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Sample records for human c-myc proto-oncogene

  1. DNA repair in the c-myc proto-oncogene locus: Possible involvement in susceptibility or resistance to plasmacytoma induction in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecham, E.J.; Mushinski, J.F.; Shacter, E.; Potter, M.; Bohr, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes an unexpected difference in the efficiency of removal of UV-induced DNA damage in the c-myc locus in splenic B lymphoblasts from two inbred strains of mice. In cells from plasmacytoma-resistant DBA/2N mice, 35% of UV-induced damage in the regulatory and 5' flank of c-myc is removed by 12 h. However, in cells from plasmacytoma-susceptible BALB/cAn mice, damage is not removed from this region. In the protein-encoding region and 3' flank of c-myc as well as in two dihydrofolate reductase gene fragments, UV damage is repaired with similar efficiency in B lymphoblasts from both strains of mice. Furthermore, in the protein-encoding portion and 3' flank of c-myc, damage is selectively removed from only the transcribed strand. No repair is detected in the nontranscribed strand. In contrast, DNA repair in the 5' flank of c-myc is not strand specific; in DNA from DBA/2N cells, UV damage is rapidly removed from both the transcribed and nontranscribed strands. In BALB/cAn cells no repair was detected in either strand in the 5'flank, consistent with the results with double-stranded, nick-translated probes to this region of c-myc. In addition to the repair studies, we have detected post-UV-damage formation: in most of the genes studied, we find that additional T4 endonuclease-sensitive sites are formed in the DNA 2 h after irradiation. Our findings provide new insights into the details of gene-specific and strand-specific DNA repair and suggest that there may be close links between DNA repair and B-cell neoplastic development

  2. Primary structure of the human fgr proto-oncogene product p55/sup c-fgr/

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    Katamine, S.; Notario, V.; Rao, C.D.; Miki, T.; Cheah, M.S.C.; Tronick, S.R.; Robbins, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Normal human c-fgr cDNA clones were constructed by using normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell mRNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence analysis of two such clones revealed a 1,587-base-pair-long open reading frame which predicted the primary amino acid sequence of the c-fgr translational product. Homology of this protein with the v-fgr translational product stretched from codons 128 to 516, where 32 differences among 388 codons were observed. Sequence similarity with human c-src, c-yes, and fyn translations products began at amino acid position 76 of the predicted c-fgr protein and extended nearly to its C-terminus. In contrast, the stretch of 75 amino acids at the N-terminus demonstrated a greatly reduced degree of relatedness to these same proteins. To verify the deduced amino acid sequence, antibodies were prepared against peptides representing amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of the predicted c-fgr translational product. Both antibodies specifically recognized a 55-kilodalton protein expressed in COS-1 cells transfected with a c-fgr cDNA expression plasmid. Moreover, the same protein was immunoprecipitated from an Epstein-Barr virus-infected Burkitt's lymphoma cell line which expressed c-fgr mRNA but not in its uninfected fgr mRNA-negative counterpart. These findings identified the 55-kilodalton protein as the product of the human fgr proto-oncogene.

  3. Studies of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene in human breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamon, D J; Godolphin, W; Jones, L A; Holt, J A; Wong, S G; Keith, D E; Levin, W J; Stuart, S G; Udove, J; Ullrich, A

    1989-05-12

    Carcinoma of the breast and ovary account for one-third of all cancers occurring in women and together are responsible for approximately one-quarter of cancer-related deaths in females. The HER-2/neu proto-oncogene is amplified in 25 to 30 percent of human primary breast cancers and this alteration is associated with disease behavior. In this report, several similarities were found in the biology of HER-2/neu in breast and ovarian cancer, including a similar incidence of amplification, a direct correlation between amplification and over-expression, evidence of tumors in which overexpression occurs without amplification, and the association between gene alteration and clinical outcome. A comprehensive study of the gene and its products (RNA and protein) was simultaneously performed on a large number of both tumor types. This analysis identified several potential shortcomings of the various methods used to evaluate HER-2/neu in these diseases (Southern, Northern, and Western blots, and immunohistochemistry) and provided information regarding considerations that should be addressed when studying a gene or gene product in human tissue. The data presented further support the concept that the HER-2/neu gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of some human cancers.

  4. Expression of proto-oncogene KIT is up-regulated in subset of human meningiomas

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    Saini Masum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KIT is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse neoplastic processes. Aberrant kinase activity of the KIT receptor has been targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy in different neoplasias. In all the earlier studies, KIT expression was reported to be absent in meningiomas. However, we observed KIT mRNA expression in some meningioma cases. This prompted us to undertake its detailed analyses in meningioma tissues resected during 2008–2009. Methods Tumor tissues and matched peripheral blood samples collected from meningioma patients were used for detailed molecular analyses. KIT expression was ascertained immunohistochemically and validated by immunoblotting. KIT and KITLG transcript levels were discerned by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Similarly, KIT amplification and allele loss were assessed by quantitative real-time (qPCR and validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH on the neoplastic tissues. Possible alterations of the gene at the nucleotide level were analyzed by sequencing. Results Contrary to earlier reports, KIT expression, was detected immunohistochemically in 20.6% meningioma cases (n = 34. Receptor (KIT and ligand (KITLG transcripts monitored by RT-qPCR were found to co-express (p = 0.048 in most of the KIT immunopositive tumors. 1/7 KIT positive meningiomas showed allele loss corroborated by reduced FISH signal in the corresponding neoplastic tissue. Sequence analysis of KIT showed M541L substitution in exon 10, in one of the immunopositive cases. However, its biological consequence remains to be uncovered. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates KIT over-expression in the human meningiomas. The data suggest that up-regulated KIT transcription (p  0.05, is a likely mechanism responsible for altered KIT expression. Thus, KIT is a potential candidate for detailed investigation in the context of meningioma pathogenesis.

  5. Expression of proto-oncogene KIT is up-regulated in subset of human meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Masum; Jha, Ajaya Nand; Abrari, Andleeb; Ali, Sher

    2012-01-01

    KIT is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse neoplastic processes. Aberrant kinase activity of the KIT receptor has been targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in different neoplasias. In all the earlier studies, KIT expression was reported to be absent in meningiomas. However, we observed KIT mRNA expression in some meningioma cases. This prompted us to undertake its detailed analyses in meningioma tissues resected during 2008–2009. Tumor tissues and matched peripheral blood samples collected from meningioma patients were used for detailed molecular analyses. KIT expression was ascertained immunohistochemically and validated by immunoblotting. KIT and KITLG transcript levels were discerned by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Similarly, KIT amplification and allele loss were assessed by quantitative real-time (qPCR) and validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the neoplastic tissues. Possible alterations of the gene at the nucleotide level were analyzed by sequencing. Contrary to earlier reports, KIT expression, was detected immunohistochemically in 20.6% meningioma cases (n = 34). Receptor (KIT) and ligand (KITLG) transcripts monitored by RT-qPCR were found to co-express (p = 0.048) in most of the KIT immunopositive tumors. 1/7 KIT positive meningiomas showed allele loss corroborated by reduced FISH signal in the corresponding neoplastic tissue. Sequence analysis of KIT showed M541L substitution in exon 10, in one of the immunopositive cases. However, its biological consequence remains to be uncovered. This study clearly demonstrates KIT over-expression in the human meningiomas. The data suggest that up-regulated KIT transcription (p < 0.001), instead of gene amplification (p > 0.05), is a likely mechanism responsible for altered KIT expression. Thus, KIT is a potential candidate for detailed investigation in the context of meningioma pathogenesis

  6. A novel form of the RelA nuclear factor kappaB subunit is induced by and forms a complex with the proto-oncogene c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Neil R; Webster, Gill A; Gillespie, Peter J; Wilson, Brian J; Crouch, Dorothy H; Perkins, Neil D

    2002-01-01

    Members of both Myc and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) families of transcription factors are found overexpressed or inappropriately activated in many forms of human cancer. Furthermore, NF-kappaB can induce c-Myc gene expression, suggesting that the activities of these factors are functionally linked. We have discovered that both c-Myc and v-Myc can induce a previously undescribed, truncated form of the RelA(p65) NF-kappaB subunit, RelA(p37). RelA(p37) encodes the N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domain of RelA(p65) and would be expected to function as a trans-dominant negative inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Surprisingly, we found that RelA(p37) no longer binds to kappaB elements. This result is explained, however, by the observation that RelA(p37), but not RelA(p65), forms a high-molecular-mass complex with c-Myc. These results demonstrate a previously unknown functional and physical interaction between RelA and c-Myc with many significant implications for our understanding of the role that both proteins play in the molecular events underlying tumourigenesis. PMID:12027803

  7. Proto-oncogene expression: a predictive assay for radiation biodosimetry applications

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    Miller, A.C.; Luo, L.; Chin, W.K.; Director-Myska, A.E.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Blakely, W.F

    2002-07-01

    Using a model system of in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes, the effect of low-dose (0.25 to 1.50 Gy) 250-kV{sub p} X ray radiation (1 Gy.min{sup -1}) on the expression of several proto-oncogenes was examined (c-Haras, c-src, c-met, c-jun, c-fos, and c-myc) and {beta}-actin from 0.25 to 17 h post-radiation. RNA was extracted from cells harvested at various times after exposure and examined for levels of particular mRNAs by northern blot hybridisation. A progressive time- and dose-dependent increase in mRNA levels was observed for c-Haras mRNA, while the other proto-oncogenes (c-src, c-met, c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc) examined were variable during the same time period. {beta}-actin levels were initially decreased but at 17 h post-radiation had returned to control levels. A comparison of the rate of c-Haras transcription at 5 and 17 h post-irradiation revealed that c-Haras transcription was higher at 5 h than at 17 h. These findings suggest that the level of specific proto-oncogene expression, particularly c-Haras, may be useful early diagnostic molecular biomarkers for biodosimetry applications. The use of real-time PCR technologies to quantify gene expression changes will also be discussed. (author)

  8. c-Myc-Dependent Cell Competition in Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish S; Shah, Heta S; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2017-07-01

    Cell Competition is an interaction between cells for existence in heterogeneous cell populations of multicellular organisms. This phenomenon is involved in initiation and progression of cancer where heterogeneous cell populations compete directly or indirectly for the survival of the fittest based on differential gene expression. In Drosophila, cells having lower dMyc expression are eliminated by cell competition through apoptosis when present in the milieu of cells having higher dMyc expression. Thus, we designed a study to develop c-Myc (human homolog) dependent in vitro cell competition model of human cancer cells. Cells with higher c-Myc were transfected with c-myc shRNA to prepare cells with lower c-Myc and then co-cultured with the same type of cells having a higher c-Myc in equal ratio. Cells with lower c-Myc showed a significant decrease in numbers when compared with higher c-Myc cells, suggesting "loser" and "winner" status of cells, respectively. During microscopy, engulfment of loser cells by winner cells was observed with higher expression of JNK in loser cells. Furthermore, elimination of loser cells was prevented significantly, when co-cultured cells were treated with the JNK (apoptosis) inhibitor. Above results indicate elimination of loser cells in the presence of winner cells by c-Myc-dependent mechanisms of cell competition in human cancer cells. This could be an important mechanism in human tumors where normal cells are eliminated by c-Myc-overexpressed tumor cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1782-1791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oncogene, affects progression, treatment, and diagnosis of many adenocarcinomas. C-myc has been shown to be a downstream target of EpCAM and is also one of the most important proto-oncogenes routinely overexpressed in breast cancer.

  10. Convergence and divergence of tumor-suppressor and proto-oncogenes in chimpanzee from human chromosome 17

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    Verma, R.S.; Ramesh, K.H. [Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Due to the emergence of molecular technology, the phylogenetic evolution of the human genome via apes has become a saltatory even. In the present investigation, cosmid probes for P53, Charcot-Marie-Tooth [CMTIA], HER-2/NEU and myeloperoxidase [MPO] were used. Probes mapping to these genetic loci are well-defined on human chromosome 17 [HSA 17]. We localized these genes on chimpanzee [Pan troglodyte] chromosomes by FISH technique employing two different cell lines. Our results indicate that chimpanzee chromosome 19 [PTR 19] differs from HSA 17 by a pericentric inversion. The P53 gene assigned to HSA 17p13.1 is localized on PTR 19p15 and the MPO sequence of HSA 17q21.3-23 hybridized to PTR 19q23. Perplexing enough, HER-2/NEU assigned to HSA 17q11.2 localized to PTR 19p12. Obviously, there is convergence of P53 and MPO regions and distinctive divergence of HER-2/NEU and CMT1A regions of human and chimpanzee. This investigation has demonstrated the pronounced genetic shuffling which occurred during the origin of HSA 17. Molecular markers should serve as evolutionary punctuations in defining the precise sequence of genetic events that led to the evolution of other chromosomes whose genomic synteny, although similar, have surprisingly evolved through different mechanisms.

  11. Identification of a Novel Proto-oncogenic Network in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Smitha R; Cangkrama, Michael; Srivastava, Seema; Partridge, Darren; Auden, Alana; Dworkin, Sebastian; McLean, Catriona A; Jane, Stephen M; Darido, Charbel

    2015-09-01

    The developmental transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) plays a critical tumor suppressor role in the mammalian epidermis through direct regulation of PTEN and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. GRHL3 is highly expressed in all tissues derived from the surface ectoderm, including the oral cavity, raising a question about its potential role in suppression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We explored the tumor suppressor role of Grhl3 in HNSCC using a conditional knockout (Grhl3 (∆/-) /K14Cre (+) ) mouse line (n = 26) exposed to an oral chemical carcinogen. We defined the proto-oncogenic pathway activated in the HNSCC derived from these mice and assessed it in primary human HNSCC samples, normal oral epithelial cell lines carrying shRNA to GRHL3, and human HNSCC cell lines. Data were analyzed with two-sided chi square and Student's t tests. Deletion of Grhl3 in oral epithelium in mice did not perturb PTEN/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, but instead evoked loss of GSK3B expression, resulting in stabilization and accumulation of c-MYC and aggressive HNSCC. This molecular signature was also evident in a subset of primary human HNSCC and HNSCC cell lines. Loss of Gsk3b in mice, independent of Grhl3, predisposed to chemical-induced HNSCC. Restoration of GSK3B expression blocked proliferation of normal oral epithelial cell lines carrying shRNA to GRHL3 (cell no., Day 8: Scramble ctl, 616±21.8 x 10(3) vs GRHL3-kd, 1194±44 X 10(3), P < .001; GRHL3-kd vs GRHL3-kd + GSK3B, 800±98.84 X 10(3), P = .003) and human HNSCC cells. We defined a novel molecular signature in mammalian HNSCC, suggesting new treatment strategies targeting the GRHL3/GSK3B/c-MYC proto-oncogenic network. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate [corrected] and sodium lauryl sulfate on the production and expression of cytokines and proto-oncogenes in photoaged and intrinsically aged human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, D H; Youn, J I; Eun, H C

    2001-11-01

    Skin aging may be divided into photoaging and intrinsic aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and sodium lauryl sulfate on the production and expression of cytokines and proto-oncogenes in photoaged and intrinsically aged skin, compared with young skin. Keratinocytes were taken from newborns, young adults in their twenties, and from the forearm and thigh of volunteers in their fifties and seventies. Interleukin-1alpha and -6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, c-fos and c-myc were measured after cultured keratinocytes had been treated with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and sodium lauryl sulfate. There has been no report concerning the dependence of cytokine production by sodium lauryl sulfate upon photoaging and intrinsic aging. This study also involves the first investigation of the effects of aging on c-myc expression by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate treatment. Cytokine production decreased markedly with age. These results suggest the progressive decline of cellular function with age. The ratio of cytokine production in the irritant-treated group compared with that in the control group showed a different pattern in photoaging and intrinsic aging. With the significant difference between photoaging and intrinsic aging, T/C ratio decreased in interleukin-1alpha and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist upon aging, whereas it increased in interleukin-6. S/C ratio was uniquely elevated on photoaged skin in the 50 y age group. It is suggested that photoaged skin shows an exaggerated reaction to surfactant. Compared with the control, c-fos expression in 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-treated keratinocytes decreased with age in the thigh, but increased in the photoaged skin of forearm. The increased c-fos expression in 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-treated keratinocytes could be relevant for the predisposition of photoaged keratinocytes to malignant transformation.

  13. Suppression of c-Myc is involved in multi-walled carbon nanotubes' down-regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters in human colon adenocarcinoma cells

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    Wang, Zhaojing [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China); Xu, Yonghong [Institute of Ophthalmological Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 430060 Wuhan (China); Meng, Xiangning [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Watari, Fumio [Department of Biomedical, Dental Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Liu, Hudan, E-mail: hudanliu@hust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China); Chen, Xiao, E-mail: mornsmile@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan (China)

    2015-01-01

    Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a large family of integral membrane proteins that decrease cellular drug uptake and accumulation by active extrusion, is one of the major causes of cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR) that frequently leads to failure of chemotherapy. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based drug delivery devices hold great promise in enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. However, CNTs' effects on the ABC transporters remain under-investigated. In this study, we found that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reduced transport activity and expression of ABC transporters including ABCB1/Pgp and ABCC4/MRP4 in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Proto-oncogene c-Myc, which directly regulates ABC gene expression, was concurrently decreased in MWCNT-treated cells and forced over-expression of c-Myc reversed MWCNTs' inhibitory effects on ABCB1 and ABCC4 expression. MWCNT-cell membrane interaction and cell membrane oxidative damage were observed. However, antioxidants such as vitamin C, β-mecaptoethanol and dimethylthiourea failed to antagonize MWCNTs' down-regulation of ABC transporters. These data suggest that MWCNTs may act on c-Myc, but not through oxidative stress, to down-regulate ABC transporter expression. Our findings thus shed light on CNTs' novel cellular effects that may be utilized to develop CNTs-based drug delivery devices to overcome ABC transporter-mediated cancer chemoresistance.

  14. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated c-Myc protein in human tumor cells.

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    C. Soldani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using immunocytochemical techniques at light and electron microscopy, we analysed the distribution of phosphorylated c-Myc in actively proliferating human HeLa cells. The distribution pattern of c-Myc was also compared with those of other ribonucleoprotein (RNP-containing components (PANA, hnRNP-core proteins, fibrillarin or RNP-associated nuclear proteins (SC-35 splicing factor. Our results provide the first evidence that phosphorylated c-Myc accumulates in the nucleus of tumor cells, where it colocalizes with fibrillarin, both in the nucleolus and in extranucleolar structures.

  15. c-Myc is essential to prevent endothelial pro-inflammatory senescent phenotype.

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    Victoria Florea

    Full Text Available The proto-oncogene c-Myc is vital for vascular development and promotes tumor angiogenesis, but the mechanisms by which it controls blood vessel growth remain unclear. In the present work we investigated the effects of c-Myc knockdown in endothelial cell functions essential for angiogenesis to define its role in the vasculature. We provide the first evidence that reduction in c-Myc expression in endothelial cells leads to a pro-inflammatory senescent phenotype, features typically observed during vascular aging and pathologies associated with endothelial dysfunction. c-Myc knockdown in human umbilical vein endothelial cells using lentivirus expressing specific anti-c-Myc shRNA reduced proliferation and tube formation. These functional defects were associated with morphological changes, increase in senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity, upregulation of cell cycle inhibitors and accumulation of c-Myc-deficient cells in G1-phase, indicating that c-Myc knockdown in endothelial cells induces senescence. Gene expression analysis of c-Myc-deficient endothelial cells showed that senescent phenotype was accompanied by significant upregulation of growth factors, adhesion molecules, extracellular-matrix components and remodeling proteins, and a cluster of pro-inflammatory mediators, which include Angptl4, Cxcl12, Mdk, Tgfb2 and Tnfsf15. At the peak of expression of these cytokines, transcription factors known to be involved in growth control (E2f1, Id1 and Myb were downregulated, while those involved in inflammatory responses (RelB, Stat1, Stat2 and Stat4 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate a novel role for c-Myc in the prevention of vascular pro-inflammatory phenotype, supporting an important physiological function as a central regulator of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

  16. Evolutionarily conserved regions of the human c-myc protein can be uncoupled from transforming activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarid, J.; Halazonetis, T.D.; Murphy, W.; Leder, P.

    1987-01-01

    The myc family of oncogenes contains coding sequences that have been preserved in different species for over 400 million years. This conservation (which implies functional selection) is broadly represented throughout the C-terminal portion of the human c-myc protein but is largely restricted to three cluster of amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region. The authors have examined the role that the latter three regions of the c-myc protein might play in the transforming function of the c-myc gene. Several mutations, deletions and frameshifts, were introduced into the c-myc gene, and these mutant genes were tested for their ability to collaborate with the EJ-ras oncogene to transform rat embryo fibroblasts. Complete elimination of the first two N-terminal conserved segments abolished transforming activity. In contrast, genes altered in a portion of the second or the entire third conserved segment retained their transforming activity. Thus, the latter two segments are not required for the transformation process, suggesting that they serve another function related only to the normal expression of the c-myc gene

  17. Non-covalent interactions of the carcinogen (+)-anti-BPDE with exon 1 of the human K-ras proto-oncogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jorge H.; Deligkaris, Christos

    2013-03-01

    Investigating the complementary, but different, effects of physical (non-covalent) and chemical (covalent) mutagen-DNA and carcinogen-DNA interactions is important for understanding possible mechanisms of development and prevention of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. A highly mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[ α]pyrene, namely (+)-anti-BPDE, is known to undergo both physical and chemical complexation with DNA. The major covalent adduct, a promutagenic, is known to be an external (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N2-dGuanosine configuration whose origins are not fully understood. Thus, it is desirable to study the mechanisms of external non-covalent BPDE-DNA binding and their possible relationships to external covalent trans adduct formation. We present a detailed codon-by-codon computational study of the non-covalent interactions of (+)-anti-BPDE with DNA which explains and correctly predicts preferential (+)-anti-BPDE binding at minor groove guanosines. Due to its relevance to carcinogenesis, the interaction of (+)-anti-BPDE with exon 1 of the human K-ras gene has been studied in detail. Present address: Department of Physics, Drury University

  18. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor and the proto-oncogenic receptor c-Met in canine osteosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, H; Spee, B; Ijzer, J; Kik, M J; Penning, L C; Kirpensteijn, J

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the proto-oncogenic receptor c-Met are implicated in growth, invasion, and metastasis in human cancer. Little information is available on the expression and role of both gene products in canine osteosarcoma. We hypothesized that the expression of c-Met is

  19. Acidosis Decreases c-Myc Oncogene Expression in Human Lymphoma Cells: A Role for the Proton-Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptor TDAG8

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    Zhigang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidosis is a biochemical hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that acute acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in U937 human lymphoma cells. The level of c-Myc transcripts, but not mRNA or protein stability, contributes to c-Myc protein reduction under acidosis. The pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 (GPR65 is involved in acidosis-induced c-Myc downregulation. TDAG8 is expressed in U937 lymphoma cells, and the overexpression or knockdown of TDAG8 further decreases or partially rescues c-Myc expression, respectively. Acidic pH alone is insufficient to reduce c-Myc expression, as it does not decrease c-Myc in H1299 lung cancer cells expressing very low levels of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Instead, c-Myc is slightly increased by acidosis in H1299 cells, but this increase is completely inhibited by ectopic overexpression of TDAG8. Interestingly, TDAG8 expression is decreased by more than 50% in human lymphoma samples in comparison to non-tumorous lymph nodes and spleens, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor function of TDAG8 in lymphoma. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism of c-Myc regulation by acidosis in the tumor microenvironment and indicate that modulation of TDAG8 and related pH-sensing receptor pathways may be exploited as a new approach to inhibit Myc expression.

  20. Immortalization of human neural stem cells with the c-myc mutant T58A.

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    Lidia De Filippis

    Full Text Available Human neural stem cells (hNSC represent an essential source of renewable brain cells for both experimental studies and cell replacement therapies. Their relatively slow rate of proliferation and physiological senescence in culture make their use cumbersome under some experimental and pre-clinical settings. The immortalization of hNSC with the v-myc gene (v-IhNSC has been shown to generate stem cells endowed with enhanced proliferative capacity, which greatly facilitates the study of hNSCs, both in vitro and in vivo. Despite the excellent safety properties displayed by v-IhNSCs--which do not transform in vitro and are not tumorigenic in vivo--the v-myc gene contains several mutations and recombination elements, whose role(s and effects remains to be elucidated, yielding unresolved safety concerns. To address this issue, we used a c-myc T58A retroviral vector to establish an immortal cell line (T-IhNSC from the same hNSCs used to generate the original v-IhNSCs and compared their characteristics with the latter, with hNSC and with hNSC immortalized using c-myc wt (c-IhNSC. T-IhNSCs displayed an enhanced self-renewal ability, with their proliferative capacity and clonogenic potential being remarkably comparable to those of v-IhNSC and higher than wild type hNSCs and c-IhNSCs. Upon growth factors removal, T-IhNSC promptly gave rise to well-differentiated neurons, astrocytes and most importantly, to a heretofore undocumented high percentage of human oligodendrocytes (up to 23%. Persistent growth-factor dependence, steady functional properties, lack of ability to generate colonies in soft-agar colony-forming assay and to establish tumors upon orthotopic transplantation, point to the fact that immortalization by c-myc T58A does not bring about tumorigenicity in hNSCs. Hence, this work describes a novel and continuous cell line of immortalized human multipotent neural stem cells, in which the immortalizing agent is represented by a single gene which, in

  1. XPC Promotes Pluripotency of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Regulation of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc

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    Lu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC, essential component of multisubunit stem cell coactivator complex (SCC, functions as the critical factor modulating pluripotency and genome integrity through interaction with Oct-4/Sox2. However, its specific role in regulating pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of human dental pulp cells (DPCs remains unknown. Methods. To elucidate the functional role XPC played in pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of DPCs, expressions of XPC in DPCs with long-term culture were examined by real-time PCR and western blot. DPCs were transfected with lentiviral-mediated human XPC gene; then transfection rate was investigated by real-time PCR and western blot. Cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation, senescence, multilineage differentiation, and expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc in transfected DPCs were examined. Results. XPC, Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc were downregulated at P7 compared with P3 in DPCs with long-term culture. XPC genes were upregulated in DPCs at P2 after transfection and maintained high expression level at P3 and P7. Cell proliferation, PI value, and telomerase activity were enhanced, whereas apoptosis was suppressed in transfected DPCs. Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc were significantly upregulated, and multilineage differentiation in DPCs with XPC overexpression was enhanced after transfection. Conclusions. XPC plays an essential role in the modulation of pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of DPCs through regulation of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc.

  2. XPC Promotes Pluripotency of Human Dental Pulp Cells through Regulation of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Peng, Zhengjun; Xu, Zhezhen; Wei, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC), essential component of multisubunit stem cell coactivator complex (SCC), functions as the critical factor modulating pluripotency and genome integrity through interaction with Oct-4/Sox2. However, its specific role in regulating pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of human dental pulp cells (DPCs) remains unknown. Methods. To elucidate the functional role XPC played in pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of DPCs, expressions of XPC in DPCs with long-term culture were examined by real-time PCR and western blot. DPCs were transfected with lentiviral-mediated human XPC gene; then transfection rate was investigated by real-time PCR and western blot. Cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation, senescence, multilineage differentiation, and expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc in transfected DPCs were examined. Results. XPC, Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc were downregulated at P7 compared with P3 in DPCs with long-term culture. XPC genes were upregulated in DPCs at P2 after transfection and maintained high expression level at P3 and P7. Cell proliferation, PI value, and telomerase activity were enhanced, whereas apoptosis was suppressed in transfected DPCs. Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc were significantly upregulated, and multilineage differentiation in DPCs with XPC overexpression was enhanced after transfection. Conclusions. XPC plays an essential role in the modulation of pluripotency and multilineage differentiation of DPCs through regulation of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc.

  3. Expression of c-myc and c-fos and binding sites for estradiol and progesterone in human pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, G A; Rivolta, C M; Artese, R; Basso, A; Burdman, J A

    1998-12-01

    We studied the concentration of mRNA from the oncogenes c-myc and c-fos in human pituitary adenomas by Northern blot hybridization (35 somatotrophinomas, 9 prolactinomas, 21 nonsecreting and 3 adrenocorticotrophinomas). The concentration of estrogens and progesterone receptors was also investigated. The levels of c-myc and c-fos mRNA was higher in nonsecreting tumors which were generally the largest and had a higher percentage of recurrence after surgery than the other groups. High concentration of estrogen receptors was observed in tumors derived from cells which are normally the target of this hormone, mainly prolactinomas. They were also present in somatotrophic and nonsecreting adenomas, related to the presence of prolactin or gonadotrophin cells in these tumors. The presence of estrogen receptors indicates that the tumor cells maintain their differentiation and a good prognosis as is the case for prolactinomas. We did not find any relationship between estrogen receptors and the concentration of c-myc and c-fos oncogenes. Larger adenomas (mainly nonsecreting) had higher levels of c-myc and c-fos mRNA than the other tumors and they had an important percentage of recurrence after surgery. It is clear that tumor size is related to the outcome after surgery and that nonsecreting adenomas are usually large because of the late diagnosis. However two large somatotrophinomas with extrasellar expansion also had overexpression of both oncogenes and both relapsed after surgery.

  4. The small Rho GTPase Rac1 controls normal human dermal fibroblasts proliferation with phosphorylation of the oncoprotein c-myc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, Ekaterina; Mitev, Vanio; Zhelev, Nikolai; Deroanne, Christophe F.; Poumay, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation of dermal fibroblasts is crucial for the maintenance of skin. The small Rho GTPase, Rac1, has been identified as a key transducer of proliferative signals in various cell types, but in normal human dermal fibroblasts its significance to cell growth control has not been studied. In this study, we applied the method of RNA interference to suppress endogenous Rac1 expression and examined the consequences on human skin fibroblasts. Rac1 knock-down resulted in inhibition of DNA synthesis. This effect was not mediated by inhibition of the central transducer of proliferative stimuli, ERK1/2 or by activation of the pro-apoptotic p38. Rather, as a consequence of the suppressed Rac1 expression we observed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of c-myc, revealing for the first time that in human fibroblasts Rac1 exerts control on proliferation through c-myc phosphorylation. Thus Rac1 activates proliferation of normal fibroblasts through stimulation of c-myc phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 activity

  5. Encapsulation of c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in lipid particles improves antitumoral efficacy in vivo in a human melanoma line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, C; Biroccio, A; Benassi, B; Stringaro, A; Stoppacciaro, A; Semple, S C; Zupi, G

    2001-06-01

    Phosphorothioate c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides [S]ODNs (free INX-6295) were encapsulated in a new liposome formulation and the antitumor activity was compared to the unencapsulated antisense in a human melanoma xenograft. The systemic administration of INX-6295 encapsulated in stabilized antisense lipid particles (SALP INX-6295) improved plasma AUC (area under the plasma concentration-time curve) and initial half-life of free INX-6295, resulting in a significant enhancement in tumor accumulation and improvement in tumor distribution of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Animals treated with SALP INX-6295 exhibited a prolonged reduction of c-myc expression, reduced tumor growth and increased mice survival. When administered in combination with cisplatin (DDP), SALP INX-6295 produced a complete tumor regression in approximately 30% of treated mice, which persisted for at least 60 days following the first cycle of treatment. Finally, the median survival of mice treated with DDP/SALP INX-6295 increased by 105% compared to 84% for animals treated with the combination DDP/free INX-6295. These data indicate that the biological activity and the therapeutic efficacy of c-myc antisense therapy may be improved when these agents are administered in lipid-based delivery systems.

  6. Elevated expression of proto-oncogenes accompany enhanced induction of heat-shock genes after exposure of rat embryos in utero to ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, H.; Lee, J.Y.; Satow, Y.; Higo, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have recently found that the effects of exposing rat embryos in utero to teratogens capable of producing cardiac anomalies were expressed later as enhanced induction of heat-shock proteins (hsp70 family) when embryonic hearts were cultured in vitro. However, it remained to be determined whether heat-shock proteins are induced in vivo after exposure to teratogens. The heat-shock response in some mammalian systems is known to be accompanied by elevated expression of proto-oncogenes. Using gene-specific DNA probes, we examined the levels of the expression (transcription) of heat-shock protein genes and two nuclear proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, in the embryos removed from irradiated pregnant mother rats 4 or 5 days after the irradiation. We found that the levels of expression in vivo of the hsp70 and c-myc genes in the irradiated embryos increased by approximately twofold as compared with those in the control. The expression in vivo of the c-fos gene was not detected in either the irradiated or non-irradiated embryos. After 0.5-hr incubation in vitro of the embryos, however, the expression of the c-fos gene in the irradiated embryos was highly enhanced whereas the control showed no changes. Although the exact functions of these gene products still remain obscure, the enhanced expression of hsp70 gene(s) and the nuclear proto-oncogenes observed in the present study may reflect repair of intracellular damages and/or regeneration of tissue by compensatory cell proliferation, processes that may disturb the normal program of organogenesis

  7. AP-2α Inhibits c-MYC Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yu

    2009-01-01

    AP-2 may have a direct effect on the c-myc gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that AP-2 proteins bound to a cluster of AP-2 binding sites located within a 2 kb upstream regulatory region of c-myc These results suggest that the negative regulation of AP-2 on c-MYC activity was achieved through binding of AP-2 protein to the c-myc gene. The effects of AP-2 on c-MYC induced ROS accumulation and apoptosis in epidermal keratinocytes are likely to play an important role in cell growth, differentiation and carcinogenesis of the skin.

  8. Lanatoside C inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through attenuating Wnt/β-catenin/c-Myc signaling pathway in human gastric cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yudong; Yu, Kaikai; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Depeng; Shi, Chaoji; Ding, Yunhe; Hong, Duo; Zhang, Dan; He, Huiqiong; Sun, Lei; Zheng, Jun-Nian; Sun, Shuyang; Qian, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the third common cause of cancer mortality in the world with poor prognosis and high recurrence due to lack of effective medicines. Our studies revealed that lanatoside C, a FDA-approved cardiac glycoside, had an anti-proliferation effect on different human cancer cell lines (MKN-45; SGC-7901; HN4; MCF-7; HepG2) and gastric cell lines MKN-45 and SGC-7901 were the most sensitive cell lines to lanatoside C. MKN-45 cells treated with lanatoside C showed cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and inhibition of cell migration. Meanwhile, upregulation of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved PARP and downregulation of Bcl-xl were accompanied with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lanatoside C inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling with downregulation of c-Myc, while overexpression of c-Myc reversed the anti-tumor effect of lanatoside C, confirming that c-Myc is a key drug target of lanatoside C. Furthermore, we discovered that lanatoside C prompted c-Myc degradation in proteasome-ubiquitin pathway with attenuating the binding of USP28 to c-Myc. These findings indicate that lanatoside C targeted c-Myc ubiquitination to inhibit MKN-45 proliferation and support the potential value of lanatoside C as a chemotherapeutic candidate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of ionizing radiation on the biological activity of activated oncogenes and dormant proto-oncogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angenent, G.C.; Berg, K.J. van den.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have studied the effect of ionizing radiation on the cloned human activated Ha-ras oncogene, on the Ha-ras gene in integrated form and on the dormant proto-oncogene murine c-mos using the NIH/3T3 transfection system. NIH/3T3 cells were transfected with DNA from the plasmid pT24 carrying the cloned Ha-ras oncogene of the T24 bladder carcinoma cell line. Various individual foci which developed were injected into nude mice. DNA was isolated from tumours, digested with the restriction enzyme Bam HI, electrophoresed on agarose and blotted onto nitrocellulose filter according to Southern. Hybridization with a pT24 probe showed that all the primary foci of transformed cells contained various fragments of the pT24 plasmid indicating that fibroblast transformation had been induced by introduction of the Ha-ras oncogene. (Auth.)

  10. Human RNA polymerase II associated factor 1 complex promotes tumorigenesis by activating c-MYC transcription in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Xiuyi; Giroux-Leprieur, Etienne; Wislez, Marie; Hu, Mu; Zhang, Yi; Shi, Huaiyin; Du, Kaiqi; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Human RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-associated factor 1 complex (hPAF1C) plays a crucial role in protein-coding gene transcription. Overexpression of hPAF1C has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various human cancers. However, the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis through hPAF1C remain to be elucidated. The current study suggested hPAF1C expression as a prognostic biomarker for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and patients with low hPAF1C expression levels had significantly better overall survival. Furthermore, the expression of hPAF1C was found to be positively correlated with c-MYC expression in patient tumor samples and in cancer cell lines. Mechanistic studies indicated that hPAF1C could promote lung cancer cell proliferation through regulating c-MYC transcription. These results demonstrated the prognostic value of hPAF1C in early-stage NSCLC and the role of hPAF1C in the transcriptional regulation of c-MYC oncogene during NSCLC tumorigenesis. - Highlights: • hPAF1C expression is a prognostic biomarker for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. • The expression of hPAF1C was positively correlated with c-MYC in tumor samples of patients and in several NSCLC cell lines. • hPAF1C could promote lung cancer cell proliferation through regulating c-MYC transcription.

  11. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipigorngoson Suwiwek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham. Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin.

  12. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limtrakul, Porn-ngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Lipigorngoson, Suwiwek; Dunn, Floyd W

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham). Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin

  13. High levels of stable p53 protein and the expression of c-myc in cultured human epithelial tissue after cobalt-60 irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.B.; Harney, J.; Hennessy, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    When explants of human uroepithelium or esophageal epithelium are exposed to acute doses of radiation (cobalt-60), the cells which grow out to form the primary cultures show a number of abnormal features. These include the development of characteristic nonsenescent foci. These foci have previously been shown to be c-myc positive and to have an abnormal, tumor-like ultrastructure. Expression of c-myc and the level of stable p53 proteins have now been examined in these cultures 2 weeks after irradiation. Both proteins occurred in dividing cells at the growing edge of the explant and in the foci. The expression of c-myc appeared to be correlated with growth. As expected, variation between individual cultures of normal human cells was noted in the expression of stable p53 protein. Most control uroepithelial cell cultures were negative, but a small cohort showed a wide range of values. The control cultures from the esophageal tissues had high expression of p53, and this decreased marginally after irradiation. Cells positive for p53 were always in cycle and were usually positive for c-myc as well. It would appear from these results that the expression of c-myc and the stable form of the p53 protein occur in irradiated primary cultures of normal human cells both in foci which also express a number of abnormalities and in open-quotes edgeclose quotes cells which are dividing. Cultures of unirradiated cells from esophagus and a small number of uroepithelial samples had high levels of p53. Possible reasons for this are discussed. 33 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Multiple fractions of gamma rays do not induce overexpression of c-myc or c-Ki-ras oncogenes in human cervical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmak, M.; Soric, J.; Matulic, M.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple fractions of gamma rays (0.5 Gy daily, 30 fractions) had previously been found to change the sensitivity of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells to anticancer drugs. Preirradiated cells became resistant to cisplatin, methotrexate and vincristine but retained the same sensitivity to gamma rays and ultraviolet light. Some mechanisms involved in the resistance of preirradiated cells to cisplatin and vincristine were determined, i.e. the increased levels of metallothioneins and increased expression of plasma membrane P glycoprotein. As recent reports indicated that the resistance to cisplatin and ionizing radiation may involve the expression of oncogenes, the problem was studied whether multiple fractions of gamma rays can change the expression of c-myc and c-Ki-ras oncogenes in HeLa cells and whether there is a correlation between the expression of these oncogenes and the sensitivity of preirradiated cells to cisplatin and gamma rays. The expression of c-myc and c-Ki-ras oncogenes was examined using the DNA dot blot, the RNA dot blot and Northern blot analysis. The results show that preirradiation induced neither amplification nor elevated expression of c-myc and c-Ki-ras oncogenes. Furthermore, there is no correlation between the expression of c-myc and c-Ki-ras oncogenes and the acquired resistance to cisplatin. (author) 3 figs., 32 refs

  15. The adaptive immune system promotes initiation of prostate carcinogenesis in a human c-Myc transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Monique H M; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; van Burgsteden, Johan; Cioni, Bianca; van Zeeburg, Hester J T; Song, Ji-Ying; Zevenhoven, John; Hawinkels, Lukas J A C; de Visser, Karin E; Bergman, Andries M

    2017-11-07

    Increasing evidence from epidemiological and pathological studies suggests a role of the immune system in the initiation and progression of multiple cancers, including prostate cancer. Reports on the contribution of the adaptive immune system are contradictive, since both suppression and acceleration of disease development have been reported. This study addresses the functional role of lymphocytes in prostate cancer development using a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) of human c-Myc driven prostate cancer (Hi-Myc mice) combined with B and T cell deficiency (RAG1 -/- mice). From a pre-cancerous stage on, Hi-Myc mice showed higher accumulation of immune cells in their prostates then wild-type mice, of which macrophages were the most abundant. The onset of invasive adenocarcinoma was delayed in Hi-MycRAG1 -/- compared to Hi-Myc mice and associated with decreased infiltration of leukocytes into the prostate. In addition, lower levels of the cytokines CXCL2, CCL5 and TGF-β1 were detected in Hi-MycRAG1 -/- compared to Hi-Myc mouse prostates. These results from a GEMM of prostate cancer provide new insights into the promoting role of the adaptive immune system in prostate cancer development. Our findings indicate that the endogenous adaptive immune system does not protect against de novo prostate carcinogenesis in Hi-Myc transgenic mice, but rather accelerates the formation of invasive adenocarcinomas. This may have implications for the development of novel treatment strategies.

  16. The crucial role of the proto-oncogene c-mos in regulation of oocyte maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jałocha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis arrest before fertilization is a common and unique feature of oogenesis in many animal species. On account of the unclear biological significance of meiosis arrest at various stages and for different durations in different animal species, this process and its regulation are the subject of many scientific studies. Studies on the development of ovarian teratomas proved to be helpful in defining the role of particular genes and biochemical cycles in control of the cell cycle in animals. These benign tumors are a valuable source of information on oocyte maturation. The [i]c-mos[/i] proto-oncogene, which is specifically expressed in female and male germ cells, plays a crucial role in control of meiotic cell division in mammals. Its product – Mos protein kinase – acting through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs regulates critical cellular functions required for homeostasis and decides about cell survival or apoptosis. The MAPK kinase kinase – MAPK kinase – MAPK (MKKK-MKK-MAPK phosphorelay system, in view of its role in cells, seems to be the ideal target for therapeutic intervention in cancer and other diseases. The recent research on human oocytes suggests that the basic mechanisms regulating various stages of oocyte maturation are similar to those described in animals.

  17. Regulation of expression of the c-sis proto-oncogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, L. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1989-06-12

    Regulation of expression of platelet derived growth factor polypeptide B encoded by the c-sis proto-oncogene is important in a number of physiological and pathological conditions. Sequences in the 1,028 nucleotide long 5{prime} untranslated region of the c-sis mRNA were found to inhibit protein synthesis. The inhibition is relieved by deletion of nucleotides 154-378 or 398-475. Sequences within 375 nucleotides upstream of the RNA initiation sites are important for transcriptional activity. Sequences in two portions of this region, between {minus}375 and {minus}235 nucleotides and between {minus}235 and {minus}99 nucleotides relative to the RNA CAP site are important for full activity. A transcriptional enhancer activity is demonstrated by its ability to increase the activity of the human T lymphotropic virus type (HTLV) I promoter at a distance and in an orientation-independent manner. Furthermore, sequences upstream of the c-sis RNA CAP site respond to the HTLV I transactivator protein to increase RNA synthesis from either the c-sis or HTLV I promoter.

  18. Effects of c-myc oncogene modulation on differentiation of human small cell lung carcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waardenburg, RCAM; Meijer, C; Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; De Vries, EGE; Timens, W; Mulder, NM

    1998-01-01

    Amplification and over-expression of oncogenes of the myc family are related to the prognosis of certain solid tumors such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC). For SCLC, c-myc is the oncogene most consistently found to correlate with the end stage behaviour of the tumour, in particular with survival

  19. Utilization of circular dichroism and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to understand the formation and conversion of G-quadruplex DNA at the human c-myb proto-oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hengqing; Yang, Pengfei; Hai, Jinhui; Li, Huihui

    2018-10-05

    G-quadruplex DNAs are involved in a number of key biological processes, including gene expression, transcription, and apoptosis. The c-myb oncogene contains a number of GGA repeats in its promoter which forms G-quadruplex, thus it could be used as a target in cancer therapeutics. Several in-vitro studies have used Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to demonstrate formation and stability of G-quadruplex DNA structure in the promoter region of human c-myb oncogene. The factors affecting the c-myb G-quadruplex structures were investigated, such as cations (i.e. K + , NH 4 + and Na + ) and co-solutes (methanol and polyethylene glycol). The results indicated that the presence of cations and co-solutes could change the G-quadruplex structural population and promote its thermodynamic stabilization as indicated by CD melting curves. It indicated that the co-solutes preferentially stabilize the c-myb G-quadruplex structure containing both homo- and hetero-stacking. In addition, protopine was demonstrated as a binder of c-myb G-quadruplex as screened from a library of natural alkaloids using ESI-MS method. CD spectra showed that it could selectively stabilize the c-myb G-quadruplex structure compared to other six G-quadruplexes from tumor-related G-rich sequences and the duplex DNAs (both long and short-chain ones). The binding of protopine could induce the change in the G-quadruplex structural populations. Therefore, protopine with its high binding specificity could be considered as a precursor for the design of drugs to target and regulate c-myb oncogene transcription. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Somatostatin reduces 3H-thymidine incorporation and c-myc, but not thyroglobulin ribonucleic acid levels in human thyroid follicular cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    degli Uberti, E.C.; Hanau, S.; Rossi, R.; Piva, R.; Margutti, A.; Trasforini, G.; Pansini, G.; del Senno, L.

    1991-01-01

    The action of somatostatin (SRIH) on 3 H-thymidine (thy) incorporation and on c-myc and thyroglobulin RNA levels in a suspension of follicles from normal and goitrous human thyroid was examined. SRIH, at 10 - 7 M concentration, inhibited basal thy incorporation (maximally by 4 h lasting for up 24 h), which effect was greater in goiter than in normal thyroid and was also detected in growing adherent epithelial cells. Moreover, in a follicle suspension SRIH prevented TSH-stimulated thy incorporation, both in normal and in goitrous thyroid. Basal expression of c-myc RNA was not affected by SRIH in either tissue, whereas the TSH-stimulated c-myc RNA level was significantly reduced in goiter. No effect of SRIH was observed on basal or TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin RNA levels. SRIH did not alter basal cAMP concentrations in normal or goitrous follicles, but it significantly reduced TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation both in normal thyroid and in goiter. Overall, our data indicate a direct inhibitory action of SRIH on growth, but not on differentiation, of human thyroid, probably by a mechanism not entirely cAMP dependent

  1. A germline RET proto-oncogene mutation in multiple members of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is a rare cancer associated-syndrome, inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and caused by germline mutation in RET proto-oncogene. Clinical diagnosis depends on the manifestation of two or more certain endocrine tumors in an individual, such as ...

  2. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency via epigenetic regulation of the c-Myc promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Tianjin; Guo, Lihe; Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen; Du, Xiling; Xu, Fuhui; Liu, Zhixue; Lai, Dongmei

    2010-02-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are typically cultured on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) added to maintain them in an undifferentiated state. We have previously shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) can be used as feeder cells to maintain mouse ESC pluripotency, but the mechanism for this is unknown. In the present study, we found that CpG islands 5' of the c-Myc gene remain hypomethylated in mouse ESCs cultured on hAECs. In addition, levels of acetylation of histone H3 and trimethylation of histone H3K4 in the c-Myc gene promoter were higher in ES cells cultured on hAECs than those in ES cells cultured on MEFs. These data suggested that hAECs can alter mouse ESC gene expression via epigenetic modification of c-Myc, providing a possible mechanism for the hAEC-induced maintenance of ESCs in an undifferentiated state.

  3. Retroviruses Hijack Chromatin Loops to Drive Oncogene Expression and Highlight the Chromatin Architecture around Proto-Oncogenic Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Jillian M.; Wright, Jason B.; Cole, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the genome consists of intergenic and non-coding DNA sequences shown to play a major role in different gene regulatory networks. However, the specific potency of these distal elements as well as how these regions exert function across large genomic distances remains unclear. To address these unresolved issues, we closely examined the chromatin architecture around proto-oncogenic loci in the mouse and human genomes to demonstrate a functional role for chromatin looping in distal gene regulation. Using cell culture models, we show that tumorigenic retroviral integration sites within the mouse genome occur near existing large chromatin loops and that this chromatin architecture is maintained within the human genome as well. Significantly, as mutagenesis screens are not feasible in humans, we demonstrate a way to leverage existing screens in mice to identify disease relevant human enhancers and expose novel disease mechanisms. For instance, we characterize the epigenetic landscape upstream of the human Cyclin D1 locus to find multiple distal interactions that contribute to the complex cis-regulation of this cell cycle gene. Furthermore, we characterize a novel distal interaction upstream of the Cyclin D1 gene which provides mechanistic evidence for the abundant overexpression of Cyclin D1 occurring in multiple myeloma cells harboring a pathogenic translocation event. Through use of mapped retroviral integrations and translocation breakpoints, our studies highlight the importance of chromatin looping in oncogene expression, elucidate the epigenetic mechanisms crucial for distal cis-regulation, and in one particular instance, explain how a translocation event drives tumorigenesis through upregulation of a proto-oncogene. PMID:25799187

  4. Mutation and genomic amplification of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene in pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, C.B.; Braga, P.B.S.; Fortes, M.A.H.Z. [Laboratório de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular (LIM-25), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bronstein, M.D. [Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia, Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Corrêa-Giannella, M.L.C.; Giorgi, R.R. [Laboratório de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular (LIM-25), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-13

    The tumorigenesis of pituitary adenomas is poorly understood. Mutations of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene, which encodes the p110-α catalytic subunit of PI3K, have been reported in various types of human cancers regarding the role of the gene in cell proliferation and survival through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Only one Chinese study described somatic mutations and amplification of the PIK3CA gene in a large series of pituitary adenomas. The aim of the present study was to determine genetic alterations of PIK3CA in a second series that consisted of 33 pituitary adenomas of different subtypes diagnosed by immunohistochemistry: 6 adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting microadenomas, 5 growth hormone-secreting macroadenomas, 7 prolactin-secreting macroadenomas, and 15 nonfunctioning macroadenomas. Direct sequencing of exons 9 and 20 assessed by qPCR was employed to investigate the presence of mutations and genomic amplification defined as a copy number ≥4. Previously identified PIK3CA mutations (exon 20) were detected in four cases (12.1%). Interestingly, the Chinese study reported mutations only in invasive tumors, while we found a PIK3CA mutation in one noninvasive corticotroph microadenoma. PIK3CA amplification was observed in 21.2% (7/33) of the cases. This study demonstrates the presence of somatic mutations and amplifications of the PIK3CA gene in a second series of pituitary adenomas, corroborating the previously described involvement of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the tumorigenic process of this gland.

  5. Mutation and genomic amplification of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene in pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, C.B.; Braga, P.B.S.; Fortes, M.A.H.Z.; Bronstein, M.D.; Corrêa-Giannella, M.L.C.; Giorgi, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    The tumorigenesis of pituitary adenomas is poorly understood. Mutations of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene, which encodes the p110-α catalytic subunit of PI3K, have been reported in various types of human cancers regarding the role of the gene in cell proliferation and survival through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Only one Chinese study described somatic mutations and amplification of the PIK3CA gene in a large series of pituitary adenomas. The aim of the present study was to determine genetic alterations of PIK3CA in a second series that consisted of 33 pituitary adenomas of different subtypes diagnosed by immunohistochemistry: 6 adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting microadenomas, 5 growth hormone-secreting macroadenomas, 7 prolactin-secreting macroadenomas, and 15 nonfunctioning macroadenomas. Direct sequencing of exons 9 and 20 assessed by qPCR was employed to investigate the presence of mutations and genomic amplification defined as a copy number ≥4. Previously identified PIK3CA mutations (exon 20) were detected in four cases (12.1%). Interestingly, the Chinese study reported mutations only in invasive tumors, while we found a PIK3CA mutation in one noninvasive corticotroph microadenoma. PIK3CA amplification was observed in 21.2% (7/33) of the cases. This study demonstrates the presence of somatic mutations and amplifications of the PIK3CA gene in a second series of pituitary adenomas, corroborating the previously described involvement of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the tumorigenic process of this gland

  6. The fps/fes proto-oncogene regulates hematopoietic lineage output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrar, Waheed; Gao, Yan; Zirngibl, Ralph A; Scott, Michelle L; Greer, Peter A

    2003-12-01

    The fps/fes proto-oncogene is abundantly expressed in myeloid cells, and the Fps/Fes cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase is implicated in signaling downstream from hematopoietic cytokines, including interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and erythropoietin (EPO). Studies using leukemic cell lines have previously suggested that Fps/Fes contributes to granulomonocytic differentiation, and that it might play a more selective role in promoting survival and differentiation along the monocytic pathway. In this study we have used a genetic approach to explore the role of Fps/Fes in hematopoiesis. We used transgenic mice that tissue-specifically express a mutant human fps/fes transgene (fps(MF)) that was engineered to encode Fps/Fes kinase that is activated through N-terminal myristoylation (MFps). Hematopoietic function was assessed using lineage analysis, hematopoietic progenitor cell colony-forming assays, and biochemical approaches. fps(MF) transgenic mice displayed a skewed hematopoietic output reflected by increased numbers of circulating granulocytic and monocytic cells and a corresponding decrease in lymphoid cells. Bone marrow colony assays of progenitor cells revealed a significant increase in the number of both granulomonocytic and multi-lineage progenitors. A molecular analysis of signaling in mature monocytic cells showed that MFps promoted GM-CSF-induced STAT3, STAT5, and ERK1/2 activation. These observations support a role for Fps/Fes in signaling pathways that contribute to lineage determination at the level of multi-lineage hematopoietic progenitors as well as the more committed granulomonocytic progenitors.

  7. Bioinformatics of non small cell lung cancer and the ras proto-oncogene

    CERN Document Server

    Kashyap, Amita; Babu M, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is initiated by activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Mutations in the K-ras proto-oncogene are responsible for 10–30% of adenocarcinomas. Clinical Findings point to a wide variety of other cancers contributing to lung cancer incidence. Such a scenario makes identification of lung cancer difficult and thus identifying its mechanisms can contribute to the society. Identifying unique conserved patterns common to contributing proto-oncogenes may further be a boon to Pharmacogenomics and pharmacoinformatics. This calls for ab initio/de novo drug discovery that in turn will require a comprehensive in silico approach of Sequence, Domain, Phylogenetic and Structural analysis of the receptors, ligand screening and optimization and detailed Docking studies. This brief involves extensive role of the RAS subfamily that includes a set of proteins, which cause an over expression of cancer-causing genes like M-ras and initiate tumour formation in lungs. SNP Studies and Structure based ...

  8. The c-Myc target glycoprotein1balpha links cytokinesis failure to oncogenic signal transduction pathways in cultured human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An increase in chromosome number, or polyploidization, is associated with a variety of biological changes including breeding of cereal crops and flowers, terminal differentiation of specialized cells such as megakaryocytes, cellular stress and oncogenic transformation. Yet it remains unclear how cells tolerate the major changes in gene expression, chromatin organization and chromosome segregation that invariably accompany polyploidization. We show here that cancer cells can initiate increases in chromosome number by inhibiting cell division through activation of glycoprotein1b alpha (GpIbalpha, a component of the c-Myc signaling pathway. We are able to recapitulate cytokinesis failure in primary cells by overexpression of GpIbalpha in a p53-deficient background. GpIbalpha was found to localize to the cleavage furrow by microscopy analysis and, when overexpressed, to interfere with assembly of the cellular cortical contraction apparatus and normal division. These results indicate that cytokinesis failure and tetraploidy in cancer cells are directly linked to cellular hyperproliferation via c-Myc induced overexpression of GpIbalpha.

  9. Hsa-let-7a functions as a tumor suppressor in renal cell carcinoma cell lines by targeting c-myc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongchao; Yin, Bingde; Zhang, Changcun; Zhou, Libin [Department of Urology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Fan, Jie, E-mail: jief67@sina.com [Department of Urology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the first to test the let-7a/c-myc loop in renal cell carcinoma cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Let-7a down-regulated c-myc in three renal cell carcinoma cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer c-myc target genes were down-regulated because of the let-7a-mediated down-regulation of c-myc. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The let-7a/c-myc loop has a significant function in renal cell carcinoma cell lines. -- Abstract: Widespread functions of the c-myc pathway play a crucial role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) carcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated the connection between proto-oncogenic c-myc and anti-neoplastic hsa-let-7a (let-7a) in RCC cell lines. The levels of c-myc and let-7a in 3 RCC cell lines (769P, Caki-1 and 786O) were measured after transfecting the cells with let-7a mimics or a negative control. The change in c-myc protein level was confirmed by Western blot. The anti-neoplastic function of let-7a was evaluated using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) for proliferation analysis and cell flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis. The changes of downstream targets of c-myc were measured using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results suggest for the first time that let-7a acts as a tumor suppressor in RCC cell lines by down-regulating c-myc and c-myc target genes such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and the miR17-92 cluster, which is accompanied by proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest.

  10. Course of c-myc mRNA expression in the regenerating mouse testis determined by competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, R

    1994-11-01

    The c-myc proto-oncogene is a reliable marker of the "G0-early G1" transition, and its down-regulation is believed to be necessary to obtain cellular differentiation. In murine spermatogenesis, the level of c-myc transcripts does not correlate with the rate of cellular division. Proliferation of supposed staminal spermatogonia to reproduce themselves is induced with a local 5 Gy X-ray dose in 90-day-old C57Bl/6 mice. c-myc quantification by a newly developed competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to follow the expression course of this proto-oncogene. Damage and restoration of spermatogenesis were analyzed at days 3, 6, 9, 10, 13, 30, and 60 after injury by relative testes/body weight determination and histological examination. Proliferative status was determined by histone H3 Northern blot analysis. c-myc mRNA level was 10 times higher after 3 days in the irradiated animals compared to the controls. An increasing number of copies were noted up to 10 days, but promptly decreased to the base level found for irradiated mice from 13 to 60 days. Interestingly, the expression of histone H3 detected S phase only in testes at 60 days from damage.

  11. Loss of connective tissue growth factor as an unfavorable prognosis factor activates miR-18b by PI3K/AKT/C-Jun and C-Myc and promotes cell growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Zhen, Y; Yang, H; Wang, H; Zhou, Y; Wang, E; Marincola, F M; Mai, C; Chen, Y; Wei, H; Song, Y; Lyu, X; Ye, Y; Cai, L; Wu, Q; Zhao, M; Hua, S; Fu, Q; Zhang, Y; Yao, K; Liu, Z; Li, X; Fang, W

    2013-05-16

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has different roles in different types of cancer. However, the involvement and molecular basis of CTGF in tumor progression and prognosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have almost never been reported. In this study, we observed that downregulated CTGF expression was significantly associated with NPC progression and poor prognosis. Knockdown of CTGF markedly elevated the ability of cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Subsequently, we discovered that the reduction of CTGF increased the expression of miR-18b, an oncomir-promoting cell proliferation. Further, we discovered that attenuated CTGF-mediated upregulation of miR-18b was dependent on the increased binding of transcription factors Jun proto-oncogene (C-Jun) and v-Myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (C-Myc) to miR-18b promoter region via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Finally, we further found that miR-18b directly suppressed the expression of CTGF in NPC. In clinical fresh specimens, miR-18b was widely overexpressed and inversely correlated with CTGF expression in NPC. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that reduced CTGF as an unfavorable prognosis factor mediates the activation of miR-18b, an oncomir directly suppresses CTGF expression, by PI3K/AKT/C-Jun and C-Myc and promotes cell growth of NPC.

  12. Expression of p27 and c-Myc by immunohistochemistry in breast ductal cancers in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan; Ricks-Santi, Luisel J; Zafar, Rabia; Kanaan, Yasmine; Naab, Tammey

    2018-06-01

    Proteins p27 and c-Myc are both key players in the cell cycle. While p27, a tumor suppressor, inhibits progression from G1 to S phase, c-Myc, a proto-oncogene, plays a key role in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The objective of our study was to determine the association between expression of c-Myc and the loss of p27 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the four major subtypes of breast cancer (BC) (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2, and Triple Negative) and with other clinicopathological factors in a population of 202 African-American (AA) women. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from FFPE tumor blocks from primary ductal breast carcinomas in 202 AA women. Five micrometer sections were stained with a mouse monoclonal antibody against p27 and a rabbit monoclonal antibody against c-Myc. The sections were evaluated for intensity of nuclear reactivity (1-3) and percentage of reactive cells; an H-score was derived from the product of these measurements. Loss of p27 expression and c-Myc overexpression showed statistical significance with ER negative (p c-Myc expression/p27 loss and luminal A/B and Her2 overexpressing subtypes. In our study, a statistically significant association between c-Myc expression and p27 loss and the triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) was found in AA women. A recent study found that constitutive c-Myc expression is associated with inactivation of the axin 1 tumor suppressor gene. p27 inhibits cyclin dependent kinase2/cyclin A/E complex formation. Axin 1 and CDK inhibitors may represent possible therapeutic targets for TNBC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ezrin mediates c-Myc actions in prostate cancer cell invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuan, Yin Choy; Iglesias Gato, Diego; Fernandez-Perez, L

    2010-01-01

    The forced overexpression of c-Myc in mouse prostate and in normal human prostate epithelial cells results in tumor transformation with an invasive phenotype. How c-Myc regulates cell invasion is poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the interplay of c-Myc and androgens in the re...

