The reproducibility and ease of use were established, and normal values were obtained. It is concluded, that measurements in the sitting position are preferable to those in the standing position. To measure the venous capacity, the dependency test is the method of choice. Rhythmic exercise to assess the effectiveness of the calf muscle pump can be restricted to five successive contractions. The refill time after exercise is not a suitable parameter to assess the competence of the venous valves.

  4. Influence of vision and static stretch of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Akinori; Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Hay, Dean C; Himeno, Ryutaro; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of vision and stretching of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing. Under pre-stretch conditions, participants stood on a force plate for 30s and the sway of the ground reaction force center of pressure was recorded. The following postural sway variables were calculated off-line: sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range, mean mediolateral position and mean anteroposterior position. For post-stretch conditions, participants stood quietly on a device that was utilized to impose a static 3 min ankle joint dorsiflexion stretch. Immediately thereafter, participants moved onto the force platform where postural sway parameters were again recorded. Randomized eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were tested in both cases. Results showed that postural sway significantly increased due to stretch (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal anteroposterior range, mean anteroposterior position), as well as eye closure (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range). The interaction between stretch and eye closure was also significant (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range), suggesting that there were only minor increases in postural sway after stretch under the eyes-open condition. It was suggested that stretching of the calf muscles has the effect of increasing postural sway, although this effect can be greatly compensated for when vision is included.

  5. Venous reflux has a limited effect on calf muscle pump dysfunction in post-thrombotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, J H; Janssen, M C; Brakkee, A J; Van Langen, H; Wollersheim, H; De Boo, T M; Skotnicki, S H; Thien, T

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between calf muscle pump dysfunction (CMD) and the presence and location of valvular incompetence. Deep vein obstruction might influence CMD, and so venous outflow resistance (VOR) was measured. VOR and calf muscle pump function were measured in 81 patients, 7-13 years after venographically confirmed lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The supine venous pump function test (SVPT) measures CMD, and the VOR measures the presence of venous outflow obstructions, both with the use of strain-gauge plethysmography. Valvular incompetence was measured using duplex scanning in 16 vein segments of one leg. Venous reflux was measured in proximal veins using the Valsalva manoeuvre, and in the distal veins by distal manual compression with sudden release. Abnormal proximal venous reflux was defined as a reflux time of more than 1 s, and abnormal distal venous reflux as a reflux time of more than 0.5 s. No statistically significant relationship was found between the SVPT and either the location or the number of vein segments with reflux. Of the 81 patients, only nine still had an abnormally high VOR, and this VOR showed no relationship with the SVPT. In conclusion, venous reflux has a limited effect on CMD, as measured by the SVPT. The presence of a venous outflow obstruction did not significantly influence the SVPT. Duplex scanning and the SVPT are independent complementary tests for evaluating chronic venous insufficiency.

  6. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M.; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P < 0.05) and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm). In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in

  7. Young, healthy subjects can reduce the activity of calf muscles when provided with EMG biofeedback in upright stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at

  8. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight. PMID:28076365

  9. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  10. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gambara

    Full Text Available Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus. Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5 flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013, a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5, or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5. Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response. Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6 were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Calf Muscle during Walking at Simulated Reduced Gravity - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stroud, Leah; Norcross, Jason; Gernhardt, Michael; Soller, Babs R.

    2008-01-01

    Consideration for lunar and planetary exploration space suit design can be enhanced by investigating the physiologic responses of individual muscles during locomotion in reduced gravity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to study the physiology of individual muscles in ambulatory subjects during reduced gravity simulations. PURPOSE: To investigate calf muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and pH during reduced gravity walking at varying treadmill inclines and added mass conditions using NIRS. METHODS: Four male subjects aged 42.3 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and weighing 77.9 +/- 2.4 kg walked at a moderate speed (3.2 +/- 0.2 km/h) on a treadmill at inclines of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Unsuited subjects were attached to a partial gravity simulator which unloaded the subject to simulate body weight plus the additional weight of a space suit (121 kg) in lunar gravity (0.17G). Masses of 0, 11, 23, and 34 kg were added to the subject and then unloaded to maintain constant weight. Spectra were collected from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and SmO2 and pH were calculated using previously published methods (Yang et al. 2007 Optics Express ; Soller et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol). The effects of incline and added mass on SmO2 and pH were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: SmO2 and pH were both unchanged by added mass (p>0.05), so data from trials at the same incline were averaged. LG SmO2 decreased significantly with increasing incline (p=0.003) from 61.1 +/- 2.0% at 0% incline to 48.7 +/- 2.6% at 30% incline, while pH was unchanged by incline (p=0.12). CONCLUSION: Increasing the incline (and thus work performed) during walking causes the LG to extract more oxygen from the blood supply, presumably to support the increased metabolic cost of uphill walking. The lack of an effect of incline on pH may indicate that, while the intensity of exercise has increased, the LG has not reached a level of work above the anaerobic threshold. In these

  12. Calf muscle oxygen saturation and the effects of supervised exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckitt, Tim A; Day, Jude; Morgan, Maria; Lamont, Peter M

    2012-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the symptomatic improvement witnessed as a result of exercise training in intermittent claudication remain unclear. There is no reproducible evidence to support increased limb blood flow resulting from neovascularization. Changes in oxygenation of active muscles as a result of blood redistribution are hypothesized but unproven. This study sought evidence of improved gastrocnemius oxygenation resulting from exercise training. The study recruited 42 individuals with claudication. After an initial control period of exercise advice, participants undertook a 3-month supervised exercise program. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy monitored calf muscle oxygen saturation (Sto(2)) during exercise and after a period of cuff-induced ischemia. Comparison was made with 14 individuals undergoing angioplasty for calf claudication. Clinical outcomes of claudication distance and maximum walking distance were measured by treadmill assessment. Significant increases occurred in mean [interquartile range] claudication disease (57 [38-78] to 119 [97-142] meters; P = .01) and maximum walking distance (124 [102-147] to 241 [193-265] meters; P = .02) after supervised exercise but not after the control period. No change occurred in resting Sto(2) at any interval. Angioplasty (27% [21-34] to 19% [13-29]; P = .02) but not exercise training (26% [21-32] vs 23% [20-31]; P > .20) resulted in a reduced Sto(2) desaturation in response to submaximal exercise and an increased hyperemic hemoglobin oxygen recovery rate after ischemia (0.48 [0.39-0.55] to 0.63 [0.52-0.69] s(-1); P = .01). However supervised exercise reduced the Sto(2) recovery half-time by 17% (82 [64-101] to 68 [55-89] seconds; P = .02). Supervised exercise training is not associated with increased gastrocnemius muscle oxygenation during exercise or increased hyperemic hemoglobin flow after a model of ischemia. This suggests that the symptomatic improvement witnessed is not the result of increased

  13. Functional effects of botulinum toxin type-A treatment and subsequent stretching of spastic calf muscles: a study in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Niet, Mark; de Bot, Susanne T; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Geurts, Alexander C

    2015-02-01

    Although calf muscle spasticity is often treated with botulinum toxin type-A, the effects on balance and gait are ambiguous. Hereditary spastic paraplegia is characterized by progressive spasticity and relatively mild muscle weakness of the lower limbs. It is therefore a good model to evaluate the functional effects of botulinum toxin type-A. Explorative pre-post intervention study. Fifteen subjects with pure hereditary spastic paraplegia. Patients with symptomatic calf muscle spasticity and preserved calf muscle strength received botulinum toxin type-A injections in each triceps surae (Dysport®, 500-750 MU) followed by daily stretching exercises (18 weeks). Before intervention (T0), and 4 (T1) and 18 (T2) weeks thereafter, gait, balance, motor selectivity, calf muscle tone and strength were tested. Mean comfortable gait velocity increased from T0 (0.90 m/s (standard deviation (SD) 0.18)) to T1 (0.98 m/s (SD 0.20)), which effect persisted at T2, whereas balance and other functional measures remained unchanged. Calf muscle tone declined from T0 (median 2; range 1-2) to T1 (median 0; range 0-1), which effect partially persisted at T2 (median 1; range 0-2). Calf muscle strength did not change. Botulinum toxin type-A treatment and subsequent muscle stretching of the calves improved comfortable gait velocity and reduced muscle tone in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia, while preserving muscle strength. Balance remained unaffected.

  14. Slow passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, Richard L; Vander Linden, Darl W; McNair, Peter J; Riggin, Tammy J; Albertson, Jeff S; Mattick, Danita J; Wegley, Joseph C

    2004-05-01

    Examine the slow passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion. A cross-sectional comparative design. The passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion have not been studied. Fifteen older women (mean 79 years) with active dorsiflexion dorsiflexion were tested. The right ankle was stretched from plantarflexion to maximal dorsiflexion and released into plantarflexion at 5 degrees /s with minimal surface EMG activity in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles. Length, passive-elastic stiffness and stored passive-elastic energy were examined. The older women had less maximal passive dorsiflexion, a greater initial stretch angle, and less angular change than the younger women (P dorsiflexion (P dorsiflexion. Older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion have decreased calf muscle length, passive resistive forces and stored passive-elastic energy that may impact static and dynamic standing balance activities. Greater passive-elastic stiffness within their ambulatory dorsiflexion range of motion may partially compensate for the deficits.

  15. A physiological model for interpretation of arterial spin labeling reactive hyperemia of calf muscles.

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    Hou-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available To characterize and interpret arterial spin labeling (ASL reactive hyperemia of calf muscles for a better understanding of the microcirculation in peripheral arterial disease (PAD, we present a physiological model incorporating oxygen transport, tissue metabolism, and vascular regulation mechanisms. The model demonstrated distinct effects between arterial stenoses and microvascular dysfunction on reactive hyperemia, and indicated a higher sensitivity of 2-minute thigh cuffing to microvascular dysfunction than 5-minute cuffing. The recorded perfusion responses in PAD patients (n = 9 were better differentiated from the normal subjects (n = 7 using the model-based analysis rather than characterization using the apparent peak and time-to-peak of the responses. The analysis results suggested different amounts of microvascular disease within the patient group. Overall, this work demonstrates a novel analysis method and facilitates understanding of the physiology involved in ASL reactive hyperemia. ASL reactive hyperemia with model-based analysis may be used as a noninvasive microvascular assessment in the presence of arterial stenoses, allowing us to look beyond the macrovascular disease in PAD. A subgroup who will have a poor prognosis after revascularization in the patients with critical limb ischemia may be associated with more severe microvascular diseases, which may potentially be identified using ASL reactive hyperemia.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopy provides an index of blood flow and vasoconstriction in calf skeletal muscle during lower body negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, T; Blaber, A P; Saito, M

    2008-06-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used previously for forearm blood flow estimation at rest and during exercise. In this study we applied NIRS to selectively monitor deep calf oxygenated haemoglobin (Hb) responses in order to estimate blood flow changes in the calf muscle during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that changes in calf skeletal muscle oxygenated-Hb, after the removal of superficial tissue responses, were related to blood flow changes during orthostatic stress, and to determine the efficacy of using NIRS measurements as an index of vasoconstriction. Twenty-nine subjects participated in this study. All attempted a graded LBNP trial from baseline (0 mmHg) to -60 mmHg LBNP in 10 mmHg steps at 5-min intervals. Calf blood flow changes were estimated by oxygenated-Hb responses in relation to changes in mercury strain gauge plethysmography and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Calf selective deep oxygenated-Hb decreased continuously from -10 mmHg LBNP. Regression analysis showed that oxygenated-Hb was significantly related to declines in plethysmography evaluations of blood flow [oxygenated-Hb = (-1.57 +/- 0.26) + (1.86 +/- 0.49) plethysmography, r(2) = 0.87 +/- 0.09]. Changes in MSNA (total activity) were also inversely related to oxygenated-Hb (slope calf oxygenated-Hb can be utilized to estimate calf muscle blood flow changes that are most likely caused by vasoconstriction during graded LBNP.

  17. Effects of Changes in Colored Light on Brain and Calf Muscle Blood Concentration and Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Weinzirl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Color light therapy is a therapeutic method in complementary medicine. In color therapy, light of two contrasting colors is often applied in a sequential order. The aim of this study was to investigate possible physiological effects, i.e., changes in the blood volume and oxygenation in the brain and calf muscle of healthy subjects who were exposed to red and blue light in sequential order. The hypothesis was that if a subject is first exposed to blue and then red light, the effect of the red light will be enhanced due to the contrastingly different characteristics of the two colors. The same was expected for blue light, if first exposing a subject to red and then to blue light. Twelve healthy volunteers (six male, six female were measured twice on two different days by near-infrared spectroscopy during exposure to colored light. Two sequences of colored light were applied in a controlled, randomized, crossover design: first blue, then red, and vice versa. For the brain and muscle, the results showed no significant differences in blood volume and oxygenation between the two sequences, and a high interindividual physiological variability. Thus, the hypothesis had to be rejected. Comparing these data to results from a previous study, where subjects were exposed to blue and red light without sequential color changes, shows that the results of the current study appear to be similar to those of red light exposure. This may indicate that the exposure to red light was preponderant and thus effects of blue light were outweighed.

  18. A case of polyarteritis nodosa limited to the right calf muscles, fascia, and skin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Francesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Limited polyarteritis nodosa is a rare benign disease that usually responds well to systemic corticosteroid treatment. We report a case limited to calf muscles, fascia, and skin treated with local corticosteroid therapy directed to the affected areas by ultrasound guidance. Case presentation A 36-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 10-month history of progressive right calf pain and swelling, which were unresponsive to treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physiotherapy. An examination revealed a swollen tender right calf with indurated overlying skin. Laboratory investigations showed an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 24 mm/hour and a C-reactive protein of 15 mg/dl. Full blood count, renal profile, and creatinine kinase level were normal. A full autoantibody screen and hepatitis B and C serology results were negative. A chest X-ray was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right leg revealed increased signal intensity in T2-weighted images and this was suggestive of extensive inflammatory changes of the gastrocnemius muscle and, to a lesser extent, the soleus muscle. There were marked inflammatory changes throughout the gastrocnemius muscle and the subcutaneous tissue circumferentially around the right lower leg. A biopsy of affected skin, muscle, and fascia showed histopathological features consistent with polyarteritis nodosa, including small-vessel vasculitis with fibrinoid changes in the vessel wall and intense perivascular and focal mural chronic inflammatory changes. Our patient declined treatment with oral steroids. She received a course of ultrasound-guided injections of steroid (Depo-Medrone, methylprednisolone in the involved muscle area and commenced maintenance azathioprine with a good response. Conclusions Limited polyarteritis nodosa is rare and affects middle-aged individuals. In most cases, treatment with moderate- to high-dose corticosteroids gives symptomatic relief

  19. The value of near-infrared spectroscopy for the assessment of calf muscle function in venous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, Spyros N; Tzemailas, Ioannis; Antonopoulos, Constantine N; Mastoraki, Sotiria; Mantas, George K; Lazaris, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technique with the potential to determine the degree of tissue oxygenation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the use of NIRS as a reliable method of detecting calf muscle pump dysfunction in groups of patients with venous disease. Patients with superficial venous insufficiency (SVI) or history of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were classified according to the comprehensive classification system for chronic venous disorders (clinical class, etiology, anatomy, and pathophysiology) and compared with controls (GROUP variable). A 10-stage evaluation of ambulatory venous function was performed, and corresponding values of calf regional oxygen saturation (crSaO 2 , %) at each phase were recorded (TIME variable). Thereafter, the percentage changes of crSaO 2 values (Δ scores, %) between a given phase and the reference phase were estimated. Differences among groups and phases were evaluated using analysis of variance. Subgroup analysis between C0-C2 and C3-C6 patients was performed. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to detect the best predictive capability for SVI and DVT. A total of 30 patients with SVI, 31 patients with DVT, and 34 controls were included in the study. A statistically significant effect of TIME (F = 382.4; P patients. The measurement of crSaO 2 using NIRS detected alterations in calf muscle pump oxygenation during exercise and differences in tissue oxygenation among SVI patients, DVT patients, and controls. NIRS may represent a reliable noninvasive tool for the study of calf muscle dysfunction in venous disease and a useful vehicle for generating testable hypotheses in the laboratory setting. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of a static calf muscle-tendon unit stretching program on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Bradley, Bruce; Witkowski, Kimberly; McKee, Rose; Telesmanic, Christopher; Chavez, Andre; Kennedy, Karen; Zimmerman, Grenith

    2007-01-01

    While there has been considerable research on stretching, a paucity of research has focused on stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) in older women. Because limited ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) is associated with gait abnormalities and increases the risk of falls in the elderly, we investigated the effect of static stretching on flexibility of the calf MTU of healthy elderly adults. Twenty healthy female volunteers, 76 to 91 years of age, were recruited from Linda Valley Villa, an independent living center. Subjects performed a static stretching program 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was taken prior to beginning the stretching program and 3 days after the last stretching day. Mean increase in passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was 12.3 degrees (SD= 4.4 degrees ) (p dorsiflexion ROM for elderly women.

  1. Reliability of Calf Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy and Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging-Acquired Skeletal Muscle Hydration Measures in Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sawant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability, relative variability, and agreement between calf bioelectrical impedance-spectroscopy (cBIS acquired extracellular fluid (ECF, intracellular fluid (ICF, total water and the ratio of ECF : ICF, magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI acquired transverse relaxation times (T2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC of calf muscles of the same segment in healthy individuals. Methods. Muscle hydration measures were collected in 32 healthy individuals on two occasions and analyzed by a single rater. On both occasions, MRI measures were collected from tibialis anterior (TA, medial (MG, and lateral gastrocnemius (LG and soleus muscles following the cBIS data acquired using XiTRON Hydra 4200 BIS device. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1, coefficient of variation (CV, and agreement between MRI and cBIS data were also calculated. Results. ICC2,1 values for cBIS, T2, and ADC ranged from 0.56 to 0.92, 0.96 to 0.99, and 0.05 to 0.56, respectively. Relative variability between measures (CV ranged from 14.6 to 25.6% for the cBIS data and 4.2 to 10.0% for the MRI-acquired data. The ratio of ECF : ICF could significantly predict T2 of TA and soleus muscles. Conclusion. MRI-acquired measures of T2 had the highest test-retest reliability of muscle hydration with the least error and variation on repeated testing. Hence, T2 of a muscle is the most reliable and stable outcome measure for evaluating individual muscle hydration.

  2. Quantitative evaluation for spasticity of calf muscle after botulinum toxin injection in patients with cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Lin, I-Ling; Chou, Te-Feng Arthur; Lee, Hsin-Min

    2016-03-12

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common pediatric disease to cause motor disability. Two common symptoms in CP are spasticity and contracture. If this occurred in the ankle plantar flexors of children with CP, it will impair their gait and active daily living profoundly. Most children with CP receive botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection to reduce muscle tone, but a knowledge gap exists in the understanding of changes of neural and non-neural components of spasticity after injection. The purpose of this study was to determine if our device for quantitative modified Tardieu approach (QMTA) is a valid method to assess spasticity of calf muscles after botulinum toxin injection. In this study, we intended to develop a device for quantitative measurement of spasticity in calf muscles based on the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) and techniques of biomedical engineering. Our QMTA measures the angular displacement and resistance of stretched joint with a device that is light, portable and can be operated similar to conventional approaches for MTS. The static (R2), dynamic (R1) and R2-R1 angles derived from the reactive signals collected by the miniature sensors are used to represent the non-neural and neural components of stretched spastic muscles. Four children with CP were recruited to assess the change in spasticity in their gastrocnemius muscles before and 4 weeks after BoNT-A injection. A simulated ankle model validated the performance of our device in measuring joint displacement and estimating the angle of catch. Data from our participants with CP showed that R2 and R2-R1 improved significantly after BoNT-A administration. It indicates both neural and non-neural components of the spastic gastrocnemius muscles improved at four weeks after BoNT-A injection in children with CP. Our device for QMTA can objectively measure the changes in spasticity of the gastrocnemius muscle in children with cerebral palsy after BoNT-A injection.

  3. Effects of knee joint angle on global and local strains within human triceps surae muscle: MRI analysis indicating in vivo myofascial force transmission between synergistic muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Yaman, A.; Ozturk, C.; Yucesoy, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mechanical interactions between muscles have been shown for in situ conditions. In vivo data for humans is unavailable. Global and local length changes of calf muscles were studied to test the hypothesis that local strains may occur also within muscle for which global strain equals zero.

  4. The classification for "equilibrium triad" sensory loss based on sEMG signals of calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairong Yu; Kairui Guo; Jie Luo; Kai Cao; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven W

    2017-07-01

    Surface Electromyography (sEMG) has been commonly applied for analysing the electrical activities of skeletal muscles. The sensory system of maintaining posture balance includes vision, proprioception and vestibular senses. In this work, an attempt is made to classify whether the body is missing one of the sense during balance control by using sEMG signals. A trial of combination with different features and muscles is also developed. The results demonstrate that the classification accuracy between vision loss and the normal condition is higher than the one between vestibular sense loss and normal condition. When using different features and muscles, the impact on classification results is also different. The outcomes of this study could aid the development of sEMG based classification for the function of sensory systems during human balance movement.

  5. The effect of static stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit on active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Krause, David A; Egan, Kathleen S; Therneau, Terry M; Laskowski, Edward R

    2003-07-01

    Masked randomized trial. To examine the effects of a 6-week program of static stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) on active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ADFROM) in healthy subjects. Static stretching of the calf MTU is often prescribed to increase flexibility in patients with shortened connective tissues or to maintain ADFROM in healthy individuals. Presently, physical therapists lack specific information on the optimal dosage of calf MTU stretching necessary to produce improvement in ADFROM. One hundred one adults (63 women, 38 men; mean age +/- SD, 40.0 +/- 10.9 years; range, 21-59) with no visual evidence of gait impairment due to lower-extremity dysfunction participated in the study. Active ADFROM was measured with a universal goniometer. Participants were randomly assigned to group 1, no stretch controls (n = 24), or to 1 of 3 experimental groups carrying out a 6-week program of standing wall stretches once per day: individuals in group 2 stretched for 30 seconds (n = 26); individuals in group 3 stretched for 1 minute (n = 24); individuals in group 4 stretched for 2 minutes (n = 27). After 6 weeks, the results of an analysis of variance found no effect of treatment on active ADFROM. The results of this study show that a 6-week program of once-per-day static stretching for up to 2 minutes is not sufficient to increase active ADFROM in healthy subjects.

  6. Functional effects of botulinum toxin type-A treatment and subsequent stretching of spastic calf muscles: a study in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, M. de; Bot, S.T. de; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although calf muscle spasticity is often treated with botulinum toxin type-A, the effects on balance and gait are ambiguous. Hereditary spastic paraplegia is characterized by progressive spasticity and relatively mild muscle weakness of the lower limbs. It is therefore a good model to

  7. Changes of calf muscle-tendon biomechanical properties induced by passive-stretching and active-movement training in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heng; Wu, Yi-Ning; Hwang, Miriam; Ren, Yupeng; Gao, Fan; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of calf muscles and Achilles tendon may be altered considerably in children with cerebral palsy (CP), contributing to childhood disability. It is unclear how muscle fascicles and tendon respond to rehabilitation and contribute to improvement of ankle-joint properties. Biomechanical properties of the calf muscle fascicles of both gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and soleus (SOL), including the fascicle length and pennation angle in seven children with CP, were evaluated using ultrasonography combined with biomechanical measurements before and after a 6-wk treatment of passive-stretching and active-movement training. The passive force contributions from the GM and SOL muscles were separated using flexed and extended knee positions, and fascicular stiffness was calculated based on the fascicular force-length relation. Biomechanical properties of the Achilles tendon, including resting length, cross-sectional area, and stiffness, were also evaluated. The 6-wk training induced elongation of muscle fascicles (SOL: 8%, P = 0.018; GM: 3%, P = 0.018), reduced pennation angle (SOL: 10%, P = 0.028; GM: 5%, P = 0.028), reduced fascicular stiffness (SOL: 17%, P = 0.128; GM: 21%, P = 0.018), decreased tendon length (6%, P = 0.018), increased Achilles tendon stiffness (32%, P = 0.018), and increased Young's modulus (20%, P = 0.018). In vivo characterizations of calf muscles and Achilles tendon mechanical properties help us better understand treatment-induced changes of calf muscle-tendon and facilitate development of more effective treatments. PMID:21596920

  8. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan Dixon, J

    2009-06-01

    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  9. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Dixon, J.

    2009-01-01

    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  10. On the edema-preventing effect of the calf muscle pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, C; Grau, H; Witzleb, E

    1989-01-01

    During motionless standing an increased hydrostatic pressure leads to increased transcapillary fluid filtration into the interstitial space of the tissues of the lower extremities. The resulting changes in calf volume were measured using a mercury-in-silastic strain gauge. Following a change in body posture from lying to standing or sitting a two-stage change in calf volume was observed. A fast initial filling of the capacitance vessels was followed by a slow but continuous increase in calf volume during motionless standing and sitting with the legs dependent passively. The mean rates of this slow increase were about 0.17%.min-1 during standing and 0.12%.min-1 during sitting, respectively. During cycle ergometer exercise the plethysmographic recordings were highly influenced by movement artifacts. These artifacts, however, were removed from the recordings by low-pass filtering. As a result the slow volume changes, i.e. changes of the extravascular fluid were selected from the recorded signal. Contrary to the increases during standing and sitting the calf volumes of all 30 subjects decreased during cycle ergometer exercise. The mean decrease during 18 min of cycling (2-20 min) was -1.6% at 50 W work load and -1.9% at 100 W, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.01). The factors which may counteract the development of an interstitial edema, even during quiet standing and sitting, are discussed in detail. During cycling, however, three factors are most likely to contribute to the observed reduction in calf volume: (1) The decrease in venous pressure, which in turn reduces the effective filtration pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

  12. The long-term clinical and MRI results following eccentric calf muscle training in chronic Achilles tendinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdin, Anna; Shalabi, Adel [Karolinska University Hospital/Huddinge, Departments of Radiology, Karolinska Institutet, Clintec, Stockholm (Sweden); Movin, Tomas [Karolinska University Hospital/Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Departments of Orthopedics, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Leif [Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital/Huddinge, Departments of Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate the long-term results following eccentric calf-muscle training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. A total of 24 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy were included in a study evaluating MRI findings and clinical symptoms before and after 3 months of daily eccentric calf-muscle strength training. Median duration of symptoms was 18 months (range 6-120). Four of the patients did not perform the prescribed treatment for different reasons and were followed for 14 months. The resulting 20 treated patients completed 4.2-year (range 29-58 months) follow up. Tendon volume was evaluated by using 3D seed growing technique and signal abnormalities were visually semi-quantitatively graded. Level of pain and performance was categorized using a questionnaire completed by the patient. In the symptomatic treated patients, median intensity level of pain decreased from moderate/severe at time of inclusion to mild at follow up (p < 0.05). Median level of performance increased from severe impairment at time of inclusion to normal at follow up (p < 0.05). 12 out of 20 patients had raised intratendinous signal at time of inclusion compared to 2 out of 20 patients at follow up (p < 0.001). Mean tendon-volume measured 6.7 cm{sup 3} (SD 2.0) at time of inclusion and 6.4 cm{sup 3} (SD 2.0) at follow up (p = 0.18). The four symptomatic non-treated tendons did not improve regarding pain, performance, intratendinous signal or tendon volume. We found decreased pain, improved performance and decreased intratendinous signal both compared to index examination and immediately after the 3 months training regimen in a 4.2-year clinical and MRI follow up, in a group of patients treated with heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training for chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The improvements were greater at 4.2-year follow up, despite no further active treatment, than immediately after the treatment. This may indicate a good long-term prognosis for Achilles tendinosis patients

  13. Findings in post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Weakness of muscles of the calf as a source of late pain and fatigue of muscles of the thigh after poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J; Fontaine, J D; Mulroy, S

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify overuse of muscles and other alterations in the mechanics of gait in twenty-one patients who had muscular dysfunction as a late consequence of poliomyelitis. All of the patients had good or normal strength (grade 4 or 5) of the vastus lateralis and zero to fair strength (grade 0 to 3) of the calf, as determined by manual testing. Dynamic electromyography was used, while the patients were walking, to quantify the intensity and duration of contraction of the inferior part of the gluteus maximus, the long head of the biceps femoris, the vastus lateralis, and the soleus muscles. Patterns of contact of the foot with the floor, temporal-spatial parameters, and motion of the knee and ankle were recorded. The principal mechanisms of substitution for a weak calf muscle fell into three groups: overuse of the quadriceps (twelve patients) or a hip extensor (the inferior part of the gluteus maximus in eight patients and the long head of the biceps femoris in four), or both; equinus contracture (twelve patients); and avoidance of loading-response flexion of the knee (five patients). Most patients used more than one method of substitution. These observations support the theory that post-poliomyelitis syndrome results from long-term substitutions for muscular weakness that place increased demands on joints, ligaments, and muscles and that treatment--based on the early identification of overuse of muscles and ligamentous strain--should aim at modification of lifestyle and include use of a brace.

  14. A mechanographic method for measurement of muscle tone in the conscious rat. The calf muscle stretch response in reserpine-induced rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnels, B; Steg, G

    1982-07-01

    A simple mechanographic method for the measurement of muscle tone in awake rats is presented. It utilizes principles corresponding to those in clinical assessment of tone and it has been applied to an animal model of Parkinson's disease: the reserpine-treated rat. The rat was restrained by a plastic cylinder and by metal cuffs at the ankles. The hind feet were repeatedly dorsiflexed by an electromechanical manipulator and the resulting calf muscle tension was indirectly measured with a strain-gauge system. The relative contributions to the stretch response from the different muscle groups acting on the ankle joint in the awake and untreated rat and during reserpine-induced rigidity are described. Very little active tension was found in the untreated rat. After treatment with reserpine, continuous activation of the muscle was found in EMG recordings and there was a sharp increase in the tension recorded during stretch. The static response to the increased isometric stretch was augmented. An additional, tonic response to ramp stretch was elicited at all stretch velocities. There was no evidence for phasic responses to rapid stretch in reserpine-induced rigidity. The amplitude of the myomechanogram was thus found to be independent of the ramp stretch velocity. Subsequent injection of apomorphine abolished the increased stretch response. It is demonstrated that changes in muscle tone could be followed during drug treatment and that the method can be used in investigations of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the disorders of muscle tone.

  15. Tendon Length, Calf Muscle Atrophy, and Strength Deficit After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Long-Term Follow-up of Patients in a Previous Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Piilonen, Juuso; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Pajala, Ari; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2017-09-20

    In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study. Outcome measures included Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and fatty degeneration measured with MRI of both the affected and the uninjured leg. The isokinetic plantar flexion strength of both calves was measured and was correlated with the structural findings. The Achilles tendon was, on average, 12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.6 to 15.6 mm; p Achilles tendon length correlated substantially with the strength deficit (ρ = 0.51, p Achilles tendon length is associated with smaller calf muscle volumes and persistent plantar flexion strength deficits after surgical repair of Achilles tendon rupture. Strength deficits and muscle volume deficits are partly compensated for by FHL hypertrophy, but 11% to 13% deficits in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle volumes and 12% to 18% deficits in plantar flexion strength persist even after long-term follow-up. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Dixon-based MRI for assessment of muscle-fat content in phantoms, healthy volunteers and patients with achillodynia: comparison to visual assessment of calf muscle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Espinosa, Norman; Raptis, Dimitri A; Buck, Florian M

    2014-06-01

    To quantify the muscle fat-content (MFC) in phantoms, volunteers and patients with achillodynia using two-point Dixon-based magnetic resonance imaging (2pt-MRIDIXON) in comparison to MR spectroscopy (MRS) and visual assessment of MFC. Two-point Dixon-based MRI was used to measure the MFC of 15 phantoms containing 0-100 % fat-content and calf muscles in 30 patients (13 women; 57 ± 15 years) with achillodynia and in 20 volunteers (10 women; 30 ± 14 years) at 1.5 T. The accuracy of 2pt-MRIDIXON in quantification of MFC was assessed in vitro using phantoms and in vivo using MRS as the standard of reference. Fat-fractions derived from 2pt-MRIDIXON (FFDIXON) and MRS (FFMRS) were related to visual assessment of MFC (Goutallier grades 0-4) and Achilles-tendon quality (grade 0-4). Excellent linear correlation was demonstrated for FFDIXON with phantoms and with FFMRS in patients (p c = 0.997/0.995; p visual-grading showed no difference between both groups (p > 0.05). FFMRS and FFDIXON were significantly higher in subjects with (>grade 1) structural damage of the Achilles-tendon (p = 0.01). Two-point Dixon-based MRI allows for accurate quantification of MFC, outperforming visual assessment of calf muscle fat. Structural damage of the Achilles tendon is associated with a significantly higher MFC. Two-point Dixon-based MRI allows accurate quantification of muscular fat content (MFC). Quantitative analysis outperforms visual analysis in the detection of elevated MFC. Achillodynia results in an increased MFC of the gastrocnemius muscles. Structural damage of the Achilles tendon further increases the MFC.

  17. Dixon-based MRI for assessment of muscle-fat content in phantoms, healthy volunteers and patients with achillodynia: comparison to visual assessment of calf muscle quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Michael A.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M. [University Hospital Balgrist, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Espinosa, Norman [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Raptis, Dimitri A. [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    To quantify the muscle fat-content (MFC) in phantoms, volunteers and patients with achillodynia using two-point Dixon-based magnetic resonance imaging (2pt-MRI{sub DIXON}) in comparison to MR spectroscopy (MRS) and visual assessment of MFC. Two-point Dixon-based MRI was used to measure the MFC of 15 phantoms containing 0-100 % fat-content and calf muscles in 30 patients (13 women; 57 ± 15 years) with achillodynia and in 20 volunteers (10 women; 30 ± 14 years) at 1.5 T. The accuracy of 2pt-MRI{sub DIXON} in quantification of MFC was assessed in vitro using phantoms and in vivo using MRS as the standard of reference. Fat-fractions derived from 2pt-MRI{sub DIXON} (FF{sub DIXON}) and MRS (FF{sub MRS}) were related to visual assessment of MFC (Goutallier grades 0-4) and Achilles-tendon quality (grade 0-4). Excellent linear correlation was demonstrated for FF{sub DIXON} with phantoms and with FF{sub MRS} in patients (p{sub c} = 0.997/0.995; p < 0.001). FF{sub DIXON} of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in patients (7.0 % ± 4.7 %) compared with volunteers (3.6 % ± 0.7 %), whereas visual-grading showed no difference between both groups (p > 0.05). FF{sub MRS} and FF{sub DIXON} were significantly higher in subjects with (>grade 1) structural damage of the Achilles-tendon (p = 0.01). Two-point Dixon-based MRI allows for accurate quantification of MFC, outperforming visual assessment of calf muscle fat. Structural damage of the Achilles tendon is associated with a significantly higher MFC. (orig.)

  18. Effects of knee joint angle on global and local strains within human triceps surae muscle: MRI analysis indicating in vivo myofascial force transmission between synergistic muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Huijing, Peter A.; Yaman, Alper; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Yucesoy, Can A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mechanical interactions between muscles have been shown for in situ conditions. In vivo data for humans is unavailable. Global and local length changes of calf muscles were studied to test the hypothesis that local strains may occur also within muscle for which global strain equals zero. Methods For determination of globally induced strain in m. gastrocnemius in dissected human cadavers several knee joint angles were imposed, while keeping ankle joint angle constant and measuring its ...

  19. [Diabetic foot syndrome: importance of calf muscles MR spectroscopy in the assessment of limb ischemia and effect of revascularization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němcová, Andrea; Dubský, Michal; Jirkovská, Alexandra; Šedivý, Petr; Drobný, Miloslav; Hájek, Milan; Dezortová, Monika; Bém, Robert; Fejfarová, Vladimíra; Pyšná, Anna

    The standard method for assessment of effect of revascularization in patients with diabetic foot (DF) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) is transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2). Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) enables to evaluate oxidative muscle metabolism that could be impaired in patients with diabetes and its complications. The aim of our study was to compare MRS of calf muscle between patients with DF and CLI and healthy controls and to evaluate the contribution of MRS in the assessment of the effect of revascularization. Thirty-four diabetic patients with DF and CLI treated either by autologous cell therapy (ACT; 15 patients) or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA; 12 patients) in our foot clinic during 2013-2016 and 19 healthy controls were included into the study. TcPO2 measurement was used as a standard method of non-invasive evaluation of limb ischemia. MRS examinations were performed using the whole-body 3T MR system 1 day before and 3 months after the procedure. Subjects were examined in a supine position with the coil fixed under the m. gastrocnemius. MRS parameters were obtained at rest and during the exercise period. Rest MRS parameters of oxidative muscle metabolism such as phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), dynamic MRS parameters such as recovery constant PCr (τPCr) and mitochondrial capacity (Qmax), and pH were compared between patients and healthy controls, and also before and 3 months after revascularization. Patients with CLI had significantly lower PCr/Pi (p lower Qmax and prolonged τPCr (both p muscles in patients with CLI in comparison with healthy controls. We observed an improvement in dynamic MRS parameters in individual cases; this finding should be verified in a large number of patients during longer follow-up.Key words: autologous cell therapy - critical limb ischemia - diabetic foot - MR spectroscopy.

  20. Relative changes with contraction in the central excitability state of the tibialis anterior and calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M A

    1980-01-01

    F responses were recorded from the surface of the tibialis muscle and medial aspect of the soleus muscle in 14 normal subjects. The persistence (that is the fraction of measurable F responses found with a series of supramaximal stimuli) and average F amplitudes (measured peak-to-peak and based on at least five F responses) were determined both at rest and with isometric contraction with the ankle maintained at 90 degrees. Although the persistence at rest was significantly less in the tibialis anterior soleus than the (p less than 0.001), no significant difference was found with the muscles contracted. This was associated with a significant increase in both average F amplitudes and average F amplitude/direct motor response ratios in the tibialis anterior in comparison to the soleus. In four of the subjects, studies were also performed when the H reflex in the soleus muscle was eliminated by thigh compression. Comparable changes in both F response persistence and average F amplitude were found with and without an H reflex. These data indicate that, in contrast to the situation at rest, with isometric contraction the "central excitatory state" of the tibialis anterior is at least as great as in its antagonist antigravity muscles and that this is not due simply to increased large fiber reflex input associated with agonist contraction. PMID:7373321

  1. [Efficacy of protein-free calf blood extract for mechanical corneal epithelial defects in human eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-di; Gong, Lan; Sun, Xing-huai; Zhao, Nai-qing; Zhu, Zhao-rong; Li, Yu-min; Yao, Ke; Zhao, Wu-ling

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy between protein-free calf blood extract eye drops and recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) eye drops for mechanical corneal epithelial defects in human eyes. A multi-center, randomized and double-blind study with a parallel, positive-control designation was carried out from April to November in 2005 at Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University, Xinhua Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, the First Hospital of Zhejiang University, the Second Hospital of Zhejiang University and Qingdao Municipal Hospital. 240 patients (240 eyes) with confirmed diagnosis of corneal epithelial defects at that six hospitals were enrolled in this study and were randomly arranged into two groups in average. One group (120 eyes) were treated by 20% protein-free calf blood extract eye drops which was defined as the experimental group while the other (120 eyes) by 5000 IU/ml recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) eye drops as the positive control group. The drug was delivered in both groups 4 times per day, one drop each time in the 14 days duration. The symptoms and signs were scored and the safety was evaluated on the pre-delivery day, the third post-delivery day (day 3), day 7 and day 14. The variants in the study were tested for the different efficacy and safety between the two drugs using non-inferiority test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, chi-square test, continuity correction chi-square test, Fisher's exact probabilities, analysis of variance, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test and so on. The criterion for statistical significance was P recombinant human epidermal growth factor group (day 3: X2 = 1.5677, P = 0.4566, day 7: X2 = 1.7152, P = 0.4242, day 14: X2 = 3.0814, P = 0.2142). The total scores of symptoms and signs in experimental group had a obvious descending (6.009 +/- 3.030) compared with the positive control group with a descending of (5.177 +/- 2

  2. Experimental human muscle damage: morphological changes in relation to other indices of damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A; Newham, D J; Round, J M; Tolfree, S E

    1986-06-01

    The effects of eccentric exercise have been examined in human calf and biceps muscles. Release of muscle creatine kinase and uptake of technetium pyrophosphate have been followed for up to 20 days after the exercise and the results are related to the morphological changes seen in needle biopsy samples. The response to exercise was variable, all subjects developing pain and tenderness in the exercised muscles after 1-2 days and this was followed, in most subjects, by a large increase in plasma creatine kinase 4-6 days after the exercise. This was paralleled by an increased uptake of technetium pyrophosphate into the exercised muscle. Biopsies of the affected muscles showed little or no change in the first 7 days after the exercise but later degenerating fibres were seen, as well as infiltration by mononuclear cells and eventually, by 20 days, signs of regeneration. Very extensive changes were seen in the calf muscle of one subject; changes in the biceps were qualitatively similar but not so severe. In the severely affected calf muscle type II fibres were preferentially damaged. Mononuclear cell infiltration both between and within degenerating fibres was maximal well after the time of peak plasma creatine kinase and it is likely that in eccentrically exercised muscle infiltrating mononuclear cells act to scavenge cellular debris rather than to cause damage to the muscle.

  3. Human calf muscular metabolism study with a home-made ergometer using 31P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peynsaert, J.; Achten, E.; Claeys, E. [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Rousseaux, M. [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Dept. of Sport Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Phosphorus-31 NMR measurements were performed to examine the variations in the concentration of phosphate metabolites in calf muscle during exercise. Therefore, volunteers, installed in the supine position, were asked to push repetitively on the pedal of a home-made ergometer. The produced work and the changes in phosphorus containing metabolites were measured continuously. Correlations were made between the inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine ratio and the cumulative work and between the intracellular pH and the cumulative work. The exercise protocol could be changed interactively with respect to the imposed initial pressure, the maximum pressure, the pressure increase per level and the time a certain level was held. The whole experiment could be graphically followed on-line. In the first stadium, the in vitro reproducibility of the ergometer was tested for different protocols. These tests revealed that, though the deviation in produced work was markedly the highest at high working pressures, the relative error never exceeded 3%. Consequently, the ex vitro reproducibility of the data was examined with the equipment placed in the scanner. Generally, same conclusions could be derived. In a next stage, the work will be synchronized with the biochemical data. Extreme precautions will be taken to examine each volunteer every time under the same physical and psychological conditions.

  4. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemia in the human calf: a study with strain gauge plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, A J

    1977-02-01

    In order to study the influence of muscular inactivity on reactive hyperaemia, postischaemic blood flow was measued with strain gauge plethysmography in the calf of twenty-nine patients, who had been treated with a plaster cast for a trauma of the lower limb. The contralateral leg served as a comparison. In all but two patients postischaemic maximal flow was lower in the immobilized calf. A negative correlation existed between maximal flow and the duration of immobilization. In the course of 6 weeks after removal of the cast, the difference in maximal flow between both sides became insignificant. Venous volume and venous emptying were not different in the two limbs. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemic response may be explained by an effect of inactivity on the arterioles, muscle atrophy, a decrease in capillarization and in oxidative capacity of the muscle fibres. It is concluded that inactivity and atrophy of the lower limb musculature in patients with peripheral arterial disease may be a contributing factor to the low reactive hyperaemic response in the calf of such patients.

  5. Modified track shoes and their effect on the EMG activity of calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensword, Marlon; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Al-Qaisi, Saif

    2012-01-01

    Although track and field spike shoes are crafted for runners, these shoes are not designed for regular walking. With such shoes, runners may eventually encounter serious chronic injuries such as plantar fasciitis, shin splints, achilles tendinitis, chondromalacia, and iliotibial band syndrome. To address this problem, a modified spike shoe was tested and compared to a regular spike shoe. The modification consists of adding a removable heel to the shoe sole in order to reduce the flexion of the foot and properly level the foot for walking. Nine healthy participants performed walking drills at 2 and 3 mph, using the original and the modified shoes. Electromyography (EMG) measurements were used to evaluate muscle activities. Participants also rated their discomfort on a 0-10 scale. Results show that the use of modified shoes resulted in a reduction of 22% and 24.25% EMG activity for the tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively. Comfort ratings increased by an average of 2.7, 2.6, 3.9, and 4.2 points at the knees, calves, ankles, and feet, respectively.

  6. Successful iliac vein and inferior vena cava stenting ameliorates venous claudication and improves venous outflow, calf muscle pump function, and clinical status in post-thrombotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Konstantinos T; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Wennberg, Paul W; Rooke, Thom W; Gloviczki, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Stent therapy has been proposed as an effective treatment of chronic iliofemoral (I-F) and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of technically successful stenting in consecutive patients with advanced CVD (CEAP3-6 +/- venous claudication) for chronic obliteration of the I-F (+/-IVC) trunks, on the venous hemodynamics of the limb, the walking capacity, and the clinical status of CVD. These patients had previously failed to improve with conservative treatment entailing compression and/or wound care for at least 12 months. The presence of venous claudication was assessed by > or =3 independent examiners. The CEAP clinical classification was used to determine the severity of CVD. Outflow obstruction [Outflow Fraction at 1- and 4-second (OF1 and OF4) in %], venous reflux [Venous Filling Index (VFI) in mL/100 mL/s], calf muscle pump function [Ejection Fraction (EF) in %] and hypertension [Residual Venous Fraction (RVF) in %], were examined before and after successful venous stenting in 16 patients (23 limbs), 6 females, 10 males, median age 42 years; range, 31-77 yearas, left/right limbs 14/9, using strain gauge plethysmography; 7/16 of these had thrombosis extending to the IVC. Contralateral limbs to those stented without prior I-F +/- IVC thrombosis, nor infrainguinal clots on duplex, were used as control limbs (n = 9). Excluded were patients with stent occlusion or stenoses, peripheral arterial disease (ABI calf muscle pump function (EF), worse CEAP clinical class, and increased RVF (all, P calf muscle pump function (EF) had both improved (P calf muscle pump function (EF), and RVF of the stented limbs did not differ significantly from those of the control; significantly worse (P calf muscle pump function, compounded by a significant clinical improvement of CVD. The significant increase in the amount of venous reflux of the stented limbs indicates that elastic or inelastic compression support of the successfully

  7. 3D multimodal spatial fuzzy segmentation of intramuscular connective and adipose tissue from ultrashort TE MR images of calf muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Vincent; Sinha, Usha; Malis, Vadim; Csapo, Robert; Sinha, Shantanu

    2017-02-01

    To develop and evaluate an automated algorithm to segment intramuscular adipose (IMAT) and connective (IMCT) tissue from musculoskeletal MRI images acquired with a dual echo Ultrashort TE (UTE) sequence. The dual echo images and calculated structure tensor images are the inputs to the multichannel fuzzy cluster mean (MCFCM) algorithm. Modifications to the basic multichannel fuzzy cluster mean include an adaptive spatial term and bias shading correction. The algorithm was tested on digital phantoms simulating IMAT/IMCT tissue under varying conditions of image noise and bias and on ten subjects with varying amounts of IMAT/IMCT. The MCFCM including the adaptive spatial term and bias shading correction performed better than the original MCFCM and adaptive spatial MCFCM algorithms. IMAT/IMCT was segmented from the unsmoothed simulated phantom data with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.933 ±0.001 when contrast-to-noise (CNR) was 140 and bias was varied between 30% and 65%. The algorithm yielded accurate in vivo segmentations of IMAT/IMCT with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.977 ±0.066. The proposed algorithm is completely automated and yielded accurate segmentation of intramuscular adipose and connective tissue in the digital phantom and in human calf data. Magn Reson Med 77:870-883, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Human airway smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less

  9. Human airway smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jongste, Johan

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less likely, squeezing mucus out of mucous glands and pulling open the alveoli next to the airways1 . Any role of airway smooth muscle is necessarily limited, because an important degree of contraction will l...

  10. THE EFFECT OF FETAL CALF SERUM ON HUMAN DENTAL PULP STEM CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Suchánek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Authors studied potential side effects of fetal calf serum (FCS in cultivation media on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC during long term cultivation. Methods: Two lines of DPSC obtained healthy donors (male 22 years, female 23 years were used. Both lines were cultivated under standard cultivation conditions in four different media containing 10% or 2% FCS and substituted with growth factors. During long term cultivation proliferation ability, karyotype and phenotype of DPSC were measured. Results: Both lines of DPSC cultivated in a media containing 2% FCS and ITS supplement showed the highest number of population doublings. On the other hand the proliferation rate of DPSC cultivated in a media with 2% FCS without ITS supplement was slowest. Proliferation rate of DPSC cultivated in 10% FCS media with or without FGF-2 was comparable. DPSC cultivated in a media with 10% FCS showed a significantly higher amount of chromosomal aberrations. These chromosomal aberrations do not seem to be clonal but surprisingly we found large amounts of tetraploid cells in the 9th passage in both media containing 10% FCS. Conclusions: Our study proved that cultivation of DPSC in media containing higher concentration of FCS has critical side effects on cell chromosomal stability.

  11. The magnitude of the effect of calf muscles fatigue on postural control during bipedal quiet standing with vision depends on the eye-visual target distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Burdet, Cyril; Isableu, Brice; Demetz, Sylvain

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate whether, with vision, the magnitude of the effect of calf muscles fatigue on postural control during bipedal quiet standing depends on the eye-visual target distance. Twelve young university students were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible in three visual conditions (No vision, Vision 1m and Vision 4m) executed in two conditions of No fatigue and Fatigue of the calf muscles. Centre of foot pressure displacements were recorded using a force platform. Similar increased variances of the centre of foot pressure displacements were observed in the fatigue relative to the No fatigue condition for both the No vision and Vision 4m conditions. Interestingly, in the vision 1m condition, fatigue yielded: (1) a similar increased variance of the centre of foot pressure displacements to those observed in the No vision and Vision 4m conditions along the medio-lateral axis and (2) a weaker destabilising effect relative to the No vision and Vision 4m conditions along the antero-posterior axis. These results evidence that the ability to use visual information for postural control during bipedal quiet standing following calf muscles fatigue is dependent on the eye-visual target distance. More largely, in the context of the multisensory control of balance, the present findings suggest that the efficiency of the sensory reweighting of visual sensory cues as the neuro-muscular constraints acting on the subject change is critically linked with the quality of the information the visual system obtains.

  12. Viscoelastic properties of short calf muscle-tendon units of older women: effects of slow and fast passive dorsiflexion stretches in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, Richard L; Vander Linden, Darl W; McNair, Peter J; Riggin, Tammy J; Albertson, Jeff S; Mattick, Danita J; Wegley, Joseph C

    2005-10-01

    Changes in connective tissues of the skeletal muscle-tendon unit (MTU) of aging animal muscles have been associated with increased passive viscoelastic properties. This study examined whether similar changes in the viscoelastic properties were present in short calf MTUs of older women in vivo. Fifteen women 68-87 years of age with short calf MTUs, as represented by limited active dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) of plantarflexion to maximal DF at the slow velocity of 5 degrees s(-1) (0.087 rad s(-1)) and the fast velocity of 120 degrees s(-1) (2.094 rad s(-1)) with minimal surface electromyogram activity in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for repeated measures (Velocity x Group) indicated that all women showed greater passive torque, average passive elastic stiffness, and total absorbed passive elastic energy for the fast stretch than for the slow stretch (P < 0.001). The older women had greater percent increases for the average passive torque (30%) and total absorbed passive elastic energy (26%) for the fast stretch than the younger women (P < 0.05), who had 17.5 and 13% increases, respectively. The older women had less maximal and average passive torque (Nm) and total absorbed passive elastic energy (degrees Nm), but greater average passive elastic stiffness (Nm degrees (-1)) at both stretch velocities (P < 0.001). The results indicated that short calf MTUs of older women have increased passive viscoelastic properties that could have implications for balance and ambulatory function.

  13. Effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jia Wang

    2017-01-01

    AIM:To compare the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(72 eyes...

  14. Effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Wang

    2017-01-01

    AIM:To compare the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(72 eyes)of patients undergoing phacoemulsification were selected and divided into the observation group and the control group by random number table method. After surgery, the observation group were treated with deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops while the control group were treated with rec...

  15. Effects of knee joint angle on global and local strains within human triceps surae muscle: MRI analysis indicating in vivo myofascial force transmission between synergistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijing, Peter A; Yaman, Alper; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Yucesoy, Can A

    2011-12-01

    Mechanical interactions between muscles have been shown for in situ conditions. In vivo data for humans is unavailable. Global and local length changes of calf muscles were studied to test the hypothesis that local strains may occur also within muscle for which global strain equals zero. For determination of globally induced strain in m. gastrocnemius in dissected human cadavers several knee joint angles were imposed, while keeping ankle joint angle constant and measuring its muscle-tendon complex length changes. In vivo local strains in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were calculated using MRI techniques in healthy human volunteers comparing images taken at static knee angles of 173° and 150°. Imposed global strains on gastrocnemius were much smaller than local strains. High distributions of strains were encountered, e.g. overall lengthened muscle contains locally lengthened, as well as shortened areas within it. Substantial strains were not limited to gastrocnemius, but were found also in synergistic soleus muscle, despite the latter muscle-tendon complex length remaining isometric (constant ankle angle: i.e. global strain = 0), as it does not cross the knee. Based on results of animal experiments this effect is ascribed to myofascial connections between these synergistic muscles. The most likely pathway is the neurovascular tract within the anterior crural compartment (i.e. the collagen reinforcements of blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves). However, direct intermuscular transmission of force may also occur via the perimysium shared between the two muscles. Global strains imposed on muscle (joint movement) are not good estimators of in vivo local strains within it: differing in magnitude, as well as direction of length change. Substantial mechanical interaction occurs between calf muscles, which is mediated by myofascial force transmission between these synergistic muscles. This confirms conclusions of previous in situ studies in experimental animals

  16. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John; Farhart, Patrick; Kountouris, Alex; James, Trefor; Portus, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains. This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998-1999 to 2008-2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI]) were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4-7.1). Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03-2.1) and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4-1.1). Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group. Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a strong theoretical basis for the connection, it is likely that this is a true association.

  17. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998–1999 to 2008–2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI] were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture.Results: Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4–7.1. Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03–2.1 and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.5 were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4–1.1. Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group.Conclusion: Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a

  18. Studies on adenosine triphosphate transphosphorylases. Human isoenzymes of adenylate kinase: isolation and physicochemical comparison of the crystalline human ATP-AMP transphosphorylases from muscle and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, S A; Fleming, G; Frischat, A; Cress, M C; Hamada, M

    1983-02-10

    Procedures are described for the isolation, in crystalline form, of the adenylate kinases from autopsy samples of human muscle and from human liver. Weight average molecular weights were determined by sedimentation equilibrium to be 22,000 (+/- 700) and 25,450 (+/- 160) for the human muscle and liver isoenzymes, respectively. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, their molecular weights were estimated to be 21,700 and 26,500 for the muscle and liver enzymes, respectively. Both isoenzymes are accordingly monomeric proteins in their native state. Amino acid analyses are reported here for the normal human liver, calf liver, and rabbit liver adenylate kinases and compared with the normal human muscle, calf muscle, and rabbit muscle myokinases. The liver types as a group and the muscle types as a group show a great deal of homology, but some distinct differences are evident between the liver and muscle enzyme groups, especially in the number of residues of His, Pro, half-cystine, and the presence of tryptophan in the liver enzymes. The normal human liver adenylate kinase, as isolated in this report, has proved to be similar in its properties, if not identical, to the adenylate kinase isolated directly from human liver mitochondria (Hamada, M., Sumida, M., Okuda, H., Watanabe, T., Nojima, M., and Kuby, S. A. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 13120-13128). Therefore, the liver-type adenylate kinase may be considered a mitochondrial type.

  19. Effects of duration of vitamin C supplementation during the finishing period on postmortem protein degradation, tenderness, and meat color of the longissimus muscle of calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    High-S (HS) diets have been identified as a causative agent in the development of oxidative stress in cattle, which in postmortem muscle can negatively alter meat quality. Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant produced endogenously by cattle; however, exogenous supplementation of VC may be useful when HS diets are fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of duration of VC supplementation, for the first 56, 90, or 127 d, during the finishing period on meat color and tenderness of the longissimus thoracis (LT) collected from calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% S diet. Angus steers ( n= 42) were stratified to pens by initial BW (304 ± 13 kg) and GeneMax marbling score (4.3 ± 0.12), and each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments (6 steers/pen, 1 pen/treatment), including HS (0.59% S, a combination of dried distillers grains plus solubles and sodium sulfate) control (HS CON), HS CON + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (HS VC56), 90 d (HS VC90), or 127 d (HS VC127), low S (LS; 0.31% S) + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (LS VC56), 90 d (LS VC90), or 127 d (LS VC127). Steers were harvested (n = 40) and, after a 24-h chill, rib sections (LT) were collected. pH was determined on each rib section before division into 3 sections for determination of 1) 7-d retail display and color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) 14-d WBSF determination, and 3) protein degradation and collagen content (2 d postmortem). Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design, with the fixed effect of treatment. Individual feed intake was recorded, and steer was the experimental unit. The HS steers had a greater and lesser percent of the 80- and 76-kDa subunits of calpain-1 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, and tended to have less (P = 0.08) troponin T degradation (d2), and more (P = 0.02) collagen than LS steers. Increasing days of VC supplementation decreased (P = 0.05) the percentage of the 80 kDa subunit of

  20. Traumatic injuries of thigh and calf muscles in athletes: role and clinical relevance of MR imaging and ultrasound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayashi, Daichi; Hamilton, Bruce; Guermazi, Ali; de Villiers, Richard; Crema, Michel D; Roemer, Frank W

    2012-01-01

    .... Common athletic injuries include strain, contusion and avulsion, which are characterised by muscle fibre disruption, intramuscular haemorrhagic dissection, haematoma at the musculotendinous junction...

  1. Quantitative assessment of calf circumference in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; de Vries, Joeke; Fock, JM; van Tol, M; Brouwer, OF; Maurits, NM; van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is clinically characterised by progressive muscle weakness and a gradual increase in the size of some affected muscles, especially calf muscles. The extent of calf enlargement is usually determined by subjective visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to

  2. Muscle spindles in the human bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikert, Kevin; May, Christian Albrecht

    2015-07-01

    Muscle spindles are crucial for neuronal regulation of striated muscles, but their presence and involvement in the superficial perineal muscles is not known. Bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscle specimens were obtained from 31 human cadavers. Serial sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Sirius red, antibodies against Podocalyxin, myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC-slow tonic, S46; MyHC-2a/2x, A4.74), and neurofilament for the purpose of muscle spindle screening, counting, and characterization. A low but consistent number of spindles were detected in both muscles. The muscles contained few intrafusal fibers, but otherwise showed normal spindle morphology. The extrafusal fibers of both muscles were small in diameter. The presence of muscle spindles in bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles supports physiological models of pelvic floor regulation and may provide a basis for further clinical observations regarding sexual function and micturition. The small number of muscle spindles points to a minor level of proprioceptive regulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Quaresima, Valentina; Pifferi, Antonio; Biscotti, Giovanni; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Ferrari, Marco; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2004-03-07

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO2) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO2 was 73.0 +/- 0.9 and 70.5 +/- 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO2 decreased (69.1 +/- 1.8 and 63.8 +/- 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P < 0.01). The LG desaturation was greater than the MG desaturation (P < 0.02). These results strengthen the role of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial and temporal features of muscle SmO2 and tHb.

  4. Phosphorylation potential in the dominant leg is lower, and [ADPfree] is higher in calf muscles at rest in endurance athletes than in sprinters and in untrained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Kulinowski, P; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Korzeniewski, B; Jasiński, A

    2007-12-01

    It has been reported that various types of mammalian muscle fibers differ regarding the content of several metabolites at rest. However, to our knowledge no data have been reported in the literature, concerning the muscle energetic status at rest in high class athletes when considering the dominant and non-dominant leg separately. We have hypothesised that due to higher mechanical loads on the dominant leg in athletes, the metabolic profile in the dominant leg at rest in the calf muscles, characterized by [PCr], [ADP(free)], [AMP(free)] and DeltaG(ATP), will significantly differ among endurance athletes, sprinters and untrained individuals. In this study we determined the DeltaG(ATP) and adenine phosphates concentrations in the dominant and non-dominant legs in untrained subjects (n = 6), sprinters (n = 10) and endurance athletes (n = 7) at rest. The (mean +/- SD) age of the subjects was 23.4 +/- 4.3 years. Muscle metabolites were measured in the calf muscles at rest, by means of (31)P-MRS, using a 4.7 T superconducting magnet (Bruker). When taking into account mean values in the left and right leg, phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) and DeltaG(ATP) were significantly lower (psprinters (p = 0.01) and untrained subjects (p = 0.02) (25.91 +/- 2.87 mM; 30.02 +/- 3.12 mM and 30.71 +/- 2.88 mM, respectively). The [ADP(free)] was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in endurance athletes than in sprinters and untrained subjects (p = 0.02) (42.19 +/- 13.44 microM; 27.86 +/- 10.19 microM; 25.35 +/- 10.97 microM, respectively). The DeltaG(ATP) in the dominant leg was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in endurance athletes than in sprinters and untrained subjects (p = 0.01) (-60.53 +/- 2.03 kJ.M(-1); -61.82 +/- 1.05 kJ.M(-1), -62.29 +/- 0.73 kJ.M(-1), respectively). No significant differences were found when comparing [PCr], [ADP(free)], [AMP(free)], [Mg(2+)(free)], DeltaG(ATP) in the dominant leg and the mean values for both legs in sprinters and untrained subjects. Moreover, no

  5. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  6. A near infrared spectroscopy-based test of calf muscle function in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Lindegaard; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Background The study aims to test a new, simple, and reliable apparatus and procedure for the diagnostics and treatment evaluation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The test apparatus involves near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of a main part of the lower leg muscles during isometric flexion...... and two age-matched patients without claudication. Each patient was tested with an isometric ergometer pedal test and a treadmill test applying NIRS measurements of the anterior tibial and the gastrocnemius muscles (GAS). Tests were repeated three times with randomly selected intervals between individual.......92-0.95 (foot-pedal) and 0.70-0.98 (tread mill) and of the anterior tibial muscle was between 0.87-0.96 (foot-pedal) and 0.67-0.79 (tread mill). Conclusion In this study, we contribute a new apparatus and test protocol for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) applying NIRS technique and controlled physical...

  7. What is the blood flow to resting human muscle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, M; Kurpad, A

    1993-05-01

    1. An investigation was carried out in five healthy lean adults to assess whether forearm and calf plethysmography largely reflect muscle blood flow as measured by 133Xe and whether there is substantial variability in the blood flow to muscles located at different sites in the body. 2. Blood flow to forearm and calf flexors and extensors, biceps, triceps and quadriceps was assessed using the 133Xe clearance technique. Blood flow to forearm skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue was also measured using the 133Xe clearance technique, whereas blood flow to the forearm and calf was measured using strain gauge plethysmography. 3. The mean blood flow to different muscles ranged from 1.4 +/- 0.6 (gastrocnemius) to 1.8 +/- 0.7 (forearm extensor) ml min-1 100 g-1 muscle (1.4 +/- 0.6 and 1.9 +/- 0.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 muscle, respectively) but there were no significant differences between them. Forearm and calf blood flows (2.7 +/- 0.3 and 3.0 +/- 0.7 ml min-1 100 ml-1 limb tissue, respectively) were about 50% to more than 100% greater (P muscles within them (1.7 +/- 0.5 and 1.4 +/- 0.5 ml min-1 100 g-1 muscle, respectively, or 1.8 +/- 0.6 and 1.5 +/- 0.5 ml min-1 100 ml-1 muscle, respectively). In contrast, the blood flows to 100 g of forearm skin (9.1 +/- 2.6 ml min-1 100 g-1) and adipose tissue (3.8 +/- 1.1 ml min-1 100 g-1) were higher than the blood flow to 100 g of forearm (P < 0.01 and not significant, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Relationships between calf muscle density and muscle strength, mobility and bone status in the stroke survivors with subacute and chronic lower limb hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, N J; Rombough, R; Brouwer, B

    2010-12-01

    To determine the relationship between muscle density and neuromusculoskeletal status in stroke survivors with subacute and chronic hemiparesis. Community-dwelling adults were recruited into one of 3 groups (11 per group): subacute stroke group (SSG, 1 year post-stroke), or age- and gender-matched control group (CG). Muscle density, muscle mass and tibial bone status (cortical density, mass and polar stress-strain index (pSSI)) were measured bilaterally at the tibial 66% site using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Muscle strength of ankle plantarflexors and knee extensors was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry. Mobility was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale. Univariate regression analyses by group tested whether side-to-side differences in muscle density and measures of neuromusculoskeletal status were related. In the SSG and CG, relationships were observed for muscle density and ankle plantarflexor strength (R²= 0.365 and 0.503). Muscle density related to muscle mass in the CG only (R²= 0.889). Muscle density related to cortical bone density in the SSG (R²= 0.602) and pSSI in the CSG (R²= 0.434). Muscle density may provide insight into the side-to-side changes in muscle and bone strength following hemiparetic stroke.

  9. Mitogenesis in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from two rat models of hypertension in response to fetal calf serum and angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, J A; Harris, E L; Cassie, N J

    1990-01-01

    Hypertension may result from vascular hypertrophy or hyperplasia due to enhanced growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which has been demonstrated in VSMCs from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. To determine whether this enhanced mitogenesis is peculiar to SHRs or a general phenomenon in genetic models of hypertension, we have measured indices of cell growth [3H]-thymidine uptake in VSMCs from SHRs and New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) rats and controls [WKY and normal Wistar (N) rats] cultured in fetal calf serum (FCS) or angiotensin II (Ang II, 0.1 microM) in either 3% heat-treated FCS or serum-free medium. SHR cell numbers increased faster in response to both mitogens compared to WKY rats. However, GH and N rat responses to FCS were the same. Ang II caused a significant but similar increase in cell numbers in both GH and N rat cells (i.e., Ang II caused hyperplasia in all four strains) but [3H]thymidine uptake was significantly greater in GH rat cells. Ang II increased the total well protein content but not protein normalized on cell number, i.e., no hypertrophic effect of Ang II was seen in these actively dividing cells. We conclude that (a) growth properties of VSMCs from rats with genetic hypertension vary between strains; the differences in growth may reflect strain-specific variation in the activity of intracellular signalling systems subserving mitogenesis; and (b) Ang II causes VSMC hyperplasia.

  10. Predictive Accuracy of Calf Circumference Measurements to Detect Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-Defined Malnutrition in Hospitalized Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Nasu, Tomomi; Takaki, Miki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    The ability to readily diagnose sarcopenia and malnutrition in a clinical setting is essential. This study is aimed at clarifying the calf circumference (CC) cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass (SMM), according to the Asian Work Group for Sarcopenia's criteria definition of sarcopenia, and those for European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition, in hospitalized Japanese patients. The study involved 1,164 patients aged ≥65 years. Predictive CC cut-off values were determined using receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses. The predictive validity of the cut-off values was confirmed against in-hospital mortality. There were 654 females and 510 males (mean age, 83.5 ± 8.2 years). Decreased SMM and malnutrition were observed in 80.4 and 32.8% of all patients, respectively. ROC analyses identified CCs of ≤29 cm (female, area under the curve [AUC] 0.791) and ≤30 cm (male, AUC 0.832) as cut-off values for decreased SMM, and CCs of ≤26 cm (female, AUC 0.798) and ≤28 cm (male, AUC 0.837) for malnutrition. CC cut-off values for SMM and malnutrition were independently correlated with in-hospital mortality. The study determined appropriate cut-off values for CC to identify decreased SMM and malnutrition according to the relevant guidelines. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Traumatic injuries of thigh and calf muscles in athletes: role and clinical relevance of MR imaging and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daichi; Hamilton, Bruce; Guermazi, Ali; de Villiers, Richard; Crema, Michel D; Roemer, Frank W

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ultrasound have become valuable tools for evaluation of traumatic muscle injuries in athletes. Common athletic injuries include strain, contusion and avulsion, which are characterised by muscle fibre disruption, intramuscular haemorrhagic dissection, haematoma at the musculotendinous junction, and perifascial blood or haematoma. MR imaging may allow clinicians to predict the time required before athletes can return to competition and the risk of injury recurrence. Fluid-sensitive MR sequences, e.g., fat-suppressed T2-weighted or proton density-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences are suitable for detecting oedematous changes in the musculotendinous unit, and for delineating intramuscular or perifascial fluid collections or haematoma. T1-weighted spin echo sequences are used to visualise atrophy and fatty infiltration and to differentiate between haemorrhage/haematoma and oedema. While ultrasound may play a role as an adjunctive imaging method, it is less accurate than MR images for assessing the extent of the injury and it cannot differentiate between new and old injuries. In this pictorial review, imaging features of lower extremity muscle injuries including strain, contusion and avulsion are reviewed, focusing on MR and ultrasound imaging findings after initial injury and during follow-up, and their relevance in clinical practice is discussed. • MR imaging may allow clinicians to predict time required before athletes can return to competition • Fluid-sensitive MR sequences are suitable for detecting oedematous changes in the muscles • T1-weighted sequences are used to differentiate between haemorrhage/haematoma and oedema. • Ultrasound can also be used but is less accurate than MR imaging for assessing the extent of the injury.

  12. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Alessandro [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Quaresima, Valentina [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L' Aquila, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Pifferi, Antonio [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Biscotti, Giovanni [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Spinelli, Lorenzo [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Taroni, Paola [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrari, Marco [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L' Aquila, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Cubeddu, Rinaldo [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-03-07

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO{sub 2} was 73.0 {+-} 0.9 and 70.5 {+-} 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO{sub 2} decreased (69.1 {+-} 1.8 and 63.8 {+-} 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P < 0.01). The LG desaturation was greater than the MG desaturation (P < 0.02). These results strengthen the role of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial and temporal features of muscle SmO{sub 2} and tHb.

  13. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida-Mohien, Ceereena

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a risk...... factor for mortality. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia as well as myopathies are still little understood. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project was initiated with the aim to characterize muscle proteins and how they change with ageing and disease. We conducted an extensive review...... for the identification and quantification of proteins in skeletal muscle to discover new mechanisms for sarcopenia and specific muscle diseases that can be targeted for the prevention and treatment....

  14. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING AND AFTER EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; BARENDSEN, GJ; LUBBERS, J; DEPATER, L

    To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions

  15. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... and adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  16. The development of postthrombotic syndrome in relationship to venous reflux and calf muscle pump dysfunction at 2 years after the onset of deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, José H; Janssen, Mirian C H; Wollersheim, Hub; Van't Hof, Martin A; de Rooij, M J M; van Langen, Herman; Skotnicki, Stefan H; Thien, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) develops in 40% to 60% of patients with deep venous thrombosis. Factors that are important in the development of PTS include venous reflux, deep vein obstruction, and calf muscle pump dysfunction (CMD). Reflux and CMD in relationship to the severity of PTS were evaluated in a 2-year follow-up study of patients with acute deep venous thrombosis. Duplex scanning was used to measure reflux. The supine venous pump function test (SVPT) measures CMD with strain-gauge plethysmography. The base-line examination was performed within 1 to 5 days after diagnosis. The next examinations were scheduled at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The study included 86 legs, and the 2-year follow-up period was completed for 70 legs. Significantly more reflux was found in previously thrombosed vein segments, with an odds ratio of 1.8 after 3 months, of 2.1 after 6 months, of 2.5 after 12 months, and of 3.2 after 24 months. Multiple regression results showed that the most important risk factor for early clinical signs of PTS was superficial reflux in months 3, 6, and 12 (P < or =.02). Deep reflux did not have a synergistic relationship with superficial reflux in correlation with the clinical signs of PTS. The SVPT was not able to predict the development of PTS. More reflux develops in previously thrombosed vein segments. As early as after the third month, patients with superficial reflux have an increased risk of development of the first clinical signs of PTS. Within 2 years, the SVPT shows no relationship with clinical signs of PTS.

  17. Calf-raise senior: a new test for assessment of plantar flexor muscle strength in older adults: protocol, validity, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Helô-Isa; Carnide, Filomena; Borja, Edgar; Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new field test protocol with a standardized measurement of strength and power in plantar flexor muscles targeted to functionally independent older adults, the calf-raise senior (CRS) test, and also evaluate its reliability and validity. Forty-one subjects aged 65 years and older of both sexes participated in five different cross-sectional studies: 1) pilot (n=12); 2) inter- and intrarater agreement (n=12); 3) construct (n=41); 4) criterion validity (n=33); and 5) test-retest reliability (n=41). Different motion parameters were compared in order to define a specifically designed protocol for seniors. Two raters evaluated each participant twice, and the results of the same individual were compared between raters and participants to assess the interrater and intrarater agreement. The validity and reliability studies involved three testing sessions that lasted 2 weeks, including a battery of functional fitness tests, CRS test in two occasions, accelerometry, and strength assessments in an isokinetic dynamometer. The CRS test presented an excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] =0.90, standard error of measurement =2.0) and interrater reliability (ICC =0.93-0.96), as well as a good intrarater agreement (ICC =0.79-0.84). Participants with better results in the CRS test were younger and presented higher levels of physical activity and functional fitness. A significant association between test results and all strength parameters (isometric, r=0.87, r(2)=0.75; isokinetic, r=0.86, r(2)=0.74; and rate of force development, r=0.77, r(2)=0.59) was shown. This study was successful in demonstrating that the CRS test can meet the scientific criteria of validity and reliability. The test can be a good indicator of ankle strength in older adults and proved to discriminate significantly between individuals with improved functionality and levels of physical activity.

  18. The Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type a Injection in the Hamstring and Calf Muscles With and Without Serial Foot Casting in Gait Improvement in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsodini A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A injection in the hamstring and calf muscles with and without ankle serial casting in the improvement of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP.Methods : This double-blind prospective clinical trial was performed on 25, 2 to 8-year-old children with hemiplegic or diplegic CP in Tehran, Iran in 2010. The participants were chosen by simple randomized sampling and were matched for age, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS and type of CP and were randomly divided into two groups: children in the first group (13 only received BTX-A injection, but the second group (12 received BTX-A and serial foot casting starting one week after the injection.Results : Comparison of the gross motor function, right and left knee spasticities and passive ROM of both knees between the two groups before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the injections were not statistically significant (P>0.1. Furthermore, comparison of the right and left ankle spasticities and passive ROM before the injections and in1 and 3-month follow-ups did not show a statistically significant difference (P>0.1, but the differences were significant in 6 and 12-month follow-ups (P<0.05.Conclusion: BTX-A injection with serial foot casting vs. BTX-A alone was more effective in decreasing spasticity and improving passive ROM in the ankle of children with CP, but such injections in the hamstrings were not useful in these regards.

  19. Effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops on corneal edema after phacoemulsification. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(72 eyesof patients undergoing phacoemulsification were selected and divided into the observation group and the control group by random number table method. After surgery, the observation group were treated with deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops while the control group were treated with recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops. The degree of corneal edema, subjective symptom score, corneal endothelium count, changes of corneal thickness and postoperative visual acuity recovery were compared between the two groups at different time points after surgery. RESULTS:Corneal edema in the two groups was significantly milder at 1wk after surgery than that on the 1st day after surgery(PP>0.05. Compared with 1d after surgery, the subjective symptom score and corneal thickness of the two groups significantly decreased on the 7th day after surgery(PPPCONCLUSION:Both of recombinant human epidermal growth factor eye drops and deproteinized calf blood extract eye drops can significantly relieve corneal edema and improve visual acuity of patients after phacoemulsification. However, the latter has obvious advantages over the former in the repair of corneal endothelial cell injury after surgery.

  20. Variations in the quality of uncalcified fibrocartilage at the insertions of the extrinsic calf muscles in the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frowen, P; Benjamin, M

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that fibrocartilage at entheses (tendon-bone junctions) prevents collagen fibres bending at the hard tissue interface. We have investigated this function by exploring the relationship between the presence or amount of fibrocartilage at the attachments of the major extrinsic muscles in the foot, and the extent to which these tendons bend near their entheses during movement. The tendons were taken from each of 5 formalin-fixed dissecting room cadavers and prepared for routine histology, and sections were collected systematically throughout the blocks. Tendons that attached to the tarsus and metatarsus had fibrocartilaginous entheses, but those attached to the phalanges had fibrous entheses. In all tarsal and metatarsal tendons, the fibrocartilage was significantly thicker (P < 0.05) in the deepest part of the enthesis. Here the greatest amount of fibrocartilage was in the Achilles tendon (mean thickness +/- S.E.M.: 1560 +/- 161 microns). There were moderate amounts at the medial cuneiform attachment of tibialis anterior (533 +/- 82 microns), peroneus brevis (472 +/- 64 microns) and tibialis posterior (454 +/- 26 microns), small quantities at the first metatarsal attachment of tibialis anterior (104 +/- 14 microns) and peroneus longus (21 +/- 8 microns), but only traces at the attachments of the flexor and extensor tendons of the phalanges. The differences can be related to variations in the freedom of movement of the tendons near their attachments. This depends on the extent to which the tendons are bound by retinacula and the range of movement of the joint nearest the enthesis. The results suggest that more 'mobile' tendons have more fibrocartilage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7649842

  1. Searching for proprioceptors in human facial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Juan L; Abbate, Francesco; de Vicente, Juan C; Cobo, Juan; Vega, José A

    2017-02-15

    The human craniofacial muscles innervated by the facial nerve typically lack muscle spindles. However these muscles have proprioception that participates in the coordination of facial movements. A functional substitution of facial proprioceptors by cutaneous mechanoreceptors has been proposed but at present this alternative has not been demonstrated. Here we have investigated whether other kinds of sensory structures are present in two human facial muscles (zygomatic major and buccal). Human checks were removed from Spanish cadavers, and processed for immunohistochemical detection of nerve fibers (neurofilament proteins and S100 protein) and two putative mechanoproteins (acid-sensing ion channel 2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) associated with mechanosensing. Nerves of different calibers were found in the connective septa and within the muscle itself. In all the muscles analysed, capsular corpuscle-like structures resembling elongated or round Ruffini-like corpuscles were observed. Moreover the axon profiles within these structures displayed immunoreactivity for both putative mechanoproteins. The present results demonstrate the presence of sensory structures in facial muscles that can substitute for typical muscle spindles as the source of facial proprioception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of 12-wk eccentric calf muscle training on muscle-tendon glucose uptake and SEMG in patients with chronic Achilles tendon pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Magnusson, S Peter

    2014-01-01

    and Achilles tendon GU. A longitudinal study design with control (n = 10) and patient (n = 10) groups was used. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from four ankle plantar flexors and GU from the same muscles and the Achilles tendon were measured during submaximal intermittent isometric plantar flexion task...

  3. Slow volume changes in calf and thigh during cycle ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, C; Heinemann, W; Witzleb, E

    1990-01-01

    To study the transcapillary fluid movements in the human lower limb in the upright body position and during muscle exercise, the slow changes in thigh and calf volumes were measured by mercury-in-rubber-strain gauge plethysmography. Measurements were carried out on 20 healthy volunteers while sitting, standing and doing cycle ergometer exercise at intensities of 50 and 100-W. A plethysmographic recording of slow extravascular volume changes during muscle exercise was possible because movement artefacts were eliminated by low-pass filtering. While standing and sitting the volumes of both thigh and calf increased due to enhanced transcapillary filtration. While standing the mean rate of increase was 0.13%.min-1 in the calf and 0.09%.min-1 in the thigh. During cycle ergometer exercise at 50 and 100 W, the calf volume decreased with a mean rate of -0.09.min-1. In contrast, the thigh volume did not change significantly during exercise at 50 W and increased at 100 W. Most of the increase occurred during the first half of the experimental period i.e. between min 2 and 12, amounting to +0.6%. Thus, simultaneous measurements revealed opposite changes in the thigh and calf. This demonstrates that the conflicting findings reported in the literature may have occurred because opposite changes can occur in different muscle groups of the working limb at the same time. Lowered venous pressure, increased lymph flow and increased tissue pressure in the contracting muscle are considered to have caused the reduction in calf volume during exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Actovegin, a non-prohibited drug increases oxidative capacity in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Stine D; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn W

    2016-01-01

    Actovegin, a deproteinized haemodialysate of calf blood, is suggested to have ergogenic properties, but this potential effect has never been investigated in human skeletal muscle. To investigate this purported ergogenic effect, we measured the mitochondrial respiratory capacity in permeabilized...... human skeletal muscle fibres acutely exposed to Actovegin in a low and in a high dose. We found that Actovegin, in the presence of complex I-linked substrates increased the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (19 ± 3, 31 ± 4 and 45 ± 4 pmol....../mg/s). Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I and II-linked substrate was increased when the fibres were exposed to the high dose of Actovegin (62 ± 6 and 77 ± 6 pmol/mg/s) (p system as well as Vmax and Km were also increased in a concentration...

  5. Esterase profile of human masseter muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Vilmann, H

    1988-01-01

    The esterase profile of fresh human masseter muscle was investigated by use of histochemistry and electrophoresis. The histochemical methods included reactions for alpha-naphthyl esterase, myofibrillar ATPase, reverse myofibrillar ATPase and succinic dehydrogenase. In frozen sections of the muscle......C. iM and Type II A fibres showed a moderate esterase reaction and Type II B fibres had a low activity. The electrophoretic gels stained for esterase activity showed that the human masseter muscle possesses a slow migrating double band with high enzyme activity and a cascade of faster migrating...

  6. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eSnijders

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodelling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodelling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodelling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  7. Effects of 12-wk eccentric calf muscle training on muscle-tendon glucose uptake and SEMG in patients with chronic Achilles tendon pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Magnusson, S Peter; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Finni, Taija

    2014-07-15

    High-load eccentric exercises have been a key component in the conservative management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy. This study investigated the effects of a 12-wk progressive, home-based eccentric rehabilitation program on ankle plantar flexors' glucose uptake (GU) and myoelectric activity and Achilles tendon GU. A longitudinal study design with control (n = 10) and patient (n = 10) groups was used. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from four ankle plantar flexors and GU from the same muscles and the Achilles tendon were measured during submaximal intermittent isometric plantar flexion task. The results indicated that the symptomatic leg was weaker (P effect on the tendon GU. Concerning SEMG, at baseline, soleus showed more relative activity in the symptomatic leg compared with both the asymptomatic and control legs (P effective in decreasing subjective severity of Achilles tendinopathy. It also resulted in redistribution of relative electrical activity, but not metabolic activity, within the triceps surae muscle. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Feasibility of measuring thermoregulation during RF heating of the human calf muscle using MR based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-04-01

    One of the main safety concerns in MR is heating of the subject due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure. Recently was shown that local peak temperatures can reach dangerous values and the most prominent parameter for accurate temperature estimations is thermoregulation. Therefore, the goal of this research is testing the feasibility of measuring thermoregulation in vivo using MR methods. The calves of 13 volunteers were scanned at 3 tesla. A Proton Resonance Frequency Shift method was used for temperature measurement. Arterial Spin Labeling and phase contrast scans were used for perfusion and flow measurements respectively. The calves were monitored during extreme RF exposure (20 W/kg, 16 min) and after physical exercise. Temperature increases due to RF absorption (range of the 90th percentile of all volunteers: 1.1-2.5°C) matched with the reference skin temperature changes. Increases in perfusion and flow were defined on the whole leg and normalized to baseline. Perfusion showed a significant increase due to RF heating (ratio compared with baseline: 1.28 ± 0.37; P thermoregulation, which will become essential when new safety guidelines are based on thermal dose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. Reinhardt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8. This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants.

  10. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Randy E.; McGill, Jodi L.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Lippolis, John D.; Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Nonnecke, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of calves with bovine RSV shares features in common with RSV infection in children, such as an age-dependent susceptibility. In addition, comparable microscopic lesions consisting of bronchiolar neutrophilic infiltrates, epithelial cell necrosis, and syncytial cell formation are observed. Further, our studies have shown an upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in RSV-infected calves, including IL-12p40 and CXCL8 (IL-8). This finding is consistent with increased levels of IL-8 observed in children with RSV bronchiolitis. Since rodents lack IL-8, neonatal calves can be useful for studies of IL-8 regulation in response to RSV infection. We have recently found that vitamin D in milk replacer diets can be manipulated to produce calves differing in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The results to date indicate that although the vitamin D intracrine pathway is activated during RSV infection, pro-inflammatory mediators frequently inhibited by the vitamin D intacrine pathway in vitro are, in fact, upregulated or unaffected in lungs of infected calves. This review will summarize available data that provide parallels between bovine RSV infection in neonatal calves and human RSV in infants. PMID:23342375

  11. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition...

  12. GLUT-3 expression in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C. A.; Wen, G.; Peng, B. H.; Popov, V. L.; Hudnall, S. D.; Campbell, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle biopsy homogenates contain GLUT-3 mRNA and protein. Before these studies, it was unclear where GLUT-3 was located in muscle tissue. In situ hybridization using a midmolecule probe demonstrated GLUT-3 within all muscle fibers. Fluorescent-tagged antibody reacting with affinity-purified antibody directed at the carboxy-terminus demonstrated GLUT-3 protein in all fibers. Slow-twitch muscle fibers, identified by NADH-tetrazolium reductase staining, possessed more GLUT-3 protein than fast-twitch fibers. Electron microscopy using affinity-purified primary antibody and gold particle-tagged second antibody showed that the majority of GLUT-3 was in association with triads and transverse tubules inside the fiber. Strong GLUT-3 signals were seen in association with the few nerves that traversed muscle sections. Electron microscopic evaluation of human peripheral nerve demonstrated GLUT-3 within the axon, with many of the particles related to mitochondria. GLUT-3 protein was found in myelin but not in Schwann cells. GLUT-1 protein was not present in nerve cells, axons, myelin, or Schwann cells but was seen at the surface of the peripheral nerve in the perineurium. These studies demonstrated that GLUT-3 mRNA and protein are expressed throughout normal human skeletal muscle, but the protein is predominantly found in the triads of slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  13. Clustering of the human skeletal muscle fibers using linear programming and angular Hilbertian metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neji, Radhouène; Besbes, Ahmed; Komodakis, Nikos; Deux, Jean-François; Maatouk, Mezri; Rahmouni, Alain; Bassez, Guillaume; Fleury, Gilles; Paragios, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a manifold clustering method fo the classification of fibers obtained from diffusion tensor images (DTI) of the human skeletal muscle. Using a linear programming formulation of prototype-based clustering, we propose a novel fiber classification algorithm over manifolds that circumvents the necessity to embed the data in low dimensional spaces and determines automatically the number of clusters. Furthermore, we propose the use of angular Hilbertian metrics between multivariate normal distributions to define a family of distances between tensors that we generalize to fibers. These metrics are used to approximate the geodesic distances over the fiber manifold. We also discuss the case where only geodesic distances to a reduced set of landmark fibers are available. The experimental validation of the method is done using a manually annotated significant dataset of DTI of the calf muscle for healthy and diseased subjects.

  14. Botulinum toxin a does not decrease calf pain or improve ROM during limb lengthening: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Ryu, Keun Jung; Shin, Dong Eun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2014-12-01

    During lower limb lengthening, distraction-induced muscle pain and surrounding joint contractures are frustrating complications for which few effective treatments are available. We evaluated Botulinum Toxin Type A (BtX-A) injection in the calf muscles during human tibial distraction osteogenesis. We hypothesized that it may decrease calf pain and increase ROM of the surrounding joints by reducing muscle stiffness. Between April 2010 and January 2011, we evaluated 36 patients undergoing bilateral tibia lengthening who met prespecified inclusion criteria. All patients underwent stature lengthening with lengthening over a nail or lengthening and then nailing. BtX-A (200 IU) was injected at the calf muscle only in one leg for each patient and the same amount of sterile normal saline was injected into the other leg as a control. Selection of the leg receiving the toxin was randomized. Clinical evaluation included a VAS score for calf pain and measurement of ROM of the knees and ankles and calf circumference, with evaluations performed in a double-blinded manner. Side-to-side differences were analyzed until the end of consolidation phase. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 30 months; range, 24-39 months). The distraction rate and the final length gain were similar in the treated and control limbs. A priori power analysis suggested that 34 legs were required to achieve statistical significance of 0.05 with 80% of power to detect a 50% difference in treatment effect between treatment and control groups. There were no differences in calf pain, knee and ankle ROM, and maximal calf circumferences between the two legs at each time point. Local injection of 200 IU BtX-A at the human calf muscle does not appear to reduce calf pain or help enhance ROM of the knee and ankle during tibial lengthening. However, the small sample size provided sufficient power to detect only relatively large clinical effects; future, larger trials will be needed to determine whether smaller

  15. Tursiops truncatus calf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory development in a captive-born bottlenose dolphin. Tursiops truncatus calf. V.M. Peddemors·. Biology Department, University of Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban, 4001 Republic of South Africa. Received 30 October 1989; accepted 15 May 1990. Changes in calf-mother association are examined and ...

  16. Human Plasma and Human Platelet-rich Plasma as a Substitute for Fetal Calf Serum during Long-term Cultivation of Mesenchymal Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Suchánková Kleplová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. Methods: DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, or fetal calf serum (FCS. The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. Results: We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT (28.6 ± 4.6 hours, in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours; hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours, 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC’s viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. Conclusions: We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  17. Human plasma and human platelet-rich plasma as a substitute for fetal calf serum during long-term cultivation of mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchánková Kleplová, Tereza; Soukup, Tomáš; Řeháček, Vít; Suchánek, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Our aims were to isolate and cultivate mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in various media enriched with human blood components, and subsequently to investigate their basic biological properties. DPSC were cultivated in five different media based on α MEM containing different concentrations of human plasma (HP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), or fetal calf serum (FCS). The DPSC biological properties were examined periodically. We cultivated DPSC in the various cultivation media over 15 population doublings except for the medium supplemented with 10% HP. Our results showed that DPSC cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% PRP showed the shortest average population doubling time (DT) (28.6 ± 4.6 hours), in contrast to DPSC cultivated in 10% HP which indicated the longest DT (156.2 ± 17.8 hours); hence this part of the experiment had been cancelled in the 6th passage. DPSC cultivated in media with 2% FCS+ITS (DT 47.3 ± 10.4 hours), 2% PRP (DT 40.1 ± 5.7 hours) and 2% HP (DT 49.0 ± 15.2 hours) showed almost the same proliferative activity. DPSC's viability in the 9th passage was over 90% except for the DPSC cultivated in the 10% HP media. We proved that human blood components are suitable substitution for FCS in cultivation media for long-term DPSC cultivation.

  18. Effects of human visitation on calf growth and performance of calves fed different milk replacer feeding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, N E; Antaya, N T; Cabral, R G; Whitehouse, N L; Earleywine, T J; Erickson, P S

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight newborn Holstein heifer calves from the university herd and 8 newborn Holstein heifer calves from a commercial herd were blocked by birth and herd into 1 of 4 treatments: conventional [20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat] milk replacer (MR; treatment C) with (1) or without (0) human visitation, or a higher plane of MR nutrition (28% CP, 20% fat) regimen (treatment A) with (1) or (0) without human visitation. Calves on C MR treatments received 454g of MR from d 2 to 41. Calves on A MR received 916g of MR from d 2 to 8 and 1134g of MR from d 9 to 41. Visitation with calves occurred at 1030 and 1430h daily from d 1 to 56 and comprised verbal stimulation and stirring of starter grain. An opaque curtain divided the calf nursery, with calves in the front half assigned to visitation treatments and those in the rear half not assigned to visitation treatments. Calves were fed their MR treatment until d 43 (preweaning), after which all calves received half of their allotment of MR until d 49 (weaning). Calves were tracked for the next week until d 56 (postweaning). Starter grain and MR intakes were measured daily along with weekly body weight and skeletal measurements. One half of the calves on each treatment had blood samples taken via jugular venipuncture on d 41 (preweaning), 43, 45, 47, 49, and 51 (postweaning) to evaluate blood glucose, urea, nonesterified fatty acids, and cortisol concentrations. During the preweaning and weaning phases, calves on A0 and A1 treatments consumed more MR, less starter, and weighed more than the C0 and C1 calves. Calves on A0 and A1 had greater average daily gain (ADG), hip and withers gain, were taller at the hip, and had larger girths during the preweaning phase. Overall, body weight, withers and hip heights, and heart girths were greater in A0 andA1 calves during the weaning week. Efficiency of utilization of estimated metabolizable energy (ME) intake (ADG/ME) were similar. Glucose and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations

  19. MRI and localized proton spectroscopy in human leg muscle at 7 Tesla using longitudinal traveling waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrew G; Collins, Christopher M; Versluis, Maarten J; Kan, Hermien E; Smith, Nadine B

    2010-02-01

    Using a small resonant loop to produce a longitudinal traveling wave on a human 7-T system allows MR to be performed over the entire volume of the human leg. We have used this capability to perform localized proton MR spectroscopy of the lipid composition of muscle in volunteers with a coil placed approximately 30 cm away from the region of interest. Spectra with a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio can be acquired in a clinically relevant data acquisition time of less than 5 min using the loop in transmit/receive mode, maintaining the full flexibility to acquire spectra from any part of the calf and/or thigh. If a local receive coil is used in combination with the remote transmit coil, then the signal-to-noise improves significantly, as expected.

  20. Postural sway under muscle vibration and muscle fatigue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Danion, Frédéric; Forestier, Nicolas; Nougier, Vincent

    2002-11-22

    Separate studies have demonstrated that vibration and fatigue of ankle muscles alter postural control. The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of ankle muscle vibration on the regulation of postural sway in bipedal stance following ankle muscle fatigue. Center of foot pressure displacements were recorded using a force platform. Results showed a similar increase in postural sway under muscle fatigue as well as under muscle vibration. Interestingly, under muscle fatigue muscle vibration did not induce a further increase in postural sway. Two hypotheses could, at least, account for this observation: (1). fatigued muscles are less sensitive to muscle vibration and (2). the central nervous system relies less upon proprioceptive information originating from fatigued muscles for regulating postural sway.

  1. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Calf Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jacob Michael; Fields, Karl B; Draper, Ryan

    The medial head of the gastrocnemius is the third most commonly strained muscle in elite athletes after the biceps femoris and rectus femoris. The differential diagnosis of posterior calf injury includes musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal causes. Classically, delineation of these injuries from one another relied primarily on historical features and physical examination findings. The utilization of musculoskeletal ultrasound (sonography) has augmented the diagnosis of these injuries by providing dynamic, real-time confirmation. A review of PubMed, OVID, and MD Consult prior to January 2016 was performed using search terms, including s oleus ultrasound, gastrocnemius ultrasound, and tennis leg. The references of the pertinent articles were further reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 4. There have been few reviews to date of calf injuries and the use of sonography in their diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis utilizing ultrasound allows the clinician to focus management on gastrocnemius injury if present. Two-thirds of calf injuries occur at the junction of the fascia between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus. Injuries to the lateral head of the gastrocnemius occur in up to 14% of patients in some case series, but injury may occur anywhere from the proximal origin to the mid-belly to the fascial junction with the soleus. Numerous injuries to the posterior compartment can mimic gastrocnemius strain, and musculoskeletal ultrasound can aide in their diagnosis by incorporating real-time imaging into the grading of the injury and visual confirmation of physical examination findings. Acute injury to the posterior compartment of the lower extremity can represent a diagnostic challenge. Medial gastrocnemius strain represents the most common injury of the posterior compartment of the lower extremity. Ultrasound is a useful tool to assist the clinician in determining the specific cause of calf injury, estimate the severity of the injury, and

  2. Regulation of Metabolic Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth

    enzymes. Skeletal muscle consists of thousands of muscle fibers. These fibers can roughly be classified into type I and type II muscle fibers. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the effect of insulin and exercise on human muscle fiber type specific metabolic signaling. The importance...