  14. The SKI proto-oncogene enhances the in vivo repopulation of hematopoietic stem cells and causes myeloproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singbrant, Sofie; Wall, Meaghan; Moody, Jennifer; Karlsson, Göran; Chalk, Alistair M; Liddicoat, Brian; Russell, Megan R; Walkley, Carl R; Karlsson, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    The proto-oncogene SKI is highly expressed in human myeloid leukemia and also in murine hematopoietic stem cells. However, its operative relevance in these cells remains elusive. We have over-expressed SKI to define its intrinsic role in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms, which resulted in a robust competitive advantage upon transplantation, a complete dominance of the stem and progenitor compartments, and a marked enhancement of myeloid differentiation at the expense of other lineages. Accordingly, enforced expression of SKI induced a gene signature associated with hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid differentiation, as well as hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to what has generally been assumed, the significant impact of SKI on hematopoiesis is independent of its ability to inhibit TGF-beta signaling. Instead, myeloid progenitors expressing SKI are partially dependent on functional hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Collectively our results demonstrate that SKI is an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell activity and its overexpression leads to myeloproliferative disease.

  15. Relationship of Amplification and Expression of the C-MYC Gene with Survival among Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghian, Malihea; Shakoori, Abbas; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Azimi, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, the incidence and mortality rate of stomach cancer has demonstrated a great decrease in the world, but it is still one of the most common and fatal cancers especially among men worldwide, including Iran. The MYC proto-oncogene, which is located at 8q24.1, regulates 15% of genes and is activated in 20% of all human tumors. MYC amplification and overexpression of its protein product has been reported in 15-30% of gastric neoplasias. The aim of this investigation was to find the relative efficacy of CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) or IHC (immunohistochemistry) in diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer, as well as the relationship of amplification and expression of C-MYC gene with patient survival. In this cross-sectional study, 102 samples of gastric cancer were collected from patients who had undergone primary surgical resection at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from July 2009 to March 2014. All samples were randomly selected from those who were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinomas. CISH and IHC methods were performed on all of them. Patients were classified into two groups. The first consisted of stage I and II cases, and the second of stage III and IV. Survival tests for both groups was carried out with referrnce to CISH test reults. Group II (stage III and IV) with CISH+ featured lower survival than those with CISH- (p=0.233), but group I (stage I and II) patients demonstrated no significant variation with CISH+ or CISH- (p=0.630). Kaplan-Meier for both groups was carried out with IHC test findings and showed similar results. This data revealed that both diffuse and intestinal types of gastric cancer occurred significantly more in men than women. Our data also showed that CISH+ patients (43%) were more frequent in comparison with IHC+ patients (14.7%). For planning treatment of gastric cancer patients, by focusing on expanding tumors, which is the greatest concern of the surgeons and

  16. Targeting of the tumor suppressor GRHL3 by a miR-21-dependent proto-oncogenic network results in PTEN loss and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darido, Charbel; Georgy, Smitha R; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Dworkin, Sebastian; Auden, Alana; Zhao, Quan; Rank, Gerhard; Srivastava, Seema; Finlay, Moira J; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Pearson, Richard B; Jane, Stephen M

    2011-11-15

    Despite its prevalence, the molecular basis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the developmental transcription factor Grhl3 as a potent tumor suppressor of SCC in mice, and demonstrate that targeting of Grhl3 by a miR-21-dependent proto-oncogenic network underpins SCC in humans. Deletion of Grhl3 in adult epidermis evokes loss of expression of PTEN, a direct GRHL3 target, resulting in aggressive SCC induced by activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Restoration of Pten expression completely abrogates SCC formation. Reduced levels of GRHL3 and PTEN are evident in human skin, and head and neck SCC, associated with increased expression of miR-21, which targets both tumor suppressors. Our data define the GRHL3-PTEN axis as a critical tumor suppressor pathway in SCC. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States); Ratner, Lee [Departments of Medicine and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Lairmore, Michael D. [University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Martinez, Ernest [Department of Biochemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lüscher, Bernhard [Institute of Biochemistry, Klinikum, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Robson, Craig N. [Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, The Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Cell and Tumor Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Harrod, Robert, E-mail: rharrod@smu.edu [Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Biological Sciences, and The Dedman College Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0376 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  18. The human thyroglobulin gene: a polymorphic marker localized distal to C-MYC on chromosome 8 band q24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, F.; Bikker, H.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Melsert, R.; Pearson, P. L.; de Vijlder, J. J.; van Ommen, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The human thyroglobulin (Tg) gene is localized to chromosome 8 and regionally to band q24 as shown independently by both in situ hybridization techniques and Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Analysis of hybrids derived from a Burkitt lymphoma, with a translocation

  19. Mechanisms of c-myc degradation by nickel compounds and hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni compounds have been found to cause cancer in humans and animal models and to transform cells in culture. At least part of this effect is mediated by stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1a and activating its downstream signaling. Recent studies reported that hypoxia signaling might either antagonize or enhance c-myc activity depending on cell context. We investigated the effect of nickel on c-myc levels, and demonstrated that nickel, hypoxia, and other hypoxia mimetics degraded c-myc protein in a number of cancer cells (A549, MCF-7, MDA-453, and BT-474. The degradation of the c-Myc protein was mediated by the 26S proteosome. Interestingly, knockdown of both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha attenuated c-Myc degradation induced by Nickel and hypoxia, suggesting the functional HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha was required for c-myc degradation. Further studies revealed two potential pathways mediated nickel and hypoxia induced c-myc degradation. Phosphorylation of c-myc at T58 was significantly increased in cells exposed to nickel or hypoxia, leading to increased ubiquitination through Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. In addition, nickel and hypoxia exposure decreased USP28, a c-myc de-ubiquitinating enzyme, contributing to a higher steady state level of c-myc ubiquitination and promoting c-myc degradation. Furthermore, the reduction of USP28 protein by hypoxia signaling is due to both protein degradation and transcriptional repression. Nickel and hypoxia exposure significantly increased the levels of dimethylated H3 lysine 9 at the USP28 promoter and repressed its expression. Our study demonstrated that Nickel and hypoxia exposure increased c-myc T58 phosphorylation and decreased USP28 protein levels in cancer cells, which both lead to enhanced c-myc ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation.

  20. Genomic amplification patterns of human telomerase RNA gene and C-MYC in liquid-based cytological specimens used for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaomin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amplification of oncogenes initiated by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infection is an early event in cervical carcinogenesis and can be used for cervical lesion diagnosis. We measured the genomic amplification rates and the patterns of human telomerase RNA gene (TERC and C-MYC in the liquid-based cytological specimens to evaluate the diagnostic characteristics for the detection of high-grade cervical lesions. Methods Two hundred and forty-three residual cytological specimens were obtained from outpatients aged 25 to 64 years at Qilu Hospital, Shandong University. The specimens were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using chromosome probes to TERC (3q26 and C-MYC (8q24. All of the patients underwent colposcopic examination and histological evaluation. A Chi-square test was used for categorical data analysis. Results In the normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1, grade 2 (CIN2, grade 3 (CIN3 and squamous cervical cancer (SCC cases, the TERC positive rates were 9.2%, 17.2%, 76.2%, 100.0% and 100.0%, respectively; the C-MYC positive rates were 20.7%, 31.0%, 71.4%, 81.8% and 100.0%, respectively. The TERC and C-MYC positive rates were higher in the CIN2+ (CIN2, CIN3 and SCC cases than in the normal and CIN1 cases (p p p > 0.05. Conclusions The TERC test is highly sensitive and is therefore suitable for cervical cancer screening. The C-MYC test is not suitable for cancer screening because of its lower sensitivity. The amplification patterns of TERC become more diverse and complex as the severity of cervical diseases increases, whereas for C-MYC, the amplification patterns are similar between the normal/CIN1 and CIN2+ groups. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1308004512669913.

  1. Expression of the Pokemon proto-oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Liu, Fei; Tang, Feng-Zhu; Lan, Jiao; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Chen, Xing-Zhou; Ye, Hui-Lan; Cai, Yong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    To study the differentiated expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and tissues, mRNA and protein expression levels of CNE1, CNE2, CNE3 and C666-1 were detected separately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and Western-blotting. The immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69 was used as a control. The Pokemon protein expression level in biopsy specimens from chronic rhinitis patients and undifferentiated non keratinizing NPC patients was determined by Western-blotting and arranged from high to low: C666-1>CNE1>CNE2> CNE3>NP69. The Pokemon mRNA expression level was also arranged from high to low: CNE1>CNE2>NP69>C666-1>CNE3. Pokemon expression of NP69 and C666-1 obviously varied from mRNA to protein. The Pokemon protein level of NPC biopsy specimens was obviously higher than in chronic rhinitis. The data suggest that high Pokemon protein expression is closely associated with undifferentiated non-keratinizing NPC and may provide useful information for NPC molecular target therapy.

  2. Methamphetamine induces apoptosis in immortalized neural cells: protection by the proto-oncogene, bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, J L; Ordonez, S V; Ordonez, J V

    1997-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an amphetamine analog that produces degeneration of the dopaminergic system in mammals. The neurotoxic effects of the drug are thought to be mediated by oxygen-based free radicals. In the present report, we have used immortalized neural cells obtained from rat mesencephalon in order to further assess the role of oxidative stress in METH-induced neurotoxicity. We thus tested if the anti-death proto-oncogene, bcl-2 could protect against METH-induced cytotoxicity. METH caused dose-dependent loss of cellular viability in control cells while bcl-2-expressing cells were protected against these deleterious effects. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescent staining, and DNA electrophoresis, we also show that METH exposure can cause DNA strand breaks, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, and DNA laddering. All these changes were prevented by bcl-2 expression. These observations provide further support for the involvement of oxidative stress in the toxic effects of amphetamine analogs. They also document that METH-induced cytotoxicity is secondary to apoptosis. These findings may be of relevance to the cause(s) of Parkinson's disease which involves degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway.

  3. Unexpected functional similarities between gatekeeper tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes revealed by systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongzhong; Epstein, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    Familial tumor suppressor genes comprise two subgroups: caretaker genes (CTs) that repair DNA, and gatekeeper genes (GKs) that trigger cell death. Since GKs may also induce cell cycle delay and thus enhance cell survival by facilitating DNA repair, we hypothesized that the prosurvival phenotype of GKs could be selected during cancer progression, and we used a multivariable systems biology approach to test this. We performed multidimensional data analysis, non-negative matrix factorization and logistic regression to compare the features of GKs with those of their putative antagonists, the proto-oncogenes (POs), as well as with control groups of CTs and functionally unrelated congenital heart disease genes (HDs). GKs and POs closely resemble each other, but not CTs or HDs, in terms of gene structure (Pexpression level and breadth (Pimplied suggest a common functional attribute that is strongly negatively selected-that is, a shared phenotype that enhances cell survival. The counterintuitive finding of similar evolutionary pressures affecting GKs and POs raises an intriguing possibility: namely, that cancer microevolution is accelerated by an epistatic cascade in which upstream suppressor gene defects subvert the normal bifunctionality of wild-type GKs by constitutively shifting the phenotype away from apoptosis towards survival. If correct, this interpretation would explain the hitherto unexplained phenomenon of frequent wild-type GK (for example, p53) overexpression in tumors.

  4. AMPK promotes survival of c-Myc-positive melanoma cells by suppressing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Alain; Armaro, Marzia; Collodet, Caterina; Sordet-Dessimoz, Jessica; Giner, Maria Pilar; Christen, Stefan; Moco, Sofia; Leleu, Marion; de Leval, Laurence; Koch, Ute; Trumpp, Andreas; Sakamoto, Kei; Beermann, Friedrich; Radtke, Freddy

    2018-03-01

    Although c-Myc is essential for melanocyte development, its role in cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive skin cancer, is only partly understood. Here we used the Nras Q61K INK4a -/- mouse melanoma model to show that c-Myc is essential for tumor initiation, maintenance, and metastasis. c-Myc-expressing melanoma cells were preferentially found at metastatic sites, correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and high tumor initiation potential. Abrogation of c-Myc caused apoptosis in primary murine and human melanoma cells. Mechanistically, c-Myc-positive melanoma cells activated and became dependent on the metabolic energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic checkpoint kinase that plays an important role in energy and redox homeostasis under stress conditions. AMPK pathway inhibition caused apoptosis of c-Myc-expressing melanoma cells, while AMPK activation protected against cell death of c-Myc-depleted melanoma cells through suppression of oxidative stress. Furthermore, TCGA database analysis of early-stage human melanoma samples revealed an inverse correlation between C-MYC and patient survival, suggesting that C-MYC expression levels could serve as a prognostic marker for early-stage disease. © 2018 The Authors.

  5. Targeting human c-Myc promoter duplex DNA with actinomycin D by use of multi-way analysis of quantum-dot-mediated fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Somayeh; Kompany Zare, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Actinomycin D (Act D), an oncogenic c-Myc promoter binder, interferes with the action of RNA polymerase. There is great demand for high-throughput technology able to monitor the activity of DNA-binding drugs. To this end, binding of 7-aminoactinomycin D (7AAD) to the duplex c-Myc promoter...... pairs resulted in efficient energy transfer from drug to QD via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Multi-way analysis of the three-way data array obtained from titration experiments was performed by use of restricted Tucker3 and hard trilinear decomposition (HTD). These techniques enable...... the important advantage over univariate classical methods of enabling us to investigate the source of variance in the fluorescence signal of the DNA-drug complex. It was established that hard trilinear decomposition analysis of FRET-measured data overcomes the problem of rank deficiency, enabling calculation...

  6. Formaldehyde-induced histone H3 phosphorylation via JNK and the expression of proto-oncogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ikuma; Ibuki, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Formaldehyde modified histones. • The phosphorylation of H3S10 was increased at the promoter regions of proto-oncogenes. • The phosphorylation of H2AXS139 was attributed to FA-induced DNA damage. • The FA-induced initiation and promotion of cancer could be judged by these modifications. - Abstract: Formaldehyde (FA) is a very reactive compound that forms DNA adducts and DNA-protein crosslinks, which are known to contribute to FA-induced mutations and carcinogenesis. Post-translational modifications to histones have recently attracted attention due to their link with cancer. In the present study, we examined histone modifications following a treatment with FA. FA significantly phosphorylated histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10), and at serine 28 (H3S28), the time-course of which was similar to the phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (γ-H2AX), a marker of DNA double strand breaks. The temporal deacetylation of H3 was observed due to the reaction of FA with the lysine residues of histones. The phosphorylation mechanism was then analyzed by focusing on H3S10. The nuclear distribution of the phosphorylation of H3S10 and γ-H2AX did not overlap, and the phosphorylation of H3S10 could not be suppressed with an inhibitor of ATM/ATR, suggesting that the phosphorylation of H3S10 was independent of the DNA damage response. ERK and JNK in the MAPK pathways were phosphorylated by the treatment with FA, in which the JNK pathway was the main target for phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of H3S10 increased at the promoter regions of c-fos and c-jun, indicating a relationship between FA-induced tumor promotion activity and phosphorylation of H3S10. These results suggested that FA both initiates and promotes cancer, as judged by an analysis of histone modifications

  7. Formaldehyde-induced histone H3 phosphorylation via JNK and the expression of proto-oncogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ikuma; Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail: ibuki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Formaldehyde modified histones. • The phosphorylation of H3S10 was increased at the promoter regions of proto-oncogenes. • The phosphorylation of H2AXS139 was attributed to FA-induced DNA damage. • The FA-induced initiation and promotion of cancer could be judged by these modifications. - Abstract: Formaldehyde (FA) is a very reactive compound that forms DNA adducts and DNA-protein crosslinks, which are known to contribute to FA-induced mutations and carcinogenesis. Post-translational modifications to histones have recently attracted attention due to their link with cancer. In the present study, we examined histone modifications following a treatment with FA. FA significantly phosphorylated histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10), and at serine 28 (H3S28), the time-course of which was similar to the phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (γ-H2AX), a marker of DNA double strand breaks. The temporal deacetylation of H3 was observed due to the reaction of FA with the lysine residues of histones. The phosphorylation mechanism was then analyzed by focusing on H3S10. The nuclear distribution of the phosphorylation of H3S10 and γ-H2AX did not overlap, and the phosphorylation of H3S10 could not be suppressed with an inhibitor of ATM/ATR, suggesting that the phosphorylation of H3S10 was independent of the DNA damage response. ERK and JNK in the MAPK pathways were phosphorylated by the treatment with FA, in which the JNK pathway was the main target for phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of H3S10 increased at the promoter regions of c-fos and c-jun, indicating a relationship between FA-induced tumor promotion activity and phosphorylation of H3S10. These results suggested that FA both initiates and promotes cancer, as judged by an analysis of histone modifications.

  8. c-myc Amplification Is Frequent in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Correlated with the Upregulation of VEGF-A Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard H.A. von Rahden

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deregulation of c-myc plays a major role in the carcinogenesis of human malignancies. We investigated the amplification of the c-myc gene in a surgical series of Barrett cancers. METHODS: Primary resected esophageal (Barrett adenocarcinomas (n = 84 were investigated for c-myc amplification using chromogene in situ hybridization. Tumor samples were assembled in a tissue microarray. c-myc gene dosage was correlated with clinicopathologic parameters, including the survival and gene expression of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2 and proangiogenic growth factors (VEGF-A and VEGF-C. RESULTS: The majority (70 of 84; 83.3% exhibited amplification of the c-myc gene. There were low-level amplifications in 63 (75.0% cases and high-level amplifications in 7 (8.3% cases. No amplification was found in 14 (16.7% cases. Tumors without c-myc amplification had lower VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and COX-2 expression levels than tumors with low-level and high-level c-myc amplification (statistically significant for VEGF-A; P = .0348. c-myc amplification was not correlated with clinicopathological parameters or survival. Only diffuse and mixed-type tumors, according to Lauren classification, exhibited c-myc amplifications more frequently (P = .0466. CONCLUSIONS: Amplifications of the c-myc gene are frequent in Barrett cancer. c-myc may be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  9. c-Myc activates BRCA1 gene expression through distal promoter elements in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yinghua; Xu, Jinhua; Borowicz, Stanley; Collins, Cindy; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2011-01-01

    The BRCA1 gene plays an important role in the maintenance of genomic stability. BRCA1 inactivation contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis. An increasing number of transcription factors have been shown to regulate BRCA1 expression. c-Myc can act as a transcriptional activator, regulating up to 15% of all genes in the human genome and results from a high throughput screen suggest that BRCA1 is one of its targets. In this report, we used cultured breast cancer cells to examine the mechanisms of transcriptional activation of BRCA1 by c-Myc. c-Myc was depleted using c-Myc-specific siRNAs in cultured breast cancer cells. BRCA1 mRNA expression and BRCA1 protein expression were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively and BRCA1 promoter activities were examined under these conditions. DNA sequence analysis was conducted to search for high similarity to E boxes in the BRCA1 promoter region. The association of c-Myc with the BRCA1 promoter in vivo was tested by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We investigated the function of the c-Myc binding site in the BRCA1 promoter region by a promoter assay with nucleotide substitutions in the putative E boxes. BRCA1-dependent DNA repair activities were measured by a GFP-reporter assay. Depletion of c-Myc was found to be correlated with reduced expression levels of BRCA1 mRNA and BRCA1 protein. Depletion of c-Myc decreased BRCA1 promoter activity, while ectopically expressed c-Myc increased BRCA1 promoter activity. In the distal BRCA1 promoter, DNA sequence analysis revealed two tandem clusters with high similarity, and each cluster contained a possible c-Myc binding site. c-Myc bound to these regions in vivo. Nucleotide substitutions in the c-Myc binding sites in these regions abrogated c-Myc-dependent promoter activation. Furthermore, breast cancer cells with reduced BRCA1 expression due to depletion of c-Myc exhibited impaired DNA repair activity. The distal BRCA1 promoter region is associated with c-Myc

  10. Clinicopathological significance of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu; Niu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Yang, Xiaojun; Ma, Haizhong; Ma, Shixun; Zhang, Yupeng; Chen, Yifeng

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors. The oncogene c-MYC is thought to be important in the initiation, promotion, and therapy resistance of cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathologic roles of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. This study is aimed at discovering and analyzing c-MYC expression in a series of human esophageal tissues. A total of 95 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were analyzed by the western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Then, correlation of c-MYC expression with clinicopathological features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was statistically analyzed. In most esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases, the c-MYC expression was positive in tumor tissues. The positive rate of c-MYC expression in tumor tissues was 61.05%, obviously higher than the adjacent normal tissues (8.42%, 8/92) and atypical hyperplasia tissues (19.75%, 16/95). There was a statistical difference among adjacent normal tissues, atypical hyperplasia tissues, and tumor tissues. Overexpression of the c-MYC was detected in 61.05% (58/95) esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, which was significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC expression was 40.0% in well-differentiated esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC was 41.5% in T1 + T2 esophageal tissues and 74.1% in T3 + T4 esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.001). The positive rate of c-MYC was 45.0% in I + II esophageal tissues and 72.2% in III + IV esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.011). The c-MYC expression strongly correlated with clinical staging (p = 0.011), differentiation degree (p = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), and invasion depth (p = 0.001) of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The c-MYC was

  11. Expression of proto-oncogenes in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Yoshida, Kuniko; Abe, Masumi; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiku, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi.

    1989-11-01

    Expression of six proto-oncogenes (fos, myc, myb, Ki-ras, Ha-ras, and N-ras) in 43 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was analyzed by means of in situ hybridization. Biotinylated DNA probes of the six oncogenes and those of the immunoglobulin H-chain (IgH) gene and the T cell receptor β-chain (TCRβ) gene were used. The results of in situ hybridization performed under blind conditions by IgH and TCRβ gene probes were compatible with those of typing by cell surface markers. The nuclear protein-related proto-oncogenes, fos myc, and myb, were expressed in about 70 % - 80 % of all cases regardless of phenotypes, histology or histologic grade. On the contrary, genes of the ras family were expressed in fewer cases except for the Ki-ras gene which was more frequently expressed by cases of the T cell immunophenotype with a high malignancy grade. The results of dot hybridization with RNA extracted from some cases were compatible with those of in situ hybridization, further demonstrating the specificity of in situ hybridization. (author)

  12. Characteristics of lentiviral vectors harboring the proximal promoter of the vav proto-oncogene: a weak and efficient promoter for gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarza, Elena; Río, Paula; Meza, Nestor W; Aldea, Montserrat; Agirre, Xabier; Guenechea, Guillermo; Segovia, José C; Bueren, Juan A

    2007-08-01

    Recent published data have shown the efficacy of gene therapy treatments of certain monogenic diseases. Risks of insertional oncogenesis, however, indicate the necessity of developing new vectors with weaker or cell-restricted promoters to minimize the trans-activation activity of integrated proviruses. We have inserted the proximal promoter of the vav proto-oncogene into self-inactivating lentiviral vectors (vav-LVs) and investigated the expression pattern and therapeutic efficacy of these vectors. Compared with other LVs frequently used in gene therapy, vav-LVs mediated a weak, though homogeneous and stable, expression in in vitro-cultured cells. Transplantation experiments using transduced mouse bone marrow and human CD34(+) cells confirmed the stable activity of the promoter in vivo. To investigate whether the weak activity of this promoter was compatible with a therapeutic effect, a LV expressing the Fanconi anemia A (FANCA) gene was constructed (vav-FANCA LV). Although this vector induced a low expression of FANCA, compared to the expression induced by a LV harboring the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) promoter, the two vectors corrected the phenotype of cells from a patient with FA-A with the same efficacy. We propose that self-inactivating vectors harboring weak promoters, such as the vav promoter, will improve the safety of gene therapy and will be of particular interest for the treatment of diseases where a high expression of the transgene is not required.

  13. Mechanism of estrogen activation of c-myc oncogene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubik, D; Shiu, R P

    1992-08-01

    The estrogen receptor complex is a known trans-acting factor that regulates transcription of specific genes through an interaction with a specific estrogen-responsive cis-acting element (ERE). In previous studies we have shown that in estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells estrogen rapidly activates c-myc expression. This activated expression occurs through enhanced transcription and does not require the synthesis of new protein intermediates; therefore, an ERE is present in the human c-myc gene regulatory region. To localize the ERE, constructs containing varying lengths of the c-myc 5'-flanking region ranging from -2327 to +25 (relative to the P1 promoter) placed adjacent to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene (CAT) were prepared. They were used in transient transfection studies in MCF-7 and HeLa cells co-transfected with an estrogen receptor expression vector. These studies reveal that all constructs containing the P2 promoter region exhibited estrogen-regulated CAT expression and that a 116-bp region upstream and encompassing the P2 TATA box is necessary for this activity. Analysis of this 116-bp region failed to identify a cis-acting element with sequences resembling the consensus ERE; however, co-transfection studies with mutant estrogen receptor expression vectors showed that the DNA-binding domain of the receptor is essential for estrogen-regulated CAT gene expression. We have also observed that anti-estrogen receptor complexes can weakly trans-activate from this 116-bp region but fail to do so from the ERE-containing ApoVLDLII-CAT construct. To explain these results we propose a new mechanism of estrogen trans-activation in the c-myc gene promoter.

  14. The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexiadis, V; Waldmann, T; Andersen, Jens S.

    2000-01-01

    The structure of chromatin regulates the genetic activity of the underlying DNA sequence. We report here that the protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK, which is involved in acute myelogenous leukemia, induces alterations of the superhelical density of DNA in chromatin. The change in topology...

  15. Plasma levels of calcitonin in medullary thyroid carcinoma patients with and without the RET proto-oncogene mutations in exons 10 and 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ehyayi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Routine measurement of calcitonin has been investigated as a screening method for the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma patients. Nevertheless, additional data are required to definitely support routine measurement of calcitonin due to the role of RET proto-oncogene.

  16. Evaluation of Molecular Inhibitors of the c-Myc Oncoprotein

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prochownik, Edward V

    2005-01-01

    .... All of these functions require that C-Myc physically associate with another protein. Max. Example of diseases in which c-Myc deregulation occurs include breast cancer (approx. 30% of cases), colon cancer (>85...

  17. Dual roles for coactivator activator and its counterbalancing isoform coactivator modulator in human kidney cell tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Kyoung; Schiff, Rachel; Ko, Lan; Wang, Tao; Tsai, Sophia Y; Tsai, Ming-Jer; O'Malley, Bert W

    2008-10-01

    Coactivator activator (CoAA) has been reported to be a coactivator that regulates steroid receptor-mediated transcription and alternative RNA splicing. Herein, we show that CoAA is a dual-function coregulator that inhibits G(1)-S transition in human kidney cells and suppresses anchorage-independent growth and xenograft tumor formation. Suppression occurs in part by down-regulating c-myc and its downstream effectors ccnd1 and skp2 and causing accumulation of p27/Kip1 protein. In this cellular setting, CoAA directly represses the proto-oncogene c-myc by recruiting HDAC3 protein and decreasing both the acetylation of histone H3 and the presence of RNA polymerase II on the c-myc promoter. Interestingly, a splicing isoform of CoAA, coactivator modulator (CoAM), antagonizes CoAA-induced G(1)-S transition and growth inhibition by negatively regulating the mRNA levels of the endogenous CoAA isoform. In addition, we found that expression of CoAA protein is significantly decreased in human renal cell carcinoma compared with normal kidney. Our study presents evidence that CoAA is a potential tumor suppressor in renal carcinoma and that CoAM is a counterbalancing splice isoform. This is, thus far, the only example of a nuclear receptor coregulator involved in suppression of kidney cancer and suggests potentially significant new roles for coregulators in renal cancer biology.

  18. Dual roles for CoAA and its counterbalancing isoform CoAM in human kidney cell tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Kyoung; Schiff, Rachel; Ko, Lan; Wang, Tao; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; W. O’Malley, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Co-Activator Activator (CoAA) has been reported to be a coactivator that regulates steroid receptor-mediated transcription and alternative RNA splicing. Herein we show that CoAA is a dual-function coregulator that inhibits G1/S transition in human kidney cells and suppresses anchorage independent growth and xenograft tumor formation. Suppression occurs in part by downregulating c-myc and its downstream effectors ccnd1 and skp2, and causing accumulation of p27/Kip1 protein. In this cellular setting, CoAA directly represses the proto-oncogene, c-myc by recruiting HDAC3 protein and decreasing both the acetylation of histone H3 and the presence of RNA polymerase II on the c-myc promoter. Interestingly, a splicing isoform of CoAA, Coactivator Modulator (CoAM), antagonizes CoAA-induced G1/S transition and growth inhibition by negatively regulating the mRNA levels of the endogenous CoAA isoform. In addition, we found that expression of CoAA protein is significantly decreased in human renal cell carcinoma as compared to normal kidney. Our study presents evidence that CoAA is a potential tumor suppressor in renal carcinoma and that CoAM is a counterbalancing splice-isoform. This is so far the only example of a nuclear receptor coregulator involved in suppression of kidney cancer, and suggests potentially significant new roles for coregulators in renal cancer biology. PMID:18829545

  19. Aubergine and piRNAs promote germline stem cell self-renewal by repressing the proto-oncogene Cbl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Ríos, Patricia; Chartier, Aymeric; Pierson, Stéphanie; Simonelig, Martine

    2017-11-02

    PIWI proteins play essential roles in germ cells and stem cell lineages. In Drosophila , Piwi is required in somatic niche cells and germline stem cells (GSCs) to support GSC self-renewal and differentiation. Whether and how other PIWI proteins are involved in GSC biology remains unknown. Here, we show that Aubergine (Aub), another PIWI protein, is intrinsically required in GSCs for their self-renewal and differentiation. Aub needs to be loaded with piRNAs to control GSC self-renewal and acts through direct mRNA regulation. We identify the Cbl proto-oncogene, a regulator of mammalian hematopoietic stem cells, as a novel GSC differentiation factor. Aub stimulates GSC self-renewal by repressing Cbl mRNA translation and does so in part through recruitment of the CCR4-NOT complex. This study reveals the role of piRNAs and PIWI proteins in controlling stem cell homeostasis via translational repression and highlights piRNAs as major post-transcriptional regulators in key developmental decisions. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Shikonin regulates C-MYC and GLUT1 expression through the MST1-YAP1-TEAD1 axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vališ, Karel, E-mail: karel.valis@biomed.cas.cz [Laboratory of Structural Biology and Cell Signaling, Institute of Microbiology, v.v.i., The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Talacko, Pavel; Grobárová, Valéria [Laboratory of Structural Biology and Cell Signaling, Institute of Microbiology, v.v.i., The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Černý, Jan [Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Novák, Petr, E-mail: pnovak@biomed.cas.cz [Laboratory of Structural Biology and Cell Signaling, Institute of Microbiology, v.v.i., The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-10

    The general mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor activity of the Hippo signaling pathway remains unclear. In this study, we explore the molecular mechanisms connecting the Hippo signaling pathway with glucose metabolism. We have found that two key regulators of glycolysis, C-MYC and GLUT1, are targets of the Hippo signaling pathway in human leukemia cells. Our results revealed that activation of MST1 by the natural compound shikonin inhibited the expression of GLUT1 and C-MYC. Furthermore, RNAi experiments confirmed the regulation of GLUT1 and C-MYC expression via the MST1-YAP1-TEAD1 axis. Surprisingly, YAP1 was found to positively regulate C-MYC mRNA levels in complex with TEAD1, while it negatively regulates C-MYC levels in cooperation with MST1. Hence, YAP1 serves as a rheostat for C-MYC, which is regulated by MST1. In addition, depletion of MST1 stimulates lactate production, whereas the specific depletion of TEAD1 has an opposite effect. The inhibition of lactate production and cellular proliferation induced by shikonin also depends on the Hippo pathway activity. Finally, a bioinformatic analysis revealed conserved TEAD-binding motifs in the C-MYC and GLUT1 promoters providing another molecular data supporting our observations. In summary, regulation of glucose metabolism could serve as a new tumor suppressor mechanism orchestrated by the Hippo signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Shikonin inhibits C-MYC and GLUT1 expression in MST1 and YAP1 dependent manner. • YAP1-TEAD1 interaction activates C-MYC and GLUT1 expression. • MST1 in cooperation with YAP1 inhibits C-MYC and GLUT1 expression. • MST1-YAP1-TEAD1 axis regulates lactate production by leukemic cells. • MST1 and YAP1 proteins block proliferation of leukemic cells.

  1. Microsatellite instability and B-type Raf proto-oncogene mutation in colorectal cancer: Clinicopathological characteristics and effects on survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Batur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic significance of microsatellite instability (MSI status and B-type Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological characteristics associated with microsatellite stability and the effect of MSI and BRAF mutation on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. The study included 145 colorectal cancer cases. All the patients were examined for DNA mismatch repair (MMR proteins with an immunohistochemical method. Molecular assessment of MSI was available in a subset of 41 patients. In addition, BRAF mutation analysis was performed in 30 cases. Immunohistochemically, MMR deficiency was present in 28 (19.3% patients. Female gender (p = 0.001, lesion size ≥5 cm (p = 0.013, Crohn-like response (p = 0.035, and right-sided localization (p < 0.001 were significantly more frequent among MMR-deficient patients. The overall survival was 44.1 ± 5.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.7-54.4. Multivariate analyses identified only high tumor grade as an independent predictor of poor overall survival: odd ratio, 6.7 (95% CI 2.1-21.7, p = 0.002. In the subset of patients with available BRAF assessment (n = 30, a negative BRAF status was associated with better survival when compared to a positive BRAF status (36.7 ± 2.1 vs. 34.1 ± 7.2 months, p = 0.048. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemical method in predicting positive MSI status, with the molecular method as a reference, were 85.7% (95% CI: 56.2%-97.5% and 88.9% (95% CI: 69.7%-97.1%, respectively. BRAF appears to be a significant predictor of a worse outcome in patients with colorectal cancer. Further studies with a large spectrum of clinical and biological variables are warranted.

  2. The 5T mouse multiple myeloma model: Absence of c-myc oncogene rearrangement in early transplant generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radl, J.; Punt, Y.A.; Enden-Vieveen, M.H.M. van den; Bentvelzen, P.A.J.; Bakkus, M.H.C.; Akker T., W. van den; Benner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Consistent chromosomal translocations involving the c-myc cellular oncogene and one of the three immunoglobulin loci are typical for human Burkitt's lymphoma, induced mouse plasmacytoma (MPC) and spontaneously arising rat immunocytoma (RIC). Another plasma cell malignancy, multiple myeloma (MM),

  3. A germline RET proto-oncogene mutation in multiple members of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makia Marafie

    2016-09-17

    Sep 17, 2016 ... The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics (2017) 18, 193–197. HOSTED BY ... been reported in 85% of tested individuals, nearly 50% of them are amino acid .... [1] Krampitz GW, Norton JA. RET gene mutations ...

  4. Fluorescent Dansyl-Guanosine Conjugates that Bind c-MYC Promoter G-Quadruplex and Downregulate c-MYC Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, Y; Saha, Puja; Saha, Dhurjhoti; Bessi, Irene; Schwalbe, Harald; Chowdhury, Shantanu; Dash, Jyotirmayee

    2016-03-02

    The four-stranded G-quadruplex present in the c-MYC P1 promoter has been shown to play a pivotal role in the regulation of c-MYC transcription. Small-molecule compounds capable of inhibiting the c-MYC promoter activity by stabilising the c-MYC G-quadruplex could potentially be used as anticancer agents. In this context, here we report the synthesis of dansyl-guanosine conjugates through one-pot modular click reactions. The dansyl-guanosine conjugates can selectively detect c-MYC G-quadruplex over other biologically relevant quadruplexes and duplex DNA and can be useful as staining reagents for selective visualisation of c-MYC G-quadruplex over duplex DNA by gel electrophoresis. NMR spectroscopic titrations revealed the preferential binding sites of these dansyl ligands to the c-MYC G-quadruplex. A dual luciferase assay and qRT-PCR revealed that a dansyl-bisguanosine ligand represses the c-MYC expression, possibly by stabilising the c-MYC G-quadruplex. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Enhanced sensitivity of the RET proto-oncogene to ionizing radiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Claudia Béu; Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva; Corvi, Raffaella; Gabus, Coralie; Sauvaigo, Sylvie; Ferrari, Pietro; Bonora, Elena; De Grandi, Alessandro; Romeo, Giovanni

    2008-11-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-known risk factor for a number of human cancers, including leukemia and thyroid cancer. It has been known for a long time that exposure of cells to radiation results in extensive DNA damage; however, a small number of studies have tried to explain the mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements in patients who have received external radiation, and the evidence of in vitro induction of RET rearrangements in human cells, suggest an enhanced sensitivity of the RET genomic region to damage by ionizing radiation. To assess whether RET is indeed more sensitive to radiations than other genomic regions, we used a COMET assay coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization, which allows the measurement of DNA fragmentation in defined genomic regions of single cells. We compared the initial DNA damage of the genomic regions of RET, CXCL12/SDF1, ABL, MYC, PLA2G2A, p53, and JAK2 induced by ionizing radiation in both a lymphoblastoid and a fetal thyroid cell line. In both cell lines, RET fragmentation was significantly higher than in other genomic regions. Moreover, a differential distribution of signals within the COMET was associated with a higher percentage of RET fragments in the tail. RET was more susceptible to fragmentation in the thyroid-derived cells than in lymphoblasts. This enhanced susceptibility of RET to ionizing radiation suggests the possibility of using it as a radiation exposure marker.

  6. c-myc overexpression causes anaplasia in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Duncan; Chaudhry, Aneeka; Abel, Ty W; Burger, Peter C; Dang, Chi V; Eberhart, Charles G

    2006-01-15

    Both anaplasia and increased c-myc gene expression have been shown to be negative prognostic indicators for survival in medulloblastoma patients. myc gene amplification has been identified in many large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma, but no causative link between c-myc and anaplastic changes has been established. To address this, we stably overexpressed c-myc in two medulloblastoma cell lines, DAOY and UW228, and examined the changes in growth characteristics. When analyzed in vitro, cell lines with increased levels of c-myc had higher rates of growth and apoptosis as well as significantly improved ability to form colonies in soft agar compared with control. When injected s.c. into nu/nu mice, flank xenograft tumors with high levels of c-myc in DAOY cell line background were 75% larger than those derived from control. Overexpression of c-myc was required for tumor formation by UW228 cells. Most remarkably, the histopathology of the Myc tumors was severely anaplastic, with large areas of necrosis/apoptosis, increased nuclear size, and macronucleoli. Indices of proliferation and apoptosis were also significantly higher in Myc xenografts. Thus, c-myc seems to play a causal role in inducing anaplasia in medulloblastoma. Because anaplastic changes are often observed in recurrent medulloblastoma, we propose that c-myc dysregulation is involved in the progression of these malignant embryonal neoplasms.

  7. RNA interference-mediated c-MYC inhibition prevents cell growth and decreases sensitivity to radio- and chemotherapy in childhood medulloblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueren, André O von; Shalaby, Tarek; Oehler-Jänne, Christoph; Arnold, Lucia; Stearns, Duncan; Eberhart, Charles G; Arcaro, Alexandre; Pruschy, Martin; Grotzer, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    With current treatment strategies, nearly half of all medulloblastoma (MB) patients die from progressive tumors. Accordingly, the identification of novel therapeutic strategies remains a major goal. Deregulation of c-MYC is evident in numerous human cancers. In MB, over-expression of c-MYC has been shown to cause anaplasia and correlate with unfavorable prognosis. To study the role of c-MYC in MB biology, we down-regulated c-MYC expression by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and investigated changes in cellular proliferation, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, telomere maintenance, and response to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapeutics in a representative panel of human MB cell lines expressing different levels of c-MYC (DAOY wild-type, DAOY transfected with the empty vector, DAOY transfected with c-MYC, D341, and D425). siRNA-mediated c-MYC down-regulation resulted in an inhibition of cellular proliferation and clonogenic growth, inhibition of G1-S phase cell cycle progression, and a decrease in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and telomerase activity. On the other hand, down-regulation of c-MYC reduced apoptosis and decreased the sensitivity of human MB cells to IR, cisplatin, and etoposide. This effect was more pronounced in DAOY cells expressing high levels of c-MYC when compared with DAOY wild-type or DAOY cells transfected with the empty vector. In human MB cells, in addition to its roles in growth and proliferation, c-MYC is also a potent inducer of apoptosis. Therefore, targeting c-MYC might be of therapeutic benefit when used sequentially with chemo- and radiotherapy rather than concomitantly

  8. RNA interference-mediated c-MYC inhibition prevents cell growth and decreases sensitivity to radio- and chemotherapy in childhood medulloblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcaro Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With current treatment strategies, nearly half of all medulloblastoma (MB patients die from progressive tumors. Accordingly, the identification of novel therapeutic strategies remains a major goal. Deregulation of c-MYC is evident in numerous human cancers. In MB, over-expression of c-MYC has been shown to cause anaplasia and correlate with unfavorable prognosis. Methods To study the role of c-MYC in MB biology, we down-regulated c-MYC expression by using small interfering RNA (siRNA and investigated changes in cellular proliferation, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, telomere maintenance, and response to ionizing radiation (IR and chemotherapeutics in a representative panel of human MB cell lines expressing different levels of c-MYC (DAOY wild-type, DAOY transfected with the empty vector, DAOY transfected with c-MYC, D341, and D425. Results siRNA-mediated c-MYC down-regulation resulted in an inhibition of cellular proliferation and clonogenic growth, inhibition of G1-S phase cell cycle progression, and a decrease in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT expression and telomerase activity. On the other hand, down-regulation of c-MYC reduced apoptosis and decreased the sensitivity of human MB cells to IR, cisplatin, and etoposide. This effect was more pronounced in DAOY cells expressing high levels of c-MYC when compared with DAOY wild-type or DAOY cells transfected with the empty vector. Conclusion In human MB cells, in addition to its roles in growth and proliferation, c-MYC is also a potent inducer of apoptosis. Therefore, targeting c-MYC might be of therapeutic benefit when used sequentially with chemo- and radiotherapy rather than concomitantly.

  9. Genetic and genomic analysis modeling of germline c-MYC overexpression and cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline genetic variation is associated with the differential expression of many human genes. The phenotypic effects of this type of variation may be important when considering susceptibility to common genetic diseases. Three regions at 8q24 have recently been identified to independently confer risk of prostate cancer. Variation at 8q24 has also recently been associated with risk of breast and colorectal cancer. However, none of the risk variants map at or relatively close to known genes, with c-MYC mapping a few hundred kilobases distally. Results This study identifies cis-regulators of germline c-MYC expression in immortalized lymphocytes of HapMap individuals. Quantitative analysis of c-MYC expression in normal prostate tissues suggests an association between overexpression and variants in Region 1 of prostate cancer risk. Somatic c-MYC overexpression correlates with prostate cancer progression and more aggressive tumor forms, which was also a pathological variable associated with Region 1. Expression profiling analysis and modeling of transcriptional regulatory networks predicts a functional association between MYC and the prostate tumor suppressor KLF6. Analysis of MYC/Myc-driven cell transformation and tumorigenesis substantiates a model in which MYC overexpression promotes transformation by down-regulating KLF6. In this model, a feedback loop through E-cadherin down-regulation causes further transactivation of c-MYC. Conclusion This study proposes that variation at putative 8q24 cis-regulator(s of transcription can significantly alter germline c-MYC expression levels and, thus, contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility by down-regulating the prostate tumor suppressor KLF6 gene.

  10. Expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in colorectal cancer--inhibitory effects of an siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gan-Ting; Yang, Li-Juan; Li, Xi-Xia; Cui, Hui-Lin; Guo, Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate expression of the proto-oncogene POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon) in colorectal cancer (CRC), and assess inhibitory effects of a small interference RNA (siRNA) expression vector in SW480 and SW620 cells. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels of Pokemon in CRC tissues. Indirect immunofluorescence staining was applied to investigate the location of Pokemon in SW480 and SW620 cells. The siRNA expression vectors that were constructed to express a short hairpin RNA against Pokemon were transfected to the SW480 and SW620 cells with a liposome. Expression levels of Pokemon mRNA and protein were examined by real-time quantitative-fluorescent PCR and western blot analysis. The effects of Pokemon silencing on proliferation of SW480 and SW620 cells were evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assays. The mRNA expression level of Pokemon in tumor tissues (0.845 ± 0.344) was significantly higher than that in adjacent tumor specimens (0.321 ± 0.197). The positive expression ratio of Pokemon protein in CRC (87.0%) was significantly higher than that in the adjacent tissues (19.6%). Strong fluorescence staining of Pokemon protein was observed in the cytoplasm of the SW480 and SW620 cells. The inhibition ratios of Pokemon mRNA and protein in the SW480 cells were 83.1% and 73.5% at 48 and 72 h, respectively, compared with those of the negative control cells with the siRNA. In the SW620 cells, the inhibition ratios of Pokemon mRNA and protein were 76.3% and 68.7% at 48 and 72 h, respectively. MTT showed that Pokemon gene silencing inhibited the proliferation of SW480 and SW620 cells. Overexpression of Pokemon in CRC may have a function in carcinogenesis and progression. siRNA expression vectors could effectively inhibit mRNA and protein expression of Pokemon in SW480 and SW620 cells, thereby reducing

  11. c-MYC expression sensitizes medulloblastoma cells to radio- and chemotherapy and has no impact on response in medulloblastoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stearns Duncan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study whether and how c-MYC expression determines response to radio- and chemotherapy in childhood medulloblastoma (MB. Methods We used DAOY and UW228 human MB cells engineered to stably express different levels of c-MYC, and tested whether c-MYC expression has an effect on radio- and chemosensitivity using the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium inner salt (MTS assay, clonogenic survival, apoptosis assays, cell cycle analysis, and western blot assessment. In an effort to validate our results, we analyzed c-MYC mRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from well-documented patients with postoperative residual tumor and compared c-MYC mRNA expression with response to radio- and chemotherapy as examined by neuroradiological imaging. Results In DAOY - and to a lesser extent in UW228 - cells expressing high levels of c-MYC, the cytotoxicity of cisplatin, and etoposide was significantly higher when compared with DAOY/UW228 cells expressing low levels of c-MYC. Irradiation- and chemotherapy-induced apoptotic cell death was enhanced in DAOY cells expressing high levels of c-MYC. The response of 62 of 66 residual tumors was evaluable and response to postoperative radio- (14 responders (CR, PR vs. 5 non-responders (SD, PD or chemotherapy (23 CR/PR vs. 20 SD/PD was assessed. c-MYC mRNA expression was similar in primary MB samples of responders and non-responders (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.50, ratio 0.49, 95% CI 0.008-30.0 and p = 0.67, ratio 1.8, 95% CI 0.14-23.5, respectively. Conclusions c-MYC sensitizes MB cells to some anti-cancer treatments in vitro. As we failed to show evidence for such an effect on postoperative residual tumors when analyzed by imaging, additional investigations in xenografts and larger MB cohorts may help to define the exact function of c-MYC in modulating response to treatment.

  12. Disruption of MEK/ERK/c-Myc signaling radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Carmela; Di Rocco, Agnese; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Mauro, Annunziata; Festuccia, Claudio; Del Fattore, Andrea; Berardinelli, Paolo; De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bouché, Marina; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Zani, Bianca Maria; Marampon, Francesco

    2018-06-29

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cell radioresistance causes the failure of radiation therapy (RT) in localized or locally advanced disease. The aberrant accumulation of c-Myc oncoprotein, known to promote PCa onset and progression, may be due to the control of gene transcription and/or MEK/ERK-regulated protein stabilization. Here, we investigated the role of MEK/ERK signaling in PCa. LnCAP, 22Rv1, DU145, and PC3 PCa cell lines were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. U0126, trametinib MEK/ERK inhibitors, and c-Myc shRNAs were used. Radiation was delivered using an x-6 MV photon linear accelerator. U0126 in vivo activity alone or in combination with irradiation was determined in murine xenografts. Inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling down-regulated c-Myc protein in PCa cell lines to varying extents by affecting expression of RNA and protein, which in turn determined radiosensitization in in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of PCa cells. The crucial role played by c-Myc in the MEK/ERK pathways was demonstrated in 22Rv1 cells by the silencing of c-Myc by means of short hairpin mRNA, which yielded effects resembling the targeting of MEK/ERK signaling. The clinically approved compound trametinib used in vitro yielded the same effects as U0126 on growth and C-Myc expression. Notably, U0126 and trametinib induced a drastic down-regulation of BMX, which is known to prevent apoptosis in cancer cells. The results of our study suggest that signal transduction-based therapy can, by disrupting the MEK/ERK/c-Myc axis, reduce human PCa radioresistance caused by increased c-Myc expression in vivo and in vitro and restores apoptosis signals.

  13. Targeting c-Myc: JQ1 as a promising option for c-Myc-amplified esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyuan; Liu, Zhentao; Wang, Ziqi; Wang, Shubin; Chen, Zuhua; Li, Zhongwu; Zhang, Mengqi; Zou, Jianling; Dong, Bin; Gao, Jing; Shen, Lin

    2018-04-10

    c-Myc amplification-induced cell cycle dysregulation is a common cause for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but no approved targeted drug is available so far. The bromodomain inhibitor JQ1, which targets c-Myc, exerts anti-tumor activity in multiple cancers. However, the role of JQ1 in ESCC remains unknown. In this study, we reported that JQ1 had potent anti-proliferative effects on ESCC cells in both time- and dose-dependent manners by inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, cell apoptosis, and the mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Follow-up studies revealed that both c-Myc/cyclin/Rb and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways were inactivated by JQ1, as indicated by the downregulation of c-Myc, cyclin A/E, and phosphorylated Rb, AKT and S6. Tumor suppression induced by JQ1 in c-Myc amplified or highly expressed xenografts was higher than that in xenografts with low expression, suggesting its potential role in prediction. In conclusion, targeting c-Myc by JQ1 could cause significant tumor suppression in ESCC both in vitro and in vivo. Also, c-Myc amplification or high expression might serve as a potential biomarker and provide a promising therapeutic option for ESCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gamabufotalin triggers c-Myc degradation via induction of WWP2 in multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenlong; Li, Tao; Wang, Chao; Deng, Sa; Zhang, Baojing; Huo, Xiaokui; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Yuping; Ma, Xiaochi

    2016-03-29

    Deciding appropriate therapy for multiple myeloma (MM) is challenging because of the occurrence of multiple chromosomal changes and the fatal nature of the disease. In the current study, gamabufotalin (GBT) was isolated from toad venom, and its tumor-specific cytotoxicity was investigated in human MM cells. We found GBT inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis with the IC50 values <50 nM. Mechanistic studies using functional approaches identified GBT as an inhibitor of c-Myc. Further analysis showed that GBT especially evoked the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Myc protein, thereby globally repressing the expression of c-Myc target genes. GBT treatment inhibited ERK and AKT signals, while stimulating the activation of JNK cascade. An E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, WWP2, was upregulated following JNK activation and played an important role in c-Myc ubiquitination and degradation through direct protein-protein interaction. The antitumor effect of GBT was validated in a xenograft mouse model and the suppression of MM-induced osteolysis was verified in a SCID-hu model in vivo. Taken together, our study identified the potential of GBT as a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of MM.

  15. Vitamin K2 and cotylenin A synergistically induce monocytic differentiation and growth arrest along with the suppression of c-MYC expression and induction of cyclin G2 expression in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniwa, Yasuhisa; Kasukabe, Takashi; Kumakura, Shunichi

    2015-08-01

    Although all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a standard and effective drug used for differentiation therapy in acute promyelocytic leukemia, ATRA-resistant leukemia cells ultimately emerge during this treatment. Therefore, the development of new drugs or effective combination therapy is urgently needed. We demonstrate that the combined treatment of vitamin K2 and cotylenin A synergistically induced monocytic differentiation in HL-60 cells. This combined treatment also synergistically induced NBT-reducing activity and non-specific esterase-positive cells as well as morphological changes to monocyte/macrophage-like cells. Vitamin K2 and cotylenin A cooperatively inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in short-term and long-term cultures. This treatment also induced growth arrest at the G1 phase. Although 5 µg/ml cotylenin A or 5 µM vitamin K2 alone reduced c-MYC gene expression in HL-60 cells to approximately 45% or 80% that of control cells, respectively, the combined treatment almost completely suppressed c-MYC gene expression. We also demonstrated that the combined treatment of vitamin K2 and cotylenin A synergistically induced the expression of cyclin G2, which had a positive effect on the promotion and maintenance of cell cycle arrest. These results suggest that the combination of vitamin K2 and cotylenin A has therapeutic value in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

  16. Mutation analysis of the RET proto-oncogene in Dutch families with MEN 2A, MEN 2B and FMTC : Two novel mutations and one de novo mutation for MEN 2A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsvater, RM; Jansen, RPM; Hofstra, RMW; Buys, CHCM; Lips, CJM; vanAmstel, HKP

    Hereditary C-cell carcinoma is encountered in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A), MEN 2B, and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are associated with all three diseases. To obtain an insight into the molecular heterogeneity of MEN 2 syndromes

  17. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 Synergistically Activate Transcription of Fatty-acid Synthase Gene (FASN)*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F.; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-01-01

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation. PMID:18682402

  18. Hypomethylation mediated by decreased DNMTs involves in the activation of proto-oncogene MPL in TK6 cells treated with hydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linhua; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Liang, Hairong; Gao, Yuting; Yang, Hui; Shao, Junli; Tang, Huanwen

    2012-03-25

    Hydroquinone (HQ), one of the most important metabolites derived from benzene, is known to be associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) risk, however, its carcinogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the epigenetic mechanism of HQ exposure was investigated. We characterized the epigenomic response of TK6 cells to HQ exposure, and examined the mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) including DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) and six proto-oncogenes (MPL, RAF1, MYB, MYC, ERBB2 and BRAF). Compared to the control cells, HQ exposure (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μM for 48 h) resulted in the decrease of DNMTs and MBD2 expression, the global hypomethylation and increase of MPL at mRNA level. Meanwhile, most of these changes were in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, inhibition of DNMTs induced by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), an identified DNMT inhibitor, caused more induction of MPL expression at mRNA level compared to the HQ (10.0 μM) pre-treated group. Furthermore, treatment of HQ potentially led to MPL itself hypomethylation (10.0 and 20.0 μM reduced by 47% and 44%, respectively), further revealing that the activation of proto-oncogene MPL was related to hypomethylation in its DNA sequences. In conclusion, hypomethylation, including global and specific hypomethylation, might be involved in the activation of MPL, and the hypomethylation could be induced by decreased DNMTs in TK6 cells exposed to HQ. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Suppression of c-Myc induces apoptosis via an AMPK/mTOR-dependent pathway by 4-O-methyl-ascochlorin in leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Moon; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Magae, Junji; Bae, Young-Seuk; Chang, Young-Chae

    2016-05-01

    4-O-Methyl-ascochlorin (MAC) is a methylated derivative of the prenyl-phenol antibiotic ascochlorin, which was isolated from an incomplete fungus, Ascochyta viciae. Although the effects of MAC on apoptosis have been reported, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that MAC promoted apoptotic cell death and downregulated c-Myc expression in K562 human leukemia cells. The effect of MAC on apoptosis was similar to that of 10058-F4 (a c-Myc inhibitor) or c-Myc siRNA, suggesting that the downregulation of c-Myc expression plays a role in the apoptotic effect of MAC. Further investigation showed that MAC downregulated c-Myc by inhibiting protein synthesis. MAC promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its target proteins, including p70S6 K and 4E-BP-1. Treatment of cells with AICAR (an AMPK activator), rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor), or mTOR siRNA downregulated c-Myc expression and induced apoptosis to a similar extent to that of MAC. These results suggest that the effect of MAC on apoptosis induction in human leukemia cells is mediated by the suppression of c-Myc protein synthesis via an AMPK/mTOR-dependent mechanism.

  20. Astroglial c-Myc overexpression predisposes mice to primary malignant gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Aagaard; Pedersen, Karen-Marie; Lihme, Frederikke

    2003-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are common human primary brain tumors that result from neoplastic transformation of astroglia or their progenitors. Here we show that deregulation of the c-Myc pathway in developing astroglia predisposes mice to malignant astrocytomas within 2-3 weeks of age. The genetically...... engineered murine (GEM) gliomas harbor a molecular signature resembling that of human primary glioblastoma multiforme, including up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Mdm2. The GEM gliomas seem to originate in an abnormal population of glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing cells...... the neoplastic process, presumably by inducing the sustained growth of early astroglial cells. This is in contrast to most other transgenic studies in which c-Myc overexpression requires co-operating transgenes for rapid tumor induction....

  1. Induction of apoptosis by 3-amino-6-(3-aminopropyl)-5,6-dihydro-5,11-dioxo-11H-indeno[1,2-c]isoquinoline via modulation of MAPKs (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase) and c-Myc in HL-60 human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Kiselev, Evgeny; Conda-Sheridan, Martin; Cushman, Mark; Pezzuto, John M

    2012-03-23

    Recently, we reported that 3-amino-6-(3-aminopropyl)-5,6-dihydro-5,11-dioxo-11H-indeno[1,2-c]isoquinoline (AM6-36), sharing structural similarity with naturally occurring isoquinolines, induced activities mediated by retinoid X receptor (RXR) response element accompanied by antiproliferative effects on breast cancer cells. To further characterize the biologic potential of AM6-36, we currently report studies conducted with HL-60 human leukemia cells. AM6-36 significantly inhibited cellular proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 86 nM. When evaluated at low test concentrations (≤0.25 μM), AM6-36 induced arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. At higher concentrations (1 and 2 μM), the response shifted to apoptosis, which was consistent with the effect of AM6-36 on other apoptotic signatures including an increase of apoptotic annexin V(+) 7-AAD(-) cells, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and activation of several caspases. These apoptotic effects are potentially due to up-regulation of p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and down-regulation of c-Myc oncogene expression. Taken together, AM6-36 might serve as an effective anticancer agent by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the activation of MAPKs and inhibition of c-Myc.

  2. c-Myc oncogene expression in selected odontogenic cysts and tumors: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosvi, Zama; Rekha, K

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of c-Myc oncogene in selected odontogenic cysts and tumors. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst, and radicular cyst were selected and primary monoclonal mouse anti-human c-Myc antibody was used in a dilution of 1: 50. Statistical Analysis was performed using Mann Whitney U test. Results: 80% positivity was observed in ameloblastoma, AOT and OKC; 50% positivity in radicular cyst and 20% positivity in dentigerous cyst. Comparison of c-Myc expression between ameloblastoma and AOT did not reveal significant results. Similarly, no statistical significance was observed when results of OKC were compared with ameloblastoma and AOT. In contrast, significant differences were seen on comparison of dentigerous cyst with ameloblastoma and AOT and radicular cyst with AOT. Conclusion: From the above data we conclude that (1) Ameloblastoma and AOT have similar proliferative potential and their biologic behavior cannot possibly be attributed to it. (2) OKC has an intrinsic growth potential which is absent in other cysts and reinforces its classification as keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:23798830

  3. Postnatal liver growth and regeneration are independent of c-myc in a mouse model of conditional hepatic c-myc deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Jennifer A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor c-myc regulates genes involved in hepatocyte growth, proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation. It has also been assigned roles in liver development and regeneration. In previous studies, we made the unexpected observation that c-Myc protein levels were similar in proliferating fetal liver and quiescent adult liver with c-Myc displaying nucleolar localization in the latter. In order to investigate the functional role of c-Myc in adult liver, we have developed a hepatocyte-specific c-myc knockout mouse, c-mycfl/fl;Alb-Cre. Results Liver weight to body weight ratios were similar in control and c-myc deficient mice. Liver architecture was unaffected. Conditional c-myc deletion did not result in compensatory induction of other myc family members or in c-Myc's binding partner Max. Floxed c-myc did have a negative effect on Alb-Cre expression at 4 weeks of age. To explore this relationship further, we used the Rosa26 reporter line to assay Cre activity in the c-myc floxed mice. No significant difference in Alb-Cre activity was found between control and c-mycfl/fl mice. c-myc deficient mice were studied in a nonproliferative model of liver growth, fasting for 48 hr followed by a 24 hr refeeding period. Fasting resulted in a decrease in liver mass and liver protein, both of which recovered upon 24 h of refeeding in the c-mycfl/fl;Alb-Cre animals. There was also no effect of reducing c-myc on recovery of liver mass following 2/3 partial hepatectomy. Conclusions c-Myc appears to be dispensable for normal liver growth during the postnatal period, restoration of liver mass following partial hepatectomy and recovery from fasting.

  4. c-MYC amplification and c-myc protein expression in pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas. New insights into the molecular signature of these rare cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Stefano; Bernasconi, Barbara; Vanoli, Alessandro; Sciarra, Amedeo; Notohara, Kenji; Albarello, Luca; Casnedi, Selenia; Billo, Paola; Zhang, Lizhi; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Sessa, Fausto

    2018-05-02

    The molecular alterations of pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) are not completely understood, and the possible role of c-MYC amplification in tumor development, progression, and prognosis is not known. We have investigated c-MYC gene amplification in a series of 35 ACCs and 4 MANECs to evaluate its frequency and a possible prognostic role. Gene amplification was investigated using interphasic fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis simultaneously hybridizing c-MYC and the centromere of chromosome 8 probes. Protein expression was immunohistochemically investigated using a specific monoclonal anti-c-myc antibody. Twenty cases had clones with different polysomies of chromosome 8 in absence of c-MYC amplification, and 5 cases had one amplified clone and other clones with chromosome 8 polysomy, while the remaining 14 cases were diploid for chromosome 8 and lacked c-MYC amplification. All MANECs showed c-MYC amplification and/or polysomy which were observed in 54% pure ACCs. Six cases (15.3%) showed nuclear immunoreactivity for c-myc, but only 4/39 cases showed simultaneous c-MYC amplification/polysomy and nuclear protein expression. c-myc immunoreactivity as well as c-MYC amplification and/or chromosome 8 polysomy was not statistically associated with prognosis. Our study demonstrates that a subset of ACCs shows c-MYC alterations including gene amplification and chromosome 8 polysomy. Although they are not associated with a different prognostic signature, the fact that these alterations are present in all MANECs suggests a role in the acinar-neuroendocrine differentiation possibly involved in the pathogenesis of MANECs.