  3. Human skeletal muscle fibroblasts stimulate in vitro myogenesis and in vivo muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L.; Magnan, Mélanie; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. In addition to the indispensable role satellite cells play in muscle regeneration, there is emerging evidence in rodents for a regulatory influence...... and strongly stimulate both MPC differentiation and MPC fusion. It thus appears, in humans, that fibroblasts exert a strong positive regulatory influence on MPC activity, in line with observations during in vivo skeletal muscle regeneration....

  4. Effects of leg covering in humans on muscle activity and thermal responses in a cool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, S; Oksa, J; Rintamäki, H; Tokura, H

    1996-01-01

    Thermal responses and muscle performance in humans were studied during rest and exercise in a cool environment with different clothing distributions over the legs. Nine female subjects were exposed to 5 degrees C wearing shorts (SS), trousers with long legs (LL) or trousers with one long leg and one short leg (LS: LSc covered leg, LSu uncovered leg). The subjects also wore T-shirts and long-sleeved shirts. The subjects were seated for 60 min and after this they performed light stepping exercise for a further 60 min. Rectal temperature (T(re)) and skin temperature from seven (LL, SS) or nine sites (LS) were measured continuously. Surface electromyography (EMG) from three muscles (biceps femoris, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior) were recorded during the exercise from six subjects. Integrated EMG (iEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) were used to describe muscle activity. The T(re) was virtually unchanged during rest in every ensemble, whereas during exercise T(re) was significantly lower in SS than in LL. Mean skin temperature (T(sk)) decreased during rest in every ensemble, being significantly lower in SS than in LL. After the rest period local T(sk) of thigh and calf were significantly lower in SS than in LL and they were also lower in LSu than in LSc. At the beginning of the exercise the iEMG of the tibialis anterior muscle in SS and LL averaged 84 (SEM 7) and 64 (SEM 3) mu V (P muscle was significantly higher in LL 102 (SEM 5) Hz than in SS 90 (SEM 5) Hz (P muscle was also higher in LL 111 (SEM 5) Hz than in SS 100 (SEM 5) Hz (P muscle strain in comparison with wearing long trousers. Our results showing a unilateral increase in EMG activity during unilateral cooling suggest that the increase of strain is restricted to the uncovered part of the limb.

  5. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Yap, Samuel P.; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 {+-} 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P < 0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0-4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. (orig.)

  6. Neuroimaging of Muscle Pain in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Niddam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging has provided important information on how acute and chronic pain is processed in the human brain. The pain experience is now known to be the final product of activity in distributed networks consisting of multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Due to the complex nature of the pain experience, a single cerebral representation of pain does not exist. Instead, pain depends on the context in which it is experienced and is generated through variable expression of the different aspects of pain in conjunction with modulatory influences. While considerable data have been generated about the supraspinal organization of cutaneous pain, little is known about how nociceptive information from musculoskeletal tissue is processed in the brain. This is in spite of the fact that pain from musculoskeletal tissue is more frequently encountered in clinical practice, poses a bigger diagnostic problem and is insufficiently treated. Differences are known to exist between acute pain from cutaneous and muscular tissue in both psychophysical responses as well as in physiological characteristics. The 2 tissue types also differ in pain sensitivity to the same stimuli and in their response to analgesic substances. In this review, characteristics of acute and chronic muscle pain will be presented together with a brief overview of the methods of induction and psychophysical assessment of muscle pain. Results from the neuroimaging literature concerned with phasic and tonic muscle pain will be reviewed.

  7. Myofibre damage in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, R M; Aagaard, P; Qvortrup, K

    2007-01-01

    Disruption to proteins within the myofibre after a single bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise is hypothesized to induce delayed onset of muscle soreness and to be associated with an activation of satellite cells. This has been shown in animal models using electrical stimulation but not in hum......Disruption to proteins within the myofibre after a single bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise is hypothesized to induce delayed onset of muscle soreness and to be associated with an activation of satellite cells. This has been shown in animal models using electrical stimulation...... but not in humans using voluntary exercise. Untrained males (n=8, range 22-27 years) performed 210 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, voluntarily (VOL) with one leg and electrically induced (ES) with the other leg. Assessments from the skeletal muscle were obtained prior......, a significant disruption of cytoskeletal proteins (desmin) and a rise of myogenic growth factors (myogenin) occurred only in ES. Intracellular disruption and destroyed Z-lines were markedly more pronounced in ES (40%) compared with VOL (10%). Likewise, the increase in satellite cell markers [neural cell...

  8. Glycogen synthesis in human gastrocnemius muscle is not representative of whole-body muscle glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, Mireille J. M.; de Haan, Jacco H.; Tack, Cees J.; Verberne, Hein J.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Heerschap, Arend; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of C-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has enabled noninvasive measurement of muscle glycogen synthesis in humans. Conclusions based on measurements by the MRS technique assume that glucose metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle is representative for all skeletal muscles and thus

  9. Glycogen synthesis in human gastrocnemius muscle is not representative of whole-body muscle glycogen synthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, M.J.; Haan, J.H.A. de; Tack, C.J.J.; Verberne, H.J.; Ackermans, M.T.; Heerschap, A.; Sauerwein, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has enabled noninvasive measurement of muscle glycogen synthesis in humans. Conclusions based on measurements by the MRS technique assume that glucose metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle is representative for all skeletal muscles and thus

  10. Sarcoglycans in human skeletal muscle and human cardiac muscle: a confocal laser scanning microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, G; Cutroneo, G; Trimarchi, F; Rizzo, G; Bramanti, P; Bruschetta, D; Fugazzotto, D; Cinelli, M P; Soscia, A; Santoro, G; Favaloro, A

    2003-01-01

    Sarcoglycans are a subcomplex of transmembrane proteins which are part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. They are expressed in the skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the sarcoglycan subcomplex in skeletal and cardiac muscle, the manner of the distribution and localization of these proteins along the nonjunctional sarcolemma is not clear. We therefore carried out an indirect immunofluorescence study on surgical biopsies of normal human skeletal muscle and of healthy human atrial myocardium biopsies of patients affected by valvulopathy. Our results indicate that, in skeletal muscle, sarcoglycans have a costameric distribution and all colocalize with each other. Only in a few cases did the alpha-sarcoglycan not colocalize with other sarcoglycans. In addition, these glycoproteins can be localized in different fibers either in the regions of the sarcolemma over band I or band A. In cardiac muscle, our results show a costameric distribution of all proteins examined and, unlike in skeletal muscle, they show a constant colocalization of all sarcoglycans with each other, along with a consistent localization of these proteins in the region of the sarcolemma over band I. In our opinion, this situation seems to confirm the hypothesis of a correlation between the region of the sarcolemma occupied by costameric proteins and the metabolic type, fast or slow, of the muscular fibers. These data, besides opening a new line of research in understanding interactions between the sarcoglycans and other transmembrane proteins, could also be extended to skeletal and cardiac muscles affected by neuromuscular and cardiovascular pathologies to understand possible structural alterations. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Single Muscle Fiber Proteomics Reveals Fiber-Type-Specific Features of Human Muscle Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Murgia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a key tissue in human aging, which affects different muscle fiber types unequally. We developed a highly sensitive single muscle fiber proteomics workflow to study human aging and show that the senescence of slow and fast muscle fibers is characterized by diverging metabolic and protein quality control adaptations. Whereas mitochondrial content declines with aging in both fiber types, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism are upregulated in slow but downregulated in fast muscle fibers. Aging mitochondria decrease expression of the redox enzyme monoamine oxidase A. Slow fibers upregulate a subset of actin and myosin chaperones, whereas an opposite change happens in fast fibers. These changes in metabolism and sarcomere quality control may be related to the ability of slow, but not fast, muscle fibers to maintain their mass during aging. We conclude that single muscle fiber analysis by proteomics can elucidate pathophysiology in a sub-type-specific manner.

  12. Glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Handberg, A; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2000-01-01

    amplification (TSA) technique to detect the localization of glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle. We found expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-4 in developing human muscle fibers showing a distinct expression pattern. 1) GLUT-1 is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells during gestation......, but its expression is markedly reduced around birth and is further reduced to undetectable levels within the first year of life; 2) GLUT-3 protein expression appears at 18 wk of gestation and disappears after birth; and 3) GLUT-4 protein is diffusely expressed in muscle cells throughout gestation, whereas...

  13. Cryopreservation of human skeletal muscle impairs mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Wright-Paradis, C; Gnaiger, E

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated if cryopreservation is a viable approach for functional mitochondrial analysis. Different tissues have been studied, and conflicting results have been published. The aim of the present study was to investigate if mitochondria in human skeletal muscle maintain...... functionality after long term cryopreservation (1 year). Skeletal muscle samples were preserved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for later analysis. Human skeletal muscle fibres were thawed and permeabilised with saponin, and mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry. The capacity...... of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly (P cryopreserved human skeletal muscle samples. Cryopreservation impaired respiration with substrates linked to Complex I more than for Complex II (P

  14. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Lopez-Figueroa, M.; Hellsten, Ylva

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated the cellular localization of the neuronal type I and endothelial type III nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscle. Type I NO synthase immunoreactivity was found in the sarcolemma and the cytoplasm of all muscle fibres. Stronger immunoreactivity was expressed...... I NO synthase immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase activity. Type III NO synthase immunoreactivity was observed both in the endothelium of larger vessels and of microvessels. The results establish that human skeletal muscle expresses two different constitutive isoforms of NO synthase in different...... endothelium is consistent with a role for NO in the control of blood flow in human skeletal muscle....

  15. Vascular responses in forearm and calf to contralateral static exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprez, D A; Essandoh, L K; Vanhoutte, P M; Shepherd, J T

    1989-02-01

    Ten normal subjects performed a 90-s isometric exercise [20, 30, and 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the flexor muscle of the right index finger or quadriceps muscle of the right leg. Contralateral forearm and calf blood flows (strain gauge plethysmography) and arterial blood pressure (auscultation) were measured simultaneously. Each exercise caused a decrease in forearm vascular resistance and a progressive increase in calf resistance. These changes were greatest with the 40% MVC. With finger exercise at 20 and 40% MVC, the percentage decreases in forearm vascular resistance from control were 12.3 and 22.7%, respectively (P less than 0.01). Similar decreases (9.5 and 24.9%, respectively; P less than 0.01) were noted with exercise of the quadriceps muscle. By contrast, the corresponding increases in calf vascular resistance were greater (P less than 0.01) with quadriceps exercise (13.3 and 55.4%, respectively) than with finger exercise (6.0 and 36.0%). Arrest of the circulation to the exercising muscles just before the exercise ended caused an abrupt increase in forearm vascular resistance and a decrease in calf resistance. These studies provide further evidence of the heterogeneity of responses of forearm and calf resistance vessels to certain cardiovascular stimuli.

  16. Calf Venous Compliance in Supine Posture Equals that Measured with Head-up Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Bernauer, E. M.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    Calf venous compliance is measured conventionally with venous occlusion, where compliance equals calf volume elevation per mmHg thigh occlusion pressure in relaxed legs of supine subjects. Compliance may also be measured during stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) as calf volume elevation per mmHg gravitational venous pressure elevation produced by HUT. Although HUT on a tilt table with a footplate activates calf muscles which could reduce compliance, this muscle activation is relatively small (less than or = 10% of maximal voluntary levels). Therefore, we hypothesized that calf compliance measured with HUT equals that measured with conventional supine venous occlusion. The venous occlusion protocol consisted of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg thigh cuff inflations held for 1, 2, 3 and 4 min, respectively, in 14 supine subjects. One min of cuff deflation to 0 mmHg separated occlusions. Nine other subjects underwent HUT through the following angles held for 30s each: -12 deg., -6 deg., 0 deg., 12 deg., 30 deg., 54 deg., and 90 deg. HUT calf venous pressure data were interpolated from Katkov and Chestukhin; these data correspond to 70-80% of calculated calf venous pressure changes (pgh). Liquid metal-in-silastic strain gauges measured calf volume for both venous occlusion and HUT compliance. Relaxed calf compliance in supine subjects equaled 4.6 +/- 0.4 ml/mmHg (X +/- SE), as measured with venous occlusion. Calf compliance during HUT equaled 4.6 +/- 1.0 ml/mmHg. Therefore, calf compliance in supine, relaxed subjects equals that measured during head-up tilt. We conclude that the minimal calf muscle activation which occurs during HUT does not importantly affect calf compliance.

  17. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitske Graveland

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms. METHODS: A sample of 102 veal calf farms were randomly selected and visited from March 2007-February 2008. Participating farmers were asked to fill in a questionnaire (n = 390 to identify potential risk factors. A nasal swab was taken from each participant. Furthermore, nasal swabs were taken from calves (n = 2151. Swabs were analysed for MRSA by selective enrichment and suspected colonies were confirmed as MRSA by using slide coagulase test and PCR for presence of the mecA-gene. Spa types were identified and a random selection of each spa type was tested with ST398 specific PCR. The Sequence Type of non ST398 strains was determined. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Human MRSA carriage was strongly associated with intensity of animal contact and with the number of MRSA positive animals on the farm. Calves were more often carrier when treated with antibiotics, while farm hygiene was associated with a lower prevalence of MRSA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study showing direct associations between animal and human carriage of ST398. The direct associations between animal and human MRSA carriage and the association between MRSA and antimicrobial use in calves implicate prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  18. Assessment of venous muscle pump function by ambulatory calf volume strain gauge plethysmography after surgical treatment of varicose veins: a prospective study of 21 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmann, J R

    1987-03-01

    A prospective study of the improvement in leg muscle pump function after radical surgery was performed for treatment of varicose veins. Venous muscle pump function was assessed in 21 patients with primary varicose veins by means of ambulatory strain gauge plethysmography immediately before surgery and 3 months and 60 months after surgical treatment of varicose veins. The physiologic documentation of the operative efficacy was provided by the mean venous reflux, which was reduced by 54% (p less than 0.001), and the mean expelled volume, which was increased by 58% (p less than 0.001). Initially, all patients had improved venous muscle pump function. This improvement was still present 60 months after surgery. At clinical assessment 3 months after surgery, it was noted that 90% of the patients were without residual varicose veins (p less than 0.01). Sixty months after surgery, 71% of the patients were without apparent varicose veins (p less than 0.05). Subjective symptoms had virtually disappeared 3 months after surgery (p less than 0.001) but were found to a variable extent in 80% of the patients at the 60-month control follow-up. It is concluded that ambulatory strain gauge plethysmography may quantitate the effect of surgery in patients with venous valvular incompetence; in addition to measurements of refilling time, it is able to measure the muscle-pump-generated expelled volume because of in-place electrical calibration.

  19. The effect of the muscle environment on the regenerative capacity of human skeletal muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jinhong; Bencze, Maximilien; Asfahani, Rowan; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Muscle stem cell transplantation is a possible treatment for muscular dystrophy. In addition to the intrinsic properties of the stem cells, the local and systemic environment plays an important role in determining the fate of the grafted cells. We therefore investigated the effect of modulating the host muscle environment in different ways (irradiation or cryoinjury or a combination of irradiation and cryoinjury) in two immunodeficient mouse strains (mdx nude and recombinase-activating gene (Rag)2-/γ chain-/C5-) on the regenerative capacity of two types of human skeletal muscle-derived stem cell (pericytes and CD133+ cells). Human skeletal muscle-derived pericytes or CD133+ cells were transplanted into muscles of either mdx nude or recombinase-activating gene (Rag)2-/γ chain-/C5- host mice. Host muscles were modulated prior to donor cell transplantation by either irradiation, or cryoinjury, or a combination of irradiation and cryoinjury. Muscles were analysed four weeks after transplantation, by staining transverse cryostat sections of grafted muscles with antibodies to human lamin A/C, human spectrin, laminin and Pax 7. The number of nuclei and muscle fibres of donor origin and the number of satellite cells of both host and donor origin were quantified. Within both host strains transplanted intra-muscularly with both donor cell types, there were significantly more nuclei and muscle fibres of donor origin in host muscles that had been modulated by cryoinjury, or irradiation+cryoinjury, than by irradiation alone. Irradiation has no additive effects in further enhancing the transplantation efficiency than cryodamage. Donor pericytes did not give rise to satellite cells. However, using CD133+ cells as donor cells, there were significantly more nuclei, muscle fibres, as well as satellite cells of donor origin in Rag2-/γ chain-/C5- mice than mdx nude mice, when the muscles were injured by either cryodamage or irradiation+cryodamage. Rag2-/γ chain-/C5- mice are a

  20. Muscle reflexes during gait elicited by electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, T; Krogsgaard, M R; Jensen, D B

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) on the motoneuron pool of the thigh and calf muscle during gait. The study group comprised eight young men without any history of injury to the knee joints. Multistranded teflon-insulated stainless...... over the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris caput longum, and semitendinosus muscles. The stimuli consisted of four pulses delivered at 200 Hz; the stimulus amplitude was two to three times the sensory threshold. The electrical stimulation of the PCL inhibited the ongoing...... muscle activity in both the quadriceps and the hamstrings. The latency of the inhibition ranged between 78 and 148 ms in the quadriceps, between 88 and 110 ms in the hamstrings and between 189 and 258 ms in m. gastrocnemius. Stimulation of the fat pad of the knee did not influence the thigh and calf...

  1. Differential effect of platelet-rich plasma and fetal calf serum on bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells expanded in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Anja; Wobus, Manja; Krech, Mathias; Münch, Nadine; Richter, Katja; Hölig, Kristina; Bornhauser, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from various sources have great potential for use in cell-based therapies. Since the proportion of primary MSCs contained in bone marrow or adipose tissue is low, plastic adherence and in vitro expansion are necessary to expand MSCs prior to clinical application. Human platelet-rich plasma has been introduced as an alternative serum source but functional differences have so far not been described. Here we cultured MSCs derived from human bone marrow in medium supplemented with either 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 5% and 10% platelet-rich plasma (PRP) until the first or second passage. Parameters under investigation were cell yield, clonogenicity, phenotype as well as migratory and differentiation potential. In addition, the secretion of SDF-1α and the induced migration of CD34(+) haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were investigated with regard to the different serum source. The use of PRP resulted in a significantly higher expansion rate and yield at passages 0 and 1. In addition, the level of secreted SDF-1α was significantly increased in the supernatant of MSCs cultured with FCS instead of human PRP. Consistent with this, the migration capacity of MSCs cultured with 10% FCS as well as their capability to induce the migration of CD34(+) haematopoietic progenitors in a transwell assay was higher. Our results demonstrate that human PRP can be seen as an alternative serum source to FCS for MSC cultivation. However, the requirements of the specific clinical application must be carefully considered before the respective serum source is selected. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, induces human hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI, a small peptides enriched extraction, performs immunomodulatory activity on cancer patients suffering from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The present study aims to investigate the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CSEI in cells and tumor-xenografted mouse models. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, CSEI reduced cell viability, enhanced apoptosis rate, caused reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, inhibited migration ability, and induced caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. CSEI significantly inhibited HepG2-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice. In cell and animal experiments, CSEI increased the activations of pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3; meanwhile, it suppressed the expressions of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and anti-oxidation proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 and catalase (CAT. The enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and c-JunN-terminalkinase (JNK, and decreased phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs were observed in CSEI-treated cells and tumor tissues. CSEI-induced cell viability reduction was significantly attenuated by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (a ROS inhibitor pretreatment. All data demonstrated that the upregulated oxidative stress status and the altered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs phosphorylation contributed to CSEI-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, CSEI exactly induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  3. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, John

    2010-01-01

    John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers i...

  4. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD; Richard J. Zienowicz, MD; Iulian Balan, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Curved lower legs cause psychological stress for women. In evaluating the shape, if thickness is the main contributing factor of leg aesthetic, then lipoplasty or calf reducing procedures will be the option. If the legs are slender and have no muscle hypertrophy but still have some indentation or bulges on both sides and lack an aesthetic shape what will be the options? The answer to the question is discussed in detail in this article. Methods: Twenty-two patients, operated over a...

  5. Molecular aging and rejuvenation of human muscle stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Morgan E; Suetta, Charlotte; Conboy, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Very little remains known about the regulation of human organ stem cells (in general, and during the aging process), and most previous data were collected in short-lived rodents. We examined whether stem cell aging in rodents could be extrapolated to genetically and environmentally variable humans....... Our findings establish key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of human stem cell aging. We find that satellite cells are maintained in aged human skeletal muscle, but fail to activate in response to muscle attrition, due to diminished activation of Notch compounded by elevated transforming growth...... factor beta (TGF-beta)/phospho Smad3 (pSmad3). Furthermore, this work reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/phosphate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) signalling declines in human muscle with age, and is important for activating Notch in human muscle stem cells. This molecular...

  6. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND CALIBRATED BY PLETHYSMOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; LUBBERS, J; BARENDSEN, GJ; DEPATER, L

    A procedure was developed that enables measurement of rapid variations in calf blood flow during voluntary rhythmic contraction of the calf muscles in supine, sitting, and standing positions. During the exercise, maximum blood velocity is measured by Doppler ultrasound equipment in the popliteal

  7. Pneumatic Muscles Actuated Lower-Limb Orthosis Model Verification with Actual Human Muscle Activation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzahir M.A.M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review study was conducted on existing lower-limb orthosis systems for rehabilitation which implemented pneumatic muscle type of actuators with the aim to clarify the current and on-going research in this field. The implementation of pneumatic artificial muscle will play an important role for the development of the advanced robotic system. In this research a derivation model for the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles using pneumatic artificial muscles of a lower limb orthosis will be verified with actual human’s muscle activities models. A healthy and young male 29 years old subject with height 174cm and weight 68kg was used as a test subject. Two mono-articular muscles Vastus Medialis (VM and Vastus Lateralis (VL were selected to verify the mono-articular muscle models and muscle synergy between anterior muscles. Two biarticular muscles Rectus Femoris (RF and Bicep Femoris (BF were selected to verify the bi-articular muscle models and muscle co-contraction between anterior-posterior muscles. The test was carried out on a treadmill with a speed of 4.0 km/h, which approximately around 1.25 m/s for completing one cycle of walking motion. The data was collected for about one minute on a treadmill and 20 complete cycles of walking motion were successfully recorded. For the evaluations, the mathematical model obtained from the derivation and the actual human muscle activation patterns obtained using the surface electromyography (sEMG system were compared and analysed. The results shown that, high correlation values ranging from 0.83 up to 0.93 were obtained in between the derivation model and the actual human muscle’s model for both mono- and biarticular muscles. As a conclusion, based on the verification with the sEMG muscle activities data and its correlation values, the proposed derivation models of the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles were suitable to simulate and controls the pneumatic muscles actuated lower limb

  8. Human platelet lysate is a feasible candidate to replace fetal calf serum as medium supplement for blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Pablo; Riedl, Sabrina; Witzeneder, Karin; Hildner, Florian; Wolbank, Susanne; Groeger, Marion; Gabriel, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    As angiogenic and lymphangiogenic key players, endothelial cells (ECs) are promising candidates for vascular regenerative therapies. To culture ECs in vitro, fetal calf serum (FCS) is most often used. However, some critical aspects of FCS usage, such as possible internalization of xenogeneic proteins and prions, must be considered. Therefore, the aim of this project was to determine if human platelet lysate (hPL) is a suitable alternative to FCS as medium supplement for the culture of blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The usability of hPL was tested by analysis of endothelial surface marker expression, metabolic activity and vasculogenic potential of outgrowth ECs (OECs), human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), and lymphatic ECs (LECs). Expression of EC markers CD31, VEGFR2, VE-cadherin and CD146 did not differ significantly between the EC types cultured in FCS or hPL. In addition, OECs, HUVECs and LECs formed tube-like structures on Matrigel when cultured in hPL and FCS. With the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid assays, we found that the metabolic activity of OECs and LECs was slightly decreased when hPL was used. However, HUVECs and LECs did not show a significant decrease in metabolic activity, and HUVECs showed a slightly higher activity at low seeding densities. The use of hPL on different EC types did not reveal any substantial negative effects on EC behavior. Thus, hPL appears to be a favorable candidate to replace FCS as a medium supplement in the culture of ECs. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle-specific expression of hypoxia-inducible factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mounier, Rémi; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Plomgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    fibres that possess unique patterns of protein and gene expression, producing different capillarization and energy metabolism systems. In this work, we analysed HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression related to the fibre-type composition in untrained human skeletal muscle by obtaining muscle biopsies......Skeletal muscle is well known to exhibit a high degree of plasticity depending on environmental changes, such as various oxygen concentrations. Studies of the oxygen-sensitive subunit alpha of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) are difficult owing to the large variety of functionally diverse muscle......alpha mRNA and protein owing to their higher oxidative capacity. We have shown, in normoxic conditions, a higher HIF-1alpha protein expression in predominantly oxidative muscles than in predominantly glycolytic muscles. However, the HIF-1alpha mRNA expression pattern was not in agreement with the HIF-1...

  10. Modulation of human muscle spindle discharge by arterial pulsations - functional effects and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birznieks, I.; Boonstra, T.W.; Macefield, V.G.

    2012-01-01

    Arterial pulsations are known to modulate muscle spindle firing; however, the physiological significance of such synchronised modulation has not been investigated. Unitary recordings were made from 75 human muscle spindle afferents innervating the pretibial muscles. The modulation of muscle spindle

  11. Observational Study on the Occurrence of Muscle Spindles in Human Digastric and Mylohyoideus Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Saverino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the occurrence of muscle spindles (MS is quite high in most skeletal muscles of humans, few MS, or even absence, have been reported in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. Even if this condition is generally accepted and quoted in many papers and books, observational studies are scarce and based on histological sections of a low number of specimens. The aim of the present study is to confirm previous data, assessing MS number in a sample of digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. We investigated 11 digastric and 6 mylohyoideus muscles from 13 donors. Muscle samples were embedded in paraffin wax, cross-sectioned in a rostrocaudal direction, and stained using haematoxylin-eosin. A mean of 5.1 ± 1.1 (range 3–7 MS was found in digastric muscles and mean of 0.5 ± 0.8 (range 0–2 in mylohyoideus muscles. A significant difference (P<0.001 was found with the control sample, confirming the correctness of the histological procedure. Our results support general belief that the absolute number of spindles is sparse in digastric and mylohyoideus muscles. External forces, such as food resistance during chewing or gravity, do not counteract jaw-opening muscles. It is conceivable that this condition gives them a limited proprioceptive importance and a reduced need for having specific receptors as MS.

  12. Shortening-induced force depression in human adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, C J; De Haan, A; Jones, D A; Sargeant, A J

    1998-01-01

    1. The effects of single isovelocity shortening contractions on force production of the electrically stimulated human adductor pollicis muscle were investigated in seven healthy male subjects. 2. Redeveloped isometric force immediately following isovelocity shortening was always depressed compared

  13. Shortening induced force depression in human adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; de Haan, A.; Jones, D.A.; Sargeant, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    1. The effects of single isovelocity shortening contractions on force production of the electrically stimulated human adductor pollicis muscle were investigated in seven healthy male subjects. 2. Redeveloped isometric force immediately following isovelocity shortening was always depressed compared

  14. Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI), a small peptides enriched extraction, induces human hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongxu; Lu, Wenqian; Zhang, Xinrui; Cai, Guangsheng; Teng, Lirong; Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Minghai; Zeng, Yan; Liang, Chunhua; Wang, Di

    2016-10-01

    Calf Spleen Extractive Injection (CSEI), a small peptides enriched extraction, performs immunomodulatory activity on cancer patients suffering from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The present study aims to investigate the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effects of CSEI in cells and tumor-xenografted mouse models. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, CSEI reduced cell viability, enhanced apoptosis rate, caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, inhibited migration ability, and induced caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. CSEI significantly inhibited HepG2-xenografted tumor growth in nude mice. In cell and animal experiments, CSEI increased the activations of pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3; meanwhile, it suppressed the expressions of anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and anti-oxidation proteins, such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and catalase (CAT). The enhanced phosphorylation of P38 and c-JunN-terminalkinase (JNK), and decreased phosphorylation of extra cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs) were observed in CSEI-treated cells and tumor tissues. CSEI-induced cell viability reduction was significantly attenuated by N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (a ROS inhibitor) pretreatment. All data demonstrated that the upregulated oxidative stress status and the altered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation contributed to CSEI-driven mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, CSEI exactly induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ROS/MAPKs dependent mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intermuscular force transmission between human plantarflexor muscles in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Schwartz, Sidse

    2010-01-01

    The exact mechanical function of synergist muscles within a human limb in vivo is not well described. Recent studies indicate the existence of a mechanical interaction between muscle actuators that may have functional significance and further play a role for injury mechanisms. The purpose...... of the present study was to investigate if intermuscular force transmission occurs within and between human plantarflexor muscles in vivo. Seven subjects performed four types of either active contractile tasks or passive joint manipulations: passive knee extension, voluntary isometric plantarflexion, voluntary...... task-induced tissue displacement (which is assumed to represent loading) for the plantarflexor muscles [MG, soleus (SOL), and flexor hallucis longus (FHL)]. Selective MG stimulation and passive knee extension resulted in displacement of both the MG and SOL muscles. Minimal displacement of the triceps...

  16. Bionic Humans Using EAP as Artificial Muscles Reality and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Yoseph Bar-Cohen

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the idea of a human with bionic muscles immediately conjures up science fiction images of a TV series superhuman character that was implanted with bionic muscles and portrayed with strength and speed far superior to any normal human. As fantastic as this idea may seem, recent developments in electroactive polymers (EAP) may one day make such bionics possible. Polymers that exhibit large displacement in response to stimulation that is other than electrical signa...

  17. Human muscle satellite cells as targets of Chikungunya virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ozden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIK virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells, and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans.

  18. Muscle-driven finite element simulation of human foot movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, L A; Aravas, N

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a finite element scheme for realistic muscle-driven simulation of human foot movements. The scheme is used to simulate human ankle plantar flexion. A three-dimensional anatomically detailed finite element model of human foot and lower leg is developed and the idea of generating natural foot movement based entirely on the contraction of the plantar flexor muscles is used. The bones, ligaments, articular cartilage, muscles, tendons, as well as the rest soft tissues of human foot and lower leg are included in the model. A realistic three-dimensional continuum constitutive model that describes the biomechanical behaviour of muscles and tendons is used. Both the active and passive properties of muscle tissue are accounted for. The materials for bones and ligaments are considered as homogeneous, isotropic and linearly elastic, whereas the articular cartilage and the rest soft tissues (mainly fat) are defined as hyperelastic materials. The model is used to estimate muscle tissue deformations as well as stresses and strains that develop in the lower leg muscles during plantar flexion of the ankle. Stresses and strains that develop in Achilles tendon during such a movement are also investigated.

  19. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzionato, Andrea; Sfriso, Maria Martina; Pontini, Alex; Macchi, Veronica; Petrelli, Lucia; Pavan, Piero G.; Natali, Arturo N.; Bassetto, Franco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits) and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation. PMID:26140375

  20. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Porzionato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation.

  1. Bovine apolipoprotein B-100 is a dominant immunogen in therapeutic cell populations cultured in fetal calf serum in mice and humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakamoto, Norihisa; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Muul, Linda M; Lawler, Ann M; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Candotti, Fabio; Metcalf, Julia A; Tavel, Jorge A; Lane, H Clifford; Urba, Walter J; Fox, Bernard A; Varki, Ajit; Lunney, Joan K; Rosenberg, Amy S

    2007-01-01

    ... on the cell surface and is internalized. Here we show that in the majority of patients administered 3 different types of cell-based therapies using cells grown in fetal calf serum-containing media, an antibody response to bovine apolipoprotein B-100 develops after the second infusion and is the dominant specificity. The known and potential clinical effects of such antibodies are discussed.

  2. Human Satellite Cell Transplantation and Regeneration from Diverse Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoti Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of human satellite cells that fulfill muscle stem cell criteria is an unmet need in regenerative medicine. This hurdle limits understanding how closely muscle stem cell properties are conserved among mice and humans and hampers translational efforts in muscle regeneration. Here, we report that PAX7 satellite cells exist at a consistent frequency of 2–4 cells/mm of fiber in muscles of the human trunk, limbs, and head. Xenotransplantation into mice of 50–70 fiber-associated, or 1,000–5,000 FACS-enriched CD56+/CD29+ human satellite cells led to stable engraftment and formation of human-derived myofibers. Human cells with characteristic PAX7, CD56, and CD29 expression patterns populated the satellite cell niche beneath the basal lamina on the periphery of regenerated fibers. After additional injury, transplanted satellite cells robustly regenerated to form hundreds of human-derived fibers. Together, these findings conclusively delineate a source of bona-fide endogenous human muscle stem cells that will aid development of clinical applications.

  3. Comparison of bolus injection and constant infusion methods for measuring muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chinkes, David L; Bahadorani, John; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Killewich, Lois A; Wolfe, Robert R

    2014-12-01

    The use of stable isotope tracer techniques to measure muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) has been well established and widely used. The most common method that has been utilized so far is a primed constant infusion (CI) method, which requires 3-4 h of tracer infusion. However, recently our group has developed a bolus injection (BI) method, which requires an injection of bolus of tracer and can be completed within 1 h. In this study, we compared calf (gastrocnemius) muscle protein FSR measured using these two different methods--CI and BI. FSRs were measured in eight people (5 men and 3 women; age: 62.3±6.9 years (mean±SD); body weight: 75.4±21.5 kg) at basal, postabsorptive state using L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine. In the CI protocol, a primed continuous infusion was given for 4 h, and muscle biopsies were taken at 120 and 240 min; in the BI, a bolus injection of the tracer was given at 0 min and biopsies were taken at 5 and 60 min. Tracer enrichments in blood and muscle tissue were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data are expressed as mean±SE; t-test, linear regression and Levene Median equal variance test analyses were performed. CI FSR was 0.066±0.006%/h, whereas BI FSR was 0.058±0.008%/h, p=NS. The linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between BI and CI, p=0.038. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.83. The standard deviation of the differences in the measurements was 0.015%/h. The Levene Median equal variance test demonstrated no difference in variance between the CI and BI measurements (p=0.722). No difference could be detected in calf muscle protein FSR measured by CI and BI methods; the BI method can be used for the measurement of muscle protein FSR in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Substrate exchange in human limb muscle during exercise at reduced blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, F; Bennegård, K; Elander, A; Lundholm, K; Scherstén, T; Bylund-Fellenius, A C

    1988-11-01

    The substrate exchange of the calf muscles during leg exercise was compared in patients with chronically reduced blood flow and in matched controls. The arteriovenous differences of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids, glycerol, acetoacetate, beta-OH-butyrate, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were analyzed at rest, at the end of two exercise periods at various work loads, and after 10 min of recovery. Calf blood flow was measured with an electrocardiogram-triggered, computerized, strain gauge, venous occlusion plethysmograph. The results indicate that there was increased extraction of oxygen and ketone bodies in patients with reduced blood flow during exercise, whereas the glucose extraction tended to be lower than in controls. The leg respiratory quotient was lower in the patients even at the point of claudicating pain, suggesting oxidation of endogenous fat. The simultaneously elevated lactate release can be explained by local hypoxia in some muscle fiber populations. The findings are discussed in relation to the enzymatic adaptations known to occur in the calf muscle tissue of these patients.

  5. Morphology of muscle attachment sites in the modern human hand does not reflect muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hatala, E M; Hatala, K G; Hiles, S; Rabey, K N

    2016-06-23

    Muscle attachment sites (entheses) on dry bones are regularly used by paleontologists to infer soft tissue anatomy and to reconstruct behaviors of extinct organisms. This method is commonly applied to fossil hominin hand bones to assess their abilities to participate in Paleolithic stone tool behaviors. Little is known, however, about how or even whether muscle anatomy and activity regimes influence the morphologies of their entheses, especially in the hand. Using the opponens muscles from a sample of modern humans, we tested the hypothesis that aspects of hand muscle architecture that are known to be influenced by behavior correlate with the size and shape of their associated entheses. Results show no consistent relationships between these behaviorally-influenced aspects of muscle architecture and entheseal morphology. Consequently, it is likely premature to infer patterns of behavior, such as stone tool making in fossil hominins, from these same entheses.

  6. In vivo passive mechanical behaviour of muscle fascicles and tendons in human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert D; Clarke, Jillian; Kwah, Li Khim; Diong, Joanna; Martin, Josh; Clarke, Elizabeth C; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2011-11-01

    Ultrasound imaging was used to measure the length of muscle fascicles in human gastrocnemius muscles while the muscle was passively lengthened and shortened by moving the ankle. In some subjects the muscle belly 'buckled' at short lengths. When the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit was passively lengthened from its shortest in vivo length by dorsiflexing the ankle, increases in muscle-tendon length were not initially accompanied by increases in muscle fascicle lengths (fascicle length remained constant), indicating muscle fascicles were slack at short muscle-tendon lengths. The muscle-tendon length at which slack is taken up differs among fascicles: some fascicles begin to lengthen at very short muscle-tendon lengths whereas other fascicles remain slack over a large range of muscle-tendon lengths. This suggests muscle fascicles are progressively 'recruited' and contribute sequentially to muscle-tendon stiffness during passive lengthening of the muscle-tendon unit. Even above their slack lengths muscle fascicles contribute only a small part (tendon length. The contribution of muscle fascicles to muscle-tendon length increases with muscle length. The novelty of this work is that it reveals a previously unrecognised phenomenon (buckling at short lengths), posits a new mechanism of passive mechanical properties of muscle (recruitment of muscle fascicles), and confirms with high-resolution measurements that the passive compliance of human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon units is due largely to the tendon. It would be interesting to investigate if adaptations of passive properties of muscles are associated with changes in the distribution of muscle lengths at which fascicles fall slack.

  7. Calf stretching in correct alignment. An important consideration in plantar fasciopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Stretching of the calf muscles is important in the treatment of plantar fasciopathy. In order to correctly stretch the calf muscles without strain on the plantar fascia the correct alignment of the lower limb should be maintained. A clinical method of achieving this is presented along with a practical guide to assisting the patient to become familiar with correct lower limb alignment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human skeletal muscle xenograft as a new preclinical model for muscle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanfan; King, Oliver D; Rahimov, Fedik; Jones, Takako I; Ward, Christopher W; Kerr, Jaclyn P; Liu, Naili; Emerson, Charles P; Kunkel, Louis M; Partridge, Terence A; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2014-06-15

    Development of novel therapeutics requires good animal models of disease. Disorders for which good animal models do not exist have very few drugs in development or clinical trial. Even where there are accepted, albeit imperfect models, the leap from promising preclinical drug results to positive clinical trials commonly fails, including in disorders of skeletal muscle. The main alternative model for early drug development, tissue culture, lacks both the architecture and, usually, the metabolic fidelity of the normal tissue in vivo. Herein, we demonstrate the feasibility and validity of human to mouse xenografts as a preclinical model of myopathy. Human skeletal muscle biopsies transplanted into the anterior tibial compartment of the hindlimbs of NOD-Rag1(null) IL2rγ(null) immunodeficient host mice regenerate new vascularized and innervated myofibers from human myogenic precursor cells. The grafts exhibit contractile and calcium release behavior, characteristic of functional muscle tissue. The validity of the human graft as a model of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is demonstrated in disease biomarker studies, showing that gene expression profiles of xenografts mirror those of the fresh donor biopsies. These findings illustrate the value of a new experimental model of muscle disease, the human muscle xenograft in mice, as a feasible and valid preclinical tool to better investigate the pathogenesis of human genetic myopathies and to more accurately predict their response to novel therapeutics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Emotions alter muscle proprioceptive coding of movements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Aimonetti, Jean-Marc; Ribot-Ciscar, Edith

    2017-08-16

    Emotions can evoke strong reactions that have profound influences, from gross changes in our internal environment to small fluctuations in facial muscles, and reveal our feelings overtly. Muscles contain proprioceptive afferents, informing us about our movements and regulating motor activities. Their firing reflects changes in muscle length, yet their sensitivity can be modified by the fusimotor system, as found in animals. In humans, the sensitivity of muscle afferents is modulated by cognitive processes, such as attention; however, it is unknown if emotional processes can modulate muscle feedback. Presently, we explored whether muscle afferent sensitivity adapts to the emotional situation. We recorded from single muscle afferents in the leg, using microneurography, and moved the ankle joint of participants, while they listened to evocative classical music to induce sad, neutral, or happy emotions, or sat passively (no music). We further monitored their physiological responses using skin conductance, heart rate, and electromyography measures. We found that muscle afferent firing was modified by the emotional context, especially for sad emotions, where the muscle spindle dynamic response increased. We suggest that this allows us to prime movements, where the emotional state prepares the body for consequent behaviour-appropriate reactions.

  10. Sarcoglycan subcomplex in normal and pathological human muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, G; Cutroneo, G; Rizzo, G; Favaloro, A

    2007-01-01

    Sarcoglycans are a sub-complex of transmembrane proteins which are part of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC). They are expressed above all in the skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the sarcoglycan sub-complex in skeletal and cardiac muscle, the manner of distribution and localization of these proteins along the non-junctional sarcolemma is still not clear. Furthermore, there are unclear data about the actual role of sarcoglycans in human skeletal muscle affected by sarcoglycanopathies. In our studies on human skeletal muscle, normal and pathological, we determined the localization, distribution and interaction of these glycoproteins. Our results, on normal human skeletal muscle, showed that the sarcoglycans can be localized both in the region of the sarcolemma over the I band and over the A band, hypothesizing a correlation between regions of the sarcolemma occupied by costameres and the metabolic type of the fibers (slow and fast). Our data on skeletal muscle affected by sarcoglycanopathy confirmed the hypothesis of a bidirectional signaling between sarcoglycans and integrins and the interaction of filamin2 with both sarcoglycans and integrins. In addition, we have recently demonstrated, in smooth muscle, the presence of alpha-SG, in contrast with data of other Authors. Finally, we analyzed the association between contractile activity and quantitative correlation between alpha- and epsilon-SG, in order to better define the arrangement of sarcoglycan subcomplex.

  11. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  12. Molecular aging and rejuvenation of human muscle stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Morgan E; Suetta, Charlotte; Conboy, Michael J.; Aagaard, Per; Mackey, Abigail; Kjaer, Michael; Conboy, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Very little remains known about the regulation of human organ stem cells (in general, and during the aging process), and most previous data were collected in short-lived rodents. We examined whether stem cell aging in rodents could be extrapolated to genetically and environmentally variable humans. Our findings establish key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of human stem cell aging. We find that satellite cells are maintained in aged human skeletal muscle, but fail to activate in response ...

  13. High glucose induces cell death of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells through the formation of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, C; Lafuente, N; Matesanz, N; Cercas, E; Llergo, J L; Vallejo, S; Rodríguez-Mañas, L; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    2001-08-01

    Alterations of the vessel structure, which is mainly determined by smooth muscle cells through cell growth and/or cell death mechanisms, are characteristic of diabetes complications. We analysed the influence of high glucose (22 mM) on cultured human aortic smooth muscle cell growth and death, as hyperglycaemia is considered one of the main factors involved in diabetic vasculopathy. Growth curves were performed over 96 h in medium containing 0.5% foetal calf serum. Cell number increased by 2 - 4 fold over the culture period in the presence of 5.5 mM (low) glucose, while a 20% reduction in final cell number was observed with high glucose. Under serum-free conditions, cell number remained constant in low glucose cultures, but a 40% decrease was observed in high glucose cultures, suggesting that high glucose may induce increased cell death rather than reduced proliferation. Reduced final cell number induced by high glucose was also observed after stimulation with 5 or 10% foetal calf serum. The possible participation of oxidative stress was investigated by co-incubating high glucose with different reactive oxygen species scavengers. Only catalase reversed the effect of high glucose. Intracellular H(2)O(2) content, visualized with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein and quantified by flow cytometry, was increased after high glucose treatment. To investigate the cell death mechanism induced by high glucose, apoptosis and necrosis were quantified. No differences were observed regarding the apoptotic index between low and high glucose cultures, but lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in high glucose cultures. In conclusion, high glucose promotes necrotic cell death through H(2)O(2) formation, which may participate in the development of diabetic vasculopathy.

  14. Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity...... in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8 weeks with oral iron (100 mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis....... rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92 ± 5 to 113 ± 7 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1)) and ETS (107 ± 4 to 143 ± 14 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), p muscle....

  15. Regenerating human muscle fibres express GLUT3 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Schrøder, H D

    2002-01-01

    The presence of the GLUT3 glucose transporter protein in human muscle cells is a matter of debate. The present study was designed to establish whether GLUT3 is expressed in mature human skeletal muscle fibres and, if so, whether its expression changes under different conditions, such as metabolic...... stress (obesity, obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), hypertrophy (training), de- and reinnervation (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) or regeneration (polymyositis). We used an immunohistochemical approach to detect and localise GLUT3. GLUT3 immunoreactivity was not detectable in adult skeletal...... muscle fibres, nor did metabolic stress, training or de- and re-innervation induce GLUT3 expression, while a few GLUT3 expressing fibres were seen in some cases of polymyositis. In contrast, GLUT4 was expressed in all investigated muscle fibres. GLUT3 immunoreactivity was found in perineural...

  16. Functional and molecular outcomes of the human masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, G; Anastasi, G P; Matarese, G; Williams, R C; Cutroneo, G; Bracco, P; Piancino, M G

    2017-11-20

    The masticatory muscles achieve a broad range of different activities such as chewing, sucking, swallowing, and speech. In order to accomplish these duties, masticatory muscles have a unique and heterogeneous structure and fiber composition, enabling them to produce their strength and contraction speed largely dependent on their motor units and myosin proteins that can change in response to genetic and environmental factors. Human masticatory muscles express unique myosin isoforms, including a combination of thick fibers, expressing myosin light chains (MyLC) and myosin class I and II heavy chains (MyHC) -IIA, -IIX, α-cardiac, embryonic and neonatal and thin fibers, respectively. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the importance of fiber-type diversity in masticatory muscles versus supra- and infrahyoid muscles, and versus limb and trunk muscles. We also highlight new information regarding the adaptive response and specific genetic variations of muscle fibers on the functional significance of the masticatory muscles, which influences craniofacial characteristics, malocclusions, or asymmetry. These findings may offer future possibilities for the prevention of craniofacial growth disturbances. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gray Whale Calf Production Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale calf production is estimated from data collected during the northbound migration as whales return to their feeding grounds in the Arctic. Counts of adult...

  18. Corticospinal contribution to arm muscle activity during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    When we walk, our arm muscles show rhythmic activity suggesting that the central nervous system contributes to the swing of the arms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal drive plays a role in the control of arm muscle activity during human walking. Motor evoked...... inhibitory interneurones, the suppression is in all likelihood caused by removal of a corticospinal contribution to the ongoing EMG activity. The data thus suggest that the motor cortex makes an active contribution, through the corticospinal tract, to the ongoing EMG activity in arm muscles during walking....