  5. Association Between Amplification and Expression of C-MYC Gene and Clinicopathological Characteristics of Stomach Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghian, Malihea; Jahanzad, Issa; Shakoori, Abbas; Emami Razavi, Amirnader; Azimi, Cyrus

    2016-02-01

    The incidence rate of gastric cancer in western countries has shown a remarkable decline in the recent years while it is still the most common cancer among males in Iran. The proto-oncogene MYC, located at 8q24.1, regulates almost 15% of human genes and is activated in 20% of all tumors. The amplification of MYC and overexpression of its protein product are observed in 15 - 30% of gastric neoplasias. The objective of this study was to find the preferences of Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization (CISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer. We studied 102 samples of gastric cancer in Iran and all the patients had undergone primary surgical resection at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The CISH and IHC techniques were applied for all our samples. All of the samples had adenocarcinoma gastric cancer and were selected randomly. Also, the type of study was cross sectional. The sample size was 100 patients. Our data revealed that both diffuse and intestinal types of gastric cancer occurred significantly more in males than females. Our results showed that there was an indication of some correlation between grades and CISH, although the difference was not significant. Our data also showed that CISH positive patients (43%) were more frequent compared to IHC positive patients (14.7%). There was a correlation between CISH and IHC. These results revealed that there was a significant difference between grades and IHC. There was also no statistical difference between CISH amplification in diffuse and intestinal types. From the results, it could be concluded that for administration of the treatment of stomach cancer, and progress and prognosis of tumor, which is important for patients and clinicians, the CISH is a better and more feasible test than IHC, in regards to sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of BRD7 expression by Sp1 and c-Myc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shufang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bromodomain is an evolutionally conserved domain that is found in proteins strongly implicated in signal-dependent transcriptional regulation. Genetic alterations of bromodomain genes contributed to the development of many human cancers and other disorders. BRD7 is a recently identified bromodomain gene. It plays a critical role in cellular growth, cell cycle progression, and signal-dependent gene expression. Previous studies showed that BRD7 gene exhibited much higher-level of mRNA expression in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia than in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC biopsies and cell lines. However, little is known about its transcriptional regulation. In this study, we explored the transcriptional regulation of BRD7 gene. Method Potential binding sites of transcription factors within the promoter region of BRD7 gene were predicted with MatInspector Professional http://genomatix.de/cgi-bin/matinspector_prof/mat_fam.pl. Mutation construct methods and luciferase assays were performed to define the minimal promoter of BRD7 gene. RT-PCR and western blot assays were used to detect the endogenous expression of transcription factor Sp1, c-Myc and E2F6 in all cell lines used in this study. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP were used to detect the direct transcription factors that are responsible for the promoter activity of BRD7 gene. DNA vector-based siRNA technology and cell transfection methods were employed to establish clone pools that stably expresses SiRNA against c-Myc expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma 5-8F cells. Real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of BRD7 gene in 5-8F/Si-c-Myc cells. Results We defined the minimal promoter of BRD7 gene in a 55-bp region (from -266 to -212bp, and identified that its promoter activity is inversely related to c-Myc expression. Sp1 binds to the Sp1/Myc-Max overlapping site of BRD7 minimal promoter, and slightly positively

  7. Cdx1 and c-Myc foster the initiation of transdifferentiation of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium toward Barrett's esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B Stairs

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant condition whereby the normal stratified squamous esophageal epithelium undergoes a transdifferentiation program resulting in a simple columnar epithelium reminiscent of the small intestine. These changes are typically associated with the stratified squamous epithelium chronically exposed to acid and bile salts as a result of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Despite this well-defined epidemiologic association between acid reflux and Barrett's esophagus, the genetic changes that induce this transdifferentiation process in esophageal keratinocytes have remained undefined.To begin to identify the genetic changes responsible for transdifferentiaiton in Barrett's esophagus, we performed a microarray analysis of normal esophageal, Barrett's esophagus and small intestinal biopsy specimens to identify candidate signaling pathways and transcription factors that may be involved. Through this screen we identified the Cdx1 homeodomain transcription factor and the c-myc pathway as possible candidates. Cdx1 and c-myc were then tested for their ability to induce transdifferentiation in immortalized human esophageal keratinocytes using organotypic culturing methods. Analyses of these cultures reveal that c-myc and cdx1 cooperate to induce mucin production and changes in keratin expression that are observed in the epithelium of Barrett's esophagus.These data demonstrate the ability of Cdx1 and c-myc to initiate the earliest stages of transdifferentiation of esophageal keratinocytes toward a cell fate characteristic of Barrett's esophagus.

  8. Analysis of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of the proto-oncogene SET/I2PP2A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, B. Daniel; Anthony, Eloise C.; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    SET/I2PP2A is a nuclear protein that was initially identified as an oncogene in human undifferentiated acute myeloid leukemia, fused to the nuclear porin Nup-214. In addition, SET is a potent inhibitior of the phosphatase PP2A. Previously, we proposed a model in which the small GTPase Rac1 recruits

  9. c-MYC G-quadruplex binding by the RNA polymerase I inhibitor BMH-21 and analogues revealed by a combined NMR and biochemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Loana; Mazzini, Stefania; Rossini, Anna; Castagnoli, Lorenzo; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Artali, Roberto; Di Nicola, Massimo; Zunino, Franco; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2018-03-01

    Pyridoquinazolinecarboxamides have been reported as RNA polymerase I inhibitors and represent a novel class of potential antitumor agents. BMH-21, was reported to intercalate with GC-rich rDNA, resulting in nucleolar stress as a primary mechanism of cytotoxicity. The interaction of BMH-21 and analogues with DNA G-quadruplex structures was studied by NMR and molecular modelling. The cellular response was investigated in a panel of human tumor cell lines and protein expression was examined by Western Blot analysis. We explored the ability of BMH-21 and its analogue 2 to bind to G-quadruplex present in the c-MYC promoter, by NMR and molecular modelling studies. We provide evidence that both compounds are not typical DNA intercalators but are effective binders of the tested G-quadruplex. The interaction with c-MYC G-quadruplex was reflected in down-regulation of c-Myc expression in human tumor cells. The inhibitory effect was almost complete in lymphoma cells SUDHL4 characterized by overexpression of c-Myc protein. This downregulation reflected an early and persistent modulation of cMyc mRNA. Given the relevance of c-MYC in regulation of ribosome biogenesis, it is conceivable that the inhibition of c-MYC contributes to the perturbation of nuclear functions and RNA polymerase I activity. Similar experiments with CX-5461, another RNA polymerase I transcription inhibitor, indicate the same behaviour in G-quadruplex stabilization. Our results support the hypothesis that BMH-21 and analogue compounds share the same mechanism, i.e. G-quadruplex binding as a primary event of a cascade leading to inhibition of RNA polymerase I and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Amplification of the Ect2 proto-oncogene and over-expression of Ect2 mRNA and protein in nickel compound and methylcholanthrene-transformed 10T1/2 mouse fibroblast cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, Farrah; Verma, Rini; Ramnath, Jamuna; Landolph, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    Occupational exposure of humans to mixtures of insoluble and soluble nickel (Ni) compounds correlates with increased incidences of lung, sinus, and pharyngeal tumors. Specific insoluble Ni compounds are carcinogenic to animals by inhalation and induce morphological and neoplastic transformation of cultured rodent cells. Our objectives were to (1) understand mechanisms of nickel ion-induced cell transformation, hence carcinogenesis and (2) develop biomarkers of nickel ion exposure and nickel ion-induced cell transformation. We isolated mRNAs from green nickel oxide (NiO), crystalline nickel monosulfide (NiS), and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) transformed C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 cell lines, and determined by mRNA differential display that nine mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between Ni transformed and non-transformed 10T1/2 cell lines. Fragment R2-5 was expressed at higher steady-state levels in the transformed cell lines. R2-5 had 100% sequence identity to part of the coding region of Ect2, a mouse proto-oncogene encoding a GDP-GTP exchange factor. The 3.9-kb Ect2 transcript was expressed at 1.6- to 3.6-fold higher steady-state levels in four Ni transformed, and in two MCA-transformed, cell lines. Ect2 protein was expressed at 3.0- to 4.5-fold higher steady-state levels in Ni-transformed and in MCA-transformed cell lines. The Ect2 gene was amplified by 3.5- to 10-fold in Ni transformed, and by 2.5- to 3-fold in MCA transformed cell lines. Binding of nickel ions to enzymes of DNA synthesis likely caused amplification of the Ect2 gene. Ect2 gene amplification and over-expression of Ect2 mRNA and protein can cause microtubule disassembly and cytokinesis, contributing to induction and maintenance of morphological, anchorage-independent, and neoplastic transformation of these cell lines. Over-expression of Ect2 protein is a useful biomarker to detect exposure to nickel compounds and nickel ion-induced morphological and neoplastic cell transformation

  11. Endogenous c-Myc is essential for p53-induced apoptosis in response to DNA damage in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phesse, T. J.; Myant, K. B.; Cole, A. M.; Ridgway, R. A.; Pearson, H.; Muncan, V.; van den Brink, G. R.; Vousden, K. H.; Sears, R.; Vassilev, L. T.; Clarke, A. R.; Sansom, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that C-MYC may be an excellent therapeutic cancer target and a number of new agents targeting C-MYC are in preclinical development. Given most therapeutic regimes would combine C-MYC inhibition with genotoxic damage, it is important to assess the importance of C-MYC

  12. The proto-oncogene KRAS and BRAF profiles and some clinical characteristics in colorectal cancer in the Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Filiz; Ozdemir, Semra; Zemheri, Ebru; Hacimuto, Gizem; Silan, Fatma; Ozdemir, Ozturk

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and predictive significance of the KRAS and BRAF mutations in Turkish patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Totally, 53 fresh tumoral tissue specimens were investigated in patients with CRC. All specimens were obtained during routine surgery of patients who were histopathologically diagnosed and genotyped for common KRAS and BRAF point mutations. After DNA extraction, the target mutations were analyzed using the AutoGenomics INFINITI(®) assay, and some samples were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction fluorescence melting curve analyses. KRAS mutations were found in 26 (49.05%) CRC samples. Twenty-seven samples (50.95%) had wild-type profiles for KRAS codon 12, 13, and 61 in the current cohort. In 17 (65.38%) samples, codon 12; in 7 (26.93%) samples, codon 13; and in 2 (7.69%) samples, codon 61 were found to be mutated, particularly in grade 2 of tumoral tissues. No point mutation was detected in BRAF codon Val600Glu for the studied CRC patients. Our study, based on a representative collection of human CRC tumors, indicates that KRAS gene mutations were detected in 49.05% of the samples, and the most frequent mutation was in the G12D codon. Results also showed that codons 12 and 13 of KRAS are relatively frequently without BRAF mutation in a CRC cohort from the Turkish population.

  13. Rictor regulates FBXW7-dependent c-Myc and cyclin E degradation in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zheng [Markey Cancer Center, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 1838 Guangzhou Dadao Bei, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Zhou, Yuning [Markey Cancer Center, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Evers, B. Mark [Markey Cancer Center, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Qingding, E-mail: qingding.wang@uky.edu [Markey Cancer Center, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor decreases ubiquitination of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor increases protein levels of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. -- Abstract: Rictor (Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR) forms a complex with mTOR and phosphorylates and activates Akt. Activation of Akt induces expression of c-Myc and cyclin E, which are overexpressed in colorectal cancer and play an important role in colorectal cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show that rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E degradation. The Rictor-FBXW7 complex is biochemically distinct from the previously reported mTORC2 and can be immunoprecipitated independently of mTORC2. Moreover, knocking down of rictor in serum-deprived colorectal cancer cells results in the decreased ubiquitination and increased protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin E while overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Genetic knockout of FBXW7 blunts the effects of rictor, suggesting that rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. Our findings identify rictor as an important component of FBXW7 E3 ligase complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E protein ubiquitination and degradation. Importantly, our results suggest that elevated growth factor signaling may contribute to decrease rictor/FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination of c-Myc and cyclin E, thus leading to accumulation of cyclin E and c-Myc in colorectal cancer cells.

  14. Rictor regulates FBXW7-dependent c-Myc and cyclin E degradation in colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zheng; Zhou, Yuning; Evers, B. Mark; Wang, Qingding

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex. ► Knockdown of rictor decreases ubiquitination of c-Myc and cylin E. ► Knockdown of rictor increases protein levels of c-Myc and cylin E. ► Overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. ► Rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. -- Abstract: Rictor (Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR) forms a complex with mTOR and phosphorylates and activates Akt. Activation of Akt induces expression of c-Myc and cyclin E, which are overexpressed in colorectal cancer and play an important role in colorectal cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show that rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E degradation. The Rictor–FBXW7 complex is biochemically distinct from the previously reported mTORC2 and can be immunoprecipitated independently of mTORC2. Moreover, knocking down of rictor in serum-deprived colorectal cancer cells results in the decreased ubiquitination and increased protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin E while overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Genetic knockout of FBXW7 blunts the effects of rictor, suggesting that rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. Our findings identify rictor as an important component of FBXW7 E3 ligase complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E protein ubiquitination and degradation. Importantly, our results suggest that elevated growth factor signaling may contribute to decrease rictor/FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination of c-Myc and cyclin E, thus leading to accumulation of cyclin E and c-Myc in colorectal cancer cells.

  15. Celastrol inhibits chondrosarcoma proliferation, migration and invasion through suppression CIP2A/c-MYC signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcomas (CS is the second most frequent tumors of cartilage origin. A small compound extracted from Thunder God Vine (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F. called celastrol can directly bound CIP2A protein and effectively inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, little knowledge is concern about the important role of CIP2A in CS patients and the therapeutic value of celastrol on CS. Our results showed that CIP2A and c-MYC were verified to be oncoproteins by detecting their mRNA and protein expression in 10 human CS tissues by qRT-PCR and Western blots. After treatment of celastrol, the proliferation, migration and invasion were significantly inhibited; whereas the apoptosis was largely induced in human CS cell lines. In addition, celastrol inhibited the expression of CIP2A, c-MYC, and suppressed apoptotic proteins BAX and caspase-8 in human CS cells, on the other hand, it induced the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Finally, knockdown of CIP2A also inhibited the migration and invasion and induced apoptosis of human CS cells. To sum up, we found that celastrol had effects on inhibiting proliferation, migration, invasion and inducing apoptosis through suppression CIP2A/c-MYC signaling pathway in vitro, which may provide a new therapeutic regimen for CS.

  16. Nm23-M2/NDP kinase B induces endogenous c-myc and nm23-M1/NDP kinase A overexpression in BAF3 cells. Both NDP kinases protect the cells from oxidative stress-induced death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud-Dabernat, Sandrine; Masse, Karine; Smani, Moneim; Peuchant, Evelyne; Landry, Marc; Bourbon, Pierre-Marie; Le Floch, Renaud; Daniel, Jean-Yves; Larou, Monique

    2004-01-01

    The nm23 gene family encodes nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) which supply the cell with (d)NTPs. The human NDPKB, also known as the PuF protein, binds the c-myc promoter and transactivates the c-myc protooncogene. We have now studied the effects of mouse NDPKA and NDPKB overexpression on endogenous c-myc transactivation in the mouse BAF3 and the rat PC12 cell lines. c-myc transcripts were found to be up-regulated by NDPKB only in the BAF3 line. This suggests that c-myc transcriptional control via NDPKB depends on the presence of cell-specific co-factors. Unexpectedly, NDPKB also induced NDPKA expression. This new effect was found in both cell lines, suggesting that NDPKB-dependent nm23-M1 gene transactivation requires cis and/or trans elements different from those involved in c-myc transactivation. Moreover, the BAF3 cell proliferation capacities were found to be independent of NDPKA or B cell contents. Interestingly, cell death induced by c-myc overexpression or H 2 O 2 exposure was decreased in nm23-transfected compared to control BAF3 cells. These data collectively suggest that NDPKs might improve cell survival by a mechanism coupling DNA repair and transcriptional regulation of genes involved in DNA damage response

  17. Localization of specific sequences and DNA single-strand breaks in individual UV-A-irradiated human lymphocytes by COMET FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Claudia; Rapp, Alexander; Dittmar, Heike; Monajembashi, Shamci; Greulich, Karl-Otto

    1999-01-01

    The COMET assay, a single cell electrophoresis technique which allows to separate electrophoretically fractionated DNA according to size has been combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) which allows to localize specific genes or gene regions. This combination (COMET FISH) allows the detection of DNA single strand breaks in specific regions of the genome of human lymphocytes at the single cell level. Various types of DNA probes, e.g. centromere-, (alpha) - satellite-, telomere-, whole chromosome-, single copy- and region specific DNA probes have been used to investigate whether the UV-A induced DNA single strand breaks are distributed randomly all over the human genome or induced at specific sites ('hot spots'). In the investigated human peripheral blood lymphocytes all but one centromere reveal low sensitivity for UV-A irradiation (500 kJ/m2), while telomeres are randomly distributed over COMET heads and tails. The human chromosome 1 is fractionated by irradiation, but remains in the COMET head, indicating an only moderate degree of fractionation. Among three tested single copy probes, c- myc, p53 and p58, the p53 gene located on chromosome 17p13.1 and the p58 gene (1p36) appear to be located in UV-A stable regions of the human genome in 95% of 65 investigated lymphocytes. In contrast, the c-myc proto-oncogene (8q24) is found in the COMET tail in 90% of the 27 investigated lymphocytes and thus appears to be more sensitive to UV-A irradiation.

  18. Blocking c-myc and stat3 by E. coli expressed and enzyme digested siRNA in mouse melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Jie; Zhao Yingchun; Huang Weida

    2006-01-01

    Tumour cells often show alteration in the signal-transduction pathways, leading to proliferation in response to external signals. Oncogene overexpression and constitutive expression is a common phenomenon in the development and progression of many human cancers. Therefore oncogenes provide potential targets for cancer therapy. RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), silences genes with a high degree of specificity and potentially represents a general approach for molecularly targeted anti-cancer therapy. The data presented in this report evaluated the method of systemically administering combined esiRNAs to multiple targets as compared with the method of using a single kind of esiRNA to a single target. Our experimental data revealed that the mixed treatment of esiC-MYC and esiSTAT3 had a better inhibition effect than the single treatment of esiC-MYC or esiSTAT3 on mouse B16 melanoma

  19. USP10 Antagonizes c-Myc Transcriptional Activation through SIRT6 Stabilization to Suppress Tumor Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghong Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduced protein expression of SIRT6 tumor suppressor is involved in tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying SIRT6 protein downregulation in human cancers remain unknown. Using a proteomic approach, we have identified the ubiquitin-specific peptidase USP10, another tumor suppressor, as one of the SIRT6-interacting proteins. USP10 suppresses SIRT6 ubiquitination to protect SIRT6 from proteasomal degradation. USP10 antagonizes the transcriptional activity of the c-Myc oncogene through SIRT6, as well as p53, to inhibit cell-cycle progression, cancer cell growth, and tumor formation. To support this conclusion, we detected significant reductions in both USP10 and SIRT6 protein expression in human colon cancers. Our study discovered crosstalk between two tumor-suppressive genes in regulating cell-cycle progression and proliferation and showed that dysregulated USP10 function promotes tumorigenesis through SIRT6 degradation.

  20. Calmodulin-mediated activation of Akt regulates survival of c-Myc-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Tushar B; Coticchia, Christine M; Dickson, Robert B

    2004-09-10

    c-Myc-overexpressing mammary epithelial cells are proapoptotic; their survival is strongly promoted by epidermal growth factor (EGF). We now demonstrate that EGF-induced Akt activation and survival in transgenic mouse mammary tumor virus-c-Myc mouse mammary carcinoma cells are both calcium/calmodulin-dependent. Akt activation is abolished by the phospholipase C-gamma inhibitor U-73122, by the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and by the specific calmodulin antagonist W-7. These results implicate calcium/calmodulin in the activation of Akt in these cells. In addition, Akt activation by serum and insulin is also inhibited by W-7. EGF-induced and calcium/calmodulin-mediated Akt activation occurs in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mouse and human mammary epithelial cells, independent of their overexpression of c-Myc. These results imply that calcium/calmodulin may be a common regulator of Akt activation, irrespective of upstream receptor activator, mammalian species, and transformation status in mammary epithelial cells. However, only c-Myc-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma cells (but not normal mouse mammary epithelial cells) undergo apoptosis in the presence of the calmodulin antagonist W-7, indicating the vital selective role of calmodulin for survival of these cells. Calcium/calmodulin-regulated Akt activation is mediated directly by neither calmodulin kinases nor phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase). Pharmacological inhibitors of calmodulin kinase kinase and calmodulin kinases II and III do not inhibit EGF-induced Akt activation, and calmodulin antagonist W-7 does not inhibit phosphotyrosine-associated PI-3 kinase activation. Akt is, however, co-immunoprecipitated with calmodulin in an EGF-dependent manner, which is inhibited by calmodulin antagonist W-7. We conclude that calmodulin may serve a vital regulatory function to direct the localization of Akt to the plasma membrane for its activation by PI-3 kinase.

  1. Effects on micronuclei formation of 60-Hz electromagnetic field exposure with ionizing radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or c-Myc overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Kang, Ga-Young; Lee, Jae Seon; Choi, Jong-Il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Hong, Seung-Cheol; Myung, Sung Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a possible correlation between exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and cancer. However, this correlation has yet to be definitively confirmed by epidemiological studies. The principal objective of this study was to assess the effects of 60 Hz magnetic fields in a normal cell line system, and particularly in combination with various external factors, via micronucleus (MN) assays. Mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH3T3 cells and human lung fibroblast WI-38 cells were exposed for 4 h to a 60 Hz, 1 mT uniform magnetic field with or without ionizing radiation (IR, 2 Gy), H(2)O(2) (100 μM) and cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) activation. The results obtained showed no significant differences between the cells exposed to ELF-MF alone and the unexposed cells. Moreover, no synergistic effects were observed when ELF-MF was combined with IR, H(2)O(2), and c-Myc activation. Our results demonstrate that ELF-MF did not enhance MN frequency by IR, H(2)O(2) and c-Myc activation.

  2. Glutathione Depletion Induced by c-Myc Downregulation Triggers Apoptosis on Treatment with Alkylating Agents1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biroccio, Annamaria; Benassi, Barbara; Fiorentino, Francesco; Zupi, Gabriella

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Here we investigate the mechanism(s) involved in the c-Myc-dependent drug response of melanoma cells. By using three M14-derived c-Myc low-expressing clones, we demonstrate that alkylating agents, cisplatin and melphalan, trigger apoptosis in the c-Myc antisense transfectants, but not in the parental line. On the contrary, topoisomerase inhibitors, adriamycin and camptothecin, induce apoptosis to the same extent regardless of c-Myc expression. Because we previously demonstrated that c-Myc downregulation decreases glutathione (GSH) content, we evaluated the role of GSH in the apoptosis induced by the different drugs. In control cells treated with one of the alkylating agents or the others, GSH depletion achieved by l-buthionine-sulfoximine preincubation opens the apoptotic pathway. The apoptosis proceeded through early Bax relocalization, cytochrome c release, and concomitant caspase-9 activation, whereas reactive oxygen species production and alteration of mitochondria membrane potential were late events. That GSH was determining in the c-Myc-dependent drug-induced apoptosis was demonstrated by altering the intracellular GSH content of the c-Myc low-expressing cells up to the level of controls. Indeed, GSH ethyl ester-mediated increase of GSH abrogated apoptosis induced by cisplatin and melphalan by inhibition of Bax/cytochrome c redistribution. The relationship among c-Myc, GSH content, and the response to alkylating agent has been also evaluated in the M14 Myc overexpressing clones as well as in the melanoma JR8 c-Myc antisense transfectants. All together, these results demonstrate that GSH plays a key role in governing c-Myc-dependent drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:15153331

  3. Driver or passenger effects of augmented c-Myc and Cdc20 in gliomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ping; Zhou, Xinhui; Liu, Qun; Fuller, Gregory N; Phillips, Lynette M; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-26

    Cdc20 and c-Myc are commonly overexpressed in a broad spectrum of cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). Despite this clear association, whether c-Myc and Cdc20 overexpression is a driver or passenger event in gliomagenesis remains unclear. Both c-Myc and Cdc20 induced the proliferation of primary glial progenitor cells. c-Myc also promoted the formation of soft agar anchorage-independent colonies. In the RCAS/Ntv-a glia-specific transgenic mouse model, c-Myc increased the GBM incidence from 19.1% to 47.4% by 12 weeks of age when combined with kRas and Akt3 in Ntv-a INK4a-ARF (also known as CDKN2A)-null mice. In contrast, Cdc20 decreased the GBM incidence from 19.1% to 9.1%. Moreover, cell differentiation was modulated by c-Myc in kRas/Akt3-induced GBM on the basis of Nestin/GFAP expression (glial progenitor cell differentiation), while Cdc20 had no effect on primary glial progenitor cell differentiation. We used glial progenitor cells from Ntv-a newborn mice to evaluate the role of c-Myc and Cdc20 in the proliferation and transformation of GBM in vitro and in vivo. We further determined whether c-Myc and Cdc20 have a driver or passenger role in GBM development using kRas/Akt3 signals in a RCAS/Ntv-a mouse model. These results suggest that the driver or passenger of oncogene signaling is dependent on cellular status. c-Myc is a driver when combined with kRas/Akt3 oncogenic signals in gliomagenesis, whereas Cdc20 overexpression is a passenger. Inhibition of cell differentiation of c-Myc may be a target for anti-glioma therapy.

  4. Differential cellular responses by oncogenic levels of c-Myc expression in long-term confluent retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Cheng, Xiangdong; Samma, Muhammad Kaleem; Kung, Sam K P; Lee, Clement M; Chiu, Sung Kay

    2018-06-01

    c-Myc is a highly pleiotropic transcription factor known to control cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and cellular transformation. Normally, ectopic expression of c-Myc is associated with promoting cell proliferation or triggering cell death via activating p53. However, it is not clear how the levels of c-Myc lead to different cellular responses. Here, we generated a series of stable RPE cell clones expressing c-Myc at different levels, and found that consistent low level of c-Myc induced cellular senescence by activating AP4 in post-confluent RPE cells, while the cells underwent cell death at high level of c-Myc. In addition, high level of c-Myc could override the effect of AP4 on cellular senescence. Further knockdown of AP4 abrogated senescence-like phenotype in cells expressing low level of c-Myc, and accelerated cell death in cells with medium level of c-Myc, indicating that AP4 was required for cellular senescence induced by low level of c-Myc.

  5. Driving gradual endogenous c-myc overexpression by flow-sorting: intracellular signaling and tumor cell phenotype correlate with oncogene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kasper Jermiin; Holm, G.M.N.; Krabbe, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin-exposed rat mammary cancer cells were flow sorted based on a c-myc reporter plasmid encoding a destabilized green fluorescent protein. Sorted cells exhibited gradual increases in c-myc levels. Cells overexpressing c-myc by only 10% exhibited phenotypic changes attributable to c-myc overex...

  6. Integrin α6Bβ4 inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and c-Myc activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dydensborg, Anders Bondo; Teller, Inga C; Groulx, Jean-François; Basora, Nuria; Paré, Fréderic; Herring, Elizabeth; Gauthier, Rémy; Jean, Dominique; Beaulieu, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Integrins are known to be important contributors to cancer progression. We have previously shown that the integrin β4 subunit is up-regulated in primary colon cancer. Its partner, the integrin α6 subunit, exists as two different mRNA splice variants, α6A and α6B, that differ in their cytoplasmic domains but evidence for distinct biological functions of these α6 splice variants is still lacking. In this work, we first analyzed the expression of integrin α6A and α6B at the protein and transcript levels in normal human colonic cells as well as colorectal adenocarcinoma cells from both primary tumors and established cell lines. Then, using forced expression experiments, we investigated the effect of α6A and α6B on the regulation of cell proliferation in a colon cancer cell line. Using variant-specific antibodies, we observed that α6A and α6B are differentially expressed both within the normal adult colonic epithelium and between normal and diseased colonic tissues. Proliferative cells located in the lower half of the glands were found to predominantly express α6A, while the differentiated and quiescent colonocytes in the upper half of the glands and surface epithelium expressed α6B. A relative decrease of α6B expression was also identified in primary colon tumors and adenocarcinoma cell lines suggesting that the α6A/α6B ratios may be linked to the proliferative status of colonic cells. Additional studies in colon cancer cells showed that experimentally restoring the α6A/α6B balance in favor of α6B caused a decrease in cellular S-phase entry and repressed the activity of c-Myc. The findings that the α6Bβ4 integrin is expressed in quiescent normal colonic cells and is significantly down-regulated in colon cancer cells relative to its α6Aβ4 counterpart are consistent with the anti-proliferative influence and inhibitory effect on c-Myc activity identified for this α6Bβ4 integrin. Taken together, these findings point out the importance of integrin

  7. Biological aspects and tumorigenic activity of the Ras proto-oncogenic family Aspectos biológicos e atividade tumorigênica da família proto-oncogênica Ras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano André Boquett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proto-oncogenes play an important role in the regulation of the cellular cycle, being critical to the tumorigenesis. In this category we can find the RAS family. Due to the high transformation potential of these genes, this family is the best described and most studied one. It is formed by the H-, K- and the N-RAS genes, that codify highly related proteins expressed in several types of cells, denominated p21.These proteins act in the sign transduction from the membrane to the nucleus, as well as in the control of proliferation, differentiation and cellular death, and they are regulated by the interaction with GDP (inactive and GTP (active. These proteins show variation in only 10 - 15% of the primary structure, in the C-terminal portion denominated hyper-variant region. When in the oncogenic form, the p21 proteins remain active, providing continuous stimuli to the cellular proliferation. Among the RAS genes, K-RAS ones have been the most studied for presenting more frequent mutations and for being present in more aggressive tumors, implying the patients’ shorter survival time. Due to these facts and relative bibliography lack in the Portuguese language on this family, we presented in this work a systematized and updated review on the RAS genes. Os proto-oncogenes desempenham importante papel na regulação do ciclo celular, e são críticos à tumorigênese. Nessa categoria se encontra a família RAS, que, devido ao elevado potencial transformante dos genes que a compõem, é uma das mais bem descritas e estudadas. É formada pelos genes H-, K- e N-RAS, que codificam proteínas altamente relacionadas expressas em vários tipos de células, denominadas p21. Estas atuam na transdução de sinal da membrana ao núcleo, estão envolvidas no controle da proliferação, diferenciação e morte celular e são reguladas pela interação com GDP (inativa e GTP (ativa. As proteínas p21 diferem em apenas 10-15% da sua estrutura primária, na porção C

  8. Endogenous c-Myc is essential for p53-induced apoptosis in response to DNA damage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phesse, T J; Myant, K B; Cole, A M; Ridgway, R A; Pearson, H; Muncan, V; van den Brink, G R; Vousden, K H; Sears, R; Vassilev, L T; Clarke, A R; Sansom, O J

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that C-MYC may be an excellent therapeutic cancer target and a number of new agents targeting C-MYC are in preclinical development. Given most therapeutic regimes would combine C-MYC inhibition with genotoxic damage, it is important to assess the importance of C-MYC function for DNA damage signalling in vivo. In this study, we have conditionally deleted the c-Myc gene in the adult murine intestine and investigated the apoptotic response of intestinal enterocytes to DNA damage. Remarkably, c-Myc deletion completely abrogated the immediate wave of apoptosis following both ionizing irradiation and cisplatin treatment, recapitulating the phenotype of p53 deficiency in the intestine. Consistent with this, c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes did not upregulate p53. Mechanistically, this was linked to an upregulation of the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which targets p53 for degradation in c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes. Further, low level overexpression of c-Myc, which does not impact on basal levels of apoptosis, elicited sustained apoptosis in response to DNA damage, suggesting c-Myc activity acts as a crucial cell survival rheostat following DNA damage. We also identify the importance of MYC during DNA damage-induced apoptosis in several other tissues, including the thymus and spleen, using systemic deletion of c-Myc throughout the adult mouse. Together, we have elucidated for the first time in vivo an essential role for endogenous c-Myc in signalling DNA damage-induced apoptosis through the control of the p53 tumour suppressor protein.

  9. Inhibition of c-Myc by 10058-F4 induces growth arrest and chemosensitivity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Fan, Hai-Yan; Li, Sheng-Chao

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a formidable medical challenge due to its malignancies and the absence of effective treatment. c-Myc, as an important transcription factor, plays crucial roles in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. The c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4, has been reported act as a tumor suppressor in several different tumors. In current study, the tumor-suppressive roles of 10058-F4 was observed in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro as demonstrated by decreased cell viability, cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition and increased caspase3/7 activity. And tumor responses to gemcitabine were also significantly enhanced by 10058-F4 in PANC-1 and SW1990 cells. In a subcutaneous xenograft model, however, 10058-F4 showed no significant influence on pancreatic tumorigenesis. When combined with gemcitabine, tumorigenesis was drastically attenuated compared with gemcitabine group or 10058-F4 group; this synergistic effect was accompanied with decreased PCNA-positive cells and reduced TUNEL-positive cells in the combined treated group. Subsequent studies revealed that decreased glycolysis may be involved in the inhibitory effect of 10058-F4 on PDAC. Taken together, this study demonstrates the roles of 10058-F4 in PDAC and provides evidence that 10058-F4 in combination with gemcitabine showed significant clinical benefit over the usage of gemcitabine alone. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Gene expression profiles in primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions of Ela-c-myc transgenic mice

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    Liao Dezhong J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic carcinoma usually is a fatal disease with no cure, mainly due to its invasion and metastasis prior to diagnosis. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of paired primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions from Ela-c-myc transgenic mice in order to identify genes that may be involved in the pancreatic cancer progression. Differentially expressed selected genes were verified by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR. To further evaluate the relevance of some of the selected differentially expressed genes, we investigated their expression pattern in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials. Results Data indicate that genes involved in posttranscriptional regulation were a major functional category of upregulated genes in both primary pancreatic tumors (PT and liver metastatic lesions (LM compared to normal pancreas (NP. In particular, differential expression for splicing factors, RNA binding/pre-mRNA processing factors and spliceosome related genes were observed, indicating that RNA processing and editing related events may play critical roles in pancreatic tumor development and progression. High expression of insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (Igfbp1 and Serine proteinase inhibitor A1 (Serpina1, and low levels or absence of Wt1 gene expression were exclusive to liver metastatic lesion samples. Conclusion We identified Igfbp1, Serpina1 and Wt1 genes that are likely to be clinically useful biomarkers for prognostic or therapeutic purposes in metastatic pancreatic cancer, particularly in pancreatic cancer where c-Myc is overexpressed.

  11. Gene expression profiles in primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions of Ela-c-myc transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Archana; Bollig, Aliccia; Wu, Jiusheng; Liao, Dezhong J

    2008-01-24

    Pancreatic carcinoma usually is a fatal disease with no cure, mainly due to its invasion and metastasis prior to diagnosis. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of paired primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions from Ela-c-myc transgenic mice in order to identify genes that may be involved in the pancreatic cancer progression. Differentially expressed selected genes were verified by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR. To further evaluate the relevance of some of the selected differentially expressed genes, we investigated their expression pattern in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials. Data indicate that genes involved in posttranscriptional regulation were a major functional category of upregulated genes in both primary pancreatic tumors (PT) and liver metastatic lesions (LM) compared to normal pancreas (NP). In particular, differential expression for splicing factors, RNA binding/pre-mRNA processing factors and spliceosome related genes were observed, indicating that RNA processing and editing related events may play critical roles in pancreatic tumor development and progression. High expression of insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (Igfbp1) and Serine proteinase inhibitor A1 (Serpina1), and low levels or absence of Wt1 gene expression were exclusive to liver metastatic lesion samples. We identified Igfbp1, Serpina1 and Wt1 genes that are likely to be clinically useful biomarkers for prognostic or therapeutic purposes in metastatic pancreatic cancer, particularly in pancreatic cancer where c-Myc is overexpressed.

  12. c-Myc Represses Tumor-Suppressive microRNAs, let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b, and Induces Cyclin D2-Mediated Cell Proliferation in Ewing's Sarcoma Cell Line.

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    Masanori Kawano

    Full Text Available Myc oncogenic transcription factor is known to inhibit tumor suppressive microRNAs (miRNAs, resulting in greater expression of their target protein related to cell cycle, invasion or anti-apoptotic factors in human cancer cells. To explore possible oncogenic factors in Ewing's sarcoma (ES, we conducted microarray-based approach to profile the changes in the expression of miRNAs and its downstream mRNAs in five ES cell lines and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs. Three miRNAs, let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b were significantly down-regulated, whereas c-Myc and cyclin D2 (CCND2 were significantly up-regulated in all tested ES cells compared with hMSCs. To verify that let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b were the targets of c-Myc in ES cell lines, we transfected siRNA against c-Myc and confirmed the coordinate up-regulation of let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b through the repression of c-Myc. The ES cells transfected with c-Myc-siRNA and let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b exhibited the inhibition of the cell cycle progression. The increased expression of let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b resulted in the reduction of CCND2 protein expression. We also demonstrated that c-Myc-siRNA treatment of ES cells was associated with the decreased expression of CCND2 as a down-stream of three miRNAs. Furthermore, the introduction of let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b in ES cells could inhibit the c-Myc-mediated up-regulation of CCND2 resulted in the prevention of cell cycle progression. In addition, the transfection of let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b in ES cells suppressed tumor growth ex vivo treatment. These findings suggests that the up-regulation of c-Myc inhibited the expression of let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b subsequently induced CCND2 expression in ES cells. The present study might identify a novel oncogenic axis that c-Myc regulates the expression of CCND2 via let-7a, miR-16 and miR-29b, leading to the development new therapeutic targets for ES.

  13. Interrelationship between chromosome 8 aneuploidy, C-MYC amplification and increased expression in individuals from northern Brazil with gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Seabra, Aline Damaceno; Khayat, André Salim; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Demachki, Samia; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Faria, Mario Henrique Girão; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Ferreira, Márcia Valéria Pitombeira; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate chromosome 8 numerical aberrations, C-MYC oncogene alterations and its expression in gastric cancer and to correlate these findings with histopathological characteristics of gastric tumors. METHODS: Specimens were collected surgically from seven patients with gastric adenocarcinomas. Immunostaining for C-MYC and dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for C-MYC gene and chromosome 8 centromere were performed. RESULTS: All the cases showed chromosome 8 aneuploidy and C-MYC amplification, in both the diffuse and intestinal histopathological types of Lauren. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the level of chromosome 8 ploidy and the site, stage or histological type of the adenocarcinomas. C-MYC high amplification, like homogeneously stained regions (HSRs) and double minutes (DMs), was observed only in the intestinal-type. Structural rearrangement of C-MYC, like translocation, was observed only in the diffuse type. Regarding C-MYC gene, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the two histological types. The C-MYC protein was expressed in all the studied cases. In the intestinal-type the C-MYC immunoreactivity was localized only in the nucleus and in the diffuse type in the nucleus and cytoplasm. CONCLUSION: Distinct patterns of alterations between intestinal and diffuse types of gastric tumors support the hypothesis that these types follow different genetic pathways. PMID:17036397

  14. Detecção imunoistoquímica das oncoproteínas p21ras, c-myc E p53 no carcinoma hepatocelular e no tecido hepático não-neoplásico Immunohistochemical detection of p21ras, c-myc and p53 oncoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma and in non-neoplastic liver tissue

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    Vera Lucia Nunes Pannain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A hepatocarcinogênese é um processo no qual as alterações genéticas e epigenéticas são bem conhecidas em modelos animais, mas carece de estudos no homem. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a freqüência das oncoproteínas p21ras, c-myc e p53 no carcinoma hepatocelular e no fígado não-neoplásico. Verificar ainda a associação destas oncoproteínas com os padrões e graus histológicos, assim como com as infecções pelos vírus das hepatites B e C. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada por método imunoistoquímico a detecção das oncoproteínas p21ras, c-myc e p53 em 47 casos de carcinoma hepatocelular e no tecido não-neoplásico circunjacente ao tumor (40 casos. RESULTADOS: As oncoproteínas p21ras, c-myc e p53 foram detectadas, respectivamente, em 44,7%, 53,2% e 36,2% dos casos de carcinoma hepatocelular. A imunorreatividade do p21ras e c-myc mostrou uma associação significativa. Contudo, não houve associação significativa entre a detecção do p21ras, c-myc e p53 com os diferentes graus e padrões histológicos, nem tampouco com as infecções pelos vírus das hepatites B e C. A mesma associação significativa entre o p21ras e c-myc foi encontrada no tecido não-neoplásico dos casos de cirrose em relação aos que não apresentaram cirrose, enquanto que o p53 foi negativo em todos os casos. CONCLUSÕES: A imunorreatividade das oncoproteínas p21ras, c-myc e p53 corrobora evidências prévias de sua detecção no carcinoma hepatocelular, o que sugere poder haver participação destas proteínas na hepatocarcinogênese humana. A significativa associação entre as proteínas p21ras, c-myc e p53 no carcinoma hepatocelular e na cirrose pode apontar uma interação entre as mesmas, sobretudo na hepatocarcinogênese pela via da cirrose.BACKGROUND: Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been described in animal hepatocarcinogenesis models but need to be studied in human being. AIMS: To assess the immunoreactivity of p21ras, c-myc and p53

  15. A proteomic study of cMyc improvement of CHO culture

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    Dunn Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biopharmaceutical industry requires cell lines to have an optimal proliferation rate and a high integral viable cell number resulting in a maximum volumetric recombinant protein product titre. Nutrient feeding has been shown to boost cell number and productivity in fed-batch culture, but cell line engineering is another route one may take to increase these parameters in the bioreactor. The use of CHO-K1 cells with a c-myc plasmid allowing for over-expressing c-Myc (designated cMycCHO gives a higher integral viable cell number. In this study the differential protein expression in cMycCHO is investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE followed by image analysis to determine the extent of the effect c-Myc has on the cell and the proteins involved to give the new phenotype. Results Over 100 proteins that were differentially expressed in cMycCHO cells were detected with high statistical confidence, of which 41 were subsequently identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Further analysis revealed proteins involved in a variety of pathways. Some examples of changes in protein expression include: an increase in nucleolin, involved in proliferation and known to aid in stabilising anti-apoptotic protein mRNA levels, the cytoskeleton and mitochondrial morphology (vimentin, protein biosysnthesis (eIF6 and energy metabolism (ATP synthetase, and a decreased regulation of all proteins, indentified, involved in matrix and cell to cell adhesion. Conclusion These results indicate several proteins involved in proliferation and adhesion that could be useful for future approaches to improve proliferation and decrease adhesion of CHO cell lines which are difficult to adapt to suspension culture.

  16. Macrocyclic peptides decrease c-Myc protein levels and reduce prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Hanold, Laura E; Thayele Purayil, Hamsa; Gisemba, Solomon A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V

    2017-08-03

    The oncoprotein c-Myc is often overexpressed in cancer cells, and the stability of this protein has major significance in deciding the fate of a cell. Thus, targeting c-Myc levels is an attractive approach for developing therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, we report the anti-cancer activity of the macrocyclic peptides [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-D-Trp]) and the natural product CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-Trp]). [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 reduced c-Myc protein levels in prostate cancer cells and decreased cell proliferation with IC 50 values ranging from 2.0 to 16 µM in multiple PC cell lines. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 induced early and late apoptosis in PC-3 cells following 48 hours treatment, and growth arrest in the G2 cell cycle phase following both 24 and 48 hours treatment. Down regulation of c-Myc in PC-3 cells resulted in loss of sensitivity to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment, while overexpression of c-Myc in HEK-293 cells imparted sensitivity of these cells to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment. This macrocyclic tetrapeptide also regulated PP2A by reducing the levels of its phosphorylated form which regulates the stability of cellular c-Myc protein. Thus [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 represents a new lead compound for the potential development of an effective treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) Represses Transcription of the Tumor Suppressor Rb Gene via Binding Competition with Sp1 and Recruitment of Co-repressors*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Choong-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-01-01

    FBI-1 (also called Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a BTB/POZ-domain Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a proto-oncogenic protein, which represses tumor suppressor ARF gene transcription. The expression of FBI-1 is increased in many cancer tissues. We found that FBI-1 potently represses transcription of the Rb gene, a tumor suppressor gene important in cell cycle arrest. FBI-1 binds to four GC-rich promoter elements (FREs) located at bp –308 to –188 of the Rb promoter region. The Rb promoter also contains two Sp1 binding sites: GC-box 1 (bp –65 to –56) and GC-box 2 (bp –18 to –9), the latter of which is also bound by FBI-1. We found that FRE3 (bp –244 to –236) is also a Sp1 binding element. FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene not only by binding to the FREs, but also by competing with Sp1 at the GC-box 2 and the FRE3. By binding to the FREs and/or the GC-box, FBI-1 represses transcription of the Rb gene through its POZ-domain, which recruits a co-repressor-histone deacetylase complex and deacetylates histones H3 and H4 at the Rb gene promoter. FBI-1 inhibits C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation by repressing Rb gene expression. PMID:18801742

  18. Molecular concept in human oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U S

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which multiple genetic events occur that alter the normal functions of proto-oncogenes/oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, these gene alterations can deregulate the normal activity such as increase in the production of growth factors (transforming growth factor-α [TGF-α], TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor, etc.) or numbers of cell surface receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor, etc.), enhanced intracellular messenger signaling and mutated production of transcription factors (ras gene family, c-myc gene) which results disturb to tightly regulated signaling pathways of normal cell. Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in oral cancer especially cyclin family, ras, PRAD-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p53 and RB1. Viral infections, particularly with oncogenic human papilloma virus subtype (16 and 18) and Epstein-Barr virus have tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia. Worldwide, this is an urgent need to initiate oral cancer research programs at molecular and genetic level which investigates the causes of genetic and molecular defect, responsible for malignancy. This approach may lead to development of target dependent tumor-specific drugs and appropriate gene therapy.

  19. Low expression of c-Myc protein predicts poor outcomes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Shun-Li; Cao, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Long-Juan; Li, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Bao-Gang; Liang, Li-Jian; Hua, Yun-Peng

    2018-04-24

    Embryonic Liver Fodrin (ELF) is an adaptor protein of transforming growth factor (TGF-β) signaling cascade. Disruption of ELF results in mislocalization of Smad3 and Smad4, leading to compromised TGF-β signaling. c-Myc is an important oncogenic transcription factor, and the disruption of TGF-β signaling promotes c-Myc-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) carcinogenesis. However, the prognostic significance of c-Myc in HCC is less understood METHODS: The expression of c-Myc protein and mRNA were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qRT- PCR, respectively. IHC was performed to detect TGF-β1 and ELF expression in HCC tissues. Their relationship with clinicopathological factors and overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were examined. The expression of c-Myc protein and mRNA in HCC tissues were significantly higher in HCC area than those in normal liver tissues. However, the expression were low compared with those adjacent to HCC area. c-Myc protein was independently predictive of DFS and OS, and it was negatively correlated with tumor size (P = 0.031), tumor number (P = 0.038), and recurrence (P = 0.001). Low c-Myc expression was associated with short-term recurrence and poor prognosis. The predictive value of c-Myc combined with TGF-β1 or/and ELF was higher than that of any other single marker. Low c-Myc, high TGF-β1 or/and low ELF expression was associated with the worst DFS and OS. Low expression of c-Myc protein predicts poor outcomes in patients with HCC with hepatectomy. The combination of the expression of c-Myc, TGF-β1, and ELF can be used to accurately predict outcomes of patients with HCC.

  20. Profil Ekspresi mRNA Gen Murine Double Minute2, Kruppel-Like Factor4, dan c-Myc pada Fibrosarkoma

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    - Humaryanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Fibrosarkoma hanya terjadi 1–3% dari seluruh keganasan jaringan lunak. Hingga saat ini etiologi fibrosarkoma belum diketahui dengan pasti. Beberapa faktor dapat menjadi penyebab patogenesis fibrosarkoma antara lain radiasi, terpapar zat kimia tertentu, serta infeksi human herpes virus 8 (HHV8 dan Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Penelitian terkini menunjukkan bahwa banyak sarkoma terkait dengan mutasi genetik. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat profil ekspresi mRNA gen Krüppel-like Factor4, Murine Double Minute2, dan c-Myc pada fibrosarkoma menggunakan teknik real time PCR kuantitatif (quantitative real time PCR, qRT-PCR. Analisis data menggunakan metode kuantititatif relatif 2-ΔΔCt. Penelitian ini menggunakan 10 sampel kasus fibrosarkoma yang ditemukan di Kota Jambi dari tahun 2011–2015. Hasil ΔCt (+SD MDM2, KLF-4, dan c-Myc disusun dari nilai yang terkecil hingga tertinggi adalah 1,85±2,14; 2,06±3,86; 2,9±2,66 secara berurutan. Dibanding dengan level ekspresi dengan GAPDH sebagai housekeeping gene, gen MDM2 dan KLF-4 relatif menurun dua kali lipat, sedangkan gen c-Myc relatif menurun lebih dari tiga kali lipat. Simpulan, penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada kasus fibrosarkoma, gen c-Myc disupresi lebih kuat dibanding dengan gen MDM2 dan KLF-4. Abstract Fibrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma, reported only 1–3% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Like any other soft-tissue sarcomas the definitive caused has not yet understood. Recognized causes include exposure to ionizing radiation, various physical and chemical factors, infection with human herpes virus (HHV8 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Current research indicates many sarcomas are associated with genetic mutations. In this study, we investigated profile of mRNA gene expression KLF4, MDM2, and c-Myc of RNA in fibrosarcoma cases. The genes expression was examined using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR and we analyzed the relative gene expression using the 2-ΔΔCt method. Ten

  1. Targeting C-Myc Promoter: Helquats As Novel G-Quadruplex Stabilizing Ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kužmová, Erika; Kozák, Jaroslav; Komárková, Veronika; Pytlík, R.; Teplý, Filip; Hájek, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 21 (2014) ISSN 0006-4971. [Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology /56./. 06.12.2014-09.12.2014, San Francisco] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : helquats * C-Myc * leukemia Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  2. Aberrant immunoglobulin and c-myc gene rearrangements in patients with nonmalignant monoclonal cryoglobulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, A.; Wang, N.; Williams, J.M.; Hunt, M.J.; Rosenfeld, S.I.; Condemi, J.J.; Packman, C.H.; Abraham, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    The status of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes was investigated in patients with idiopathic nonmalignant monoclonal IgG cryoglobulinemia (NCG). In NCG, monoclonal antibodies are synthesized at an accelerated rate by nonmalignant B lymphocytes. In order to determine whether this high production rate is related to a clonal B cell expansion, the rearrangement of the Ig genes was investigated by Southern blot analysis of genomic, 32 P-labelled, DNA extracted from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of four NCG patients. In three of four (VI, BR, and CH) clonal expansion of B cells was detected using probes specific for the genes. BamHI digestion of DNA from VI and BR produced three rearranged fragments which cohybridized with two of the probes. This finding suggested the presence of additional nonsecretory B cell clones and/or disruption of the gene segments spanned by and detected with the probes. In addition, the possibility of aberrant gene rearrangements was supported by noting the alteration of the c-myc gene locus in genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of VI and CH. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from peripheral blood B cells of VI and CH demonstrated aberrant transcripts of the c-myc gene, showing an active role of the altered c-myc locus. Detection of c-myc rearrangement in NCG patients clearly shows that this event may not be a final step in malignant B cell transformation

  3. Oncogenic c-Myc-induced lymphomagenesis is inhibited non-redundantly by the p19Arf–Mdm2–p53 and RP–Mdm2–p53 pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, X; Carlson, NR; Dong, J; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    The multifaceted oncogene c-Myc plays important roles in the development and progression of human cancer. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the p19Arf–Mdm2–p53 and the ribosomal protein (RP)–Mdm2–p53 pathways are both essential in preventing oncogenic c-Myc-induced tumorigenesis. Disruption of each pathway individually by p19Arf deletion or by Mdm2C305F mutation, which disrupts RP-Mdm2 binding, accelerates Eμ-myc transgene-induced pre-B/B-cell lymphoma in mice at seemingly s...

  4. Inhibition of c-Myc overcomes cytotoxic drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia cells by promoting differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Na Pan

    Full Text Available Nowadays, drug resistance still represents a major obstacle to successful acute myeloid leukemia (AML treatment and the underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. Here, we found that high expression of c-Myc was one of the cytogenetic characteristics in the drug-resistant leukemic cells. c-Myc over-expression in leukemic cells induced resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, enhanced colony formation capacity and inhibited cell differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA. Meanwhile, inhibition of c-Myc by shRNA or specific c-Myc inhibitor 10058-F4 rescued the sensitivity to cytotoxic drugs, restrained the colony formation ability and promoted differentiation. RT-PCR and western blotting analysis showed that down-regulation of C/EBPβ contributed to the poor differentiation state of leukemic cells induced by c-Myc over-expression. Importantly, over-expression of C/EBPβ could reverse c-Myc induced drug resistance. In primary AML cells, the c-Myc expression was negatively correlated with C/EBPβ. 10058-F4, displayed anti-proliferative activity and increased cellular differentiation with up-regulation of C/EBPβ in primary AML cells. Thus, our study indicated that c-Myc could be a novel target to overcome drug resistance, providing a new approach in AML therapy.

  5. Cytotoxic effect of γ-sitosterol from Kejibeling (Strobilanthes crispus and its mechanism of action towards c-myc gene expression and apoptotic pathway

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    Susi Endrini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to analyze the cytotoxicity effect of γ-sitosterol isolated from “Kejibeling” (Strobilanthes crispus, a medicinal plant, on several cancer cell lines. The mechanisms of the effects were studied through the expression of cancer-caused gene, c-myc and apoptotic pathways.Methods: This in vitro study was done using human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, liver cancer cell lines (HepG2, hormone-dependent breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and the normal liver cell lines (Chang Liver. The cytotoxic effect was measured through MTT assay and the potential cytotoxic value was calculated by determining the toxic concentration which may kill up to 50% of the total cell used (IC50. Meanwhile, the cytotoxic mechanism was studied by determining the effect of adding γ-sitosterol to the c-myc gene expression by reverse transciptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The effect of γ-sitosterol through apoptotic pathway was studied by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay.Results: γ-sitosterol was cytotoxic against Caco-2, HepG2, and MCF-7 with IC50-values of 8.3, 21.8, and 28.8 μg/mL, respectively. There were no IC50-values obtained from this compound against Chang Liver cell line. This compound induced apotosis on Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines and suppressed the c-myc genes expression in both cells.Conclusion: γ-sitosterol was cytotoxic against colon and liver cancer cell lines and the effect was mediated by down-regulation of c-myc expression and induction of the apoptotic pathways.

  6. Sodium arsenite alters cell cycle and MTHFR, MT1/2, and c-Myc protein levels in MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Albores, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited available information on the effects of arsenic on enzymes participating in the folate cycle. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of sodium arsenite on the protein levels of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and its further relationship with the expression MT1/2 and c-myc in MCF-7 cells. Arsenite treatment (0-10 μM) for 4 h decreased MTHFR levels in a concentration-dependent fashion without significant effects on DHFR. The effects on MTHFR were observed at arsenite concentrations not significantly affecting cell viability. We also observed an increase in S-phase recruitment at all concentrations probed. Lower concentrations (< 5 μM) induced cell proliferation, showing a high proportion of BrdU-stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. However, higher concentrations (≥ 5 μM) or longer treatment periods induced apoptosis. Arsenite also induced dose-dependent increases in MT1/2 and c-Myc protein levels. The levels of MTHFR were inversely correlated to MT1/2 and c-Myc overexpression and increased S-phase recruitment. Our findings indicate that breast epithelial cells are responsive to arsenite and suggest that exposure may pose a risk for breast cancer. The reductions in MTHFR protein levels contribute to understand the mechanisms underlying the induction of genes influencing growth regulation, such as c-myc and MT1/2. However, further research is needed to ascertain if the effects here reported following short-time and high-dose exposure are relevant for human populations chronically exposed to low arsenic concentrations.

  7. Aspirin therapy reduces the ability of platelets to promote colon and pancreatic cancer cell proliferation: Implications for the oncoprotein c-MYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylman, Joanna L.; Ngo, Anh T. P.; Pang, Jiaqing; Sears, Rosalie C.; Williams, Craig D.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin, an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic drug, has become the focus of intense research as a potential anticancer agent owing to its ability to reduce tumor proliferation in vitro and to prevent tumorigenesis in patients. Studies have found an anticancer effect of aspirin when used in low, antiplatelet doses. However, the mechanisms through which low-dose aspirin works are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of aspirin on the cross talk between platelets and cancer cells. For our study, we used two colon cancer cell lines isolated from the same donor but characterized by different metastatic potential, SW480 (nonmetastatic) and SW620 (metastatic) cancer cells, and a pancreatic cancer cell line, PANC-1 (nonmetastatic). We found that SW480 and PANC-1 cancer cell proliferation was potentiated by human platelets in a manner dependent on the upregulation and activation of the oncoprotein c-MYC. The ability of platelets to upregulate c-MYC and cancer cell proliferation was reversed by an antiplatelet concentration of aspirin. In conclusion, we show for the first time that inhibition of platelets by aspirin can affect their ability to induce cancer cell proliferation through the modulation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. PMID:27903583

  8. Overexpression and amplification of the c-myc gene in mouse tumors induced by chemical and radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, Ohtsura; Enoki, Yoshitaka; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1989-03-01

    We examined expression of the c-myc gene by the dot blot hybridization of total cellular RNA from mouse primary tumors induced by chemicals and radiations. Expression of the c-myc gene was found to be elevated in 69 cases among 177 independently induced tumors of 12 different types. DNA from tumors overexpressing the myc gene was analyzed by Southern blotting. No case of rearrangement was detected. However, amplification of the c-myc gene was found in 7 cases of primary sarcomas. These included 4 cases out of 24 methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas and 3 cases out of 7 /alpha/-tocopherol-induced sacromas. We also analyzed 8 cases of sarcomas induced by radiations, but could not find changes in the gene structure of the c-myc gene. Thus, our data indicate tumor type specificity and agent specificity of c-myc gene amplification. (author).

  9. Ku70 acetylation and modulation of c-Myc/ATF4/CHOP signaling axis by SIRT1 inhibition lead to sensitization of HepG2 cells to TRAIL through induction of DR5 and down-regulation of c-FLIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Mi-Ju; Hong, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hak-Bong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of c-Myc/ATF4/CHOP signaling pathway in sensitization of human hepatoma HepG2 cells to TRAIL. Knockdown of SIRT1 or treatment with SIRT1 inhibitor caused the up-regulation of DR5 and down-regulation of c-FLIP through modulation of c-Myc/ATF4/CHOP pathway, a...

  10. The proto-oncogene product c-Crk associates with insulin receptor substrate-1 and 4PS. Modulation by insulin growth factor-I (IGF) and enhanced IGF-I signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitner-Johnson, D; Blakesley, V A; Shen-Orr, Z; Jimenez, M; Stannard, B; Wang, L M; Pierce, J; LeRoith, D

    1996-04-19

    The Crk proto-oncogene product is an SH2 and SH3 domain-containing adaptor protein which we have previously shown to become rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to stimulation with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in NIH-3T3 cells. In order to further characterize the role of Crk in the IGF-I signaling pathway, NIH-3T3 and 293 cells were stably transfected with an expression vector containing the Crk cDNA. The various resultant 3T3-Crk clones expressed Crk at approximately 2-15-fold higher levels than parental 3T3 cells. In 3T3-Crk cells, Crk immunoreactivity was detected in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) immunoprecipitates. Stimulation with IGF-I resulted in a dissociation of Crk protein from IRS-1. In contrast, the association of the related adaptor protein Grb2 with IRS-1 was enhanced by IGF-I stimulation. Similar results were obtained in stably transfected 293-Crk cells, which express both IRS-1 and the IRS-1-related signaling protein 4PS. In these cells, IRS-1 and 4PS both associated with Crk, and this association was also decreased by IGF-I treatment, whereas the association of Grb2 with IRS-1 and 4PS was enhanced by IGF-I. Overexpression of Crk also enhanced IGF-I-induced mitogenesis of NIH-3T3 cells, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The levels of IGF-I-induced mitogenesis were proportional to the level of Crk expression. These results suggest that Crk is a positive effector of IGF-I signaling, and may mediate its effects via interaction with IRS-1 and/or 4PS.

  11. Eukaryotic translation initiator protein 1A isoform, CCS-3, enhances the transcriptional repression of p21CIP1 by proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yuri; Yu, Mi-young; Park, Jungeun; Lee, Choong-Eun; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-01-01

    FBI-1, a member of the POK (POZ and Kruppel) family of transcription factors, plays a role in differentiation, oncogenesis, and adipogenesis. eEF1A is a eukaryotic translation elongation factor involved in several cellular processes including embryogenesis, oncogenic transformation, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal organization. CCS-3, a potential cervical cancer suppressor, is an isoform of eEF1A. We found that eEF1A forms a complex with FBI-1 by co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF Mass analysis of the immunoprecipitate. GST fusion protein pull-downs showed that FBI-1 directly interacts with eEF1A and CCS-3 via the zinc finger and POZ-domain of FBI-1. FBI-1 co-localizes with either eEF1A or CCS-3 at the nuclear periplasm. CCS-3 enhances transcriptional repression of the p21CIP1 gene (hereafter referred to as p21) by FBI-1. The POZ-domain of FBI-1 interacts with the co-repressors, SMRT and BCoR. We found that CCS-3 also interacts with the co-repressors independently. The molecular interaction between the co-repressors and CCS-3 at the POZ-domain of FBI-1 appears to enhance FBI-1 mediated transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that CCS-3 may be important in cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and oncogenesis by interacting with the proto-oncogene FBI-1 and transcriptional co-repressors. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. c-Myc over-expression in Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma cell line predisposes to iron homeostasis disruption in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habel, Marie-Eve; Jung, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm resulting from deregulated c-myc expression. We have previously shown that proliferation of Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines such as Ramos is markedly reduced by iron treatment. It has been shown that iron induces expression of c-myc which, owing to its transcriptional regulatory functions, regulates genes involved in iron metabolism. Transient enhancement of c-myc expression by iron could increase the expression of genes involved in iron incorporation, which could lead to an accumulation of intracellular free iron. Here, we have investigated whether cells with a high basal level of c-Myc were more likely to accumulate free iron. Our results suggest that the basal level of c-Myc in Ramos cells is twofold higher than what is seen in HL-60 cells. Moreover, in Ramos cells, where c-Myc is expressed at a high level, H-ferritin expression is down-regulated, transferrin receptor (CD71) expression is increased, and ferritin translation is inhibited. These modifications in iron metabolism, resulting from the strong basal expression of c-Myc, and amplified by iron addition, could lead to a disruption in homeostasis and consequently to growth arrest

  13. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Action of a Human Papilloma Virus Oncoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: human papilloma virus; cervical cancer; oncoproteins; malignant transformation; retinoblastoma protein; cell cycle; quiescent and cycling cells; cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes; E2F; S-phase genes; enhancer element; proto-oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes; radioactive…

  14. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Go J.; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 high / c-Myc low and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 high / Fbw7 low / c-Myc high

  15. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Go J., E-mail: medical21go@yahoo.co.jp; Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup high}/ c-Myc {sup low} and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup low}/ c-Myc {sup high}.

  16. Cytotoxic activity of Justicia spicigera is inhibited by bcl-2 proto-oncogene and induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Cortés, J R; Cantú-Garza, F A; Mendoza-Mata, M T; Chavez-González, M A; Ramos-Mandujano, G; Zambrano-Ramírez, I R

    2001-12-01

    Identification of organic compounds from plants is of clinical significance because of the effect that they might have in patients with haematopoietic disorders. We studied the effect of the plant extract Justicia spicigera (Acanthaceae) in different haematopoietic cells: human leukaemic cell lines, umbilical cord blood cells, and mouse bone marrow cells. By examining colony formation and performing the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay it was shown that the plant extract of Justicia spicigera contains cytotoxic factors for leukaemic cells and has no proliferative activity on normal haematopoietic progenitor cells. Our results show that this plant extract induces apoptosis in the human leukaemia cell line TF-1, but not in the bcl-2 transfectant cell line TB-1. Similar results were obtained using a haemopoietic cell line 32D and 32DBcl2. The cultures of umbilical cord blood cells and mouse bone marrow that contain granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) do not proliferate or become terminally differentiated in the presence of the infusion of Justicia spicigera. GM-CSF that acts by abrogating programmed cell death is not sufficient to inhibit the apoptotic stimulus in TF-1 and 32D cells. Moreover mouse fibroblasts (3T3) and two cervical carcinoma cell lines CALO and INBL, undergo apoptosis in the presence of different concentrations of an infusion from the plant. Our data show that there is a strong correlation between the cytotoxic effect and cell proliferation. Together, these results indicate that the plant infusion of Justicia spicigera does not contain any haematopoietic activity, induces apoptosis inhibited by bcl-2 and is linked to cell proliferation. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Targeting Self-Binding Peptides as a Novel Strategy To Regulate Protein Activity and Function: A Case Study on the Proto-oncogene Tyrosine Protein Kinase c-Src.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengya; Hou, Shasha; Zhang, Shilei; Li, Zhongyan; Zhou, Peng

    2017-04-24

    Previously, we have reported a new biomolecular phenomenon spanning between protein folding and binding, termed as self-binding peptides (SBPs), where a short peptide segment in monomeric protein functions as a molecular switch by dynamically binding to/unbinding from its cognate domain in the monomer (Yang et al. J. Chem. Inf. 2015, 55, 329-342). Here, we attempt to raise the SBP as a new class of druggable targets to regulate the biological activity and function of proteins. A case study was performed on the proto-oncogene nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, c-Src, which contains two SBPs that bind separately to SH3 and SH2 domains of the kinase. State-of-the-art molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and post binding energetics analysis revealed that disrupting the kinase-intramolecular interactions of SH3 and SH2 domains with their cognate SBP ligands can result in totally different effects on the structural dynamics of c-Src kinase architecture; targeting the SH2 domain unlocks the autoinhibitory form of the kinase-this is very similar to the pTyr527 dephosphorylation that functionally activates the kinase, whereas targeting the SH3 domain can only release the domain from the tightly packed kinase but has a moderate effect on the kinase activity. Subsequently, based on the cognate SBP sequence we computationally designed a number of SH2-binding phosphopeptides using a motif grafting strategy. Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay observed that most of the designed phosphopeptides have higher binding affinity to SH2 domain as compared to the native SBP segment (K d = 53 nM). Kinase assay identified a typical dose-response relationship of phosphopeptides against kinase activation, substantiating that disruption of SH2-SBP interaction can mimic c-Src dephosphorylation and activate the kinase. Two rationally designed phosphopeptides, namely EPQpYEEIEN and EPQpYEELEN, were determined as strong binders of SH2 domain (K d = 8.3 and 15 nM, respectively) and potent activators of

  18. Histopathological and molecular prognostic markers in medulloblastoma: c-myc, N-myc, TrkC, and anaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Kratz, John; Wang, Yunyue; Summers, Krista; Stearns, Duncan; Cohen, Kenneth; Dang, Chi V; Burger, Peter C

    2004-05-01

    Several molecular and histopathological prognostic markers have been proposed for the therapeutic stratification of medulloblastoma patients. Amplification of the c-myc oncogene, elevated levels of c-myc mRNA, or tumor anaplasia have been associated with worse clinical outcomes. In contrast, high TrkC mRNA expression generally presages longer survival. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of c-myc, N-myc and TrkC expression in medulloblastomas and compare them to histopathological classification. We used in situ hybridization to measure expression of these molecular markers. c-myc mRNA was detected in 18 of 59 (31%) cases, and was significantly associated with shorter patient survival times on both univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.04). The presence of c-myc mRNA was also significantly associated with tumor anaplasia. While survival rates were higher for patients with low N-myc or high TrkC expression, these differences were not statistically significant. The group of patients with either moderate or severely anaplastic tumors showed only a trend towards shorter survival (p = 0.11). However, severe anaplasia alone was significantly prognostic (p = 0.002). Given the prognostic import of c-myc, we investigated 2 potential mechanisms by which its expression might be regulated: Wnt signaling and Mxi-1 mutation. Nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, a marker of Wnt pathway activation, was more common in medulloblastomas with high c-myc than in tumors overall, but the difference was not statistically significant. No Mxi-1 mutations were detected in the 22 cases examined. The association we describe between c-myc expression, tumor anaplasia, and worse clinical outcomes provides further evidence for the importance of this oncogene in medulloblastoma pathobiology.

  19. Distribution of C-myc Antisense Oligonucleotides in Rabbits after Local Delivery by Implanted Gelatin Coated Piatinium -iridium Stent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞; 庞志功; 崔长琮; 许香广; 胡雪松; 方卫华

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility, efficiency and tissue distribution of localdelivered c - myc antisense oligonucleotides (ASODN)by implanted gelatin coated Platinium- Iridium (Pt-Ir) stent. Methods Gelatin coated Pt- Ir stentwhich absorbed carboxyfluorescein - 5 - succimidylester (FAM) labeled c -myc ASODN were implantedin the right carotid arteries of 6 rabbits under vision.Blood samples were collected at the indicated times.The target artery、 left carotid artery、 heart、 liver andkidney obtained at 45 minutes、 2 hours and 6hours. The concentration of c - myc ASODN in plasmaand tissues were determined by Thin Layer Fluorome-try. Tissue distribution of c- myc ASODN were as-sessed by fluorescence microscopy. Results At 45min, 2 h, 6 h, the concentration of FAM labeled c -myc ASODN in target artery was 244.39, 194.44,126.94(μg/g tissues) respectively, and the deliveryefficiency were 44.4% 、 35.4% and 23.1% respec-tively. At the same indicated time point, the plasmaconcentration was 8.41, 5. 83, 14.75 (μg/ml) respec-tively. Therefore c -myc ASODN concentrations in thetarget vessel were 29、 33 and 9 -fold higher than thatin the plasma. There was circumferential distribution oflabeled c -myc in the area of highest fluorescein co-inciding with the site of medial dissecting from stent-ing, and the label was most intense in target vesselmedia harvested at 45 min time point and then dis-persed to adventitia. Conclusions Gelatin coated Pt- Ir stent mediated local delivery of c - myc ASODN isfeasible and efficient. The localization of ASODN ismainly in target vessel wall.

  20. c-Myc Antagonises the Transcriptional Activity of the Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Affecting Key Gene Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfeld, Stefan J; Urbanucci, Alfonso; Itkonen, Harri M; Fazli, Ladan; Hicks, Jessica L; Thiede, Bernd; Rennie, Paul S; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Mills, Ian G

    2017-04-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men. The androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, constitutes the main drug target for advanced cases of the disease. However, a variety of other transcription factors and signaling networks have been shown to be altered in patients and to influence AR activity. Amongst these, the oncogenic transcription factor c-Myc has been studied extensively in multiple malignancies and elevated protein levels of c-Myc are commonly observed in PCa. Its impact on AR activity, however, remains elusive. In this study, we assessed the impact of c-Myc overexpression on AR activity and transcriptional output in a PCa cell line model and validated the antagonistic effect of c-MYC on AR-targets in patient samples. We found that c-Myc overexpression partially reprogrammed AR chromatin occupancy and was associated with altered histone marks distribution, most notably H3K4me1 and H3K27me3. We found c-Myc and the AR co-occupy a substantial number of binding sites and these exhibited enhancer-like characteristics. Interestingly, c-Myc overexpression antagonised clinically relevant AR target genes. Therefore, as an example, we validated the antagonistic relationship between c-Myc and two AR target genes, KLK3 (alias PSA, prostate specific antigen), and Glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT), in patient samples. Our findings provide unbiased evidence that MYC overexpression deregulates the AR transcriptional program, which is thought to be a driving force in PCa. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. c-Myc Antagonises the Transcriptional Activity of the Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Affecting Key Gene Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J. Barfeld

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men. The androgen receptor (AR, a ligand-activated transcription factor, constitutes the main drug target for advanced cases of the disease. However, a variety of other transcription factors and signaling networks have been shown to be altered in patients and to influence AR activity. Amongst these, the oncogenic transcription factor c-Myc has been studied extensively in multiple malignancies and elevated protein levels of c-Myc are commonly observed in PCa. Its impact on AR activity, however, remains elusive. In this study, we assessed the impact of c-Myc overexpression on AR activity and transcriptional output in a PCa cell line model and validated the antagonistic effect of c-MYC on AR-targets in patient samples. We found that c-Myc overexpression partially reprogrammed AR chromatin occupancy and was associated with altered histone marks distribution, most notably H3K4me1 and H3K27me3. We found c-Myc and the AR co-occupy a substantial number of binding sites and these exhibited enhancer-like characteristics. Interestingly, c-Myc overexpression antagonised clinically relevant AR target genes. Therefore, as an example, we validated the antagonistic relationship between c-Myc and two AR target genes, KLK3 (alias PSA, prostate specific antigen, and Glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT, in patient samples. Our findings provide unbiased evidence that MYC overexpression deregulates the AR transcriptional program, which is thought to be a driving force in PCa.

  2. Evaluation of the antitumor effects of c-Myc-Max heterodimerization inhibitor 100258-F4 in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiandong; Ma, Xiaoli; Jones, Hannah M; Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Song, Fang; Zhang, Weiyuan; Bae-Jump, Victoria L; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2014-08-21

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological cancer due to its silent onset and recurrence with resistance to chemotherapy. Overexpression of oncogene c-Myc is one of the most frequently encountered events present in ovarian carcinoma. Disrupting the function of c-Myc and its downstream target genes is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Our objective was to evaluate the potential effects of small-molecule c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4, on ovarian carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms by which 10058-F4 exerts its actions. Using MTT assay, colony formation, flow cytometry and Annexin V FITC assays, we found that 10058-F4 significantly inhibited cell proliferation of both SKOV3 and Hey ovarian cancer cells in a dose dependent manner through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle G1 arrest. Treatment with 10058-F4 reduced cellular ATP production and ROS levels in SKOV3 and Hey cells. Consistently, primary cultures of ovarian cancer treated with 10058-F4 showed induction of caspase-3 activity and inhibition of cell proliferation in 15 of 18 cases. The response to 10058-F4 was independent the level of c-Myc protein over-expression in primary cultures of ovarian carcinoma. These novel findings suggest that the growth of ovarian cancer cells is dependent upon c-MYC activity and that targeting c-Myc-Max heterodimerization could be a potential therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer.

  3. Liver tumor formation by a mutant retinoblastoma protein in the transgenic mice is caused by an upregulation of c-Myc target genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Hikosaka, Keisuke; Sultana, Nishat; Sharkar, Mohammad Tofael Kabir [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Noritake, Hidenao [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Kimura, Wataru; Wu, Yi-Xin [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshimasa [Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Uezato, Tadayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Miura, Naoyuki, E-mail: nmiura@hama-med.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fifty percent of the mutant Rb transgenic mice produced liver tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the tumor, Foxm1, Skp2, Bmi1 and AP-1 mRNAs were up-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No increase in expression of the Myc-target genes was observed in the non-tumorous liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor formation depends on up-regulation of the Myc-target genes. -- Abstract: The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. In order to adapt itself to these biological functions, Rb is subjected to modification cycle, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. To directly determine the effect of phosphorylation-resistant Rb on liver development and function, we generated transgenic mice expressing phosphorylation-resistant human mutant Rb (mt-Rb) under the control of the rat hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 gene promoter/enhancer. Expression of mt-Rb in the liver resulted in macroscopic neoplastic nodules (adenomas) with {approx}50% incidence within 15 months old. Interestingly, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that c-Myc was up-regulated in the liver of mt-Rb transgenic mice irrespective of having tumor tissues or no tumor. In tumor tissues, several c-Myc target genes, Foxm1, c-Jun, c-Fos, Bmi1 and Skp2, were also up-regulated dramatically. We determined whether mt-Rb activated the Myc promoter in the HTP9 cells and demonstrated that mt-Rb acted as an inhibitor of wild-type Rb-induced repression on the Myc promoter. Our results suggest that continued upregulation of c-Myc target genes promotes the liver tumor formation after about 1 year of age.

  4. Localisation of lung cancer by a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against the c-myc oncogene product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S Y.T.; Evan, G I; Ritson, A; Watson, J; Wraight, P; Sikora, K

    1986-11-01

    A set of mouse monoclonal antibodies against the c-myc oncogene product, a 62,000 dalton nuclear binding protein involved in cell cycle control, has been constructed by immunisation with synthetic peptide fragments. One such antibody, CT14, was radiolabelled with /sup 131/I and administered to 20 patients with different malignant diseases. Good tumour localisation was observed in 12 out of 14 patients with primary bronchial carcinoma but not in patients with pulmonary metastases from primary tumours elsewhere. Successfully localised tumours were all 3 cm or more in diameter. Monoclonal antibodies against oncogene products may provide novel selective tools for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer.

  5. The effect of Glut1 and c-myc on prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma of Kazakh and Han patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya-Xing; Zhou, Ke-Ming; Liu, Qian; Wang, Hui; Wang, Wen; Shi, Yi; Ma, Yu-Qing

    2018-04-09

    Glucose transporter type 1 (Glut1) plays a crucial role in cancer-specific metabolism. We explored the expression of Glut1 and c-myc, the relationship between them and the effect of Glut1, c-myc on prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of Glut1 and c-myc. χ 2 test analyzes the relationship between c-myc, Glut1 and pathological parameters. Spearman correlation analyzes the relationship between c-myc and Glut1. Survival analysis was used to investigate the effect of Glut1 and c-myc on prognosis. Glut1 positivity was associated with tumor size (p C-myc positivity was associated with tumor location (p = 0.015), depth of invasion (p = 0.022) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.035). There was a positive correlation between c-myc and Glut1 (r = 0.321). Patients with Glut1 c-myc co-expression had poorer prognosis. Inhibiting Glut1 c-myc co-expression may improve the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Absence of DNA damage after 60-Hz electromagnetic field exposure combined with ionizing radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or c-Myc overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Seo-Hyun; Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Hong, Seung-Cheol; Myung, Sung Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2014-03-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the DNA damage in a normal cell line system after exposure to 60 Hz of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) and particularly in combination with various external factors, via comet assays. NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, WI-38 human lung fibroblast cells, L132 human lung epithelial cells, and MCF10A human mammary gland epithelial cells were exposed for 4 or 16 h to a 60-Hz, 1 mT uniform magnetic field in the presence or absence of ionizing radiation (IR, 1 Gy), H(2)O(2) (50 μM), or c-Myc oncogenic activation. The results obtained showed no significant differences between the cells exposed to ELF-MF alone and the unexposed cells. Moreover, no synergistic or additive effects were observed after 4 or 16 h of pre-exposure to 1 mT ELF-MF or simultaneous exposure to ELF-MF combined with IR, H(2)O(2), or c-Myc activation.

  7. Effect of c-myc on the ultrastructural structure of cochleae in guinea pigs with noise induced hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yu; Zhong, Cuiping; Hong, Liu; Wang, Ye; Qiao, Li; Qiu, Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    Noise over-stimulation may induce hair cells loss and hearing deficit. The c-myc oncogene is a major regulator for cell proliferation, growth, and apoptosis. However, the role of this gene in the mammalian cochlea is still unclear. The study was designed to firstly investigate its function under noise condition, from the aspect of cochlear ultrastructural changes. We had established the adenoviral vector of c-myc gene and delivered the adenovirus suspension into the scala tympani of guinea pigs 4 days before noise exposure. The empty adenoviral vectors were injected as control. Then, all subjects were exposed to 4-kHz octave-band noise at 110 dB SPL for 8 h/day, 3 days consecutively. Auditory thresholds were assessed by auditory brainstem response, prior to and 7 days following noise exposure. On the seventh days after noise exposure, the cochlear sensory epithelia surface was observed microscopically and the cochleae were taken to study the ultrastructural changes. The results indicated that auditory threshold shift after noise exposure was higher in the ears treated with Ad.EGFP than that treated with Ad.c-myc-EGFP. Stereocilia loss and the disarrangement of outer hair cells were observed, with greater changes found in the Ad.EGFP group. Also, the ultrastructure changes were severe in the Ad.EGFP group, but not obvious in the Ad.c-myc-EGFP group. Therefore, c-myc gene might play an unexpected role in hearing functional and morphological protection from acoustic trauma.

  8. Effect of c-myc on the ultrastructural structure of cochleae in guinea pigs with noise induced hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yu; Zhong, Cuiping [Department of Otolaryngology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 Shaanxi Province (China); Hong, Liu [First Division of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 Shaanxi Province (China); Wang, Ye; Qiao, Li [Department of Otolaryngology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 Shaanxi Province (China); Qiu, Jianhua, E-mail: qiujh@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Otolaryngology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 Shaanxi Province (China)

    2009-12-18

    Noise over-stimulation may induce hair cells loss and hearing deficit. The c-myc oncogene is a major regulator for cell proliferation, growth, and apoptosis. However, the role of this gene in the mammalian cochlea is still unclear. The study was designed to firstly investigate its function under noise condition, from the aspect of cochlear ultrastructural changes. We had established the adenoviral vector of c-myc gene and delivered the adenovirus suspension into the scala tympani of guinea pigs 4 days before noise exposure. The empty adenoviral vectors were injected as control. Then, all subjects were exposed to 4-kHz octave-band noise at 110 dB SPL for 8 h/day, 3 days consecutively. Auditory thresholds were assessed by auditory brainstem response, prior to and 7 days following noise exposure. On the seventh days after noise exposure, the cochlear sensory epithelia surface was observed microscopically and the cochleae were taken to study the ultrastructural changes. The results indicated that auditory threshold shift after noise exposure was higher in the ears treated with Ad.EGFP than that treated with Ad.c-myc-EGFP. Stereocilia loss and the disarrangement of outer hair cells were observed, with greater changes found in the Ad.EGFP group. Also, the ultrastructure changes were severe in the Ad.EGFP group, but not obvious in the Ad.c-myc-EGFP group. Therefore, c-myc gene might play an unexpected role in hearing functional and morphological protection from acoustic trauma.

  9. Expression Analysis of p16, c-Myc, and mSin3A in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer by Computer Aided Scoring and Analysis (CASA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaninejad, Arash; Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Gill, Rajbir K; Shih, Joanna H; Hewitt, Stephen; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Fukuoka, Junya; Shilo, Konstantin; Shakoori, Abbas; Jen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) of tissue microarray (TMA) slides enables large sets of tissue samples to be analyzed simultaneously on a single slide. However, manual evaluation of small cores on a TMA slide is time consuming and error prone. We describe a computer aided scoring and analysis (CASA) method to allow facile and reliable scoring of IHC staining using TMA containing 300 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. In the two previous published papers utilizing our TMA slides of lung cancer we examined 18 proteins involved in the chromatin machinery. We developed our study using more proteins of the chromatin complex and several transcription factors that facilitate the chromatin machinery. Then, a total of 78 antibodies were evaluated by CASA to derive a normalized intensity value that correlated with the overall staining status of the targeting protein. The intensity values for TMA cores were then examined for association to clinical variables and predictive significance individually and with other factors. RESULTs: Using our TMA, the intensity of several protein pairs were significantly correlated with an increased risk of death in NSCLC. These included c-Myc with p16, mSin3A with p16 and c-Myc with mSinA. Predictive values of these pairs remained significant when evaluated based on standard IHC scores. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of CASA as a valuable tool for systematic assessment of TMA slides to identify potential predictive biomarkers using a large set of primary human tissues.

  10. EFFECT OF STENT ABSORBED c-myc ANTISENSE OLIGODEOXYNUCLEOTIDE ON SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS APOPTOSIS IN RABBIT CAROTID ARTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞; 崔长琮; 李江; 崔翰斌; 徐仓宝; 朱参战

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stent absorbed c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) on smooth muscle cells apoptosis in a normal rabbit carotid arteries. Methods Gelatin coated Platinium-Iridium stents were implanted in the right carotid arteries of 32 rabbits under vision. Animals were randomly divided into control group and treated group receiving c-myc ASODN (n=16, respectively). On 7, 14, 30 and 90 days following the stenting procedure ,morphometry for caculation of neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were performed.The expression of c-myc protein was detected by immunohistochemical method. Apoptotic smooth muscle cells was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Results At 7 and 14 days after stenting,there were no detectable apoptotic cells in both groups. The apoptotic cells occurred in the neointima 30 and 90 days after stenting, and the number of apoptotic cells at 30 days were less [4.50±1.29 vs 25.75±1.89 (number/0.1mm2)] than that at 90 days [13.50±1.91 vs 41.50±6.46 (number/0.1mm2)]. Meanwhile c-myc ASODN induced more apoptotic cells than the control group(P<0.0001). c-myc protein expression was weak positive or negative in treated group and positive in control group.Conclusion c-myc ASODN can induce smooth muscle cells apoptosis after stenting in normal rabbit carotid arteries,and it can be used to prevent in-stent restenosis.

  11. c-Myc affects mRNA translation, cell proliferation and progenitor cell function in the mammary gland

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    Trumpp Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oncoprotein c-Myc has been intensely studied in breast cancer and mouse mammary tumor models, but relatively little is known about the normal physiological role of c-Myc in the mammary gland. Here we investigated functions of c-Myc during mouse mammary gland development using a conditional knockout approach. Results Generation of c-mycfl/fl mice carrying the mammary gland-specific WAPiCre transgene resulted in c-Myc loss in alveolar epithelial cells starting in mid-pregnancy. Three major phenotypes were observed in glands of mutant mice. First, c-Myc-deficient alveolar cells had a slower proliferative response at the start of pregnancy, causing a delay but not a block of alveolar development. Second, while milk composition was comparable between wild type and mutant animals, milk production was reduced in mutant glands, leading to slower pup weight-gain. Electron microscopy and polysome fractionation revealed a general decrease in translational efficiency. Furthermore, analysis of mRNA distribution along the polysome gradient demonstrated that this effect was specific for mRNAs whose protein products are involved in milk synthesis. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed decreased levels of ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal protein-encoding mRNAs in mutant glands. Third, using the mammary transplantation technique to functionally identify alveolar progenitor cells, we observed that the mutant epithelium has a reduced ability to repopulate the gland when transplanted into NOD/SCID recipients. Conclusion We have demonstrated that c-Myc plays multiple roles in the mouse mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. c-Myc loss delayed, but did not block proliferation and differentiation in pregnancy. During lactation, lower levels of ribosomal RNAs and proteins were present and translation was generally decreased in mutant glands. Finally, the transplantation studies suggest a role

  12. The Max b-HLH-LZ can transduce into cells and inhibit c-Myc transcriptional activities.

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    Martin Montagne

    Full Text Available The inhibition of the functions of c-Myc (endogenous and oncogenic was recently shown to provide a spectacular therapeutic index in cancer mouse models, with complete tumor regression and minimal side-effects in normal tissues. This was achieved by the systemic and conditional expression of omomyc, the cDNA of a designed mutant of the b-HLH-LZ of c-Myc named Omomyc. The overall mode of action of Omomyc consists in the sequestration of Max and the concomitant competition of the Omomyc/Max complex with the endogenous c-Myc/Max heterodimer. This leads to the inhibition of the transactivation of Myc target genes involved in proliferation and metabolism. While this body of work has provided extraordinary insights to guide the future development of new cancer therapies that target c-Myc, Omomyc itself is not a therapeutic agent. In this context, we sought to exploit the use of a b-HLH-LZ to inhibit c-Myc in a cancer cell line in a more direct fashion. We demonstrate that the b-HLH-LZ domain of Max (Max* behaves as a bona fide protein transduction domain (PTD that can efficiently transduce across cellular membrane via through endocytosis and translocate to the nucleus. In addition, we show that the treatment of HeLa cells with Max* leads to a reduction of metabolism and proliferation rate. Accordingly, we observe a decrease of the population of HeLa cells in S phase, an accumulation in G1/G0 and the induction of apoptosis. In agreement with these phenotypic changes, we show by q-RT-PCR that the treatment of HeLa cells with Max* leads to the activation of the transcription c-Myc repressed genes as well as the repression of the expression of c-Myc activated genes. In addition to the novel discovery that the Max b-HLH-LZ is a PTD, our findings open up new avenues and strategies for the direct inhibition of c-Myc with b-HLH-LZ analogs.

  13. Transformation of follicular lymphoma to plasmablastic lymphoma with c-myc gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouansafi, Ihsane; He, Bing; Fraser, Cory; Nie, Kui; Mathew, Susan; Bhanji, Rumina; Hoda, Rana; Arabadjief, Melissa; Knowles, Daniel; Cerutti, Andrea; Orazi, Attilio; Tam, Wayne

    2010-12-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent lymphoma that transforms to high-grade lymphoma, mostly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in about a third of patients. We present the first report of a case of FL that transformed to plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Clonal transformation of the FL to PBL was evidenced by identical IGH/BCL2 gene rearrangements and VDJ gene usage in rearranged IGH genes. IGH/ BCL2 translocation was retained in the PBL, which also acquired c-myc gene rearrangement. Genealogic analysis based on somatic hypermutation of the rearranged IGH genes of both FL and PBL suggests that transformation of the FL to PBL occurred most likely by divergent evolution from a common progenitor cell rather than direct evolution from the FL clone. Our study of this unusual case expands the histologic spectrum of FL transformation and increases our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of transformation of indolent lymphomas to aggressive lymphomas.

  14. Insertion of the LINE-1 element in the C-MYC gene and immunoreactivity of C-MYC, p53, p21 and p27 proteins in different morphological patterns of the canine TVT

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    C.R.O. Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT affects the external genitalia of dogs by the natural transplant of viable tumor cells. Thus, this research aimed to diagnose and characterize TVT morphological patterns, identify the insertion of the LINE-1 element in C-MYC gene, by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of C-MYC, p53, p21 and p27 proteins. The relationship between C-MYC and p53 proteins and their interference on the expression of p21 and p27 were also studied. For that, 20 samples of naturally occurring TVT were used, subjected to cytopathological, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, and to molecular diagnosis of neoplasia. The increased tissue expression and the correlation among C-MYC, p53, p21 and p27 proteins indicate reduction and/or loss of their functionality in the TVT microenvironment, with consequent apoptotic suppression, maintenance of cell growth and progression of neoplasia.

  15. 3D view to tumor suppression: Lkb1, polarity and the arrest of oncogenic c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Johanna I; Nieminen, Anni I; Klefstrom, Juha

    2009-03-01

    Machiavelli wrote, in his famous political treatise Il Principe, about disrupting organization by planting seeds of dissension or by eliminating necessary support elements. Tumor cells do exactly that by disrupting the organized architecture of epithelial cell layers during progression from contained benign tumor to full-blown invasive cancer. However, it is still unclear whether tumor cells primarily break free by activating oncogenes powerful enough to cause chaos or by eliminating tumor suppressor genes guarding the order of the epithelial organization. Studies in Drosophila have exposed genes that encode key regulators of the epithelial apicobasal polarity and which, upon inactivation, cause disorganization of the epithelial layers and promote unscheduled cell proliferation. These polarity regulator/tumor suppressor proteins, which include products of neoplastic tumor suppressor genes (nTSGs), are carefully positioned in polarized epithelial cells to maintain the order of epithelial structures and to impose a restraint on cell proliferation. In this review, we have explored the presence and prevalence of somatic mutations in the human counterparts of Drosophila polarity regulator/tumor suppressor genes across the human cancers. The screen points out LKB1, which is a causal genetic lesion in Peutz-Jeghers cancer syndrome, a gene mutated in certain sporadic cancers and a human homologue of the fly polarity gene par-4. We review the evidence linking Lkb1 protein to polarity regulation in the scope of our recent results suggesting a coupled role for Lkb1 as an architect of organized acinar structures and a suppressor of oncogenic c-Myc. We finally present models to explain how Lkb1-dependent formation of epithelial architecture is coupled to suppression of normal and oncogene-induced proliferation.

  16. SirT1 confers hypoxia-induced radioresistance via the modulation of c-Myc stabilization on hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yuexia; Zhang Jianghong; Shao Chunlin; Xu Yanwu

    2012-01-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia is an important contributory factor to tumor cell resistance to radiotherapy. SirT1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + )-dependent histone/protein deacetylase, has been linked to the decrease of radiation-induced DNA damage and seems to be critical for cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of SirT1 in hypoxia-induced radiation response on hepatoma cells. It was found that the administration with resveratrol, a putative SirT1 activator, enhanced the resistance of HepG2 cells against radiation-induced DNA damage of MN formation under hypoxia condition; while nicotinamide, a well-known SirT1 inhibitor, sensitized this radiation damage. Nevertheless, pretreatment of cells with 10058-F4, a specific inhibitor of c-Myc, almost eliminated the nicotinamide-induced radiosensitive effect. Further studies revealed that resveratrol inhibited c-Myc protein accumulation via up-regulation of SirT1 expression and deacetylase activity, and this loss of c-Myc protein was abolished by inhibiting its degradation in the presence of MG132, a potent inhibitor of proteasome. In contrast, nicotinamide attenuated c-Myc protein degradation induced by radiation under hypoxia through inhibition of SirT1 deacetylase activity. Our findings suggest that SirT1 could serve as a novel potent target of radiation-induced DNA damage and thus as a potential strategy to advance the efficiency of radiation therapy in hepatoma entities. (author)

  17. Nac1 promotes self-renewal of embryonic stem cells through direct transcriptional regulation of c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yan; He, Jianrong; Wu, Wei; He, Ping; Tian, Yanping; Xiao, Lan; Liu, Gaoke; Wang, Jiali; Cheng, Yuda; Zhang, Shuo; Yang, Yi; Xiong, Jiaxiang; Zhao, Ke; Wan, Ying; Huang, He; Zhang, Junlei; Jian, Rui

    2017-07-18

    The pluripotency transcriptional network in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is composed of distinct functional units including the core and Myc units. It is hoped that dissection of the cellular functions and interconnections of network factors will aid our understanding of ESC and cancer biology. Proteomic and genomic approaches have identified Nac1 as a member of the core pluripotency network. However, previous studies have predominantly focused on the role of Nac1 in psychomotor stimulant response and cancer pathogenesis. In this study, we report that Nac1 is a self-renewal promoting factor, but is not required for maintaining pluripotency of ESCs. Loss of function of Nac1 in ESCs results in a reduced proliferation rate and an enhanced differentiation propensity. Nac1 overexpression promotes ESC proliferation and delays ESC differentiation in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nac1 directly binds to the c-Myc promoter and regulates c-Myc transcription. The study also revealed that the function of Nac1 in promoting ESC self-renewal appears to be partially mediated by c-Myc. These findings establish a functional link between the core and c-Myc-centered networks and provide new insights into mechanisms of stemness regulation in ESCs and cancer.

  18. Overexpression of c-myc is associated with adverse clinical features and worse overall survival in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Agoston Gyula; Gang, Anne Ortved; Pedersen, Mette Ølgod

    2016-01-01

    The role of c-myc in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study of 117 patients with MM diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 at Herlev Hospital. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed on tissue microarrays (TMAs) made from...

  19. c-Myc Enhances Sonic Hedgehog-Induced Medulloblastoma Formation from Nestin-Expressing Neural Progenitors in Mice

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    Ganesh Rao

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastomas are malignant brain tumors that arise in the cerebella of children. The presumed cellsof-origin are undifferentiated precursors of granule neurons that occupy the external granule layer (EGL of the developing cerebellum. The overexpression of proteins that normally stimulate proliferation of neural progenitor cells may initiate medulloblastoma formation. Two known mitogens for neural progenitors are the c-Myc oncoprotein and Sonic hedgehog (Shh, a crucial determinant of embryonic pattern formation in the central nervous system. We modeled the ability of c-Myc and Shh to induce medulloblastoma in mice using the RCAS/tv-a system, which allows postnatal gene transfer and expression in a cell type-specific manner. We targeted the expression of Shh and c-Myc to nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells by injecting replication-competent ALV splice acceptor (RCAS vectors into the cerebella of newborn mice. Following injection with RCAS-Shh alone, 3/32 (9% mice developed medulloblastomas and 5/32 showed multifocal hyperproliferation of the EGL, possibly a precursor stage of medulloblastoma. Following injection with RCAS-Shh plus RCAS-Myc, 9/39 (23% mice developed medulloblastomas. We conclude that nestin-expressing neural progenitors, present in the cerebellum at birth, can act as the cells-of-origin for medulloblastoma, and that c-Myc cooperates with Shh to enhance tumorigenicity.

  20. TATA-binding protein and the retinoblastoma gene product bind to overlapping epitopes on c-Myc and adenovirus E1A protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateboer, G.; Timmers, H.T.M.; Rustgi, A.K.; Billaud, Marc; Veer, L.J. Van 't; Bernards, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Using a protein binding assay, we show that the amino-teminal 204 amino acids of the c-Myc protein interact di y with a key component of the basal p tdon factor TFID, the TATA box-binding protein (TBP). Essentialy the same region of the c-Myc protein alo binds the product of the retinoblatoma

  1. Endoglin inhibits ERK-induced c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression to impede endothelial cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Christopher C.; Bloodworth, Jeffrey C. [Division of Pharmacology, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Mythreye, Karthikeyan [Duke University, Department of Medicine, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Lee, Nam Y., E-mail: lee.5064@osu.edu [Division of Pharmacology, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endoglin inhibits ERK activation in endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endoglin is a regulator of c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-arrestin2 interaction with endoglin is required for ERK/c-Myc repression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endoglin impedes cellular proliferation by targeting ERK-induced mitogenic signaling. -- Abstract: Endoglin is an endothelial-specific transforming growth factor beta (TGF-{beta}) co-receptor essential for angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Endoglin regulates a wide range of cellular processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, through TGF-{beta} signaling to canonical Smad and Smad-independent pathways. Despite its overall pro-angiogenic role in the vasculature, the underlying mechanism of endoglin action is poorly characterized. We previously identified {beta}-arrestin2 as a binding partner that causes endoglin internalization from the plasma membrane and inhibits ERK signaling towards endothelial migration. In the present study, we examined the mechanistic role of endoglin and {beta}-arrestin2 in endothelial cell proliferation. We show that endoglin impedes cell growth through sustained inhibition of ERK-induced c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression in a TGF-{beta}-independent manner. The down-regulation of c-Myc and cyclin D1, along with growth-inhibition, are reversed when the endoglin/{beta}-arrestin2 interaction is disrupted. Given that TGF-{beta}-induced Smad signaling potently represses c-Myc in most cell types, our findings here show a novel mechanism by which endoglin augments growth-inhibition by targeting ERK and key downstream mitogenic substrates.

  2. Establishment of c-myc-immortalized Kupffer cell line from a C57BL/6 mouse strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kitani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated in several mammalian species, a novel procedure to obtain liver-macrophages (Kupffer cells in sufficient numbers and purity using a mixed primary culture of hepatocytes. In this study, we applied this method to the C57BL/6 mouse liver and established an immortalized Kupffer cell line from this mouse strain. The hepatocytes from the C57BL/6 adult mouse liver were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and cultured in T25 culture flasks. Similar to our previous studies, the mouse hepatocytes progressively changed their morphology into a fibroblastic appearance after a few days of culture. After 7–10 days of culture, Kupffer-like cells, which were contaminants in the hepatocyte fraction at the start of the culture, actively proliferated on the mixed fibroblastic cell sheet. At this stage, a retroviral vector containing the human c-myc oncogene and neomycin resistance gene was introduced into the mixed culture. Gentle shaking of the culture flask, followed by the transfer and brief incubation of the culture supernatant, resulted in a quick and selective adhesion of Kupffer cells to a plastic dish surface. After selection with G418 and cloning by limiting dilutions, a clonal cell line (KUP5 was established. KUP5 cells displayed typical macrophage morphology and were stably passaged at 4–5 days intervals for more than 5 months, with a population doubling time of 19 h. KUP5 cells are immunocytochemically positive for mouse macrophage markers, such as Mac-1, F4/80. KUP5 cells exhibited substantial phagocytosis of polystyrene microbeads and the release of inflammatory cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Taken together, KUP5 cells provide a useful means to study the function of Kupffer cells in vitro.

  3. Mitochondrial structure, function and dynamics are temporally controlled by c-Myc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Anthony Graves

    Full Text Available Although the c-Myc (Myc oncoprotein controls mitochondrial biogenesis and multiple enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, the coordination of these events and the mechanistic underpinnings of their regulation remain largely unexplored. We show here that re-expression of Myc in myc-/- fibroblasts is accompanied by a gradual accumulation of mitochondrial biomass and by increases in membrane polarization and mitochondrial fusion. A correction of OXPHOS deficiency is also seen, although structural abnormalities in electron transport chain complexes (ETC are not entirely normalized. Conversely, the down-regulation of Myc leads to a gradual decrease in mitochondrial mass and a more rapid loss of fusion and membrane potential. Increases in the levels of proteins specifically involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion support the idea that Myc affects mitochondrial mass by influencing both of these processes, albeit favoring the latter. The ETC defects that persist following Myc restoration may represent metabolic adaptations, as mitochondrial function is re-directed away from producing ATP to providing a source of metabolic precursors demanded by the transformed cell.

  4. Induction of Pluripotency in Adult Equine Fibroblasts without c-MYC

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    Khodadad Khodadadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tremendous efforts on isolation of pluripotent equine embryonic stem (ES cells, to date there are few reports about successful isolation of ESCs and no report of in vivo differentiation of this important companion species. We report the induction of pluripotency in adult equine fibroblasts via retroviral transduction with three transcription factors using OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 in the absence of c-MYC. The cell lines were maintained beyond 27 passages (more than 11 months and characterized. The equine iPS (EiPS cells stained positive for alkaline phosphatase by histochemical staining and expressed OCT4, NANOG, SSEA1, and SSEA4. Gene expression analysis of the cells showed the expression of OCT4, SOX2 NANOG, and STAT3. The cell lines retained a euploid chromosome count of 64 after long-term culture cryopreservation. The EiPS demonstrated differentiation capacity for the three embryonic germ layers both in vitro by embryoid bodies (EBs formation and in vivo by teratoma formation. In conclusion, we report the derivation of iPS cells from equine adult fibroblasts and long-term maintenance using either of the three reprogramming factors.

  5. Profiling and bioinformatic analysis of circular RNA expression regulated by c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Qiheng; Wu, Ke; Zhou, Jian-Kang; Xie, Yuxin; Liu, Lunxu; Peng, Yong

    2017-09-22

    The c-Myc transcription factor is involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis by activating or repressing transcription of multiple genes. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are widely expressed non-coding RNAs participating in the regulation of gene expression. Using a high-throughput microarray assay, we showed that Myc regulates the expression of certain circRNAs. A total of 309 up- and 252 down-regulated circRNAs were identified. Among them, randomly selected 8 circRNAs were confirmed by real-time PCR. Subsequently, Myc-binding sites were found to generally exist in the promoter regions of differentially expressed circRNAs. Based on miRNA sponge mechanism, we constructed circRNAs/miRNAs network regulated by Myc, suggesting that circRNAs may widely regulate protein expression through miRNA sponge mechanism. Lastly, we took advantage of Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses to point out that Myc-regulated circRNAs could impact cell proliferation through affecting Ras signaling pathway and pathways in cancer. Our study for the first time demonstrated that Myc transcription factor regulates the expression of circRNAs, adding a novel component of the Myc tumorigenic program and opening a window to investigate the function of certain circRNAs in tumorigenesis.

  6. Combined use of nuclear phosphoprotein c-Myc and cellular phosphoprotein p53 for hepatocellular carcinoma detection in high-risk chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, A M; El-Far, M; Abdelrazek, M A; Omran, M M; Attallah, A A; Elkhouly, A A; Elkenawy, H M; Farid, K

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistage process resulting from various genetic changes. We aimed to determine nuclear phosphoprotein c-Myc and cellular phosphoprotein p53 expression and to evaluate their importance in HCC diagnosis. One hundred and twenty chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients (60 non-HCC CHC patients and 60 HCC patients who had a single small (c-Myc and p53 were identified in liver tissues and serum samples using immunostaining, western blot and ELISA. Immunohistochemical detection of c-Myc and p53 with monospecific antibodies revealed intense and diffuse cytoplasmic staining patterns. Accumulated mutant proteins, released from tumour cells into the extracellular serum, were detected at 62 KDa, for c-Myc, and 53 KDa, for p53, using western blotting. In contrast to alpha feto-protein, there was a significant increase (p c-Myc (86.7% vs. 6.7%) and p53 (78.3% vs. 8.3%) in the malignant vs. non-malignant patients. The parallel combination of c-Myc and p53 reach the absolute sensitivity (100%), for more accurate and reliable HCC detection (specificity was 87%). c-Myc and p53 are potential HCC diagnostic biomarkers, and convenient combinations of them could improve diagnostic accuracy of HCC.

  7. Protein kinase A antagonist inhibits β-catenin nuclear translocation, c-Myc and COX-2 expression and tumor promotion in ApcMin/+ mice

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    Brudvik Kristoffer W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC protein is part of the destruction complex controlling proteosomal degradation of β-catenin and limiting its nuclear translocation, which is thought to play a gate-keeping role in colorectal cancer. The destruction complex is inhibited by Wnt-Frz and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 - PI-3 kinase pathways. Recent reports show that PGE2-induced phosphorylation of β-catenin by protein kinase A (PKA increases nuclear translocation indicating two mechanisms of action of PGE2 on β-catenin homeostasis. Findings Treatment of ApcMin/+ mice that spontaneously develop intestinal adenomas with a PKA antagonist (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS selectively targeting only the latter pathway reduced tumor load, but not the number of adenomas. Immunohistochemical characterization of intestines from treated and control animals revealed that expression of β-catenin, β-catenin nuclear translocation and expression of the β-catenin target genes c-Myc and COX-2 were significantly down-regulated upon Rp-8-Br-cAMPS treatment. Parallel experiments in a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 revealed that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS blocked PGE2-induced β-catenin phosphorylation and c-Myc upregulation. Conclusion Based on our findings we suggest that PGE2 act through PKA to promote β-catenin nuclear translocation and tumor development in ApcMin/+ mice in vivo, indicating that the direct regulatory effect of PKA on β-catenin nuclear translocation is operative in intestinal cancer.

  8. The long non-coding RNA GAS5 cooperates with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E to regulate c-Myc translation.

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    Guangzhen Hu

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are important regulators of transcription; however, their involvement in protein translation is not well known. Here we explored whether the lncRNA GAS5 is associated with translation initiation machinery and regulates translation. GAS5 was enriched with eukaryotic translation initiation factor-4E (eIF4E in an RNA-immunoprecipitation assay using lymphoma cell lines. We identified two RNA binding motifs within eIF4E protein and the deletion of each motif inhibited the binding of GAS5 with eIF4E. To confirm the role of GAS5 in translation regulation, GAS5 siRNA and in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA were used to knock down or overexpress GAS5, respectively. GAS5 siRNA had no effect on global protein translation but did specifically increase c-Myc protein level without an effect on c-Myc mRNA. The mechanism of this increase in c-Myc protein was enhanced association of c-Myc mRNA with the polysome without any effect on protein stability. In contrast, overexpression of in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA suppressed c-Myc protein without affecting c-Myc mRNA. Interestingly, GAS5 was found to be bound with c-Myc mRNA, suggesting that GAS5 regulates c-Myc translation through lncRNA-mRNA interaction. Our findings have uncovered a role of GAS5 lncRNA in translation regulation through its interactions with eIF4E and c-Myc mRNA.

  9. Melatonin disturbs SUMOylation mediated crosstalk between c-Myc and Nestin via MT1 activation and promotes the sensitivity of Paclitaxel in brain cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyemin; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Ji Hoon; Shin, Eun Ah; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2018-04-14

    Here the underlying antitumor mechanism of melatonin and its potency as a sensitizer of Paclitaxel was investigated in X02 cancer stem cells. Melatonin suppressed sphere formation and induced G2/M arrest in X02 cells expressing Nestin, CD133, CXCR4 and SOX-2 as biomarkers of stemness. Furthermore, melatonin reduced the expression of CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and c-Myc and upregulated cyclin B1 in X02 cells. Notably, genes of c-Myc related mRNAs were differentially expressed in melatonin treated X02 cells by microarray analysis. Consistently, melatonin reduced the expression of c-Myc at mRNA and protein levels, which was blocked by MG132. Of note, overexpression of c-Myc increased the expression of Nestin, while overexpression of Nestin enhanced c-Myc through crosstalk despite different locations, nucleus and cytoplasm. Interestingly, melatonin attenuated small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) more than SUMO-2 or SUMO-3 and disturbed nuclear translocation of Nestin for direct binding to c-Myc by SUMOylation of SUMO-1 protein by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. Also, melatonin reduced trimethylated histone H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 more than dimethylation in X02 cells by Western blotting and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Notably, melatonin upregulated MT1, not MT2, in X02 cells and melatonin receptor inhibitor Luzindole blocked the ability of melatonin to decrease the expression of Nestin, p-c-Myc(S62) and c-Myc. Furthermore, melatonin promoted cytotoxicity, sub G1 accumulation and apoptotic body formation by Paclitaxcel in X02 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that melatonin inhibits stemness via suppression of c-Myc, Nestin, and histone methylation via MT1 activation and promotes anticancer effect of Paclitaxcel in brain cancer stem cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Focal Adhesion Kinase Is Required for Intestinal Regeneration and Tumorigenesis Downstream of Wnt/c-Myc Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Gabrielle H.; Morton, Jennifer P.; Myant, Kevin; Phesse, Toby J.; Ridgway, Rachel A.; Marsh, Victoria; Wilkins, Julie A.; Athineos, Dimitris; Muncan, Vanesa; Kemp, Richard; Neufeld, Kristi; Clevers, Hans; Brunton, Valerie; Winton, Douglas J.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sears, Rosalie C.; Clarke, Alan R.; Frame, Margaret C.; Sansom, Owen J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The intestinal epithelium has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury and DNA damage. Here, we show that the integrin effector protein Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is dispensable for normal intestinal homeostasis and DNA damage signaling, but is essential for intestinal regeneration following DNA damage. Given Wnt/c-Myc signaling is activated following intestinal regeneration, we investigated the functional importance of FAK following deletion of the Apc tumor suppressor protein within the intestinal epithelium. Following Apc loss, FAK expression increased in a c-Myc-dependent manner. Codeletion of Apc and Fak strongly reduced proliferation normally induced following Apc loss, and this was associated with reduced levels of phospho-Akt and suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc heterozygous mice. Thus, FAK is required downstream of Wnt Signaling, for Akt/mTOR activation, intestinal regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Importantly, this work suggests that FAK inhibitors may suppress tumorigenesis in patients at high risk of developing colorectal cancer. PMID:20708588

  11. Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0162 TITLE: Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c -Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and...DATES COVERED 15Sept2013 - 14Sept2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c -Myc Oncogenic...ABSTRACT We previously made a PB-Cre4/Ai-Myc model for Cre-induced and androgen-independent expression of c -Myc and Luc2 in prostate. This is designed

  12. Shikonin regulates C-MYC and GLUT1 expression through the MST1-YAP1-TEAD1 axis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vališ, Karel; Talacko, Pavel; Grobárová, Valeria; Černý, J.; Novák, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 349, č. 2 (2016), s. 273-281 ISSN 0014-4827 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-21095P; GA ČR GA13-16565S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Hippo * Glycolysis * C-MYC Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.546, year: 2016

  13. Conserved features of cancer cells define their sensitivity to HAMLET-induced death; c-Myc and glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, P; Aits, S; Puthia, M K; Urbano, A; Northen, T; Powers, S; Bowen, B; Chao, Y; Reindl, W; Lee, D Y; Sullivan, N L; Zhang, J; Trulsson, M; Yang, H; Watson, J D; Svanborg, C

    2011-12-01

    HAMLET is the first member of a new family of tumoricidal protein-lipid complexes that kill cancer cells broadly, while sparing healthy, differentiated cells. Many and diverse tumor cell types are sensitive to the lethal effect, suggesting that HAMLET identifies and activates conserved death pathways in cancer cells. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the difference in sensitivity between cancer cells and healthy cells. Using a combination of small-hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibition, proteomic and metabolomic technology, we identified the c-Myc oncogene as one essential determinant of HAMLET sensitivity. Increased c-Myc expression levels promoted sensitivity to HAMLET and shRNA knockdown of c-Myc suppressed the lethal response, suggesting that oncogenic transformation with c-Myc creates a HAMLET-sensitive phenotype. Furthermore, HAMLET sensitivity was modified by the glycolytic state of tumor cells. Glucose deprivation sensitized tumor cells to HAMLET-induced cell death and in the shRNA screen, hexokinase 1 (HK1), 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α modified HAMLET sensitivity. HK1 was shown to bind HAMLET in a protein array containing ∼8000 targets, and HK activity decreased within 15 min of HAMLET treatment, before morphological signs of tumor cell death. In parallel, HAMLET triggered rapid metabolic paralysis in carcinoma cells. Tumor cells were also shown to contain large amounts of oleic acid and its derivatives already after 15 min. The results identify HAMLET as a novel anti-cancer agent that kills tumor cells by exploiting unifying features of cancer cells such as oncogene addiction or the Warburg effect.

  14. Conserved features of cancer cells define their sensitivity of HAMLET-induced death; c-Myc and glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Petter; Puthia, Manoj Kumar; Aits, Sonja; Urbano, Alexander; Northen, Trent; Powers, Scott; Bowen, Ben; Chao, Yinxia; Reindl, Wolfgang; Lee, Do Yup; Sullivan, Nancy Liu; Zhang, Jianping; Trulsson, Maria; Yang, Henry; Watson, James; Svanborg, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    HAMLET is the first member of a new family of tumoricidal protein-lipid complexes that kill cancer cells broadly, while sparing healthy, differentiated cells. Many and diverse tumor cell types are sensitive to the lethal effect, suggesting that HAMLET identifies and activates conserved death pathways in cancer cells. Here we investigated the molecular basis for the difference in sensitivity between cancer cells and healthy cells. Using a combination of small hairpin RNA inhibition, proteomic and metabolomic technology we identified the c-Myc oncogene as one essential determinant of HAMLET sensitivity. Increased c-Myc expression levels promoted the sensitivity to HAMLET and shRNA knockdown of c-Myc suppressed the lethal response, suggesting that oncogenic transformation with c-Myc creates a HAMLET-sensitive phenotype. Furthermore, the HAMLET sensitivity was modified by the glycolytic state of the tumor cells. Glucose deprivation sensitized tumor cells to HAMLET-induced cell death and in the shRNA screen Hexokinase 1, PFKFB1 and HIF1α modified HAMLET sensitivity. Hexokinase 1 was shown to bind HAMLET in a protein array containing approximately 8000 targets and Hexokinase activity decreased within 15 minutes of HAMLET treatment, prior to morphological signs of tumor cell death. In parallel, HAMLET triggered rapid metabolic paralysis in carcinoma cells. The glycolytic machinery was modified and glycolysis was shifted towards the pentose phosphate pathway. Tumor cells were also shown to contain large amounts of oleic acid and its derivatives already after 15 minutes. The results identify HAMLET as a novel anti-cancer agent that kills tumor cells by exploiting unifying features of cancer cells such as oncogene-addiction or the Warburg effect. PMID:21643007

  15. MYCT1-TV, A Novel MYCT1 Transcript, Is Regulated by c-Myc and May Participate in Laryngeal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shuang; Guo, Yan; Chen, Hong; Xu, Zhen-Ming; Qiu, Guang-Bin; Zhong, Ming; Sun, Kai-Lai; Fu, Wei-Neng

    2011-01-01

    Background MYCT1, a putative target of c-Myc, is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene cloned from laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Its transcriptional regulation and biological effects on LSCC have not been clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings Using RACE assay, we cloned a 1106 bp transcript named Myc target 1 transcript variant 1 (MYCT1-TV) and confirmed its transcriptional start site was located at 140 bp upstream of the ATG start codon of MYCT1-TV. Luciferase, electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed c-Myc could regulate the promoter activity of MYCT1-TV by specifically binding to the E-box elements within −886 to −655 bp region. These results were further verified by site-directed mutagenesis and RNA interference (RNAi) assays. MYCT1-TV and MYCT1 expressed lower in LSCC than those in paired adjacent normal laryngeal tissues, and overexpression of MYCT1-TV and MYCT1 could inhibit cell proliferation and invasion and promote apoptosis in LSCC cells. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that MYCT1-TV, a novel MYCT1 transcript, is regulated by c-Myc and down-regulation of MYCT1-TV/MYCT1 could contribute to LSCC development and function. PMID:21998677

  16. Apoptosis and cell proliferation in the development of gastric carcinomas: associations with c-myc and p53 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hideaki H; Gobé, Glenda C; Pan, Wenshen; Yoneyama, Juichi; Ebihara, Yoshiro

    2002-09-01

    Patients with gastric carcinomas have a poor prognosis and low survival rates. The aim of the present paper was to characterize cellular and molecular properties to provide insight into aspects of tumor progression in early compared with advanced gastric cancers. One hundred and nine graded gastric carcinomas (early or advanced stage, undifferentiated or differentiated type) with paired non-cancer tissue were studied to define the correlation between apoptosis (morphology, terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labeling), cell proliferation (Ki-67 expression, morphology) and expression and localization of two proteins frequently having altered expression in cancers, namely p53 and c-myc. Overall, apoptosis was lower in early stage, differentiated and undifferentiated gastric carcinomas compared with advanced-stage cancers. Cell proliferation was comparatively high in all stages. There was a high level of p53 positivity in all stages. Only the early- and advanced-stage undifferentiated cancers that were p53 positive had a significantly higher level of apoptosis (P cancers that had either c-myc or p53-positivity. The results indicate that low apoptosis and high cell proliferation combine to drive gastric cancer development. The molecular controls for high cell proliferation of the early stage undifferentiated gastric cancers involve overexpression of both p53 and c-myc. Overexpression of p53 may also control cancer development in that its expression is associated with higher levels of apoptosis in early and late-stage undifferentiated, cancers. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  17. Immunodetection of rasP21 and c-myc oncogenes in oral mucosal swab preparation from clove cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvi Kintawati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is the biggest factor for oral cavity malignancy. Some carcinogens found in cigar will stimulate epithel cell in oral cavity and cause mechanism disturbance on tissue resistance and produce abnormal genes (oncogenes. Oncogenes ras and myc are found on malignant tumor in oral cavity which are associated with smoking. Purpose: This research is to find the expression of oncogenes rasP21 and c-myc in oral mucosa epithelial of smoker with immunocytochemistry reaction. Methods: An oral mucosal swab was performed to 30 smokers categorized as light, moderate, and chain, and 10 non smokers which was followed by immunocytochemistry reaction using antibody towards oncogene rasP21 and c-myc is reacted to identify the influence of smoking towards malignant tumor in oral cavity. The result is statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Result: Based on the observation result of oncogene rasP21reaction, it shows that there is significant difference between non smoker group and light smoker, compared to moderate and chain smoker group (p < 0.01. On the other side, the observation result of oncogene c-myc indicates that there is no significant difference between the group of non smokers and the group of light, moderate, and chain smokers (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The higher the possibility of oral cavity malignancy and that the antibody for rasP21 oncogene can be used as a marker for early detection of oral cavity malignancy caused by smoking.

  18. c-Myc Represses Transcription of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 1 Early after Primary B Cell Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander M; Messinger, Joshua E; Luftig, Micah A

    2018-01-15

    Recent evidence has shown that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncogene LMP1 is not expressed at high levels early after EBV infection of primary B cells, despite its being essential for the long-term outgrowth of immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In this study, we found that expression of LMP1 increased 50-fold between 7 days postinfection and the LCL state. Metabolic labeling of nascent transcribed mRNA indicated that this was primarily a transcription-mediated event. EBNA2, the key viral transcription factor regulating LMP1, and CTCF, an important chromatin insulator, were recruited to the LMP1 locus similarly early and late after infection. However, the activating histone H3K9Ac mark was enriched at the LMP1 promoter in LCLs relative to that in infected B cells early after infection. We found that high c-Myc activity in EBV-infected lymphoma cells as well as overexpression of c-Myc in an LCL model system repressed LMP1 transcription. Finally, we found that chemical inhibition of c-Myc both in LCLs and early after primary B cell infection increased LMP1 expression. These data support a model in which high levels of endogenous c-Myc activity induced early after primary B cell infection directly repress LMP1 transcription. IMPORTANCE EBV is a highly successful pathogen that latently infects more than 90% of adults worldwide and is also causally associated with a number of B cell malignancies. During the latent life cycle, EBV expresses a set of viral oncoproteins and noncoding RNAs with the potential to promote cancer. Critical among these is the viral latent membrane protein LMP1. Prior work suggests that LMP1 is essential for EBV to immortalize B cells, but our recent work indicates that LMP1 is not produced at high levels during the first few weeks after infection. Here we show that transcription of the LMP1 gene can be negatively regulated by a host transcription factor, c-Myc. Ultimately, understanding the regulation of EBV oncogenes will allow us

  19. Use of a transfected and amplified Drosophila heat shock promoter construction for inducible production of toxic mouse c-myc proteins in CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, F.M.; Gwinn, K.A.; Papoulas, O.; Pallavicini, M.; Kingston, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    After transfection and selection with methotrexate, CHO cell lines were established which contained up to 2000 copies of an expression vector for c-myc protein. The vector contained the Drosophila heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) promoter fused with the coding region of the mouse c-myc gene. Incubation of cells for up to 3 hours at 43 0 C resulted in at least a 100-fold induction of recombinant c-myc mRNA. When cells were shifted back to 37 0 C, within 1 to 4 hours, this RNA was translated into protein to yield about 250 μg per 10 9 cells. Cells died a few hours later, suggesting that high concentrations of intracellular c-myc are cytotoxic. 47 refs., 5 figs

  20. Pokemon Silencing Leads to Bim-Mediated Anoikis of Human Hepatoma Cell QGY7703

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Shiying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of P...