  19. Myosin Heavy Chain Composition of the Human Genioglossus Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Megan; Luo, Qingwei; Sokoloff, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The human tongue muscle genioglossus (GG) is active in speech, swallowing, respiration, and oral transport, behaviors encompassing a wide range of tongue shapes and movement speeds. Studies demonstrate substantial diversity in patterns of human GG motor unit activation, but whether this is accompanied by complex expression of muscle…

  20. The Human Tongue Slows Down to Speak: Muscle Fibers of the Human Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI; AMIRALI, ASIF; SU, HUNGXI; SOBOTKA, STANISLAW

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the specializations of human tongue muscles. In this study, myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) histochemical staining was used to study the percentage and distribution of slow twitch muscle fibers (slow MFs) within tongue muscles of 4 neurologically normal human adults and specimens from a 2 year old human, a newborn human, an adult with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), and a macaque monkey. The average percentage of slow MFs in adult and the 2 year old muscle specimens was 54%, the IPD was 45%, while the neonatal human (32%) and macaque monkey (28%) had markedly fewer slow MFs. In contrast the tongue muscles of the rat and cat have been reported to have no slow MFs. There was a marked spatial gradient in the distribution of slow MFs with the highest percentages found medially and posterially. Normal adult tongue muscles were found to have a variety of uniquely specialized features including MF type grouping (usually found in neuromuscular disorders), large amounts of loose connective tissue, and short branching MFs. In summary, normal adult human tongue muscles have by far the highest proportion of slow MFs of any mammalian tongue studied to date. Moreover, adult human tongue muscles have multiple unique anatomic features. As the tongue shape changes that are seen during speech articulation are unique to humans we hypothesize that the large proportion of slow MFs and the anatomical specializations observed in the adult human tongue have evolved to perform these movements. PMID:23929762

  1. Regulation of the skeletal muscle blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan; Saltin, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    hyperaemia whereas the role of ATP remains uncertain due to lack of specific purinergic receptor blockers for human use. The purpose of this review is to address the interaction between vasodilator systems and to discuss the multiple proposed roles of ATP in human skeletal muscle blood flow regulation......In humans, skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated by an interaction between several locally formed vasodilators including nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. In plasma, ATP is a potent vasodilator that stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins and very importantly can offset local...... sympathetic vasoconstriction. ATP is released into plasma from erythrocytes and endothelial cells and the plasma concentration increases in both the feeding artery and the vein draining the contracting skeletal muscle. Adenosine also stimulates the formation of NO and prostaglandins, but the plasma adenosine...

  2. Photobiomodulation in human muscle tissue: an advantage in sports performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared (NIR) light to stimulate, heal, and regenerate damaged tissue. Both preconditioning (light delivered to muscles before exercise) and PBM applied after exercise can increase sports performance in athletes. This review covers the effects of PBM on human muscle tissue in clinical trials in volunteers related to sports performance and in athletes. The parameters used were categorized into those with positive effects or no effects on muscle performance and recovery. Randomized controlled trials and case-control studies in both healthy trained and untrained participants, and elite athletes were retrieved from MEDLINE up to 2016. Performance metrics included fatigue, number of repetitions, torque, hypertrophy; measures of muscle damage and recovery such as creatine kinase and delayed onset muscle soreness. Searches retrieved 533 studies, of which 46 were included in the review (n = 1045 participants). Studies used single laser probes, cluster of laser diodes, LED clusters, mixed clusters (lasers and LEDs), and flexible LED arrays. Both red, NIR, and red/NIR mixtures were used. PBM can increase muscle mass gained after training, and decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in muscle biopsies. We raise the question of whether PBM should be permitted in athletic competition by international regulatory authorities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Robotic Powered Transfer Mechanism modeling on Human Muscle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yukio

    It is considered in engineering that one power source can operate one joint. However, support movement mechanism of living organism is multi joint movement mechanism. Considerably different from mechanical movement mechanism, two pairs of uni-articular muscles and a pair of bi-articular muscles are involved in it. In leg, movements observed in short run including leg idling, heel contact and toeing are operated by bi-articular muscles of the thigh showing strong legs to support body weight. Pursuit of versatility in welfare robot brings its comparison with conventional machinery or industrial robot to the fore. Request for safety and technology allowing elderly people to operate the robot is getting stronger in the society. The robot must be safe when it is used together with other welfare equipment and simpler system avoiding difficult operation has to be constructed. Appearance of recent care and assistance robot is getting similar to human arm in comparison with industrial robot. Being easily able to imagine from industrial robot, mid-heavyweight articulated robot to support 60-70kgf combined with large output motor and reduction gears is next to impossible to be installed in the bath room. This research indicated that upper limb arm and lower limb thigh of human and animals are holding coalitional muscles and movement of uni-artcular muscle and bi-articular muscle conjure the image of new actuators.

  4. Development of digastric muscles in human fetuses: a review and findings in the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Jin, Zhe Wu; Zhao, Peng; Murakami, Gen; Li, Xiang Wu; Jin, Yu

    2017-09-04

    The digastricus and omohyoideus muscles are digastric muscles with two muscle bellies. An insertion tendon of the posterior belly becomes an intermediate tendon in digastricus muscles, whereas a single band-like muscle in omohyoideus muscles may later be interrupted by an intermediate tendon, possibly due to muscle cell death caused by mechanical stress. In human fetuses, an intermediate tendon provides the temporal origins of the tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani muscles. Some reptiles, including snakes, carry multiple series of digastric-like axial muscles, in which each intersegmental septum is likely to become an intermediate tendon. These findings indicate that many pathways are involved in the development of digastric muscles. A review of these morphologies suggested that the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle was a digastric muscle, although the intermediate tendon may not be visible in the surface view in adults. The present observations support the hypothesis that the proximal anlage at the elbow develops into a deep muscle slip to a limited finger, while the distal anlage at the wrist develops into the other slips. The findings suggest that, in the FDS muscle, the proximal and distal bellies of the embryonic digastric muscle fuse together to form a laminar structure, in which muscle slips accumulate from the palmar to the deep side of the forearm.

  5. Determination of human muscle protein fractional synthesis rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; Hulston, Carl J; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, different MS methods for the determination of human muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) using [ring-(13)C6 ]phenylalanine as a tracer were evaluated. Because the turnover rate of human skeletal muscle is slow, only minute quantities of the stable isotopically...... labeled amino acid will be incorporated within the few hours of a typical laboratory experiment. GC combustion isotope ratio MS (GC-C-IRMS) has thus far been considered the 'gold' standard for the precise measurements of these low enrichment levels. However, advances in liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC...

  6. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...

  7. Has cervical smooth muscle any physiological role in the human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1985-01-01

    Strips of human cervical tissue were obtained by needle biopsy and contractile activity was registered isometrically in a tissue chamber perfused by Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. The most frequently encountered pattern of contractile activity was high frequency-short duration. Prostaglandin (PG)E2, PGI2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha had an inhibitory effect on the muscular activity. Cervical muscle from pregnant women was more sensitive to PGE2 than specimens from non-pregnant women. PGF2 alpha had no apparent effect on cervical contractility in non-pregnant and early pregnant patients. In late pregnancy, however, PGF2 alpha inhibited muscle contractions. The present results point to a physiological role of the cervical muscles for the control of cervical competence during pregnancy. The inhibitory effect of PGs on the muscle activity may promote cervical dilatation and retraction.

  8. Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik; Orthenblad, N.

    1997-01-01

    1. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of xanthine oxidase is elevated in injured human skeletal muscle in association with inflammatory events. Seven male subjects performed five bouts of strenuous one-legged eccentric exercise. Muscle biopsies from both the exercised...... and the control leg, together with venous blood samples, were obtained prior to exercise and at 45 min, 24, 48 and 96 h after exercise. The time courses of xanthine oxidase immunoreactivity and indicators of muscle damage and inflammation were examined. 2. The number of xanthine oxidase structures observed...... by immunohistological methods in the exercised muscle was up to eightfold higher than control from day 1 to day 4 after exercise (P

  9. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    Training improves insulin sensitivity, which in turn may affect performance by modulation of fuel availability. Insulin action, in turn, has been linked to specific patterns of muscle structural lipids in skeletal muscle. This study investigated whether regular exercise training exerts an effect...... on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P

  10. Exercise-induced metallothionein expression in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    in response to 3 h of bicycle exercise performed by healthy men and in resting controls. Both MT-I + II proteins and MT-II mRNA expression increased significantly in both type I and II muscle fibres after exercise. Moreover, 24 h after exercise the levels of MT-II mRNA and MT-I + II proteins were still highly...... in both type I and II muscle fibres. This is the first report demonstrating that MT-I + II are significantly induced in human skeletal muscle fibres following exercise. As MT-I + II are antioxidant factors that protect various tissues during pathological conditions, the MT-I + II increases post exercise...... may represent a mechanism whereby contracting muscle fibres are protected against cellular stress and injury....

  11. Re-evaluation of sarcolemma injury and muscle swelling in human skeletal muscles after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Liu, Jing-Xia; Carlsson, Lena; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Stål, Per S

    2013-01-01

    The results regarding the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on muscle tissue are often conflicting and the aetiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) induced by eccentric exercise is still unclear. This study aimed to re-evaluate the paradigm of muscular alterations with regard to muscle sarcolemma integrity and fibre swelling in human muscles after voluntary eccentric exercise leading to DOMS. Ten young males performed eccentric exercise by downstairs running. Biopsies from the soleus muscle were obtained from 6 non-exercising controls, 4 exercised subjects within 1 hour and 6 exercised subjects at 2-3 days and 7-8 days after the exercise. Muscle fibre sarcolemma integrity, infiltration of inflammatory cells and changes in fibre size and fibre phenotype composition as well as capillary supply were examined with specific antibodies using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Although all exercised subjects experienced DOMS which peaked between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise, no significant sarcolemma injury or inflammation was detected in any post exercise group. The results do not support the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise. The fibre size was 24% larger at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days post exercise (pmuscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS.

  12. Muscle fatigue changes cutaneous suppression of propriospinal drive to human upper limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P G; Gandevia, S C; Taylor, J L

    2007-04-01

    Some voluntary drive reaches human upper limb muscles via cervical propriospinal premotoneurones. Stimulation of the superficial radial nerve can inhibit these premotoneurones selectively and the resultant suppression of voluntary drive to motoneurones changes on-going electromyographic (EMG) activity. We investigated whether muscle fatigue changes this cutaneous-induced suppression of propriospinal drive to motoneurones of upper limb muscles. EMG was recorded from the extensors and flexors of the wrist and elbow. In the first study (n = 10 subjects), single stimuli (2 x perception threshold; 2PT) to the superficial radial nerve were delivered during contraction of the wrist extensors, before and after sustained fatiguing contractions of wrist extensors. In the second study (n = 10), similar stimuli were applied during elbow extension, before and during fatigue of elbow extensors. In the final study (n = 10), trains of three stimuli (2PT) were delivered during contractions of wrist extensors, before and while they were fatigued. With fatigue of either the wrist or elbow extensors, EMG suppression to single cutaneous stimuli increased significantly (by approximately 75%) for the fatigued muscle (P muscles, which were coactivated but not principally involved in the task, inhibition decreased or facilitation increased. Trains of stimuli produced greater suppression of on-going wrist extensor EMG than single stimuli and this difference persisted with fatigue. A control study of the H reflex in extensor carpi radialis showed that the mechanism responsible for the altered EMG suppression in fatigue was not at a motoneurone level. The findings suggest that the proportion of descending drive mediated via the disynaptic propriospinal pathway or the excitability of inhibitory interneurones projecting to propriospinal neurones increases substantially to fatigued muscles, but decreases to other active muscles. This pattern of changes may maintain coordination during

  13. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Riis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type...... CSA increased exclusively with Whey-Conc (P hypertrophy correlated with whole muscle hypertrophy exclusively following Conc training (P ...-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose...

  14. Nutrition and muscle loss in humans during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The protein loss in humans during spaceflight is partly due to a normal adaptive response to a decreased work load on the muscles involved in weight bearing. The process is mediated by changes in prostaglandin release, secondary to the decrease in tension on the affected muscles. On missions, where there is a high level of physical demands on the astronauts, there tends to be an energy deficit, which adds to the muscle protein loss and depletes the body fat reserves. While the adaptive response is a normal part of homeostasis, the additional protein loss from an energy deficit can, in the long run, have a negative effect on health and capability of humans to live and work in space and afterward return to Earth.

  15. Prospective heterotopic ossification progenitors in adult human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downey, Jennifer; Lauzier, Dominique; Kloen, Peter; Klarskov, Klaus; Richter, Martin; Hamdy, Reggie; Faucheux, Nathalie; Scimè, Anthony; Balg, Frédéric; Grenier, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has strong regenerative capabilities. However, failed regeneration can lead to complications where aberrant tissue forms as is the case with heterotopic ossification (HO), in which chondrocytes, osteoblasts and white and brown adipocytes can arise following severe trauma. In humans,

  16. Length dependent potentiation in electrically stimulated human ankle dorsiflexor muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mela, P.; Veltink, P.H.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term history effect of a decreasing frequency train on force and the influence of joint angle on such effect in human dorsiflexor muscles. Six able-bodied and three spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects took part in the study. Their isometric left

  17. Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L

    2011-01-01

    Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial respira...

  18. Selective activation of neuromuscular compartments within the human trapezius muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Roeleveld, K; Mork, P J

    2009-01-01

    was to investigate whether subdivisions within the human trapezius can be independently activated by voluntary command using biofeedback guidance. Bipolar electromyographical electrodes were situated on four subdivisions of the trapezius muscle. The threshold for "active" and "rest" for each subdivision was set...

  19. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal in circular muscle of human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Mikkelsen, H B; Qvortrup, Klaus

    1993-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) may be important regulatory cells in gut muscle layers. This study examined ICC within the circular muscle of human small intestine.......Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) may be important regulatory cells in gut muscle layers. This study examined ICC within the circular muscle of human small intestine....

  20. Muscle Carnosine Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora de Courten

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a naturally present dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and an over-the counter food additive. Animal data suggest a role of carnosine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but only limited human data exists.Samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained by needle biopsy. We measured muscle carnosine levels (high-performance liquid chromatography, % body fat (bioimpedance, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity (magnetic resonance imaging, insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, resting energy expenditure (REE, indirect calorimetry, free-living ambulatory physical activity (accelerometers and lipid profile in 36 sedentary non-vegetarian middle aged men (45±7 years with varying degrees of adiposity and glucose tolerance. Muscle carnosine content was positively related to % body fat (r = 0.35, p = 0.04 and subcutaneous (r = 0.38, p = 0.02 but not visceral fat (r = 0.17, p = 0.33. Muscle carnosine content was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.44, p = 0.008, REE (r = -0.58, p<0.001 and HDL-cholesterol levels (r = -0.34, p = 0.048. Insulin sensitivity and physical activity were the best predictors of muscle carnosine content after adjustment for adiposity.Our data shows that higher carnosine content in human skeletal muscle is positively associated with insulin resistance and fasting metabolic preference for glucose. Moreover, it is negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol and basal energy expenditure. Intervention studies targeting insulin resistance, metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors are necessary to evaluate its putative role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  1. Possible Muscle Repair in the Human Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommese, Linda; Zullo, Alberto; Schiano, Concetta; Mancini, Francesco P; Napoli, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The regenerative potential of tissues and organs could promote survival, extended lifespan and healthy life in multicellular organisms. Niches of adult stemness are widely distributed and lead to the anatomical and functional regeneration of the damaged organ. Conversely, muscular regeneration in mammals, and humans in particular, is very limited and not a single piece of muscle can fully regrow after a severe injury. Therefore, muscle repair after myocardial infarction is still a chimera. Recently, it has been recognized that epigenetics could play a role in tissue regrowth since it guarantees the maintenance of cellular identity in differentiated cells and, therefore, the stability of organs and tissues. The removal of these locks can shift a specific cell identity back to the stem-like one. Given the gradual loss of tissue renewal potential in the course of evolution, in the last few years many different attempts to retrieve such potential by means of cell therapy approaches have been performed in experimental models. Here we review pathways and mechanisms involved in the in vivo repair of cardiovascular muscle tissues in humans. Moreover, we address the ongoing research on mammalian cardiac muscle repair based on adult stem cell transplantation and pro-regenerative factor delivery. This latter issue, involving genetic manipulations of adult cells, paves the way for developing possible therapeutic strategies in the field of cardiovascular muscle repair.

  2. Skeletal muscle responses to lower limb suspension in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hather, Bruce M.; Adams, Gregory R.; Tesch, Per A.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The morphological responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting were assessed by analyzing multiple transaxial magnetic resonance (MR) images of both lower limbs and skeletal muscle biopsies of the unweighted lower limb before and after six weeks of unilaterial (left) lower limb suspension (ULLS). Results indicated that, as a results of 6 weeks of unweighting (by the subjects walking on crutches using only one limb), the cross sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle of the unweighted left limb decreased 12 percent, while the CSA of the right thigh muscle did not change. The decrease was due to a twofold greater response of the knee extensors than the knee flexors. The pre- and post-ULLS biopsies of the left vastus lateralis showed a 14 percent decrease in average fiber CSA due to unweighting. The number of capillaries surrounding the different fiber types was unchanged after ULLS. Results showed that the adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting are qualitatively, but not quantitatively, similar to those of lower mammals and not necessarily dependent on the fiber-type composition.

  3. Hemodynamic measurements in rat brain and human muscle using diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Durduran, Turgut; Furuya, D.; Lech, G.; Zhou, Chao; Chance, Britten; Greenberg, J. H.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2003-07-01

    Measurement of concentration, oxygenation, and flow characteristics of blood cells can reveal information about tissue metabolism and functional heterogeneity. An improved multifunctional hybrid system has been built on the basis of our previous hybrid instrument that combines two near-infrared diffuse optical techniques to simultaneously monitor the changes of blood flow, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2). Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) monitors blood flow (BF) by measuring the optical phase shifts caused by moving blood cells, while diffuse photon density wave spectroscopy (DPDW) measures tissue absorption and scattering. Higher spatial resolution, higher data acquisition rate and higher dynamic range of the improved system allow us to monitor rapid hemodynamic changes in rat brain and human muscles. We have designed two probes with different source-detector pairs and different separations for the two types of experiments. A unique non-contact probe mounted on the back of a camera, which allows continuous measurements without altering the blood flow, was employed to in vivo monitor the metabolic responses in rat brain during KCl induced cortical spreading depression (CSD). A contact probe was used to measure changes of blood flow and oxygenation in human muscle during and after cuff occlusion or exercise, where the non-contact probe is not appropriate for monitoring the moving target. The experimental results indicate that our multifunctional hybrid system is capable of in vivo and non-invasive monitoring of the hemodynamic changes in different tissues (smaller tissues in rat brain, larger tissues in human muscle) under different conditions (static versus moving). The time series images of flow during CSD obtained by our technique revealed spatial and temporal hemodynamic changes in rat brain. Two to three fold longer recovery times of flow and oxygenation after cuff occlusion or exercise from calf flexors in a

  4. Re-evaluation of sarcolemma injury and muscle swelling in human skeletal muscles after eccentric exercise.

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    Ji-Guo Yu

    Full Text Available The results regarding the effects of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on muscle tissue are often conflicting and the aetiology of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS induced by eccentric exercise is still unclear. This study aimed to re-evaluate the paradigm of muscular alterations with regard to muscle sarcolemma integrity and fibre swelling in human muscles after voluntary eccentric exercise leading to DOMS. Ten young males performed eccentric exercise by downstairs running. Biopsies from the soleus muscle were obtained from 6 non-exercising controls, 4 exercised subjects within 1 hour and 6 exercised subjects at 2-3 days and 7-8 days after the exercise. Muscle fibre sarcolemma integrity, infiltration of inflammatory cells and changes in fibre size and fibre phenotype composition as well as capillary supply were examined with specific antibodies using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Although all exercised subjects experienced DOMS which peaked between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise, no significant sarcolemma injury or inflammation was detected in any post exercise group. The results do not support the prevailing hypothesis that eccentric exercise causes an initial sarcolemma injury which leads to subsequent inflammation after eccentric exercise. The fibre size was 24% larger at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days post exercise (p<0.05. In contrast, the value of capillary number per fibre area tended to decrease from 2-3 days to 7-8 days post exercise (lower in 5 of the 6 subjects at 7-8 days than at 2-3 days; p<0.05. Thus, the increased fibre size at 7-8 days post exercise was interpreted to reflect fibre swelling. Because the fibre swelling did not appear at the time that DOMS peaked (between 1.5 to 2.5 days post exercise, we concluded that fibre swelling in the soleus muscle is not directly associated with the symptom of DOMS.

  5. Avaliação do volume de fluxo venoso da bomba sural por ultra-sonografia Doppler durante cinesioterapia ativa e passiva: um estudo piloto Evaluation of venous flow volume of the calf muscle pump by Doppler ultrasound during active and passive kinesiotherapy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmindo Carlos Cardoso Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O fisioterapeuta na unidade hospitalar atua sobre os efeitos da hipoatividade ou inatividade do paciente acamado. Na prática diária, a contração do músculo da panturrilha é difundida entre os profissionais de saúde no ambiente hospitalar, principalmente nos períodos de pré e pós-operatório, como forma de diminuir a estase venosa e os riscos de trombose venosa profunda nos membros inferiores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o volume de fluxo venoso na bomba sural, através de ultra-sonografia doppler, durante cinesioterapia ativa e passiva (flexão plantar do tornozelo. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 30 indivíduos escolhidos aleatoriamente e submetidos a ultra-sonografia doppler da veia poplítea direita, visando mensurar o volume de fluxo sanguíneo em quatro momentos: repouso, compressão manual da panturrilha, movimentação passiva e ativa do tornozelo em flexão plantar. Na análise dos resultados, utilizou-se o teste t, sendo utilizado um valor de p BACKGROUND: In-hospital physical therapists work on the effects of hypoactivity or inactivity of bedridden patients. In daily practice, contraction of the calf muscle is commonly performed by health professionals in hospitals, especially in pre- and post-operative periods as a form of reducing venous stasis and risk of deep venous thrombosis in the lower limbs. OBJECTIVE: To assess venous flow volume at the calf muscle pump using color Doppler ultrasound during active and passive kinesiotherapy (ankle plantar flexion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 individuals randomly selected and submitted to color Doppler ultrasound of the right popliteal vein, aiming to measure blood flow volume in four periods: rest, manual calf compression, active and passive ankle movement in plantar flexion. The t test was used for statistical analysis, and p < 0.05 was used as an index of statistical significance. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 16 females and 14 males. Means were as follows: age

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae induces aponecrosis in human aortic smooth muscle cells

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    Walch Michael

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is suspected to play a role in formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Many studies investigated cell death initiation versus inhibition by Chlamydia pneumoniae in established cell lines but nothing is known in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells, a cell type among others known to be involved in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. Type of cell death was analyzed by various methods in primary aortic smooth muscle cells after infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae to investigate a possible pathogenic link in atherosclerosis. Results Chlamydiae were found to be localized up to 72 h post infection in aortic smooth muscle cells either as single bacteria or inside of large inclusions. Quantification of host cell death by lactate dehydrogenase release assay revealed strictly dose and time dependent lysis for all tested isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae. Phosphatidylserine exposure was detected by flow cytometry in Chlamydia pneumoniae infected cells. Ultrastructure of Chlamydia pneumoniae infected human aortic smooth muscle cells showed extensive membrane- and organelle damage, chromatin condensation but no nuclear fragmentation. DNA fragmentation as well as cell membrane permeability was analyzed by TUNEL and NHS-biotin staining and occurred exclusively in cells carrying Chlamydia pneumoniae spots but not in smooth muscle cells with inclusions. These morphological features of cell death were not accompanied by an activation of caspase-3 as revealed by analysis of enzyme activity but involved mitochondrial membrane depolarization as shown by TMRE uptake and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Conclusion This study provides evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae induce a spot like infection in human aortic smooth muscle cells, which results in a chimeric cell death with both apoptotic and necrotic characteristics. This aponecrotic cell death may assist chronic

  7. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated...... in humans, and further studies are required to substantiate this hypothesis, which could expand our knowledge of the potential link between lifestyle-related diseases and muscle oxidative capacity. Furthermore, even though a large body of literature reports the effect of physical training on muscle...

  8. Inhibitory action of relaxin on human cervical smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Wiqvist, N; Sahni, S; Lindblom, B

    1984-09-01

    The influence of purified porcine relaxin on contractility of human cervical smooth muscle was investigated in vitro. Strips of cervical tissue were obtained by needle biopsy from pregnant and nonpregnant women and were mounted in a superfused organ chamber for isometric measurement of contractile activity. Relaxin (0.005-25 micrograms/ml) inhibited the spontaneous contractions in cervical strips from 18% of nonpregnant, 68% of early pregnant, and in 100% of term pregnant women. These results indicate that relaxin has an inhibitory action on cervical smooth muscle and that this effect is more constantly detected as pregnancy proceeds.

  9. Naturally occurring Tyzzer's disease in a calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, T; Shirota, K; Une, Y; Nomura, Y; Wada, Y; Goto, K; Takakura, A; Itoh, T; Fujiwara, K

    1999-05-01

    Naturally occurring Clostridium piliforme infection (Tyzzer's disease) was found in a calf. Light microscopic examination revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis in the liver, catarrhal gastroenteritis, tracheitis and pneumonia, and thymic atrophy. Warthin-Starry staining clearly showed large filamentous bacilli in bundles or criss-cross patterns within the hepatocytes and epithelium and smooth muscle cells of the ileum and cecum. Immunohistochemistry using anti-C. piliforme RT and MSK strain antisera showed positive reaction against the bacilli. Electron microscopic examination revealed bacilli within the hepatocytes that demonstrated a characteristic vegetative form, with peritrichous flagella, and spores. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study using the paraffin-embedded liver sections, the 196-bp DNA fragment specific to 16S ribosomal RNA of C. piliforme was amplified. The characteristics of these bacilli are consistent with those of of C. piliforme. The PCR technique using paraffin-embedded sections should be useful for confirming C. piliforme infection in spontaneous cases.

  10. Sodium nitrate ingestion increases skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakayiru, Jean; Kouw, Imre W K; Cermak, Naomi M; Senden, Joan M; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-09-01

    Nitrate ([Formula: see text]) ingestion has been shown to have vasoactive and ergogenic effects that have been attributed to increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Recent observations in rodents suggest that skeletal muscle tissue serves as an endogenous [Formula: see text] "reservoir." The present study determined [Formula: see text] contents in human skeletal muscle tissue in a postabsorptive state and following ingestion of a sodium nitrate bolus (NaNO 3 ). Seventeen male, type 2 diabetes patients (age 72 ± 1 yr; body mass index 26.5 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 ; means ± SE) were randomized to ingest a dose of NaNO 3 (NIT; 9.3 mg [Formula: see text]/kg body wt) or placebo (PLA; 8.8 mg NaCl/kg body wt). Blood and muscle biopsy samples were taken before and up to 7 h following [Formula: see text] or placebo ingestion to assess [Formula: see text] [and plasma nitrite ([Formula: see text])] concentrations. Additionally, basal plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations were assessed in 10 healthy young (CON-Y; age 21 ± 1 yr) and 10 healthy older (CON-O; age 75 ± 1 yr) control subjects. In all groups, baseline [Formula: see text] concentrations were higher in muscle (NIT, 57 ± 7; PLA, 61 ± 7; CON-Y, 80 ± 10; CON-O, 54 ± 6 µmol/l) than in plasma (NIT, 35 ± 3; PLA, 32 ± 3; CON-Y, 38 ± 3; CON-O, 33 ± 3 µmol/l; P ≤ 0.011). Ingestion of NaNO 3 resulted in a sustained increase in plasma [Formula: see text], plasma [Formula: see text], and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations (up to 185 ± 25 µmol/l) in the NIT group (time effect P nitrate ingestion is usually limited to the changes observed in plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations. The present investigation assessed the skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans during the postabsorptive state, as well as following dietary nitrate ingestion. We show that basal nitrate content is higher in skeletal muscle tissue than in plasma and that ingestion of a dietary nitrate bolus strongly increases both plasma

  11. ATP economy of force maintenance in human tibialis anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Mizuno, Masao

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was investigate ATP economy of force maintenance in the human tibialis anterior muscle during 60 s of anaerobic voluntary contraction at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). METHODS: ATP turnover rate was evaluated using P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P......) of the total ankle dorsiflexor muscle volume, which was 267 +/- 10 cm. Relative cross-sectional areas occupied by Type I, IIA, and IIB fibers in the tibialis anterior were 69.3 +/- 2.2, 27.4 +/- 2.76, and 3.2 +/- 1.0%, respectively. ATP economy of force maintenance did not change significantly during the 60-s...... contraction. It averaged at 4.81 +/- 0.42 N.s.micromol-1, and correlated with the relative cross-sectional area of the muscle occupied by Type I fiber (r = 0.73, P economy compared with those maintaining the force (3...

  12. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in human muscle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else Marie; Sørensen, Emma Rudbæk; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is a well-known and tested method for body mass and muscular health assessment. Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment now makes it possible to assess a particular muscle as a whole, as well as looking at a muscle at the fiber level. The aim of this study was to test...... the hypothesis that mfBIA can be used to assess the anatomical, physiological, and metabolic state of skeletal muscles. mfBIA measurements focusing on impedance, resistance, reactance, phase angle, center frequency, membrane capacitance, and both extracellular and intracellular resistance were carried out. Eight...... healthy human control subjects and three selected cases were examined to demonstrate the extent to which this method may be used clinically, and in relation to training in sport. The electrode setup is shown to affect the mfBIA parameters recorded. Our recommendation is the use of noble metal electrodes...

  13. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  14. Wheal and flare responses to muscle relaxants in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J H; Adelson, D; Walker, B

    1991-11-01

    Chemically and pharmacologically unrelated molecules release histamine in humans to produce both cutaneous and systemic responses. It has been suggested that molecular changes in the new benzylisoquinoline-derived muscle relaxant, atracurium, make it less likely to cause histamine release. We therefore injected volunteers intradermally with equimolar concentrations of various muscle relaxants, morphine, papaverine (a benzylisoquinoline), and histamine, to evaluate the relative ability of these drugs to cause wheal and flare responses, and mast-cell degranulation. There were no significant differences in wheal and flare responses among the three benzylisoquinoline-derived muscle relaxants, D-tubocurarine, metocurine, and atracurium. The cutaneous effects of morphine were significantly greater than those of the benzylisoquinoline muscle relaxants, suggesting both direct vascular changes and histamine release. Papaverine injection was followed by a significant wheal but no flare. Skin biopsies from vecuronium- and papaverine-induced wheals revealed normal intact mast-cell granules, suggesting a direct cutaneous vascular response rather than histamine release. Skin biopsies after morphine and atracurium injections revealed mast-cell degranulation. All evaluated benzylisoquinoline muscle relaxants are equipotent histamine releasers at equimolar concentrations. A hydrogenated, benzylisoquinoline-nitrogen-containing ring, present in atracurium but not in papaverine, appears to be the molecular conformation responsible for mast-cell degranulation by atracurium.

  15. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    in target proteins by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Patellar tendon and quadriceps biopsies were taken in exercised and rested legs at 6, 24, 42 or 48 and 72 h after exercise. The fractional synthetic rates of all proteins were elevated at 6 h and rose rapidly to peak at 24 h post exercise (tendon...... in human tendon and muscle. The similar time course of changes of protein synthetic rates in different cell types supports the idea of coordinated musculotendinous adaptation....

  16. Double discharges in human soleus muscle

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    Maria Piotrkiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Double discharges (doublets were recorded from human soleus, where they have never been found before. The data analyzed in this study were collected from 12 healthy volunteers. The subjects were recruited for other studies, concerning: (1 estimation of motoneurons’ afterhyperpolarization duration and (2 analysis of motor unit responses to nerve stimulation, and were not trained to voluntarily evoke doublets. The majority of doublet intervals fell into the commonly accepted range 2–20 ms. However, two soleus motoneurons from one subject presented exceptional doublets of interval about 37 ms. This interval was virtually identical with the interval between second and third discharge in the few triplets recorded from another subject. It is hypothesized that triplets are generated by the delayed depolarization with the second narrow hump, which is the same as the hump responsible for exceptional doublets.

  17. Bovine apolipoprotein B-100 is a dominant immunogen in therapeutic cell populations cultured in fetal calf serum in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Norihisa; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Muul, Linda M; Lawler, Ann M; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Candotti, Fabio; Metcalf, Julia A; Tavel, Jorge A; Lane, H Clifford; Urba, Walter J; Fox, Bernard A; Varki, Ajit; Lunney, Joan K; Rosenberg, Amy S

    2007-07-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cell populations intended for therapeutic purposes that are cultured in heterologous animal products can acquire xenoantigens, potentially limiting their utility. In investigations of the immune response to murine embryonic stem cells, we found that a strong antibody response was generated after the second infusion. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibody responses, derived from immunized mice, were found to be specific for bovine apolipoprotein B-100, which binds to abundant low-density lipoprotein receptors on the cell surface and is internalized. Here we show that in the majority of patients administered 3 different types of cell-based therapies using cells grown in fetal calf serum-containing media, an antibody response to bovine apolipoprotein B-100 develops after the second infusion and is the dominant specificity. The known and potential clinical effects of such antibodies are discussed.

  18. Morphometric and Statistical Analysis of the Palmaris Longus Muscle in Human and Non-Human Primates

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    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The palmaris longus is considered a phylogenetic degenerate metacarpophalangeal joint flexor muscle in humans, a small vestigial forearm muscle; it is the most variable muscle in humans, showing variation in position, duplication, slips and could be reverted. It is frequently studied in papers about human anatomical variations in cadavers and in vivo, its variation has importance in medical clinic, surgery, radiological analysis, in studies about high-performance athletes, in genetics and anthropologic studies. Most studies about palmaris longus in humans are associated to frequency or case studies, but comparative anatomy in primates and comparative morphometry were not found in scientific literature. Comparative anatomy associated to morphometry of palmaris longus could explain the degeneration observed in this muscle in two of three of the great apes. Hypothetically, the comparison of the relative length of tendons and belly could indicate the pathway of the degeneration of this muscle, that is, the degeneration could be associated to increased tendon length and decreased belly from more primitive primates to those most derivate, that is, great apes to modern humans. In conclusion, in primates, the tendon of the palmaris longus increase from Lemuriformes to modern humans, that is, from arboreal to terrestrial primates and the muscle became weaker and tending to be missing.

  19. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injur...

  20. THE EFFECT OF RESISTANCE AND ENDURANCE EXERCISE TRAINING ON MUSCLE PROTEOME EXPRESSION IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Keun Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of resistance and endurance training on muscle proteome expression, samples of vastus lateralis from 10 physically active young men were analysed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Differential patterns of protein expression were determined after 4 weeks of endurance or resistance exercise training. Following endurance exercise training, carbonic anhydrase III immunoglobulin heavy chain, myosin heavy chain 1, titin, chromosome 12, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 2 were up-regulated while pyruvate kinase 3 isoform, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, and phosphoglucomutase were down-regulated. After the 4 weeks of resistance exercise training, five proteins, apolipoprotein A-IV precursor, microtubule-actin cross linking factor 1, myosin light chain, growth hormone inducible transmembrane protein, and an unknown protein were up-regulated and pyruvate kinase 3 isoform, human albumin, and enolase 3 were down-regulated. We conclude that endurance and resistance exercise training differently alter the expression of individual muscle proteins, and that the response of muscle protein expression may be associated with specific myofibre adaptations to exercise training. Proteomic studies represent one of the developing techniques of metabolism which may substantially contribute to new insights into muscle and exercise physiology.

  1. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ∼40 and ∼1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  2. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ~40 and ~1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  3. Blood pressure and the contractility of a human leg muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Billy L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    These studies investigate the relationships between perfusion pressure, force output and pressor responses for the contracting human tibialis anterior muscle. Eight healthy adults were studied. Changing the height of tibialis anterior relative to the heart was used to control local perfusion pressure. Electrically stimulated tetanic force output was highly sensitive to physiological variations in perfusion pressure showing a proportionate change in force output of 6.5% per 10 mmHg. This perfusion-dependent change in contractility begins within seconds and is reversible with a 53 s time constant, demonstrating a steady-state equilibrium between contractility and perfusion pressure. These stimulated contractions did not produce significant cardiovascular responses, indicating that the muscle pressor response does not play a major role in cardiovascular regulation at these workloads. Voluntary contractions at forces that would require constant motor drive if perfusion pressure had remained constant generated a central pressor response when perfusion pressure was lowered. This is consistent with a larger cortical drive being required to compensate for the lost contractility with lower perfusion pressure. The relationship between contractility and perfusion for this large postural muscle was not different from that of a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis) and it responded similarly to passive peripheral and active central changes in arterial pressure, but extended over a wider operating range of pressures. If we consider that, in a goal-oriented motor task, muscle contractility determines central motor output and the central pressor response, these results indicate that muscle would fatigue twice as fast without a pressor response. From its extent, timing and reversibility we propose a testable hypothesis that this change in contractility arises through contraction- and perfusion-dependent changes in interstitial K+ concentration. PMID:24018946

  4. Quantitative Anatomy of the Trapezius Muscle in the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, Mateusz; Grzonkowska, Magdalena; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Michał

    2016-01-01

    The trapezius muscle consists of three parts that are capable of functioning independently. Its superior part together with the levator scapulae and rhomboids elevate the shoulder, the middle part retracts the scapula, while the inferior part lowers the shoulder. The present study aimed to supplement numerical data and to provide growth dynamics of the trapezius in the human fetus. Using methods of anatomical dissection, digital image analysis (NIS Elements AR 3.0), and statistics (Student's t-test, regression analysis), we measured the length, the width and the surface area of the trapezius in 30 fetuses of both sexes (13™ k,17™ … ) aged 13-19 weeks. Neither sex nor laterality differences were found. All the studied parameters of the trapezius increased proportionately with age. The linear functions were computed as follows: y = -103.288 + 10.514 × age (r = 0.957) for total length of the trapezius muscle, y = -67.439 + 6.689 × age (r = 0.856) for length of its descending part, y = -8.493 + 1.033 × age (r = 0.53) for length of its transverse part, y = -27.545 + 2.802 × age (r = 0.791) for length of its ascending part, y = -19.970 + 2.505 × age (r = 0.875) for width of the trapezius muscle, and y = -2670.458 + 212.029 × age (r = 0.915) for its surface area. Neither sex nor laterality differences exist in the numerical data of the trapezius muscle in the human fetus. The descending part of trapezius is the longest, while its transverse part is the shortest. The growth dynamics of the fetal trapezius muscle follows proportionately.

  5. Erythropoietin receptor in human skeletal muscle and the effects of acute and long-term injections with recombinant human erythropoietin on the skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Hellsten, Ylva; Jensen, Mie B. F.

    2008-01-01

    The presence and potential physiological role of the erythropoietin receptor (Epo-R) were examined in human skeletal muscle. In this study we demonstrate that Epo-R is present in the endothelium, smooth muscle cells, and in fractions of the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fibers. To study...... the potential effects of Epo in human skeletal muscle, two separate studies were conducted: one to study the acute effects of a single Epo injection on skeletal muscle gene expression and plasma hormones and another to study the effects of long-term (14 wk) Epo treatment on skeletal muscle structure. Subjects....... In conclusion, the Epo-R is present in the vasculature and myocytes in human skeletal muscle, suggesting a role in both cell types. In accordance, a single injection of Epo regulates myoglobin, MRF-4, and transferrin receptor mRNA levels. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, prolonged Epo administration had...

  6. IMP metabolism in human skeletal muscle after exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tullson, P. C.; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    1995-01-01

    This study addressed whether AMP deaminase (AMPD)myosin binding occurs with deamination during intense exercise in humans and the extent of purine loss from muscle during the initial minutes of recovery. Male subjects performed cycle exercise (265 +/- 2 W for 4.39 +/- 0.04 min) to stimulate muscle...... inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) formation. After exercise, blood flow to one leg was occluded. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were taken before and 3.6 +/- 0.2 min after exercise from the occluded leg and 0.7 +/- 0.0, 1.1 +/- 0.0, and 2.9 +/- 0.1 min postexercise in the nonoccluded leg. Exercise...... activated AMPD; at exhaustion IMP was 3.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/kg dry muscle. Before exercise, 16.0 +/- 1.6% of AMPD cosedimented with the myosin fraction; the extent of AMPD:myosin binding was unchanged by exercise. Inosine content increased about threefold during exercise and twofold more during recovery; by 2...

  7. Myostatin blockade with a fully human monoclonal antibody induces muscle hypertrophy and reverses muscle atrophy in young and aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Latres, Esther; Pangilinan, Jeffrey; Miloscio, Lawrence; Bauerlein, Roy; Na, Erqian; Potocky, Terra B.; Huang, Ying; Eckersdorff, Mark; Rafique, Ashique; Mastaitis, Jason; Lin, Calvin; Murphy, Andrew J.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Gromada, Jesper; Stitt, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in humans is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The role of myostatin as a key negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass and function has supported the concept that inactivation of myostatin could be a useful approach for treating muscle wasting diseases. Methods We generated a myostatin monoclonal blocking antibody (REGN1033) and characterized its effects in vitro using surface plasmon resonance biacore and cell-based Sm...

  8. Bionic Humans Using EAP as Artificial Muscles Reality and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph Bar-Cohen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the idea of a human with bionic muscles immediately conjures up science fiction images of a TV series superhuman character that was implanted with bionic muscles and portrayed with strength and speed far superior to any normal human. As fantastic as this idea may seem, recent developments in electroactive polymers (EAP may one day make such bionics possible. Polymers that exhibit large displacement in response to stimulation that is other than electrical signal were known for many years. Initially, EAP received relatively little attention due to their limited actuation capability. However, in the recent years, the view of the EAP materials has changed due to the introduction of effective new materials that significantly surpassed the capability of the widely used piezoelectric polymer, PVDF. As this technology continues to evolve, novel mechanisms that are biologically inspired are expected to emerge. EAP materials can potentially provide actuation with lifelike response and more flexible configurations. While further improvements in performance and robustness are still needed, there already have been several reported successes. In recognition of the need for cooperation in this multidisciplinary field, the author initiated and organized a series of international forums that are leading to a growing number of research and development projects and to great advances in the field. In 1999, he challenged the worldwide science and engineering community of EAP experts to develop a robotic arm that is actuated by artificial muscles to win a wrestling match against a human opponent. In this paper, the field of EAP as artificial muscles will be reviewed covering the state of the art, the challenges and the vision for the progress in future years.

  9. Reactive hyperaemia in the calf of trained and untrained subjects: a study with strain gauge plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, A J

    1977-04-01

    Postischaemic reactive hyperaemia in the calf was investigated by strain gauge plethysmography in three pairs of trained and untrained groups of different ages. Maximal flow and repayment in the trained adults were greater than in corresponding untrained groups. This may be due to training effect on the arterioles and a relatively great muscle volume and vascular bed in athletes. The 58-year-old trained men revealed a postischaemic hyperaemic response of approximately the same magnitude as the 25-year-old athletes. Training in old age may result in less degeneration of vascular smooth muscle as well as striated muscle and may induced a relatively great cardiac stroke volume, factors which probably influence reactive hyperaemia in the calf. Hyperaemia in 13-year-old children of different conditions of training was approximwtely the same. It is concluded that the influence of training state on postischaemic calf flow may be considered when reactive hyperaemia is used as a test of the peripheral circulation.

  10. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Gorelik, Alexandra; Rotstein, Andrew H

    2017-03-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions.

  11. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Gorelik, Alexandra [Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Epicentre, Parkville (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  12. Potassium currents in cultured human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W; Karwande, S V; Hoidal, J R; Farrukh, I S

    1996-04-01

    In this study, using whole cell and single-channel configurations of the patch-clamp technique, we characterized K+ currents (IK) in cultured human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. The net whole cell outward membrane current (IKo) was activated at potentials positive to -60 mV. One component of IKo, IK(dr), was inhibited by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and high concentrations of tetraethylammonium (TEA) but was Ca2+ and charybdotoxin (CTX) insensitive. The other component of IKo, IK(Ca), was voltage and Ca2+ dependent and was inhibited by CTX and low concentrations of TEA. Activation of IKo in single-channel recordings was voltage dependent and demonstrated a high-conductance channel (245 +/- 2 pS) that was Ca2+ and CTX sensitive [IK(Ca)] and a low-conductance channel (109 +/- 2 pS) that was inhibited by 4-AP [IK(dr)] but was insensitive to low concentrations of TEA or to an increase in intracellular [Ca2+]. In isolated pulmonary arterial rings, TEA and 4-AP caused an additive increase in arterial tension. To our knowledge these data provide the first characterization of the IK in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and indicate that IK(Ca) and IK(dr) play an important role in maintaining pulmonary vascular tone. The data confirm previous observations in pulmonary smooth muscle cells of animal models.

  13. Thapsigargin induces apoptosis in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, C; Vallejo, S; Cercas, E; Llergo, J L; Lafuente, N; Matesanz, N; Rodríguez-Mañas, L; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    2000-11-01

    Vascular remodeling is a key feature of many pathologic states, including atherosclerosis, or hypertension. Vascular smooth muscle cells participate in determining the vessel structure by several mechanisms such as cell migration, cell growth, or cell death (necrosis or apoptosis). Here we report that thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), is able to induce apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMCs). Apoptosis was assessed by three different methods: differential chromatin binding dye staining. cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). When HVSMCs were treated for 1 h with thapsigargin (100 nM-10 microM), there was a concentration-dependent increase in both parameters 24 h after the thapsigargin pulse. When a time-course experiment was performed, both parameters were significantly enhanced from 3 to 6 h after the exposure to thapsigargin. We conclude that thapsigargin promotes apoptosis in HVSMCs, providing a useful tool for the study of programmed cell death in human vascular smooth muscle.

  14. Calprotectin is released from human skeletal muscle tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Andersen, Kasper; Fischer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    at time points 0, 3 and 6 h in these individuals and in resting controls. Affymetrix microarray analysis of gene expression changes in skeletal muscle biopsies identified a small set of genes changed by IL-6 infusion. RT-PCR validation confirmed that S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA were up-regulated 3-fold...... in skeletal muscle following IL-6 infusion compared to controls. Furthermore, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA levels were up-regulated 5-fold in human skeletal muscle following cycle ergometer exercise for 3 h at approximately 60% of in young healthy males (n = 8). S100A8 and S100A9 form calprotectin, which is known...... as an acute phase reactant. Plasma calprotectin increased 5-fold following acute cycle ergometer exercise in humans, but not following IL-6 infusion. To identify the source of calprotectin, healthy males (n = 7) performed two-legged dynamic knee extensor exercise for 3 h with a work load of approximately 50...

  15. Immunohistochemical detection of interleukin-6 in human skeletal muscle fibers following exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Charlotte; Keller, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by many different cell types. Human skeletal muscles produce and release high amounts of IL-6 during exercise; however, the cell source of origin in the muscle is not known. Therefore, we studied the protein expression of IL-6 by immunohistochemistry in human muscle...

  16. Localization and function of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Jung; Kristensen, Michael; Hellsten, Ylva

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the localization of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in human skeletal muscle and the functional importance of these channels for human muscle K+ distribution at rest and during muscle activity. Membrane fractionation based on the giant vesicle technique...

  17. Passive heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinais, S; Wilson, M G; Périard, J D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated passive heat exposure (i.e., acclimation) on muscle contractility in humans. Fourteen nonheat-acclimated males completed two trials including electrically evoked twitches and voluntary contractions in thermoneutral conditions [Cool: 24°C, 40% relative humidity (RH)] and hot ambient conditions in the hyperthermic state (Hot: 44-50°C, 50% RH) on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature was ~36.5°C in Cool and was maintained at ~39°C throughout Hot. Both trials were repeated after 11 days of passive heat acclimation (1 h per day, 48-50°C, 50% RH). Heat acclimation decreased core temperature in Cool (-0.2°C, P rate in Hot (+0.7 liter/h, P heat acclimation improved skeletal muscle contractility as evidenced by an increase in evoked peak twitch amplitude both in Cool (20.5 ± 3.6 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) and Hot (20.5 ± 4.7 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) (+9%, P heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractile function during electrically evoked and voluntary muscle contractions of different intensities both in Cool and Hot. These results suggest that repeated heat exposure may have important implications to passively maintain or even improve muscle function in a variety of performance and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, Catharina; Liu, Jing-Xia; Thornell, Lars-Eric; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2011-04-01

    Significant changes in extrafusal fiber type composition take place in the human masseter muscle from young age, 3-7 years, to adulthood, in parallel with jaw-face skeleton growth, changes of dentitions and improvement of jaw functions. As motor and sensory control systems of muscles are interlinked, also the intrafusal fiber population, that is, muscle spindles, should undergo age-related changes in fiber type appearance. To test this hypothesis, we examined muscle spindles in the young masseter muscle and compared the result with previous data on adult masseter spindles. Also muscle spindles in the young biceps brachii muscle were examined. The result showed that muscle spindle composition and distribution were alike in young and adult masseter. As for the adult masseter, young masseter contained exceptionally large muscle spindles, and with the highest spindle density and most complex spindles found in the deep masseter portion. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, masseter spindles do not undergo major morphological changes between young age and adulthood. Also in the biceps, young spindles were alike adult spindles. Taken together, the results showed that human masseter and biceps muscle spindles are morphologically mature already at young age. We conclude that muscle spindles in the human young masseter and biceps precede the extrafusal fiber population in growth and maturation. This in turn suggests early reflex control and proprioceptive demands in learning and maturation of jaw motor skills. Similarly, well-developed muscle spindles in young biceps reflect early need of reflex control in learning and performing arm motor behavior. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The study of binding of methyl tert-butyl ether to human telomeric G-quadruplex and calf thymus DNA by gas chromatography, a thermodynamic discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Sahar; Ahmadi, Farhad

    2014-11-15

    Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as an antiknock additive for increasing octane number of gasoline. Recently, the in vivo studies demonstrated that MTBE has genotoxic potential and able to form adducts with DNA. In the work, the interactions of MTBE with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and the Na(+) form of G-quadruplex DNA (wtTel22) were studied by using of head space-solid phase microextraction technique coupled to gas chromatography. The binding equilibrium constants were measured through the equilibriums of a four phase system. In addition, the MTBE Henry's law constants for two different buffers in the temperature range of 283-303K were measured. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the complexation of MTBE to both DNAs is enthalpy favored and entropy disfavored. The thermodynamic results revealed that MTBE may have interaction with ct-DNA via the minor groove of DNA. Also, MTBE may be complexed into the basket of G-quadruplex structure. In addition, the low difference in the binding constants of MTBE for both different DNA targets may confirm that MTBE is poorly selective for different conformations of DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  1. Human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy: effects on muscle protein synthesis, breakdown and insulin resistance- a qualitative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreeth S Rudrappa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing burden of an ageing population and pandemic of metabolic syndrome worldwide demands further understanding of the modifiable risk factors in reducing disability and morbidity associated with these conditions. Disuse skeletal muscle atrophy (sometimes referred to as simple atrophy and insulin resistance are ‘non-pathological’ events resulting from sedentary behaviour and periods of enforced immobilization e.g. due to fractures or elective orthopaedic surgery. Yet, the processes and drivers regulating disuse atrophy and insulin resistance and the associated molecular events remain unclear – especially in humans. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of relationships between muscle protein turnover, insulin resistance and muscle atrophy during disuse, principally in humans. Immobilisation lowers fasted state muscle protein synthesis (MPS and induces fed-state ‘anabolic resistance’. While a lack of dynamic measurements of muscle protein breakdown (MPB precludes defining a definitive role for MPB in disuse atrophy, some proteolytic marker studies (e.g. MPB genes suggest a potential early elevation. Immobilisation also induces muscle insulin resistance (IR. Moreover, the trajectory of muscle atrophy appears to be accelerated in persistent IR states (e.g. Type II diabetes, suggesting IR may contribute to muscle disuse atrophy under these conditions. Nonetheless, the role of differences in insulin sensitivity across distinct muscle groups and its effects on rates of atrophy remains unclear. Multifaceted time-course studies into the collective role of insulin resistance and muscle protein turnover in the setting of disuse muscle atrophy, in humans, are needed to facilitate the development of appropriate countermeasures and efficacious rehabilitation protocols.

  2. Noninvasive PET Imaging and Tracking of Engineered Human Muscle Precursor Cells for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralampieva, Deana; Betzel, Thomas; Dinulovic, Ivana; Salemi, Souzan; Stoelting, Meline; Krämer, Stefanie D; Schibli, Roger; Sulser, Tullio; Handschin, Christoph; Eberli, Daniel; Ametamey, Simon M

    2016-09-01

    Transplantation of human muscle precursor cells (hMPCs) is envisioned for the treatment of various muscle diseases. However, a feasible noninvasive tool to monitor cell survival, migration, and integration into the host tissue is still missing. In this study, we designed an adenoviral delivery system to genetically modify hMPCs to express a signaling-deficient form of human dopamine D2 receptor (hD2R). The gene expression levels of the receptor were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and infection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy. The viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity of the transduced cells, as well as their myogenic phenotype, were determined by flow cytometry analysis and fluorescent microscopy. (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-fluoromisonidazole, two well-established PET radioligands, were assessed for their potential to image engineered hMPCs in a mouse model and their uptakes were evaluated at different time points after cell inoculation in vivo. Biodistribution studies, autoradiography, and PET experiments were performed to determine the extent of signal specificity. To address feasibility for tracking hMPCs in an in vivo model, the safety of the adenoviral gene delivery was evaluated. Finally, the harvested tissues were histologically examined to determine whether survival of the transplanted cells was sustained at different time points. Adenoviral gene delivery was shown to be safe, with no detrimental effects on the primary human cells. The viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity of the transduced cells were confirmed, and flow cytometry analysis and fluorescent microscopy showed that their myogenic phenotype was sustained. (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-fluoromisonidazole were successfully synthesized. Specific binding of (18)F-fallypride to hD2R hMPCs was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the (18)F-fluoromisonidazole signal was high at the early stages. Finally

  3. Modelling human myoblasts survival upon xenotransplantation into immunodeficient mouse muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praud, Christophe; Vauchez, Karine; Zongo, Pascal; Vilquin, Jean-Thomas

    2018-03-15

    Cell transplantation has been challenged in several clinical indications of genetic or acquired muscular diseases, but therapeutic success were mitigated. To understand and improve the yields of tissue regeneration, we aimed at modelling the fate of CD56-positive human myoblasts after transplantation. Using immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice as recipients, we assessed the survival, integration and satellite cell niche occupancy of human myoblasts by a triple immunohistochemical labelling of laminin, dystrophin and human lamin A/C. The counts were integrated into a classical mathematical decline equation. After injection, human cells were essentially located in the endomysium, then they disappeared progressively from D0 to D28. The final number of integrated human nuclei was grossly determined at D2 after injection, suggesting that no more efficient fusion between donor myoblasts and host fibers occurs after the resolution of the local damages created by needle insertion. Almost 1% of implanted human cells occupied a satellite-like cell niche. Our mathematical model validated by histological counting provided a reliable quantitative estimate of human myoblast survival and/or incorporation into SCID muscle fibers. Informations brought by histological labelling and this mathematical model are complementary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental model of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel P. Regadas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe a technique for en bloc harvesting of the corpus cavernosum, cavernous artery and urethra from transplant organ donors and contraction-relaxation experiments with corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The corpus cavernosum was dissected to the point of attachment with the crus penis. A 3 cm segment (corpus cavernosum and urethra was isolated and placed in ice-cold sterile transportation buffer. Under magnification, the cavernous artery was dissected. Thus, 2 cm fragments of cavernous artery and corpus cavernosum were obtained. Strips measuring 3 x 3 x 8 mm3 were then mounted vertically in an isolated organ bath device. Contractions were measured isometrically with a Narco-Biosystems force displacement transducer (model F-60, Narco-Biosystems, Houston, TX, USA and recorded on a 4-channel Narco-Biosystems desk model polygraph. RESULTS: Phenylephrine (1µM was used to induce tonic contractions in the corpus cavernosum (3 - 5 g tension and cavernous artery (0.5 - 1g tension until reaching a plateau. After precontraction, smooth muscle relaxants were used to produce relaxation-response curves (10-12M to 10-4 M. Sodium nitroprusside was used as a relaxation control. CONCLUSION: The harvesting technique and the smooth muscle contraction-relaxation model described in this study were shown to be useful instruments in the search for new drugs for the treatment of human erectile dysfunction.

  5. Experimental model of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas, Rommel P; Moraes, Maria E A; Mesquita, Francisco J C; Cerqueira, Joao B G; Gonzaga-Silva, Lucio F

    2010-01-01

    To describe a technique for en bloc harvesting of the corpus cavernosum, cavernous artery and urethra from transplant organ donors and contraction-relaxation experiments with corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. The corpus cavernosum was dissected to the point of attachment with the crus penis. A 3 cm segment (corpus cavernosum and urethra) was isolated and placed in ice-cold sterile transportation buffer. Under magnification, the cavernous artery was dissected. Thus, 2 cm fragments of cavernous artery and corpus cavernosum were obtained. Strips measuring 3 x 3 x 8 mm(3) were then mounted vertically in an isolated organ bath device. Contractions were measured isometrically with a Narco-Biosystems force displacement transducer (model F-60, Narco-Biosystems, Houston, TX, USA) and recorded on a 4-channel Narco-Biosystems desk model polygraph. Phenylephrine (1 microM) was used to induce tonic contractions in the corpus cavernosum (3-5 g tension) and cavernous artery (0.5-1 g tension) until reaching a plateau. After precontraction, smooth muscle relaxants were used to produce relaxation-response curves (10(-12) M to 10(-4) M). Sodium nitroprusside was used as a relaxation control. The harvesting technique and the smooth muscle contraction-relaxation model described in this study were shown to be useful instruments in the search for new drugs for the treatment of human erectile dysfunction.

  6. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  7. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on-1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on-3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased "voluntary activation." In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  8. Contralateral muscle activity and fatigue in the human first dorsal interosseous muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Marijn; Bayrak, Sibel; Kernell, Daniel; Zijdewind, Inge

    During effortful unilateral contractions, muscle activation is not limited to the target muscles but activity is also observed in contralateral muscles. The amount of this associated activity is depressed in a fatigued muscle, even after correction for fatigue-related changes in maximal force. In

  9. Induction of GLUT-1 protein in adult human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Franch, J; Staehr, P

    2000-01-01

    Prompted by our recent observations that GLUT-1 is expressed in fetal muscles, but not in adult muscle fibers, we decided to investigate whether GLUT-1 expression could be reactivated. We studied different stimuli concerning their ability to induce GLUT-1 expression in mature human skeletal muscle...... fibers. Metabolic stress (obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), contractile activity (training), and conditions of de- and reinnervation (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) could not induce GLUT-1 expression in human muscle fibers. However, regenerating muscle fibers in polymyositis expressed...... GLUT-1. In contrast to GLUT-1, GLUT-4 was expressed in all investigated muscle fibers. Although the significance of GLUT-1 in adult human muscle fibers appears limited, GLUT-1 may be of importance for the glucose supplies in immature and regenerating muscle....

  10. Effects of lubiprostone on human uterine smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppoletti, John; Malinowska, Danuta H; Chakrabarti, Jayati; Ueno, Ryuji

    2008-06-01

    Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid derivative and member of a new class of compounds called prostones, locally activates ClC-2 Cl(-) channels without activation of prostaglandin receptors. The present study was specifically designed to test and compare lubiprostone and prostaglandin effects at the cellular level using human uterine smooth muscle cells. Effects on [Ca(2+)](i), membrane potential and [cAMP](i) in human uterine smooth muscle cells were measured. 10 nM lubiprostone significantly decreased [Ca(2+)](i) from 188 to 27 nM, which was unaffected by 100 nM SC-51322, a prostaglandin EP receptor antagonist. In contrast 10nM PGE(2) and PGE(1) both increased [Ca(2+)](i) 3-5-fold which was blocked by SC-51322. Similarly, lubiprostone and prostaglandins had opposite/different effects on membrane potential and [cAMP](i). Lubiprostone caused SC-51322-insensitive membrane hyperpolarization and no effect on [cAMP](i). PGE(2) and PGE(1) both caused SC-51322-sensitive membrane depolarization and increased [cAMP](i). Lubiprostone has fundamentally different cellular effects from prostaglandins that are not mediated by EP receptors.

  11. Delineation of motoneuron subgroups supplying individual eye muscles in the human oculomotor nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Che Ngwa, Emmanuel; Zeeh, Christina; Messoudi, Ahmed; Büttner-Ennever, Jean A.; Horn, Anja K. E.

    2014-01-01

    The oculomotor nucleus (nIII) contains the motoneurons of medial, inferior, and superior recti (MR, IR, and SR), inferior oblique (IO), and levator palpebrae (LP) muscles. The delineation of motoneuron subgroups for each muscle is well-known in monkey, but not in human. We studied the transmitter inputs to human nIII and the trochlear nucleus (nIV), which innervates the superior oblique muscle (SO), to outline individual motoneuron subgroups. Parallel series of sections from human brainstems ...

  12. Delineation of motoneuron subgroups supplying individual eye muscles in the human oculomotor nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel eChe-Ngwa; Christina eZeeh; Christina eZeeh; Ahmed eMessoudi; Jean Alice Büttner-Ennever; Anja Kerstin Ellen Horn; Anja Kerstin Ellen Horn

    2014-01-01

    The oculomotor nucleus (nIII) contains the motoneurons of medial, inferior and superior recti (MR, IR, SR), inferior oblique (IO) and levator palpebrae (LP) muscles. The delineation of motoneuron subgroups for each muscle is well-known in monkey, but not in human. We studied the transmitter inputs to human nIII and the trochlear nucleus (nIV), which innervates the superior oblique muscle (SO), to outline individual motoneuron subgroups. Parallel series of sections from human brainstems were i...

  13. Cultured human muscle cells and respiratory chain deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzberg, N. H.; Bolhuis, P. A.; van den Bogert, C.; Barth, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    Cultured muscle cells are useful in the study of respiratory chain disorders. Muscle tissue is affected in most cases and muscle biopsies are often taken for diagnostic purposes. Small samples of the biopsies can provide large numbers of muscle cells. In contrast with most other cell types, the

  14. Series elasticity of the human triceps surae muscle : Measurement by controlled-release vs. resonance methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL; Boom, H; Robinson, C; Rutten, W; Neuman, M; Wijkstra, H

    1997-01-01

    With a newly developed Controlled-Release Ergometer the complete characteristic of the series elastic component can be measured in human muscles. Previous estimates were based on the resonance method: muscle elasticity was assessed from the resonance frequency of the muscle elasticity connected to a

  15. Muscles in microgravity: from fibres to human motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Prampero, Pietro E; Narici, Marco V

    2003-03-01

    In simulated or actual microgravity, human and animal postural muscles undergo substantial atrophy: after about 270 days, the muscle mass attains a constant value of about 70% of the initial one. Most animal studies reported preferential atrophy of slow twitch fibres whose mechanical properties change towards the fast type. However, in humans, at the end of a 42-days bed rest study, a similar atrophy of slow and fast fibres was observed. After microgravity, the maximal force of several muscle groups showed a substantial decrease (6-25% of pre-flight values). The maximal power during very short "explosive" efforts of 0.25-0.30s showed an even greater fall, being reduced to 65% after 1 month and to 45% (of pre-flight values) after 6 months. The maximal power developed during 6-7s "all-out" bouts on an isokinetic cycloergometer was reduced to a lesser extent, attaining about 75% of pre-flight values, regardless of the flight duration. In these same subjects, the muscle mass of the lower limbs declined by only 9-13%. Thus, a substantial fraction of the observed decreases of maximal power is probably due to a deterioration of the motor co-ordination brought about by the absence of gravity. To prevent this substantial decay of maximal absolute power, we propose that explosive exercise be added to the daily in-flight training schedule. We also describe a system aimed at reducing cardiovascular deconditioning wherein gravity is simulated by the centrifugal acceleration generated by the motion of two counter rotating bicycles ridden by the astronauts on the inner wall of a cylindrical space module. Finally, cycling on circular or elliptical tracks may be useful to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning in permanently manned lunar bases. Indeed, on the curved parts of the path, a cyclist generates an outward acceleration vector (ac). To counterbalance ac, the cyclist must lean inwards, so that the vectorial sum of ac plus the lunar gravity tends to the acceleration of gravity

  16. ANATOMY AND FIBER TYPE COMPOSITION OF HUMAN INTERARYTENOID MUSCLE

    OpenAIRE

    Tellis, Cari M.; Rosen, Clark; Thekdi, Apurva; Sciote, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic laryngeal muscle investigations, especially those of the interarytenoid (IA) muscle, have been primarily teleologically based. We determined IA muscle anatomy and histochemical and immunohistochemical classification of extrafusal and intrafusal (muscle spindle) fibers in 5 patients. Extrafusal fibers were oxidative type I and glycolytic types IIA and IIX. Intrafusal fibers of muscle spindles were identified by the presence of tonic and neonatal myosin. The results demonstrate that t...

  17. Expression profiles of muscle disease-associated genes and their isoforms during differentiation of cultured human skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Hussein Saba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of contractile myofibrils requires the stepwise onset of expression of muscle specific proteins. It is likely that elucidation of the expression patterns of muscle-specific sarcomeric proteins is important to understand muscle disorders originating from defects in contractile sarcomeric proteins. Methods We investigated the expression profile of a panel of sarcomeric components with a focus on proteins associated with a group of congenital disorders. The analyses were performed in cultured human skeletal muscle cells during myoblast proliferation and myotube development. Results Our culture technique resulted in the development of striated myotubes and the expression of adult isoforms of the sarcomeric proteins, such as fast TnI, fast TnT, adult fast and slow MyHC isoforms and predominantly skeletal muscle rather than cardiac actin. Many proteins involved in muscle diseases, such as beta tropomyosin, slow TnI, slow MyBPC and cardiac TnI were readily detected in the initial stages of muscle cell differentiation, suggesting the possibility of an early role for these proteins as constituent of the developing contractile apparatus during myofibrillogenesis. This suggests that in disease conditions the mechanisms of pathogenesis for each of the mutated sarcomeric proteins might be reflected by altered expression patterns, and disturbed assembly of cytoskeletal, myofibrillar structures and muscle development. Conclusions In conclusion, we here confirm that cell cultures of human skeletal muscle are an appropriate tool to study developmental stages of myofibrillogenesis. The expression of several disease-associated proteins indicates that they might be a useful model system for studying the pathogenesis of muscle diseases caused by defects in specific sarcomeric constituents.

  18. Feasible Muscle Activation Ranges Based on Inverse Dynamics Analyses of Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cole S.; Sohn, M. Hongchul; Allen, Jessica L.; Ting, Lena H.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is possible to produce the same movement using an infinite number of different muscle activation patterns owing to musculoskeletal redundancy, the degree to which observed variations in muscle activity can deviate from optimal solutions computed from biomechanical models is not known. Here, we examined the range of biomechanically permitted activation levels in individual muscles during human walking using a detailed musculoskeletal model and experimentally-measured kinetics and kinematics. Feasible muscle activation ranges define the minimum and maximum possible level of each muscle’s activation that satisfy inverse dynamics joint torques assuming that all other muscles can vary their activation as needed. During walking, 73% of the muscles had feasible muscle activation ranges that were greater than 95% of the total muscle activation range over more than 95% of the gait cycle, indicating that, individually, most muscles could be fully active or fully inactive while still satisfying inverse dynamics joint torques. Moreover, the shapes of the feasible muscle activation ranges did not resemble previously-reported muscle activation patterns nor optimal solutions, i.e. static optimization and computed muscle control, that are based on the same biomechanical constraints. Our results demonstrate that joint torque requirements from standard inverse dynamics calculations are insufficient to define the activation of individual muscles during walking in healthy individuals. Identifying feasible muscle activation ranges may be an effective way to evaluate the impact of additional biomechanical and/or neural constraints on possible versus actual muscle activity in both normal and impaired movements. PMID:26300401

  19. Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees......, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy...... metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized...

  20. Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bozek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys.

  1. Exceptional Evolutionary Divergence of Human Muscle and Brain Metabolomes Parallels Human Cognitive and Physical Uniqueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng; Liu, Xiling; Xiong, Jieyi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tomita, Masaru; Pääbo, Svante; Pieszek, Raik; Sherwood, Chet C.; Hof, Patrick R.; Ely, John J.; Steinhauser, Dirk; Willmitzer, Lothar; Bangsbo, Jens; Hansson, Ola; Call, Josep; Giavalisco, Patrick; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys. PMID:24866127

  2. Molecular basis of the myogenic profile of aged human skeletal muscle satellite cells during differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Puglielli, Cristina; Mancinelli, Rosa; Beccafico, Sara; Fanò, Giorgio; Fulle, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass, strength and function. Human muscle proteins are synthesized at a slower rate in the elderly than in young adults, leading to atrophy and muscle mass loss with a decline in the functional capability. Additionally, aging is accompanied by a decrease in the ability of muscle tissue to regenerate following injury or overuse due to the impairment of intervening satellite cells, in which we previously reported oxidative damage ...

  3. Human Galectin-3 Promotes Trypanosoma cruzi Adhesion to Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kleshchenko, Yuliya Y.; Moody, Tapria N.; Furtak, Vyacheslav A.; Ochieng, Josiah; Lima, Maria F.; Villalta, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    Human galectin-3 binds to the surface of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes and human coronary artery smooth muscle (CASM) cells. CASM cells express galectin-3 on their surface and secrete it. Exogenous galectin-3 increased the binding of T. cruzi to CASM cells. Trypanosome binding to CASM cells was enhanced when either T. cruzi or CASM cells were preincubated with galectin-3. Cells stably transfected with galectin-3 antisense show a dramatic decrease in galectin-3 expression and very little T...

  4. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( muscle-wasting disorders.

  5. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Lipid storage changes in human skeletal muscle during detraining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eZhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training is known to increase intramuscular triglyceride content in both trained and untrained legs. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes of intramyocellular lipids (IMCL and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL of both trained and untrained legs during detraining. We measured both IMCL and EMCL levels in previously trained versus untrained legs during 4-weeks of detraining after 6-weeks of strength training. Eight young men (aged 21.4+/- 1.4 years trained their vastus lateralis muscle in one leg using a dynamometer, whereas the contralateral leg served as untrained control. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA, IMCL, EMCL, total creatine (creatine+phophocreatine of extensor (vastus lateralis muscles were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectra (1H-MRS before training, 3 days after and 28 days after the last bout of training. CSA was increased in both legs by Day 3 after training, and was still high at Day 28 post-training; IMCL increased in both legs by Day 3 after training, then decreased at Day 28 post-training only in the untrained leg; EMCL shows no significant change by Day 3 after training, but at Day 28 post-training has increased in the trained leg and decreased in the untrained leg; total creatine did not change significantly. Conclusion: Decreases of IMCL and EMCL storages in previously untrained leg during detraining indicates an ectopic influence on tissue lipid storage by different metabolic demand among tissues in the same human body.

  7. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Frandsen, Ulrik; Nielsen, Line

    2012-01-01

    Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle....... Neither the immediate loss of muscle mass, nor the subsequent age-differentiated signaling responses could be explained by changes in inflammatory mediators, apoptosis markers or autophagy indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate that the time-course and regulation of human skeletal muscle...... atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2...

  8. Strains of the posterior calf musculature ("tennis leg").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A P

    1979-01-01

    Strains of the posterior calf musculature frequently relate to overuse of the gastrocnemius muscle. The principal sports involved are the slower side-to-side sports. Treatment routine is composed of pain relief, passive stretching, exercises for the antagonists and later the agonists, and quadriceps exercises. In a series of 720 patients, over a 12-year period, this routine has been effective as evidenced by a recurrence of the condition in only 0.7% of the patients. Prevention of the injury is best obtained by regular stretching and strength development routines.

  9. Molecular networks of human muscle adaptation to exercise and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan E Phillips

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and molecular ageing presumably interact to precipitate musculoskeletal decline in humans with age. Herein, we have delineated molecular networks for these two major components of sarcopenic risk using multiple independent clinical cohorts. We generated genome-wide transcript profiles from individuals (n = 44 who then undertook 20 weeks of supervised resistance-exercise training (RET. Expectedly, our subjects exhibited a marked range of hypertrophic responses (3% to +28%, and when applying Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA up-stream analysis to ~580 genes that co-varied with gain in lean mass, we identified rapamycin (mTOR signaling associating with growth (P = 1.4 × 10(-30. Paradoxically, those displaying most hypertrophy exhibited an inhibited mTOR activation signature, including the striking down-regulation of 70 rRNAs. Differential analysis found networks mimicking developmental processes (activated all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA, Z-score = 4.5; P = 6 × 10(-13 and inhibited aryl-hydrocarbon receptor signaling (AhR, Z-score = -2.3; P = 3 × 10(-7 with RET. Intriguingly, as ATRA and AhR gene-sets were also a feature of endurance exercise training (EET, they appear to represent "generic" physical activity responsive gene-networks. For age, we found that differential gene-expression methods do not produce consistent molecular differences between young versus old individuals. Instead, utilizing two independent cohorts (n = 45 and n = 52, with a continuum of subject ages (18-78 y, the first reproducible set of age-related transcripts in human muscle was identified. This analysis identified ~500 genes highly enriched in post-transcriptional processes (P = 1 × 10(-6 and with negligible links to the aforementioned generic exercise regulated gene-sets and some overlap with ribosomal genes. The RNA signatures from multiple compounds all targeting serotonin, DNA topoisomerase antagonism, and RXR activation were significantly related to

  10. Fibre operating lengths of human lower limb muscles during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edith M; Delp, Scott L

    2011-05-27

    Muscles actuate movement by generating forces. The forces generated by muscles are highly dependent on their fibre lengths, yet it is difficult to measure the lengths over which muscle fibres operate during movement. We combined experimental measurements of joint angles and muscle activation patterns during walking with a musculoskeletal model that captures the relationships between muscle fibre lengths, joint angles and muscle activations for muscles of the lower limb. We used this musculoskeletal model to produce a simulation of muscle-tendon dynamics during walking and calculated fibre operating lengths (i.e. the length of muscle fibres relative to their optimal fibre length) for 17 lower limb muscles. Our results indicate that when musculotendon compliance is low, the muscle fibre operating length is determined predominantly by the joint angles and muscle moment arms. If musculotendon compliance is high, muscle fibre operating length is more dependent on activation level and force-length-velocity effects. We found that muscles operate on multiple limbs of the force-length curve (i.e. ascending, plateau and descending limbs) during the gait cycle, but are active within a smaller portion of their total operating range.

  11. Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert R

    2017-01-01

    The branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are leucine, valine and isoleucine. A multi-million dollar industry of nutritional supplements has grown around the concept that dietary supplements of BCAAs alone produce an anabolic response in humans driven by a stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. In this brief review the theoretical and empirical bases for that claim are discussed. Theoretically, the maximal stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in the post-absorptive state in response to BCAAs alone is the difference between muscle protein breakdown and muscle protein synthesis (about 30% greater than synthesis), because the other EAAs required for synthesis of new protein can only be derived from muscle protein breakdown. Realistically, a maximal increase in muscle protein synthesis of 30% is an over-estimate because the obligatory oxidation of EAAs can never be completely suppressed. An extensive search of the literature has revealed no studies in human subjects in which the response of muscle protein synthesis to orally-ingested BCAAs alone was quantified, and only two studies in which the effect of intravenously infused BCAAs alone was assessed. Both of these intravenous infusion studies found that BCAAs decreased muscle protein synthesis as well as protein breakdown, meaning a decrease in muscle protein turnover. The catabolic state in which the rate of muscle protein breakdown exceeded the rate of muscle protein synthesis persisted during BCAA infusion. We conclude that the claim that consumption of dietary BCAAs stimulates muscle protein synthesis or produces an anabolic response in human subjects is unwarranted.

  12. Effect of repeated forearm muscle cooling on the adaptation of skeletal muscle metabolism in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Wijayanto, Titis; Watanuki, Shigeki; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated cooling of forearm muscle on adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism. It is hypothesized that repeated decreases of muscle temperature would increase the oxygen consumption in hypothermic skeletal muscle. Sixteen healthy males participated in this study. Their right forearm muscles were locally cooled to 25 °C by cooling pads attached to the skin. This local cooling was repeated eight times on separate days for eight participants (experimental group), whereas eight controls received no cold exposure. To evaluate adaptation in skeletal muscle metabolism, a local cooling test was conducted before and after the repeated cooling period. Change in oxy-hemoglobin content in the flexor digitorum at rest and during a 25-s isometric handgrip (10% maximal voluntary construction) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy at every 2 °C reduction in forearm muscle temperature. The arterial blood flow was occluded for 15 s by upper arm cuff inflation at rest and during the isometric handgrip. The oxygen consumption in the flexor digitorum muscle was evaluated by a slope of the oxy-hemoglobin change during the arterial occlusion. In the experimental group, resting oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle did not show any difference between pre- and post-intervention, whereas muscle oxygen consumption during the isometric handgrip was significantly higher in post-intervention than in pre-test from thermoneutral baseline to 31 °C muscle temperature ( P < 0.05). This result indicated that repeated local muscle cooling might facilitate oxidative metabolism in the skeletal muscle. In summary, skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal isometric handgrip was facilitated after repeated local muscle cooling.

  13. Comparison of blood pressure and heart rate responses to isometric exercise and passive muscle stretch in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, K; Selle, K; Leyk, D; Essfeld, D

    1995-01-01

    The responses of mean arterial blood pressure (BPa) and heart rate (fc) to isometric contraction and passive stretch were compared in seven healthy male subjects at identical external forces. They were investigated in the sitting position with the hip and knee joint flexed to 90 degrees. Each subject performed two tests, separated by a day, in which the stimuli were applied in random order. After 5 min of rest they performed either 10-min static plantar flexion of one calf (200 N) or 10 min of passive calf muscle stretch at the same load. After 5-min rest, the second stimulus was applied for a further 10 min followed by 5-min rest. The second test was identical except for the sequence of the stimuli. The BPa was measured by a noninvasive and continuous method. Contraction of the vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius lateralis, and soleus muscles were determined by the myo-electric activity (electromyogram, EMG) by means of surface electrodes. The EMG activity of the vastus lateralis muscle remained at resting values throughout the experiments. Increases in EMG activity could only be detected for the triceps surae muscles during isometric contraction. During the initial 2 min of stimulation the BPa and fc responses to active contraction and passive stretch were comparable. Thereafter, both parameters showed significantly higher values during contraction. It was concluded that mechanical stress may have contributed to the early response of BPa during both passive stretch and voluntary contraction but that chemical stimuli were needed to maintain the peripheral cardiovascular drive.

  14. Characterization of human carbonic anhydrase III from skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N; Jeffery, S; Shiels, A; Edwards, Y; Tipler, T; Hopkinson, D A

    1979-10-01

    A third form of human carbonic anhydrase (CA III), found at high concentrations in skeletal muscle, has been purified and characterized. This isozyme shows relatively poor hydratase and esterase activities compared to the red cell isozymes, CA I and CA II, but is similar to these isozymes in subunit structure (monomer) and molecular size (28,000). CA III is liable to posttranslational modification by thiol group interaction. Monomeric secondary isozymes, sensitive to beta-mercaptoethanol, are found in both crude and purified material and can be generated in vitro by the addition of thiol reagents. Active dimeric isozymes, generated apparently by the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges, also occur but account for only a small proportion of the total protein and appear only when the concentration of CA III is particularly high.

  15. Nutritional and contractile regulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Micah J.; Dreyer, Hans C.; Fry, Christopher S.; Glynn, Erin L.; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2009-01-01

    In this review we discuss current findings in the human skeletal muscle literature describing the acute influence of nutrients (leucine-enriched essential amino acids in particular) and resistance exercise on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. We show that essential amino acids and an acute bout of resistance exercise independently stimulate human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. It also appears that ingestion of essential amino acids fo...

  16. Short-term immobilization and recovery affect skeletal muscle but not collagen tissue turnover in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Dyrberg, Eva; Aagaard, Per

    2008-01-01

    Not much is known about the effects of immobilization and subsequent recovery on tendon connective tissue. In the present study, healthy young men had their nondominant leg immobilized for a 2-wk period, followed by a recovery period of the same length. Immobilization resulted in a mean decrease ...... was increased in the previously immobilized leg. Thus 2 wk of immobilization are sufficient to induce significant changes in muscle tissue, whereas tendon tissue seems to be more resistant to short-term immobilization.......Not much is known about the effects of immobilization and subsequent recovery on tendon connective tissue. In the present study, healthy young men had their nondominant leg immobilized for a 2-wk period, followed by a recovery period of the same length. Immobilization resulted in a mean decrease...... of 6% (5,413 to 5,077 mm(2)) in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps surae muscles and a mean decrease of 9% (261 to 238 N.m) in strength of the immobilized calf muscles. Two weeks of recovery resulted in a 6% increased in CSA (to 5,367 mm(2)), whereas strength remained suppressed (240 N...

  17. Calf serum constituent fractions influence polyethylene wear and microbial growth in knee simulator testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jan-M; Charron, Kory; Zhao, Lin; MacDonald, Steven J; Medley, John B

    2012-06-01

    Calf serum lubricants consisting of various polypeptide constituent fractions are routinely used in knee wear simulators as part of the standardized test protocol. Three calf sera (bovine, new-born and alpha) were diluted as per the recommendation of ISO 14243-3 and used in displacement-controlled knee wear simulators to investigate their effects on polyethylene wear. Biochemical analyses included measuring total polypeptide degradation, electrophoretic profiles and low-molecular weight polypeptide concentrations to elucidate their involvement in the wear process. The effects of the various calf sera constituent fractions on microbial growth were also explored. The polyethylene wear rates and the results from the biochemical analyses for the three calf serum lubricants were all found to be statistically significantly different from each other. The lubricant derived from the alpha-calf serum was closest in constituent fractions to human synovial fluid. It also showed the lowest polyethylene wear rate (14.38 +/- 0.85 mm3/million cycles) and the lowest amount of polypeptide degradation (7.77 +/- 3.87%). Furthermore, the alpha-calf serum lubricant was associated with the least amount of change in the electrophoretic profile, the least change in low-molecular weight polypeptide concentration, and the lowest microbial growth in the presence of sodium azide (a microbial inhibitor conventionally used in implant wear testing). Replacing sodium azide with a broad spectrum antibiotic-antimycotic eradicated the microbial growth. Some speculation was entertained regarding the effect of alpha-calf serum on colloid-mediated boundary lubrication. Based on the results, it was recommended that ISO 14243-3 be modified to include guidelines on calf serum constituent fractions that would favour using alpha-calf serum in order to improve the fidelity of the simulation in knee implant wear testing.

  18. Growth factor-induced contraction of human bronchial smooth muscle is Rho-kinase-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinout; Schaafsma, D.; Grootte Bromhaar, M.M; Vrugt, B.; Zaagsma, Hans; Meurs, Herman; Nelemans, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Growth factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the putative effects of these growth factors on human airway smooth muscle tone are still largely unknown. We performed contraction experiments using human bronchial smooth muscle ring preparations. The growth factor

  19. Urokinase and tissue-type plasminogen activator stimulate human vascular smooth muscle cell migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, M.J.; Nieuwenbroek, N.M.E.; Slomp, J.; Quax, P.H.A.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the plasminogen activation system in the migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. After wounding of confluent human smooth muscle cell cultures by stripping cells from their extracellular matrix, cells start to migrate from

  20. A predictive model of muscle excitations based on muscle modularity for a large repertoire of human locomotion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Sartori, Massimo; Dosen, Strahinja; Torricelli, Diego; Pons, Jose L; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Humans can efficiently walk across a large variety of terrains and locomotion conditions with little or no mental effort. It has been hypothesized that the nervous system simplifies neuromuscular control by using muscle synergies, thus organizing multi-muscle activity into a small number of coordinative co-activation modules. In the present study we investigated how muscle modularity is structured across a large repertoire of locomotion conditions including five different speeds and five different ground elevations. For this we have used the non-negative matrix factorization technique in order to explain EMG experimental data with a low-dimensional set of four motor components. In this context each motor components is composed of a non-negative factor and the associated muscle weightings. Furthermore, we have investigated if the proposed descriptive analysis of muscle modularity could be translated into a predictive model that could: (1) Estimate how motor components modulate across locomotion speeds and ground elevations. This implies not only estimating the non-negative factors temporal characteristics, but also the associated muscle weighting variations. (2) Estimate how the resulting muscle excitations modulate across novel locomotion conditions and subjects. The results showed three major distinctive features of muscle modularity: (1) the number of motor components was preserved across all locomotion conditions, (2) the non-negative factors were consistent in shape and timing across all locomotion conditions, and (3) the muscle weightings were modulated as distinctive functions of locomotion speed and ground elevation. Results also showed that the developed predictive model was able to reproduce well the muscle modularity of un-modeled data, i.e., novel subjects and conditions. Muscle weightings were reconstructed with a cross-correlation factor greater than 70% and a root mean square error less than 0.10. Furthermore, the generated muscle excitations matched

  1. A predictive model of muscle excitations based on muscle modularity for a large repertoire of human locomotion conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose eGonzalez-Vargas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans can efficiently walk across a large variety of terrains and locomotion conditions with little or no mental effort. It has been hypothesized that the nervous system simplifies neuromuscular control by using muscle synergies, thus organizing multi-muscle activity into a small number of coordinative co-activation modules. In the present study we investigated how muscle modularity is structured across a large repertoire of locomotion conditions including five different speeds and five different ground elevations. For this we have used the non-negative matrix factorization technique in order to explain EMG experimental data with a low-dimensional set of four motor components. In this context each motor components is composed of a non-negative factor and the associated muscle weightings. Furthermore, we have investigated if the proposed descriptive analysis of muscle modularity could be translated into a predictive model that could: 1 Estimate how motor components modulate across locomotion speeds and ground elevations. This implies not only estimating the non-negative factors temporal characteristics, but also the associated muscle weighting variations. 2 Estimate how the resulting muscle excitations modulate across novel locomotion conditions and subjects.The results showed three major distinctive features of muscle modularity: 1 the number of motor components was preserved across all locomotion conditions, 2 the non-negative factors were consistent in shape and timing across all locomotion conditions, and 3 the muscle weightings were modulated as distinctive functions of locomotion speed and ground elevation. Results also showed that the developed predictive model was able to reproduce well the muscle modularity of un-modeled data, i.e. novel subjects and conditions. Muscle weightings were reconstructed with a cross-correlation factor greater than 70% and a root mean square error less than 0.10. Furthermore, the generated muscle excitations

  2. Mechanisms regulating muscle mass during disuse atrophy and rehabilitation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Murton, Andrew J; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2011-02-01

    Muscle mass loss accompanies periods of bedrest and limb immobilization in humans and requires rehabilitation exercise to effectively restore mass and function. Although recent evidence points to an early and transient rise in muscle protein breakdown contributing to this decline in muscle mass, the driving factor seems to be a reduction in muscle protein synthesis, not least in part due to the development of anabolic resistance to amino acid provision. Although the AKT signaling pathway has been identified in small animals as central to the regulation of muscle protein synthesis, several studies in humans have now demonstrated a disassociation between AKT signaling and muscle protein synthesis during feeding, exercise, and immobilization, suggesting that the mechanisms regulating protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle are more complex than initially thought (at least in non-inflammatory states). During rehabilitation, exercise-induced myogenesis may in part be responsible for the recovery of muscle mass. Rapid and sustained exercise-induced suppression of myostatin mRNA expression, that precedes any gain in muscle mass, points to this, along with other myogenic proteins, as being potential regulators of muscle regeneration during exercise rehabilitation in humans.

  3. Expression of interleukin-15 in human skeletal muscle effect of exercise and muscle fibre type composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Mounier, Remi; Plomgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    lateralis quadriceps and soleus muscle biopsies were obtained from normally physically active, healthy, young male volunteers (n = 14), because these muscles are characterized by having different fibre-type compositions. In addition, healthy, normally physically active male subjects (n = 8) not involved...... in any kind of resistance exercise underwent a heavy resistance exercise protocol that stimulated the vastus lateralis muscle and biopsies were obtained from this muscle pre-exercise as well as 6, 24 and 48 h post-exercise. IL-15 mRNA levels were twofold higher in the triceps (type 2 fibre dominance......The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been demonstrated to have anabolic effects in cell culture systems. We tested the hypothesis that IL-15 is predominantly expressed by type 2 skeletal muscle fibres, and that resistance exercise regulates IL-15 expression in muscle. Triceps brachii, vastus...

  4. Exercise and training effects on ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Saltin, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    In rat skeletal muscle prolonged exercise affects the content and composition of ceramides, but in human skeletal muscle no data are available on this compound. Our aim was to examine the content of ceramide- and sphingomyelin fatty acids and neutral, Mg(2+)-dependent sphingomyelinase activity...... in skeletal muscle in untrained and trained subjects before and after prolonged exercise. Healthy male subjects were recruited into an untrained (n = 8, VO2,max 3.8 +/- 0.2 1 min1) and a trained (n = 8, Vo2,max 5.1 +/- 0.1 1 min2) group. Before and after a 3-h exercise bout (58 +/- 1% VO2,max) a muscle biopsy......). In conclusion, we have reported, for the first time, the values for ceramide fatty acid content and neutral, Mg2(+)-dependent sphingomyelinase activity in human skeletal muscle. The results indicate that acute prolonged exercise affects ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle both in untrained...

  5. Are animal models predictive for human postmortem muscle protein degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfellner, Bianca; Zissler, Angela; Steinbacher, Peter; Monticelli, Fabio C; Pittner, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    A most precise determination of the postmortem interval (PMI) is a crucial aspect in forensic casework. Although there are diverse approaches available to date, the high heterogeneity of cases together with the respective postmortal changes often limit the validity and sufficiency of many methods. Recently, a novel approach for time since death estimation by the analysis of postmortal changes of muscle proteins was proposed. It is however necessary to improve the reliability and accuracy, especially by analysis of possible influencing factors on protein degradation. This is ideally investigated on standardized animal models that, however, require legitimization by a comparison of human and animal tissue, and in this specific case of protein degradation profiles. Only if protein degradation events occur in comparable fashion within different species, respective findings can sufficiently be transferred from the animal model to application in humans. Therefor samples from two frequently used animal models (mouse and pig), as well as forensic cases with representative protein profiles of highly differing PMIs were analyzed. Despite physical and physiological differences between species, western blot analysis revealed similar patterns in most of the investigated proteins. Even most degradation events occurred in comparable fashion. In some other aspects, however, human and animal profiles depicted distinct differences. The results of this experimental series clearly indicate the huge importance of comparative studies, whenever animal models are considered. Although animal models could be shown to reflect the basic principles of protein degradation processes in humans, we also gained insight in the difficulties and limitations of the applicability of the developed methodology in different mammalian species regarding protein specificity and methodic functionality.

  6. Resistance Exercise Training Alters Mitochondrial Function in Human Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Craig; Reidy, Paul T; Bhattarai, Nisha; Sidossis, Labros S; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2015-09-01

    Loss of mitochondrial competency is associated with several chronic illnesses. Therefore, strategies that maintain or increase mitochondrial function will likely be of benefit in numerous clinical settings. Endurance exercise has long been known to increase mitochondrial function in the skeletal muscle. Comparatively little is known regarding the effect of resistance exercise training (RET) on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of chronic resistance training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function. Here, we studied the effect of a 12-wk RET program on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in 11 young healthy men. Muscle biopsies were collected before and after the 12-wk training program, and mitochondrial respiratory capacity was determined in permeabilized myofibers by high-resolution respirometry. RET increased lean body mass and quadriceps muscle strength by 4% and 15%, respectively (P training (P function of skeletal muscle mitochondria.

  7. Induction and modulation of referred muscle pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, René Johannes

    Muscle pain is a major factor in many disorders such as injuries, degenerative diseases, and cancer. The mechanisms underlying muscle pain are not fully understood. A particular problem in muscle pain is the relationship between local and referred muscle pain. Experimental pain models are useful...... in basic pain research, because they allow a standardized activation of the nociceptive system and measurements of evoked responses. An electrical muscle pain model was constructed and applied on healthy subjects. The model was found suitable for inducing local (LP) and referred muscle pain (RF......). It was demonstrated that LP was elicited around the stimulation needles (proximal part of the tibial anterior muscle) and RP appeared at a distal site (the ventral part of the ankle). RP required significantly higher stimulus intensity compared with LP, and RP appeared later than LP. The sizes of LP and RP areas were...

  8. No release of interstitial glutamate in experimental human model of muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, M.; Jørgensen, M.; Stallknecht, Bente

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate may be released from muscle nociceptors and thereby contribute to mechanisms underlying acute and chronic muscle pain. In vivo concentration of glutamate during muscle pain has not previously been studied in either animals or humans. In the present study, we aimed to study the in vivo...... flow increased significantly over time in response to infusion of chemical mixture and placebo (p = 0.001). However, we found no difference in changes in muscle blood flow between chemical mixture and placebo (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates no signs of increased release...... of glutamate from myofascial nociceptors during and after acute experimentally induced muscle pain and tenderness....

  9. A muscle-reflex model that encodes principles of legged mechanics produces human walking dynamics and muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hartmut; Herr, Hugh

    2010-06-01

    While neuroscientists identify increasingly complex neural circuits that control animal and human gait, biomechanists find that locomotion requires little control if principles of legged mechanics are heeded that shape and exploit the dynamics of legged systems. Here, we show that muscle reflexes could be vital to link these two observations. We develop a model of human locomotion that is controlled by muscle reflexes which encode principles of legged mechanics. Equipped with this reflex control, we find this model to stabilize into a walking gait from its dynamic interplay with the ground, reproduce human walking dynamics and leg kinematics, tolerate ground disturbances, and adapt to slopes without parameter interventions. In addition, we find this model to predict some individual muscle activation patterns known from walking experiments. The results suggest not only that the interplay between mechanics and motor control is essential to human locomotion, but also that human motor output could for some muscles be dominated by neural circuits that encode principles of legged mechanics.