  1. ''Normal'' tissues from humans exposed to radium contain an alteration in the c-mos locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Schlenker, R.A.; Hardwick, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of a number of human proto-oncogenes from persons with internal systemic exposure to radium were analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion and southern blotting of their DNA. Two extra c-mos Eco R1 restriction-fragment-length bands of 5.0 kb and 5.5 kb were found in tissue DNA from six of seven individuals. The extra c-mos bands were detected in DNA from many, but not all, of the tissues of the individuals exposed to radium. Our results suggest that the c-mos restriction-fragment-length alterations (RFLA) found in individuals exposed to radium were induced rather than inherited, are epigenetic in origin, and most likely result from changes in the methylation of bases surrounding the single exon of the c-mos proto-oncogene. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Lack of induction of tissue transglutaminase but activation of the preexisting enzyme in c-Myc-induced apoptosis of CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Z; Kedei, N; Nagy, L; Davies, P J; Fésüs, L

    1997-07-18

    The intracellular activity and expression of tissue transglutaminase, which crosslinks proteins through epsilon(gamma-glutamyl)lysine isodipeptide bond, was investigated in CHO cells and those stably transfected with either inducible c-Myc (which leads to apoptosis) or with c-myc and the apoptosis inhibitor Bcl-2. Protein-bound cross-link content was significantly higher when apoptosis was induced by c-Myc while the concomitant presence of Bcl-2 markedly reduced both apoptosis and enzymatic protein cross-linking. The expression of tissue transglutaminase did not change following the initiation of apoptosis by c-Myc or when it was blocked by Bcl-2. Studying transiently co-transfected elements of the mouse tissue transglutaminase promoter linked to a reporter enzyme revealed their overall repression in cells expressing c-Myc. This repression was partially suspended in cells also carrying Bcl-2. Our data suggest that tissue transglutaminase is not induced when c-Myc initiates apoptosis but the pre-existing endogenous enzyme is activated.

  3. Pre-clinical analysis of changes in intra-cellular biochemistry of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells due to c-Myc silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Vishal; Vaidyanathan, Muthukumar; Janardhanam, Vanisree Arambakkam; Bradner, James E

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of brain Tumor that has few cures. In this study, we analyze the anti-proliferative effects of a new molecule JQ1 against GBMs induced in Wistar Rats. JQ1 is essentially a Myc inhibitor. c-Myc is also known for altering the biochemistry of a tumor cell. Therefore, the study is intended to analyze certain other oncogenes associated with c-Myc and also the change in cellular biochemistry upon c-Myc inhibition. The quantitative analysis of gene expression gave a co-expressive pattern for all the three genes involved namely; c-Myc, Bcl-2, and Akt. The cellular biochemistry analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed high glycogen and lipid aggregation in Myc inhibited cells and excessive autophagy. The study demonstrates the role of c-Myc as a central metabolic regulator and Bcl-2 and Akt assisting in extending c-Myc half-life as well as in regulation of autophagy, so as to regulate cell survival on the whole. The study also demonstrates that transient treatment by JQ1 leads to aggressive development of tumor and therefore, accelerating death, emphasizing the importance of dosage fixation, and duration for clinical use in future.

  4. Understanding Endogenous c-Myc Function in Human Breast Cancer Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Bing

    2003-01-01

    My research is focused on BRCA2, whose mutation has been implicated in the development of breast, ovarian, prostate, pancreatic cancers and Fanconi anemia BRCA2 is an extremely large protein that is challenging% to study...

  5. Clone-specific expression, transcriptional regulation, and action of interleukin-6 in human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Bises, Giovanna; Fabjani, Gerhild; Cross, Heide S; Peterlik, Meinrad

    2008-01-01

    Many cancer cells produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine that plays a role in growth stimulation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of secondary tumours in a variety of malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Effectiveness of IL-6 in this respect may depend on the quantity of basal and inducible IL-6 expressed as the tumour progresses through stages of malignancy. We therefore have evaluated the effect of IL-6 modulators, i.e. IL-1β, prostaglandin E 2 , 17β-estradiol, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , on expression and synthesis of the cytokine at different stages of tumour progression. We utilized cultures of the human colon carcinoma cell clones Caco-2/AQ, COGA-1A and COGA-13, all of which expressed differentiation and proliferation markers typical of distinct stages of tumour progression. IL-6 mRNA and protein levels were assayed by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. DNA sequencing was utilized to detect polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene promoter. IL-6 mRNA and protein concentrations were low in well and moderately differentiated Caco-2/AQ and COGA-1A cells, but were high in poorly differentiated COGA-13 cells. Addition of IL-1β (5 ng/ml) to a COGA-13 culture raised IL-6 production approximately thousandfold via a prostaglandin-independent mechanism. Addition of 17β-estradiol (10 -7 M) reduced basal IL-6 production by one-third, but IL-1β-inducible IL-6 was unaffected. Search for polymorphisms in the IL-6 promoter revealed the presence of a single haplotype, i.e., -597A/-572G/-174C, in COGA-13 cells, which is associated with a high degree of transcriptional activity of the IL-6 gene. IL-6 blocked differentiation only in Caco-2/AQ cells and stimulated mitosis through up-regulation of c-myc proto-oncogene expression. These effects were inhibited by 10 -8 M 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . In human colon carcinoma cells derived from well and moderately differentiated tumours, IL-6 expression is low and only marginally affected, if at all, by PGE 2 , 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

  6. Regulation of c-Myc mRNA by L11 in Response to UV and Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    the nucleolus fol- lowed by their transport into the cytoplasm (50). This process requires coordinated transcription catalyzed by all three RNA...these RPs, including L11, are released from the nucleolus or from intact ribosomes to suppress MDM2 (68). However, whether L11 suppresses c-Myc in...centrifugation. For isolation of the nucleolus fraction, the nuclear pellets were resuspended in buffer S1 containing 0.25 M sucrose and 10 mM MgCl2, layered over

  7. 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25) regulation of c-myc mRNA in HL-60 leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.U.; Bresnick, E.H.; Begley, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, 1,25 was shown to induce differentiation and decrease c-myc levels in HL-60 cells. The authors have confirmed these observations by RNA dot blot analysis. Cells treated with 50 nM 1,25 for 4, 24 and 48 hr showed c-myc mRNA levels of 26, 17 and 15% of control respectively. β-Actin mRNA levels were not altered. To ascertain whether 1, 25 regulated c-myc transcriptionally, an HL-60 nuclear RNA runoff assay was developed. Assay of total nuclei transcriptional activity revealed that 50% of RNA elongation was α-amanitin (0.8 μg/ml) sensitive and was linear with nuclei concentration (0.1-1 x 10 7 nuclei). 1,25 (50 nM) treated (45-96 hr) cells had decreased (approx.40%) total transcription rate relative to control. Decreased total RNA synthesis occurred concomitant with NBT reducing activity. 32 P-RNA runoff transcripts from HL-60 nuclei were hybridized to excess (5 μg DNA was excess) Pst I linearized c-myc and β-actin clones (in pBR322) immobilized on nitrocellulose filter. 32 P-RNA input from 2 x 10 6 to 2 x 10 7 cpm yielded linear hybridization signal. Analysis of blot dot intensity revealed no difference in transcription of c-myc in nuclei from 1,25 dosed or control cells. (myc/actin ratios: 1,25 (50 nM, 72 hr) =1.1 +/- 0.3 and control (72 hr) = 1.0, N=3 or 2 or 3 dots ea). These preliminary data suggest 1,25 does not affect c-myc transcription in HL-60 nuclei and may regulate c-myc mRNA post-transcriptionally

  8. In vivo distribution of c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides local delivered by gelatin-coated platinmn-iridium stents in rabbits and its effect on apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞; 崔长琮; 许香广; 胡雪松; 方卫华; 邝碧娟

    2004-01-01

    Background Post-stenting restenosis is a significant clinical problem, involving vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) proliferation and apoptosis. It is reported that c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODNs) local delivered by catheter can inhibit VSMCs proliferation. This study was designed to assess tissue distribution of c-myc ASODN local delivered using gelatin-coated platinum-iridium (Pt-Ir) stents, and its effect on apoptosis of VSMCs. Methods Gelatin-coated Pt-Ir stents that had absorbed caroboxyfluorescein-5-succimidyl ester (FAM) labeled c-myc ASODNs (550 μg per stent) were implanted into the right carotid arteries of 6 rabbits. Tissue samples were obtained at 45 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours. Tissue distribution of c- myc ASODNs was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. Rabbits in the control group (n=16) were implanted with gelatin-coated Pt-Ir stents, and those in the treatment group (n=16) were implanted with gelatin-coated stents that had absorbed c-myc ASODNs. 7, 14, 30, or 90 days (n=4, respectively, for each group) after the stenting procedure, the stented segments were harvested, and histopathological examinations were performed to calculate neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness. The expression of c-myc was assessed using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemical methods. Apoptotic VSMCs were detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results According to fluorescence microscopic results, FAM-labeled c-myc ASODNs were concentrated in the target vessel media at the 45 minutes time point, and then dispersed to the adventitia. Morphometric analysis showed that neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness increased continuously up to 90 days after stent implantation, but that total neointimal area and mean neointimal thickness were less in the treatment group than in the

  9. Involvement of SIRT1 in hypoxic down-regulation of c-Myc and β-catenin and hypoxic preconditioning effect of polyphenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Kyung-Soo [Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Ischemic Tissue regeneration, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun-Ik [Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Ju; Kim, Hak-Bong; Lee, Jae-Won [Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Ischemic Tissue regeneration, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Dao, Trong Tuan; Oh, Won Keun [BK21 Project Team, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chi-Dug, E-mail: kcdshbw@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun-Hee, E-mail: ksh7738@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Ischemic Tissue regeneration, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-01

    SIRT1 has been found to function as a Class III deacetylase that affects the acetylation status of histones and other important cellular nonhistone proteins involved in various cellular pathways including stress responses and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1 signaling in the hypoxic down-regulations of c-Myc and β-catenin and hypoxic preconditioning effect of the red wine polyphenols such as piceatannol, myricetin, quercetin and resveratrol. We found that the expression of SIRT1 was significantly increased in hypoxia-exposed or hypoxic preconditioned HepG2 cells, which was closely associated with the up-regulation of HIF-1α and down-regulation of c-Myc and β-catenin expression via deacetylation of these proteins. In addition, blockade of SIRT1 activation using siRNA or amurensin G, a new potent SIRT1 inhibitor, abolished hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression but increased c-Myc and β-catenin expression. SIRT1 was also found to stabilize HIF-1α protein and destabilize c-Myc, β-catenin and PHD2 under hypoxia. We also found that myricetin, quercetin, piceatannol and resveratrol up-regulated HIF-1α and down-regulated c-Myc, PHD2 and β-catenin expressions via SIRT1 activation, in a manner that mimics hypoxic preconditioning. This study provides new insights of the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic preconditioning and suggests that polyphenolic SIRT1 activators could be used to mimic hypoxic/ischemic preconditioning. -- Graphical abstract: Polyphenols mimicked hypoxic preconditioning by up-regulating HIF-1α and SIRT1 and down-regulating c-Myc, PHD2, and β-catenin. HepG2 cells were pretreated with the indicated doses of myricetin (MYR; A), quercetin (QUR; B), or piceatannol (PIC; C) for 4 h and then exposed to hypoxia for 4 h. Levels of HIF-1α, SIRT1, c-Myc, β-catenin, and PHD2 were determined by western blot analysis. The data are representative of three individual experiments. Highlights: ► SIRT1 expression is increased in hypoxia

  10. NM23-H2 may play an indirect role in transcriptional activation of c-myc gene expression but does not cleave the nuclease hypersensitive element III1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Carey, Steven S.; Zuohe, Song; Gokhale, Vijay M.; Hu, Xiaohui; Murata, Lauren B.; Maes, Estelle M.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Sun, Daekyu; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Montfort, William R.; Hurley, Laurence H.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of G-quadruplex structures within the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III 1 region of the c-myc promoter and the ability of these structures to repress c-myc transcription have been well established. However, just how these extremely stable DNA secondary structures are transformed to activate c-myc transcription is still unknown. NM23-H2/nucleoside diphosphate kinase B has been recognized as an activator of c-myc transcription via interactions with the NHE III 1 region of the c-myc gene promoter. Through the use of RNA interference, we confirmed the transcriptional regulatory role of NM23-H2. In addition, we find that further purification of NM23-H2 results in loss of the previously identified DNA strand cleavage activity, but retention of its DNA binding activity. NM23-H2 binds to both single-stranded guanine- and cytosine-rich strands of the c-myc NHE III 1 and, to a lesser extent, to a random single-stranded DNA template. However, it does not bind to or cleave the NHE III 1 in duplex form. Significantly, potassium ions and compounds that stabilize the G-quadruplex and i-motif structures have an inhibitory effect on NM23-H2 DNA-binding activity. Mutation of Arg 88 to Ala 88 (R88A) reduced both DNA and nucleotide binding but had minimal effect on the NM23-H2 crystal structure. On the basis of these data and molecular modeling studies, we have proposed a stepwise trapping-out of the NHE III 1 region in a single-stranded form, thus allowing single-stranded transcription factors to bind and activate c-myc transcription. Furthermore, this model provides a rationale for how the stabilization of the G-quadruplex or i-motif structures formed within the c-myc gene promoter region can inhibit NM23-H2 from activating c-myc gene expression.

  11. Involvement of SIRT1 in hypoxic down-regulation of c-Myc and β-catenin and hypoxic preconditioning effect of polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kyung-Soo; Park, Jun-Ik; Kim, Mi-Ju; Kim, Hak-Bong; Lee, Jae-Won; Dao, Trong Tuan; Oh, Won Keun; Kang, Chi-Dug; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    SIRT1 has been found to function as a Class III deacetylase that affects the acetylation status of histones and other important cellular nonhistone proteins involved in various cellular pathways including stress responses and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1 signaling in the hypoxic down-regulations of c-Myc and β-catenin and hypoxic preconditioning effect of the red wine polyphenols such as piceatannol, myricetin, quercetin and resveratrol. We found that the expression of SIRT1 was significantly increased in hypoxia-exposed or hypoxic preconditioned HepG2 cells, which was closely associated with the up-regulation of HIF-1α and down-regulation of c-Myc and β-catenin expression via deacetylation of these proteins. In addition, blockade of SIRT1 activation using siRNA or amurensin G, a new potent SIRT1 inhibitor, abolished hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression but increased c-Myc and β-catenin expression. SIRT1 was also found to stabilize HIF-1α protein and destabilize c-Myc, β-catenin and PHD2 under hypoxia. We also found that myricetin, quercetin, piceatannol and resveratrol up-regulated HIF-1α and down-regulated c-Myc, PHD2 and β-catenin expressions via SIRT1 activation, in a manner that mimics hypoxic preconditioning. This study provides new insights of the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic preconditioning and suggests that polyphenolic SIRT1 activators could be used to mimic hypoxic/ischemic preconditioning. -- Graphical abstract: Polyphenols mimicked hypoxic preconditioning by up-regulating HIF-1α and SIRT1 and down-regulating c-Myc, PHD2, and β-catenin. HepG2 cells were pretreated with the indicated doses of myricetin (MYR; A), quercetin (QUR; B), or piceatannol (PIC; C) for 4 h and then exposed to hypoxia for 4 h. Levels of HIF-1α, SIRT1, c-Myc, β-catenin, and PHD2 were determined by western blot analysis. The data are representative of three individual experiments. Highlights: ► SIRT1 expression is increased in hypoxia

  12. Identification of a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-2-dependent signal amplification cascade that regulates c-Myc levels in ras transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, D.P.; Egebjerg, C.; Andersen, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    are essential for ras transformation. Previous studies show that ERK-mediated serine 62 phosphorylation protects c-Myc from proteasomal degradation. ERK is, however, not alone sufficient to stabilize c-Myc but requires the cooperation of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), an oncogene...... that counteracts protein phosphatase 2A-mediated dephosphorylation of c-Myc. Here we show that JNK2 regulates Cip2a transcription via ATF2. ATF2 and c-Myc cooperate to activate the transcription of ATF3. Remarkably, not only ectopic JNK2, but also ectopic ATF2, CIP2A, c-Myc and ATF3 are sufficient to rescue...... the defective ras transformation of JNK2-deficient cells. Thus, these data identify the key signal converging point of JNK2 and ERK pathways and underline the central role of CIP2A in ras transformation.Oncogene advance online publication, 27 June 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.230....

  13. Controlled and localized delivery of c-myc AS-ODN to cells by 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxylsilane modified SBA-15 mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chen, Minmin; Zhao, Xiqiu; Zhang, Min; Mao, Jinxiang; Cao, Xichuan; Zhang, Zhuoqi

    2018-01-01

    SBA-15 mesoporous silicate was synthesized and functionalized with 3-aminopropyl organic groups through a post-synthesis method. The materials were characterized consecutively by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption analysis and solid-state magic-angle spinning 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). Human c-myc anti-sense oligodeoxyneucleotide (AS-ODN) was selected as a model molecule to be loaded onto the surface of bare and functionalized SBA-15 via different loading conditions. It has been found that the amount of AS-ODN incorporated into the porous matrix is strongly dependent on the surface properties, pH of the loading solvent and AS-ODN concentration. The release behaviour of AS-ODN from modified SBA-15 materials was also investigated and depended on conditions chosen. Cellular uptake of the eluted AS-ODN into Hela cells was observed by fluorescent microscopy. The materials showed excellent cytocompatibility. The AS-ODN keeps full transfection and expression activities indicating its structural integrity. The functionalized SBA-15 is an excellent prospect as a biomedical material candidate for the future.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide stimulates endogenous β-glucuronidase via PKC/NF-κB/c-myc signaling cascade: a possible factor in hepatolithiasis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dianbo; Dong, Qianze; Tian, Yu; Dai, Chaoliu; Wu, Shuodong

    2017-11-29

    Hepatolithiasis is commonly encountered in Southeastern and Eastern Asian countries, but the pathogenesis mechanism of stone formation is still not well understood. Now, the role of endogenous β-glucuronidase in pigment stones formation is being gradually recognized. In this study, the mechanism of increased expression and secretion of endogenous β-glucuronidase during hepatolithiasis formation was investigated. We assessed the endogenous β-glucuronidase, c-myc, p-p65, and p-PKC expression in liver specimens with hepatolithiasis by immunohistochemical staining, and found that compared with that in normal liver samples, the expression of endogenous β-glucuronidase, c-myc, p-p65, and p-PKC in liver specimens with hepatolithiasis significantly increased, and their expressions were positively correlated with each other. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced increased expression of endogenous β-glucuronidase and c-myc in hepatocytes and intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and endogenous β-glucuronidase secretion increased, correspondingly. C-myc siRNA transfection effectively inhibited the LPS-induced expression of endogenous β-glucuronidase. Furthermore, NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate or PKC inhibitor chelerythrine could effectively inhibit the LPS-induced expression of c-myc and endogenous β-glucuronidase, and the expression of p-p65 was also partly inhibited by chelerythrine. Our clinical observations and experimental data indicate that LPS could induce the increased expression and secretion of endogenous β-glucuronidase via a signaling cascade of PKC/NF-κB/c-myc in hepatocytes and intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells, and endogenous β-glucuronidase might play a possible role in the formation of hepatolithiasis.

  15. Silencing c-Myc translation as a therapeutic strategy through targeting PI3Kδ and CK1ε in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changchun; Lipstein, Mark R; Scotto, Luigi; Jirau Serrano, Xavier O; Mangone, Michael A; Li, Shirong; Vendome, Jeremie; Hao, Yun; Xu, Xiaoming; Deng, Shi-Xian; Realubit, Ronald B; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Karan, Charles; Lentzsch, Suzanne; Fruman, David A; Honig, Barry; Landry, Donald W; O'Connor, Owen A

    2017-01-05

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the proteasome pathway are both involved in activating the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling is required for initiation of messenger RNA translation, we hypothesized that cotargeting the PI3K and proteasome pathways might synergistically inhibit translation of c-Myc. We found that a novel PI3K δ isoform inhibitor TGR-1202, but not the approved PI3Kδ inhibitor idelalisib, was highly synergistic with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib in lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma cell lines and primary lymphoma and leukemia cells. TGR-1202 and carfilzomib (TC) synergistically inhibited phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), leading to suppression of c-Myc translation and silencing of c-Myc-dependent transcription. The synergistic cytotoxicity of TC was rescued by overexpression of eIF4E or c-Myc. TGR-1202, but not other PI3Kδ inhibitors, inhibited casein kinase-1 ε (CK1ε). Targeting CK1ε using a selective chemical inhibitor or short hairpin RNA complements the effects of idelalisib, as a single agent or in combination with carfilzomib, in repressing phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and the protein level of c-Myc. These results suggest that TGR-1202 is a dual PI3Kδ/CK1ε inhibitor, which may in part explain the clinical activity of TGR-1202 in aggressive lymphoma not found with idelalisib. Targeting CK1ε should become an integral part of therapeutic strategies targeting translation of oncogenes such as c-Myc. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. The Human Cytomegalovirus Strain DB Activates Oncogenic Pathways in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV establishes a persistent life-long infection and increasing evidence indicates HCMV infection can modulate signaling pathways associated with oncogenesis. Breast milk is an important route of HCMV transmission in humans and we hypothesized that mammary epithelial cells could be one of the main cellular targets of HCMV infection. Methods: The infectivity of primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs was assessed following infection with the HCMV-DB strain, a clinical isolate with a marked macrophage-tropism. The impact of HCMV-DB infection on expression of p53 and retinoblastoma proteins, telomerase activity and oncogenic pathways (c-Myc, Akt, Ras, STAT3 was studied. Finally the transformation of HCMV-DB infected HMECs was evaluated using soft agar assay. CTH cells (CMV Transformed HMECs were detected in prolonged cultures of infected HMECs. Tumor formation was observed in NOD/SCID Gamma (NSG mice injected with CTH cells. Detection of long non coding RNA4.9 (lncRNA4.9 gene was assessed in CTH cells, tumors isolated from xenografted NSG mice and biopsies of patients with breast cancer using qualitative and quantitative PCR. Results: We found that HCMV, especially a clinical strain named HCMV-DB, infects HMECs in vitro. The clinical strain HCMV-DB replicates productively in HMECs as evidenced by detection of early and late viral transcripts and proteins. Following infection of HMECs with HCMV-DB, we observed the inactivation of retinoblastoma and p53 proteins, the activation of telomerase activity, the activation of the proto-oncogenes c-Myc and Ras, the activation of Akt and STAT3, and the upregulation of cyclin D1 and Ki67 antigen. Colony formation was observed in soft agar seeded with HCMV-DB-infected HMECs. Prolonged culture of infected HMECs resulted in the development of clusters of spheroid cells that we called CTH cells (CMV Transformed HMECs. CTH cells when injected in NOD/SCID Gamma (NSG mice

  17. Nucleolus disassembly in mitosis and apoptosis: dynamic redistribution of phosphorylated-c-Myc, fibrillarin and Ki-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Soldani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nucleolus may undergo disassembly either reversibly during mitosis, or irreversibly in apoptosis, thus allowing the redistribution of the nucleolar proteins.We investigated here by immunocytochemistry the fate of three representative proteins, namely phosphorylated c-Myc, fibrillarin and Ki-67, and found that they behave independently in both processes: they relocate in distinct compartments during mitosis, whereas during apoptosis they may either be cleaved (Ki-67 or be extruded into the cytoplasm with a different kinetics and following an ordered, non chaotic program. The separation of these nucleolar proteins which occurs in early apoptotic nuclei continues also in the cytoplasm, and culminates in the final formation of apoptotic blebs containing different nucleolar proteins: this evidence confirms that the apoptotic bodies may be variable in size, content and surface reactivity, and include heterogeneous aggregates of nuclear proteins and/or nucleic acids.

  18. Wnt and Notch signaling pathway involved in wound healing by targeting c-Myc and Hes1 separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Shu, Bin; Yang, Ronghua; Xu, Yingbin; Xing, Bangrong; Liu, Jian; Chen, Lei; Qi, Shaohai; Liu, Xusheng; Wang, Peng; Tang, Jinming; Xie, Julin

    2015-06-16

    Wnt and Notch signaling pathways are critically involved in relative cell fate decisions within the development of cutaneous tissues. Moreover, several studies identified the above two pathways as having a significant role during wound healing. However, their biological effects during cutaneous tissues repair are unclear. We employed a self-controlled model (Sprague-Dawley rats with full-thickness skin wounds) to observe the action and effect of Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signalings in vivo. The quality of wound repair relevant to the gain/loss-of-function Wnt/β-catenin and Notch activation was estimated by hematoxylin-and-eosin and Masson staining. Immunofluorescence analysis and Western blot analysis were used to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the regulation of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways in wound healing. Meanwhile, epidermal stem cells (ESCs) were cultured in keratinocyte serum-free medium with Jaggedl or in DAPT (N-[(3,5-difluorophenyl)acetyl]-L-alanyl-2-phenyl]glycine-1,1-dimethylethyl) to investigate whether the interruption of Notch signaling contributes to the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The results showed that in vivo the gain-of-function Wnt/β-catenin and Notch activation extended the ability to promote wound closure. We further determined that activation or inhibition of Wnt signaling and Notch signaling can affect the proliferation of ESCs, the differentiation and migration of keratinocytes, and follicle regeneration by targeting c-Myc and Hes1, which ultimately lead to enhanced or delayed wound healing. Furthermore, Western blot analysis suggested that the two pathways might interact in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Wnt and Notch signalings play important roles in cutaneous repair by targeting c-Myc and Hes1 separately. What's more, interaction between the above two pathways might act as a vital role in regulation of wound healing.

  19. The TLR3/TICAM-1 signal constitutively controls spontaneous polyposis through suppression of c-Myc in Apc Min/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Junya; Shime, Hiroaki; Takaki, Hiromi; Takashima, Ken; Funami, Kenji; Yoshida, Sumito; Takeda, Yohei; Matsumoto, Misako; Kasahara, Masanori; Seya, Tsukasa

    2017-10-17

    Intestinal tumorigenesis is promoted by myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) activation in response to the components of microbiota in Apc Min/+ mice. Microbiota also contains double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a ligand for TLR3, which activates the toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 (TICAM-1, also known as TRIF) pathway. We established Apc Min/+ Ticam1 -/- mice and their survival was compared to survival of Apc Min/+ Myd88 -/- and wild-type (WT) mice. The properties of polyps were investigated using immunofluorescence staining and RT-PCR analysis. We demonstrate that TICAM-1 is essential for suppression of polyp formation in Apc Min/+ mice. TICAM-1 knockout resulted in shorter survival of mice compared to WT mice or mice with knockout of MyD88 in the Apc Min/+ background. Polyps were more frequently formed in the distal intestine of Apc Min/+ Ticam1 -/- mice than in Apc Min/+ mice. Infiltration of immune cells such as CD11b + and CD8α + cells into the polyps was detected histologically. CD11b and CD8α mRNAs were increased in polyps of Apc Min/+ Ticam1 -/- mice compared to Apc Min/+ mice. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interferon (IFN)-γ, CXCL9 and IL-12p40 was increased in polyps of Apc Min/+ Ticam1 -/- mice. mRNA and protein expression of c-Myc, a critical transcription factor for inflammation-associated polyposis, were increased in polyps of Apc Min/+ Ticam1 -/- mice. A Lactobacillus strain producing dsRNA was detected in feces of Apc Min/+ mice. These results imply that the TLR3/TICAM-1 pathway inhibits polyposis through suppression of c-Myc expression and supports long survival in Apc Min/+ mice.

  20. Mechanisms for c-myc Induced Mouse Mammary Gland Carcinogenesis and for the Synergistic Role of TGF(alpha) in the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    1242 11-28. anti-tumor effects with microencapsulated c-myc antisense Panico L, D’Antonio A, Salvatore G, Mezza E, Tortora G, De oligonucleotide... enzymatic conversion of androgens to estrogens, since an estrogen receptor antagonist cannot block the lobular- alveolar induction by T, DHT

  1. [Relationship between the expression of beta-cat, cyclin D1 and c-myc and the occurance and biological behavior of pancreatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-jun; Ji, Xiang-rui

    2003-06-01

    To study the relationship between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin (beta-cat) and the high expressions of cyclin D1 and c-myc and the occurance, proliferation, infiltration, metastasis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer, and to provide rational basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment. Immunohistochemical PicTure trade mark was used to examine the expressions of beta-cat, cyclin D1 and c-myc in 47 cases of the cancerous tissue of pancreas, 12 cases of the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and 10 cases of normal tissue of pancreas, respectively. Pancreatic cancer proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was also tested as the index of the extent of proliferation of the pancreatic cancer. beta-cat was expressed normally in the 10 cases of the normal pancreatic tissue, while cyclin D1 and c-myc were negative. The expression rates of beta-cat, cyclin D1 and c-myc in the tissues of the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and the pancreatic cancer had no significant difference [6/12 and 68.1% (32/47), 6/12 and 74.5% (35/47), 5/12 and 70.2% (33/47) respectively;P values were all more than 0.05]. The abnormal expression rate of beta-cat was significantly correlated to the metastasis of the pancreatic cancer and the one-year survival rate (both P 0.05). The expression rate of cyclin D1 was correlated with the proliferation of the pancreatic cancer and the extent of differentiation (both P 0.05). The expression rate of c-myc was not correlated with the size, the extent of proliferation, infiltration, metastasis, or one-year survival rate (both P > 0.05), but closely with the proliferation activity of the cancerous tissue of pancreas (P < 0.05). The abnormal expression of beta-cat and the high expressions of cyclin D1 and c-myc had a parallel relationship with the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic cancer (both P < 0.05, gamma = 1.000, 0.845, 0.437, 0.452). The abnormal expression of beta-cat activates cyclin D1 and c-myc, and results in the

  2. Targeting of the MYCN Protein with Small Molecule c-MYC Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Inga; Larsson, Karin; Frenzel, Anna; Oliynyk, Ganna; Zirath, Hanna; Prochownik, Edward V.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Henriksson, Marie Arsenian

    2014-01-01

    This study was funded by grants from the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish Cancer Society. IM and HZ were recipients of graduate student grants from KI (KID), MAH was recipient of a Senior Investigator Award from the Swedish Cancer Society, and NJW was a Royal Society University Research Fellow when this work began. Members of the MYC family are the most frequently deregulated oncogenes in human cancer and are often correlated with aggressive disease and/or poorly differentiated tum...

  3. Study of C-MYC amplification and expression in Iranian gastric cancer samples using CISH and IHC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghian, Malihea; Jahanzad, Issa; Shakoori, Abbas; Ardalan, Farid Azmoudeh; Azimi, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy and the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It has been suggested that in gastric carcinogenesis, the C-MYC gene has an important function. The objective of this study is to establish the preference of Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer. Samples comprised of 50 randomly selected patients of whom 40 were male and 10 female. To evaluate the MYC copy number and its protein expression, CISH and IHC analyses were performed for 50 gastric adenocarcinomas, in Iran. The location of the tumor in 64% of the patients was the fundus, and in 72% of patients, the tumors were of a diffuse type; 22 samples showed no amplification, and 28 samples were with amplification. MYC immunoreactivity was observed in 13 samples. Twelve samples showed both MYC amplification and MYC immunoreactivity. In addition, among the 28 CISH+ samples, 12 samples had positive signals for IHC and 16 samples had negative signals for IHC. A majority of the IHC-negative patients had no amplification, but only one patient with IHC positive had no amplification. Our conclusion was that for the management and treatment of gastric cancer, and for special attention of clinicians, for prognosis and tumor progression, the CISH was a better and more feasible test than IHC, in regard to the sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Study of C-MYC amplification and expression in Iranian gastric cancer samples using CISH and IHC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihea Khaleghian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy and the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It has been suggested that in gastric carcinogenesis, the C-MYC gene has an important function. The objective of this study is to establish the preference of Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and Immunohistochemistry (IHC in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Samples comprised of 50 randomly selected patients of whom 40 were male and 10 female. To evaluate the MYC copy number and its protein expression, CISH and IHC analyses were performed for 50 gastric adenocarcinomas, in Iran. Results: The location of the tumor in 64% of the patients was the fundus, and in 72% of patients, the tumors were of a diffuse type; 22 samples showed no amplification, and 28 samples were with amplification. MYC immunoreactivity was observed in 13 samples. Twelve samples showed both MYC amplification and MYC immunoreactivity. In addition, among the 28 CISH+ samples, 12 samples had positive signals for IHC and 16 samples had negative signals for IHC. A majority of the IHC-negative patients had no amplification, but only one patient with IHC positive had no amplification. Conclusion: Our conclusion was that for the management and treatment of gastric cancer, and for special attention of clinicians, for prognosis and tumor progression, the CISH was a better and more feasible test than IHC, in regard to the sensitivity and specificity.

  5. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yuexia [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Central Laboratory, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced bystander effects between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte cells. • SirT1 played a protective role in regulating this bystander effect. • SirT1 contributed to the protective effects via elimination the accumulation of ROS. • The activity of c-Myc is critical for maintaining the protective role of SirT1. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved.

  6. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced bystander effects between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte cells. • SirT1 played a protective role in regulating this bystander effect. • SirT1 contributed to the protective effects via elimination the accumulation of ROS. • The activity of c-Myc is critical for maintaining the protective role of SirT1. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved

  7. Regulation of c-myc and c-fos mRNA levels by polyomavirus: distinct roles for the capsid protein VP1 and the viral early proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zullo, J.; Stiles, C.D.; Garcea, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The levels of c-myc, c-fos, and JE mRNAs accumulate in a biphasic pattern following infection of quiescent BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells with polyomavirus. Maximal levels of c-myc and c-fos mRNAs were seen within 1 hr and were nearly undetectable at 6 hr after infection. At 12 hr after infection mRNA levels were again maximal and remained elevated thereafter. Empty virions (capsids) and recombinant VP 1 protein, purified from Escherichia coli, induced the early but not the late phase of mRNA accumulation. Virions, capsids, and recombinant VP 1 protein stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine nuclear labeling and c-myc mRNA accumulation in a dose-responsive manner paralleling their affinity for the cell receptor for polyoma. The second phase of mRNA accumulation is regulated by the viral early gene products, as shown by polyomavirus early gene mutants and by a transfected cell line (336a) expressing middle tumor antigen upon glucocorticoid addition. These results suggest that polyomavirus interacts with the cell membrane at the onset of infection to increase the levels of mRNA for the cellular genes associated with cell competence for DNA replication, and subsequently these levels are maintained by the action of the early viral proteins

  8. Aspirin regulation of c-myc and cyclinD1 proteins to overcome tamoxifen resistance in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Liu, Ya-Jing; Cui, Jun-Wei; Yang, Man; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhan; Zhu, Li-Zhang; Lu, Si-Yi; Zou, Li; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Yu-Xia; Zhou, You; Fang, Zheng-Yu; Wei, Wei

    2017-05-02

    Tamoxifen is still the most commonly used endocrine therapy drug for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients and has an excellent outcome, but tamoxifen resistance remains a great impediment to successful treatment. Recent studies have prompted an anti-tumor effect of aspirin. Here, we demonstrated that aspirin not only inhibits the growth of ER-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7, especially when combined with tamoxifen, but also has a potential function to overcome tamoxifen resistance in MCF-7/TAM. Aspirin combined with tamoxifen can down regulate cyclinD1 and block cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Besides, tamoxifen alone represses c-myc, progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclinD1 in MCF-7 cell line but not in MCF-7/TAM, while aspirin combined with tamoxifen can inhibit the expression of these proteins in the resistant cell line. When knocking down c-myc in MCF-7/TAM, cells become more sensitive to tamoxifen, cell cycle is blocked as well, indicating that aspirin can regulate c-myc and cyclinD1 proteins to overcome tamoxifen resistance. Our study discovered a novel role of aspirin based on its anti-tumor effect, and put forward some kinds of possible mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer cells, providing a new strategy for the treatment of ER-positive breast carcinoma.

  9. Cyclin E/Cdk2, P/CAF, and E1A regulate the transactivation of the c-myc promoter by FOXM1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierstra, Inken; Alves, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    FOXM1c transactivates the c-myc promoter by binding directly to its TATA-boxes. The present study demonstrates that the transactivation of the c-myc promoter by FOXM1c is enhanced by the key proliferation signal cyclin E/Cdk2, but repressed by P/CAF and the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. Furthermore, FOXM1c interacts with the coactivator and histone acetyltransferase P/CAF. This study shows that, on the c-myc-P1 TATA-box, FOXM1c does not function simply as normal transcription factor just binding to an unusual site. Moreover, the inhibitory N-terminus of FOXM1c does not inhibit its transrepression domain or its EDA. Others reported that a cyclin/Cdk-binding LXL-motif of the splice variant FoxM1b is required for its interaction with Cdk2, Cdk1, and p27, its phosphorylation by Cdk1 and its activation by Cdc25B. In contrast, we now demonstrate that this LXL-motif is not required for the activation of FOXM1c by cyclin D1/Cdk4, cyclin E/Cdk and cyclin A/Cdk2 or for the repression of FOXM1c by p27

  10. The Dysregulation of Polyamine Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated with Overexpression of c-Myc and C/EBPβ rather than Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya V. Snezhkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is well known that the chronic inflammation can promote the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC. Recently, a number of studies revealed a potential association between colorectal inflammation, cancer progression, and infection caused by enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF. Bacterial enterotoxin activates spermine oxidase (SMO, which produces spermidine and H2O2 as byproducts of polyamine catabolism, which, in turn, enhances inflammation and tissue injury. Using qPCR analysis, we estimated the expression of SMOX gene and ETBF colonization in CRC patients. We found no statistically significant associations between them. Then we selected genes involved in polyamine metabolism, metabolic reprogramming, and inflammation regulation and estimated their expression in CRC. We observed overexpression of SMOX, ODC1, SRM, SMS, MTAP, c-Myc, C/EBPβ (CREBP, and other genes. We found that two mediators of metabolic reprogramming, inflammation, and cell proliferation c-Myc and C/EBPβ may serve as regulators of polyamine metabolism genes (SMOX, AZIN1, MTAP, SRM, ODC1, AMD1, and AGMAT as they are overexpressed in tumors, have binding site according to ENCODE ChIP-Seq data, and demonstrate strong coexpression with their targets. Thus, increased polyamine metabolism in CRC could be driven by c-Myc and C/EBPβ rather than ETBF infection.

  11. Detección de una mutación no estándar en el Proto-oncogen RET por mutagénesis dirigida Detection of a non-standard mutation in the ret protoncogene by site directed mutagenesis

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    Sebastián Real

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de MEN2A es una enfermedad autosómica dominante que se caracteriza por el desarrollo de cáncer medular de tiroides, feocromocitoma e hiperplasia de paratiroides. Mutaciones en el ret proto-oncogén se asocian con MEN2A, con una penetrancia cercana al 100%. El gen se encuentra en el cromosoma 10q11.2 y codifica para una proteína transmembrana con función de receptor del tipo tirosina quinasa. Mutaciones que afectan el dominio extracelular de la proteína estimulan la dimerización espontánea del receptor y un aumento de la actividad de tirosina quinasa basal. El codón 634 codifica para una cisteína, y es considerado un sitio hot-spot por encontrarse mutado en el 85% de las familias con MEN2A. Para este sitio, nuestro grupo desarrolló en 2002 una metodología de detección indirecta y económica. Ante una familia sospechada de MEN2A, se aplicó esta estrategia, que reveló un codón 634 sano. Por posterior secuenciación se confirmó que el paciente índice portaba una mutación en el codón 611. Se desarrolló una nueva estrategia familia-específica por PCR mutagénica, que permitió diagnosticar en nuestro país a todos los integrantes de la familia con costos accesibles. Un niño en el cual se halló la mutación, fue tiroidectomizado preventivamente, y a la fecha goza de buena salud. De esta manera, combinando la estrategia de detección de mutaciones en el sitio hot-spot y un posterior diseño de otra metodología familia-específica se pudo diagnosticar e intervenir preventivamente a la familia, sin enviar todas las muestras al extranjero.MEN2A is an autosomic dominant disease, characterized by medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia. Mutations in the ret proto-oncogene are associated with this disease, with almost 100% of pennetrance. The gene, situated on chromosome 10q11.2, codes for a transmembrane protein with a tirosinkinase-like receptor function. Mutations that affect its

  12. The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 p30II protein activates p53 and induces the TIGAR and suppresses oncogene-induced oxidative stress during viral carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Megan; Hutchison, Tetiana; Malu, Aditi; White, Averi; Kim, Janice; Gardner, Rachel; Smith, Katie; Nelson, Katherine; Bergeson, Rachel; McKee, Ryan; Harrod, Carolyn; Ratner, Lee; Lüscher, Bernhard; Martinez, Ernest; Harrod, Robert

    2018-05-01

    In normal cells, aberrant oncogene expression leads to the accumulation of cytotoxic metabolites, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative DNA-damage and apoptosis as an intrinsic barrier against neoplastic disease. The c-Myc oncoprotein is overexpressed in many lymphoid cancers due to c-myc gene amplification and/or 8q24 chromosomal translocations. Intriguingly, p53 is a downstream target of c-Myc and hematological malignancies, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), frequently contain wildtype p53 and c-Myc overexpression. We therefore hypothesized that p53-regulated pro-survival signals may thwart the cell's metabolic anticancer defenses to support oncogene-activation in lymphoid cancers. Here we show that the Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) promotes c-myc oncogene-activation by the human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) latency-maintenance factor p30 II , associated with c-Myc deregulation in ATL clinical isolates. TIGAR prevents the intracellular accumulation of c-Myc-induced ROS and inhibits oncogene-induced cellular senescence in ATL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and multiple myeloma cells with elevated c-Myc expression. Our results allude to a pivotal role for p53-regulated antioxidant signals as mediators of c-Myc oncogenic functions in viral and non-viral lymphoid tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct Histopathologic and Molecular Alterations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Intestinal Adenocarcinoma: c-MYC Amplification is Common and Associated with Mucinous/Signet Ring Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Douglas J; Binion, David G; Regueiro, Miguel D; Miller, Caitlyn; Herbst, Cameron; Pai, Reetesh K

    2018-05-17

    Chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of intestinal adenocarcinoma. The underlying molecular alterations in IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinoma remain largely unknown. We compared the clinicopathologic and molecular features of 35 patients with 47 IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinomas with a consecutive series of 451 patients with sporadic colorectal carcinoma identified at our institution and published data on sporadic colorectal carcinoma. c-MYC amplification was the most frequent molecular alteration identified in 33% of IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinoma that is a significantly higher frequency than in sporadic colorectal carcinoma (8%) (P = 0.0001). Compared to sporadic colorectal carcinoma, IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinomas more frequently demonstrated mucinous differentiation (60% vs 25%, P < 0.001) and signet ring cell differentiation (28% vs 4%, P < 0.001). Mucinous and signet ring cell differentiation were significantly associated with the presence of c-MYC amplification (both with P < 0.05). HER2 positivity (11%), KRAS exon 2 or 3 mutation (10%), and IDH1 mutation (7%) were less commonly observed in IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinoma. There was an association between poor survival and HER2 status with 3 of 4 patients having HER2-positive adenocarcinoma dead of disease at last clinical follow-up; however, no statistically significant survival effect was identified for any of the molecular alterations identified. We demonstrate that IBD-associated intestinal adenocarcinomas have a high frequency of c-MYC amplification that is associated with mucinous and signet ring cell differentiation. Many of the identified molecular alterations have potential therapeutic relevance, including HER2 amplification, IDH1 mutation, and low frequency KRAS mutation.

  14. cMyc/miR-125b-5p signalling determines sensitivity to bortezomib in preclinical model of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfè, Valentina; Biskup, Edyta; Willumsgaard, Ayalah

    2013-01-01

    Successful/effective cancer therapy in low grade lymphoma is often hampered by cell resistance to anti-neoplastic agents. The crucial mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are poorly understood. Overcoming resistance of tumor cells to anticancer agents, such as proteasome inhibitors, could...... improve their clinical efficacy. Using cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) as a model of the chemotherapy-resistant peripheral lymphoid malignancy, we demonstrated that resistance to proteasome inhibition involved a signaling between the oncogene cMyc and miR-125b-5p. Bortezomib repressed c...

  15. Increased radiation-induced transformation in C3H/10T1/2 cells after transfer of an exogenous c-myc gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, V.; Drozdoff, V.; Zeitz, L.; Fleissner, E.

    1987-01-01

    C3H/10T 1/2 cells were infected with a retroviral vector expressing a mouse c-myc oncogene and a drug-selection marker. The resulting cells, morphologically indistinguishable from C3H/10T l/1, displayed a greatly enhanced sensitivity to neoplastic transformation by ionizing radiation or by a chemical carcinogen. Constitutive expression of myc therefore appears to synergize with an initial carcinogenic event, providing a function analogous to a subsequent event that apparently is required for the neoplastic transformation of these cells. This cell system should prove useful in exploring early stages in radiation-induced transformation

  16. Angiotensin II reduces cardiac AdipoR1 expression through AT1 receptor/ROS/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway.

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    Li Li

    Full Text Available Adiponectin, an abundant adipose tissue-derived protein, exerts protective effect against cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mediate the beneficial effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system. However, the alteration of AdipoRs in cardiac remodeling is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of angiotensin II (AngII on cardiac AdipoRs expression and explored the possible molecular mechanism. AngII infusion into rats induced cardiac hypertrophy, reduced AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2 expression, and attenuated the phosphorylations of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, and those effects were all reversed by losartan, an AngII type 1 (AT1 receptor blocker. AngII reduced expression of AdipoR1 mRNA and protein in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, which was abolished by losartan, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. The antioxidants including reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger NAC, NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, Nox2 inhibitor peptide gp91 ds-tat, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I inhibitor rotenone attenuated AngII-induced production of ROS and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2. AngII-reduced AdipoR1 expression was reversed by pretreatment with NAC, apocynin, gp91 ds-tat, rotenone, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that AngII provoked the recruitment of c-Myc onto the promoter region of AdipoR1, which was attenuated by PD98059. Moreover, AngII-induced DNA binding activity of c-Myc was inhibited by losartan, NAC, apocynin, gp91 ds-tat, rotenone, and PD98059. c-Myc small interfering RNA abolished the inhibitory effect of AngII on AdipoR1 expression. Our results suggest that AngII inhibits cardiac AdipoR1 expression in vivo and in vitro and AT1 receptor/ROS/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway is required for the downregulation of AdipoR1 induced by AngII.

  17. Overexpression of c-myc and loss of heterozigosity on 2p, 3p, 5q, 17p and 18q in sporadic colorectal carcinoma Sobreexpresión de c-myc y pérdida de heterozigosidad en 2p, 3p, 5q, 17p y 18q en carcinoma colorrectal esporádico

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    A. Sánchez-Pernaute

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of the present study is to evaluate the prognostic influence of loss of heterozygosity on 2p, 3p, 5q, 17p and 18q, and c-myc overexpression on surgically treated sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Methods: tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from 153 patients were analyzed. Fifty-one percent of patients were male, and mean age in the series was 67 years. Tumors were located in the proximal colon in 37 cases, in the distal bowel in 37, and in the rectum in 79 patients. c-myc overexpression was studied by means of Northern blot analysis, and loss of heterozigosity through microsatellite analysis. Results: c-myc overexpression was detected in 25% of cases, and loss of heterozygosity in at least one of the studied regions in 48%. There was no association between clinical and pathologic features, and genetic alterations. The disease-free interval was significantly shorter for patients with both genetic alterations; the presence of both events was an independent prognostic factor for poor outcome in the multivariate analysis (RR: 4.34, p Objetivo: el objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la importancia pronóstica de la pérdida de heterozigosidad en las regiones 2p, 3p, 5q, 17p y 18q y de la sobreexpresión del gen c-myc en el carcinoma colorrectal esporádico, mediante el estudio de la supervivencia libre de enfermedad tras cirugía potencialmente curativa. Métodos: se han analizado muestras tumorales y no tumorales de mucosa colónica de 153 pacientes. El 51% de los pacientes eran varones y la edad media de la serie fue 67 años. Los tumores fueron proximales en 37 casos, distales en 37 y localizados en recto en 79. Se analizó la sobreexpresión del RNA de c-myc por Northern blot, y la presencia de pérdida de heterozigosidad en las diferentes regiones consideradas por análisis de microsatélites. Resultados: se detectó sobreexpresión de c-myc en el 25% de los casos, y pérdida de heterozigosidad en alguna de las regiones estudiadas

  18. The reducing agent Dithiothreitol (DTT) increases expression of c-myc and c- fos protooncogenes in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouv, J.; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Frandsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the possible tumour promoting activity of the food mutagen 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), by studying its influence on the expression of three genes considered to be of relevance in the tumour promotion step...

  19. Isolation and characterization of exosome from human embryonic stem cell-derived c-myc-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Padmanabhan, Jayanthi; Choo, Andre; De Kleijn, Dominique P V; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently the cell type of choice in many cell therapy trials. The number of therapeutic applications for MSCs registered as product IND submissions with the FDA and initiation of registered clinical trials has increased substantially in recent years, in particular

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Exosome from Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived C-Myc-Immortalized Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Padmanabhan, Jayanthi; Choo, Andre; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently the cell type of choice in many cell therapy trials. The number of therapeutic applications for MSCs registered as product IND submissions with the FDA and initiation of registered clinical trials has increased substantially in recent years, in particular between 2006 and 2012. However, defined mechanisms of action underpinning the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs are lacking, but they are increasingly attributed to MSC trophic secretion rather than their differentiation potential. A promising secreted therapeutic candidate is an extracellular vesicle (EV) known as the exosome. The use of exosomes instead of cells as a therapeutic agent provides several advantages. A critical advantage is the prospect of a conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing process that is highly scalable and amenable to the stringent manufacturing process. For example, MSCs used as producers of therapeutics, and not as therapeutics per se, could be immortalized to generate infinitely expansible clonal lines to enhance the reproducible production of therapeutic exosomes. In this chapter, we will describe the immortalization of MSCs, and the production, isolation, and characterization of exosomes from immortalized MSC.

  1. Down-regulation of 5S rRNA by miR-150 and miR-383 enhances c-Myc-rpL11 interaction and inhibits proliferation of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Ren, Yanli; Wang, Zhiqiong; Xiong, Xiangyu; Han, Sichong; Pan, Wenting; Chen, Hongwei; Zhou, Liqing; Zhou, Changchun; Yuan, Qipeng; Yang, Ming

    2015-12-21

    5S rRNA plays an important part in ribosome biology and is over-expression in multiple cancers. In this study, we found that 5S rRNA is a direct target of miR-150 and miR-383 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Overexpression of miR-150 and miR-383 inhibited ESCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, 5S rRNA silencing by miR-150 and miR-383 might intensify rpL11-c-Myc interaction, which attenuated role of c-Myc as an oncogenic transcriptional factor and dysregulation of multiple c-Myc target genes. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of miRNAs in ribosomal regulation during tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and c-myc expression are the determinants of cetuximab-induced enhancement of squamous cell carcinoma radioresponse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsova, Ira; Skvortsov, Sergej; Raju, Uma; Stasyk, Taras; Riesterer, Oliver; Schottdorf, Eva-Maria; Popper, Bela-Andre; Schiestl, Bernhard; Eichberger, Paul; Debbage, Paul; Neher, Andreas; Bonn, Guenther K.; Huber, Lukas A.; Milas, Luka; Lukas, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy cures malignant tumors of the head and neck region more effectively when it is combined with application of the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab. Despite the successes achieved, we still do not know how to select patients who will respond to this combination of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody and radiation. This study was conducted to elucidate possible mechanisms which cause the combined treatment with cetuximab and irradiation to fail in some cases of squamous cell carcinomas. Methods and materials: Mice bearing FaDu and A431 squamous cell carcinoma xenograft tumors were treated with cetuximab (total dose 3 mg, intraperitoneally), irradiation (10 Gy) or their combination at the same doses. Treatment was applied when tumors reached 8 mm in size. To collect samples for further protein analysis (two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF/TOF, Western blot analysis, and ELISA), mice from each group were sacrificed on the 8th day after the first injection of cetuximab. Other mice were subjected to tumor growth delay assay. Results: In FaDu xenografts, treatment with cetuximab alone was nearly as effective as cetuximab combined with ionizing radiation, whereas A431 tumors responded to the combined treatment with significantly enhanced delay in tumor growth. Tumors extracted from the untreated FaDu and A431 xenografts were analysed for protein expression, and 34 proteins that were differently expressed in the two tumor types were identified. The majority of these proteins are closely related to intratumoral angiogenesis, cell adhesion, motility, differentiation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), c-myc signaling and DNA repair. Conclusions: The failure of cetuximab to enhance radiation response in FaDu xenografts was associated with the initiation of the program of EMT and with c-myc up-regulation in the carcinoma cells. For this reason, c-myc and EMT-related proteins (E

  3. Genetic dissimilarity between primary colorectal carcinomas and their lymph node metastases: ploidy, p53, bcl-2, and c-myc expression--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalata, Khaled Refaat; Elshal, Mohamed Farouk; Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; Shoma, Ashraf

    2015-08-01

    The current paradigm of metastasis proposes that rare cells within primary tumors acquire metastatic capability via sequential mutations, suggesting that metastases are genetically dissimilar from their primary tumors. This study investigated the changes in the level of expression of a well-defined panel of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis markers between the primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and the corresponding synchronous lymph node (LN) metastasis from the same patients. DNA flow cytometry and immunostaining of p53, bcl-2, and c-myc were carried out on 36 cases of CRC radical resection specimens with their corresponding LN metastases. There was very low probability that the histological patterns of primary tumors and LN metastases are independent (p < 0.001). Metastatic tumors were significantly more diffusely positive for p53 than the primary tumors (p < 0.001). Conversely, primary tumors were significantly more diffusely positive for c-myc than metastatic tumors (p = 0.011). No significant difference was found between the LNs and the primary tumors in bcl-2 positivity (p = 0.538) and DNA aneuploidy (p = 0.35), with a tendency towards negative bcl-2 and less aneuploidy in LN metastases than primary tumors. In conclusion, LN metastatic colorectal carcinomas have a tendency of being less differentiated, with a higher incidence of diffuse p53 staining, lower incidence of bcl-2 staining, and less aneuploidy in comparison to their primary counterparts suggesting a more aggressive biological behavior, which could indicate the necessity for more aggressive adjuvant therapy.

  4. Soluble expression of recomb inant cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2 proteins in bacteria and transduction into living cells

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    Guo-Dan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To develop a new method to produce recombinant reprogramming proteins, cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2, in soluble format with low cost for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. METHODS: A short polypeptide sequence derived from the HIV trans-activator of transcription protein (TAT and the nucleus localization signal (NLS polypeptide were fused to the N terminus of the reprogramming proteins and they were constructed into pCold-SUMO vector which can extremely improve the solubility of recombinant proteins. Then these vector plasmids were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3 Chaperone competent cells for amplification. The solubility of these recombinant proteins was determined by SDS-PAGE and Coomassie brilliant blue staining. The recombinant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA resin and identified by Western blot. The transduction of these proteins into HEK 293T cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: These four reprogramming proteins could be produced in soluble format in pCold-SUMO expression vector system with the assistance of chaperone proteins in bacteria. The proteins were purified successfully with a purity of over 70% with a relative high transduction rate into 293 cells. CONCLUSION: The results in the present study indicate the four important reprogramming proteins, cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2, can be produced in soluble format in bacteria with low cost. Our new method thus might be expected to greatly contribute to the future study of iPSCs.

  5. Oridonin induces apoptosis and senescence in colorectal cancer cells by increasing histone hyperacetylation and regulation of p16, p21, p27 and c-myc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng-Hou; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Fang, Yong; Chen, Fang-Yuan; Wu, Ying-Li; Hu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Wei; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Guo, Zhu-Ying; Xu, Mang-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ting; Jiang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Oridonin, a tetracycline diterpenoid compound, has the potential antitumor activities. Here, we evaluate the antitumor activity and action mechanisms of oridonin in colorectal cancer. Effects of oridonin on cell proliferation were determined by using a CCK-8 Kit. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was examined by analyzing subdiploid population and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. Senescent cells were determined by senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity analysis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the changes of mRNA of p16, p21, p27 and c-myc. The concomitant changes of protein expression were analyzed with Western blot. Expression of AcH3 and AcH4 were examined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blots. Effects of oridonin on colony formation of SW1116 were examined by Soft Agar assay. The in vivo efficacy of oridonin was detected using a xenograft colorectal cancer model in nude mice. Oridonin induced potent growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and colony-forming inhibition in three colorectal cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Daily i.p. injection of oridonin (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg) for 28 days significantly inhibited the growth of SW1116 s.c. xenografts in BABL/C nude mice. With western blot and reverse transcription-PCR, we further showed that the antitumor activities of oridonin correlated with induction of histone (H3 and H4) hyperacetylation, activation of p21, p27 and p16, and suppression of c-myc expression. Oridonin possesses potent in vitro and in vivo anti-colorectal cancer activities that correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and regulation of pathways critical for maintaining growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Therefore, oridonin may represent a novel therapeutic option in colorectal cancer treatment

  6. Oridonin induces apoptosis and senescence in colorectal cancer cells by increasing histone hyperacetylation and regulation of p16, p21, p27 and c-myc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying-Zheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oridonin, a tetracycline diterpenoid compound, has the potential antitumor activities. Here, we evaluate the antitumor activity and action mechanisms of oridonin in colorectal cancer. Methods Effects of oridonin on cell proliferation were determined by using a CCK-8 Kit. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was examined by analyzing subdiploid population and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. Senescent cells were determined by senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity analysis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the changes of mRNA of p16, p21, p27 and c-myc. The concomitant changes of protein expression were analyzed with Western blot. Expression of AcH3 and AcH4 were examined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blots. Effects of oridonin on colony formation of SW1116 were examined by Soft Agar assay. The in vivo efficacy of oridonin was detected using a xenograft colorectal cancer model in nude mice. Results Oridonin induced potent growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and colony-forming inhibition in three colorectal cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Daily i.p. injection of oridonin (6.25, 12.5 or 25 mg/kg for 28 days significantly inhibited the growth of SW1116 s.c. xenografts in BABL/C nude mice. With western blot and reverse transcription-PCR, we further showed that the antitumor activities of oridonin correlated with induction of histone (H3 and H4 hyperacetylation, activation of p21, p27 and p16, and suppression of c-myc expression. Conclusion Oridonin possesses potent in vitro and in vivo anti-colorectal cancer activities that correlated with induction of histone hyperacetylation and regulation of pathways critical for maintaining growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Therefore, oridonin may represent a novel therapeutic option in colorectal cancer treatment.

  7. PET/CT imaging of c-Myc transgenic mice identifies the genotoxic N-nitroso-diethylamine as carcinogen in a short-term cancer bioassay.

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    Katja Hueper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 100,000 chemicals are in use but have not been tested for their safety. To overcome limitations in the cancer bioassay several alternative testing strategies are explored. The inability to monitor non-invasively onset and progression of disease limits, however, the value of current testing strategies. Here, we report the application of in vivo imaging to a c-Myc transgenic mouse model of liver cancer for the development of a short-term cancer bioassay. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: μCT and ¹⁸F-FDG μPET were used to detect and quantify tumor lesions after treatment with the genotoxic carcinogen NDEA, the tumor promoting agent BHT or the hepatotoxin paracetamol. Tumor growth was investigated between the ages of 4 to 8.5 months and contrast-enhanced μCT imaging detected liver lesions as well as metastatic spread with high sensitivity and accuracy as confirmed by histopathology. Significant differences in the onset of tumor growth, tumor load and glucose metabolism were observed when the NDEA treatment group was compared with any of the other treatment groups. NDEA treatment of c-Myc transgenic mice significantly accelerated tumor growth and caused metastatic spread of HCC in to lung but this treatment also induced primary lung cancer growth. In contrast, BHT and paracetamol did not promote hepatocarcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study evidences the accuracy of in vivo imaging in defining tumor growth, tumor load, lesion number and metastatic spread. Consequently, the application of in vivo imaging techniques to transgenic animal models may possibly enable short-term cancer bioassays to significantly improve hazard identification and follow-up examinations of different organs by non-invasive methods.

  8. Disturbance of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Ki-67 and C-myc expression in acute and subchronic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Ji, Xiaoying; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Feng, Guodong; Zhang, Huqin; Wang, Huichun; Shah, Walayat; Hou, Zhanwu; Kong, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is an important cofactor or an independent risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is one of the most potent tobacco smoke carcinogens in tobacco smoke. BaP induced DNA damage and over expression in p53 cervical tissue of mice as demonstrated in our previous study. Here we present the findings of exposure to BaP on the expression of Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67, Caspase-3 and Bax genes in mouse cervix. Acute intraperitoneal administration of BaP (12.5, 25, 50, 100mg/kg body weight) to ICR female mice induced a significant increase in Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67 mRNA and protein level till 72h except in Bcl-2 at 24h with 12.5, 25, 50mg/kg as well as at 48h with 12.5mg/kg body weight post treatment. A significant increase was also seen in Caspase-3 and Bax mRNA and protein level with peak level at 24h and gradual decrease till 72h, however, the expression of caspase-3 increased while that of Bax decreased with increasing dose of Bap after 24h. In sub chronic intraperitoneal and oral gavage administration of BaP (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg body weight), similar significant increase was observed for all the examined genes as compared to the control and vehicle groups, however the expression of Bax decreased in a dose dependent manner. The findings of this study will help in further understanding the molecular mechanism of BaP induced carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. A mechanistic study of cigarette smoke and cyclooxygenase-2 on proliferation of gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Vivian Y.; Liu, Edgar S.L.; Ye, Yi-Ne; Koo, Marcel W.L.; Chu, K.-M.; Cho, C.-H.