  10. Association of interleukin-6 signalling with the muscle stem cell response following muscle-lengthening contractions in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryon R McKay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The regulation of muscle stem cells in humans in response to muscle injury remains largely undefined. Recently, interleukin-6 (IL-6 has been implicated in muscle stem cell (satellite cell-mediated muscle hypertrophy in animals; however, the role of IL-6 in the satellite cell (SC response following muscle-lengthening contractions in humans has not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight subjects (age 22+/-1 y; 79+/-8 kg performed 300 maximal unilateral lengthening contractions (3.14 rad.s(-1 of the knee extensors. Blood and muscle samples were collected before and at 4, 24, 72, and 120 hours post intervention. IL-6, IL-6 receptor, IL-6R(alpha, cyclin D1, suppressor of cytokine signling-3 (SOCS3 mRNA were measured using quantitative RT-PCR and serum IL-6 protein was measured using an ELISA kit. JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylated and total protein was measured using western blotting techniques. Immunohistochemical analysis of muscle cross-sections was performed for the quantification of SCs (Pax7(+ cells as well as the expression of phosphorylated STAT3, IL-6, IL-6R(alpha, and PCNA across all time-points. The SC response, as defined by an amplification of Pax7(+ cells, was rapid, increasing by 24 h and peaking 72 h following the intervention. Muscle IL-6 mRNA increased following the intervention, which correlated strongly (R(2 = 0.89, p<0.002 with an increase in serum IL-6 concentration. SC IL-6R(alpha protein was expressed on the fiber, but was also localized to the SC, and IL-6(+ SC increased rapidly following muscle-lengthening contractions and returned to basal levels by 72 h post-intervention, demonstrating an acute temporal expression of IL-6 with SC. Phosphorylated STAT3 was evident in SCs 4 h after lengthening contraction, and the downstream genes, cyclin D1 and SOCS3 were significantly elevated 24 hours after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The increased expression of STAT3 responsive genes and expression of

  11. Comparison of human IgE-binding soya bean allergenic protein Gly m I with the antigenicity profiles of calf anti-soya protein sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessing, M.; Bleeker, H.; Tsuji, H.; Ogawa, T.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the food, particularly the feed, industry, large quantities of soya bean protein products are used for the formulation of end-products destined for human or animal consumption. These basic ingredients and the final end products often have to fulfill specific requirements regarding the presence of

  12. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: Human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841838; Wagenaar, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Heesterbeek, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073321427; Mevius, D.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/079677347; van Duijkeren, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/135063841; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal

  13. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, H.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heesterbeek, H.; Mevius, D.J.; Duijkeren, van E.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal

  14. Spontaneous mechanical and electrical activities of human calf musculature at rest assessed by repetitive single-shot diffusion-weighted MRI and simultaneous surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Martin; Steidle, Günter; Martirosian, Petros; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Preißl, Hubert; Stemmer, Alto; Yang, Bin; Schick, Fritz

    2018-05-01

    Assessment of temporal and spatial relations between spontaneous mechanical activities in musculature (SMAM) at rest as revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and electrical muscular activities in surface EMG (sEMG). Potential influences of static and radiofrequency magnetic fields on muscular activity on sEMG measurements at rest were examined systematically. Series of diffusion-weighted stimulated echo planar imaging were recorded with concurrent sEMG measurements. Electrical activities in sEMG were analyzed by non-parametric Friedman and two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Direct correlation of both modalities was investigated by temporal mapping of electrical activity in sEMG to DWI repetition interval. Electrical activities in sEMG and number of visible SMAMs in DWI showed a strong correlation (ρ = 0.9718). High accordance between sEMG activities and visible SMAMs in DWI in a near-surface region around sEMG electrodes was achieved. Characteristics of sEMG activities were almost similar under varying magnetic field conditions. Visible SMAMs in DWI have shown a close and direct relation to concurrent signals recorded by sEMG. MR-related magnetic fields had no significant effects on findings in sEMG. Hence, appearance of SMAMs in DWI should not be considered as imaging artifact or as effects originating from the special conditions of MR examinations. Spatial and temporal distributions of SMAMs indicate characteristics of spontaneous (microscopic) mechanical muscular action at rest. Therefore, DWI techniques should be considered as non-invasive tools for studying physiology and pathophysiology of spontaneous activities in resting muscle. Magn Reson Med 79:2784-2794, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Provocation of delayed-onset muscle soreness in the human jaw-closing muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türker, K.S.; Koutris, M.; Sümer, N.C.; Atis, E.S.; Linke, I.R.; Lobbezoo, F.; Naeije, M.

    2010-01-01

    Eccentric contractions of jaw-closing muscles are difficult to perform. This may explain why fatigue-inducing experiments performed so far suggest the jaw-closing muscles to be fatigue resistant. Aim of this study was to construct an apparatus that can impose intense eccentric contractions to the

  16. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injury described in this area is tearing of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, sometimes referred to as "tennis leg". We conclude that an isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lump or swelling in the upper medial area of the calf and we recommend ultrasound or MRI as the investigations of choice.

  17. Retained Myogenic Potency of Human Satellite Cells from Torn Rotator Cuff Muscles Despite Fatty Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Masashi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Yukinori; Minowa, Takashi; Takemura, Taro; Ando, Akira; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Yabe, Yutaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common shoulder problem in the elderly that can lead to both muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration due to less physical load. Satellite cells, quiescent cells under the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers, play a major role in muscle regeneration. However, the myogenic potency of human satellite cells in muscles with fatty infiltration is unclear due to the difficulty in isolating from small samples, and the mechanism of the progression of fatty infiltration has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the population of myogenic and adipogenic cells in disused supraspinatus (SSP) and intact subscapularis (SSC) muscles of the RCTs from the same patients using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The microstructure of the muscle with fatty infiltration was observed as a whole mount condition under multi-photon microscopy. Myogenic differentiation potential and gene expression were evaluated in satellite cells. The results showed that the SSP muscle with greater fatty infiltration surrounded by collagen fibers compared with the SSC muscle under multi-photon microscopy. A positive correlation was observed between the ratio of muscle volume to fat volume and the ratio of myogenic precursor to adipogenic precursor. Although no difference was observed in the myogenic potential between the two groups in cell culture, satellite cells in the disused SSP muscle showed higher intrinsic myogenic gene expression than those in the intact SSC muscle. Our results indicate that satellite cells from the disused SSP retain sufficient potential of muscle growth despite the fatty infiltration.

  18. How does passive lengthening change the architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsterlee, Bart; D'Souza, Arkiev; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    There are few comprehensive investigations of the changes in muscle architecture that accompany muscle contraction or change in muscle length in vivo. For this study, we measured changes in the three-dimensional architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius at the whole muscle level, the fascicle level and the fiber level using anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Data were obtained from eight subjects under relaxed conditions at three muscle lengths. At the whole muscle level, a 5.1% increase in muscle belly length resulted in a reduction in both muscle width (mean change -2.5%) and depth (-4.8%). At the fascicle level, muscle architecture measurements obtained at 3,000 locations per muscle showed that for every millimeter increase in muscle-tendon length above the slack length, average fascicle length increased by 0.46 mm, pennation angle decreased by 0.27° (0.17° in the superficial part and 0.37° in the deep part), and fascicle curvature decreased by 0.18 m -1 There was no evidence of systematic variation in architecture along the muscle's long axis at any muscle length. At the fiber level, analysis of the diffusion signal showed that passive lengthening of the muscle increased diffusion along fibers and decreased diffusion across fibers. Using these measurements across scales, we show that the complex shape changes that muscle fibers, whole muscles, and aponeuroses of the medial gastrocnemius undergo in vivo cannot be captured by simple geometrical models. This justifies the need for more complex models that link microstructural changes in muscle fibers to macroscopic changes in architecture. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Novel MRI and DTI techniques revealed changes in three-dimensional architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius during passive lengthening. Whole muscle belly width and depth decreased when the muscle lengthened. Fascicle length, pennation, and curvature changed uniformly or near uniformly along the muscle during passive lengthening

  19. Effects of muscle activation on shear between human soleus and gastrocnemius muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finni, T; Cronin, N J; Mayfield, D; Lichtwark, G A; Cresswell, A G

    2017-01-01

    Lateral connections between muscles provide pathways for myofascial force transmission. To elucidate whether these pathways have functional roles in vivo, we examined whether activation could alter the shear between the soleus (SOL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles. We hypothesized that selective activation of LG would decrease the stretch-induced shear between LG and SOL. Eleven volunteers underwent a series of knee joint manipulations where plantar flexion force, LG, and SOL muscle fascicle lengths and relative displacement of aponeuroses between the muscles were obtained. Data during a passive full range of motion were recorded, followed by 20° knee extension stretches in both passive conditions and with selective electrical stimulation of LG. During active stretch, plantar flexion force was 22% greater (P muscles, at least at flexed knee joint angles, which may serve to facilitate myofascial force transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Feasible muscle activation ranges based on inverse dynamics analyses of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cole S; Sohn, M Hongchul; Allen, Jessica L; Ting, Lena H

    2015-09-18

    Although it is possible to produce the same movement using an infinite number of different muscle activation patterns owing to musculoskeletal redundancy, the degree to which observed variations in muscle activity can deviate from optimal solutions computed from biomechanical models is not known. Here, we examined the range of biomechanically permitted activation levels in individual muscles during human walking using a detailed musculoskeletal model and experimentally-measured kinetics and kinematics. Feasible muscle activation ranges define the minimum and maximum possible level of each muscle's activation that satisfy inverse dynamics joint torques assuming that all other muscles can vary their activation as needed. During walking, 73% of the muscles had feasible muscle activation ranges that were greater than 95% of the total muscle activation range over more than 95% of the gait cycle, indicating that, individually, most muscles could be fully active or fully inactive while still satisfying inverse dynamics joint torques. Moreover, the shapes of the feasible muscle activation ranges did not resemble previously-reported muscle activation patterns nor optimal solutions, i.e. static optimization and computed muscle control, that are based on the same biomechanical constraints. Our results demonstrate that joint torque requirements from standard inverse dynamics calculations are insufficient to define the activation of individual muscles during walking in healthy individuals. Identifying feasible muscle activation ranges may be an effective way to evaluate the impact of additional biomechanical and/or neural constraints on possible versus actual muscle activity in both normal and impaired movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Capillary growth in human skeletal muscle: physiological factors and the balance between pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Hoier, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    In human skeletal muscle, the capillary net readily adapts according to the level of muscular activity to allow for optimal diffusion conditions for oxygen from the blood to the muscle. Animal studies have demonstrated that stimulation of capillary growth in skeletal muscle can occur either by me...... addresses physiological signals and angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle with a focus on human data.......In human skeletal muscle, the capillary net readily adapts according to the level of muscular activity to allow for optimal diffusion conditions for oxygen from the blood to the muscle. Animal studies have demonstrated that stimulation of capillary growth in skeletal muscle can occur either...... angiogenesis. A number of such regulatory proteins have been described in skeletal muscle in animal and cell models but also in human skeletal muscle. Important pro-angiogenic factors in skeletal muscle are vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiopoietin 2, whereas...

  2. Functional Echomyography of the human denervated muscle: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Zanato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we followed with ultrasound three patients with permanent denervation to evaluate changes in morphology, thickness, contraction and vascularisation of muscles undergoing the home-based electrical stimulation program of the Rise2-Italy project. During a period of 1 year for the first subject, 6 months for the second subject and 3 months for the third subject we studied with ultrasound the denervated muscle comparing it (if possible to the contralateral normal muscle. We evaluated: 1. Changes in morphology and sonographic structure of the pathologic muscle; 2. Muscular thickness in response to the electrical stimulation therapy; 3. Short-term modifications in muscle perfusion and arterial flow patterns after stimulation; 4. Contraction-relaxation kinetic induced by volitional activity or electrical stimulation. Morphology and ultrasonographic structure of the denervated muscles changed during the period of stimulation from a pattern typical of complete muscular atrophy to a pattern which might be considered “normal” when detected in an old patient. Thickness improved significantly more in the middle third than in the proximal and distal third of the denervated muscle, reaching in the last measurements of the first subject approximately the same thickness as the contralateral normal muscle. In all the measurements done within this study, arterial flow of the denervated muscle showed at rest a low-resistance pattern with Doppler Ultra Sound (US, and a pulsed pattern after electrical stimulation. The stimulation- induced pattern is similar to the trifasic high-resistance pattern of the normal muscle. Contraction- relaxation kinetic, measured by recording the muscular movements during electrical stimulation, showed an abnormal behaviour of the denervated muscle during the relaxation phase, which resulted to be significantly longer than in normal muscle (880 msec in the denervated muscle vs 240 msec in the contralateral normal one

  3. The breaking and making of healthy adult human skeletal muscle in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail L.; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background While muscle regeneration has been extensively studied in animal and cell culture models, in vivo myogenesis in adult human skeletal muscle has not been investigated in detail. Methods Using forced lengthening contractions induced by electrical stimulation, we induced myofibre injury...... in young healthy males. Muscle biopsies were collected from the injured leg 7 and 30 days after muscle injury and from the uninjured leg as a control. Immuno-stained single muscle fibres and muscle cross sections were studied by wide-field and confocal microscopy. Samples were also studied at the ultra......-structural level by electron microscopy. Results Microscopy of single muscle fibres in 3 dimensions revealed a repeating pattern of necrotic and regenerating zones along the length of the same myofibre, characterised by extensive macrophage infiltration alongside differentiating myogenic progenitor cells...

  4. Structure and function of human muscle fibres and muscle proteome in physically active older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocca, Lorenza; McPhee, Jamie S; Longa, Emanuela; Canepari, Monica; Seynnes, Olivier; De Vito, Giuseppe; Pellegrino, Maria Antonietta; Narici, Marco; Bottinelli, Roberto

    2017-07-15

    Loss of muscle mass and strength in the growing population of elderly people is a major health concern for modern societies. This condition, termed sarcopenia, is a major cause of falls and of the subsequent increase in morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies on the impact of ageing on individual muscle fibres, the contribution of single muscle fibre adaptations to ageing-induced atrophy and functional impairment is still unsettled. The level of physical function and disuse is often associated with ageing. We studied relatively healthy older adults in order to understand the effects of ageing per se without the confounding impact of impaired physical function. We found that in healthy ageing, structural and functional alterations of muscle fibres occur. Protein post-translational modifications, oxidation and phosphorylation contribute to such alterations more than loss of myosin and other muscle protein content. Contradictory results have been reported on the impact of ageing on structure and functions of skeletal muscle fibres, likely to be due to a complex interplay between ageing and other phenomena such as disuse and diseases. Here we recruited healthy, physically and socially active young (YO) and elderly (EL) men in order to study ageing per se without the confounding effects of impaired physical function. In vivo analyses of quadriceps and in vitro analyses of vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed. In EL subjects, our results show that (i) quadriceps volume, maximum voluntary contraction isometric torque and patellar tendon force were significantly lower; (ii) muscle fibres went through significant atrophy and impairment of specific force (isometric force/cross-sectional area) and unloaded shortening velocity; (iii) myosin/actin ratio and myosin content in individual muscle fibres were not altered; (iv) the muscle proteome went through quantitative adaptations, namely an up-regulation of the content of several groups of proteins among

  5. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M; Madsen, Agnete B; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T; Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Thomas E; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente; Frøsig, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle. An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content. An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction-induced mechanism. Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle. AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy-inhibiting effect of insulin. Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one-legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non-exercised human muscle. Acute one-legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3-II/LC3-I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non-exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser-757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one-legged exercise training, the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise training may increase the capacity for formation of autophagosomes

  6. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  7. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment can be separated from lipofuscin accumulation in aged human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hütter, Eveline; Skovbro, Mette; Lener, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    According to the free radical theory of aging, reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a driving force of the aging process, and it is generally believed that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major source of increased oxidative stress in tissues with high content of mitochondria, such as muscle or brain...... mitochondria and that the level of ROS production is higher in young compared to aged muscle. Accordingly, we could not find any increase in oxidative modification of proteins in muscle from elderly donors. However, the accumulation of lipofuscin was identified as a robust marker of human muscle aging....... However, recent experiments in mouse models of premature aging have questioned the role of mitochondrial ROS production in premature aging. To address the role of mitochondrial impairment and ROS production for aging in human muscles, we have analyzed mitochondrial properties in muscle fibres isolated...

  8. Clinical and morphological study of calf enlargement following S-1 radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Calf enlargement following sciatica is a rare condition. It is reported the case of a 28-year-old woman who complained of repeated episodes of lower back pain radiating into the left buttock and foot. One year after the beginning of her symptoms, she noticed enlargement of her left calf. X-ray studies disclosed L5-S1 disk degeneration. EMG showed muscle denervation with normal motor conduction velocity. Open biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscles were performed. The left gastrocnemius muscle showed hypertrophic type 2 fibers in comparison with the right gastrocnemius. Electron microscopy showed mildly increased number of mitochondria in these fibers. A satisfactory explanation for denervation hypertrophy has yet to be provided.

  9. Human Adaptive Evolution at Myostatin (GDF8), a Regulator of Muscle Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Matthew A.; Good, Jeffrey M.; Lawrence, Elizabeth C.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Nachman, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    Myostatin (GDF8) is a negative regulator of muscle growth in mammals, and loss-of-function mutations are associated with increased skeletal-muscle mass in mice, cattle, and humans. Here, we show that positive natural selection has acted on human nucleotide variation at GDF8, since the observed ratio of nonsynonymous:synonymous changes among humans is significantly greater than expected under the neutral model and is strikingly different from patterns observed across mammalian orders. Furtherm...

  10. Contractile Force of Human Extraocular Muscle: A Theoretical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongmei; Gao, Zhipeng; Chen, Weiyi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The length-contractile force relationships of six human extraocular muscles (EOMs) in primary innervations should be determined during eye movement modeling and surgery of clinical EOMs. This study aims to investigate these relationships. Method. The proposal is based on the assumption that six EOMs have similar constitutive relationships, with the eye suspended in the primary position. The constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained by optimizing from previous experimental data and the theory of mechanical equilibrium using traditional model. Further, simulate the existing experiment of resistance force, and then compare the simulated results with the existing experimental results. Finally, the mechanical constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained. Results. The results show that the simulated resistance forces from the other four EOMs except for the horizontal recti well agree with previous experimental results. Conclusion. The mechanical constitutive relationships of six EOMs in primary innervations are obtained, and the rationality of the constitutive relationships is verified. Whereafter, the active stress-strain relationships of the six EOMs in the primary innervations are obtained. The research results can improve the eye movement model to predict the surgical amounts of EOMs before EOM surgery more precisely.

  11. Contractile Force of Human Extraocular Muscle: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The length-contractile force relationships of six human extraocular muscles (EOMs in primary innervations should be determined during eye movement modeling and surgery of clinical EOMs. This study aims to investigate these relationships. Method. The proposal is based on the assumption that six EOMs have similar constitutive relationships, with the eye suspended in the primary position. The constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained by optimizing from previous experimental data and the theory of mechanical equilibrium using traditional model. Further, simulate the existing experiment of resistance force, and then compare the simulated results with the existing experimental results. Finally, the mechanical constitutive relationships of EOMs are obtained. Results. The results show that the simulated resistance forces from the other four EOMs except for the horizontal recti well agree with previous experimental results. Conclusion. The mechanical constitutive relationships of six EOMs in primary innervations are obtained, and the rationality of the constitutive relationships is verified. Whereafter, the active stress-strain relationships of the six EOMs in the primary innervations are obtained. The research results can improve the eye movement model to predict the surgical amounts of EOMs before EOM surgery more precisely.

  12. Analysis of human muscle extracts by proton NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, P.N.; Barany, M.; Arus, C.

    1986-03-01

    Perchloric acid extracts were prepared from pooled human muscle biopsies from patients diagnosed with scoliosis (SCOL) and cerebral palsy (CP). After neutralization with KOH and removal of perchlorate, the extracts were concentrated by freeze drying and dissolved in /sup 2/H/sub 2/O to contain 120 O.D. units at 280 nm per 0.5 ml. /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy was performed with the 5 mm probe of a Varian XL300 instrument. Creatine, lactate, carnosine, and choline were the major resonances in the one-dimensional spectra of both extracts. With creatine as reference, 2.5-fold more lactate was found in SCOL than in CP, and a much smaller difference was also found in their carnosine content. Two-dimensional COSY comparison revealed several differences between the two extracts. Taurine, N-acetyl glutamate, glycerophosphoryl choline (or phosphoryl choline) and an unidentified spot were present only in the extract from SCOL but not in that from CP. On the other hand, aspartate, hydroxy-proline, carnitine and glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine were only present in CP but absent in SCOL. Alanine, cysteine, lysine and arginine appeared in both extracts without an apparent intensity difference.

  13. Cortical Activation Associated with Muscle Synergies of the Human Male Pelvic Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Asavasopon, Skulpan; Rana, Manku; Daniel J. Kirages; Yani, Moheb S.; Fisher, Beth E.; Hwang, Darryl H.; Everett B. Lohman; Berk, Lee S.; Kutch, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    Human pelvic floor muscles have been shown to operate synergistically with a wide variety of muscles, which has been suggested to be an important contributor to continence and pelvic stability during functional tasks. However, the neural mechanism of pelvic floor muscle synergies remains unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that activation in motor cortical regions associated with pelvic floor activation are part of the neural substrate for such synergies. We first use electromyographic reco...

  14. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Suetta

    Full Text Available Important insights concerning the molecular basis of skeletal muscle disuse-atrophy and aging related muscle loss have been obtained in cell culture and animal models, but these regulatory signaling pathways have not previously been studied in aging human muscle. In the present study, muscle atrophy was induced by immobilization in healthy old and young individuals to study the time-course and transcriptional factors underlying human skeletal muscle atrophy. The results reveal that irrespectively of age, mRNA expression levels of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 increased in the very initial phase (2-4 days of human disuse-muscle atrophy along with a marked reduction in PGC-1α and PGC-1β (1-4 days and a ~10% decrease in myofiber size (4 days. Further, an age-specific decrease in Akt and S6 phosphorylation was observed in young muscle within the first days (1-4 days of immobilization. In contrast, Akt phosphorylation was unchanged in old muscle after 2 days and increased after 4 days of immobilization. Further, an age-specific down-regulation of MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 expression levels was observed following 2 weeks of immobilization, along with a slowing atrophy response in aged skeletal muscle. Neither the immediate loss of muscle mass, nor the subsequent age-differentiated signaling responses could be explained by changes in inflammatory mediators, apoptosis markers or autophagy indicators. Collectively, these findings indicate that the time-course and regulation of human skeletal muscle atrophy is age dependent, leading to an attenuated loss in aging skeletal muscle when exposed to longer periods of immobility-induced disuse.

  15. Use It or Lose It: Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance Results from Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided a wealth of valuable information regarding the adaptations of skeletal muscle to weightlessness. Studies conducted during the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) represented ground breaking work on the effects of spaceflight on muscle form and function from applied human research to cellular adaptations. Results from detailed supplementary objective (DSO) 477 demonstrated that muscle strength losses could occur rapidly in response to short-duration spaceflight. The effects of spaceflight-induced unloading were primarily restricted to postural muscles such as those of the back as well as the knee extensors. DSO 606 provided evidence from MRI that the observed strength losses were partially accounted for by a reduction in the size of the individual muscles. Muscle biopsy studies conducted during DSO 475 were able to show muscle atrophy in individual muscle fibers from the quadriceps muscles. Reduced quadriceps muscle size and strength was also observed during the 17-d Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission aboard STS-78. Multiple maximal strength tests were conducted in flight on the calf muscles and it has been hypothesized that these high force contractions may have acted as a countermeasure. Muscle fiber mechanics were studied on calf muscle samples pre- and postflight. While some responses were crewmember specific, the general trend was that muscle fiber force production dropped and shortening velocity increased. The increased shortening velocity helped to maintain muscle fiber power. Numerous rodent studies performed during Shuttle missions suggest that many of the effects reported in Shuttle crewmembers could be due to lesions in the cellular signaling pathways that stimulate protein synthesis as well as an increase in the mechanisms that up-regulate protein breakdown. The results have important implications regarding the overall health and performance capabilities of future crewmembers that will venture beyond

  16. Calf respiratory disease and pen microenvironments in naturally ventilated calf barns in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; McGuirk, S M; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V

    2006-10-01

    Relationships between air quality, a variety of environmental risk factors, and calf respiratory health were studied in 13 naturally ventilated calf barns during winter. A minimum of 12 preweaned calves were randomly selected and scored for the presence of respiratory disease in each barn. An air sampling device was used to determine airborne bacteria colony-forming units per cubic meter (cfu/m3) of air in calf pens and central alleys within the barns. Airborne bacteria samples were collected on sheep blood agar (BAP) and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in each calf pen, the barn alley, and outside the barn. Samples of bedding were collected in each pen and DM was measured. Pen bedding type and a calf nesting score (degree to which the calves could nestle into the bedding) was assigned to each barn. Calf numbers, barn and pen dimensions, ridge, eave, and curtain openings, and exterior wind speed and direction were determined and used to estimate building ventilation rates. Factors that were significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of respiratory disease were reduced pen bacterial counts (log10 cfu/m3) on BAP, presence of a solid barrier between each calf pen, and increased ability to nest. Individual calf pen bacterial counts were significantly different from barn alley bacterial counts on both BAP and EMB. Significant factors associated with reduced calf pen bacterial counts on BAP were increasing pen area, increasing number of open planes of the calf pen, decreasing pen temperature, and wood-particle bedding. Significant factors associated with reduced alley bacterial counts on BAP were increased ventilation changes per hour, increased barn volume per kilogram of calf, reduced pen bacterial counts, and barn type.

  17. Simultaneous electromyography and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy--with application to muscle fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Thomsen, C; Sinkjaer, T

    1992-01-01

    The electromyogram (EMG) is often used to study human muscle fatigue, but the changes in the electromyographic signals during muscle contraction are not well understood in relation to muscle metabolism. The 31P NMR spectroscopy is a semi-quantitative non-invasive method for studying the metabolic...... changes in human muscle. The aim of this study was to develop a method by which EMG and NMR spectroscopy measurements could be performed simultaneously. All measurements were performed in a whole body 1.5 Tesla NMR scanner. A calf muscle ergometer, designed for use in a whole body NMR scanner, was used....... The subject had the left foot strapped to the ergometer. The anterior tibial EMG was recorded by bipolar surface electrodes. A surface coil was strapped to the anterior tibial muscle next to the EMG electrodes. Simultaneous measurements of surface EMG and surface coil 31P NMR spectroscopy were performed...

  18. Calorie restriction increases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E Civitarese

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction without malnutrition extends life span in a range of organisms including insects and mammals and lowers free radical production by the mitochondria. However, the mechanism responsible for this adaptation are poorly understood.The current study was undertaken to examine muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in response to caloric restriction alone or in combination with exercise in 36 young (36.8 +/- 1.0 y, overweight (body mass index, 27.8 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2 individuals randomized into one of three groups for a 6-mo intervention: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% caloric restriction; and CREX, caloric restriction with exercise (CREX, 12.5% CR + 12.5% increased energy expenditure (EE. In the controls, 24-h EE was unchanged, but in CR and CREX it was significantly reduced from baseline even after adjustment for the loss of metabolic mass (CR, -135 +/- 42 kcal/d, p = 0.002 and CREX, -117 +/- 52 kcal/d, p = 0.008. Participants in the CR and CREX groups had increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial function such as PPARGC1A, TFAM, eNOS, SIRT1, and PARL (all, p < 0.05. In parallel, mitochondrial DNA content increased by 35% +/- 5% in the CR group (p = 0.005 and 21% +/- 4% in the CREX group (p < 0.004, with no change in the control group (2% +/- 2%. However, the activity of key mitochondrial enzymes of the TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle (citrate synthase, beta-oxidation (beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and electron transport chain (cytochrome C oxidase II was unchanged. DNA damage was reduced from baseline in the CR (-0.56 +/- 0.11 arbitrary units, p = 0.003 and CREX (-0.45 +/- 0.12 arbitrary units, p = 0.011, but not in the controls. In primary cultures of human myotubes, a nitric oxide donor (mimicking eNOS signaling induced mitochondrial biogenesis but failed to induce SIRT1 protein expression, suggesting that additional factors may regulate SIRT1 content during CR.The observed increase in

  19. Isometric force development in human horizontal eye muscles and pulleys during saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerstrand, Gunnar; Bolzani, Roberto; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Tian, Suna; Schiavi, Costantino

    2009-11-01

    The connective tissue elements forming the check ligaments and portals of the human eye muscles have recently been ascribed with a pulley function. Active positioning of the pulleys over orbital layer contraction during eye movements has been suggested. Other studies have instead demonstrated fibrous tissue connections between all parts of the muscle and the pulleys. We aimed to compare the isometric force developed at the muscle tendon and at the pulleys of the horizontal eye muscles, and to investigate which eye muscle structures might exert force on the pulleys. Isometric force development was recorded from the lateral and medial rectus muscles in six patients operated for strabismus under topical anaesthesia. Two strain gauge probes were used, each attached with 5-0 silk sutures either to the muscle tendon or to the pulley. The eye muscles were activated by horizontal saccadic eye movements in steps from 30 degrees in the off-direction to 30 degrees in the on-direction of the muscles. The forces developed at the tendon and pulley were almost identical with respect to amplitude and other parameters. No differences were found in forces developed at the pulleys of the medial and lateral rectus muscles. The results support the presence of fibrous tissue connections between all eye muscle fibres and pulley structures, rather than orbital fibre control of the pulley.

  20. Cell-Surface Protein Profiling Identifies Distinctive Markers of Progenitor Cells in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Uezumi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle contains two distinct stem/progenitor populations. One is the satellite cell, which acts as a muscle stem cell, and the other is the mesenchymal progenitor, which contributes to muscle pathogeneses such as fat infiltration and fibrosis. Detailed and accurate characterization of these progenitors in humans remains elusive. Here, we performed comprehensive cell-surface protein profiling of the two progenitor populations residing in human skeletal muscle and identified three previously unrecognized markers: CD82 and CD318 for satellite cells and CD201 for mesenchymal progenitors. These markers distinguish myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors, and enable efficient isolation of the two types of progenitors. Functional study revealed that CD82 ensures expansion and preservation of myogenic progenitors by suppressing excessive differentiation, and CD201 signaling favors adipogenesis of mesenchymal progenitors. Thus, cell-surface proteins identified here are not only useful markers but also functionally important molecules, and provide valuable insight into human muscle biology and diseases.

  1. Muscle specific microRNAs are regulated by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Scheele, Camilla; Yfanti, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Muscle specific miRNAs, myomiRs, have been shown to control muscle development in vitro and are differentially expressed at rest in diabetic skeletal muscle. Therefore, we investigated the expression of these myomiRs, including miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-206 in muscle biopsies from vastus...... lateralis of healthy young males (n = 10) in relation to a hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp as well as acute endurance exercise before and after 12 weeks of endurance training. The subjects increased their endurance capacity, VO2max (l min-1) by 17.4% (P ...% (P training. In resting biopsies, endurance training for 12 weeks decreased basal expression...

  2. The expression of HSP in human skeletal muscle. Effects of muscle fiber phenotype and training background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Mattias; Mackey, Abigail L; Langberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Exercise-induced adaptations of skeletal muscle are related to training mode and can be muscle fibre type specific. This study aimed to investigate heat shock protein expression in type I and type II muscle fibres in resting skeletal muscle of subjects with different training backgrounds....... METHODS: Three groups of subjects were included: healthy active not engaged in any training programme (ACT, n = 12), resistance trained (RES, n = 6) and endurance trained (END, n = 8). Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis and immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies against...... myosin heavy chain I and IIA, αB-crystallin, HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70. RESULTS: In ACT and RES, but not in END, a fibre type specific expression with higher staining intensity in type I than type II fibres was seen for αB-crystallin. The opposite (II>I) was found for HSP27 in subjects from ACT (6 of 12...

  3. Costameric proteins in human skeletal muscle during muscular inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Santoro, Giuseppe; Arco, Alba; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Bramanti, Placido; Rinaldi, Carmen; Sidoti, Antonina; Amato, Aldo; Favaloro, Angelo

    2008-09-01

    Costameres are regions that are associated with the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fibres and comprise proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and vinculin-talin-integrin system. Costameres play both a mechanical and a signalling role, transmitting force from the contractile apparatus to the extracellular matrix in order to stabilize skeletal muscle fibres during contraction and relaxation. Recently, it was shown that bidirectional signalling occurs between sarcoglycans and integrins, with muscle agrin potentially interacting with both types of protein to enable signal transmission. Although numerous studies have been carried out on skeletal muscle diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, recessive autosomal muscular dystrophies and other skeletal myopathies, insufficient data exist on the relationship between costameres and the pathology of the second motor nerve and between costameric proteins and muscle agrin in other conditions in which skeletal muscle atrophy occurs. Previously, we carried out a preliminary study on skeletal muscle from patients with sensitive-motor polyneuropathy, in which we analysed the distribution of sarcoglycans, integrins and agrin by immunostaining only. In the present study, we have examined the skeletal muscle fibres of ten patients with sensitive-motor polyneuropathy. We used immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase PCR to examine the distribution of vinculin, talin and dystrophin, in addition to that of those proteins previously studied. Our aim was to characterize in greater detail the distribution and expression of costameric proteins and muscle agrin during this disease. In addition, we used transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the structural damage of the muscle fibres. The results showed that immunostaining of alpha 7B-integrin, beta 1D-integrin and muscle agrin appeared to be severely reduced, or almost absent, in the muscle fibres of the diseased patients, whereas staining of alpha 7A

  4. Analysis of the Interaction of Dp44mT with Human Serum Albumin and Calf Thymus DNA Using Molecular Docking and Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT exhibits significant antitumor activity. However, the mechanism of its pharmacological interaction with human serum albumin (HSA and DNA remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to elucidate the interactions of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA using MTT assays, spectroscopic methods, and molecular docking analysis. Our results indicated that addition of HSA at a ratio of 1:1 did not alter the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT, but did affect the cytotoxicity of the Dp44mT-Cu complex. Data from fluorescence quenching and UV-VIS absorbance measurements demonstrated that Dp44mT could bind to HSA with a moderate affinity (Ka = approximately 104 M−1. CD spectra revealed that Dp44mT could slightly disrupt the secondary structure of HSA. Dp44mT could also interact with Ct-DNA, but had a moderate binding constant (KEB = approximately 104 M−1. Docking studies indicated that the IB site of HSA, but not the IIA and IIIA sites, could be favorable for Dp44mT and that binding of Dp44mT to HSA involved hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force, consistent with thermodynamic results from spectral investigations. Thus, the moderate binding affinity of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA partially contributed to its antitumor activity and may be preferable in drug design approaches.

  5. Human health risks of metals and metalloids in muscle tissue of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muscle tissue from 63 Synodontis zambezensis collected bimonthly in 2013 at Flag Boshielo Dam were analysed for metals and metalloids in a desktop human health risk assessment. The Hazard Quotient, based on a weekly meal of 67 g of fish muscle, exceeded the maximum acceptable level of one for lead, cobalt, ...

  6. Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davegardh, C.; Broholm, C.; Perfilyev, A.; Henriksen, T.; Garcia-Calzon, S.; Peijs, L.; Hansen, N.S.; Volkov, P.; Kjobsted, R.; Wojtaszewski, J.F.; Pedersen, M.; Pedersen, B.K.; Ballak, D.B.; Dinarello, C.A.; Heinhuis, B.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Nilsson, E.; Vaag, A.; Scheele, C.; Ling, C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is

  7. Unaffected contractility of diaphragm muscle fibers in humans on mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijman, P.E.; Paul, M.A.; Stienen, G.J.M.; Beishuizen, A.; van Hees, H.W.H.; Singhal, S.; Bashir, M.; Budak, M.T.; Morgen, J.; Barsotti, R.J.; Levine, S.; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that diaphragm dysfunction develops in patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the contractility of sarcomeres, i.e., the smallest contractile unit in muscle, is affected in humans on MV. To this end, we compared diaphragm muscle

  8. Elastic ankle muscle-tendon interactions are adjusted to produce acceleration during walking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Dominic James; Raiteri, Brent James

    2017-11-15

    Humans and other cursorial mammals have distal leg muscles with high in-series compliance that aid locomotor economy. This muscle-tendon design is considered sub-optimal for injecting net positive mechanical work. However, humans change speed frequently when walking and any acceleration requires net positive ankle work. The present study unveiled how the muscle-tendon interaction of human ankle plantar flexors are adjusted and integrated with body mechanics to provide net positive work during accelerative walking. We found that for accelerative walking, a greater amount of active plantar flexor fascicle shortening early in the stance phase occurred and was transitioned through series elastic tissue stretch and recoil. Reorientation of the leg during early stance for acceleration allowed the ankle and whole soleus muscle-tendon complex to remain isometric while its fascicles actively shortened, stretching in-series elastic tissues for subsequent recoil and net positive joint work. This muscle-tendon behaviour is fundamentally different from constant-speed walking, where the ankle and soleus muscle-tendon complex undergo a period of negative work to store energy in series elastic tissues before subsequent recoil, minimizing net joint work. Muscles with high in-series compliance can therefore contribute to net positive work for accelerative walking and here we show a mechanism for how in human ankle muscles. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Subcellular localization and mechanism of secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The subcellular distribution and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was examined in skeletal muscle of healthy humans. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from m.v. lateralis before and after a 2 h bout of cycling exercise. VEGF localization was conducted on preparations...

  10. Predominant alpha2/beta2/gamma3 AMPK activation during exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jesper Bratz; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and is regulated in muscle during exercise. We have previously established that only three of 12 possible AMPK a/ß/¿-heterotrimers are present in human skeletal muscle. Previous studies describe discrepancies between ...

  11. Interleukin-6 receptor expression in contracting human skeletal muscle: regulating role of IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Pernille; Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Contracting muscle fibers produce and release IL-6, and plasma levels of this cytokine are markedly elevated in response to physical exercise. We recently showed autocrine regulation of IL-6 in human skeletal muscle in vivo and hypothesized that this may involve up-regulation of the IL-6 receptor...

  12. In vivo measurement of the series elasticity release curve of human triceps surae muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL

    The force-extension characteristic of the series-elastic component of the human triceps surae muscle has been measured in vivo by means of a hydraulic controlled-release ergometer in 12 subjects. The SEC characteristic can be described by a linear relation between muscle moment and extension, with a

  13. Regulation of pH in human skeletal muscle: adaptations to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of pH in skeletal muscle is the sum of mechanisms involved in maintaining intracellular pH within the normal range. Aspects of pH regulation in human skeletal muscle have been studied with various techniques from analysis of membrane proteins, microdialysis, and the nuclear magnetic...

  14. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Petersson, Stine J; Sellathurai, Jeeva

    2009-01-01

    indicated a function of SPARC in skeletal muscle. We therefore found it of interest to study SPARC expression in human skeletal muscle during development and in biopsies from Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and congenital muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, inclusion body myositis...

  15. High-frequency submaximal stimulation over muscle evokes centrally generated forces in human upper limb skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Walsh, Lee D; Nickolls, Peter; Gandevia, Simon C

    2009-02-01

    Control of posture and movement requires control of the output from motoneurons. Motoneurons of human lower limb muscles exhibit sustained, submaximal activity to high-frequency electrical trains, which has been hypothesized to be partly triggered by monosynaptic Ia afferents. The possibility to trigger such behavior in upper limb motoneurons and the potential unique role of Ia afferents to trigger such behavior remain unclear. Subjects (n = 9) received high-frequency trains of electrical stimuli over biceps brachii and flexor pollicis longus (FPL). We chose to study the FPL muscle because it has weak monosynaptic Ia afferent connectivity and it is involved in fine motor control of the thumb. Two types of stimulus trains (100-Hz bursts and triangular ramps) were tested at five intensities below painful levels. All subjects exhibited enhanced torque in biceps and FPL muscles after both types of high-frequency train. Torques also persisted after stimulation, particularly for the highest stimulus intensity. To separate the evoked torques that resulted from a peripheral mechanism (e.g., muscle potentiation) and that which resulted from a central origin, we studied FPL responses to high-frequency trains after complete combined nerve blocks of the median and radial nerves (n = 2). During the blocks, high-frequency trains over the FPL did not yield torque enhancements or persisting torques. These results suggest that enhanced contractions of central origin can be elicited in motoneurons innervating the upper limb, despite weak monosynaptic Ia connections for FPL. Their presence in a recently evolved human muscle (FPL) indicates that these enhanced contractions may have a broad role in controlling tonic postural outputs of hand muscles and that they may be available even for fine motor activities involving the thumb.

  16. Accelerated muscle fatigability of latent myofascial trigger points in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    Muscle fatigue is prevalent in acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions in which myofascial trigger points (MTPs) are involved. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of latent MTPs with muscle fatigue. Intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from latent MTPs and non-MTPs together with surface EMG recordings from the upper trapezius muscles during sustained isometric muscle contractions in 12 healthy subjects. Normalized root mean square (RMS) EMG amplitude and mean power frequency (MNF) were analyzed. The rate of perceived exertion and pain intensity from MTP side and non-MTP side were recorded. Pain intensity on the MTP side was significantly higher than the non-MTP side (P latent MTPs showed an early onset of decrease in MNF and a significant decrease at the end of fatiguing contraction as compared with non-MTPs (P latent MTPs presented with an early onset of the increase in RMS amplitude and the increase was significantly higher than that from non-MTPs at the end of sustained isometric contraction (P latent MTP is associated with an accelerated development of muscle fatigue and simultaneously overloading active motor units close to an MTP. Elimination of latent MTPs and inactivation of active MTPs may effectively reduce accelerated muscle fatigue and prevent overload spreading within a muscle. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Purinergic receptors expressed in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, A; Ploug, Thorkil; Bune, L T

    2012-01-01

    Purinergic receptors are present in most tissues and thought to be involved in various signalling pathways, including neural signalling, cell metabolism and local regulation of the microcirculation in skeletal muscles. The present study aims to determine the distribution and intracellular content...... of purinergic receptors in skeletal muscle fibres in patients with type 2 diabetes and age-matched controls. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were obtained from six type 2 diabetic patients and seven age-matched controls. Purinergic receptors were analysed using light and confocal microscopy...

  18. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one...... increase the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in muscle. Moreover, AMPK activation during exercise may not be sufficient to regulate autophagy in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 likely mediates the autophagy-inhibiting effect of insulin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights...

  19. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...... weeks of regular endurance training induced a 40% increase in basal skeletal muscle IL-15 protein content (p......Regular endurance exercise promotes metabolic and oxidative changes in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in mice exerts similar metabolic changes in muscle as seen with endurance exercise. Muscular IL-15 production has been shown to increase in mice after weeks of regular...

  20. Vibration and pressure wave therapy for calf strains: a proposed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; St Louis, Marie; Fournier, Magali

    2013-04-01

    Calf (lower leg) strains have a variety of treatment regimens with variable outcomes and return to activity (RTA) time frames. These injuries involve disruption of portions or the entire gastrocnemius-soleus myo-tendinous complex. Conservative treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE). Immediately following calf injury, patients can utilize cryotherapy, massage, passive range of motion, and progressive exercise. In general, Grade I through Grade III calf strains can take up to 6 weeks before the athlete can return to training. It can also involve the loss of more than 50% of muscle integrity. Recently, vibration therapy and radial pressure waves have been utilized to treat muscular strains and other myo-tendinous injuries that involve trigger points. Studies have suggested vibration therapy with rehabilitation can increase muscle strength and flexibility in patients. Segmental vibration therapy (SVT) is treatment to a more focal area. Vibration therapy (VT) is applied directly to the area of injury. VT is a mechanical stimulus that is thought to stimulate the sensory receptors, as well as decrease inflammatory cells and receptors. Therefore, VT could be a valuable tool in treating athlete effectively and decreasing their recovery time. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader baseline knowledge of VT and propose a treatment protocol for calf strains using this technology along with radial pressure waves.

  1. Vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy induced by glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, C; Angulo, J; Rodríguez-Mañas, L; Llergo, J L; Vallejo, S; Cercas, E; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    1998-10-01

    1. Nonenzymatic protein glycosylation is a possible mechanism contributing to oxidative stress and vascular disease in diabetes. In this work, the influence of 14%-glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin (GHHb), compared to the non-glycosylated protein (HHb), was studied on several growth parameters of rat cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). A role for reactive oxygen species was also analysed. 2. Treatment of VSMC for 48 h with GHHb, but not with HHb, increased planar cell surface area in a concentration dependent manner. The threshold concentration was 10 nM, which increased cell size from 7965+/-176 to 9411+/-392 microm2. Similarly, only GHHb enhanced protein content per well in VSMC cultures. 3. The planar surface area increase induced by 10 nM GHHb was abolished by superoxide dismutase (SOD; 50 200 u ml(-1)), deferoxamine (100 nM-100 microM), or dimethylthiourea (1 mM), while catalase (50 200 u ml(-1)) or mannitol (1 mM) resulted in a partial inhibition of cell size enhancement. 4. When a known source of oxygen free radicals was administered to VSMC, the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, the results were analogous to those produced by GHHb. Indeed, enhancements of cell size were observed, which were inhibited by SOD, deferoxamine, or catalase. 5. These results indicate that, at low concentrations, GHHb induces hypertrophy in VSMC, this effect being mediated by superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and/or hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, glycosylated proteins can have a role in the development of the structural vascular alterations associated to diabetes by enhancing oxidative stress.

  2. Vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy induced by glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, Concepción; Angulo, Javier; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Llergo, José L; Vallejo, Susana; Cercas, Elena; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    1998-01-01

    Nonenzymatic protein glycosylation is a possible mechanism contributing to oxidative stress and vascular disease in diabetes. In this work, the influence of 14%-glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin (GHHb), compared to the non-glycosylated protein (HHb), was studied on several growth parameters of rat cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). A role for reactive oxygen species was also analysed.Treatment of VSMC for 48 h with GHHb, but not with HHb, increased planar cell surface area in a concentration dependent manner. The threshold concentration was 10 nM, which increased cell size from 7965±176 to 9411±392 μm2. Similarly, only GHHb enhanced protein content per well in VSMC cultures.The planar surface area increase induced by 10 nM GHHb was abolished by superoxide dismutase (SOD; 50–200 u ml−1), deferoxamine (100 nM–100 μM), or dimethylthiourea (1 mM), while catalase (50–200 u ml−1) or mannitol (1 mM) resulted in a partial inhibition of cell size enhancement.When a known source of oxygen free radicals was administered to VSMC, the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, the results were analogous to those produced by GHHb. Indeed, enhancements of cell size were observed, which were inhibited by SOD, deferoxamine, or catalase.These results indicate that, at low concentrations, GHHb induces hypertrophy in VSMC, this effect being mediated by superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and/or hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, glycosylated proteins can have a role in the development of the structural vascular alterations associated to diabetes by enhancing oxidative stress. PMID:9831896

  3. Metformin increases insulin-stimulated glucose transport in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, D; Zierath, J; Thörne, A; Sonnenfeld, T; Wallberg-Henriksson, H

    1991-05-01

    The effect of metformin (0.1 mM) on glucose transport was investigated in healthy control and in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle. Muscle samples (200-400 mg) were obtained from the rectus abdominis muscle (abdominal surgery) or from the vastus lateralis portion of the quadriceps femoris muscle (open biopsy technique) from 8 healthy controls (age 38 +/- 4 yrs, BMI 23 +/- 1) and from 6 insulin-resistant subjects (age 53 +/- 5 yrs, BMI 30 +/- 2). Metformin had no effect on basal or insulin-stimulated (100 microU/ml) 3-0-methylglucose transport in incubated muscle strips from healthy subjects. Muscle tissue from the insulin resistant group did not respond to 100 microU/ml of insulin (0.73 +/- 0.17 for basal and 0.81 +/- 0.22 mumol x ml-1 x h-1 for insulin-stimulation, NS). Basal glucose transport was unaffected by metformin, whereas insulin-stimulated (100 microU/ml) glucose transport was increased by 63% in the insulin-resistant muscles (0.73 +/- 0.17 in the absence vs 1.19 +/- 0.18 mumol x ml-1 x h-1 in the presence of metformin, p less than 0.05). In conclusion, metformin abolishes insulin-resistance in human skeletal muscle by normalizing insulin-stimulated glucose transport accross the muscle cell membrane. The mechanism for this effect remains to be elucidated.

  4. Functional consequences of human airway smooth muscle phenotype plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Bart G J; Bos, I Sophie T; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) phenotype plasticity, characterized by reversible switching between contractile and proliferative phenotypes, is considered to contribute to increased ASM mass and airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma. Further, increased expression of collagen I

  5. Demonstration of a day-night rhythm in human skeletal muscle oxidative capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk van Moorsel

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that the biological clock drives robust rhythms in human skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. It is tempting to speculate that disruption of these rhythms contribute to the deterioration of metabolic health associated with circadian misalignment.