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been shown to cause gastric cancer. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a common characteristic in gastric malignancy. The present study aimed to explore the correlation between cigarette smoke and COX-2 in the promotion of tumorigenesis in human gastric cancer cells (AGS). We further studied the action of COX-2 on other proto-oncogenes on gastric tumor growth. Results showed that chloroform extract (CE) and ethanol extract (EE) from cigarette smoke dose-dependently stimulated gastric cancer cell proliferation, which was accompanied with an activation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, COX-2, and c-myc expressions. Both antisense of c-myc and α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, specific ODC inhibitor) inhibited cell proliferation without affecting COX-2 expression in response to cigarette smoke extracts (CSE). However, selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) not only blocked the proliferative activity but also the ODC activity and c-myc protein expression by CSE in gastric cancer cells. Further, supplementation of exogenous prostaglandin (PG) E 2 reversed all the inhibitory actions of SC-236. Our results underline the importance of COX-2 in the cancer-promoting effect of CSE and its modulation on its downstream growth-related genes, such as c-myc and ODC in cancer cell proliferation. These results reveal that CSE-induced gastric carcinogenesis is via the COX-2/c-myc/ODC and PGE 2 -dependent pathway. Hence, selective COX-2 inhibitor could be an effective therapeutic agent for gastric cancer in smokers

  10. Periplocin from Cortex periplocae inhibits cell growth and down-regulates survivin and c-myc expression in colon cancer in vitro and in vivo via beta-catenin/TCF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lianmei; Shan, Baoen; Du, Yanyan; Wang, Mingxia; Liu, Lihua; Ren, Feng-Zhi

    2010-08-01

    Cancer of the colon and rectum is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and accounts for approximately 10% of all cancer-related deaths. Although surgical resection or radiotherapy are potentially curative for localized disease, advanced colon cancer is currently associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, the development of a new and effective chemotherapeutic agent is required to target critical pathways to induce responsiveness of colon cancer cells to death signals. Dysregulation of the beta-catenin/TCF pathway plays a central role in early activities of colorectal carcinogenesis. In this study, human colon cancer SW480 cells were used to investigate the effect of CPP (periplocin from Cortex periplocae) on the modulation of the beta-catenin/TCF signaling pathway. Our research results showed that CPP caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth as assessed by MTT assay and an induction in apoptosis as measured by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the CPP- treated cells were characterized by a decreased expression of beta-catenin protein in the total cell lysates and cytosolic and nuclear extracts. This expression alleviates the binding activity of T-cell factor (Tcf) complexes to its specific DNA-binding sites. Thus, the protein expression of the downstream elements survivin and c-myc was down-regulated. To determine the precise inhibitory mechanisms involved, further in-depth in vivo studies of CPP are warranted. In conclusion, our data suggest that CPP wields a multi-prong strategy to target the beta-catenin/Tcf signaling pathway, leading to the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of growth of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, CPP may become a potential agent against colon cancer.

  11. Inhibition of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins increases NKG2D ligand MICA expression and sensitivity to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in multiple myeloma cells: role of cMYC-IRF4-miR-125b interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzese, Maria Pia; Bilotta, Maria Teresa; Fionda, Cinzia; Zingoni, Alessandra; Soriani, Alessandra; Vulpis, Elisabetta; Borrelli, Cristiana; Zitti, Beatrice; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Molfetta, Rosa; Paolini, Rossella; Santoni, Angela; Cippitelli, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Anti-cancer immune responses may contribute to the control of tumors after conventional chemotherapy, and different observations have indicated that chemotherapeutic agents can induce immune responses resulting in cancer cell death and immune-stimulatory side effects. Increasing experimental and clinical evidence highlight the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in immune responses toward multiple myeloma (MM), and combination therapies able to enhance the activity of NK cells against MM are showing promise in treating this hematologic cancer. The epigenetic readers of acetylated histones bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are critical regulators of gene expression. In cancer, they can upregulate transcription of key oncogenes such as cMYC, IRF4, and BCL-2. In addition, the activity of these proteins can regulate the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines during cancer progression. Here, we investigated the effect of BET bromodomain protein inhibition, on the expression of NK cell-activating ligands in MM cells. Five MM cell lines [SKO-007(J3), U266, RPMI-8226, ARP-1, JJN3] and CD138 + MM cells isolated from MM patients were used to investigate the activity of BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETi) (JQ1 and I-BET151) and of the selective BRD4-degrader proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) (ARV-825), on the expression and function of several NK cell-activating ligands (NKG2DLs and DNAM-1Ls), using flow cytometry, real-time PCR, transient transfections, and degranulation assays. Our results indicate that inhibition of BET proteins via small molecule inhibitors or their degradation via a hetero-bifunctional PROTAC probe can enhance the expression of MICA, a ligand of the NKG2D receptor, in human MM cell lines and primary malignant plasma cells, rendering myeloma cells more efficient to activate NK cell degranulation. Noteworthy, similar results were obtained using selective CBP/EP300 bromodomain inhibition. Mechanistically, we found that BETi

  12. Thermo-Responsive Complexes of c-Myc Antisense Oligonucleotide with Block Copolymer of Poly(OEGMA) and Quaternized Poly(4-Vinylpyridine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Elalmis, Yeliz Basaran; Isoglu, Sevil Dincer

    2017-04-01

    Solution behavior of thermo-responsive polymers and their complexes with biological macromolecules may be affected by environmental conditions, such as the concentration of macromolecular components, pH, ion concentration, etc. Therefore, a thermo-responsive polymer and its complexes should be characterized in detail to observe their responses against possible environments under physiological conditions before biological applications. To briefly indicate this important issue, thermo-responsive block copolymer of quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) and poly(oligoethyleneglycol methyl ether methacrylate) as a potential nonviral vector has been synthesized. Polyelectrolyte complexes of this copolymer with the antisense oligonucleotide of c-Myc oncogene are also thermo-responsive but, have lower LCST (lower critical solution temperature) values compared to individual copolymer. LCST values of complexes decrease with molar ratio of macromolecular components and presence of salt. Dilution of solutions also affects solution behavior of complexes and causes a significant decrease in size and an increase in LCST, which indicates possible effects of severe dilutions in the blood stream. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Melatonin promotes circadian rhythm-induced proliferation through Clock/histone deacetylase 3/c-Myc interaction in mouse adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Gan, Lu; Luo, Dan; Sun, Chao

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and controls circadian rhythm of peripheral adipose tissue, resulting in changes in body weight. Although core regulatory components of clock rhythmicity have been defined, insight into the mechanisms of circadian rhythm-mediated proliferation in adipose tissue is still limited. Here, we showed that melatonin (20 mg/kg/d) promoted circadian and proliferation processes in white adipose tissue. The circadian amplitudes of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 1 (Bmal1, Pcircadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock, Pcircadian disruption and promoted adipocyte proliferation in chronic jet-lagged mice and obese mice. Thus, our study found that melatonin promoted adipocyte proliferation by forming a Clock/HDAC3/c-Myc complex and subsequently driving the circadian amplitudes of proliferation genes. Our data reveal a novel mechanism that links circadian rhythm to cell proliferation in adipose tissue. These findings also identify a new potential means for melatonin to prevent and treat sleep deprivation-caused obesity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Promoter trans-activation of protooncogenes c-fos and c-myc, but not c-Ha-ras, by products of adenovirus early region 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassone-Corsi, P.; Borrelli, E.

    1987-01-01

    The E1A (early region 1A) oncogene products of adenovirus type 2 trans-activate the other early viral transcription units, as well as some cellular promoters. Using a short-term cotransfection assay in murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, we show that c-fos and c-myc promoter activities are stimulated by the E1A proteins, whereas c-Ha-ras transcription is not affected. The product of E1A 13S mRNA is responsible for the trans-activation, whereas the 12S mRNA product has no effect. Analysis of the c-fos promoter sequences required for the E1A stimulation shows that responsive sequences are located between positions -402 and -240 upstream of the transcription initiation site. This same region also contains the c-fos serum-responsive element. Furthermore, transcription of the endogenous c-fos gene in HeLa cells is increased after E1A transfection

  15. [Survival of patients with primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: impact of gene aberrations and protein overexpression of bcl-2 and C-MYC, and selection of chemotherapy regimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, W J; Zhu, X; Yang, H Y; Sun, W Y; Wu, M J

    2018-01-08

    Objective: To investigate the impact of clinicopathological features, gene rearrangements and protein expression of bcl-6, bcl-2, C-MYC and chemotherapy regime on the prognosis of patients with primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL). Methods: Thirty-three cases of PCNS-DLBCL diagnosed from January 2006 to December 2016 at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital were collected. The expression of CD10, bcl-6, bcl-2, MUM1 and MYC were detected by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The presence of EB virus was detected by in situ hybridization(EBER). Copy number variation (ICN) and translocation status of bcl-6, bcl-2 and C-MYC genes were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The relationship between the above indexes and the prognosis was analyzed by univariate, bivariate survival analysis and multiple Cox hazard regression analysis. Results: The study included 33 patients of PCNS-DLBCL, without evidence of primary or secondary immunodeficient disease. Male to female ratio was 1.36∶1.00, and the average age was 56 years. Twenty cases had single lesion while 13 had multiple lesions. Deep brain involvement was seen in 12 cases. All patients underwent partial or total tumor resection. Five patients received whole brain post-surgery radiotherapy, nine patients received high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) based chemotherapy, and 12 patients received whole-brain radiotherapy combined with HD-MTX based chemotherapy. Severn patients received no further treatment and rituximab was used in 8 patients. According to the Hans model, 27 cases were classified as non-GCB subtypes (81.8%). Bcl-2 was positive in 25 cases (75.8%, 25/33) and highly expressed in 8 (24.2%). MYC was positive in 12 cases (36.4%) and double expression of bcl-2 and MYC was seen in 6 cases. EBER positive rate was 10.0%(3/30), all of which had multiple lesions. Two bcl-6 gene translocations and 3 amplifications were found in 28 patients. Two translocations, 3 ICN or with both

  16. Primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma shows an activated B-cell-like phenotype with co-expression of C-MYC, BCL-2, and BCL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomei; Huang, Ying; Bi, Chengfeng; Yuan, Ji; He, Hong; Zhang, Hong; Yu, QiuBo; Fu, Kai; Li, Dan

    2017-06-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, whose main prognostic factor is closely related to germinal center B-cell-like subtype (GCB- DLBCL) or activated B-cell-like type (non-GCB-DLBCL). The most common type of primary central nervous system lymphoma is diffuse large B-cell type with poor prognosis and the reason is unclear. This study aims to stratify primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL) according to the cell-of-origin (COO) and to investigate the multiple proteins expression of C-MYC, BCL-6, BCL-2, TP53, further to elucidate the reason why primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma possesses a poor clinical outcome as well. Nineteen cases of primary central nervous system DLBCL were stratified according to immunostaining algorithms of Hans, Choi and Meyer (Tally) and we investigated the multiple proteins expression of C-MYC, BCL-6, BCL-2, TP53. The Epstein-Barr virus and Borna disease virus infection were also detected. Among nineteen cases, most (15-17 cases) were assigned to the activated B-cell-like subtype, highly expression of C-MYC (15 cases, 78.9%), BCL-2 (10 cases, 52.6%), BCL-6 (15 cases, 78.9%). Unfortunately, two cases were positive for PD-L1 while PD-L2 was not expressed in any case. Two cases infected with BDV but no one infected with EBV. In conclusion, most primary central nervous system DLBCLs show an activated B-cell-like subtype characteristic and have multiple expressions of C-MYC, BCL-2, BCL-6 protein, these features might be significant factor to predict the outcome and guide treatment of PCNS-DLBCLs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA)-Mediated c-Myc Degradation Is Dependent on the Relative Proportion of PKA-I and PKA-II Isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyuan; Nguyen, Eric; Døskeland, Stein; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Évelyne

    2015-09-01

    The transcription factor c-Myc regulates numerous target genes that are important for multiple cellular processes such as cell growth and differentiation. It is commonly deregulated in leukemia. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by a blockade of granulocytic differentiation at the promyelocyte stage. Despite the great success of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based therapy, which results in a clinical remission by inducing promyelocyte maturation, a significant number of patients relapse due to the development of ATRA resistance. A significant role has been ascribed to the cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in retinoid treatment since PKA activation is able to restore differentiation in some ATRA-resistant cells and eradicate leukemia-initiating cells in vivo. In this study, using NB4 APL cell variants resistant to ATRA-induced differentiation, we reveal distinct functional roles of the two PKA isozymes, PKA type I (PKA-I) and PKA-type II (PKA-II), on the steady-state level of c-Myc protein, providing a likely mechanism by which cAMP-elevating agents can restore differentiation in ATRA maturation-resistant APL cells. Therefore, both the inhibition of c-Myc activity and the PKA-I/PKA-II ratio should be taken into account if cAMP-based therapy is considered in the clinical management of APL. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Modeling the integration of bacterial rRNA fragments into the human cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Karsten B; Gajer, Pawel; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C

    2016-03-21

    Cancer is a disease driven by the accumulation of genomic alterations, including the integration of exogenous DNA into the human somatic genome. We previously identified in silico evidence of DNA fragments from a Pseudomonas-like bacteria integrating into the 5'-UTR of four proto-oncogenes in stomach cancer sequencing data. The functional and biological consequences of these bacterial DNA integrations remain unknown. Modeling of these integrations suggests that the previously identified sequences cover most of the sequence flanking the junction between the bacterial and human DNA. Further examination of these reads reveals that these integrations are rich in guanine nucleotides and the integrated bacterial DNA may have complex transcript secondary structures. The models presented here lay the foundation for future experiments to test if bacterial DNA integrations alter the transcription of the human genes.

  19. Generation of a lentiviral vector producer cell clone for human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Wielgosz

    Full Text Available We have developed a producer cell line that generates lentiviral vector particles of high titer. The vector encodes the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS protein. An insulator element has been added to the long terminal repeats of the integrated vector to limit proto-oncogene activation. The vector provides high-level, stable expression of WAS protein in transduced murine and human hematopoietic cells. We have also developed a monoclonal antibody specific for intracellular WAS protein. This antibody has been used to monitor expression in blood and bone marrow cells after transfer into lineage negative bone marrow cells from WAS mice and in a WAS negative human B-cell line. Persistent expression of the transgene has been observed in transduced murine cells 12–20 weeks following transplantation. The producer cell line and the specific monoclonal antibody will facilitate the development of a clinical protocol for gene transfer into WAS protein deficient stem cells.

  20. The use of computerized video time lapse to study cell death in rat embryo cells transfected with c-ha-ras or c-myc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, H.B.; Vidair, C.A.; Dewey, W.C.; Ling, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Individual rat embryo fibroblasts that had been transfected with the c-myc (REC:myc) or c-Ha ras (REC:ras) oncogene were followed after irradiation using a computer video time lapse (CVTL) system in order to quantify the lethal events that resulted in loss of clonogenic survival after irradiation. By followed the cells for 2 to 3 generations before irradiation we were able to determine where they were in the cell cycle at the time of irradiation for cell cycle analysis. After irradiation, the individual cells and their progeny were followed in multiple fields for 5-6 days Then, pedigrees for individual irradiated cells were determined by noting the times of divisions fusions, and cell death. After X-irradiation, the clonogenic survival values for these two cell lines are similar. However, by using computerized video time lapse (CVTL) to follow individual cells we found that the loss of clonogenic survival was due to two different processes, cell death and a senescent-like process. The loss of clonogenic survival of x-irradiated (9.5 and 4 Gy) REC:myc cells was attributed almost entirely to the cells dying by apoptosis (∼99 and 90%). In contrast, approximately 60% of the x-irradiated (9.5 Gy) non-clonogenic REC:ras cells died by apoptosis (with a very small amount of necrosis), and the other 40% underwent a senescent-type process in which some of the cells and their progeny stopped dividing but remained as viable cells throughout 140 hours of observation. Both processes usually occurred after the cells had divided and continued to occur in the cells' progeny for up to five divisions after irradiation. The mode of cell death in the progeny of a non-clonogenic cell can be determined only by using CVTL and can not be determined by conventional clonogenic survival experiments. Also, only by following the individual cells and their progeny can the true amount of apoptosis be determined. The cumulative percentage of apoptosis scored in whole populations

  1. Investigation of miRNA Biology by Bioinformatic Tools and Impact of miRNAs in Colorectal Cancer: Regulatory Relationship of c-Myc and p53 with miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaguang Xi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that mediate gene expression at the posttranscriptional and translational levels and have been demonstrated to be involved in diverse biological functions. Mounting evidence in recent years has shown that miRNAs play key roles in tumorigenesis due to abnormal expression of and mutations in miRNAs. High throughput miRNA expression profiling of several major tumor types has identified miRNAs associated with clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer treatment. Previously our group has discovered a novel regulatory relationship between tumor suppressor gene p53 with miRNAs expression and a number of miRNA promoters contain putative p53 binding sites. In addition, others have reported that c-myc can mediate a large number of miRNAs expression. In this review, we will emphasize algorithms to identify mRNA targets of miRNAs and the roles of miRNAs in colorectal cancer. In particular, we will discuss a novel regulatory relationship of miRNAs with tumor suppressor p53 and c-myc. miRNAs are becoming promising novel targets and biomarkers for future cancer therapeutic development and clinical molecular diagnosis.

  2. Nucleotide sequence of the human N-myc gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, L.W.; Schwab, M.; Bishop, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Human neuroblastomas frequently display amplification and augmented expression of a gene known as N-myc because of its similarity to the protooncogene c-myc. It has therefore been proposed that N-myc is itself a protooncogene, and subsequent tests have shown that N-myc and c-myc have similar biological activities in cell culture. The authors have now detailed the kinship between N-myc and c-myc by determining the nucleotide sequence of human N-myc and deducing the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene. The topography of N-myc is strikingly similar to that of c-myc: both genes contain three exons of similar lengths; the coding elements of both genes are located in the second and third exons; and both genes have unusually long 5' untranslated regions in their mRNAs, with features that raise the possibility that expression of the genes may be subject to similar controls of translation. The resemblance between the proteins encoded by N-myc and c-myc sustains previous suspicions that the genes encode related functions

  3. The influence of the cell cycle, differentiation and irradiation on the nuclear location of the abl, brc and c-myc genes in human leukemic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Eva; Kozubek, Stanislav; Kozubek, Michal; Jirsová, Pavla; Lukášová, Emilie; Skalníková, M.; Buchníčková, Katarína

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2000), s. 233-241 ISSN 0145-2126 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/97/0874; GA ČR GA202/98/P253; GA MZd NM15 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A17/98:Z5-004-9-ii Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2000

  4. Pokemon proto-oncogene in oral cancer: potential role in the early phase of tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, D; Lo Muzio, L; Morganti, S; Pozzi, V; Di Ruscio, G; Rocchetti, R; Rubini, C; Santarelli, A; Emanuelli, M

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents about 90% of all oral neoplasms with a poor clinical prognosis. To improve survival of OSCC patients, it is fundamental to understand the basic molecular mechanisms characterizing oral carcinogenesis. Dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes seems to play a central role in tumorigenesis, including malignant transformation of the oral cavity. We analyzed the expression levels of the pro-oncogenic transcription factor Pokemon through real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in tumor, and normal oral tissue samples obtained from 22 patients with OSCC. The relationship between tumor characteristics and the level of Pokemon intratumor expression was also analyzed. Pokemon was significantly downregulated in OSCC. In particular, both mRNA and protein levels (tumor vs normal tissue) inversely correlated with histological grading, suggesting its potential role as a prognostic factor for OSCC. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between Pokemon protein expression levels (OSCC vs normal oral mucosa) and tumor size, supporting the hypothesis that Pokemon could play an important role in the early phase of tumor expansion. This work shows that reduced expression of Pokemon is a peculiar feature of OSCC. Additional studies may establish the effective role of Pokemon in oral tumorigenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Characterization of LAF-4, a Putative Proto-Oncogene Involved in the Development of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrulis, Irene

    2001-01-01

    The long range goal of our research is to identify genes involved in the early stages of breast cancer development, specifically genes involved in the transition from hyperplasia to ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS...

  6. Direct regulation of the Akt proto-oncogene product by phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, T F; Kaplan, D R; Cantley, L C; Toker, A

    1997-01-31

    The regulation of the serine-threonine kinase Akt by lipid products of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) was investigated. Akt activity was found to correlate with the amount of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4-P2) in vivo, and synthetic PtdIns-3,4-P2 activated Akt both in vitro and in vivo. Binding of PtdIns-3,4-P2 occurred within the Akt pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and facilitated dimerization of Akt. Akt mutated in the PH domain was not activated by PI 3-kinase in vivo or by PtdIns-3, 4-P2 in vitro, and it was impaired in binding to PtdIns-3,4-P2. Examination of the binding to other phosphoinositides revealed that they bound to the Akt PH domain with much lower affinity than did PtdIns-3,4-P2 and failed to increase Akt activity. Thus, Akt is apparently regulated by the direct interaction of PtdIns-3,4-P2 with the Akt PH domain.

  7. Functional Analysis of the Proto-oncogenes Septin9 and Nras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Louise Berkhoudt

    filaments. Both SEPT7 and SEPT9 containing filaments were intensified under hypoxia in wild type cells compared to non-hypoxic cells despite their transcriptional downregulation. Due to earlier finding of Sept9 as a frequent integration site in T-cell lymphomas induced by retrovirus, the function of Sept9...... the murine leukemia virus Akv 1-99 in either sense or antisense direction. In addition a floxed PGK/Tn5 neomycin cassette was inserted. Expression analysis of Nras within knock in was used to study the effect of the LTR. If inserted before the endogenous promoter, the LTR in the antisense direction was found...... of Nras caused early postnatal lethality of the homozygous mice. A thorough analysis revealed that the homozygous mice suffered from granulocytosis and T-cell expansion within the spleen. The increased population of granulocytes was mainly immature, and subsequently a decrease of monocytes was found...

  8. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, and its proto-oncogene-encoded receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, C.J.; Rettenmier, C.W.; Roussel, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, or M-CSF, is one of a family of hematopoietic growth factors that stimulates the proliferation of monocytes, macrophages, and their committed bone marrow progenitors. Unlike pluripotent hemopoietins such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3 or multi-CSF), which affect the growth of myeloid cells of several different hematopoietic lineages, CSF-1 acts only on cells of the mononuclear phagocyte series to stimulate their growth and enhance their survival. Retroviral transduction of the feline c-fms gene in the Susan McDonough and Hardy Zuckerman-5 (HZ-5) strains of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) led to genetic alterations that endowed the recombined viral oncogene (v-fms) with the ability to transform cells in culture morphologically and to induce firbrosarcomas and hematopoietic neoplasms in susceptible animals. The v-fms oncogene product differs from the normal CSF-1 receptor in certain of its cardinal biochemical properties, most notably in exhibiting constitutively high basal levels of tyrosine kinase activity in the absence of its ligand. Comparative studies of the c-fms and v-fms genes coupled with analyses of engineered mutants and receptor chimeras have begun to pinpoint pertinent genetic alterations in the normal receptor gene that unmask its latent oncogenic potential. In addition, the availability of biologically active c-fms, v-fms, and CSF-1 cDNAs has allowed these genes to be mobilized and expressed in naive cells, thereby facilitating assays for receptor coupling with downstream components of the mitogenic pathway in diverse cell types

  9. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p110α Isoform Regulates Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Expression via c-Myc and miR-125b to Promote Cell Proliferation in Medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Salm

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and represents the main cause of cancer-related death in this age group. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of medulloblastoma cell survival and proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms and downstream effectors underlying PI3K signaling still remain elusive. The impact of RNA interference (RNAi-mediated silencing of PI3K isoforms p110α and p110δ on global gene expression was investigated by DNA microarray analysis in medulloblastoma cell lines. A subset of genes with selectively altered expression upon p110α silencing in comparison to silencing of the closely related p110δ isoform was revealed. Among these genes, the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor α (LIFR α was validated as a novel p110α target in medulloblastoma. A network involving c-Myc and miR-125b was shown to be involved in the control of LIFRα expression downstream of p110α. Targeting the LIFRα by RNAi, or by using neutralizing reagents impaired medulloblastoma cell proliferation in vitro and induced a tumor volume reduction in vivo. An analysis of primary tumors revealed that LIFRα and p110α expression were elevated in the sonic hedgehog (SHH subgroup of medulloblastoma, indicating its clinical relevance. Together, these data reveal a novel molecular signaling network, in which PI3K isoform p110α controls the expression of LIFRα via c-Myc and miR-125b to promote MB cell proliferation.

  10. Effect of stent absorbed c-myc antisense oligodeoxynucleotide on smooth muscle cells apoptosis in rabbit carotid artery%反义c-myc涂层支架对兔颈动脉细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新霞; 崔长琮; 李江; 孟猛; 徐仓宝; 赵一岭

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨铂-铱合金明胶蛋白涂层支架局部导入c-myc反义寡核苷酸(ASODN)对兔颈动脉细胞凋亡的影响,寻求防治支架内再狭窄的途径.方法:将携带c-myc ASODN的国产铂铱合金明胶蛋白涂层支架置入兔颈动脉(给药组,n=16),在术后7、14、30、90 d处死动物行苏木精-伊红和Weigert染色,图像分析测量新生内膜厚度和面积,c-myc蛋白免疫组化染色,采用末端脱氧核苷酸酶介导的dUTP缺口末端标记法检测细胞凋亡,并与对照组(n=16)进行对比分析.结果:两组支架术后7、1 4 d均未观察到平滑肌细胞凋亡,术后30 d在新生内膜中观察到明显的细胞凋亡,90 d时显著高于30 d;同时给药组平滑肌细胞的凋亡显著高于对照组.结论:c myc ASODN可诱导支架置入后平滑肌细胞凋亡,可用于防治再狭窄.

  11. The FDA approved PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 enhances in vitro the anti-neoplastic efficacy of Axitinib against c-myc-amplified high-risk medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Michael; Craveiro, Rogerio B; Velz, Julia; Olschewski, Martin; Casati, Anna; Schönberger, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Dilloo, Dagmar

    2018-04-01

    Aberrant receptor kinase signalling and tumour neovascularization are hallmarks of medulloblastoma development and are both considered valuable therapeutic targets. In addition to VEGFR1/2, expression of PDGFR α/β in particular has been documented as characteristic of metastatic disease correlating with poor prognosis. Therefore, we have been suggested that the clinically approved multi-kinase angiogenesis inhibitor Axitinib, which specifically targets these kinases, might constitute a promising option for medulloblastoma treatment. Indeed, our results delineate anti-neoplastic activity of Axitinib in medulloblastoma cell lines modelling the most aggressive c-myc-amplified Non-WNT/Non-SHH and SHH-TP53-mutated tumours. Exposure of medulloblastoma cell lines to Axitinib results in marked inhibition of proliferation and profound induction of cell death. The differential efficacy of Axitinib is in line with target expression of medulloblastoma cells identifying VEGFR 1/2, PDGFR α/β and c-kit as potential markers for drug application. The high specificity of Axitinib and the consequential low impact on the haematopoietic and immune system render this drug ideal multi-modal treatment approaches. In this context, we demonstrate that the clinically available PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 enhances the anti-neoplastic efficacy of Axitinib against c-myc-amplified medulloblastoma. Our findings provide a rational to further evaluate Axitinib alone and in combination with other therapeutic agents for the treatment of most aggressive medulloblastoma subtypes. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction-based detection of myc transduction in feline leukemia virus-infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ryosuke; Miyake, Ariko; Endo, Taiji; Ohsato, Yoshiharu; Ngo, Minh Ha; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2018-04-01

    Feline lymphomas are associated with the transduction and activation of cellular proto-oncogenes, such as c-myc, by feline leukemia virus (FeLV). We describe a polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of myc transduction usable in clinical diagnosis. The assay targets c-myc exons 2 and 3, which together result in a FeLV-specific fusion gene following c-myc transduction. When this assay was conducted on FeLV-infected feline tissues submitted for clinical diagnosis of tumors, myc transduction was detected in 14% of T-cell lymphoma/leukemias. This newly established system could become a useful diagnostic tool in veterinary medicine.

  13. Complex Biological Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis: I. The essential roles of modifications in the c-Myc, TP53/p53, p27 and hTERT modules in Cancer Initiation and Progression

    CERN Document Server

    Prisecaru, V I

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to the integration of results from a modular, complex biological systems analysis of nonlinear dynamics in cell cycling network transformations that are leading to carcinogenesis is proposed. Carcinogenesis is a complex process that involves dynamically inter-connected biomolecules in the intercellular, membrane, cytosolic, nuclear and nucleolar compartments that form numerous inter-related pathways referred to as networks. One such network module contains the cell cyclins whose functions are essential to cell cycling and division. Cyclins are proteins that also link to several critical pro-apoptotic and other cell cycling/division components, such as: c-Myc, p27, the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and its product-- the p53 protein with key roles in controlling DNA repair, inducing apoptosis and activating p21 (which can depress cell cyclins if activated), mdm2(with its biosynthesis activated by p53 and also, in its turn, inhibiting p53), p21, the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen(T- antigen),Rb,Bax, Ba...

  14. Generation of human iPSC line GRX-MCiPS4F-A2 from adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with Spanish genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cabrera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have generated iPSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of a healthy man using heat sensitive and non-integrative Sendai virus containing Sox2, Oct3/4, c-Myc and Klf4. Human GRX-MCiPS4F-A2 cell line was established and characterized through this study.

  15. The proto-oncogenic protein TAL1 controls TGF-β1 signaling through interaction with SMAD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Terme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is involved in many aspects of tissue development and homeostasis including hematopoiesis. The TAL1 transcription factor is also an important player of this latter process and is expressed very early in the myeloid and erythroid lineages. We previously established a link between TGF-β1 signaling and TAL1 by showing that the cytokine was able to induce its proteolytic degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. In this manuscript we show that TAL1 interacts with SMAD3 that acts in the pathway downstream of TGF-β1 association with its receptor. TAL1 expression strengthens the positive or negative effect of SMAD3 on various genes. Both transcription factors activate the inhibitory SMAD7 factor through the E box motif present in its transcriptional promoter. DNA precipitation assays showed that TAL1 present in Jurkat or K562 cells binds to this SMAD binding element in a SMAD3 dependent manner. SMAD3 and TAL1 also inhibit several genes including ID1, hTERT and TGF-β1 itself. In this latter case TAL1 and SMAD3 can impair the positive effect exerted by E47. Our results indicate that TAL1 expression can modulate TGF-β1 signaling by interacting with SMAD3 and by increasing its transcriptional properties. They also suggest the existence of a negative feedback loop between TAL1 expression and TGF-β1 signaling.

  16. Overexpression of c-Jun contributes to sorafenib resistance in human hepatoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Haga

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in treatment strategies, it is still difficult to cure patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Sorafenib is the only approved multiple kinase inhibitor for systemic chemotherapy in patients with advanced HCC. The majority of advanced HCC patients are resistant to sorafenib. The mechanisms of sorafenib resistance are still unknown.The expression of molecules involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway in human hepatoma cell lines was examined in the presence or absence of sorafenib. Apoptosis of human hepatoma cells treated with sorafenib was investigated, and the expression of Jun proto-oncogene (c-Jun was measured.The expression and phosphorylation of c-Jun were enhanced in human hepatoma cell lines after treatment with sorafenib. Inhibiting c-Jun enhanced sorafenib-induced apoptosis. The overexpression of c-Jun impaired sorafenib-induced apoptosis. The expression of osteopontin, one of the established AP-1 target genes, was enhanced after treatment with sorafenib in human hepatoma cell lines.The protein c-Jun plays a role in sorafenib resistance in human hepatoma cell lines. The modulation and phosphorylation of c-Jun could be a new therapeutic option for enhancing responsiveness to sorafenib. Modulating c-Jun may be useful for certain HCC patients with sorafenib resistance.

  17. Analysis of Myc-induced histone modifications on target chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Martinato

    Full Text Available The c-myc proto-oncogene is induced by mitogens and is a central regulator of cell growth and differentiation. The c-myc product, Myc, is a transcription factor that binds a multitude of genomic sites, estimated to be over 10-15% of all promoter regions. Target promoters generally pre-exist in an active or poised chromatin state that is further modified by Myc, contributing to fine transcriptional regulation (activation or repression of the afferent gene. Among other mechanisms, Myc recruits histone acetyl-transferases to target chromatin and locally promotes hyper-acetylation of multiple lysines on histones H3 and H4, although the identity and combination of the modified lysines is unknown. Whether Myc dynamically regulates other histone modifications (or marks at its binding sites also remains to be addressed. Here, we used quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP to profile a total of 24 lysine-acetylation and -methylation marks modulated by Myc at target promoters in a human B-cell line with a regulatable c-myc transgene. Myc binding promoted acetylation of multiple lysines, primarily of H3K9, H3K14, H3K18, H4K5 and H4K12, but significantly also of H4K8, H4K91 and H2AK5. Dimethylation of H3K79 was also selectively induced at target promoters. A majority of target promoters showed co-induction of multiple marks - in various combinations - correlating with recruitment of the two HATs tested (Tip60 and HBO1, incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z and transcriptional activation. Based on this and previous findings, we surmise that Myc recruits the Tip60/p400 complex to achieve a coordinated histone acetylation/exchange reaction at activated promoters. Our data are also consistent with the additive and redundant role of multiple acetylation events in transcriptional activation.

  18. The Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Model for Understanding RAS Proteins and Their Role in Human Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzanelli, Giulia; Francisco, Rita; Azevedo, Luísa; Carvalho, Patrícia Dias; Almeida, Ana; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Oliveira, Maria José; Lucas, Cândida; Sousa, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    The exploitation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biological model for the investigation of complex molecular processes conserved in multicellular organisms, such as humans, has allowed fundamental biological discoveries. When comparing yeast and human proteins, it is clear that both amino acid sequences and protein functions are often very well conserved. One example of the high degree of conservation between human and yeast proteins is highlighted by the members of the RAS family. Indeed, the study of the signaling pathways regulated by RAS in yeast cells led to the discovery of properties that were often found interchangeable with RAS proto-oncogenes in human pathways, and vice versa. In this work, we performed an updated critical literature review on human and yeast RAS pathways, specifically highlighting the similarities and differences between them. Moreover, we emphasized the contribution of studying yeast RAS pathways for the understanding of human RAS and how this model organism can contribute to unveil the roles of RAS oncoproteins in the regulation of mechanisms important in the tumorigenic process, like autophagy. PMID:29463063

  19. Expression of the transcription factor Evi-1 in human erythroleukemia cell lines and in leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenay-Roupie, M; Bouscary, D; Melle, J; Viguié, F; Picard, F; Guesnu, M; Dreyfus, F

    1997-02-01

    The Evi-1 proto-oncogene is a zinc finger DNA binding protein. Although activation of the Evi-1 gene has been associated with chromosomal rearrangements of the 3q25-q28 region, ectopic expression of Evi-1 could also be observed in acute myelogenous leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes without cytogenetic abnormalities of the 3q26 locus. In this study, human erythroleukemic cell lines were screened for the expression of Evi-1 mRNA by northern blotting. Evi-1 was expressed in all the erythroid cell lines, whether undifferentiated (K 562, HEL, LAMA 84) or exhibiting spontaneous terminal erythroid differentiation (KU 812, JK-1). Evi-1 mRNA levels were constant or elevated in hemoglobin-synthesizing KU 812 or K 562 cells in response to erythropoietin or hemin treatment, respectively. In human acute myeloblastic leukemias (AML), 11/30 expressed Evi-1 by RT-PCR. Among these cases, 4/6 erythroleukemias without abnormalities of the 3q25-q28 region were found positive. The presence of acidophilic erythroblasts (15-47% of bone marrow cells) accounted for the existence of a terminal erythroid differentiation in all Evi-1-positive AML M6, whereas one negative case was poorly differentiated and referred to as AML M6 variant. These results suggest that Evi-1 mRNA expression can coexist with erythroid differentiation.

  20. Expression of oncogen c-erbB-2 (neu/HER-2) in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, Severino C.; Mayo, Jose

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women and represents the most serious challenge to therapeutic control. Amplification and overexpression of the c-erbB-2 proto-oncogene occurs in as many as 30 % of all breast cancers and has been correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. This gene know as neu, HER-2 or c-erbB-2 in among those most frequently altered in human cancer. It was first identified as a transforming gene activated in chemically induced rat neuroectodermal tumors. Early critical studies linked changes in erbB-2 expression and gene copy number to several human cancer, notably breast, ovarian and gastric cancer. Owing to its accessible location at the cell surface, erbB-2 is now under intensive scrutiny as a therapeutic target. In this review we will summarize the involvement of the c-erbB-2 gene in tumorigenesis. (author)

  1. Four regulatory elements in the human c-fos promoter mediate transactivation by HTLV-1 Tax protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, C; Verrier, B

    1991-04-01

    Expression of the human c-fos proto-oncogene is activated in trans by the Tax protein encoded by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1). Indeed, we show here that a HeLa clone stably transfected by Tax expresses Fos at a high level. We also show that multiple elements of the human c-fos promoter, i.e. the v-sis conditioned medium inducible element (SIE), the dyad symmetry element (DSE) necessary for growth factor induction, the octanucleotide direct repeat element (DR), and the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) centred at -60, can all mediate Tax transactivation. In the DSE, the 10bp central core that binds the serum response factor (SRF) is, by itself, sufficient to mediate Tax transactivation. Moreover, a CRE-binding protein is involved in Tax activation through the CRE-60 element. Since Fos is a transregulator of cellular genes, our results suggest that the oncoprotein plays a crucial role in T-cell transformation by HTLV-1 in conjunction with other Tax-inducible genes.

  2. Cytogenetic evaluation of human glial tumors: correlation of overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFB) with abnormalities of chromosome 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome banding analysis of human glial tumors were performed using G- and Q-banding techniques in an attempt to establish recurring sites of chromosome change. Results revealed a nonrandom karyotypic profile including aneuploidy and considerable variation in chromosome number (range 40 → 200). All tumors examined displayed numerical abnormalities, with the most common numeric change being a gain of chromosome 7. An attempt was then made to correlate the observed chromosome 7 changes with activation of the cellular proto-oncogene c-erb-B, whose produce is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Six human glial tumors were analyzed for 125 I-EGF binding, EGFR gene copy number, EGFR gene rearrangement, mRNA expression, and karyotypic profile. Saturation analysis at 4 0 C revealed significant numbers of EGFR's in all 6 tumors. Southern blotting analysis utilizing cDNA probes for the EGFR failed to demonstrate significant amplification or structural rearrangement of the EFGR gene. The results suggest that overexpression of the EGFR may be related to an alternative mechanism, other than gene amplification and elevated mRNA levels, such as the regulation of receptor biosynthesis and degradation. In summary, findings indicate that alterations of chromosome 7 are the most prevalent chromosomal change in human glial tumors, and that these alterations may lead to overexpression of the protooncogene c-erb-B

  3. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  4. Generation of iPSC line epiHUVEC from human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Matz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were used to generate the iPSC line epiHUVEC employing a combination of three episomal-based plasmids expressing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, c-MYC and KLF4. Pluripotency was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The transcriptome profile of epiHUVEC and the human embryonic stem cell line — H1 have a Pearson correlation of 0.899.

  5. Generation of iPSC lines from primary human chorionic villi cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Lichtner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary human chorionic villi (CV cells were used to generate the iPSC line by retroviral transduction of the four Yamanaka-factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Pluripotency was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The transcriptomes of the CV-derived iPSC lines and the human embryonic stem cell lines—H1 and H9 have a Pearson correlation of 0.929 and 0.943 respectively.

  6. Pokemon Silencing Leads to Bim-Mediated Anoikis of Human Hepatoma Cell QGY7703

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA. Knockdown of Pokemon alone did not significantly affect the growth and survival of QGY7703 cells but notably enhanced their sensitivity to apoptotic stress due to the presence of chemical agents or cell detachment, thereby inducing anoikis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, ectopic expression of Pokemon in HL7702 cells led to resistance to anoikis. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays illustrated that Pokemon suppressed Bim transcription via direct binding to its promoter. Our results suggest that Pokemon prevents anoikis through the suppression of Bim expression, which facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis. This Pokemon-Bim pathway may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for cancer.

  7. Pokemon silencing leads to Bim-mediated anoikis of human hepatoma cell QGY7703.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Shiying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of Pokemon alone did not significantly affect the growth and survival of QGY7703 cells but notably enhanced their sensitivity to apoptotic stress due to the presence of chemical agents or cell detachment, thereby inducing anoikis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, ectopic expression of Pokemon in HL7702 cells led to resistance to anoikis. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays illustrated that Pokemon suppressed Bim transcription via direct binding to its promoter. Our results suggest that Pokemon prevents anoikis through the suppression of Bim expression, which facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis. This Pokemon-Bim pathway may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for cancer.

  8. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here.

  9. Structural analysis of a hepatitis B virus genome integrated into chromosome 17p of a human hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.Z.; Slagle, B.L.; Donehower, L.A.; van Tuinen, P.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Butel, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is clearly a factor in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but its mechanism of action remains obscure. One possibility is that the HBV integration event alters the expression of a nearby growth-regulatory cellular gene. A 9-kilobase (kb) DNA fragment containing an HBV insert plus flanking cellular sequences was cloned from a hepatoma specimen from Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Restriction mapping of the insert revealed a large inverted repeat structure consisting of both viral sequences (encompassing all of the core and pre-S regions and portions of the X and S genes) and at least 3 kb of unique cellular sequences. The virus-cell junction mapped 11 nucleotides from the DRI region, in a position within the HBV X gene and included in the cohesive overlap region. A probe generated from 1.0 kb of the flanking cellular DNA mapped the viral insert to chromosome 17 in the region designated 17p11.2-17p12, which is near the human proto-oncogene p53. Sequence data from a portion of the flanking cellular DNA revealed a stretch of approximately 70 base pairs that showed highly significant homology with a conserved region of a number of functional mammalian DNA, including the human autonomously replicating sequence 1 (ASRI)

  10. D-type cyclins in adult human testis and testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    1999-01-01

    D-type cyclins are proto-oncogenic components of the 'RB pathway', a G1/S regulatory mechanism centred around the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor (pRB) implicated in key cellular decisions that control cell proliferation, cell-cycle arrest, quiescence, and differentiation. This study focused...

  11. Cloning of the DNA-binding subunit of human nuclear factor κB: The level of its mRNA is strongly regulated by phorbol ester or tumor necrosis factor α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.; Hatada, E.N.; Bartsch, C.; Scheidereit, C.; Hohmann, H.P.; Haiker, M.; Roethlisberger, U.; Lahm, H.W.; Schlaeger, E.J.; van Loon, A.P.G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The DNA binding subunit of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a B-cell protein that interacts with the immunoglobulin κ light-chain gene enhancer, has been purified from nuclei of human HL-60 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and internal peptide sequences were obtained. Overlapping cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced. The encoded open reading frame of about 105 kDa contained at its N-terminal half all six tryptic peptide sequences, suggesting that the 51-kDa NF-κB protein is processed from a 105-kDa precursor. An in vitro synthesized protein containing most of the N-terminal half of the open reading frame bound specifically to an NF-κB binding site. This region also showed high homology to a domain shared by the Drosophila dorsal gene and the avian and mammalian rel (proto)oncogene products. The level of the 3.8-kilobase mRNA was strongly increased after stimulation with TNFα or phorbol ester. Thus, both factors not only activate NF-κB protein, as described previously, but also induce expression of the gene encoding the DNA-binding subunit of NF-κB

  12. Investigating the Role of the Post-transcriptional Gene Regulator MiR-24-3p in the Proliferation, Migration and Apoptosis of Human Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells in Arteriosclerosis Obliterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-feng Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To explore the expression of miR-24-3p in human arteries with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO as well as the role of miR-24-3p in the pathogenesis of ASO. Methods: We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization to monitor miR-24-3p expression in human arteries. To investigate the effect of miR-24-3p on human arterial smooth muscle cells (HASMCs, we applied cell counting and EdU assays to monitor proliferation and transwell and wound healing assays to investigate migration and flow cytometry to investigate apoptosis. Furthermore, we applied 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR luciferase assays to investigate the role of miR-24-3p in targeting platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB and c-Myc. Results: MiR-24-3p was mainly located in the media of arteries and was downregulated in ASO arteries compared with normal arteries. Platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB treatment reduced the expression of miR-24-3p in primary cultured HASMCs. MiR-24-3p mimic oligos inhibited the proliferation and migration, and promotes apoptosis of HASMCs. Our 3'-UTR luciferase assays confirmed that PDGFRB and c-Myc were targets of miR-24-3p. Conclusion: The results suggest that miR-24-3p regulates the proliferation and migration of HASMCs by targeting PDGFRB and c-Myc. The PDGF/miR-24-3p/PDGFRB and PDGF/miR-24-3p/c-Myc pathways may play critical roles in the pathogenesis of ASO. These findings highlight the potential for new therapeutic targets for ASO.

  13. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase by nerve growth factor involves indirect coupling of the trk proto-oncogene with src homology 2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, M; Decker, S J; Saltiel, A R

    1992-10-01

    Growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases can form stable associations with intracellular proteins that contain src homology (SH) 2 domains, including the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase. The activation of this enzyme by growth factors is evaluated in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts expressing the pp140c-trk nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor (3T3-c-trk). NGF causes the rapid stimulation of PI-3 kinase activity detected in anti-phosphotyrosine, but not in anti-trk, immunoprecipitates. This effect coincides with the tyrosine phosphorylation of two proteins, with molecular masses of of 100 kd and 110 kd, that coimmunoprecipitate with p85. Similar phosphorylation patterns are induced when an immobilized fusion protein containing the amino-terminal SH2 domain of p85 is used to precipitate tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Thus, although NGF produces the rapid activation of PI-3 kinase through a mechanism that involves tyrosine phosphorylation, there is no evidence for tyrosine phosphorylation of p85, or for its ligand-dependent association with the NGF receptor. Perhaps another phosphoprotein may link the NGF receptor to this enzyme.

  14. Investigating the Role of Cooperative Interactions Between the neu Proto-oncogene and the Other erbB Family Members in Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... To date, all three lines show a low incidence of spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis. The vast majority of tumors that have arisen in the oldest line appear after one year of age and are fibroadenomas...

  15. RET/PTC1-Driven Neoplastic Transformation and Proinvasive Phenotype of Human Thyrocytes Involve Met Induction and β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Cassinelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the RET gene by chromosomal rearrangements generating RET/PTC oncogenes is a frequent, early, and causative event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. We have previously shown that, in human primary thyrocytes, RET/PTC1 induces a transcriptional program including the MET proto-oncogene. In PTCs, β-catenin is frequently mislocated to the cytoplasm nucleus. We investigated the interplay between Ret/ptc1 signaling and Met in regulating the proinvasive phenotype and β-catenin localization in cellular models of human PTC. Here, we show that Met protein is expressed and is constitutively active in human thyrocytes exogenously expressing RET/PTC1 as well as a mutant (Y451F devoid of the main Ret/ptc1 multidocking site. Both in transformed thyrocytes and in the human PTC cell line TPC-1, Ret/ptc1-Y451-dependent signaling and Met cooperated to promote a proinvasive phenotype. Accordingly, gene/functional silencing of either RET/PTC1 or MET abrogated early branching morphogenesis in TPC-1 cells. The same effect was obtained by blocking the common downstream effector Akt. Y451 of Ret/ptc1 was required to promote proliferation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, suggesting that these oncogene-driven effects are Met-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of Ret/ptc1 and Met tyrosine kinases by the multitarget small molecule RPI-1 blocked cell proliferation and invasive ability and dislocated β-catenin from the nucleus. Altogether, these results support that Ret/ptc1 cross talks with Met at transcriptional and signaling levels and promotes β-catenin transcriptional activity to drive thyrocyte neoplastic transformation. Such molecular network, promoting disease initiation and acquisition of a proinvasive phenotype, highlights new options to design multitarget therapeutic strategies for PTCs.

  16. RET/PTC1-Driven Neoplastic Transformation and Proinvasive Phenotype of Human Thyrocytes Involve Met Induction and β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, Giuliana; Favini, Enrica; Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Salvi, Alessandro; De Petro, Giuseppina; Pierotti, Marco A; Zunino, Franco; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Lanzi, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the RET gene by chromosomal rearrangements generating RET/PTC oncogenes is a frequent, early, and causative event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We have previously shown that, in human primary thyrocytes, RET/PTC1 induces a transcriptional program including the MET proto-oncogene. In PTCs, β-catenin is frequently mislocated to the cytoplasm nucleus. We investigated the interplay between Ret/ptc1 signaling and Met in regulating the proinvasive phenotype and β-catenin localization in cellular models of human PTC. Here, we show that Met protein is expressed and is constitutively active in human thyrocytes exogenously expressing RET/PTC1 as well as a mutant (Y451F) devoid of the main Ret/ptc1 multidocking site. Both in transformed thyrocytes and in the human PTC cell line TPC-1, Ret/ptc1-Y451-dependent signaling and Met cooperated to promote a proinvasive phenotype. Accordingly, gene/functional silencing of either RET/PTC1 or MET abrogated early branching morphogenesis in TPC-1 cells. The same effect was obtained by blocking the common downstream effector Akt. Y451 of Ret/ptc1 was required to promote proliferation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, suggesting that these oncogene-driven effects are Met-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of Ret/ptc1 and Met tyrosine kinases by the multitarget small molecule RPI-1 blocked cell proliferation and invasive ability and dislocated β-catenin from the nucleus. Altogether, these results support that Ret/ptc1 cross talks with Met at transcriptional and signaling levels and promotes β-catenin transcriptional activity to drive thyrocyte neoplastic transformation. Such molecular network, promoting disease initiation and acquisition of a proinvasive phenotype, highlights new options to design multitarget therapeutic strategies for PTCs. PMID:19107227

  17. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-11-01

    Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture. These data indicate that the bioactivity of garlic is multifaceted and includes activation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis, and xenobiotic metabolism in humans and Mono Mac 6 cells. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293591. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. Results: The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture. Conclusion: These data indicate that the bioactivity of garlic is multifaceted and includes activation of genes related to immunity, apoptosis, and xenobiotic metabolism in humans and Mono Mac 6 cells. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293591. PMID:26423732

  19. RNAi-mediated knockdown of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) suppresses the proliferation and invasive potential of PC3 human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.Q.; Liao, Q.J.; Wang, X.W.; Xin, D.Q.; Chen, S.X.; Wu, Q.J.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is a proto-oncogene that promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in numerous cell types and is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors. We have demonstrated that PTTG1 expression was up-regulated in both human prostate cancer specimens and prostate cancer cell lines. For a more direct assessment of the function of PTTG1 in prostate tumorigenesis, RNAi-mediated knockdown was used to selectively decrease PTTG1 expression in PC3 human prostate tumor cells. After three weeks of selection, colonies stably transfected with PTTG1-targeted RNAi (the knockdown PC3 cell line) or empty vector (the control PC3 cell line) were selected and expanded to investigate the role of PTTG1 expression in PC3 cell growth and invasion. Cell proliferation rate was significantly slower (28%) in the PTTG1 knockdown line after 6 days of growth as indicated by an MTT cell viability assay (P < 0.05). Similarly, a soft agar colony formation assay revealed significantly fewer (66.7%) PTTG1 knockdown PC3 cell colonies than control colonies after three weeks of growth. In addition, PTTG1 knockdown resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The PTTG1 knockdown PC3 cell line also exhibited significantly reduced migration through Matrigel in a transwell assay of invasive potential, and down-regulation of PTTG1 could lead to increased sensitivity of these prostate cancer cells to a commonly used anticancer drug, taxol. Thus, PTTG1 expression is crucial for PC3 cell proliferation and invasion, and could be a promising new target for prostate cancer therapy

  20. Transcription arrest by a G quadruplex forming-trinucleotide repeat sequence from the human c-myb gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxson, Christopher; Beckett, Joshua; Tornaletti, Silvia

    2011-05-17

    Non canonical DNA structures correspond to genomic regions particularly susceptible to genetic instability. The transcription process facilitates formation of these structures and plays a major role in generating the instability associated with these genomic sites. However, little is known about how non canonical structures are processed when encountered by an elongating RNA polymerase. Here we have studied the behavior of T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP) when encountering a G quadruplex forming-(GGA)(4) repeat located in the human c-myb proto-oncogene. To make direct correlations between formation of the structure and effects on transcription, we have taken advantage of the ability of the T7 polymerase to transcribe single-stranded substrates and of G4 DNA to form in single-stranded G-rich sequences in the presence of potassium ions. Under physiological KCl concentrations, we found that T7 RNAP transcription was arrested at two sites that mapped to the c-myb (GGA)(4) repeat sequence. The extent of arrest did not change with time, indicating that the c-myb repeat represented an absolute block and not a transient pause to T7 RNAP. Consistent with G4 DNA formation, arrest was not observed in the absence of KCl or in the presence of LiCl. Furthermore, mutations in the c-myb (GGA)(4) repeat, expected to prevent transition to G4, also eliminated the transcription block. We show T7 RNAP arrest at the c-myb repeat in double-stranded DNA under conditions mimicking the cellular concentration of biomolecules and potassium ions, suggesting that the G4 structure formed in the c-myb repeat may represent a transcription roadblock in vivo. Our results support a mechanism of transcription-coupled DNA repair initiated by arrest of transcription at G4 structures.

  1. Protein Profiling of Isolated Leukocytes, Myofibroblasts, Epithelial, Basal, and Endothelial Cells from Normal, Hyperplastic, Cancerous, and Inflammatory Human Prostate Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis, Kenneth A. Iczkowski, Ziad J. Sahab, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ neoplastic prostate cells are not lethal unless they become invasive and metastatic. For cells to become invasive, the prostate gland must undergo degradation of the basement membrane and disruption of the basal cell layer underneath the luminal epithelia. Although the roles of proteinases in breaking down the basement membrane have been well-studied, little is known about the factors that induce basal cell layer disruption, degeneration, and its eventual disappearance in invasive cancer. It is hypothesized that microenvironmental factors may affect the degradation of the basal cell layer, which if protected may prevent tumor progression and invasion. In this study, we have revealed differential protein expression patterns between epithelial and stromal cells isolated from different prostate pathologies and identified several important epithelial and stromal proteins that may contribute to inflammation and malignant transformation of human benign prostate tissues to cancerous tissues using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and proteomics methods. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 was downregulated in basal cells of benign prsotate. Caspase-1 and interleukin-18 receptor 1 were highly expressed in leukocytes of prostate cancer. Proto-oncogene Wnt-3 was downregulated in endothelial cells of prostatitis tissue and tyrosine phosphatase non receptor type 1 was only found in normal and benign endothelial cells. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase 14 was downregulated in myofibroblasts of prostatitis tissue. Interestingly, integrin alpha-6 was upregulated in epithelial cells but not detected in myofibroblasts of prostate cancer. Further validation of these proteins may generate new strategies for the prevention of basal cell layer disruption and subsequent cancer invasion.

  2. The Src inhibitor dasatinib accelerates the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells into osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Id Boufker, Hichame; Lagneaux, Laurence; Najar, Mehdi; Piccart, Martine; Ghanem, Ghanem; Body, Jean-Jacques; Journé, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    The proto-oncogene Src is an important non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase involved in signaling pathways that control cell adhesion, growth, migration and differentiation. It negatively regulates osteoblast activity, and, as such, its inhibition is a potential means to prevent bone loss. Dasatinib is a new dual Src/Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor initially developed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. It has also shown promising results in preclinical studies in various solid tumors. However, its effects on the differentiation of human osteoblasts have never been examined. We evaluated the effects of dasatinib on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) differentiation into osteoblasts, in the presence or absence of a mixture of dexamethasone, ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (DAG) for up to 21 days. The differentiation kinetics was assessed by evaluating mineralization of the extracellular matrix, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteoblastic markers (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand [RANKL], bone sialoprotein [BSP], osteopontin [OPN]). Dasatinib significantly increased the activity of ALP and the level of calcium deposition in MSC cultured with DAG after, respectively, 7 and 14 days; it upregulated the expression of BSP and OPN genes independently of DAG; and it markedly downregulated the expression of RANKL gene and protein (decrease in RANKL/OPG ratio), the key factor that stimulates osteoclast differentiation and activity. Our results suggest a dual role for dasatinib in both (i) stimulating osteoblast differentiation leading to a direct increase in bone formation, and (ii) downregulating RANKL synthesis by osteoblasts leading to an indirect inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, dasatinib is a potentially interesting candidate drug for the treatment of osteolysis through its dual effect on bone metabolism

  3. Generation of iPSC line iPSC-FH2.1 in hypoxic conditions from human foreskin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Questa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human foreskin fibroblasts were used to generate the iPSC line iPSC-FH2.1 using the EF1a-hSTEMCCA-loxP vector expressing OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4, in 5% O2 culture conditions. Stemness was confirmed, as was pluripotency both in vivo and in vitro, in normoxia and hypoxia. Human Embryonic Stem Cell (hESC line WA-09 and reprogrammed fibroblast primary culture HFF-FM were used as controls.

  4. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  5. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  6. Mouse models in leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Human Philadelphia-positive leukemia results from a balanced chromosomal translocation, which fuses the BCR gene on chromosome 22 to the ABL proto-oncogene on chromosome 9. The understanding of Ph-positive leukemogenesis has advanced enormously over

  7. No mutations found by RET mutation scanning in sporadic and hereditary neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, R. M.; Cheng, N. C.; Hansen, C.; Stulp, R. P.; Stelwagen, T.; Clausen, N.; Tommerup, N.; Caron, H.; Westerveld, A.; Versteeg, R.; Buys, C. H.

    1996-01-01

    Neuroblastoma occasionally occurs in diseases associated with abnormal neurocrest differentiation, e.g. Hirschsprung disease. Expression studies in developing mice suggest that the proto-oncogene RET plays a role in neurocrest differentiation. In humans expression of RET is limited to certain tumor

  8. No mutations found by RET mutation scanning in sporadic and hereditary neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, RMW; Cheng, NC; Stulp, RP; Stelwagen, T; Clausen, N; Tommerup, N; Caron, H; Westerveld, A; Buys, CHCM

    Neuroblastoma occasionally occurs in diseases associated with abnormal neurocrest differentiation, e.g. Hirschsprung disease. Expression studies in developing mice suggest that the proto-oncogene RET plays a role in neurocrest differentiation. In humans expression of RT is limited to certain tumor

  9. Analysis of beta-catenin, Ki-ras, and microsatellite stability in azoxymethane-induced colon tumors of BDIX/Orl Ico rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Møller; Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Bonne, Anita

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here was to investigate whether the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer rat model mimics the human situation with regard to microsatellite stability, changes in expression of beta-catenin, and/or changes in the sequence of the proto-oncogene Ki-ras. Colon cancer ...

  10. The cancer-promoting gene fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is epigenetically regulated during human prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Koichiro; Kinameri, Ayumi; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Senga, Shogo; Ke, Youqiang; Fujii, Hiroshi

    2016-02-15

    FABPs (fatty-acid-binding proteins) are a family of low-molecular-mass intracellular lipid-binding proteins consisting of ten isoforms. FABPs are involved in binding and storing hydrophobic ligands such as long-chain fatty acids, as well as transporting these ligands to the appropriate compartments in the cell. FABP5 is overexpressed in multiple types of tumours. Furthermore, up-regulation of FABP5 is strongly associated with poor survival in triple-negative breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the specific up-regulation of the FABP5 gene in these cancers remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we determined that FABP5 has a typical CpG island around its promoter region. The DNA methylation status of the CpG island in the FABP5 promoter of benign prostate cells (PNT2), prostate cancer cells (PC-3, DU-145, 22Rv1 and LNCaP) and human normal or tumour tissue was assessed by bisulfite sequencing analysis, and then confirmed by COBRA (combined bisulfite restriction analysis) and qAMP (quantitative analysis of DNA methylation using real-time PCR). These results demonstrated that overexpression of FABP5 in prostate cancer cells can be attributed to hypomethylation of the CpG island in its promoter region, along with up-regulation of the direct trans-acting factors Sp1 (specificity protein 1) and c-Myc. Together, these mechanisms result in the transcriptional activation of FABP5 expression during human prostate carcinogenesis. Importantly, silencing of Sp1, c-Myc or FABP5 expression led to a significant decrease in cell proliferation, indicating that up-regulation of FABP5 expression by Sp1 and c-Myc is critical for the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  11. Sorafenib paradoxically activates the RAS/RAF/ERK pathway in polyclonal human NK cells during expansion and thereby enhances effector functions in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, J; Nerreter, T; Dotterweich, J; Einsele, H; Seggewiss-Bernhardt, R

    2018-03-24

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in host immunity against leukaemia and lymphoma. However, clinical trials applying NK cells have not been as efficient as hoped for. Patients treated with rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) inhibitors exhibit increased tumour infiltration by immune cells, suggesting that a combination of RAF inhibitors with immunotherapy might be beneficial. As mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (CRAF) regulate NK cell functions, we performed an in-vitro investigation on the potential of clinically relevant short-acting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as potential adjuvants for NK cell therapy: NK cells from healthy human blood donors were thus treated with sorafenib, sunitinib or the pan-RAF inhibitor ZM336372 during ex-vivo expansion. Functional outcomes assessed after washout of the drugs included cytokine production, degranulation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction and signal transduction with/without target cell contact. Paradoxically, sorafenib enhanced NK cell effector functions in a time- and dose-dependent manner by raising the steady-state activation level. Of note, this did not lead to NK cell exhaustion, but enhanced activity against target cells such as K562 or Daudis mediated via the RAS/RAF/extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, but not via protein kinase B (AKT). Our data will pave the path to develop a rationale for the considered use of RAF inhibitors such as sorafenib for pre-activation in NK cell-based adoptive immune therapy. © 2018 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Role of progesterone and estrogen in the preparation of the uterus and induction of implantation in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet-Hudson, Y.M.