  6. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  7. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1 ) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2 ) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara

    2012-01-01

    Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles. PMID:22526888

  9. Human Leg Model Predicts Muscle Forces, States, and Energetics during Walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Markowitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans employ a high degree of redundancy in joint actuation, with different combinations of muscle and tendon action providing the same net joint torque. Both the resolution of these redundancies and the energetics of such systems depend on the dynamic properties of muscles and tendons, particularly their force-length relations. Current walking models that use stock parameters when simulating muscle-tendon dynamics tend to significantly overestimate metabolic consumption, perhaps because they do not adequately consider the role of elasticity. As an alternative, we posit that the muscle-tendon morphology of the human leg has evolved to maximize the metabolic efficiency of walking at self-selected speed. We use a data-driven approach to evaluate this hypothesis, utilizing kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic (EMG, and metabolic data taken from five participants walking at self-selected speed. The kinematic and kinetic data are used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths, muscle moment arms, and joint moments while the EMG data are used to estimate muscle activations. For each subject we perform an optimization using prescribed skeletal kinematics, varying the parameters that govern the force-length curve of each tendon as well as the strength and optimal fiber length of each muscle while seeking to simultaneously minimize metabolic cost and maximize agreement with the estimated joint moments. We find that the metabolic cost of transport (MCOT values of our participants may be correctly matched (on average 0.36±0.02 predicted, 0.35±0.02 measured with acceptable joint torque fidelity through application of a single constraint to the muscle metabolic budget. The associated optimal muscle-tendon parameter sets allow us to estimate the forces and states of individual muscles, resolving redundancies in joint actuation and lending insight into the potential roles and control objectives of the muscles of the leg throughout the gait cycle.

  10. Human Leg Model Predicts Muscle Forces, States, and Energetics during Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jared; Herr, Hugh

    2016-05-01

    Humans employ a high degree of redundancy in joint actuation, with different combinations of muscle and tendon action providing the same net joint torque. Both the resolution of these redundancies and the energetics of such systems depend on the dynamic properties of muscles and tendons, particularly their force-length relations. Current walking models that use stock parameters when simulating muscle-tendon dynamics tend to significantly overestimate metabolic consumption, perhaps because they do not adequately consider the role of elasticity. As an alternative, we posit that the muscle-tendon morphology of the human leg has evolved to maximize the metabolic efficiency of walking at self-selected speed. We use a data-driven approach to evaluate this hypothesis, utilizing kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic (EMG), and metabolic data taken from five participants walking at self-selected speed. The kinematic and kinetic data are used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths, muscle moment arms, and joint moments while the EMG data are used to estimate muscle activations. For each subject we perform an optimization using prescribed skeletal kinematics, varying the parameters that govern the force-length curve of each tendon as well as the strength and optimal fiber length of each muscle while seeking to simultaneously minimize metabolic cost and maximize agreement with the estimated joint moments. We find that the metabolic cost of transport (MCOT) values of our participants may be correctly matched (on average 0.36±0.02 predicted, 0.35±0.02 measured) with acceptable joint torque fidelity through application of a single constraint to the muscle metabolic budget. The associated optimal muscle-tendon parameter sets allow us to estimate the forces and states of individual muscles, resolving redundancies in joint actuation and lending insight into the potential roles and control objectives of the muscles of the leg throughout the gait cycle.

  11. The human cardiac and skeletal muscle proteomes defined by transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskog, Cecilia; Linne, Jerker; Fagerberg, Linn

    2015-01-01

    a comprehensive list of genes expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle. The genes with elevated expression were further stratified according to their global expression pattern across the human body as well as their precise localization in the muscle tissues. The functions of the proteins encoded by the elevated......Background: To understand cardiac and skeletal muscle function, it is important to define and explore their molecular constituents and also to identify similarities and differences in the gene expression in these two different striated muscle tissues. Here, we have investigated the genes...... and proteins with elevated expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle in relation to all other major human tissues and organs using a global transcriptomics analysis complemented with antibody-based profiling to localize the corresponding proteins on a single cell level.Results: Our study identified...

  12. Plasticity in mitochondrial cristae density allows metabolic capacity modulation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Gejl, Kasper D; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    , in human skeletal muscle, contrary to the current view, the mitochondrial cristae density is not constant, but exhibits plasticity with long-term endurance training. Furthermore, we show that frequently recruited mitochondria-enriched fibres have significantly increased cristae density and that, at whole......Mitochondrial energy production involves the movement of protons down a large electrochemical gradient through ATP synthase located on the folded inner membrane, known as cristae. In mammalian skeletal muscle, the density of cristae in mitochondria is thought to be constant. However, recent......-body level, muscle mitochondrial cristae density is a better predictor of maximal oxygen uptake rate than muscle mitochondrial volume. Our findings establish elevating mitochondrial cristae density as a regulatory mechanism for increasing metabolic power in human skeletal muscle. We propose...

  13. GH receptor blocker administration and muscle-tendon collagen synthesis in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Doessing, Simon; Goto, Kazushige

    2011-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis stimulates collagen synthesis in tendon and skeletal muscle, but no studies have investigated the effect of reducing IGF-I on collagen synthesis in healthy humans.......The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis stimulates collagen synthesis in tendon and skeletal muscle, but no studies have investigated the effect of reducing IGF-I on collagen synthesis in healthy humans....

  14. Vestibular Modulation of Sympathetic Nerve Activity to Muscle and Skin in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hammam, Elie; Vaughan G Macefield

    2017-01-01

    We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity...

  15. Single sodium channels from human skeletal muscle in planar lipid bilayers: characterization and response to pentobarbital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartenberg, Hans C.; Urban, Bernd W.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the response to general anesthetics of different sodium-channel subtypes, we examined the effects of pentobarbital, a close thiopental analogue, on single sodium channels from human skeletal muscle and compared them to existing data from human brain and human ventricular

  16. Influence of erythrocyte oxygenation and intravascular ATP on resting and exercising skeletal muscle blood flow in humans with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina D; Vissing, John; González-Alonso, José

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen (O(2)) extraction is impaired in exercising skeletal muscle of humans with mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but the muscle hemodynamic response to exercise has never been directly investigated. This study sought to examine the extent to which human skeletal muscle perfusion can incr...

  17. Diffusion-tensor MRI reveals the complex muscle architecture of the human forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeling, Martijn; Nederveen, Aart J; Heijtel, Dennis F R; Lataster, Arno; Bos, Clemens; Nicolay, Klaas; Maas, Mario; Drost, Maarten R; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2012-07-01

    To design a time-efficient patient-friendly clinical diffusion tensor MRI protocol and postprocessing tool to study the complex muscle architecture of the human forearm. The 15-minute examination was done using a 3 T system and consisted of: T(1) -weighted imaging, dual echo gradient echo imaging, single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) diffusion tensor MRI. Postprocessing comprised of signal-to-noise improvement by a Rician noise suppression algorithm, image registration to correct for motion and eddy currents, and correction of susceptibility-induced deformations using magnetic field inhomogeneity maps. Per muscle one to five regions of interest were used for fiber tractography seeding. To validate our approach, the reconstructions of individual muscles from the in vivo scans were compared to photographs of those dissected from a human cadaver forearm. Postprocessing proved essential to allow muscle segmentation based on combined T(1) -weighted and diffusion tensor data. The protocol can be applied more generally to study human muscle architecture in other parts of the body. The proposed protocol was able to visualize the muscle architecture of the human forearm in great detail and showed excellent agreement with the dissected cadaver muscles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Biofeedback Signals for Robotic Rehabilitation: Assessment of Wrist Muscle Activation Patterns in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprini, Marianna; Cuppone, Anna Vera; Delis, Ioannis; Squeri, Valentina; Panzeri, Stefano; Konczak, Jurgen

    2017-07-01

    Electrophysiological recordings from human muscles can serve as control signals for robotic rehabilitation devices. Given that many diseases affecting the human sensorimotor system are associated with abnormal patterns of muscle activation, such biofeedback can optimize human-robot interaction and ultimately enhance motor recovery. To understand how mechanical constraints and forces imposed by a robot affect muscle synergies, we mapped the muscle activity of seven major arm muscles in healthy individuals performing goal-directed discrete wrist movements constrained by a wrist robot. We tested six movement directions and four force conditions typically experienced during robotic rehabilitation. We analyzed electromyographic (EMG) signals using a space-by-time decomposition and we identified a set of spatial and temporal modules that compactly described the EMG activity and were robust across subjects. For each trial, coefficients expressing the strength of each combination of modules and representing the underlying muscle recruitment, allowed for a highly reliable decoding of all experimental conditions. The decomposition provides compact representations of the observable muscle activation constrained by a robotic device. Results indicate that a low-dimensional control scheme incorporating EMG biofeedback could be an effective add-on for robotic rehabilitative protocols seeking to improve impaired motor function in humans.

  19. Influence of passive muscle tension on electromechanical delay in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Lacourpaille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electromechanical delay is the time lag between onsets of muscle activation and muscle force production and reflects both electro-chemical processes and mechanical processes. The aims of the present study were two-fold: to experimentally determine the slack length of each head of the biceps brachii using elastography and to determine the influence of the length of biceps brachii on electromechanical delay and its electro-chemical/mechanical processes using very high frame rate ultrasound. METHODS/RESULTS: First, 12 participants performed two passive stretches to evaluate the change in passive tension for each head of the biceps brachii. Then, they underwent two electrically evoked contractions from 120 to 20° of elbow flexion (0°: full extension, with the echographic probe maintained over the muscle belly and the myotendinous junction of biceps brachii. The slack length was found to occur at 95.5 ± 6.3° and 95.3 ± 8.2° of the elbow joint angle for the long and short heads of the biceps brachii, respectively. The electromechanical delay was significantly longer at 120° (16.9 ± 3.1 ms; p0.95. CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous observations on gastrocnemius medialis, the onset of muscle motion and the onset of myotendinous junction motion occurred simultaneously regardless of the length of the biceps brachii. That suggests that the between-muscles differences reported in the literature cannot be explained by different muscle passive tension but instead may be attributable to muscle architectural differences.

  20. A robust method for evaluation of NANC transmission in human sigmoid colon muscle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, I A; Rennie, J A

    2001-01-01

    Human tissues are notoriously difficult to work with, giving results that are quantitatively variable within and between studies. Hence, previous investigations of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation in human colon muscle report both partial and complete inhibitions of the NANC response by specific competitive inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) production. We have established a robust and reproducible model to examine the contribution of NO during NANC relaxation assay in human sigmoid colon muscle strips. Complete control curves to long-train, stepwise, frequency-dependent, continuous electrical field stimulation (EFS) relaxation using vertical platinum electrodes connected to a biphasic pulse train stimulator generated NANC responses in fresh human sigmoid colon circular muscle strips set up in Bennett baths. A second complete curve was generated on the same strip in the presence of specific drugs to determine the contribution of NO to NANC relaxation. Responses to NO were also generated in muscle strips. Results were fitted to the Hill equation. The first and second frequency-response curves without test drugs could be fitted to the Hill equation, resulting in similar midpoint locations ([f](50)), maximal asymptotes (alpha), and midpoint slope (n) parameters. L-N(G)-nitro-arginine (L-NOARG), TTX, and haemoglobin produced a tonic contraction in the muscle strips. NANC relaxations to EFS were inhibited by L-NOARG (30-37%), TTX (56-62%), and haemoglobin (48-90%). NO relaxations were concentration dependently inhibited by haemoglobin. Haemoglobin was equipotent in mediating tonic contraction and inhibiting NO relaxation. We established reproducible assays for human colon muscle strips by the generation of two complete dose-response curves to long-train EFS, thus enabling a "within-preparations" study. The results suggest that NO contributes but is not the sole mediator of relaxations to long-train EFS in human sigmoid colon muscle. Moreover, a basal

  1. Effect of side dominance on myoelectric manifestations of muscle fatigue in the human upper trapezius muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farina, Dario; Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Merletti, Roberto; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences in the peripheral and control properties of the neuromuscular system due to long-term preferential use, related to side dominance, affect postural muscles, such as the upper trapezius. Therefore, fatigability properties of the upper

  2. Evidence of skeletal muscle damage following electrically stimulated isometric muscle contractions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Bojsen-Moller, Jens; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether muscle damage at the level of the sarcomere can be induced without lengthening contractions. To investigate this, we designed a study where seven young, healthy men underwent 30 min of repeated electrical stimulated contraction of m. gastrocnemius medialis, with the ankle an...

  3. Pharmacological interference of vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy induced by glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró, C; Vallejo, S; Nevado, J; Angulo, J; Llergo, J L; Cercas, E; Rodríguez-Mañas, L; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    1999-12-15

    Nonenzymatically glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin induces vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy by releasing reactive oxygen species. We analysed the ability of drugs with antihypertrophic properties for the vascular wall and/or antioxidant activity, such as captopril, losartan, and nifedipine, or gliclazide, carvedilol, and ascorbic acid, to interfere with 10 nM glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin-induced increase in vascular smooth muscle cell size (118+/-0.5% of basal). Vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy was abolished concentration-dependently, with pD(2) values over a 100-fold interval: 6.4+/-0.3, 7.7+/-0.4, 7.3+/-0.4, 7.4+/-0.6, 8. 8+/-0.2, and 9.0+/-0.2 for captopril, losartan, nifedipine, ascorbic acid, carvedilol and gliclazide, respectively. Drugs with powerful antioxidant properties, especially carvedilol and gliclazide, are particularly effective in preventing glycosylated human oxyhaemoglobin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of mechanical interactions between human lower leg muscles in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Alper; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

    2013-09-01

    Evidence on epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) was shown for undissected muscle in situ. We hypothesize that global length changes of gastrocnemius muscle-tendon complex in vivo will cause sizable and heterogeneous local strains within all muscles of the human lower leg. Our goal is to test this hypothesis. A method was developed and validated using high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance image sets and Demons nonrigid registration algorithm for performing large deformation analyses. Calculation of strain tensors per voxel in human muscles in vivo allowed quantifying local heterogeneous tissue deformations and volume changes. After hip and knee movement (Δ knee angle ≈ 25 deg) but without any ankle movement, local lengthening within m. gastrocnemius was shown to occur simultaneously with local shortening (maximally by +34.2% and -32.6%, respectively) at different locations. Moreover, similar local strains occur also within other muscles, despite being kept at constant muscle-tendon complex length. This is shown for synergistic m. soleus and deep flexors, as well as for antagonistic anterior crural and peroneal muscle groups: minimum peak lengthening and shortening equaled 23.3% and 25.54%, respectively despite global isometric conditions. These findings confirm our hypothesis and show that in vivo, muscles are in principle not independent mechanically.

  5. Gene polymorphisms and fiber-type composition of human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetov, Ildus I; Vinogradova, Olga L; Williams, Alun G

    2012-08-01

    The ability to perform aerobic or anaerobic exercise varies widely among individuals, partially depending on their muscle-fiber composition. Variability in the proportion of skeletal-muscle fiber types may also explain marked differences in aspects of certain chronic disease states including obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. In untrained individuals, the proportion of slow-twitch (Type I) fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle is typically around 50% (range 5-90%), and it is unusual for them to undergo conversion to fast-twitch fibers. It has been suggested that the genetic component for the observed variability in the proportion of Type I fibers in human muscles is on the order of 40-50%, indicating that muscle fiber-type composition is determined by both genotype and environment. This article briefly reviews current progress in the understanding of genetic determinism of fiber-type proportion in human skeletal muscle. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in the calcineurin-NFAT pathway, mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose and lipid metabolism, cytoskeletal function, hypoxia and angiogenesis, and circulatory homeostasis have been associated with fiber-type composition. As muscle is a major contributor to metabolism and physical strength and can readily adapt, it is not surprising that many of these gene variants have been associated with physical performance and athlete status, as well as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic variants associated with fiber-type proportions have important implications for our understanding of muscle function in both health and disease.

  6. Oxidation of urate in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Tullson, P. C.; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    exercise (p 3 min after exercise (p 2.6 mumol.liter-1 at rest and by 5 min.......084 +/- 0.016 mumol.g-1 w.w. (p exercise and then rapidly increased during recovery to reach the resting level within 3 min after exercise. The concentration of allantoin in the muscle increased from a resting value of 0.03 +/- 0.007 to 0.10 +/- 0.014 mumol.g-1 w.w. immediately after......The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether high metabolic stress to skeletal muscle, induced by intensive exercise, would lead to an oxidation of urate to allantoin in the exercised muscle. Seven healthy male subjects performed short term (4.39 +/- 0.04 [+/-SE] min) exhaustive...

  7. Short latency stretch reflex in human lumbar paraspinal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, Jørgen; Hjortskov, Nis; Essendrop, Morten; Schibye, Bente; Fallentin, Niels

    2005-06-30

    The aim of the study was to measure stretch reflex latencies of the lumbar paraspinal muscles. An electromechanical tapping system was constructed enabling an accurate estimation of short latencies by utilizing a new technique combining results for different tapping durations. Latency parameters (onset, peak and zero-crossing of EMG signal) were obtained for the paraspinal muscles at the L3/L4 level for 10 male subjects. Detection of EMG onset, which was determined by a threshold criterion (2.5 S.D. of pre-activity), yielded 7.4+/-1.4 ms corresponding to a physiological short latency onset of 6.5 ms, which is considerably shorter than previously reported. However, it is shown to be consistent with the expected latency value for a monosynaptic stretch reflex for the paraspinal muscles of the low back.

  8. Reduced blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle in ageing humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    consequences of ageing and physical inactivity can be challenging; yet, observations from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effects of physical activity have provided some insight. Physical activity has the potential to offset the age-related decline in blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle...... the O2 demand of the active skeletal muscle of aged individuals during conditions where systemic blood flow is not limited by cardiac output seems to a large extent to be related to the level of physical activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......The ability to sustain a given absolute submaximal workload declines with advancing age likely due to a lower level of blood flow and O2 delivery to the exercising muscles. Given that physical inactivity mimics many of the physiological changes associated with ageing, separating the physiological...

  9. Bilateral Polydactyly in a Nondescript Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 7 day old non-descript female calf was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute-Izatnagar with a history of limping and unusual appearance of hindlimbs from birth. Physical examination revealed additional digit on the metatarsal regions of both the hind limbs. Radiographic examination confirmed the presence of supernumerary digits unaccompanied by any other congenital malformation. It was diagnosed as Polydactyly type IV. Surgical intervention was done to remove the extra digit in both the hind limbs. This clinical article reports the successful management of bilateral polydactyly in a non-descript calf.

  10. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project: a reappraisal of the current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez‐Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida‐Mohien, Ceereena; Fabbri, Elisa; Scalzo, Paul; Højlund, Kurt; Dufresne, Craig; Lyashkov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a risk factor for mortality. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia as well as myopathies are still little understood. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project was initiated with the aim to characterize muscle proteins and how they change with ageing and disease. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and analysed publically available protein databases. A systematic search of peer‐reviewed studies was performed using PubMed. Search terms included ‘human’, ‘skeletal muscle’, ‘proteome’, ‘proteomic(s)’, and ‘mass spectrometry’, ‘liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS)’. A catalogue of 5431 non‐redundant muscle proteins identified by mass spectrometry‐based proteomics from 38 peer‐reviewed scientific publications from 2002 to November 2015 was created. We also developed a nosology system for the classification of muscle proteins based on localization and function. Such inventory of proteins should serve as a useful background reference for future research on changes in muscle proteome assessed by quantitative mass spectrometry‐based proteomic approaches that occur with ageing and diseases. This classification and compilation of the human skeletal muscle proteome can be used for the identification and quantification of proteins in skeletal muscle to discover new mechanisms for sarcopenia and specific muscle diseases that can be targeted for the prevention and treatment. PMID:27897395

  11. Prior knowledge, random walks and human skeletal muscle segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, P Y; Azzabou, N; Carlier, P G; Paragios, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for segmenting the skeletal muscles in MRI automatically. In order to deal with the absence of contrast between the different muscle classes, we proposed a principled mathematical formulation that integrates prior knowledge with a random walks graph-based formulation. Prior knowledge is represented using a statistical shape atlas that once coupled with the random walks segmentation leads to an efficient iterative linear optimization system. We reveal the potential of our approach on a challenging set of real clinical data.

  12. High triacylglycerol turnover rate in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, Massimo; Saltin, Bengt; Olsen, David B

    2004-01-01

    could be due to the observed decline in plasma insulin concentration (-74%, P skeletal muscle in post-absorptive healthy individuals is esterified into IMTAG, due to its high turnover rate (29 h pool(-1)). An increase in FA level...... into IMTAG in vastus lateralis muscle was determined during two consecutive 4-h periods (2-6 h and 6-10 h). Fifty to sixty per cent of the FA taken up from the circulation were esterified into IMTAG, whereas 32 and 42% were oxidized between 2-6 and 6-10 h, respectively. IMTAG fractional synthesis rate was 3...

  13. Norepinephrine spillover from skeletal muscle during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savard, G K; Richter, Erik; Strange, S

    1989-01-01

    -legged knee extension either alone or in combination with the knee extensors of the other leg and/or with the arms. The range of work intensities varied between 24 and 71% (mean) of subjects' maximal aerobic capacity (% VO2max). Leg blood flow, measured in the femoral vein by thermodilution, was determined...... in sympathetic nervous activity to skeletal muscle, either resting or working at a constant load, is not associated with any significant neurogenic vasoconstriction and reduction in flow or conductance through the muscle vascular bed, during whole body exercise demanding up to 71% VO2max....

  14. Acute exercise remodels promoter methylation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrès, Romain; Yan, Jie; Egan, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a covalent biochemical modification controlling chromatin structure and gene expression. Exercise elicits gene expression changes that trigger structural and metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle. We determined whether DNA methylation plays a role in exercise-induced gene...... methylation of PGC-1a, PDK4, and PPAR-d was markedly decreased in mouse soleus muscles 45 min after ex vivo contraction. In L6 myotubes, caffeine exposure induced gene hypomethylation in parallel with an increase in the respective mRNA content. Collectively, our results provide evidence that acute gene...

  15. Electrical stimulation counteracts muscle atrophy associated with aging in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional and structural muscle decline is a major problem during aging. Our goal was to improve in old subjects quadriceps m. force and mobility functional performances (stair test, chair rise test, timed up and go test with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (9 weeks, 2-3times/week, 20-30 minutes per session. Furthermore we performed histological and biological molecular analyses of vastus lateralis m. biopsies. Our findings demonstrate that electrical stimulation significantly improved mobility functional performancies and muscle histological characteristics and molecular markers.

  16. Task-dependent spatial distribution of neural activation pattern in human rectus femoris muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Kouzaki, Motoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2012-04-01

    Compartmentalization of skeletal muscle by multiple motor nerve branches, named as neuromuscular compartment (NMC), has been demonstrated in animals as well as humans. While different functional roles among individual NMCs were reported in the animal studies, no studies have clarified the region-specific functional role within a muscle related with NMCs arrangement in human skeletal muscle. It was reported that the rectus femoris (RF) muscle is innervated by two nerve branches attached at proximal and distal parts of the muscle. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the possible region-specific functional role in the human RF muscle. Multi-channel surface electromyography (SEMG) were recorded from the RF muscle by using 128 electrodes during two different submaximal isometric contractions that the muscle contributes, i.e. isometric knee extension and hip flexion, at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Results indicated that the central locus activation for the amplitude map of SEMG during hip flexion located at more proximal region compared with that during knee extension. Significant higher normalized root mean square (RMS) values were observed at the proximal region during the hip flexion in comparison to those at middle and distal regions at 60% and 80% of MVC (p<0.05). In while, significant higher normalized RMS values were demonstrated at the distal region comparing with that at the proximal region at 80% of MVC (p<0.05). The results of the present study suggest possible region-specific functional role in the human RF muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyruvate carboxylase is expressed in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate thereby allowing supplementation of citric acid cycle intermediates. The presence of PC in skeletal muscle is controversial. We report here, that PC protein is easily detectable by str...

  18. Factors regulating fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Alsted, Thomas Junker; Jeppesen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In modern societies, oversupply of calories leads to obesity and chronic metabolic stress, which may lead to development of disease. Oversupply of calories is often associated with elevated plasma lipid concentrations and accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle leading to decreased insulin sens...

  19. Muscle metaboreflex and autonomic regulation of heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Adlan, Ahmed M; Shantsila, Alena

    2013-01-01

    We elucidated the autonomic mechanisms whereby heart rate (HR) is regulated by the muscle metaboreflex. Eight male participants (22 ± 3 years) performed three exercise protocols: (1) enhanced metaboreflex activation with partial flow restriction (bi-lateral thigh cuff inflation) during leg cycling...

  20. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio de Oliveira Assumpção

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Running economy (RE, defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days, have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max. However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max. Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE.

  1. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE. PMID:23431253

  2. The effect of delayed-onset muscle soreness on stretch reflexes in human low back muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortskov, N; Essendrop, M; Skotte, J; Fallentin, N

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of moderate delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) on the short latency stretch reflex (SLR) and long latency stretch reflex (LLR) response i.e. electromyographic (EMG) onset latencies and EMG amplitudes in erector spinae (ES). Nine males with muscle soreness (DOMS group) were tested 24, 48 h, and 7 days post-exercise. Eight males (control group) were tested likewise. EMG was measured from ES bilaterally at the level of L3/L4. The SLR was elicited by mechanically tapping the ES at L3/L4, and the LLR was elicited by sudden loadings of the spine. Significant reductions in force during maximal voluntary contractions and range of motion, and a significant increase in muscle soreness (measured by pressure algometry) and subjective experience of soreness in the low back indicated DOMS 24, and 48 h post-exercise in the DOMS group. No changes were observed in the control group. The SLR and LLR response were unaffected by DOMS, i.e. no changes in EMG latencies and amplitudes were observed. In conclusion, despite changes in DOMS indicators, the reflex system protecting the stability of the lumbar spine is apparently capable of maintaining an appropriate triggering of SLR and LLR.

  3. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinari Takamura

    2017-07-01

    Interpretation: Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective marker against obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities.

  4. Role of adenosine in regulating the heterogeneity of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Nesterov, Sergey V; Kemppainen, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that adenosine plays a role in the regulation of exercise hyperemia in skeletal muscle. We tested whether adenosine also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow (BF) distribution and heterogeneity among and within quadriceps femoris (QF......) muscles during exercise, measured using positron emission tomography. In six healthy young women, BF was measured at rest and then during three incremental low and moderate intermittent isometric one-legged knee-extension exercise intensities without and with theophylline-induced nonselective adenosine...... and with theophylline (P Adenosine receptor blockade did not have any effect on mean bulk BF or BF heterogeneity among the QF muscles, yet blockade increased within-muscle BF heterogeneity in all four QF muscles (P = 0.03). Taken together, these results show that BF becomes less heterogeneous with increasing...

  5. Physiological and methodological aspects of rate of force development assessment in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports...... requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has been used for strength diagnosis, to monitor the effects of training interventions in both healthy populations and patients, discriminate high-level athletes from those of lower levels, evaluate the impairment in mechanical muscle function after acute...... bouts of eccentric muscle actions and estimate the degree of fatigue and recovery after acute exhausting exercise. Notably, the evaluation of RFD in human skeletal muscle is a complex task as influenced by numerous distinct methodological factors including mode of contraction, type of instruction...

  6. Biomarkers of mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle of healthy young human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Nielsen, Joachim; Neigaard Nielsen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content varies extensively between human subjects. Biochemical measures of mitochondrial proteins, enzyme activities and lipids are often used as markers of mitochondrial content and muscle oxidative capacity (OXPHOS). The purpose of this study was to determine how...... closely associated these commonly used biochemical measures are to muscle mitochondrial content and muscle oxidative capacity (OXPHOS).Sixteen young healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) and muscle......, mitochondrial DNA content, complex I-V protein content, and complex I-IV activity. Spearman correlation coefficient tests and Lin's concordance tests were applied to assess the absolute and relative association between the markers and mitochondrial content or OXPHOS.Subjects had a large range in VO(2peak...

  7. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Bone and Muscle Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Julie; Gregor, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Bone and Muscle Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on October 4-6, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Bone and Muscle Risk SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the Panel's review. The Bone and Muscle Risk SRP consisted of scientists who are experts in muscle, bone, or both and could evaluate the existing evidence with sufficient knowledge of the potential effects of long duration exposure to microgravity. More important, although expertise in basic science is important, the SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the realistic demands placed on the HRP. In short, all tasks presented in the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) should address specific questions related to the challenges faced by the astronauts as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity. All tasks proposed to fill the gaps in knowledge should provide applied, translational data necessary to answer the specific questions. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the panel charge, either as a group or in separate sessions for the Bone and Muscle Risk subgroups. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on October 6, 2009. Taking the evidence and identified risks as givens, the SRP concluded that 1) integration of information should lead to a more comprehensive approach to identifying the gaps, 2) not all tasks addressed the gaps as

  8. Principles of determination and verification of muscle forces in the human musculoskeletal system: Muscle forces to minimise bending stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlova, Nina S; Witzel, Ulrich

    2010-02-10

    While there are a growing number of increasingly complex methodologies available to model geometry and material properties of bones, these models still cannot accurately describe physical behaviour of the skeletal system unless the boundary conditions, especially muscular loading, are correct. Available in vivo measurements of muscle forces are mostly highly invasive and offer no practical way to validate the outcome of any computational model that predicts muscle forces. However, muscle forces can be verified indirectly using the fundamental property of living tissue to functional adaptation and finite element (FE) analysis. Even though the mechanisms of the functional adaptation are not fully understood, its result is clearly seen in the shape and inner structure of bones. The FE method provides a precise tool for analysis of the stress/strain distribution in the bone under given loading conditions. The present work sets principles for the determination of the muscle forces on the basis of the widely accepted view that biological systems are optimized light-weight structures with minimised amount of unloaded/underloaded material and hence evenly distributed loading throughout the structure. Bending loading of bones is avoided/compensated in bones under physiological loading. Thus, bending minimisation provides the basis for the determination of the musculoskeletal system loading. As a result of our approach, the muscle forces for a human femur during normal gait and sitting down (peak hip joint force) are obtained such that the bone is loaded predominantly in compression and the stress distribution in proximal and diaphyseal femur corresponds to the material distribution in bone. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional changes of human quadriceps muscle injured by eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Serrão

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated functional changes of quadriceps muscle after injury induced by eccentric exercise. Maximal isometric torque of quadriceps and the surface electromyography (root mean square, RMS, and median frequency, MDF of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL muscles were examined before, immediately after and during the first 7 days after injury. Serum creatine kinase (CK levels and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used to identify muscle injury. The subject was used as her own control and percent refers to pre-injury data. Experiments were carried out with a sedentary 23-year-old female. Injury was induced by 4 bouts of 15 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions (angular velocity of 5º/s; range of motion from 40º to 110º of knee flexion. The isometric torque of the quadriceps (knee at 90º flexion decreased 52% immediately after eccentric exercise and recovered on the 5th day. The highest reduction of RMS occurred on the 2nd day after injury in both VL (63% and VMO (66% and only VL recovered to the pre-injury level on the 7th day. Immediately after injury, the MDF decreased by 5 and 3% (VMO and VL, respectively and recovered one day later. Serum CK levels increased by 109% on the 2nd day and were still increased by 32% on the 7th day. MRI showed large areas of injury especially in the deep region of quadriceps. In conclusion, eccentric exercise decreased the isometric torque and electromyographic signals of quadriceps muscle, which were recovered in one week, despite the muscle regeneration signals.

  10. Dexamethasone up-regulates skeletal muscle maximal Na+,K+ pump activity by muscle group specific mechanisms in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Goodmann, Craig; McKenna, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Dexamethasone, a widely clinically used glucocorticoid, increases human skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump content, but the effects on maximal Na+,K+ pump activity and subunit specific mRNA are unknown. Ten healthy male subjects ingested dexamethasone for 5 days and the effects on Na+,K+ pump content......, maximal activity and subunit specific mRNA level (a1, a2, ß1, ß2, ß3) in deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle were investigated. Before treatment, maximal Na+,K+ pump activity, as well as a1, a2, ß1 and ß2 mRNA levels were higher (P Dexamethasone treatment...... increased Na+,K+ pump maximal activity in vastus lateralis and deltoid by 14 ± 7% (P dexamethasone resulted in a higher a1, a2, ß1 and ß2 mRNA expression in the deltoid...

  11. Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S.; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  12. Structure-function correlations in the human medial rectus extraocular muscle pulleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J D; Poukens, V; Baker, R S; Demer, J L

    1996-02-01

    Fibroelastic pulleys function like the trochlea to fix the position and pulling direction of the recti extraocular muscles within the orbit. This study characterized the fine structure of the human medial rectus muscle pulley. Human medial rectus muscle pulley tissue was dissected at autopsy, immersed in aldehyde fixative solution, and processed for and examined with light and electron microscopy. Pulley structure were located within posterior Tenon's fascia, closely surrounding the medial rectus muscle. Pulleys were comprised of a dense collagen matrix with alternating bands of collagen fibers precisely arranged at right angles to one another. This three-dimensional organization most likely confers high tensile strength to the pulley. Elastin fibrils were interspersed in the collagen matrix. Fibroblasts and mast cells were scattered throughout the relatively acellular and avascular collagen latticework. Connective tissue and smooth muscle bundles suspended the pulley from the periorbita. Smooth muscle was distributed in small, discrete bundles attached deeply into the dense pulley tissue. Fine structural observations confirm the existence and substantial structure of a pulley system in association with the medial rectus extraocular muscle. The presence of pulleys must be considered in models of the oculomotor plant. The cytoarchitecture and placement of pulleys suggest that they are internally rigid structures and are consistent with the idea that they determine functional origins for the extraocular muscles. However, the nature of the connective tissue-smooth muscle struts suspending the pulley system to the orbit supports the notion that the pulley position, and thus the vector force of the eye muscles, may be adjustable.

  13. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  14. Fatigue-related adaptations in muscle coordination during a cyclic exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Nicolas A; Guével, Arnaud; Durand, Sylvain; Hug, François

    2011-10-01

    Muscle fatigue is an exercise-induced reduction in the capability of a muscle to generate force. A possible strategy to counteract the effects of fatigue is to modify muscle coordination. We designed this study to quantify the effect of fatigue on muscle coordination during a cyclic exercise involving numerous muscles. Nine human subjects were tested during a constant-load rowing exercise (mean power output: 217.9±32.4 W) performed until task failure. The forces exerted at the handle and the foot-stretcher were measured continuously and were synchronized with surface electromyographic (EMG) signals measured in 23 muscles. In addition to a classical analysis of individual EMG data (EMG profile and EMG activity level), a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm was used to identify the muscle synergies at the start and the end of the test. Among the 23 muscles tested, 16 showed no change in their mean activity level across the rowing cycle, five (biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, semitendinosus, trapezius medius and vastus medialis) showed a significant increase and two (gastrocnemius lateralis and longissimus) showed a significant decrease. We found no change in the number of synergies during the fatiguing test, i.e. three synergies accounted for more than 90% of variance accounted for at the start (92.4±1.5%) and at the end (91.0±1.8%) of the exercise. Very slight modifications at the level of individual EMG profiles, synergy activation coefficients and muscle synergy vectors were observed. These results suggest that fatigue during a cyclic task preferentially induces an adaptation in muscle activity level rather than changes in the modular organization of the muscle coordination.

  15. Interstitial and plasma adenosine stimulate nitric oxide and prostacyclin formation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Thaning, Pia

    2010-01-01

    One major unresolved issue in muscle blood flow regulation is that of the role of circulating versus interstitial vasodilatory compounds. The present study determined adenosine-induced formation of NO and prostacyclin in the human muscle interstitium versus in femoral venous plasma to elucidate....... In young healthy humans, microdialysate was collected at rest, during arterial infusion of adenosine, and during interstitial infusion of adenosine through microdialysis probes inserted into musculus vastus lateralis. Muscle interstitial NO and prostacyclin increased with arterial and interstitial infusion...... of adenosine. The addition of adenosine to skeletal muscle cells increased NO formation (fluorochrome 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7-difluorescein fluorescence), whereas prostacyclin levels remained unchanged. The addition of adenosine to microvascular endothelial cells induced an increase in NO and prostacyclin...

  16. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1a transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two......-fold; P trained leg. The present data demonstrate that exercise induces a dramatic transient increase in PGC-1a transcription and mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional coactivator...

  17. Plasticity and function of human skeletal muscle in relation to disuse and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    gains in myofibre area, in parallel with smaller increases in satellite cell number despite no age-related differences were observed in factors known to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myogenic stem cell proliferation (IGF-Ea, MGF, MyoD, myogenin, HGF). Moreover, an age-specific regulation......In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days...... characteristics than their young counterparts. Moreover, we showed that the initiation and regulation of human skeletal muscle atrophy with short-term disuse is age-dependant. Based on the present experiments it can be concluded that a multitude of signalling pathways related to both muscle atrophy and protein...

  18. Unaffected contractility of diaphragm muscle fibers in humans on mechanical ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijman, Pleuni E.; Paul, Marinus A.; Stienen, Ger J. M.; Beishuizen, Albertus; Van Hees, Hieronymus W. H.; Singhal, Sunil; Bashir, Muhammad; Budak, Murat T.; Morgen, Jacqueline; Barsotti, Robert J.; Levine, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that diaphragm dysfunction develops in patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the contractility of sarcomeres, i.e., the smallest contractile unit in muscle, is affected in humans on MV. To this end, we compared diaphragm muscle fibers of nine brain-dead organ donors (cases) that had been on MV for 26 ± 5 h with diaphragm muscle fibers from nine patients (controls) undergoing surgery for lung cancer that had been on MV for less than 2 h. In each diaphragm specimen we determined 1) muscle fiber cross-sectional area in cryosections by immunohistochemical methods and 2) the contractile performance of permeabilized single muscle fibers by means of maximum specific force, kinetics of cross-bridge cycling by rate of tension redevelopment, myosin heavy chain content and concentration, and calcium sensitivity of force of slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers. In case subjects, we noted no statistically significant decrease in outcomes compared with controls in slow-twitch or fast-twitch muscle fibers. These observations indicate that 26 h of MV of humans is not invariably associated with changes in the contractile performance of sarcomeres in the diaphragm. PMID:25038190

  19. Nitric oxide synthase in human skeletal muscles related to defined fibre types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punkt, Karla; Fritzsche, Matthias; Stockmar, Christoph; Hepp, Pierre; Josten, Christoph; Wellner, Maren; Schering, Stefan; Buchwalow, Igor B

    2006-05-01

    Skeletal muscle functions regulated by NO are now firmly established. However, the knowledge about the NO synthase (NOS) expression related to a defined fibre type in human skeletal muscles necessitates further clarification. To address this issue, we examined localization of NOS isoforms I, II and III, in human skeletal muscles employing immunocytochemical labeling with tyramide signal amplification complemented with enzyme histochemistry and Western blotting. The NOS immunoreactivity was related to fibre types of different classification systems: physiological classification into slow and fast, ATPase classification into I, IIA, IIAX, IIX, and physiological-metabolic classification into slow-oxidative (SO), fast-oxidative glycolytic (FOG) and fast-glycolytic (FG). We found a correlation of NOS I-III immunoreactivity to metabolic defined fibre types with strong expression in FOG fibres. This implies that NO as modulator of muscle function is involved in oxidative metabolism in connection with fast force development, which only occurs in FOG fibres. The NOS expression showed no correlation to ATPase fibre subtypes due to the metabolic heterogeneity of ATPase fibre types. Healthy and affected vastus medialis muscles after anterior cruciate ligament rupture revealed similar NOS expression level as shown by Western blotting with, however, different expression patterns related to the fibre types in affected muscles. This suggests an altered modulation of force development in the fibres of diseased muscles.

  20. Investigation of glycosylation processes in mitochondria and microsomal membranes from human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasnier, F; Lerme, F; Rousson, R; Roussouly, P; Vaganay, E; Louisot, P; Gateau-Roesch, O

    1991-05-31

    Glycoconjugates are directly involved in major skeletal muscle functions. As little is known about glycosylation processes in muscle, we investigated glycoconjugate synthesis in subcellular fractions from human skeletal muscle tissue. Mitochondria and microsomal membranes were prepared from muscle biopsies by thorough mechanical disruption and differential centrifugations. This procedure resulted in the isolation of intact mitochondria (1 mg protein/g muscle) and of a microsomal fraction (1.5 mg protein/g muscle). Glycosyltransferases were studied in both subcellular fractions using either dolichylmonophosphate as a polyprenic acceptor or chemically modified fetuin as a glycoprotein substrate. Our results provide evidence for high rates of glycosylation in muscle. The highest activities were obtained with GDP-mannose: dilichylmonophosphate mannosyltransferase, a key enzyme in glycosylation process (220 pmol/mg per h in mitochondria and 1,550 pmol/mg per h in microsomal membranes). Substantial individual variations were observed for dolichol pathway glycosyltransferases but low individual variations were found for glycosyltransferases involved in maturation of glycoproteins. The role which glycosylation defects may play in muscle dysfunction has yet to be defined.

  1. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Hayano, Junichiro; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Mano, Tadaaki

    2004-05-01

    Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied muscles remain unknown. We hypothesized that bed rest would augment sympathetic responses to isometric exercise using antigravity leg muscles in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers were subjected to 14-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Before and after bed rest, they performed isometric exercises using leg (plantar flexion) and forearm (handgrip) muscles, followed by 2-min postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) that continues to stimulate the muscle metaboreflex. These exercises were sustained to fatigue. We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the contralateral resting leg by microneurography. In both pre- and post-bed-rest exercise tests, exercise intensities were set at 30 and 70% of the maximum voluntary force measured before bed rest. Bed rest attenuated the increase in MSNA in response to fatiguing plantar flexion by approximately 70% at both exercise intensities (both P antigravity leg muscles.

  2. Role of the bulbocavernosus muscles on the mechanism of human erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wespes, E; Nogueira, M C; Herbaut, A G; Caufriez, M; Schulman, C C

    1990-01-01

    The role of the human bulbocavernosus muscles on the intracavernous pressure and on the venous return were investigated during artificial erection. Contractions of these muscles were voluntary or produced by dorsal nerve stimulation. During such contractions, elevations in intracavernous pressure and a decrease in the erectile flow rates to produce and to maintain the erection were observed. These results demonstrate involvement of the bulbocavernosus muscles in the process of penile rigidity and suggest that they could participate in the mechanism of rigidity during intercourse.

  3. Effect of extracellular vesicles of human adipose tissue on insulin signaling in liver and muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Mariëtte E G; Visseren, Frank L J; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; de Jager, Wilco; Wauben, Marca H M; Kalkhoven, Eric; Nolte - t Hoen, Esther

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is a key mechanism in obesity-induced cardiovascular disease. To unravel mechanisms whereby human adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic IR, the effect of human AT-extracellular vesicles (EVs) on insulin signaling in liver and muscle cells was determined.

  4. Simultaneous 31P NMR spectroscopy and EMG in exercising and recovering human skeletal muscle: technical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Thomsen, C; Sinkjaer, T

    1994-01-01

    The bioenergetics of human skeletal muscle can be studied by 31P NMR spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and by surface electromyography (SEMG). Simultaneous 31P-MRS and SEMG permit accurate and noninvasive studies of the correlation between metabolic and electrical changes in exercising and recovering human ...

  5. Exercise induces expression of leukaemia inhibitory factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Christa; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Nielsen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    human skeletal myocytes. Treatment of myocytes with the Ca(2+) ionophore, ionomycin, for 6 h resulted in an increase in both LIF mRNA and LIF protein levels. This finding suggests that Ca(2+) may be involved in the regulation of LIF in endurance-exercised skeletal muscle. In conclusion, primary human...

  6. Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle following high-altitude exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Wright-Paradis, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding mitochondrial modifications in human skeletal muscle following acclimatization to high altitude are conflicting, and these inconsistencies may be due to the prevalence of representing mitochondrial function through static and isolated measurements of specific mitochondrial......-11 days of exposure to 4559 m. High-resolution respirometry was performed on the muscle samples to compare respiratory chain function and respiratory capacities. Respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondrial function was largely unaffected, because high-altitude exposure did not affect the capacity...

  7. Enhanced procollagen processing in skeletal muscle after a single bout of eccentric loading in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Teisner, Børge

    2004-01-01

    young healthy male subjects performed a single bout of unaccustomed high intensity eccentric exercise on one leg, with the contralateral leg being the control. A significant increase in the muscle interstitial concentration of the N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PINP) was observed (day 0: 1...... mechanical load and inflammation. This study shows that following a single bout of high intensity eccentric exercise there is an increase in procollagen processing within skeletal muscle in humans....

  8. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Saltin, Bengt

    1988-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass in glucoregulation, six subjects worked with the knee extensors of one leg on a specially constructed cycle ergometer. The knee extensors of one leg worked either alone or in combination with the knee extensors of the other leg and/or with the arms. Substrate usage...... was measured across both knee extensors by femoral arterial and venous catheterization and measurement of femoral venous blood flow. Glucose uptake by the working knee extensors was absolutely (by approximately 20%) or relatively decreased when arm cranking was added to knee extensions. The decrease in glucose...... uptake was not compensated for by increased uptake of free fatty acids but was accompanied by decreases in plasma insulin and increases in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine. During work with large muscle masses, arterial lactate increased to approximately 6 mM, and net leg lactate release reverted...

  9. Sarcoglycan subcomplex expression in normal human smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Sidoti, Antonina; Rinaldi, Carmen; Bruschetta, Daniele; Rizzo, Giuseppina; D'Angelo, Rosalia; Tarone, Guido; Amato, Aldo; Favaloro, Angelo

    2007-08-01

    The sarcoglycan complex (SGC) is a multimember transmembrane complex interacting with other members of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) to provide a mechanosignaling connection from the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. The SGC consists of four proteins (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta). A fifth sarcoglycan subunit, epsilon-sarcoglycan, shows a wider tissue distribution. Recently, a novel sarcoglycan, the zeta-sarcoglycan, has been identified. All reports about the structure of SGC showed a common assumption of a tetrameric arrangement of sarcoglycans. Addressing this issue, our immunofluorescence and molecular results showed, for the first time, that all sarcoglycans are always detectable in all observed samples. Therefore, one intriguing possibility is the existence of a pentameric or hexameric complex considering zeta-sarcoglycan of SGC, which could present a higher or lower expression of a single sarcoglycan in conformity with muscle type--skeletal, cardiac, or smooth--or also in conformity with the origin of smooth muscle.

  10. Human skeletal muscle ceramide content is not a major factor in muscle insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, M; Baranowski, M; Skov-Jensen, C

    2008-01-01

    : The middle-aged male participants (n=33) were matched for lean body mass and divided into four groups: type 2 diabetes (T2D, n=8), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n=9), healthy controls (CON, n=8) and endurance-trained (TR, n=8). A two step (28 and 80 mU m(-2) min(-1)) sequential euglycaemic......-hyperinsulinaemic clamp was performed for 120 and 90 min for step 1 and step 2, respectively. Muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis at baseline, and after steps 1 and 2. RESULTS: Glucose infusion rates increased in response to insulin infusion, and significant differences were present between groups (T2D...