    1989-01-01

    The implantation of the embryo into the uterine wall and subsequent decidualization of the uterine endometrium requires ovarian progesterone and estrogen. Prerequisites for implantation include (1) the preparation of the uterus for embryo implantation and (2) increase stromal capillary permeability at the site of embryo attachment. During the first three days of pregnancy, epithelial cells undergo proliferation, death and differentiation, in response to preovaluatory estrogen. These events occur in stromal cells in response to progesterone on days 4 and 5. The mechanism by which the steroid hormones modulate their functions and how estrogen initiates implantation in a progesterone-primed (P{sub 4}) uterus in not clearly understood. The author shows that 24h of P{sub 4}-priming is adequate for induction of implantation in the mouse. In addition, following this initial exposure of the uterus to P{sub 4} a long lasting effect is induced i.e. 24h of priming is no longer required for the induction of implantation. The uterine cell proliferation and differentiation that occurs in response to steroid hormones could be through their modulation of the expression of proto-oncogenes and growth factors. Results show that the proto-oncogene, c-myc and the growth factor, EGF are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in the uterus and are regulated by P{sub 4} and estrogen in a spatial and temporal manner during early pregnancy. It is apparent that c-myc protein in epithelia is primarily regulated by estrogen, while in the stroma by P{sub 4}. {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in specific uterine cell-types correlated with expression of the c-myc protein. On the other hand, EGF is always localized to the epithelia and is primarily regulated by estrogen.

  13. Functional interaction between type III-secreted protein IncA of Chlamydophila psittaci and human G3BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, Nicole; Litsche, Katrin; Franke, Claudia; Sachse, Konrad; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2011-01-31

    Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. These obligate intracellular bacteria are distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle, which includes proliferation in a membrane-bound compartment termed inclusion. All Chlamydiaceae spp. possess a coding capacity for core components of a Type III secretion apparatus, which mediates specific delivery of anti-host effector proteins either into the chlamydial inclusion membrane or into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Here we describe the interaction between Type III-secreted protein IncA of Cp. psittaci and host protein G3BP1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. In GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments both in vitro and in vivo interaction between full-length IncA and G3BP1 were shown. Using fluorescence microscopy, the localization of G3BP1 near the inclusion membrane of Cp. psittaci-infected Hep-2 cells was demonstrated. Notably, infection of Hep-2 cells with Cp. psittaci and overexpression of IncA in HEK293 cells led to a decrease in c-Myc protein concentration. This effect could be ascribed to the interaction between IncA and G3BP1 since overexpression of an IncA mutant construct disabled to interact with G3BP1 failed to reduce c-Myc concentration. We hypothesize that lowering the host cell c-Myc protein concentration may be part of a strategy employed by Cp. psittaci to avoid apoptosis and scale down host cell proliferation.

  14. High susceptibility of metastatic cells derived from human prostate and colon cancer cells to TRAIL and sensitization of TRAIL-insensitive primary cells to TRAIL by 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Won

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor recurrence and metastasis develop as a result of tumors' acquisition of anti-apoptotic mechanisms and therefore, it is necessary to develop novel effective therapeutics against metastatic cancers. In this study, we showed the differential TRAIL responsiveness of human prostate adenocarcinoma PC3 and human colon carcinoma KM12 cells and their respective highly metastatic PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A sublines and investigated the mechanism underlying high susceptibility of human metastatic cancer cells to TRAIL. Results PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A cells with high level of c-Myc and DNA-PKcs were more susceptible to TRAIL than their poorly metastatic primary PC3 and KM12 cells, which was associated with down-regulation of c-FLIPL/S and Mcl-1 and up-regulation of the TRAIL receptor DR5 but not DR4 in both metastatic cells. Moreover, high susceptibility of these metastatic cells to TRAIL was resulted from TRAIL-induced potent activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 in comparison with their primary cells, which led to cleavage and down-regulation of DNA-PKcs. Knockdown of c-Myc gene in TRAIL-treated PC3-MM2 cells prevented the increase of DR5 cell surface expression, caspase activation and DNA-PKcs cleavage and attenuated the apoptotic effects of TRAIL. Moreover, the suppression of DNA-PKcs level with siRNA in the cells induced the up-regulation of DR5 and active caspase-8, -9, and -3. We also found that 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (DMNB, a specific inhibitor of DNA-PK, potentiated TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in relatively TRAIL-insensitive PC3 and KM12 cells and therefore functioned as a TRAIL sensitizer. Conclusion This study showed the positive relationship between c-Myc expression in highly metastatic human prostate and colon cancer cells and susceptibility to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and therefore indicated that TRAIL might be used as an effective therapeutic modality for advanced metastatic cancers overexpressing c-Myc and

  15. BET bromodomain inhibition rescues erythropoietin differentiation of human erythroleukemia cell line UT7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goupille, Olivier; Penglong, Tipparat; Lefèvre, Carine; Granger, Marine; Kadri, Zahra; Fucharoen, Suthat; Maouche-Chrétien, Leila; Leboulch, Philippe; Chrétien, Stany

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► UT7 erythroleukemia cells are known to be refractory to differentiate. ► Brief JQ1 treatment initiates the first steps of erythroid differentiation program. ► Engaged UT7 cells then maturate in the presence of erythropoietin. ► Sustained JQ1 treatment inhibits both proliferation and erythroid differentiation. -- Abstract: Malignant transformation is a multistep process requiring oncogenic activation, promoting cellular proliferation, frequently coupled to inhibition of terminal differentiation. Consequently, forcing the reengagement of terminal differentiation of transformed cells coupled or not with an inhibition of their proliferation is a putative therapeutic approach to counteracting tumorigenicity. UT7 is a human leukemic cell line able to grow in the presence of IL3, GM-CSF and Epo. This cell line has been widely used to study Epo-R/Epo signaling pathways but is a poor model for erythroid differentiation. We used the BET bromodomain inhibition drug JQ1 to target gene expression, including that of c-Myc. We have shown that only 2 days of JQ1 treatment was required to transitory inhibit Epo-induced UT7 proliferation and to restore terminal erythroid differentiation. This study highlights the importance of a cellular erythroid cycle break mediated by c-Myc inhibition before initiation of the erythropoiesis program and describes a new model for BET bromodomain inhibitor drug application.

  16. BET bromodomain inhibition rescues erythropoietin differentiation of human erythroleukemia cell line UT7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goupille, Olivier [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Penglong, Tipparat [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Thalassemia Research Center and Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Lefevre, Carine; Granger, Marine; Kadri, Zahra [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Fucharoen, Suthat [Thalassemia Research Center and Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Maouche-Chretien, Leila [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Leboulch, Philippe [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Genetics Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chretien, Stany, E-mail: stany.chretien@cea.fr [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UT7 erythroleukemia cells are known to be refractory to differentiate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brief JQ1 treatment initiates the first steps of erythroid differentiation program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Engaged UT7 cells then maturate in the presence of erythropoietin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustained JQ1 treatment inhibits both proliferation and erythroid differentiation. -- Abstract: Malignant transformation is a multistep process requiring oncogenic activation, promoting cellular proliferation, frequently coupled to inhibition of terminal differentiation. Consequently, forcing the reengagement of terminal differentiation of transformed cells coupled or not with an inhibition of their proliferation is a putative therapeutic approach to counteracting tumorigenicity. UT7 is a human leukemic cell line able to grow in the presence of IL3, GM-CSF and Epo. This cell line has been widely used to study Epo-R/Epo signaling pathways but is a poor model for erythroid differentiation. We used the BET bromodomain inhibition drug JQ1 to target gene expression, including that of c-Myc. We have shown that only 2 days of JQ1 treatment was required to transitory inhibit Epo-induced UT7 proliferation and to restore terminal erythroid differentiation. This study highlights the importance of a cellular erythroid cycle break mediated by c-Myc inhibition before initiation of the erythropoiesis program and describes a new model for BET bromodomain inhibitor drug application.

  17. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani Soundararajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia (bitter gourd has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation.

  18. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

  19. Direct induction of chondrogenic cells from human dermal fibroblast culture by defined factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetatsu Outani

    Full Text Available The repair of large cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical issue. We recently reported that the forced expression of two reprogramming factors (c-Myc and Klf4 and one chondrogenic factor (SOX9 can induce chondrogenic cells from mouse dermal fibroblast culture without going through a pluripotent state. We here generated induced chondrogenic (iChon cells from human dermal fibroblast (HDF culture with the same factors. We developed a chondrocyte-specific COL11A2 promoter/enhancer lentiviral reporter vector to select iChon cells. The human iChon cells expressed marker genes for chondrocytes but not fibroblasts, and were derived from non-chondrogenic COL11A2-negative cells. The human iChon cells formed cartilage but not tumors in nude mice. This approach could lead to the preparation of cartilage directly from skin in human, without going through pluripotent stem cells.

  20. Identification of early target genes of aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes, inter-individual variability and comparison with other genotoxic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josse, Rozenn; Dumont, Julie; Fautrel, Alain; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has recently emerged as a promising approach to identify early target genes and discriminate genotoxic carcinogens from non-genotoxic carcinogens and non-carcinogens. However, early gene changes induced by genotoxic compounds in human liver remain largely unknown. Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that induces DNA damage following enzyme-mediated bioactivation. Gene expression profile changes induced by a 24 h exposure of these hepatocyte models to 0.05 and 0.25 μM AFB1 were analyzed by using oligonucleotide pangenomic microarrays. The main altered signaling pathway was the p53 pathway and related functions such as cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Direct involvement of the p53 protein in response to AFB1 was verified by using siRNA directed against p53. Among the 83 well-annotated genes commonly modulated in two pools of three human hepatocyte populations and HepaRG cells, several genes were identified as altered by AFB1 for the first time. In addition, a subset of 10 AFB1-altered genes, selected upon basis of their function or tumor suppressor role, was tested in four human hepatocyte populations and in response to other chemicals. Although they exhibited large variable inter-donor fold-changes, several of these genes, particularly FHIT, BCAS3 and SMYD3, were found to be altered by various direct and other indirect genotoxic compounds and unaffected by non-genotoxic compounds. Overall, this comprehensive analysis of early gene expression changes induced by AFB1 in human hepatocytes identified a gene subset that included several genes representing potential biomarkers of genotoxic compounds. -- Highlights: ► Gene expression profile changes induced by aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes. ► AFB1 modulates various genes including tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. ► Important inter-individual variations in the response to AFB1. ► Some genes also altered by other

  1. Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Jackson, Kyle W; McNicholas, Erin; Kawamura, Mari J; Abdallah, Wissam M; Wicha, Max S

    2004-01-01

    Notch signaling has been implicated in the regulation of cell-fate decisions such as self-renewal of adult stem cells and differentiation of progenitor cells along a particular lineage. Moreover, depending on the cellular and developmental context, the Notch pathway acts as a regulator of cell survival and cell proliferation. Abnormal expression of Notch receptors has been found in different types of epithelial metaplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions, suggesting that Notch may act as a proto-oncogene. The vertebrate Notch1 and Notch4 homologs are involved in normal development of the mammary gland, and mutated forms of these genes are associated with development of mouse mammary tumors. In order to determine the role of Notch signaling in mammary cell-fate determination, we have utilized a newly described in vitro system in which mammary stem/progenitor cells can be cultured in suspension as nonadherent 'mammospheres'. Notch signaling was activated using exogenous ligands, or was inhibited using previously characterized Notch signaling antagonists. Utilizing this system, we demonstrate that Notch signaling can act on mammary stem cells to promote self-renewal and on early progenitor cells to promote their proliferation, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in secondary mammosphere formation upon addition of a Notch-activating DSL peptide. In addition to acting on stem cells, Notch signaling is also able to act on multipotent progenitor cells, facilitating myoepithelial lineage-specific commitment and proliferation. Stimulation of this pathway also promotes branching morphogenesis in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. These effects are completely inhibited by a Notch4 blocking antibody or a gamma secretase inhibitor that blocks Notch processing. In contrast to the effects of Notch signaling on mammary stem/progenitor cells, modulation of this pathway has no discernable effect on fully committed, differentiated, mammary epithelial cells. These studies

  2. Combinatorial treatment of DNA and chromatin-modifying drugs cause cell death in human and canine osteosarcoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Thayanithy

    Full Text Available Downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs at the 14q32 locus stabilizes the expression of cMYC, thus significantly contributing to osteosarcoma (OS pathobiology. Here, we show that downregulation of 14q32 miRNAs is epigenetically regulated. The predicted promoter regions of miRNA clusters at 14q32 locus showed no recurrent patterns of differential methylation, but Saos2 cells showed elevated histone deacetylase (HDAC activity. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate increased acetylation of histones associated with 14q32 miRNAs, but interestingly, robust restoration of 14q32 miRNA expression, attenuation of cMYC expression, and induction of apoptosis required concomitant treatment with 5-Azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. These events were associated with genome-wide gene expression changes including induction of pro-apoptotic genes and downregulation of cell cycle genes. Comparable effects were achieved in human and canine OS cells using the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA/Vorinostat and the DNA methylation inhibitor Zebularine (Zeb, with significantly more pronounced cytotoxicity in cells whose molecular phenotypes were indicative of aggressive biological behavior. These results suggested that the combination of these chromatin-modifying drugs may be a useful adjuvant in the treatment of rapidly progressive OS.

  3. Down-regulation of telomerase activity in DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by tocotrienol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2006-01-01

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, inhibition of telomerase by drug or dietary food components is a new strategy for cancer prevention. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin E, with particular emphasis on tocotrienol (unsaturated vitamin E), on human telomerase in cell-culture study. As results, tocotrienol inhibited telomerase activity of DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in time- and dose-dependent manner, interestingly, with δ-tocotrienol exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity. Tocotrienol inhibited protein kinase C activity, resulting in down-regulation of c-myc and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, thereby reducing telomerase activity. In contrast to tocotrienol, tocopherol showed very weak telomerase inhibition. These results provide novel evidence for First time indicating that tocotrienol acts as a potent candidate regulator of telomerase and supporting the anti-proliferative function of tocotrienol

  4. Expression of myc family oncoproteins in small-cell lung-cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Vindeløv, L L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A number of genes have altered activity in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), but especially genes of the myc family (c-myc, L-myc and N-myc) are expressed at high levels in SCLC. Most studies have explored expression at the mRNA level, whereas studies of myc family oncoprotein expression are sparse....... WE examined the expression of myc proto-oncogenes at the mRNA and protein level in 23 cell lines or xenografts. In the cell lines, the doubling time and the cell-cycle distribution, as determined by flow-cytometric DNA analysis, were examined to establish whether the level of myc......-myc. In general, the level of expression of c-myc and N-myc was similar at the mRNA and the protein level. Expression of c-myc was positively correlated with the proliferative index (sum of S and G2+M phases) of cell lines, but not with the population doubling time. In general, L-myc-expressing cell lines had...

  5. Current molecular profile of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: First comprehensive study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Praveen; Mishra, Anupam; Tripathi, Ashoak Mani; Verma, Veerendra; Trivedi, Ritu; Singh, Hitendra Prakash; Kumar, Sunil; Patel, Brijesh; Singh, Vinay; Pandey, Shivani; Pandey, Amita; Mishra, Subhash Chandra

    2017-03-01

    An attempt is made to analyze the molecular behavior of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Case Series METHODS: Quantification of mRNAs expression was undertaken through real-time polymerase chain reaction in JNA (9-24) samples for VEGF-A, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), platelet-derived growth factor PDGF-A, KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit), Avian myelomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc), Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (H-Ras), tumor suppressor gene TP53, and androgen receptor and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The β-catenin expression was evaluated by western blot in 16 samples. Nasal polyp was taken as control. A significantly increased (P < 0.01) expression of c-myc, VEGFA, bFGF, PDGFA, c-kit, and TP53 was seen, along with enhanced expression of β-catenin. A massive enhancement of H-Ras expression was seen for the first time. Androgen receptor expression was no different, whereas IL-6 despite showing upregulation trend was not significant. The enhanced expressions of various markers suggest their potential role in JNA. Although the biological significance of c-kit, c-myc, and one of the novel markers H-Ras has yet to be defined, their significant expression may have a therapeutic importance. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:E100-E106, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 do not affect radiation-induced cell death in human breast epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Harold E.; Han, Sue J.; Waid, David; Lee, Yong J.; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Loss of the wild-type p53 activity and/or overexpression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2 are frequently detected in breast cancer and suggested to be related to resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The long-term goals of this study are to identify the downstream signaling molecules for anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities of p53 and to investigate the interaction of bcl-2 with p53 in human breast epithelial cells. We previously showed that overexpression of bcl-2 downregulates radiation-induced expression of p21 WAF1/CIP1 , a p53 downstream molecule that functions to inhibit cyclin dependent kinases, and suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis in human breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A). In this study, we investigated the role of p21 WAF1/CIP1 in radiation-induced cell death in MCF10A cells. Materials and Methods: To determine whether downregulation of p21 WAF1/CIP1 is required for anti-apoptotic activity of bcl-2, and to investigate the roles of p21 WAF1/CIP1 in cell death following irradiation, we transfected p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression vector into bcl-2 overexpressing MCF10A cells. The effects of p21 WAF1/CIP1 overexpression on cell growth, radiation-induced apoptosis and clonogenic cell survival were analyzed. Results: Overexpression of p21 WAF1/CIP1 resulted in marked growth inhibition, but no effect on dose-dependent radiation-induced cell lethality as determined by clonogenic survival assay. Radiation-induced apoptosis was not detected in bcl-2 overexpressing MCF10A cells independent of levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression. Conclusion: This study suggests that bcl-2 downregulation of p21 WAF1/CIP1 is independent of anti-apoptotic activity of bcl-2 and that levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 do not affect radiation-induced cell death in human breast epithelial cells

  7. The cucurbitacins D, E, and I from Ecballium elaterium (L. upregulate the LC3 gene and induce cell-cycle arrest in human gastric cancer cell line AGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafargholizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Cucurbitacins exhibit a range of anti-cancer functions. We investigated the effects of cucurbitacins D, E, and I purified from Ecballium elaterium (L. A. Rich fruits on some apoptotic and autophagy genes in human gastric cancer cell line AGS. Materials and Methods: Using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR, the expression of LC3, VEGF, BAX, caspase-3, and c-MYC genes were quantified in AGS cells 24 hr after treatment with cucurbitacins D, E, and I at concentrations 0.3, 0.1 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. Cell cycle and death were analyzed by flowcytometry. Results: Purified cucurbitacins induced sub-G1 cell-cycle arrest and cell death in AGS cells and upregulated LC3mRNA effectively, but showed a very low effect on BAX, caspase-3, and c-MYC mRNA levels. Also after treatment with cucurbitacin I at concentration 0.5 μg/ml, VEGF mRNA levels were increased about 4.4 times. Pairwise comparison of the effect of cucurbitacins D, E, and I on LC3 mRNA expression showed that the cucurbitacin I effect is 1.3 and 1.1 times that of cucurbitacins E and D, respectively; cucurbitacin D effect is 1.2 times that of cucurbitacin E (P-value

  8. Generating a non-integrating human induced pluripotent stem cell bank from urine-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Xue

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell holds great potential for applications in regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and disease modeling. We describe here a practical method to generate human iPS cells from urine-derived cells (UCs under feeder-free, virus-free, serum-free condition and without oncogene c-MYC. We showed that this approach could be applied in a large population with different genetic backgrounds. UCs are easily accessible and exhibit high reprogramming efficiency, offering advantages over other cell types used for the purpose of iPS generation. Using the approach described in this study, we have generated 93 iPS cell lines from 20 donors with diverse genetic backgrounds. The non-viral iPS cell bank with these cell lines provides a valuable resource for iPS cells research, facilitating future applications of human iPS cells.

  9. ERBB2 in Cat Mammary Neoplasias Disclosed a Positive Correlation between RNA and Protein Low Expression Levels: A Model for erbB-2 Negative Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rui M. V.; Bastos, Estela; Amorim, Irina; Gut, Ivo G.; Gärtner, Fátima; Chaves, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Human ERBB2 is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 epithelial growth factor receptor. In human breast cancer (HBC), erbB-2 protein overexpression has been repeatedly correlated with poor prognosis. In more recent works, underexpression of this gene has been described in HBC. Moreover, it is also recognised that oncogenes that are commonly amplified or deleted encompass point mutations, and some of these are associated with HBC. In cat mammary lesions (CMLs), the overexpression of ERBB2 (27%–59.6%) has also been described, mostly at the protein level and although cat mammary neoplasias are considered to be a natural model of HBC, molecular information is still scarce. In the present work, a cat ERBB2 fragment, comprising exons 10 to 15 (ERBB2_10–15) was achieved for the first time. Allelic variants and genomic haplotype analyses were also performed, and differences between normal and CML populations were observed. Three amino acid changes, corresponding to 3 non-synonymous genomic sequence variants that were only detected in CMLs, were proposed to damage the 3D structure of the protein. We analysed the cat ERBB2 gene at the DNA (copy number determination), mRNA (expression levels assessment) and protein levels (in extra- and intra protein domains) in CML samples and correlated the last two evaluations with clinicopathological features. We found a positive correlation between the expression levels of the ERBB2 RNA and erbB-2 protein, corresponding to the intracellular region. Additionally, we detected a positive correlation between higher mRNA expression and better clinical outcome. Our results suggest that the ERBB2 gene is post-transcriptionally regulated and that proteins with truncations and single point mutations are present in cat mammary neoplastic lesions. We would like to emphasise that the recurrent occurrence of low erbB-2 expression levels in cat mammary tumours, suggests the cat mammary neoplasias as a valuable model for erbB-2 negative HBC

  10. Influence of x-rays and UV-light on the presence of oncogene proteins in spleen cells of leukemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic Hadzija, M.; Poljak Blazi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Proto-oncogenes are involved in growth, defferentiation and proliferation of normal cells, and in process of neoplastic transformation. In genome of normal cells, exist also tumor-suppressor genes, which contribute to cancer when they are inactivated. Those genes are target for carcinogenesis provoked by radiation. However, species specific genetic factors are important in determing which, if any, gene will be transformed by radiation. It is possible to presume that oncogenes are involved in the development of radioresistant phenotype of ML. Because of that, we examined the presence of c-myc protein in ML cells during the growth of ML and after the irradiation of these cells. Also, we examined the presence of tumor-suppressor protein p53, because inactivation or loss of p53 gene is in connection with transformation of cells. ML is strain specific for RFM mice. Spleen cells were tested 9 (nonterminal phase NTP) or 12 days (terminal phase TP) after inoculation of ML. Cells from NTP were also irradiate with x-rays or UV-light. C-myc protein expresse 74.98% spleen cells of healthy RFM mice. Wild type of p53 protein was detected in 60% of these cells, but mp53 was found in only 5.3% of cells. These results could be explained by the role of c-myc and p53 proteins in regulation of biologic processes. A few spleen cells of NTP expressed c-myc (15%) and mp53 (9.6%) proteins. But, in the same phase higher expressions of wp53 protein (30.5%) was found. On the other hand, the number of c-myc positive cells in TP of leukemia explanation lies in connection of c-myc protein and process of programmed cell death (apoptosis). During growth of ML the number of mp53 positive cells increased (to 47.8%), but wp53 positive cells decreased (to13.4%9). Both types of irradiation provoked strong activation of cellular c-myc gene in ML cells of NTP. We found about 95% c-myc positive cells after x-rays and 93% after UV-light

  11. The proto-oncogene product p120CBL and the adaptor proteins CRKL and c-CRK link c-ABL, p190BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL to the phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, M; Salgia, R; Okuda, K; Uemura, N; Durstin, M A; Pisick, E; Xu, G; Li, J L; Prasad, K V; Griffin, J D

    1996-02-15

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and some acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) are caused by the t(9;22) chromosome translocation, which produces the constitutively activated BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase. When introduced into factor dependent hematopoietic cell lines, BCR/ABL induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of many cellular proteins. One prominent BCR/ABL substrate is p120CBL, the cellular homolog of the v-Cbl oncoprotein. In an effort to understand the possible contribution of p120CBL to transformation by BCR/ABL, we looked for cellular proteins which associate with p120CBL in hematopoietic cell lines transformed by BCR/ABL. In addition to p210BCR/ABL and c-ABL, p120CBL coprecipitated with an 85 kDa phosphoprotein, which was identified as the p85 subunit of PI3K. Anti-p120CBL immunoprecipitates from BCR/ABL-transformed, but not from untransformed, cell lines contained PI3K lipid kinase activity. Interestingly, the adaptor proteins CRKL and c-CRK were also found in these complexes. In vitro binding studies indicated that the SH2 domains of CRKL and c-CRK bound directly to p120CBL, while the SH3 domains of c-CRK and CRKL bound to BCR/ABL and c-ABL. The N-terminal and the C-terminal SH2 and the SH3 domain of p85PI3K bound directly in vitro to p120CBL. The ABL-SH2, but not ABL-SH3, could also bind to p120CBL. These data suggest that BCR/ABL may induce the formation of multimeric complexes of signaling proteins which include p120CBL, PI3K, c-CRK or CRKL, c-ABL and BCR/ABL itself.

  12. SMAD4 - Molecular gladiator of the TGF-β signaling is trampled upon by mutational insufficiency in colorectal carcinoma of Kashmiri population: an analysis with relation to KRAS proto-oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameer, A Syed; Chowdri, Nissar A; Syeed, Nidda; Banday, Mujeeb Z; Shah, Zaffar A; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A

    2010-01-01

    The development and progression of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied and the genes responsible have been well characterized. However the correlation between the SMAD4 gene mutations with KRAS mutant status has not been explored by many studies so far. Here, in this study we aimed to investigate the role of SMAD4 gene aberrations in the pathogenesis of CRC in Kashmir valley and to correlate it with various clinicopathological variables and KRAS mutant genotype. We examined the paired tumor and normal tissue specimens of 86 CRC patients for the occurrence of aberrations in MCR region of SMAD4 and exon 1 of KRAS by PCR-SSCP and/or PCR-Direct sequencing. The overall mutation rate of mutation cluster region (MCR) region of SMAD4 gene among 86 patients was 18.6% (16 of 86). 68.75% (11/16) of the SMAD4 gene mutants were found to have mutations in KRAS gene as well. The association between the KRAS mutant genotype with SMAD4 mutants was found to be significant (P =< 0.05). Further more, we found a significant association of tumor location, tumor grade, node status, occupational exposure to pesticides and bleeding PR/Constipation with the mutation status of the SMAD4 gene (P =< 0.05). Our study suggests that SMAD4 gene aberrations are the common event in CRC development but play a differential role in the progression of CRC in higher tumor grade (C+D) and its association with the KRAS mutant status suggest that these two molecules together are responsible for the progression of the tumor to higher/advanced stage

  13. Proteome-wide analysis of protein abundance and turnover remodelling during oncogenic transformation of human breast epithelial cells [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Viral oncogenes and mutated proto-oncogenes are potent drivers of cancer malignancy. Downstream of the oncogenic trigger are alterations in protein properties that give rise to cellular transformation and the acquisition of malignant cellular phenotypes. Developments in mass spectrometry enable large-scale, multidimensional characterisation of proteomes. Such techniques could provide an unprecedented, unbiased view of how oncogene activation remodels a human cell proteome. Methods: Using quantitative MS-based proteomics and cellular assays, we analysed how transformation induced by activating v-Src kinase remodels the proteome and cellular phenotypes of breast epithelial (MCF10A cells. SILAC MS was used to comprehensively characterise the MCF10A proteome and to measure v-Src-induced changes in protein abundance across seven time-points (1-72 hrs. We used pulse-SILAC MS (Boisvert et al., 2012, to compare protein synthesis and turnover in control and transformed cells. Follow-on experiments employed a combination of cellular and functional assays to characterise the roles of selected Src-responsive proteins. Results: Src-induced transformation changed the expression and/or turnover levels of ~3% of proteins, affecting ~1.5% of the total protein molecules in the cell. Transformation increased the average rate of proteome turnover and disrupted protein homeostasis. We identify distinct classes of protein kinetics in response to Src activation. We demonstrate that members of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1 are important regulators of invasion and migration in MCF10A cells. Many Src-regulated proteins are present in low abundance and some are regulated post-transcriptionally. The signature of Src-responsive proteins is highly predictive of poor patient survival across multiple cancer types. Open access to search and interactively explore all these proteomic data is provided via the EPD database (www.peptracker.com/epd. Conclusions

  14. Altered endoribonuclease activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 variants identified in the human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is the major mammalian enzyme in the DNA base excision repair pathway and cleaves the DNA phosphodiester backbone immediately 5' to abasic sites. APE1 also has 3'-5' DNA exonuclease and 3' DNA phosphodiesterase activities, and regulates transcription factor DNA binding through its redox regulatory function. The human APE1 has recently been shown to endonucleolytically cleave single-stranded regions of RNA. Towards understanding the biological significance of the endoribonuclease activity of APE1, we examined eight different amino acid substitution variants of APE1 previously identified in the human population. Our study shows that six APE1 variants, D148E, Q51H, I64V, G241R, R237A, and G306A, exhibit a 76-85% reduction in endoribonuclease activity against a specific coding region of the c-myc RNA, yet fully retain the ability to cleave apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA. We found that two APE1 variants, L104R and E126D, exhibit a unique RNase inhibitor-resistant endoribonuclease activity, where the proteins cleave c-myc RNA 3' of specific single-stranded guanosine residues. Expression of L104R and E126D APE1 variants in bacterial Origami cells leads to a 60-80% reduction in colony formation and a 1.5-fold increase in cell doubling time, whereas the other variants, which exhibit diminished endoribonuclease activity, had no effect. These data indicate that two human APE1 variants exhibit a unique endoribonuclease activity, which correlates with their ability to induce cytotoxicity or slow down growth in bacterial cells and supports the notion of their biological functionality.

  15. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingbin; Cai, Shaoxi; Yang, Li; Yu, Shuhui; Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Haoxing; Liu, Lan; Liu, Qun; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui; Sung, K.L. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  16. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yingbin [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Life Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Cai, Shaoxi, E-mail: sxcai@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Li [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yu, Shuhui [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Library of Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhang, Haoxing [School of Life Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Liu, Lan [Department of Laboratory of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Chongqin Medical University, Chongqing 400014 (China); Liu, Qun [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Du, Jun [Center of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Cai, Shaohui [College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Sung, K.L. Paul [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Bioengineering, University of California, SD 0412 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  17. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using SDS/PAGE and transferred to a nitrocellulose mem- brane in a condition of 100 V for 90 min at 4. ◦. C. Block- ing of membranes was done in blocking solution (5% nonfat milk powder, in TBST) at room temperature for 1 h followed by the incubation of membranes with the anti-EpCAM anti- body (5% nonfat milk powder, ...

  18. Treatment of Endocrine-Resistant Breast Cancer with a Small Molecule c-Myc Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Selective inhibition of tu- mor oncogenes by disruption of super-enhancers. Cell 2013; 153:320-334. 26 Ott CJ, Kopp N, Bird L, et al. BET bromodomain...maintenance of nor- mal functions of the female reproductive tissues and non-repro- ductive tissues including metabolic homeostasis, skeletal...steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily members. Annu Rev Biochem 1994;63:451–86. [2] Della Torre S, Benedusi V, Fontana R, Maggi A. Energy metabolism and

  19. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMIRA SADEGHI

    catumaxomab, an efficient monoclonal antibody approved in. European Market in 2009, to reduce the rate of metastasis in patients with metastatic breast cancer. ..... + tumours. However, a broader study is required to assess this hypothesis.

  20. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RT-qPCR method, our results showed that EpCAM was overexpressed in 48% of malignant and 11.1% of benign .... to 45% of patients with breast cancer in different studies ..... in cancer maintenance, development, drug resistance, as well.

  1. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMIRA SADEGHI

    Samira Sadeghi et al. domain protein2), and the transcription factor Lef1 that is ... antibody approved in. European Market in 2009, to reduce the rate of metastasis in .... Real-Time PCR. System and Maxima SYBR Green/ROX qPCR Master Mix.

  2. The c-myc oncoprotein forms a specific complex with the product of the retinoblastoma gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Rustgi, A.K.; Dyson, N.; Hill, D.

    1991-01-01

    Myc proteins are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Deregulated expression of myc family genes has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of cancers. Myc proteins share significant sequence homology in the carboxyl terminus with a number of

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Co-overexpression of EpCAM and c-myc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Purpose:The overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) ... Half LIM domain protein2), and the transcription factor Lef1 that is cleaved by presenilin-2 ..... and self-renewal capability, producing a rapidly dividing tumor mass.

  4. Ibuprofen and Diclofenac Restrict Migration and Proliferation of Human Glioma Cells by Distinct Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidgens, Verena; Seliger, Corinna; Jachnik, Birgit; Welz, Tobias; Leukel, Petra; Vollmann-Zwerenz, Arabel; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Kreutz, Marina; Grauer, Oliver M.; Hau, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with anti-tumorigenic effects in different tumor entities. For glioma, research has generally focused on diclofenac; however data on other NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, is limited. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive investigation of the cellular, molecular, and metabolic effects of ibuprofen and diclofenac on human glioblastoma cells. Methods Glioma cell lines were treated with ibuprofen or diclofenac to investigate functional effects on proliferation and cell motility. Cell cycle, extracellular lactate levels, lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) expression and activity, as well as inhibition of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT-3) signaling pathway, were determined. Specific effects of diclofenac and ibuprofen on STAT-3 were investigated by comparing their effects with those of the specific STAT-3 inhibitor STATTIC. Results Ibuprofen treatment led to a stronger inhibition of cell growth and migration than treatment with diclofenac. Proliferation was affected by cell cycle arrest at different checkpoints by both agents. In addition, diclofenac, but not ibuprofen, decreased lactate levels in all concentrations used. Both decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation; however, diclofenac led to decreased c-myc expression and subsequent reduction in LDH-A activity, whereas treatment with ibuprofen in higher doses induced c-myc expression and less LDH-A alteration. Conclusions This study indicates that both ibuprofen and diclofenac strongly inhibit glioma cells, but the subsequent metabolic responses of both agents are distinct. We postulate that ibuprofen may inhibit tumor cells also by COX- and lactate-independent mechanisms after long-term treatment in physiological dosages, whereas diclofenac mainly acts by inhibition of STAT-3 signaling and downstream modulation of glycolysis. PMID:26485029

  5. Excessive Cellular Proliferation Negatively Impacts Reprogramming Efficiency of Human Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj K; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Bhatt, Shweta; Kleinridders, Andre; Shirakawa, Jun; Takatani, Tomozumi; Hu, Jiang; De Jesus, Dario F; Windmueller, Rebecca; Wagers, Amy J; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2015-10-01

    The impact of somatic cell proliferation rate on induction of pluripotent stem cells remains controversial. Herein, we report that rapid proliferation of human somatic fibroblasts is detrimental to reprogramming efficiency when reprogrammed using a lentiviral vector expressing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC in insulin-rich defined medium. Human fibroblasts grown in this medium showed higher proliferation, enhanced expression of insulin signaling and cell cycle genes, and a switch from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation metabolism, but they displayed poor reprogramming efficiency compared with cells grown in normal medium. Thus, in contrast to previous studies, our work reveals an inverse correlation between the proliferation rate of somatic cells and reprogramming efficiency, and also suggests that upregulation of proteins in the growth factor signaling pathway limits the ability to induce pluripotency in human somatic fibroblasts. The efficiency with which human cells can be reprogrammed is of interest to stem cell biology. In this study, human fibroblasts cultured in media containing different concentrations of growth factors such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 exhibited variable abilities to proliferate, with consequences on pluripotency. This occurred in part because of changes in the expression of proteins involved in the growth factor signaling pathway, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. These findings have implications for efficient reprogramming of human cells. ©AlphaMed Press.

  6. Interleukin-1/toll-like receptor-induced nuclear factor kappa B signaling participates in intima hyperplasia after carotid artery balloon injury in goto-kakizaki rats: a potential target therapy pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    Full Text Available The value of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is recognized worldwide, especially for diabetic patients. Interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR signaling is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but whether and how the IL-1/TLR-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB pathway plays key roles in intimal formation is unclear. The underlying mechanism of intima hyperplasia was investigated with a model of carotid balloon injury in Goto-Kakizaki (GK and Wistar rats and with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Elastic-van Gieson staining showed the medial area peakedon Day 3 post-injury and decreased by Day 7 post-injury in both GK and Wistar rats. The N/M at Day 7 in GK rats was significantly higher than in Wistar rats (p<0.001. The percent of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU staining-positive cells on Day 3 post-injury was greater than seen on Day 7 post-injury in GK and Wistar rats. The percent of EdU-positive cells on Days 3 and 7 post-injury in Wistar rats was less than that found in GK rats (p<0.01; p<0.05. NFκBp65 immunostaining had increased by Day 7 post-injury. Agilent Whole Genome Oligo Microarray verified that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway was activated by carotid balloon injury. TLR4, IL-1 receptor associated kinase, inhibitors α of NFκB, human antigen R, c-Myc (Proto-Oncogene Proteins, EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 and Interleukin-6 were up-regulated or down-regulated according to immunochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, we conclude that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway participates in the intimal hyperplasia after carotid injury in GK and Wistar rats and that GK rats respond more intensely to the inflammation than Wistar rats.

  7. Regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells following ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, D.A.; Lee, S.W

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian cells use a variety of mechanisms to control the expression of new gene transcrips elicited in response to ionizing radiation. Damage-induced proteins have been found which contain DNA binding sites located within the promoter regions of SV40 and human thymidine kinase genes. DNA binding proteins as well as proteins which bind to specific DNA lesions (e.g., XIP bp 175 binds specifically to X-ray-damaged DNA) may play a role in the initial recognition of DNA damage and may initiate DNA repair processes, along with new transcription. Mammalian gene expression after DNA damage is also regulated via the stabilization of preexisting mRNA transcripts. Stabilized mRNA transcripts are translated into protein products not previously present in the cell due to undefined posttranscriptional modifications. Thus far, the only example of mRNA stabilization following X-irradiation is the immediate induction of tissue-type plasminogen activator. Mammalian cells synthesize new mRNA transcripts indirect response to DNA damage. Using cDNA cloning, Northern RNA blotting and nuclear run-on techniques, the levels of a variety of known and previously unknown genes dramatically increase following X-irradiation. These genes/proteins now include; a) DNA binding transcripts factors, such as the UV-responsive element binding factors, ionizing radiation-induced DNA-binding proteins, and XIP bP 175; b) proto-oncogenes, such as c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc; c) several growth-related genes, (e.g., the gadd genes, protein kinase C, IL-1, and thymidine kinase); and d) a variety of other genes, including proteases, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and DT diaphorase. Mammalian cells respond to X-irradiation by eliciting a very complex series of events resulting in the appearance of new genes and proteins. These gene products may affect DNA repair, adaptive responses, apoptosis, SOS-type mutagenic response, and/or carcinogenesis. (J.P.N.)

  8. Effect of hrHPV infection on anti-apoptotic gene and pro-apoptotic gene expression in cervical cancer tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Er Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of hrHPV infection on anti-apoptotic gene and pro-apoptotic gene expression in cervical cancer tissue. Methods: A total of 56 patients with cervical cancer, 94 cases of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 48 cases of patients with chronic cervicitis who were treated in our hospital from May 2013 to December 2015 were selected for study and included in malignant group, precancerous lesion group and benign group respectively. hrHPV infection as well as the expression of anti-apoptotic genes and proapoptotic genes in cervical tissue were detected. Results: hrHPV infection rate and viral load in cervical tissue of malignant group were significantly higher than those of precancerous lesion group and benign group; P27 and p16 levels in cervical tissue of malignant group were significantly lower than those of precancerous lesion group and benign group, and K-ras, c-myc, Prdx4 and TNFAIP8 levels were significantly higher than those of precancerous lesion group and benign group; the greater the HPV virus load, the lower the p27 and p16 levels and the higher the K-ras, c-myc, Prdx4 and TNFAIP8 levels in cervical tissue. Conclusions: hrHPV infection can result in tumor suppressor genes p27 and p16 expression deletion and increase the expression of proto-oncogene and apoptosis-inhibiting genes, and it is associated with the occurrence and development of cervical cancer.

  9. Concomitant targeting of multiple key transcription factors effectively disrupts cancer stem cells enriched in side population of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyan Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the failure of chemotherapy, which is likely due to the presence of the cancer stem cells (CSCs.To identify side population (SP cells and characterize s-like properties in human pancreatic cancer cell lines (h-PCCLs and to exploit the efficacy of concomitant targeting of multiple key transcription factors governing the stemness of pancreatic CSCs in suppressing CSC-like phenotypes.Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 DNA-binding dye efflux assay were used to sort SP and non-SP (NSP cells from three h-PCCLs: PANC-1, SW1990, and BxPc-3. The self-renewal ability, invasiveness, migration and drug resistance of SP cells were evaluated. Expression of CSC marker genes was analyzed. Tumorigenicity was assessed using a xenograft model in nude mice. Effects of a complex decoy oligonucleotide (cdODN-SCO designed to simultaneously targeting Sox2, Oct4 and c-Myc were assessed.CSCs were enriched in the side proportion (SP cells contained in the h-PCCLs and they possessed aggressive growth, invasion, migration and drug-resistance properties, compared with NSP cells. SP cells overexpressed stem cell markers CD133 and ALDH1, pluripotency maintaining factors Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4, oncogenic transcription factor c-Myc, signaling molecule Notch1, and drug resistant gene ABCG2. Moreover, SP cells consistently demonstrated significantly greater tumorigenicity than NSP cells in xenograft model of nude mice. CdODN-SOC efficiently suppressed all CSC properties and phenotypes, and minimized the tumorigenic capability of the SP cells and the resistance to chemotherapy. By comparison, the negative control failed to do so.The findings indicate that targeting the key genes conferring the stemness of CSCs can efficiently eliminate CSC-like phenotypes, and thus may be considered a new approach for cancer therapy. Specifically, the present study establishes the combination of Sox2/Oct4/c-Myc targeting as a

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human RuvB-like protein RuvBL1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorynia, Sabine; Matias, Pedro M.; Gonçalves, Susana; Coelho, Ricardo; Lopes, Gonçalo; Thomaz, Mónica; Huber, Martina; Haendler, Bernard; Donner, Peter; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    2005-01-01

    Human RuvB-like protein RuvBL1 plays important roles in essential signaling pathways like c-Myc and Wnt, in transcription, and in DNA repair and apoptosis. Crystals of both native and a Se-Met derivative were obtained and characterized. SAD data leading to the structure solution at 2.2 Å were measured from the Se-Met crystals. RuvBL1, an evolutionary highly conserved protein related to the AAA + family of ATPases, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The crystals are hexagonal and belong to space group P6, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 207.1, c = 60.7 Å and three molecules in the asymmetric unit

  11. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction of apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma cell lines by treatment with 3,4-dihydro-6-[4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)-1-piperazinyl]-2(1H)-quinolinone (vesnarinone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Keiichi; Fujito, Atsuya; Sagawa, Yasukazu; Yudate, Tamaki; Nishi, Hirotaka; Ito, Hiroe; Takayama, Masaomi

    2002-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis is an attractive strategy in cancer therapy but it clinical practice is not yet sufficient in choriocarcinoma. The quinolinone derivative, vesnarinone, is a novel inotropic agent used for treating congestive heart failure and may also have a potential anticancer activity. It induces apoptosis and differentiation in some tumor cell lines. We examined the antitumor effect of vesnarinone in eight cell lines established from human choriocarcinoma and hydatidiform mole using MTT assay and also analyzed the nuclear fragmentation of tumor cells by DNA electrophoresis assay. Vesnarinone inhibited the proliferation of choriocarcinoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and induced DNA fragmentation in cells. However, the BM cell line prepared by subcultivation from hydatidiform mole showed no growth suppression or DNA fragmentation in response to vesnarinone. On the other hand, PCR-SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing have shown that a human choriocarcinoma cell line, SCH, has a mutant p53 gene at codon 249. When SCH cells were treated with vesnarinone cellular proliferation was significantly inhibited. Vesnarinone suppressed the proliferation of all choriocarcinoma cell lines and induced apoptosis, regardless of the existence of p53 mutation. In addition, it has been found by RT-PCR that expression of c-Myc mRNA is upregulated by treating choriocarcinoma cells with vesnarinone. The finding suggests that vesnarinone might induce expression of c-Myc gene in choriocarcinoma cells, the product of which may be associated with the inhibition of cell growth and induce apoptosis. These results suggest that vesnarinone is a useful reagent for the treatment of choriocarcinoma.

  13. Pluripotent stem cells reveal the developmental biology of human megakaryocytes and provide a source of platelets for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Naoya; Eto, Koji

    2012-10-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells [PSCs; including human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)] can infinitely proliferate in vitro and are easily accessible for gene manipulation. Megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets can be created from human ESCs and iPSCs in vitro and represent a potential source of blood cells for transfusion and a promising tool for studying the human thrombopoiesis. Moreover, disease-specific iPSCs are a powerful tool for elucidating the pathogenesis of hematological diseases and for drug screening. In that context, we and other groups have developed in vitro MK and platelet differentiation systems from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Combining this co-culture system with a drug-inducible gene expression system enabled us to clarify the novel role played by c-MYC during human thrombopoiesis. In the next decade, technical advances (e.g., high-throughput genomic sequencing) will likely enable the identification of numerous gene mutations associated with abnormal thrombopoiesis. Combined with such technology, an in vitro system for differentiating human PSCs into MKs and platelets could provide a novel platform for studying human gene function associated with thrombopoiesis.

  14. Loss of tumorigenic potential by human lung tumor cells in the presence of antisense RNA specific to the ectopically synthesized alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, R T; Pasion, S G; Wong, D T; Fei, Y B; Biswas, D K

    1989-06-01

    A clonal strain of human lung tumor cells in culture (ChaGo), derived from a bronchogenic carcinoma, synthesizes and secretes large amounts of alpha (alpha) and a comparatively lower level of beta (beta) subunit of the glycoprotein hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). ChaGo cells lost their characteristic anchorage-independent growth phenotype in the presence of anti-alpha-HCG antibody. The effect of the antibody was partially reversed by addition of alpha-HCG to the culture medium. ChaGo cells were transfected with an expression vector (pRSV-anti-alpha-HCG), that directs synthesis of RNA complementary to alpha-HCG mRNA. The transfectants produced alpha-HCG antisense RNA which was associated with the reduced level of alpha-HCG. Transfectants also displayed several altered phenotypic properties, including altered morphology, less mitosis, reduced growth rate, loss of anchorage-independent growth, and loss of tumorigenicity in nude mice. Treatment of transfectants with 8,bromo-cAMP resulted in increased accumulation of alpha-HCG mRNA, no change in the level of alpha-HCG antisense RNA, release of the inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation, and restoration of anchorage-independent growth phenotype. The overexpression of c-myc, observed in ChaGo cells, was unaffected by the reduced level of alpha-HCG. These results suggest that ectopic synthesis of the alpha subunit of HCG plays a functional role in the transformation of these human lung cells.

  15. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency from human embryonic renal cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ling; Chen, Ruifang; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qi; Tang, Hailiang; Sun, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) emerges as a prospective therapeutic angle in regenerative medicine and a tool for drug screening. Although increasing numbers of iPSCs from different sources have been generated, there has been limited progress in yield of iPSC. Here, we show that four Yamanaka factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can convert human embryonic renal cortical cells (hERCCs) to pluripotent stem cells with a roughly 40-fold higher reprogramming efficiency compared with that of adult human dermal fibroblasts. These iPSCs show pluripotency in vitro and in vivo, as evidenced by expression of pluripotency associated genes, differentiation into three embryonic germ layers by teratoma tests, as well as neuronal fate specification by embryoid body formation. Moreover, the four exogenous genes are effectively silenced in these iPSCs. This study highlights the use of hERCCs to generate highly functional human iPSCs which may aid the study of genetic kidney diseases and accelerate the development of cell-based regenerative therapy.

  16. Glis family proteins are differentially implicated in the cellular reprogramming of human somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Young; Noh, Hye Bin; Kim, Hyeong-Taek; Lee, Kang-In; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2017-09-29

    The ground-breaking discovery of the reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent cells, termed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), was accomplished by delivering 4 transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, into fibroblasts. Since then, several efforts have attempted to unveil other factors that are directly implicated in or might enhance reprogramming. Importantly, a number of transcription factors are reported to retain reprogramming activity. A previous study suggested Gli-similar 1 (Glis1) as a factor that enhances the reprogramming of fibroblasts during iPSC generation. However, the implication of other Glis members, including Glis2 and Glis3 (variants 1 and 2), in cellular reprogramming remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of human Glis family proteins, including hGlis1-3, in cellular reprogramming. Our results demonstrate that hGlis1, which is reported to reprogram human fibroblasts, promotes the reprogramming of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs), indicating that the reprogramming activity of Glis1 is not cell type-specific. Strikingly, hGlis3 promoted the reprogramming of hADSCs as efficiently as hGlis1. On the contrary, hGlis2 showed a strong negative effect on reprogramming. Together, our results reveal clear differences in the cellular reprogramming activity among Glis family members and provide valuable insight into the development of a new reprogramming strategy using Glis family proteins.

  17. Identification of Multipotent Stem Cells in Human Brain Tissue Following Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebayashi, Kotaro; Tanaka, Yasue; Nakano-Doi, Akiko; Sakuma, Rika; Kamachi, Saeko; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hiroto; Takagi, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Nakagomi, Takayuki

    2017-06-01

    Perivascular regions of the brain harbor multipotent stem cells. We previously demonstrated that brain pericytes near blood vessels also develop multipotency following experimental ischemia in mice and these ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs) can contribute to neurogenesis. However, it is essential to understand the traits of iSCs in the poststroke human brain for possible applications in stem cell-based therapies for stroke patients. In this study, we report for the first time that iSCs can be isolated from the poststroke human brain. Putative iSCs were derived from poststroke brain tissue obtained from elderly stroke patients requiring decompressive craniectomy and partial lobectomy for diffuse cerebral infarction. Immunohistochemistry showed that these iSCs were localized near blood vessels within poststroke areas containing apoptotic/necrotic neurons and expressed both the stem cell marker nestin and several pericytic markers. Isolated iSCs expressed these same markers and demonstrated high proliferative potential without loss of stemness. Furthermore, isolated iSCs expressed other stem cell markers, such as Sox2, c-myc, and Klf4, and differentiated into multiple cells in vitro, including neurons. These results show that iSCs, which are likely brain pericyte derivatives, are present within the poststroke human brain. This study suggests that iSCs can contribute to neural repair in patients with stroke.

  18. Secretory TAT-peptide-mediated protein transduction of LIF receptor α-chain distal cytoplasmic motifs into human myeloid HL-60 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Sun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The distal cytoplasmic motifs of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor α-chain (LIFRα-CT3 can independently induce intracellular myeloid differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells by gene transfection; however, there are significant limitations in the potential clinical use of these motifs due to liposome-derived genetic modifications. To produce a potentially therapeutic LIFRα-CT3 with cell-permeable activity, we constructed a eukaryotic expression pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc plasmid with a signal peptide (ss inserted into the N-terminal that codes for an ss-TAT-CT3-cMyc fusion protein. The stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells via this vector and subsequent selection by Geneticin resulted in cell lines that express and secrete TAT-CT3-cMyc. The spent medium of pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc-transfected CHO cells could be purified using a cMyc-epitope-tag agarose affinity chromatography column and could be detected via SDS-PAGE, with antibodies against cMyc-tag. The direct administration of TAT-CT3-cMyc to HL-60 cell culture media caused the enrichment of CT3-cMyc in the cytoplasm and nucleus within 30 min and led to a significant reduction of viable cells (P < 0.05 8 h after exposure. The advantages of using this mammalian expression system include the ease of generating TAT fusion proteins that are adequately transcripted and the potential for a sustained production of such proteins in vitro for future AML therapy.

  19. Secretory TAT-peptide-mediated protein transduction of LIF receptor α-chain distal cytoplasmic motifs into human myeloid HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Q.; Xiong, J.; Lu, J.; Xu, S.; Li, Y.; Zhong, X.P.; Gao, G.K.; Liu, H.Q.

    2012-01-01

    The distal cytoplasmic motifs of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor α-chain (LIFRα-CT3) can independently induce intracellular myeloid differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells by gene transfection; however, there are significant limitations in the potential clinical use of these motifs due to liposome-derived genetic modifications. To produce a potentially therapeutic LIFRα-CT3 with cell-permeable activity, we constructed a eukaryotic expression pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc plasmid with a signal peptide (ss) inserted into the N-terminal that codes for an ss-TAT-CT3-cMyc fusion protein. The stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells via this vector and subsequent selection by Geneticin resulted in cell lines that express and secrete TAT-CT3-cMyc. The spent medium of pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc-transfected CHO cells could be purified using a cMyc-epitope-tag agarose affinity chromatography column and could be detected via SDS-PAGE, with antibodies against cMyc-tag. The direct administration of TAT-CT3-cMyc to HL-60 cell culture media caused the enrichment of CT3-cMyc in the cytoplasm and nucleus within 30 min and led to a significant reduction of viable cells (P < 0.05) 8 h after exposure. The advantages of using this mammalian expression system include the ease of generating TAT fusion proteins that are adequately transcripted and the potential for a sustained production of such proteins in vitro for future AML therapy

  20. Secretory TAT-peptide-mediated protein transduction of LIF receptor α-chain distal cytoplasmic motifs into human myeloid HL-60 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q. [Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xiong, J. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Lu, J. [Office of Medical Education, Training Department, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xu, S. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Li, Y. [State Food and Drug Administration of China,Huangdao Branch, Qingdao (China); Zhong, X.P.; Gao, G.K. [Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Liu, H.Q. [2Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-06-22

    The distal cytoplasmic motifs of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor α-chain (LIFRα-CT3) can independently induce intracellular myeloid differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells by gene transfection; however, there are significant limitations in the potential clinical use of these motifs due to liposome-derived genetic modifications. To produce a potentially therapeutic LIFRα-CT3 with cell-permeable activity, we constructed a eukaryotic expression pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc plasmid with a signal peptide (ss) inserted into the N-terminal that codes for an ss-TAT-CT3-cMyc fusion protein. The stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells via this vector and subsequent selection by Geneticin resulted in cell lines that express and secrete TAT-CT3-cMyc. The spent medium of pcDNA3.0-TAT-CT3-cMyc-transfected CHO cells could be purified using a cMyc-epitope-tag agarose affinity chromatography column and could be detected via SDS-PAGE, with antibodies against cMyc-tag. The direct administration of TAT-CT3-cMyc to HL-60 cell culture media caused the enrichment of CT3-cMyc in the cytoplasm and nucleus within 30 min and led to a significant reduction of viable cells (P < 0.05) 8 h after exposure. The advantages of using this mammalian expression system include the ease of generating TAT fusion proteins that are adequately transcripted and the potential for a sustained production of such proteins in vitro for future AML therapy.

  1. Cucurbitacin B inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation through disruption of microtubule polymerization and nucleophosmin/B23 translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangmano Suwit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucurbitacin B, an oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenoid compound extracted from the Thai medicinal plant Trichosanthes cucumerina L., has been reported to have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer. Cucurbitacin B is great of interest because of its biological activity. This agent inhibits growth of various types of human cancer cells lines. Methods In this study, we explored the novel molecular response of cucurbitacin B in human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The growth inhibitory effect of cucurbitacin B on breast cancer cells was assessed by MTT assay. The effects of cucurbitacin B on microtubules morphological structure and tubulin polymerization were analyzed using immunofluorescence technique and tubulin polymerization assay kit, respectively. Proteomic analysis was used to identify the target-specific proteins that involved in cucurbitacin B treatment. Some of the differentially expressed genes and protein products were validated by real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Cell cycle distributions and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. Results Cucurbitacin B exhibited strong antiproliferative effects against breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. We show that cucurbitacin B prominently alters the cytoskeletal network of breast cancer cells, inducing rapid morphologic changes and improper polymerization of the microtubule network. Moreover, the results of 2D-PAGE, real-time RT-PCR, and western blot analysis revealed that the expression of nucleophosmin/B23 and c-Myc decreased markedly after cucurbitacin B treatment. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that cucurbitacin B induced translocation of nucleophosmin/B23 from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm. Treatment with cucurbitacin B resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and the enhancement of apoptosis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cucurbitacin B may inhibit the

  2. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A novel frontier in the study of human primary immunodeficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessach, Itai M.; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Giliani, Silvia; Gennery, Andrew R.; Al-Herz, Waleed; Manos, Philip D.; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; Park, In-Hyun; Rucci, Francesca; Agarwal, Suneet; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Daley, George Q.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The novel ability to epigenetically reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells through the exogenous expression of transcription promises to revolutionize the study of human diseases. Objective Here we report on the generation of 25 induced pluripotent stem cell lines from 6 patients with various forms of Primary Immunodeficiencies, affecting adaptive and/or innate immunity. Methods Patients’ dermal fibroblasts were reprogrammed by expression of four transcription factors, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC using a single excisable polycistronic lentiviral vector. Results Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from patients with primary immunodeficiencies show a stemness profile that is comparable to that observed in human embryonic stem cells. Following in vitro differentiation into embryoid bodies, pluripotency of the patient-derived indiced pluripotent stem cells lines was demonstrated by expression of genes characteristic of each of the three embryonic layers. We have confirmed the patient-specific origin of the induced pluripotent stem cell lines, and ascertained maintenance of karyotypic integrity. Conclusion By providing a limitless source of diseased stem cells that can be differentiated into various cell types in vitro, the repository of induced pluripotent stem cell lines from patients with primary immunodeficiencies represents a unique resource to investigate the pathophysiology of hematopoietic and extra-hematopoietic manifestations of these diseases, and may assist in the development of novel therapeutic approaches based on gene correction. PMID:21185069

  3. Toll-like receptor 7 regulates pancreatic carcinogenesis in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Atsuo; Graffeo, Christopher S.; Zambirinis, Constantinos P.; Rehman, Adeel; Hackman, Michael; Fallon, Nina; Barilla, Rocky M.; Henning, Justin R.; Jamal, Mohsin; Rao, Raghavendra; Greco, Stephanie; Deutsch, Michael; Medina-Zea, Marco V.; Saeed, Usama Bin; Ego-Osuala, Melvin O.; Hajdu, Cristina; Miller, George

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer that interacts with stromal cells to produce a highly inflammatory tumor microenvironment that promotes tumor growth and invasiveness. The precise interplay between tumor and stroma remains poorly understood. TLRs mediate interactions between environmental stimuli and innate immunity and trigger proinflammatory signaling cascades. Our finding that TLR7 expression is upregulated in both epithelial and stromal compartments in human and murine pancreatic cancer led us to postulate that carcinogenesis is dependent on TLR7 signaling. In a mouse model of pancreatic cancer, TLR7 ligation vigorously accelerated tumor progression and induced loss of expression of PTEN, p16, and cyclin D1 and upregulation of p21, p27, p53, c-Myc, SHPTP1, TGF-β, PPARγ, and cyclin B1. Furthermore, TLR7 ligation induced STAT3 activation and interfaced with Notch as well as canonical NF-κB and MAP kinase pathways, but downregulated expression of Notch target genes. Moreover, blockade of TLR7 protected against carcinogenesis. Since pancreatic tumorigenesis requires stromal expansion, we proposed that TLR7 ligation modulates pancreatic cancer by driving stromal inflammation. Accordingly, we found that mice lacking TLR7 exclusively within their inflammatory cells were protected from neoplasia. These data suggest that targeting TLR7 holds promise for treatment of human pancreatic cancer. PMID:23023703

  4. Focal adhesion kinase is required for intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis downstream of Wnt/c-Myc signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, Gabrielle H.; Morton, Jennifer P.; Myant, Kevin; Phesse, Toby J.; Ridgway, Rachel A.; Marsh, Victoria; Wilkins, Julie A.; Athineos, Dimitris; Muncan, Vanesa; Kemp, Richard; Neufeld, Kristi; Clevers, Hans; Brunton, Valerie; Winton, Douglas J.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sears, Rosalie C.; Clarke, Alan R.; Frame, Margaret C.; Sansom, Owen J.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury and DNA damage. Here, we show that the integrin effector protein Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is dispensable for normal intestinal homeostasis and DNA damage signaling, but is essential for intestinal regeneration

  5. Understanding Selective Downregulation of c-Myc Expression through Inhibition of General Transcription Regulators in Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    87 MG cells were cultured in Eagle’s minimum essential medium (EMEM) modi - fied to contain Earle’s Balanced Salt Solution, nonessential amino acids, 2...engineered to ectopically express firefly luciferase and mCherry, allowing surrogate measurement of tumor growth in vivo. Nonobese diabetic severe combined

  6. C-MYC amplification and expression in stomach cancer samples in Iranian population using two techniques of CISH and IHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihea Khaleghian

    2015-07-01

    Results: Our data revealed that both diffuse and intestinal types of gastric cancer occurred significantly in men more than women. Our results showed an indication of some correlation between grades and CISH results, although the difference was not significant. Our data also showed that CISH+ patients (43.1% were more frequent in comparison with IHC+ patients (14.7%. There was a correlation between CISH and IHC. This result revealed that there was a significant difference between grades and IHC. There was also no statistically significant difference between CISH amplification in diffuse and intestinal types. Conclusion: Our conclusion is that for the treatment, management of stomach cancer, and monitoring of progress and prognosis of the tumor that is almost important for patients and clinicians, CISH test is a better and feasible to IHC test, with regards to sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Thermally Targeted Delivery of a c-Myc Inhibitory Peptide In Vivo Using Elastin-like Polypeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    cytoplasm. Also, in a subset of cells, Bac-ELP1⁎-H1 showed very bright nuclear staining exclusive of nucleoli (Fig. 5, lower right, arrows). 3.6. Time...localization was very bright relative to the amount of polypeptide in the cytoplasm, and it appeared to be nucleoplasmic and excluded from nucleoli . The

  8. Differential Requirements for c-Myc in Chronic Hematopoietic Hyperplasia and Acute Hematopoietic Malignancies in Pten-null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Yechen; Guo, Yinshi; Breslin, Peter; Zhang, Shubin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Jiwang

    2011-01-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), acute T-lymphocytic or myeloid leukemia and T-lymphocytic lymphoma were developed in inducible Pten-knockout (Pten−/−) mice. The appearance of these multiple diseases in one animal model provides an opportunity to study the pathogenesis of multiple diseases simultaneously. To study whether Myc function is required for the development of these hematopoietic disorders in Pten−/− mice, we generated inducible Pten/Myc double-knockout mice (Pten−/−/Myc−/−). By comparing the hematopoietic phenotypes of these double-knockout mice with those of Pten−/− mice, we found that both sets of animals developed MPDs and LPDs. However, none of the compound-mutant mice developed acute leukemia or lymphoma. Interestingly, in contrast to the MPDs which developed in Pten−/− mice which are dominated by granulocytes, megakaryocytes predominate in the MPDs of Pten−/−/Myc−/− mice. Our study suggests that the deregulation of PI3K/Akt signaling in Pten−/− hematopoietic cells protects these cells from apoptotic cell death, resulting in chronic proliferative disorders. But due to the differential requirement for Myc in granulocyte as compared to megakaryocyte proliferation, Myc deletion converts Pten−/− MPDs from granulocyte-dominated to megakaryocyte-dominated conditions. Myc is absolutely required for the development of acute hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:21926961

  9. Understanding Selective Downregulation of c-Myc Expression through Inhibition of General Transcription Regulators in Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We next tested whether BET bromodomain inhibition mitigated the acti- vation of proadhesion pathways in aortic endothelium, which oc- curs during the...tinuum of activity as Myc flickers on and off of weakly bound, weakly expressed promoters, but stays longer or more frequently at high output promoters

  10. Conjugation of gold nanoparticles and recombinant human endostatin modulates vascular normalization via interruption of anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fan; Yang, Wende; Li, Wei; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Shuhao; Li, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoxu; Ding, Hui; Qin, Li; Pan, Yunlong

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have revealed the potential of normalizing tumor vessels in anti-angiogenic treatment. Recombinant human endostatin is an anti-angiogenic agent which has been applied in clinical tumor treatment. Our previous research indicated that gold nanoparticles could be a nanoparticle carrier for recombinant human endostatin delivery. The recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle conjugates normalized vessels, which improved chemotherapy. However, the mechanism of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticle-induced vascular normalization has not been explored. Anterior gradient 2 has been reported to be over-expressed in many malignant tumors and involved in tumor angiogenesis. To date, the precise efficacy of recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles on anterior gradient 2-mediated angiogenesis or anterior gradient 2-related signaling cohort remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could normalize vessels in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts, and we further elucidated whether recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles could interrupt anterior gradient 2-induced angiogenesis. In vivo, it was indicated that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles increased pericyte expression while inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and anterior gradient 2 expression in metastatic colorectal cancer xenografts. In vitro, we uncovered that recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles reduced cell migration and tube formation induced by anterior gradient 2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Treatment with recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles attenuated anterior gradient 2-mediated activation of MMP2, cMyc, VE-cadherin, phosphorylation of p38, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrated recombinant human endostatin-gold nanoparticles might normalize

  11. Drosophila photoreceptor axon guidance and targeting requires the dreadlocks SH2/SH3 adapter protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, P A; Rao, Y; Salecker, I; McGlade, J; Pawson, T; Zipursky, S L

    1996-05-31

    Mutations in the Drosophila gene dreadlocks (dock) disrupt photoreceptor cell (R cell) axon guidance and targeting. Genetic mosaic analysis and cell-type-specific expression of dock transgenes demonstrate dock is required in R cells for proper innervation. Dock protein contains one SH2 and three SH3 domains, implicating it in tyrosine kinase signaling, and is highly related to the human proto-oncogene Nck. Dock expression is detected in R cell growth cones in the target region. We propose Dock transmits signals in the growth cone in response to guidance and targeting cues. These findings provide an important step for dissection of signaling pathways regulating growth cone motility.