  11. Feedback-controlled stimulation enhances human paralyzed muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Richard K; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Cole, Keith R

    2006-11-01

    Chronically paralyzed muscle requires extensive training before it can deliver a therapeutic dose of repetitive stress to the musculoskeletal system. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation, under feedback control, may subvert the effects of fatigue, yielding more rapid and extensive adaptations to training. The purposes of this investigation were to 1) compare the effectiveness of torque feedback-controlled (FDBCK) electrical stimulation with classic open-loop constant-frequency (CONST) stimulation, and 2) ascertain which of three stimulation strategies best maintains soleus torque during repetitive stimulation. When torque declined by 10%, the FDBCK protocol modulated the base stimulation frequency in three ways: by a fixed increase, by a paired pulse (doublet) at the beginning of the stimulation train, and by a fixed decrease. The stimulation strategy that most effectively restored torque continued for successive contractions. This process repeated each time torque declined by 10%. In fresh muscle, FDBCK stimulation offered minimal advantage in maintaining peak torque or mean torque over CONST stimulation. As long-duration fatigue developed in subsequent bouts, FDBCK stimulation became most effective ( approximately 40% higher final normalized torque than CONST). The high-frequency strategy was selected approximately 90% of the time, supporting that excitation-contraction coupling compromise and not neuromuscular transmission failure contributed to fatigue of paralyzed muscle. Ideal stimulation strategies may vary according to the site of fatigue; this stimulation approach offered the advantage of online modulation of stimulation strategies in response to fatigue conditions. Based on stress-adaptation principles, FDBCK-controlled stimulation may enhance training effects in chronically paralyzed muscle.

  12. Feedback-controlled stimulation enhances human paralyzed muscle performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Richard K.; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Cole, Keith R.

    2006-01-01

    Chronically paralyzed muscle requires extensive training before it can deliver a therapeutic dose of repetitive stress to the musculoskeletal system. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation, under feedback control, may subvert the effects of fatigue, yielding more rapid and extensive adaptations to training. The purposes of this investigation were to 1) compare the effectiveness of torque feedback-controlled (FDBCK) electrical stimulation with classic open-loop constant-frequency (CONST) stimula...

  13. Experimental model of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Regadas, Rommel P.; Maria E. A. Moraes; Mesquita,Francisco J. C.; Joao B. G. Cerqueira; Gonzaga-Silva,Lucio F.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a technique for en bloc harvesting of the corpus cavernosum, cavernous artery and urethra from transplant organ donors and contraction-relaxation experiments with corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The corpus cavernosum was dissected to the point of attachment with the crus penis. A 3 cm segment (corpus cavernosum and urethra) was isolated and placed in ice-cold sterile transportation buffer. Under magnification, the cavernous artery was dissected. Th...

  14. Calf exercise-induced vasodilation is blunted in healthy older adults with increased walking performance fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Defferari, Elizabeth; Fisher, Amy; Shephard, Jordan; Proctor, David N

    2014-09-01

    Vascular aging as measured by central arterial stiffness contributes to slow walking speed in older adults, but the impact of age-related changes in peripheral vascular function on walking performance is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calf muscle-specific vasodilator responses are associated with walking performance fatigue in healthy older adults. Forty-five older (60-78yrs) adults performed a fast-paced 400m walk test. Twelve of these adults exhibited fatigue as defined by slowing of walking speed (≥0.02m/s) measured during the first and last 100m segments of the 400m test. Peak calf vascular conductance was measured following 10min of arterial occlusion using strain-gauge plethysmography. Superficial femoral artery (SFA) vascular conductance response to graded plantar-flexion exercise was measured using Doppler ultrasound. No difference was found for peak calf vascular conductance between adults that slowed walking speed and those that maintained walking speed (p>0.05); however, older adults that slowed walking speed had a lower SFA vascular conductance response to calf exercise (at highest workload: slowed group, 2.4±0.9 vs. maintained group, 3.6±0.9ml/kg/min/mmHg; pcalf exercise hemodynamics are associated with walking performance fatigability in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied. In present study, human skeletal muscle cultured in a standard osteogenic medium supplemented with dexamethasone demonstrated significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity approximately 24-fold over control at 2-week time point. More interestingly, measurement of mRNA levels revealed the dramatic results for osteoblast transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoproteins, transcription factor CBFA1, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Calcified mineral deposits were demonstrated on superficial layers of muscle discs after an extended 8-week osteogenic induction. Taken together, these are the first data supporting human skeletal muscle tissue as a promising potential target for expedited bone regeneration, which of the technologies is a valuable method for tissue repair, being not only effective but also inexpensive and clinically expeditious.

  16. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chunlei; Zhou, Lulu; Tian, Lufeng; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fanghong; Liu, Tianyi; Tang, Shengjian; Liu, Fangjun

    2017-01-01

    Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied. In present study, human skeletal muscle cultured in a standard osteogenic medium supplemented with dexamethasone demonstrated significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity approximately 24-fold over control at 2-week time point. More interestingly, measurement of mRNA levels revealed the dramatic results for osteoblast transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoproteins, transcription factor CBFA1, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Calcified mineral deposits were demonstrated on superficial layers of muscle discs after an extended 8-week osteogenic induction. Taken together, these are the first data supporting human skeletal muscle tissue as a promising potential target for expedited bone regeneration, which of the technologies is a valuable method for tissue repair, being not only effective but also inexpensive and clinically expeditious.

  17. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  18. Light- and electron microscopical studies of interstitial cells of Cajal and muscle cells at the submucosal border of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Peters, S; Thuneberg, L

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) at the submucosal border of the colonic circular muscle are pacemaker cells. We studied smooth muscle cells and ICC at the submucosal surface of the circular muscle layer of the normal human colon....

  19. Denervated muscles in humans: limitations and problems of currently used functional electrical stimulation training protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Helmut; Hofer, Christian; Mödlin, Michaela; Forstner, Claudia; Raschka-Högler, Doris; Mayr, Winfried; Stöhr, Hans

    2002-03-01

    Prior clinical work showed that electrical stimulation therapy with exponential current is able to slow down atrophy and maintain the muscle during nonpermanent flaccid paralysis. However, exponential currents are not sufficient for long-term therapy of denervated degenerated muscles (DDMs). We initiated a European research project investigating the rehabilitation strategies in humans, but also studying the underlying basic scientific knowledge of muscle regeneration from satellite cells or myoblast activity in animal experiments. In our prior study, we were able to show that high-intensity stimulation of DDMs is possible. At the beginning of training, only single muscle twitches can be elicited by biphasic pulses with durations of 120-150 ms. Later, tetanic contraction of the muscle with special stimulation parameters (pulse duration of 30-50 ms, stimulation frequency of 16-25 Hz, pulse amplitudes of up to 250 mA) can improve the structural and metabolic state of the DDMs. Because there are no nerve endings for conduction of stimuli, large-size, anatomically shaped electrodes are used. This ensures an even contraction of the whole muscle. Contrary to the current clinical knowledge, we were able to stimulate and train denervated muscle 15-20 years after denervation. The estimated amount of muscle fibers that have to be restored is about 2-4 million fibers in each m. quadriceps. To rebuild such a large number of muscle fibers takes up to 3-4 years. Despite constant stimulation parameters and training protocols, there is a high variation in the developed contraction force and fatigue resistance of the muscle during the first years of functional electrical stimulation.

  20. Short-latency crossed responses in the human biceps femoris muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew J T; Kamavuako, Ernest N; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2015-01-01

    Interlimb reflexes contribute to the central neural coordination between different limbs in both humans and animals. Although commissural interneurons have only been directly identified in animals, spinally mediated interlimb reflexes have been discovered in a number of human lower limb muscles......, indicating their existence in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether short-latency crossed-spinal reflexes are present in the contralateral biceps femoris (cBF) muscle following ipsilateral knee (iKnee) joint rotations during a sitting task, where participants maintained a slight pre...... fast for a transcortical pathway to contribute. The cBF inhibitory and facilitatory reflexes followed the automatic gain control principle, with the size of the response increasing as the level of background pre-contraction in the cBF muscle increased. In addition to the surface EMG, both short...

  1. Expression profiles of muscle disease-associated genes and their isoforms during differentiation of cultured human skeletal muscle cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdul-Hussein, Saba; van der Ven, Peter F M; Tajsharghi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    .... It is likely that elucidation of the expression patterns of muscle-specific sarcomeric proteins is important to understand muscle disorders originating from defects in contractile sarcomeric proteins...

  2. Ageing is associated with diminished muscle re-growth and myogenic precursor cell expansion early after immobility-induced atrophy in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C.; Frandsen, Ulrik; Mackey, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of skeletal muscle mass from immobilisation-induced atrophy is faster in young than older individuals, yet the cellular mechanisms remain unknown. We examined the cellular and molecular regulation of muscle recovery in young and old human subjects subsequent to 2 weeks of immobility...... expression analysis of key growth and transcription factors associated with local skeletal muscle milieu were performed after 2 weeks immobility (Imm) and following 3 days (+3d) and 4 weeks (+4wks) of re-training. OM demonstrated no detectable gains in MFA (VL muscle) and no increases in number of Pax7......-induced muscle atrophy. Re-training consisted of 4 weeks of supervised resistive exercise in 9 older (OM: 67.3yrs, range 61-74) and 11 young (YM: 24.4yrs, range 21-30) males. Measures of myofiber area (MFA), Pax7-positive satellite cells (SC) associated with type I and type II muscle fibres, as well as gene...

  3. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  4. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  5. Comparison of pelvic muscle architecture between humans and commonly used laboratory species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Marianna; Tuttle, Lori J.; Conner, Blair R.; Dixon, Danielle M.; Mathewson, Margie A.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Pelvic floor muscles (PFM) are deleteriously affected by vaginal birth, which contributes to the development of pelvic floor disorders. To mechanistically link these events, experiments using animal models are required, as access to human PFM tissue is challenging. In choosing an animal model, a comparative study of PFM design is necessary, since gross anatomy alone is insufficient to guide the selection. Methods Human PFM architecture was measured using micromechanical dissection and then compared with mouse (n=10), rat (n=10), and rabbit (n=10) using the Architectural Difference Index (ADI) (parameterizing a combined measure of sarcomere length-to-optimal-sarcomere ratio, fiber-to-muscle-length ratio, and fraction of total PFM mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) contributed by each muscle). Coccygeus (C), iliocaudalis (IC), and pubocaudalis (PC) were harvested and subjected to architectural measurements. Parameters within species were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's tests. The scaling relationships of PFM across species were quantified using least-squares regression of log-10-transformed variables. Results Based on the ADI, rat was found to be the most similar to humans (ADI = 2.5), followed by mouse (ADI = 3.3). When animals' body mass was regressed against muscle mass, muscle length, fiber length, and PCSA scaling coefficients showed a negative allometric relationship or smaller increase than predicted by geometric scaling. Conclusion In terms of muscle design among commonly used laboratory animals, rat best approximates the human PFM, followed by mouse. Negative allometric scaling of PFM architectural parameters is likely due to the multifaceted function of these muscles. PMID:24915840

  6. Human skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptors (Na,K-ATPase)--importance during digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T A; Holm-Nielsen, P; Kjeldsen, K

    1993-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate in humans the putative importance of skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptors (Na,K-ATPase) in the volume of distribution of digoxin and to assess whether therapeutic digoxin exposure might cause digitalis receptor upregulation in skeletal muscle. Samples of the vastus lateralis were obtained postmortem from 11 long-term (9 months to 9 years) digitalized (125-187.5 micrograms daily) and eight undigitalized subjects. In intact samples from digitalized patients, vanadate-facilitated 3H-ouabain binding increased 15% (p 0.30) before and after washing in specific digoxin antibody fragments, respectively. Thus, the present study indicates a approximately 13% occupancy of skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptors with digoxin during digitalization. In light of the large skeletal muscle contribution to body mass, this indicates that the skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase pool constitutes a major volume of distribution for digoxin during digitalization. The results gave no indication of skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptor upregulation in response to digoxin treatment. On the contrary, there was evidence of significantly lower (37%, p digitalized patients, which may be of importance for skeletal muscle incapacity in heart failure.

  7. Passive mechanical features of single fibers from human muscle biopsies – effects of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runesson Eva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of storage of human muscle biopsies on passive mechanical properties. Methods Stress-strain analysis accompanied by laser diffraction assisted sarcomere length measurement was performed on single muscle fibres from fresh samples and compared with single fibres from stored samples (-20°C, 4 weeks with the same origin as the corresponding fresh sample. Basic morphological analysis, including cross sectional area (CSA measurement, fibre diameter measurement, fibre occupancy calculation and overall morphology evaluation was done. Results Statistical analysis of tangent values in stress-strain curves, corresponding to the elastic modulus of single muscle fibres, did not differ when comparing fresh and stored samples from the same type of muscle. Regardless of the preparation procedure, no significant differences were found, neither in fibre diameter nor the relation between muscle fibres and extra-cellular matrix measured under light microscopy. Conclusion We conclude that muscle fibre structure and mechanics are relatively insensitive to the storage procedures used and that the different preparations are interchangeable without affecting passive mechanical properties. This provides a mobility of the method when harvesting muscle biopsies away from the laboratory.

  8. Candesartan acutely recruits skeletal and cardiac muscle microvasculature in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Matthew A; Liu, Jia; Jahn, Linda A; Fowler, Dale E; Chai, Weidong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2012-07-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) tone restricts muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV) and decreases muscle insulin delivery and glucose use. The objective of the study was to examine whether acute AT(1)R blockade alters microvascular perfusion in skeletal and cardiac muscle in humans. The study was conducted at the General Clinical Research Center at the University of Virginia. Eight overnight-fasted healthy young adults were studied thrice in random order. In study 1, each subject received candesartan (32 mg) orally at time 0. In study 2, each subject received placebo at time 0 and a 1 mU/min · kg euglycemic insulin clamp from time 240 to 360 min. In study 3, each subject received candesartan (32 mg) orally at time 0 and insulin infusion from 240 to 360 min. Forearm skeletal and cardiac muscle MBV, microvascular flow velocity, and microvascular blood flow (MBF) were determined at baseline and at 240 and 360 min. Candesartan treatment acutely recruited microvasculature in both skeletal and cardiac muscle by significantly increasing MBV (P candesartan ingestion did not further recruit microvasculature. Insulin-mediated whole-body glucose disposal did not differ with or without candesartan pretreatment. Acute AT(1)R blockade with candesartan recruits skeletal as well as cardiac muscle microvasculature in healthy humans without altering insulin-mediated whole-body glucose disposal. This may contribute to the observed improvement in the cardiovascular outcomes in patients receiving prolonged treatment with AT(1)R blockers.

  9. Ammonia uptake in inactive muscles during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    (part III). The arterial plasma NH3 concentration was 79.6 +/- 9.6 (SE) mumol/l at rest and 88.1 +/- 9.1, 98.1 +/- 8.1, and 210.2 +/- 7.5 mumol/l after 10 min of exercise in parts I, II, and III, respectively. The corresponding NH3 uptakes in the resting leg were 3.3 +/- 1.3 (rest), 7.8 +/- 1.5, 14......The present study examined NH3 (ammonia and ammonium) uptake in resting leg muscle. Six male subjects performed intermittent arm exercise at various intensities in two separate 32-min periods (part I and part II) and in one subsequent 20-min period in which one-legged exercise was also performed.......0 +/- 4.5, and 57.7 +/- 18.3 mumol/min. Throughout each exercise period a net uptake of NH3 was observed in the resting leg (P exercise. The muscle NH3 concentration of 195.1 +/- 15.0 mumol/kg wet wt at rest was largely...

  10. Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant...... increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined...

  11. Repeated static contractions increase mitochondrial vulnerability toward oxidative stress in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Mogensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    +) kinetics in human muscle. Ten male subjects performed five bouts of static knee extension with 10-min rest in between. Each bout of RSC (target torque 66% of maximal voluntary contraction torque) was maintained to fatigue. Muscle biopsies were taken preexercise and 0.3 and 24 h postexercise from vastus......Repeated static contractions (RSC) induce large fluctuations in tissue oxygen tension and increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the effect of RSC on muscle contractility, mitochondrial respiratory function, and in vitro sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2......, decreased mitochondrial efficiency (phosphorylated ADP-to-oxygen consumed ratio), and increased noncoupled respiration (HPX/Con post- vs. preexercise). SR Ca(2+) uptake rate was lower 0.3 vs. 24 h postexercise, whereas SR Ca(2+) release rate was unchanged. RSC resulted in long-lasting changes in muscle...

  12. Reflexes in the shoulder muscles elicited from the human coracoacromial ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Nørregaard, Jesper; Krogsgaard, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Morphological studies have demonstrated mechanoreceptors in the capsuloligamentous structures of the shoulder joint, however knowledge of the role these joint receptors play in the control of shoulder stability is limited. We therefore investigated the effect of electrically induced afferent acti...... of this synaptic connection between mechanoreceptors in CAL and the shoulder muscles suggest a role of these receptors in muscle coordination and in the functional joint stability....... activity from mechanoreceptors in the coracoacromial ligament (CAL) on the activity of voluntary activated shoulder muscles in healthy humans. In study I, wire electrodes, for electrical stimulation, were inserted into the CAL in eight normal shoulders. In study II, a needle electrode was inserted...... into the CAL in seven normal shoulders. Electric activity was recorded from eight shoulder muscles by surface and intramuscular electrodes. During isometric contractions, electrical stimulation was applied to the CAL at two different stimulus intensities, a weak stimulus (stim-1) and a stronger stimulus (stim...

  13. T-tubule biogenesis and triad formation in skeletal muscle and implication in human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Qusairi Lama

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In skeletal muscle, the excitation-contraction (EC coupling machinery mediates the translation of the action potential transmitted by the nerve into intracellular calcium release and muscle contraction. EC coupling requires a highly specialized membranous structure, the triad, composed of a central T-tubule surrounded by two terminal cisternae from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. While several proteins located on these structures have been identified, mechanisms governing T-tubule biogenesis and triad formation remain largely unknown. Here, we provide a description of triad structure and plasticity and review the role of proteins that have been linked to T-tubule biogenesis and triad formation and/or maintenance specifically in skeletal muscle: caveolin 3, amphiphysin 2, dysferlin, mitsugumins, junctophilins, myotubularin, ryanodine receptor, and dihydhropyridine Receptor. The importance of these proteins in triad biogenesis and subsequently in muscle contraction is sustained by studies on animal models and by the direct implication of most of these proteins in human myopathies.

  14. Sarcoglycan subcomplex in normal human smooth muscle: an immunohistochemical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Sidoti, Antonina; Santoro, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Rosalia; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Rinaldi, Carmen; Giacobbe, Oddone; Bramanti, Placido; Navarra, Giuseppe; Amato, Aldo; Favaloro, Angelo

    2005-09-01

    The sarcoglycans are transmembrane components of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, which links the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix in adult muscle fibers. Sarcoglycans seem to be functionally and pathologically as important as dystrophin. In the skeletal and cardiac muscle, the sarcoglycan subcomplex is a heterotetrameric unit composed of the transmembrane glycoproteins alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-sarcoglycan. A fifth sarcoglycan with significant homology to alpha-sarcoglycan, epsilon-sarcoglycan, has been identified; this sarcoglycan is expressed in both muscle and non-muscle cells. It is hypothesized that epsilon-sarcoglycan might replace alpha-sarcoglycan in smooth muscle, forming a novel sarcoglycan subcomplex consisting of epsilon-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-sarcoglycan. Recently, zeta-sarcoglycan, a novel sarcoglycan highly related to gamma-sarcoglycan and delta-sarcoglycan, has been identified. On this basis, growing evidence suggests that there are two types of sarcoglycan complex; one, in skeletal and cardiac muscle, consisting of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-sarcoglycan; and the other, in smooth muscle, containing beta-, delta-, zeta- and epsilon-sarcoglycan. epsilon-sarcoglycan may be substituted for alpha-sarcoglycan in a subset of striated muscle complexes. Our results, obtained with immunofluorescence semi-quantitative analysis and molecular methods on smooth muscle biopsies of human adult gastroenteric tract, show for the first time that alpha-sarcoglycan fluorescence is also always detectable in smooth muscle, although its staining pattern is lower than epsilon-sarcoglycan. Normal alpha-sarcoglycan staining was detected at times, whereas there was reduced, but clearly detectable staining for epsilon-sarcoglycan. Moreover, gamma-sarcoglycan staining is always detectable in all analyzed biopsies. On the basis of our results, we would be able to hypothesize the existence of a pentameric or, considering zeta-sarcolgycan, a hexameric

  15. Comparison of collagen profile and tenderness of muscles from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare slaughter value, collagen profile, shear force and sensory quality of muscles originating from carcasses of heifers and single-calf cows of Polish Holstein-Friesian x Limousine crossbreds. Eight heifers (540 days old) and eight single-calf cows (836 days old), which were produced in a ...

  16. Sports kinesiology: Diagnostic and therapeutical aspects of human resting muscle tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasovski Duško

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and clinical muscle analysis has revealed that even in the absence of bioelectrical and motor activity, skeletal muscles have certain basic level of tension. This is called Human Resting Muscle Tone (HRMT. It results from viscoelasticity of connective tissue, titin action in muscle fibers and the trixotrophy of muscle tissue (nonlinear relation between muscle viscosity and shear force and in Hill's muscle model it is represented by parallel elastic component. HRMT is a source of significant force across the musculoskeletal system, exerting an average pressure on growth cartilages larger than 0.3MPa, for more than 96,53% of time and participating in the development of orthopedic deformities. The intensity of HRMT is under the influence of many factors: emotional, constitutional, reflex activity, physical activity, skeletal growth and other. Direct measurement of HRMT by NMR, US elastography, EMG analysis, mechanomiography or myotonometry is complicated and expensive, therefore it is reserved mostly for scientific investigation. Clinical assessment of HRMT can be done by reverse engineering approach: the analysis of consequences. CoreFitMax method provides an analysis of postural data (43 static and 40 dynamic, using a discrete finite element analysis algorithm to calculate relative HRMT levels of 62 major muscles important for posture and locomotion. CoreFitMax algorithm uses myofascial, chains-based, kinesiological analysis. Results contribute to establishing an etiological diagnosis of structural and functional deformity of the human body. Restitution of adequate HRMT improves muscular balance and posture. It can be achieved by exercise, physical therapy and rehabilitation, using immobilization or medication, or even by surgical procedures. Biomechanical integration of connective tissue into myofascial chains brings HRMT into focus in therapeutic and preventive measures in everyday orthopaedic and physiatric practice.

  17. Local subcutaneous and muscle pain impairs detection of passive movements at the human thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakkody, N S; Blouin, J S; Taylor, J L; Gandevia, S C

    2008-07-01

    Activity in both muscle spindle endings and cutaneous stretch receptors contributes to the sensation of joint movement. The present experiments assessed whether muscle pain and subcutaneous pain distort proprioception in humans. The ability to detect the direction of passive movements at the interphalangeal joint of the thumb was measured when pain was induced experimentally in four sites: the flexor pollicis longus (FPL), the subcutaneous tissue overlying this muscle, the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle and the subcutaneous tissue distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint of thumb. Tests were conducted when pain was at a similar subjective intensity. There was no significant difference in the ability to detect flexion or extension under any painful or non-painful condition. The detection of movement was significantly impaired when pain was induced in the FPL muscle, but pain in the FCR, a nearby muscle that does not act on the thumb, had no effect. Subcutaneous pain also significantly impaired movement detection when initiated in skin overlying the thumb, but not in skin overlying the FPL muscle in the forearm. These findings suggest that while both muscle and skin pain can disturb the detection of the direction of movement, the impairment is site-specific and involves regions and tissues that have a proprioceptive role at the joint. Also, pain induced in FPL did not significantly increase the perceived size of the thumb. Proprioceptive mechanisms signalling perceived body size are less disturbed by a relevant muscle nociceptive input than those subserving movement detection. The results highlight the complex relationship between nociceptive inputs and their influence on proprioception and motor control.

  18. Irisin stimulates muscle growth-related genes and regulates adipocyte differentiation and metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, J Y; Dincer, F; Mesfum, E; Mantzoros, C S

    2014-12-01

    Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced myokine suggested to induce browning of white adipocytes. Deficiency of myostatin, and thus stimulation of muscle growth, has also been reported to induce irisin and its precursor FNDC5 expression in muscle and drive the browning of white adipocytes in mice, implying that irisin may be related to muscle growth in addition to its beneficial effects in adipocytes. In humans, the effect of irisin in muscle hypertrophy as well as adipocyte metabolism has not been fully investigated. Primary cultured human myocytes/adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells were used to examine irisin-regulated gene/protein expression. Lipid accumulation, ATP content, glycolysis, lipolysis and metabolite profile were measured in control and irisin-treated (10 and 50 nM) adipocytes. In human myocytes, FNDC5 mRNA and irisin secretion were increased during myogenic differentiation, along with PGC1α and myogenin expression. Irisin treatment significantly increased insulin-like growth factor 1 and decreased myostatin gene expression through ERK pathway. PGC1α4, a newly discovered PGC1α isoform specifically related to muscle hypertrophy, was also upregulated. In human adipocytes, irisin induced uncoupling protein 1 and consequently increased adipocyte energy expenditure, expression of metabolic enzymes and metabolite intermediates, resulting in inhibition of lipid accumulation. Irisin and FNDC5 treatment also reduced preadipocyte differentiation, suggesting an additional mechanism in suppressing fat mass. These results suggest that irisin/FNDC5 has a pleiotropic role in muscle and improvement of adipocyte metabolism in humans.

  19. The Fatted Calf Dessert Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    The Fatted Calf

    2017-01-01

    The Fatted Calf was opened in 2010. In 2015 we moved to Church St. Athlone. Run by husband and wife team, Feargal and Fiona O'Donnell, our focus is on finding the best, fresh, seasonal and locally sourced ingredients, that the midlands has to offer. Our food, expertly executed by our head chef, Dee Adamson, is our take on "modern Irish" food, served in a relaxed, comfortable, setting. http://arrow.dit.ie/menus21c/1224/thumbnail.jpg

  20. GLP-1 at physiological concentrations recruits skeletal and cardiac muscle microvasculature in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subaran, Sharmila C; Sauder, Matthew A; Chai, Weidong; Jahn, Linda A; Fowler, Dale E; Aylor, Kevin W; Basu, Ananda; Liu, Zhenqi

    2014-08-01

    Muscle microvascular surface area determines substrate and hormonal exchanges between plasma and muscle interstitium. GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion and has numerous extrapancreatic effects, including a salutary vascular action. To examine whether GLP-1 recruits skeletal and cardiac muscle microvasculature in healthy humans, 26 overnight-fasted healthy adults received a systemic infusion of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/kg of body mass per min) for 150 min. Skeletal and cardiac muscle MBV (microvascular blood volume), MFV (microvascular flow velocity) and MBF (microvascular blood flow) were determined at baseline and after 30 and 150 min. Brachial artery diameter and mean flow velocity were measured and total blood flow was calculated before and at the end of the GLP-1 infusion. GLP-1 infusion raised plasma GLP-1 concentrations to the postprandial levels and suppressed plasma glucagon concentrations with a transient increase in plasma insulin concentrations. Skeletal and cardiac muscle MBV and MBF increased significantly at both 30 and 150 min (Pmicrovasculature in addition to relaxing the conduit artery in healthy humans. This could contribute to increased tissue oxygen, nutrient and insulin delivery and exchange and therefore better prandial glycaemic control and tissue function in humans.

  1. The best approach: homogenization or manual permeabilization of human skeletal muscle fibers for respirometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Steen; Kraunsøe, Regitze; Gram, Martin; Gnaiger, Erich; Helge, Jørn W; Dela, Flemming

    2014-02-01

    The number of studies on mitochondrial function is growing as a result of the recognition of the pivotal role of an intact mitochondrial function in numerous diseases. Measurements of oxygen consumption by the mitochondria in human skeletal muscle are used in many studies. There are several advantages of studying mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers (Pfi), but the method requires a manual procedure of mechanical separation of the fiber bundles in the biopsy and chemical permeabilization of the cell membrane. This is time-consuming and subject to interpersonal variability. An alternative is to use a semiautomatic tool for preparation of a homogenate of the muscle biopsy. We investigated whether the PBI shredder is useful in preparing a muscle homogenate for measurements of mitochondrial respiratory capacity. The homogenate is compared with the Pfi preparation. Maximal respiratory capacity was significantly reduced in the homogenate compared with the Pfi from human skeletal muscle. A marked cytochrome c response was observed in the homogenate, which was not the case with the Pfi, indicating that the outer mitochondrial membrane was not intact. The mitochondria in the homogenate were more uncoupled compared with the Pfi. Manual permeabilization is an advantageous technique for preparing human skeletal muscle biopsies for respirometry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An animal model for human masseter muscle: histochemical characterization of mouse, rat, rabbit, cat, dog, pig, and cow masseter muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, A; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    .4, type IM fibers react moderately, and type II fibers react strongly. Rat and mouse masseter muscles contained type II fibers only, as did some rabbit masseter muscles, whereas other rabbit masseter muscles possessed equal amounts of type I and II fibers. Cat and dog masseter muscles possessed both type...

  3. A mini-overview of single muscle fibre mechanics: the effects of age, inactivity and exercise in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hyunseok; Kim, Jong-Hee

    2017-09-05

    Many basic movements of living organisms are dependent on muscle function. Muscle function allows for the coordination and harmonious integrity of movement that is necessary for various biological processes. Gross and fine motor skills are both regulated at the micro-level (single muscle fibre level), controlled by neuronal regulation, and it is therefore important to understand muscle function at both micro- and macro-levels to understand the overall movement of living organisms. Single muscle mechanics and the cellular environment of muscles fundamentally allow for the harmonious movement of our bodies. Indeed, a clear understanding of the functionality of muscle at the micro-level is indispensable for explaining muscular function at the macro-(whole gross muscle) level. By investigating single muscle fibre mechanics, we can also learn how other factors such Ca2+ kinetics, enzyme activity and contractile proteins can contribute to muscle mechanics at the micro- and macro-levels. Further, we can also describe how aging affects the capacity of skeletal muscle cells, as well as how exercise can prevent aging-based sarcopenia and frailty. The purpose of this review is to introduce and summarise the current knowledge of single muscle fibre mechanics in light of aging and inactivity. We then describe how exercise mitigates negative muscle adaptations that occur under those circumstances. In addition, single muscle fibre mechanics in both animal and human models are discussed.

  4. Calf injuries in professional football: Treat the patient or the scan? - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Paulo; Kassarjian, Ara; Araújo, João Pedro; Ferreira, Ruben; Espregueira Mendes, João

    2016-09-01

    To describe a case of a professional football player with significant imaging findings despite a rather innocuous clinical presentation with gradual onset of calf pain and who was able to continue training and playing with minor medical intervention. To discuss some of the limitations of existing muscle injury grading systems and their potential to cover the full range of injury presentations for calf injuries. Case report. A professional football player was assessed by physical examination, clinical testing and imaging (MRI) after a gradual onset of a calf injury. After returning to training and competition, a follow-up of his symptoms was performed with regular ultrasound imaging assessments. A professional football player (35 years, 1.90 m, 88 kg) male, African, striker, playing in the Professional Arabian Gulf League. The discordance between the clinical presentation and the imaging findings resulted in a challenging situation regarding the decision of whether to allow the player to train and compete. In addition, existing muscle injury grading systems do not seem to cover the full range of injuries seen in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human-robot interaction: kinematics and muscle activity inside a powered compliant knee exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Beyl, Pieter; Duerinck, Saartje; Hagman, Friso; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    Until today it is not entirely clear how humans interact with automated gait rehabilitation devices and how we can, based on that interaction, maximize the effectiveness of these exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to gain knowledge on the human-robot interaction, in terms of kinematics and muscle activity, between a healthy human motor system and a powered knee exoskeleton (i.e., KNEXO). Therefore, temporal and spatial gait parameters, human joint kinematics, exoskeleton kinetics and muscle activity during four different walking trials in 10 healthy male subjects were studied. Healthy subjects can walk with KNEXO in patient-in-charge mode with some slight constraints in kinematics and muscle activity primarily due to inertia of the device. Yet, during robot-in-charge walking the muscular constraints are reversed by adding positive power to the leg swing, compensating in part this inertia. Next to that, KNEXO accurately records and replays the right knee kinematics meaning that subject-specific trajectories can be implemented as a target trajectory during assisted walking. No significant differences in the human response to the interaction with KNEXO in low and high compliant assistance could be pointed out. This is in contradiction with our hypothesis that muscle activity would decrease with increasing assistance. It seems that the differences between the parameter settings of low and high compliant control might not be sufficient to observe clear effects in healthy subjects. Moreover, we should take into account that KNEXO is a unilateral, 1 degree-of-freedom device.

  6. Effect of kinesio tape application on calf pain and ankle range of motion in duathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Marban, Rafael; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the kinesio tape immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition on calf pain and the ankle range of motion in duathletes. A sample of 28 duathletes (age 29.11 ± 10.35 years; body height 172.57 ± 6.17 cm; body mass 66.63 ± 9.01 kg; body mass index 22.29 ± 2.00 kg/m(2)) were recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping and 10 to 15 minutes after ending the duathlon competition. The kinesio tape was applied on the calf of duathletes 20 to 90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs (experimental leg) with the other leg acting as a control (control leg) in a randomized order. According to the between-group comparison, no differences were found immediately after the application of the kinesio tape and after the competition in the ankle range of motion and calf pain. However, a significant difference from baseline to immediately after taping was found in the ankle range of motion in the experimental leg. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf seems to immediately increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, but not after a duathlon competition. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf does not reduce muscle pain immediately or after a duathlon competition, but it appears to control an increase in pain.

  7. Acute moderate elevation of TNF-{alpha} does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Marie; Plomgaard, Peter; Fischer, Christian P

    2009-01-01

    Context: Skeletal muscle wasting has been associated with elevations in circulating inflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-alpha. Objective: In this study, we investigated whether TNF-alpha affects human systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover, via a 4 hours recombinant human TNF...... of either rhTNF-alpha (700 ng.m(-2).h(-1)) or 20% human albumin (Control) which was the vehicle of rhTNF-alpha. Systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover were estimated by a combination of tracer dilution methodology (primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[(15)N...... with the phenylalanine 3-compartment model showed similar muscle synthesis, breakdown and net muscle degradation after 2 hours basal and after 4 hours Control or rhTNF-alpha infusion. Conclusion: This study is the first to show in humans that TNF-alpha does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover, when...

  8. Neuromuscular blockade of slow twitch muscle fibres elevates muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover during submaximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels; Relu, Mihai U.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W...... fibres, respectively. From 127 s of exercise, muscle VO2 was higher (P muscle VO2 response...... was slower (P muscle homogenate CP was lowered (P muscle lactate production was similar in CUR and CON (37.8 +/- 4.1 versus 35.2 +/- 6.2 mmol). Estimated total muscle ATP turnover was 19...

  9. Dissociation between short-term unloading and resistance training effects on skeletal muscle Na+,K+-ATPase, muscle function, and fatigue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ben D; Wyckelsma, Victoria L; Murphy, Robyn M; Steward, Collene H; Anderson, Mitchell; Levinger, Itamar; Petersen, Aaron C; McKenna, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Physical training increases skeletal muscle Na + ,K + -ATPase content (NKA) and improves exercise performance, but the effects of inactivity per se on NKA content and isoform abundance in human muscle are unknown. We investigated the effects of 23-day unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) and subsequent 4-wk resistance training (RT) on muscle function and NKA in 6 healthy adults, measuring quadriceps muscle peak torque; fatigue and venous [K + ] during intense one-legged cycling exercise; and skeletal muscle NKA content ([ 3 H]ouabain binding) and NKA isoform abundances (immunoblotting) in muscle homogenates (α 1-3 , β 1-2 ) and in single fibers (α 1-3 , β 1 ). In the unloaded leg after ULLS, quadriceps peak torque and cycling time to fatigue declined by 22 and 23%, respectively, which were restored with RT. Whole muscle NKA content and homogenate NKA α 1-3 and β 1-2 isoform abundances were unchanged with ULLS or RT. However, in single muscle fibers, NKA α 3 in type I (-66%, P = 0.006) and β 1 in type II fibers (-40%, P = 0.016) decreased after ULLS, with other NKA isoforms unchanged. After RT, NKA α 1 (79%, P = 0.004) and β 1 (35%, P = 0.01) increased in type II fibers, while α 2 (76%, P = 0.028) and α 3 (142%, P = 0.004) increased in type I fibers compared with post-ULLS. Despite considerably impaired muscle function and earlier fatigue onset, muscle NKA content and homogenate α 1 and α 2 abundances were unchanged, thus being resilient to inactivity induced by ULLS. Nonetheless, fiber type-specific downregulation with inactivity and upregulation with RT of several NKA isoforms indicate complex regulation of muscle NKA expression in humans. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Insulin increases phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaolu; Bak, Steffen; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that multiple proteins involved in key regulatory processes in mitochondria are phosphorylated in mammalian tissues. Insulin regulates glucose metabolism by phosphorylation-dependent signaling and has been shown to stimulate ATP synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Here......, we investigated the effect of insulin on the phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle in vivo. Using a combination of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC−MS/MS, we compared the phosphoproteomes of isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle samples...... obtained from healthy individuals before and after 4 h of insulin infusion. In total, we identified 207 phosphorylation sites in 95 mitochondrial proteins. Of these phosphorylation sites, 45% were identified in both basal and insulin-stimulated samples. Insulin caused a 2-fold increase in the number...

  11. Microdialysis and the measurement of muscle interstitial K+ during rest and exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Stefan Mathias; Bülow, J; Saltin, B

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether microdialysis and the internal reference thallium-201 ((201)Tl) could accurately measure muscle interstitial K+ (Ki+) before, during, and after exercise. The relative loss of (201)Tl and simultaneous relative recovery of K+ were measured in vitro...... medialis muscle of four humans during rest and static plantar flexion exercise. At rest, Ki+ was 3.9-4.3 mmol/l when the perfusate flow was 2 or 5 microl/min. During exercise, Ki+ increased from 6.9 +/- 0.4 to 7.5 +/- 0.3 mmol/l at low to high intensity and declined to 5.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l after exercise....... These results suggest that large changes in Ki+ in human skeletal muscle can be accurately measured by using microdialysis and (201)Tl....

  12. Influence of prostaglandins on contractility of the isolated human cervical muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, I; Sahni, S; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1984-03-01

    The contractile activity of smooth muscle from the pregnant and nonpregnant human cervix uteri was studied in organ bath experiments. Several patterns of spontaneous activity with varying frequency and amplitude were observed. Prostaglandin E2 inhibited muscle activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and total inhibition was achieved in pregnant tissue at extremely low concentrations. Prostaglandin F2 alpha, on the other hand, did not influence spontaneous contractions. Prostaglandin I2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha had an inhibitory effect but only at comparatively high concentrations. 5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic acid and indomethacin abolished spontaneous contractions, indicating a regulatory influence of endogenous prostanoids on cervical contractility. The extreme sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 and enhancement of its action during early pregnancy provide evidence for a specific role of this compound in controlling cervical smooth muscle activity in the human female.

  13. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in skeletal muscle of humans exposed to high-altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; van Hall, Gerrit

    2003-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen......-consuming tissue. Muscle biopsies from seven healthy humans were obtained at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks of hypoxia at 4100 m.a.s.l. We found increased levels of strand breaks and endonuclease III-sensitive sites after 2 weeks of hypoxia, whereas oxidative DNA damage detected by formamidopyrimidine DNA......) was unaltered by prolonged hypoxia, in accordance with the notion that HO-1 is an acute stress response protein. In conclusion, our data indicate high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a good model for oxidative stress and that antioxidant genes are not upregulated in muscle tissue by prolonged hypoxia despite...

  14. Differentially activated macrophages orchestrate myogenic precursor cell fate during human skeletal muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saclier, Marielle; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda; Mackey, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    , we explored both in vitro and in vivo, in human, the interactions of differentially activated MPs with myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) during adult myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration. We showed in vitro that through the differential secretion of cytokines and growth factors, proinflammatory...... MPs inhibited MPC fusion while anti-inflammatory MPs strongly promoted MPC differentiation by increasing their commitment into differentiated myocytes and the formation of mature myotubes. Furthermore, the in vivo time course of expression of myogenic and MP markers was studied in regenerating human...... healthy muscle after damage. We observed that regenerating areas containing proliferating MPCs were preferentially associated with MPs expressing proinflammatory markers. In the same muscle, regenerating areas containing differentiating myogenin-positive MPCs were preferentially coupled to MPs harboring...

  15. Simplified data access on human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    and interpret by individuals that are inexperienced with bioinformatics procedures. In a comparative study, we therefore; (1) investigated the human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise and non-exercise control intervention, and; (2) set out to develop a straightforward search tool......Few studies have investigated exercise-induced global gene expression responses in human skeletal muscle and these have typically focused at one specific mode of exercise and not implemented non-exercise control models. However, interpretation on effects of differentiated exercise necessitate...... direct comparison between essentially different modes of exercise and the ability to identify true exercise effect, necessitate implementation of independent non-exercise control subjects. Furthermore, muscle transcriptome data made available through previous exercise studies can be difficult to extract...

  16. Dynamic DTI (dDTI) shows differing temporal activation patterns in post-exercise skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, Conrad; Akbari, Alireza; Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2017-04-01

    To assess post-exercise recovery of human calf muscles using dynamic diffusion tensor imaging (dDTI). DTI data (6 directions, b = 0 and 400 s/mm(2)) were acquired every 35 s from seven healthy men using a 3T MRI, prior to (4 volumes) and immediately following exercise (13 volumes, ~7.5 min). Exercise consisted of 5-min in-bore repetitive dorsiflexion-eversion foot motion with 0.78 kg resistance. Diffusion tensors calculated at each time point produced maps of mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and signal at b = 0 s/mm(2) (S0). Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was performed on five calf muscles: tibialis anterior (ATIB), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) peroneus longus (PER), soleus (SOL), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG). Active muscles (ATIB, EDL, PER) showed significantly elevated initial MD post-exercise, while predicted inactive muscles (SOL, LG) did not (p muscles across the majority of time points (p muscles. These differences are suggested to be related to differences in fiber composition.

  17. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Li, Yuan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kaufmann, Andreas M. [Clinic for Gynecology CCM/CBF, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Albers, Andreas E., E-mail: andreas.albers@charite.de [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  18. Effect of a static calf-stretching exercise on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, I W; Chesworth, B M; Vandervoort, A A

    1999-02-01

    A within-subject experimental design was used with to measure the effect of calf-stretching exercises on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in a group of 20 healthy men (aged 21 to 40). The purpose of this study was to determine if the performance of calf-stretching exercises would produce a decrease in resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion. Calf-stretching exercises are widely used in sporting, fitness, and rehabilitation settings yet the effects of stretching on the passive mechanics of the ankle joint are not well understood. A KIN-COM isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the passive resistive torque of the ankle while the joint complex was moved through return cycles from 10 degrees plantarflexion to 10 degrees dorsiflexion at a constant velocity of 6 degrees/s. Each subject's right or left ankle was randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental condition. The latter underwent a total of 4 static stretches, each lasting 30 seconds. The main findings of the study were that the calf-stretching exercises did not produce a significant reduction in the resistive torque during ankle dorsiflexion, as measured by the peak to peak torque at 10 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion or in the center range of the hysteresis loop at 0 degree dorsiflexion. Static calf-stretching exercises of short duration did not reduce the passive resistance of the connective tissue within the surrounding muscle and joint structures in the ankles of healthy young men.

  19. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  20. Fiber type specific expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-18 in human skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Pedersen, Bente K

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is now recognized as an endocrine organ with the capacity to produce signal peptides in response to muscle contractions. Here we demonstrate that resting healthy human muscles express cytokines in a fiber type specific manner. Human muscle biopsies from seven healthy young males...... differences between the three muscles with regard to MHC I and MHC IIa mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-18 were solely expressed by type II fibers, whereas the expression of IL-6 was more prominent in type I compared to type II...... fibers. The fiber type specificity was found in triceps, vastus and soleus indicating that the level of daily muscle activity did not influence basal cytokine expression. The specificity of cytokine expression in different muscle fiber types in healthy young males suggests that cytokines may play...

  1. The Predictability from Skull Morphology of Temporalis and Masseter Muscle Cross-Sectional Areas in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Zapata MuÑoz, Victor; O'higgins, Paul

    2015-07-01

    To carry out functional simulations of the masticatory system that aim to predict strain magnitudes it is important to apply appropriate jaw-elevator muscle forces. Force magnitude estimation from directly measured muscle physiological cross-sectional area or anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) is not possible for fossils and skeletal material from museum collections. In these cases, muscle CSAs are often estimated from bony features. This approach has been shown to be inaccurate in a prior study based on direct measurements from cadavers. Postmortem alterations as well as age changes in muscle form might explain this discrepancy. As such, the present study uses CT images from 20 living individuals to directly measure temporalis and masseter muscle CSAs and estimated cross-sectional areas (ECSAs) from bony features. The relationships between CSAs and ECSAs were assessed by comparing mean values and by examining correlations. ECSAs are up to 100% greater than CSA and the means of these variables for each muscle differ significantly. Further, ECSA is significantly correlated with CSA for temporalis but not masseter. Cranial centroid size is only significantly associated with CSA for temporalis. These findings indicate that ECSAs should be employed with caution in simulations of human masticatory system functioning; they do not reflect CSAs and it is plausible that this also applies to studies of closely related living and fossil taxa. When ECSAs are used, sensitivity analyses are required to determine the impact of potential errors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. EFFECT OF HEAT PRECONDITIONING BY MICROWAVE HYPERTHERMIA ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE AFTER ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Saga

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify whether heat preconditioning results in less eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle soreness, and whether the repeated bout effect is enhanced by heat preconditioning prior to eccentric exercise. Nine untrained male volunteers aged 23 ± 3 years participated in this study. Heat preconditioning included treatment with a microwave hyperthermia unit (150 W, 20 min that was randomly applied to one of the subject's arms (MW; the other arm was used as a control (CON. One day after heat preconditioning, the subjects performed 24 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors at 30°·s-1 (ECC1. One week after ECC1, the subjects repeated the procedure (ECC2. After each bout of exercise, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, range of motion (ROM of the elbow joint, upper arm circumference, blood creatine kinase (CK activity and muscle soreness were measured. The subjects experienced both conditions at an interval of 3 weeks. MVC and ROM in the MW were significantly higher than those in the CON (p < 0.05 for ECC1; however, the heat preconditioning had no significant effect on upper arm circumference, blood CK activity, or muscle soreness following ECC1 and ECC2. Heat preconditioning may protect human skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage after a single bout of eccentric exercise but does not appear to promote the repeated bout effect after a second bout of eccentric exercise

  3. Aging impairs contraction-induced human skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Christopher S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass during aging, increases the risk for falls and dependency. Resistance exercise (RE training is an effective treatment to improve muscle mass and strength in older adults, but aging is associated with a smaller amount of training-induced hypertrophy. This may be due in part to an inability to stimulate muscle-protein synthesis (MPS after an acute bout of RE. We hypothesized that older adults would have impaired mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC1 signaling and MPS response compared with young adults after acute RE. Methods We measured intracellular signaling and MPS in 16 older (mean 70 ± 2 years and 16 younger (27 ± 2 years subjects. Muscle biopsies were sampled at baseline and at 3, 6 and 24 hr after exercise. Phosphorylation of regulatory signaling proteins and MPS were determined on successive muscle biopsies by immunoblotting and stable isotopic tracer techniques, respectively. Results Increased phosphorylation was seen only in the younger group (PP >0.05. After exercise, MPS increased from baseline only in the younger group (PP 0.05. Conclusions We conclude that aging impairs contraction-induced human skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis. These age-related differences may contribute to the blunted hypertrophic response seen after resistance-exercise training in older adults, and highlight the mTORC1 pathway as a key therapeutic target to prevent sarcopenia.

  4. Active controlled muscles in numerical model of human arm for movement in two degrees of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budziszewski, P.; Nunen, E. van; Mordaka, J.K.; Kȩdzior, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of numerical model of human upper extremity able to perform movements and stabilization tasks in two degrees of freedom as a result of muscle activation controlled by a PID-based controller. These tasks are defined by functions of specified angle for every degree