  12. Aberrant status and clinicopathologic characteristic associations of 11 target genes in 1,321 Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengnan; Zhan, Cheng; Li, Ming; Yang, Xiaodong; Yang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Miao; Xia, Yifeng; Feng, Mingxiang; Wang, Qun

    2018-01-01

    The aberrant status of target genes and their associations with clinicopathologic characteristics are still unclear in primary lung adenocarcinoma. The common mutations and translocations of nine target genes were evaluated in 1,247 specimens of surgically-resected primary lung adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expressions of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in 731 specimens. The frequency of the aberrations and their associations with clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. Overall, 952 (76.3%) of 1,247 patients harbored at least one target mutation or translocation: epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) (729, 58.5%), v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog ( KRAS ) (83, 6.7%), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 ( HER2 ) (82, 6.6%), anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) (23, 1.8%), phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic alpha polypeptide ( PIK3CA ) (20, 1.6%), Ret proto-oncogene RET (15, 1.2%), ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase ( ROS1 ) (12, 1.0%), B-raf proto-oncogene ( BRAF ) (9, 0.7%), neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog ( NRAS ) (3, 0.2%). Fourteen (1.9%) of 731 patients were PD-1 positive and 95 (13.0%) were PD-L1 positive in tumor cells. In men and smokers, there were more frequent KRAS mutations (both Ppatients, while HER2 (Ppatients with EGFR mutations (all Ppatients with primary lung adenocarcinoma harbored target gene aberrations. The frequency of each alteration differed in patients depending on clinicopathologic characteristics.

  13. Glucocorticoids and Polyamine Inhibitors Synergize to Kill Human Leukemic CEM Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron L; Johnson, Betty H; Medh, Rheem D; Townsend, Courtney M; Thompson, E Brad

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Glucocorticoids are well-known apoptotic agents in certain classes of lymphoid cell malignancies. Reduction of intracellular polyamine levels by use of inhibitors that block polyamine synthesis slows or inhibits growth of many cells in vitro. Several such inhibitors have shown efficacy in clinical trials, though the toxicity of some compounds has limited their usefulness. We have tested the effects of combinations of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) and two polyamine inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and methyl glyoxal bis guanylhydrazone (MGBG), on the clonal line of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, CEM-C7-14. Dex alone kills these cells, though only after a delay of at least 24 hours. We also evaluated a partially glucocorticoid-resistant c-Myc-expressing CEM-C7-14 clone. We show that Dex downregulates ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis. Pretreatment with the ODC inhibitor DFMO, followed by addition of Dex, enhances steroid-evoked kill slightly. The combination of pretreatment with sublethal concentrations of both DFMO and the inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, MGBG, followed by addition of Dex, results in strong synergistic cell kill. Both the rapidity and extent of cell kill are enhanced compared to the effects of Dex alone. These results suggest that use of such combinations in vivo may result in apoptosis of malignant cells with lower overall toxicity. PMID:11922393

  14. Glucocorticoids and Polyamine Inhibitors Synergize to Kill Human Leukemic CEM Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are well-known apoptotic agents in certain classes of lymphoid cell malignancies. Reduction of intracellular polyamine levels by use of inhibitors that block polyamine synthesis slows or inhibits growth of many cells in vitro. Several such inhibitors have shown efficacy in clinical trials, though the toxicity of some compounds has limited their usefulness. We have tested the effects of combinations of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. (20Dex and two polyamine inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine. (20DFMO and methyl glyoxal bis guanylhydrazone. (20MGBG, on the clonal line of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, CEM-C7-14. Dex alone kills these cells, though only after a delay of at least 24 hours. We also evaluated a partially glucocorticoid-resistant c-Myc-expressing CEM-C7-14 clone. We show that Dex downregulates ornithine decarboxylase. (20ODC, the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis. Pretreatment with the ODC inhibitor DFMO, followed by addition of Dex, enhances steroid-evoked kill slightly. The combination of pretreatment with sublethal concentrations of both DFMO and the inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, MGBG, followed by addition of Dex, results in strong synergistic cell kill. Both the rapidity and extent of cell kill are enhanced compared to the effects of Dex alone. These results suggest that use of such combinations in vivo may result in apoptosis of malignant cells with lower overall toxicity.

  15. Involvement of HIF-1α activation in the doxorubicin resistance of human osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncuzzi, Laura; Pancotti, Fabia; Baldini, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer in children and adolescents. Despite aggressive treatment regimens, survival outcomes remain unsatisfactory, particularly in patients with metastatic and/or recurrent disease. Unfortunately, treatment failure is commonly due to the development of chemoresistance, for which the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF‑1α) and its signalling pathways as mediators of drug-resistance in human osteosarcoma. Toward this aim, we established two osteosarcoma cell lines selected for resistance to doxorubicin, a drug of choice in the treatment of this tumour. Our results showed that the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype was also mediated by HIF-1α, the most important regulator of cell adaptation to hypoxia. Our data showed that this transcription factor promoted the outward transport of intracellular doxorubicin by activating the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in osteosarcoma cells maintained in normoxic conditions. In addition, it hindered doxorubicin-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of c-Myc and p21. Finally, we observed that the doxorubicin-resistant cells maintained for 2 months of continuous culture in a drug-free medium, lost their drug-resistance and this effect was associated with the absence of HIF-1α expression. The emerging role of HIF-1α in osteosarcoma biology indicates its use as a valuable therapeutic target.

  16. Effect of low oxygen tension on the biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Ko, Young Jong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Park, Hyun Jin; Park, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong-Ik; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-11-01

    Culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under ambient conditions does not replicate the low oxygen environment of normal physiological or pathological states and can result in cellular impairment during culture. To overcome these limitations, we explored the effect of hypoxia (1 % O 2 ) on the biological characteristics of MSCs over the course of different culture periods. The following biological characteristics were examined in human bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured under hypoxia for 8 weeks: proliferation rate, morphology, cell size, senescence, immunophenotypic characteristics, and the expression levels of stemness-associated factors and cytokine and chemokine genes. MSCs cultured under hypoxia for approximately 2 weeks showed increased proliferation and viability. During long-term culture, hypoxia delayed phenotypic changes in MSCs, such as increased cell volume, altered morphology, and the expression of senescence-associated-β-gal, without altering their characteristic immunophenotypic characteristics. Furthermore, hypoxia increased the expression of stemness and chemokine-related genes, including OCT4 and CXCR7, and did not decrease the expression of KLF4, C-MYC, CCL2, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCR4 compared with levels in cells cultured under normoxia. In conclusion, low oxygen tension improved the biological characteristics of MSCs during ex vivo expansion. These data suggest that hypoxic culture could be a useful method for increasing the efficacy of MSC cell therapies.

  17. FBXW7 Acts as an Independent Prognostic Marker and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Human Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7 is a potent tumor suppressor in human cancers including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we found that the expressions of FBXW7 protein and mRNA levels in osteosarcoma (OS cases were significantly lower than those in normal bone tissues. Clinical analysis indicated that FBXW7 was expressed at lower levels in OS patients with advanced clinical stage, high T classification and poor histological differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that high expression of FBXW7 was correlated with a better 5-year survival of OS patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that FBXW7 was an independent prognostic marker in OS. Our in vitro studies showed that FBXW7 overexpression inhibited cell cycle transition and cell proliferation, and promoted apoptosis in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. In a nude mouse xenograft model, FBXW7 overexpression slowed down tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest. Mechanistically, FBXW7 inversely regulated oncoprotein c-Myc and cyclin E levels in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. Together these findings suggest that FBXW7 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and inhibit tumor progression by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest in OS.

  18. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin expressions of apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apoptosis genes in rats following traumatic brain injury. Xuesong Yuan1* ... ĸB)-, c-myc-, and Fas/Fasl-positive cells were identified in brain tissues by ... stem cells present in the bone marrow. ... neuronal regeneration [12], lowering toxicity of.

  19. Screening of Stat3 inhibitory effects of Korean herbal medicines in the A549 human lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Shik; Bang, Ok-Sun; Kim, Jinhee

    2014-06-01

    The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is constitutively activated in many human cancers. It promotes tumor cell proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, induces angiogenesis and metastasis, and suppresses antitumor host immune responses. Therefore, Stat3 has emerged as a promising molecular target for cancer therapies. In this study, we evaluated the Stat3-suppressive activity of 38 herbal medicines traditionally used in Korea. Medicinal herb extracts in 70% ethanol were screened for their ability to suppress Stat3 in the A549 human lung cancer cell line. A Stat3-responsive reporter assay system was used to detect intracellular Stat3 activity in extract-treated cells, and Western blot analyses were performed to measure the expression profiles of Stat3-regulated proteins. Fifty percent of the 38 extracts possessed at least mild Stat3-suppressive activities (i.e., activity less than 75% of the vehicle control). Ethanol extracts of Bupleurum falcatum L., Taraxacum officinale Weber, Solanum nigrum L., Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Euonymus alatus Sieb., Artemisia capillaris Thunb., and Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill inhibited up to 75% of the vehicle control Stat3 activity level. A549 cells treated with these extracts also had reduced Bcl-xL, Survivin, c-Myc, and Mcl-1 expression. Many medicinal herbs traditionally used in Korea contain Stat3 activity-suppressing substances. Because of the therapeutic impact of Stat3 inhibition, these results could be useful when developing novel cancer therapeutics from medicinal herbs.

  20. An Algorithm for Generating Small RNAs Capable of Epigenetically Modulating Transcriptional Gene Silencing and Activation in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ackley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small noncoding antisense RNAs (sasRNAs guide epigenetic silencing complexes to target loci in human cells and modulate gene transcription. When these targeted loci are situated within a promoter, long-term, stable epigenetic silencing of transcription can occur. Recent studies suggest that there exists an endogenous form of such epigenetic regulation in human cells involving long noncoding RNAs. In this article, we present and validate an algorithm for the generation of highly effective sasRNAs that can mimic the endogenous noncoding RNAs involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. We validate this algorithm by targeting several oncogenes including AKT-1, c-MYC, K-RAS, and H-RAS. We also target a long antisense RNA that mediates the epigenetic repression of the tumor suppressor gene DUSP6, silenced in pancreatic cancer. An algorithm that can efficiently design small noncoding RNAs for the epigenetic transcriptional silencing or activation of specific genes has potential therapeutic and experimental applications.

  1. Anti-proliferative activity of the quassinoid NBT-272 in childhood medulloblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helson Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With current treatment strategies, nearly half of all medulloblastoma (MB patients die from progressive tumors. Accordingly, the identification of novel therapeutic strategies remains a major goal. Deregulation of c-MYC is evident in numerous human cancers. In MB, over-expression of c-MYC has been shown to correlate with anaplasia and unfavorable prognosis. In neuroblastoma – an embryonal tumor with biological similarities to MB – the quassinoid NBT-272 has been demonstrated to inhibit cellular proliferation and to down-regulate c-MYC protein expression. Methods To study MB cell responses to NBT-272 and their dependence on the level of c-MYC expression, DAOY (wild-type, empty vector transfected or c-MYC transfected, D341 (c-MYC amplification and D425 (c-MYC amplification human MB cells were used. The cells were treated with different concentrations of NBT-272 and the impact on cell proliferation, apoptosis and c-MYC expression was analyzed. Results NBT-272 treatment resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation (IC50 in the range of 1.7 – 9.6 ng/ml and in a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death in all human MB cell lines tested. Treatment with NBT-272 resulted in up to 90% down-regulation of c-MYC protein, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis, and in a significant inhibition of c-MYC binding activity. Anti-proliferative effects were slightly more prominent in D341 and D425 human MB cells with c-MYC amplification and slightly more pronounced in c-MYC over-expressing DAOY cells compared to DAOY wild-type cells. Moreover, treatment of synchronized cells by NBT-272 induced a marked cell arrest at the G1/S boundary. Conclusion In human MB cells, NBT-272 treatment inhibits cellular proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, blocks cell cycle progression, induces apoptosis, and down-regulates the expression of the oncogene c-MYC. Thus, NBT-272 may represent a novel drug candidate to inhibit

  2. ZO-1 expression is suppressed by GM-CSF via miR-96/ERG in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Dongxin; Wei, Jiayi; Fang, Wengang; Zhao, Weidong; Chen, Yuhua; Shang, Deshu

    2018-05-01

    The level of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases in some disorders such as vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. We previously reported that in Alzheimer's disease patients, a high level of GM-CSF in the brain parenchyma downregulated expression of ZO-1, a blood-brain barrier tight junction protein, and facilitated the infiltration of peripheral monocytes across the blood-brain barrier. However, the molecular mechanism underlying regulation of ZO-1 expression by GM-CSF is unclear. Herein, we found that the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor ERG cooperated with the proto-oncogene protein c-MYC in regulation of ZO-1 transcription in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). The ERG expression was suppressed by miR-96 which was increased by GM-CSF through the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Inhibition of miR-96 prevented ZO-1 down-regulation induced by GM-CSF both in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed the mechanism of ZO-1 expression reduced by GM-CSF, and provided a potential target, miR-96, which could block ZO-1 down-regulation caused by GM-CSF in BMECs.

  3. Distinct types of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefnagel, Juliette J; Dijkman, Remco; Basso, Katia; Jansen, Patty M; Hallermann, Christian; Willemze, Rein; Tensen, Cornelis P; Vermeer, Maarten H

    2005-05-01

    In the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) classification 2 types of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma (PCLBCL) are distinguished: primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphomas (PCFCCL) and PCLBCL of the leg (PCLBCL-leg). Distinction between both groups is considered important because of differences in prognosis (5-year survival > 95% and 52%, respectively) and the first choice of treatment (radiotherapy or systemic chemotherapy, respectively), but is not generally accepted. To establish a molecular basis for this subdivision in the EORTC classification, we investigated the gene expression profiles of 21 PCLBCLs by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering based on a B-cell signature (7450 genes) classified PCLBCL into 2 distinct subgroups consisting of, respectively, 8 PCFCCLs and 13 PCLBCLsleg. PCLBCLs-leg showed increased expression of genes associated with cell proliferation; the proto-oncogenes Pim-1, Pim-2, and c-Myc; and the transcription factors Mum1/IRF4 and Oct-2. In the group of PCFCCL high expression of SPINK2 was observed. Further analysis suggested that PCFCCLs and PCLBCLs-leg have expression profiles similar to that of germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, respectively. The results of this study suggest that different pathogenetic mechanisms are involved in the development of PCFCCLs and PCLBCLs-leg and provide molecular support for the subdivision used in the EORTC classification.

  4. CCL5 promotes proliferation of MCF-7 cells through mTOR-dependent mRNA translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murooka, Thomas T.; Rahbar, Ramtin; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2009-01-01

    The proliferative capacity of cancer cells is regulated by factors intrinsic to cancer cells and by secreted factors in the microenvironment. Here, we investigated the proto-oncogenic potential of the chemokine receptor, CCR5, in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. At physiological levels, CCL5, a ligand for CCR5, enhanced MCF-7.CCR5 proliferation. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibited this CCL5-inducible proliferation. Because mTOR directly modulates mRNA translation, we investigated whether CCL5 activation of CCR5 leads to increased translation. CCL5 induced the formation of the eIF4F translation initiation complex through an mTOR-dependent process. Indeed, CCL5 initiated mRNA translation, shown by an increase in high-molecular-weight polysomes. Specifically, we show that CCL5 mediated a rapid up-regulation of protein expression for cyclin D1, c-Myc and Dad-1, without affecting their mRNA levels. Taken together, we describe a mechanism by which CCL5 influences translation of rapamycin-sensitive mRNAs, thereby providing CCR5-positive breast cancer cells with a proliferative advantage.

  5. ERβ inhibits proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Gwendal; Bresson, Damien; Lucas, Annick; Chauveau, Corine; Vignon, Françoise

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the expression of ERβ in breast cancer is lower than in normal breast, suggesting that ERβ could play an important role in carcinogenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we engineered estrogen-receptor negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to reintroduce either ERα or ERβ protein with an adenoviral vector. In these cells, ERβ (as ERα) expression was monitored using RT-PCR and Western blot. ERβ protein was localized in the nucleus (immunocytochemistry) and able to transactivate estrogen-responsive reporter constructs in the presence of estradiol. ERβ and ERα induced the expression of several endogenous genes such as pS2, TGFα or the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21, but in contrast to ERα, ERβ was unable to regulate c-myc proto-oncogene expression. The pure antiestrogen ICI 164, 384 completely blocked ERα and ERβ estrogen-induced activities. ERβ inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation in a ligand-independent manner, whereas ERα inhibition of proliferation is hormone-dependent. Moreover, ERβ and ERα, decreased cell motility and invasion. Our data bring the first evidence that ERβ is an important modulator of proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells and support the hypothesis that the loss of ERβ expression could be one of the events leading to the development of breast cancer. PMID:11517191

  6. Reversible dual inhibitor against G9a and DNMT1 improves human iPSC derivation enhancing MET and facilitating transcription factor engagement to the genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Roberto Rodriguez-Madoz

    Full Text Available The combination of defined factors with small molecules targeting epigenetic factors is a strategy that has been shown to enhance optimal derivation of iPSCs and could be used for disease modelling, high throughput screenings and/or regenerative medicine applications. In this study, we showed that a new first-in-class reversible dual G9a/DNMT1 inhibitor compound (CM272 improves the efficiency of human cell reprogramming and iPSC generation from primary cells of healthy donors and patient samples, using both integrative and non-integrative methods. Moreover, CM272 facilitates the generation of human iPSC with only two factors allowing the removal of the most potent oncogenic factor cMYC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mechanistically, treatment with CM272 induces heterochromatin relaxation, facilitates the engagement of OCT4 and SOX2 transcription factors to OSKM refractory binding regions that are required for iPSC establishment, and enhances mesenchymal to epithelial transition during the early phase of cell reprogramming. Thus, the use of this new G9a/DNMT reversible dual inhibitor compound may represent an interesting alternative for improving cell reprogramming and human iPSC derivation for many different applications while providing interesting insights into reprogramming mechanisms.

  7. Taraxinic acid, a hydrolysate of sesquiterpene lactone glycoside from the Taraxacum coreanum NAKAI, induces the differentiation of human acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hye; Shin, Kyung-Min; Kim, Na-Young; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Lee, Yong Sup; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Park, Hee-Juhn; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2002-11-01

    The present work was performed to elucidate the active moiety of a sesquiterpene lactone, taraxinic acid-1'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1). from Taraxacum coreanum NAKAI on the cytotoxicity of various cancer cells. Based on enzymatic hydrolysis and MTT assay, the active moiety should be attributed to the aglycone taraxinic acid (1a). rather than the glycoside (1). Taraxinic acid exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against human leukemia-derived HL-60. In addition, this compound was found to be a potent inducer of HL-60 cell differentiation as assessed by a nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test, esterase activity assay, phagocytic activity assay, morphology change, and expression of CD 14 and CD 66 b surface antigens. These results suggest that taraxinic acid induces the differentiation of human leukemia cells to monocyte/macrophage lineage. Moreover, the expression level of c-myc was down-regulated during taraxinic acid-dependent HL-60 cell differentiation, whereas p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1) were up-regulated. Taken together, our results suggest that taraxinic acid may have potential as a therapeutic agent in human leukemia.

  8. Selective activation of human heat shock gene transcription by nitrosourea antitumor drugs mediated by isocyanate-induced damage and activation of heat shock transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, R A; Abravaya, K; Seidenfeld, J; Morimoto, R I

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of cultured human tumor cells with the chloroethylnitrosourea antitumor drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) selectively induces transcription and protein synthesis of a subset of the human heat shock or stress-induced genes (HSP90 and HSP70) with little effect on other stress genes or on expression of the c-fos, c-myc, or beta-actin genes. The active component of BCNU and related compounds appears to be the isocyanate moiety that causes carbamoylation of proteins and nucleic acids. Transcriptional activation of the human HSP70 gene by BCNU is dependent on the heat shock element and correlates with the level of heat shock transcription factor and its binding to the heat shock element in vivo. Unlike activation by heat or heavy metals, BCNU-mediated activation is strongly dependent upon new protein synthesis. This suggests that BCNU-induced, isocyanate-mediated damage to newly synthesized protein(s) may be responsible for activation of the heat shock transcription factor and increased transcription of the HSP90 and HSP70 genes. Images PMID:2052560

  9. Reversible dual inhibitor against G9a and DNMT1 improves human iPSC derivation enhancing MET and facilitating transcription factor engagement to the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan Roberto; San Jose-Eneriz, Edurne; Rabal, Obdulia; Zapata-Linares, Natalia; Miranda, Estibaliz; Rodriguez, Saray; Porciuncula, Angelo; Vilas-Zornoza, Amaia; Garate, Leire; Segura, Victor; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Agirre, Xabier; Oyarzabal, Julen; Prosper, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    The combination of defined factors with small molecules targeting epigenetic factors is a strategy that has been shown to enhance optimal derivation of iPSCs and could be used for disease modelling, high throughput screenings and/or regenerative medicine applications. In this study, we showed that a new first-in-class reversible dual G9a/DNMT1 inhibitor compound (CM272) improves the efficiency of human cell reprogramming and iPSC generation from primary cells of healthy donors and patient samples, using both integrative and non-integrative methods. Moreover, CM272 facilitates the generation of human iPSC with only two factors allowing the removal of the most potent oncogenic factor cMYC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mechanistically, treatment with CM272 induces heterochromatin relaxation, facilitates the engagement of OCT4 and SOX2 transcription factors to OSKM refractory binding regions that are required for iPSC establishment, and enhances mesenchymal to epithelial transition during the early phase of cell reprogramming. Thus, the use of this new G9a/DNMT reversible dual inhibitor compound may represent an interesting alternative for improving cell reprogramming and human iPSC derivation for many different applications while providing interesting insights into reprogramming mechanisms.

  10. Immortalization of normal human fibroblasts by treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L; Mihara, K; Kondo, Y; Honma, M; Namba, M

    1993-02-01

    Normal human fibroblasts (the OUMS-24 strain), derived from a 6-week-old human embryo, were transformed (into the OUMS-24F line) and immortalized by repeated treatments (59 times) with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). Treatment began during primary culture and ended at the 51st population doubling level (PDL). At the 57th PDL (146 days after the last treatment), morphologically altered, epithelial-type cells appeared, began to grow and became immortal (now past the 100th PDL). However, the control fibroblasts, which were not treated with 4NQO, senesced at the 62nd PDL. The finding that extensive, repeated treatments with 4NQO are required for the immortalization of normal human cells, indicates that multiple mutational events are involved in the immortalization of human cells in general. In other words, immortalization itself seems to be a multi-step process. Karyotypic analysis showed that many cells were hypodiploid before immortalization, but that afterwards chromosomes were distributed broadly in the diploid to tetraploid regions. The immortalized cells showed amplification and enhanced expression of c-myc. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis showed that the number of disappearing cellular proteins was greater than the number of the newly appearing ones after the cells became immortalized. Since the immortalized cells showed neither anchorage-independent growth nor tumorigenicity, they are useful for studying factors that can contribute to multi-step carcinogenesis in human cells. In addition, genetically matched normal (OUMS-24) and immortalized (OUMS-24F) cells will be useful for analyzing the genes related to cellular mortality and immortalization.

  11. v-Ha-ras oncogene insertion: A model for tumor progression of human small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabry, M.; Nakagawa, Toshitaro; Nelkin, B.D.; McDowell, E.; Gesell, M.; Eggleston, J.C.; Casero, R.A. Jr.; Baylin, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) manifests a range of phenotypes in culture that may be important in understanding its relationship to non-SCLCs and to tumor progression events in patients. Most SCLC-derived cell lines, termed classic SCLC lines, have properties similar to SCLC tumors in patients. To delineate further the relationships between these phenotypes and the molecular events involved, the authors inserted the v-Ha-ras gene in SCLC cell lines with (biochemical variant) and without (classic) an amplified c-myc gene. These two SCLC subtypes had markedly different phenotypic responses to similar levels of expression of v-Ha-ras RNA. No biochemical or morphologic changes were observed in classic SCLC cells. In contrast, in biochemical variant SCLC cells, v-Ha-ras expression induced features typical of large cell undifferentiated lung carcinoma. Expression of v-Ha-ras in biochemical variant SCLC cells directly demonstrates that important transitions can occur between phenotypes of human lung cancer cells and that these may play a critical role in tumor progression events in patients. The finding provide a model system to study molecular events involved in tumor progression steps within a series of related tumor types

  12. Effects of mechanical stimulation on the reprogramming of somatic cells into human-induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mi; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Park, So Hee; Han, Myung-Kwan; Kim, Jae Ho; Shin, Ji Won; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2017-06-08

    Mechanical stimuli play important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of adult stem cells. However, few studies on their effects on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been published. Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded onto flexible membrane-bottom plates, and infected with retrovirus expressing the four reprogramming factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF, and c-MYC (OSKM). The cells were subjected to equiaxial stretching (3% or 8% for 2, 4, or 7 days) and seeded on feeder cells (STO). The reprogramming into iPSCs was evaluated by the expression of pluripotent markers, in vitro differentiation into three germ layers, and teratoma formation. Equiaxial stretching enhanced reprogramming efficiency without affecting the viral transduction rate. iPSCs induced by transduction of four reprogramming factors and application of equiaxial stretching had characteristics typical of iPSCs in terms of pluripotency and differentiation potentials. This is the first study to show that mechanical stimuli can increase reprogramming efficiency. However, it did not enhance the infection rate, indicating that mechanical stimuli, defined as stretching in this study, have positive effects on reprogramming rather than on infection. Additional studies should evaluate the mechanism underlying the modulation of reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs.

  13. Inactivation of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Reduces Bile Acid/Farnesoid X Receptor Expression through Fxr gene CpG Methylation in Mouse Colon Tumors and Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmin, Ornella I; Fang, Changming; Lyon, Adam M; Doetschman, Tom C; Thompson, Patricia A; Martinez, Jesse D; Smith, Jeffrey W; Lance, Peter M; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2016-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile acid (BA) metabolism and possesses tumor suppressor functions. FXR expression is reduced in colorectal tumors of subjects carrying inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Identifying the mechanisms responsible for this reduction may offer new molecular targets for colon cancer prevention. We investigated how APC inactivation influences the regulation of FXR expression in colonic mucosal cells. We hypothesized that APC inactivation would epigenetically repress nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (FXR gene name) expression through increased CpG methylation. Normal proximal colonic mucosa and normal-appearing adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors were collected from wild-type C57BL/6J and Apc-deficient (Apc(Min) (/+)) male mice, respectively. The expression of Fxr, ileal bile acid-binding protein (Ibabp), small heterodimer partner (Shp), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In both normal and adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors, we measured CpG methylation of Fxr in bisulfonated genomic DNA. In vitro, we measured the impact of APC inactivation and deoxycholic acid (DCA) treatment on FXR expression in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells transfected with silencing RNA for APC and HT-29 cells carrying inactivated APC. In Apc(Min) (/+) mice, constitutive CpG methylation of the Fxrα3/4 promoter was linked to reduced (60-90%) baseline Fxr, Ibabp, and Shp and increased Cox-2 expression in apparently normal adjacent mucosa and colon tumors. Apc knockdown in HCT-116 cells increased cellular myelocytomatosis (c-MYC) and lowered (∼50%) FXR expression, which was further reduced (∼80%) by DCA. In human HCT-116 but not HT-29 colon cancer cells, DCA induced FXR expression and lowered CpG methylation of FXR. We conclude that the loss of APC function favors the silencing of FXR expression through CpG hypermethylation in mouse colonic mucosa and human colon cells

  14. Reconstruction, visualization and explorative analysis of human pluripotency network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Narad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genes/proteins involved in pluripotency and their inter-relationships is important for understanding the induction/loss and maintenance of pluripotency. With the availability of large volume of data on interaction/regulation of pluripotency scattered across a large number of biological databases and hundreds of scientific journals, it is required a systematic integration of data which will create a complete view of pluripotency network. Describing and interpreting such a network of interaction and regulation (i.e., stimulation and inhibition links are essential tasks of computational biology, an important first step in systems-level understanding of the underlying mechanisms of pluripotency. To address this, we have assembled a network of 166 molecular interactions, stimulations and inhibitions, based on a collection of research data from 147 publications, involving 122 human genes/proteins, all in a standard electronic format, enabling analyses by readily available software such as Cytoscape and its Apps (formerly called "Plugins". The network includes the core circuit of OCT4 (POU5F1, SOX2 and NANOG, its periphery (such as STAT3, KLF4, UTF1, ZIC3, and c-MYC, connections to upstream signaling pathways (such as ACTIVIN, WNT, FGF, and BMP, and epigenetic regulators (such as L1TD1, LSD1 and PRC2. We describe the general properties of the network and compare it with other literature-based networks. Gene Ontology (GO analysis is being performed to find out the over-represented GO terms in the network. We use several expression datasets to condense the network to a set of network links that identify the key players (genes/proteins and the pathways involved in transition from one state of pluripotency to other state (i.e., native to primed state, primed to non-pluripotent state and pluripotent to non-pluripotent state.

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cells generated from human adipose-derived stem cells using a non-viral polycistronic plasmid in feeder-free conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjian Qu

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined transcription factors (TFs. However, the optimal cell type and the easy reprogramming approaches that minimize genetic aberrations of parent cells must be considered before generating the iPSCs. This paper reports a method to generate iPSCs from adult human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs without the use of a feeder layer, by ectopic expression of the defined transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and C-MYC using a polycistronic plasmid. The results, based on the expression of pluripotent marker, demonstrated that the iPSCs have the characteristics similar to those of embryonic stem cells (ESCs. The iPSCs differentiated into three embryonic germ layers both in vitro by embryoid body generation and in vivo by teratoma formation after being injected into immunodeficient mice. More importantly, the plasmid DNA does not integrate into the genome of human iPSCs as revealed by Southern blotting experiments. Karyotypic analysis also demonstrated that the reprogramming of hADSCs by the defined factors did not induce chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, this technology provides a platform for studying the biology of iPSCs without viral vectors, and can hopefully overcome immune rejection and ethical concerns, which are the two important barriers of ESC applications.

  16. Fibulin-4 is a novel Wnt/β-Catenin pathway activator in human osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Renzeng [Department of Othopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No.1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, 450000 Henan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The No.3 People’s Hospital of Anyang City, Anyang 455000 (China); Wang, Limin, E-mail: gu2keo@163.com [Department of Othopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No.1 Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, 450000 Henan (China)

    2016-06-10

    Fibulin-4, an extracellular glycoprotein implicated in connective tissue development and elastic fiber formation, draws increasing focuses in cancer research. However, little is known about the underlying oncogenic roles of Fibulin-4 in human osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, by immunohistochemical analysis, upregulated expression of Fibulin-4 was found in the OS clinical specimens and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. Fibulin-4 was positively correlated with the T stage of OS patients, and the proliferation index Ki67. Based on informatics analysis and functional verification, microRNA-137 was identified as a potential upstream regulator of Fibulin-4. Knockdown of Fibulin-4 or introduction of microRNA-137 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis, and adverse effects were observed by overexpression of Fibulin-4. Furthermore, the tumor-suppressive functions of microRNA-137 were markedly abolished by restoration of Fibulin-4 expression in OS cells. Mechanistically, Fibulin-4 activated Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and promoted the expression of its downstream targets, including CCND2, c-Myc and VEGF. Taken together, Fibulin-4 plays critical neoplastic roles in tumor growth of human OS by activating Wnt/β-Catenin signaling and may represent a potential therapeutic target. -- Highlights: •Upregulated Fibulin-4 correlates tumor growth in human OS. •MicroRNA-137 is a critical regulator of Fibulin-4 expression. •Deregulated miR-137/Fibulin-4 axis promotes tumor growth of human OS. •Wnt/β-Catenin pathway is activated by Fibulin-4 stimulation.

  17. Activation of pluripotency genes in human fibroblast cells by a novel mRNA based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan R Plews

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been used to induce somatic cells to re-enter the pluripotent state. Viral transduction of reprogramming genes yields higher efficiency but involves random insertions of viral sequences into the human genome. Although induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be obtained with the removable PiggyBac transposon system or an episomal system, both approaches still use DNA constructs so that resulting cell lines need to be thoroughly analyzed to confirm they are free of harmful genetic modification. Thus a method to change cell fate without using DNA will be very useful in regenerative medicine.In this study, we synthesized mRNAs encoding OCT4, SOX2, cMYC, KLF4 and SV40 large T (LT and electroporated them into human fibroblast cells. Upon transfection, fibroblasts expressed these factors at levels comparable to, or higher than those in human embryonic stem (ES cells. Ectopically expressed OCT4 localized to the cell nucleus within 4 hours after mRNA introduction. Transfecting fibroblasts with a mixture of mRNAs encoding all five factors significantly increased the expression of endogenous OCT4, NANOG, DNMT3β, REX1 and SALL4. When such transfected fibroblasts were also exposed to several small molecules (valproic acid, BIX01294 and 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and cultured in human embryonic stem cell (ES medium they formed small aggregates positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and OCT4 protein within 30 days.Our results demonstrate that mRNA transfection can be a useful approach to precisely control the protein expression level and short-term expression of reprogramming factors is sufficient to activate pluripotency genes in differentiated cells.

  18. Fibulin-4 is a novel Wnt/β-Catenin pathway activator in human osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Renzeng; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Fibulin-4, an extracellular glycoprotein implicated in connective tissue development and elastic fiber formation, draws increasing focuses in cancer research. However, little is known about the underlying oncogenic roles of Fibulin-4 in human osteosarcoma (OS). In this study, by immunohistochemical analysis, upregulated expression of Fibulin-4 was found in the OS clinical specimens and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. Fibulin-4 was positively correlated with the T stage of OS patients, and the proliferation index Ki67. Based on informatics analysis and functional verification, microRNA-137 was identified as a potential upstream regulator of Fibulin-4. Knockdown of Fibulin-4 or introduction of microRNA-137 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis, and adverse effects were observed by overexpression of Fibulin-4. Furthermore, the tumor-suppressive functions of microRNA-137 were markedly abolished by restoration of Fibulin-4 expression in OS cells. Mechanistically, Fibulin-4 activated Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and promoted the expression of its downstream targets, including CCND2, c-Myc and VEGF. Taken together, Fibulin-4 plays critical neoplastic roles in tumor growth of human OS by activating Wnt/β-Catenin signaling and may represent a potential therapeutic target. -- Highlights: •Upregulated Fibulin-4 correlates tumor growth in human OS. •MicroRNA-137 is a critical regulator of Fibulin-4 expression. •Deregulated miR-137/Fibulin-4 axis promotes tumor growth of human OS. •Wnt/β-Catenin pathway is activated by Fibulin-4 stimulation.

  19. Gender Differences in Response to Prolonged Every-Other-Day Feeding on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Tarnowski, Maciej; Zgutka, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2016-03-19

    Intermittent fasting decreases glucose and insulin levels and increases insulin sensitivity and lifespan. Decreased food intake influences the liver. Previous studies have shown gender differences in response to various types of caloric restriction, including every-other-day (EOD) feeding, in humans and rodents. Our goal was to show the influence of prolonged EOD feeding on the morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of livers from male and female mice. After nine months of an EOD diet, the livers from male and female mice were collected. We examined their morphology on histological slides using the Hematoxilin and Eosine (H_E) method and Hoechst staining of cell nuclei to evaluate the nuclear area of hepatocytes. We also evaluated the expression of mRNA for proto-oncogens, pro-survival proteins and apoptotic markers using Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We noted increased lipid content in the livers of EOD fed female mice. EOD feeding lead to a decrease of proliferation and apoptosis in the livers of female and male mice, which suggest that tissue maintenance occurred during EOD feeding. Our experiment revealed sex-specific expression of mRNA for proto-oncogenes and pro-survival and pro-apoptotic genes in mice as well as sex-specific responses to the EOD treatment.

  20. A comparison of foamy and lentiviral vector genotoxicity in SCID-repopulating cells shows foamy vectors are less prone to clonal dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Everson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy using retroviral vectors has immense potential, but vector-mediated genotoxicity limits use in the clinic. Lentiviral vectors are less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors and have become the vector of choice in clinical trials. Foamy retroviral vectors have a promising integration profile and are less prone to read-through transcription than gammaretroviral or lentiviral vectors. Here, we directly compared the safety and efficacy of foamy vectors to lentiviral vectors in human CD34+ repopulating cells in immunodeficient mice. To increase their genotoxic potential, foamy and lentiviral vectors with identical transgene cassettes with a known genotoxic spleen focus forming virus promoter were used. Both vectors resulted in efficient marking in vivo and a total of 825 foamy and 460 lentiviral vector unique integration sites were recovered in repopulating cells 19 weeks after transplantation. Foamy vector proviruses were observed less often near RefSeq gene and proto-oncogene transcription start sites than lentiviral vectors. The foamy vector group were also more polyclonal with fewer dominant clones (two out of six mice than the lentiviral vector group (eight out of eight mice, and only lentiviral vectors had integrants near known proto-oncogenes in dominant clones. Our data further support the relative safety of foamy vectors for HSC gene therapy.

  1. Gender Differences in Response to Prolonged Every-Other-Day Feeding on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Piotrowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting decreases glucose and insulin levels and increases insulin sensitivity and lifespan. Decreased food intake influences the liver. Previous studies have shown gender differences in response to various types of caloric restriction, including every-other-day (EOD feeding, in humans and rodents. Our goal was to show the influence of prolonged EOD feeding on the morphology, proliferation and apoptosis of livers from male and female mice. After nine months of an EOD diet, the livers from male and female mice were collected. We examined their morphology on histological slides using the Hematoxilin and Eosine (H_E method and Hoechst staining of cell nuclei to evaluate the nuclear area of hepatocytes. We also evaluated the expression of mRNA for proto-oncogens, pro-survival proteins and apoptotic markers using Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR. We noted increased lipid content in the livers of EOD fed female mice. EOD feeding lead to a decrease of proliferation and apoptosis in the livers of female and male mice, which suggest that tissue maintenance occurred during EOD feeding. Our experiment revealed sex-specific expression of mRNA for proto-oncogenes and pro-survival and pro-apoptotic genes in mice as well as sex-specific responses to the EOD treatment.

  2. Gene expression changes induced by estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators in primary-cultured human endometrial cells: signals that distinguish the human carcinogen tamoxifen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pole, Jessica C.M.; Gold, Leslie I.; Orton, Terry; Huby, Russell; Carmichael, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Tamoxifen has long been the endocrine treatment of choice for women with breast cancer and is now employed for prophylactic use in women at high risk from breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, mimic some of tamoxifen's beneficial effects and, like tamoxifen, exhibit a complex mixture of organ-specific estrogen agonist and antagonistic properties. However, accompanying the positive effects of tamoxifen has been the emergence of evidence for an increased risk of endometrial cancer associated with its use. A more complete understanding of the mechanism(s) of SERM carcinogenicity and endometrial effects is therefore required. We have sought to compare and characterise the transcript profile of tamoxifen, raloxifene and the agonist estradiol in human endometrial cells. Using primary cultures of human endometria, to best emulate the in vivo responses in a manageable in vitro system, we have shown 230 significant changes in gene expression for epithelial cultures and 83 in stromal cultures, either specific to 17β-estradiol, tamoxifen or raloxifene, or changed across more than one of the treatments. Considering the transcriptome as a whole, the endometrial responses to raloxifene or tamoxifen were more similar than either drug was to 17β-estradiol. Treatment of endometrial cultures with tamoxifen resulted in the largest number of gene changes relative to control cultures and a high proportion of genes associated with regulation of gene transcription, cell-cycle control and signal transduction. Tamoxifen-specific changes that might point towards mechanisms for its proliferative response in the endometrium included changes in retinoblastoma and c-myc binding proteins, the APCL, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and E2F1 genes and other transcription factors. Tamoxifen was also found to give rise to the highest number of gene expression changes common to those that characterise malignant endometria. It is anticipated that this

  3. Differential Control of Growth, Apoptotic Activity, and Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Extracts Derived from Medicinal Herbs Zingiber officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman I. Elkady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative potentiality of an extract derived from the medicinal plant ginger (Zingiber officinale on growth of breast cancer cells. Ginger treatment suppressed the proliferation and colony formation in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Meanwhile, it did not significantly affect viability of nontumorigenic normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A. Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with ginger resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, accompanied by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase 3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase. At the molecular level, the apoptotic cell death mediated by ginger could be attributed in part to upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. Ginger treatment downregulated expression of prosurvival genes, such as NF-κB, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, and Survivin, and cell cycle-regulating proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK-4. On the other hand, it increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21. It also inhibited the expression of the two prominent molecular targets of cancer, c-Myc and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. These findings suggested that the ginger may be a promising candidate for the treatment of breast carcinomas.

  4. Tributyltin induces a G2/M cell cycle arrest in human amniotic cells via PP2A inhibition-mediated inactivation of the ERK1/2 cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Guo, Zonglou; Xu, Lihong

    2014-03-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the cell cycle alterations induced by tributyltin (TBT), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, remain elusive. In this study, cell cycle progression and some key regulators in G2/M phase were investigated in human amniotic cells treated with TBT. Furthermore, protein phosphatase (PP) 2A and the ERK cascades were examined. The results showed that TBT caused a G2/M cell cycle arrest that was accompanied by a decrease in the total cdc25C protein level and an increase in the p-cdc2 level in the nucleus. TBT caused a decrease in PP2A activity and inhibited the ERK cascade by inactivating Raf-1, resulting in the dephosphorylation of MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and c-Myc. Taken together, TBT leads to a G2/M cell cycle arrest in FL cells, an increase in p-cdc2 and a decrease in the levels of total cdc25C protein, which may be caused by the PP2A inhibition-mediated inactivation of the ERK1/2 cascades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Scopadulciol, Isolated from Scoparia dulcis, Induces β-Catenin Degradation and Overcomes Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Ligand Resistance in AGS Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Rolly G; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-04-24

    Scopadulciol (1), a scopadulan-type diterpenoid, was isolated from Scoparia dulcis along with three other compounds (2-4) by an activity-guided approach using the TCF reporter (TOP) luciferase-based assay system. A fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) revealed that compound 1 was cytotoxic to AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The treatment of AGS cells with 1 decreased β-catenin levels and also inhibited its nuclear localization. The pretreatment of AGS cells with a proteasome inhibitor, either MG132 or epoxomicin, protected against the degradation of β-catenin induced by 1. The 1-induced degradation of β-catenin was also abrogated in the presence of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 transcriptional activity. Compound 1 inhibited TOP activity in AGS cells and downregulated the protein levels of cyclin D1, c-myc, and survivin. Compound 1 also sensitized AGS cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by increasing the levels of the death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decreasing the level of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Collectively, our results demonstrated that 1 induced the p53- and proteasome-dependent degradation of β-catenin, which resulted in the inhibition of TCF/β-catenin transcription in AGS cells. Furthermore, 1 enhanced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant AGS when combined with TRAIL.

  6. Accumulation and altered localization of telomere-associated protein TRF2 in immortally transformed and tumor-derived human breast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijjar, Tarlochan; Bassett, Ekaterina; Garbe, James; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Stampfer, Martha R.; Gilley, David; Yaswen, Paul

    2004-12-23

    We have used cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and breast tumor-derived lines to gain information on defects that occur during breast cancer progression. HMEC immortalized by a variety of agents (the chemical carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene, oncogenes c-myc and ZNF217, and/or dominant negative p53 genetic suppressor element GSE22) displayed marked up regulation (10-15 fold) of the telomere binding protein, TRF2. Up-regulation of TRF2 protein was apparently due to differences in post-transcriptional regulation, as mRNA levels remained comparable in finite life span and immortal HMEC. TRF2 protein was not up-regulated by the oncogenic agents alone in the absence of immortalization, nor by expression of exogenously introduced hTERT genes. We found TRF2 levels to be at least 2-fold higher than in control cells in 11/15 breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that elevated TRF2 levels are a frequent occurrence during the transformation of breast tumor cells in vivo. The dispersed distribution of TRF2 throughout the nuclei in some immortalized and tumor-derived cells indicated that not all the TRF2 was associated with telomeres in these cells. The process responsible for accumulation of TRF2 in immortalized HMEC and breast tumor-derived cell lines may promote tumorigenesis by contributing to the cells ability to maintain an indefinite life span.

  7. Induction of genetic instability in ρ53 in primary cultures of normal human urothelium exposed low-dose of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, S.; Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.; Harney, J.; Gamble, S.; Arrand, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that primary explant cultures of human urothelium exposed to low doses of gamma radiation subsequently exhibit a high level of stable P53 but it was not clear from those studies whether this protein stabilisation occurred through epigenetic events or as a result of mutation. In these experiments, primary urothelium cultures from five different patients were exposed to 0.5 and 5 Gy γ- radiation from a 60 Cobalt source and allowed to grow for 7- 10 division cycles to allow development of any radiation-induced, non lethal changes in the urothelial cells. C-myc, Bcl-2, and stable P53 protein expression was found to be elevated in cultures following both radiation doses. Following 0.5 Gy exposure, the cultures also developed multiple distinct 'foci' of rapidly-dividing cells which strongly over-expressed P53. These grew on a background of morphologically normal cells. When such foci were selectively analysed for their p53 mutation status by PCR-SSCPE, there was evidence that they contained cells which had developed changes to thr p53 gene post-irradiation. These changes appeared to occur more frequently in focal cells than in cells of normal morphological appearance in the same culture. DNA sequence analysis of the p53 gene in 0.5 Gy-induced foci displayed frame shift mutations in some cases. These results may have mechanistic importance given the controversy regarding low-dose radiation effects and p53-related genomic instability. (authors)

  8. Stemcell Information: SKIP000895 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m human fibroblast BJ,|generated with SeV(c-Myc were inserted at 18+) ヒト線維芽BJ細胞由来iPS細胞|SeVを用いて作製(18塩基目にc-Myc...ne-free human pluripotent stem cells using a vector based on Sendai virus, an RNA virus that does not integr

  9. Technetium-99m labeled antisense probes uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Qin, G.M.; An, R.; Cao, G.X.; Cao, W.; Gao, Z.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the arterial wall, smooth muscle cells (SMC) normally exist in a quiescent, differentiated state, representing the contractile phenotype. During the development of atherosclerosis SMC change towards the synthetic phenotype going along with proliferation, chemotactic response and increased monocyte binding. The Fas/Fas ligand/caspase death-signaling pathway, Bcl-2 protein family/mitochondria, the tumor suppressive gene p53, and the proto-oncogene c-myc may be activated in atherosclerotic lesions, and mediates vascular apoptosis during the development of atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic plaques contained 3-4 fold more c-myc mRNA than those in the normal aortic arteries, while increased Bax and Bak coupled with lack/paucity of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are associated with SMC apoptosis in advanced lesions. Methods: 1 Oligonucleotide Conjugation: A solution of single stranded amine-derivatized DNA (100-1000μg) was prepared at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in 0.25M sodium bicarbonate, 1 M sodium chloride, 1mM EDTA, pH8.5. Cell uptake studies: 99m Tc- MAG 3 -DNA radioactivity incorporation into porcine coronary smooth muscle cells in the log and plateau phases, respectively, was determined after different times of incubation at 37. The influence of extracellular 99m Tc- MAG 3 -DNA concentration on SMC uptake was also analyzed. [Results] Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The MAG 3 -DNA was labeled with 99m Tc at room temperature and neutral pH, with a mean labeling efficiency of 80.11%(s.d=2.96%,n=4). The labeled antisense DNA still remained the ability to hybridize with its complementary DNA. After labeling, the stability of the DNA in saline or serum was retained as determined by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis, except a shift at 30 min in serum incubation that suggesting a short time serum protein binding. 99m Tc-MAG 3 -c-myc uptake plateaued at 60 min and was directly proportional to the

  10. Factor-Reduced Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Neurons Independent of the Number of Reprogramming Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs by overexpression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-Myc holds great promise for the development of personalized cell replacement therapies. In an attempt to minimize the risk of chromosomal disruption and to simplify reprogramming, several studies demonstrated that a reduced set of reprogramming factors is sufficient to generate iPSC. We recently showed that a reduction of reprogramming factors in murine cells not only reduces reprogramming efficiency but also may worsen subsequent differentiation. To prove whether this is also true for human cells, we compared the efficiency of neuronal differentiation of iPSC generated from fetal human neural stem cells with either one (OCT4; hiPSC1F-NSC or two (OCT4, KLF4; hiPSC2F-NSC reprogramming factors with iPSC produced from human fibroblasts using three (hiPSC3F-FIB or four reprogramming factors (hiPSC4F-FIB. After four weeks of coculture with PA6 stromal cells, neuronal differentiation of hiPSC1F-NSC and hiPSC2F-NSC was as efficient as iPSC3F-FIB or iPSC4F-FIB. We conclude that a reduction of reprogramming factors in human cells does reduce reprogramming efficiency but does not alter subsequent differentiation into neural lineages. This is of importance for the development of future application of iPSC in cell replacement therapies.

  11. A Role of hIPI3 in DNA Replication Licensing in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yining; Amin, Aftab; Qin, Yan; Wang, Ziyi; Jiang, Huadong; Liang, Lu; Shi, Linjing; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Ipi3p is required for DNA replication and cell viability in Sacharomyces cerevisiae. It is an essential component of the Rix1 complex (Rix1p/Ipi2p-Ipi1p-Ipi3p) that is required for the processing of 35S pre-rRNA in pre-60S ribosomal particles and for the initiation of DNA replication. The human IPI3 homolog is WDR18 (WD repeat domain 18), which shares significant homology with yIpi3p. Here we report that knockdown of hIPI3 resulted in substantial defects in the chromatin association of the MCM complex, DNA replication, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Importantly, hIPI3 silencing did not result in a reduction of the protein level of hCDC6, hMCM7, or the ectopically expressed GFP protein, indicating that protein synthesis was not defective in the same time frame of the DNA replication and cell cycle defects. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of hIPI3 fluctuate in the cell cycle, with the highest levels from M phase to early G1 phase, similar to other pre-replicative (pre-RC) proteins. Moreover, hIPI3 interacts with other replication-initiation proteins, co-localizes with hMCM7 in the nucleus, and is important for the nuclear localization of hMCM7. We also found that hIPI3 preferentially binds to the origins of DNA replication including those at the c-Myc, Lamin-B2 and β-Globin loci. These results indicate that hIPI3 is involved in human DNA replication licensing independent of its role in ribosome biogenesis.

  12. MicroRNAs Induce Epigenetic Reprogramming and Suppress Malignant Phenotypes of Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisataka Ogawa

    Full Text Available Although cancer is a genetic disease, epigenetic alterations are involved in its initiation and progression. Previous studies have shown that reprogramming of colon cancer cells using Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc reduces cancer malignancy. Therefore, cancer reprogramming may be a useful treatment for chemo- or radiotherapy-resistant cancer cells. It was also reported that the introduction of endogenous small-sized, non-coding ribonucleotides such as microRNA (miR 302s and miR-369-3p or -5p resulted in the induction of cellular reprogramming. miRs are smaller than the genes of transcription factors, making them possibly suitable for use in clinical strategies. Therefore, we reprogrammed colon cancer cells using miR-302s and miR-369-3p or -5p. This resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion and the stimulation of the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition phenotype in colon cancer cells. Importantly, the introduction of the ribonucleotides resulted in epigenetic reprogramming of DNA demethylation and histone modification events. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the ribonucleotides in mice elicited the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, which involves the mitochondrial Bcl2 protein family. The present study shows that the introduction of miR-302s and miR-369s could induce cellular reprogramming and modulate malignant phenotypes of human colorectal cancer, suggesting that the appropriate delivery of functional small-sized ribonucleotides may open a new avenue for therapy against human malignant tumors.

  13. Reduced expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 in human thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jianjun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NDRG2 (N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 was initially cloned in our laboratory. Previous results have shown that NDRG2 expressed differentially in normal and cancer tissues. Specifically, NDRG2 mRNA was down-regulated or undetectable in several human cancers, and over-expression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells. NDRG2 also exerts important functions in cell differentiation and tumor suppression. However, it remains unclear whether NDRG2 participates in carcinogenesis of the thyroid. Methods In this study, we investigated the expression profile of human NDRG2 in thyroid adenomas and carcinomas, by examining tissues from individuals with thyroid adenomas (n = 40 and carcinomas (n = 35, along with corresponding normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot methods were utilized to determine both the protein and mRNA expression status of Ndrg2 and c-Myc. Results The immunostaining analysis revealed a decrease of Ndrg2 expression in thyroid carcinomas. When comparing adenomas or carcinomas with adjacent normal tissue from the same individual, the mRNA expression level of NDRG2 was significantly decreased in thyroid carcinoma tissues, while there was little difference in adenoma tissues. This differential expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blotting. However, there were no significant correlations of NDRG2 expression with gender, age, different histotypes of thyroid cancers or distant metastases. Conclusion Our data indicates that NDRG2 may participate in thyroid carcinogenesis. This finding provides novel insight into the important role of NDRG2 in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Future studies are needed to address whether the down-regulation of NDRG2 is a cause or a consequence of the progression from a normal thyroid to a carcinoma.

  14. Reduced expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 in human thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Huadong; Chen, Suning; Lin, Wei; Shi, Hai; Ma, Jianjun; Liu, Xinping; Ma, Qingjiu; Yao, Libo; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Jianguo; He, Xianli; Chen, Changsheng; Li, Xiaojun; Gong, Li; Bao, Guoqiang; Fu, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    NDRG2 (N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2) was initially cloned in our laboratory. Previous results have shown that NDRG2 expressed differentially in normal and cancer tissues. Specifically, NDRG2 mRNA was down-regulated or undetectable in several human cancers, and over-expression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells. NDRG2 also exerts important functions in cell differentiation and tumor suppression. However, it remains unclear whether NDRG2 participates in carcinogenesis of the thyroid. In this study, we investigated the expression profile of human NDRG2 in thyroid adenomas and carcinomas, by examining tissues from individuals with thyroid adenomas (n = 40) and carcinomas (n = 35), along with corresponding normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot methods were utilized to determine both the protein and mRNA expression status of Ndrg2 and c-Myc. The immunostaining analysis revealed a decrease of Ndrg2 expression in thyroid carcinomas. When comparing adenomas or carcinomas with adjacent normal tissue from the same individual, the mRNA expression level of NDRG2 was significantly decreased in thyroid carcinoma tissues, while there was little difference in adenoma tissues. This differential expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blotting. However, there were no significant correlations of NDRG2 expression with gender, age, different histotypes of thyroid cancers or distant metastases. Our data indicates that NDRG2 may participate in thyroid carcinogenesis. This finding provides novel insight into the important role of NDRG2 in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Future studies are needed to address whether the down-regulation of NDRG2 is a cause or a consequence of the progression from a normal thyroid to a carcinoma

  15. High-efficiency generation of induced pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells from human dermal fibroblasts using recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanfan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yu, Ling; Feng, Yanye; Li, Xianghui; Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Yongting; Sun, Dapeng; Pradhan, Sriharsa

    2016-07-30

    Induced pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (iPMSCs) are novel candidates for drug screening, regenerative medicine, and cell therapy. However, introduction of transcription factor encoding genes for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation which could be used to generate mesenchymal stem cells is accompanied by the risk of insertional mutations in the target cell genome. We demonstrate a novel method using an inactivated viral particle to package and deliver four purified recombinant Yamanaka transcription factors (Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, and c-Myc) resulting in reprogramming of human primary fibroblasts. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing was used to analyze genome-wide CpG methylation of human iPMSCs. Western blot, quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence, and in-vitro differentiation were used to assess the pluripotency of iPMSCs. The resulting reprogrammed fibroblasts show high-level expression of stem cell markers. The human fibroblast-derived iPMSC genome showed gains in DNA methylation in low to medium methylated regions and concurrent loss of methylation in previously hypermethylated regions. Most of the differentially methylated regions are close to transcription start sites and many of these genes are pluripotent pathway associated. We found that DNA methylation of these genes is regulated by the four iPSC transcription factors, which functions as an epigenetic switch during somatic reprogramming as reported previously. These iPMSCs successfully differentiate into three embryonic germ layer cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Following multipotency induction in our study, the delivered transcription factors were degraded, leading to an improved efficiency of subsequent programmed differentiation. Recombinant transcription factor based reprogramming and derivatization of iPMSC offers a novel high-efficiency approach for regenerative medicine from patient-derived cells.

  16. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human small-cell lung cancers show amplification and expression of the N-myc gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, M.M.; Brooks, B.J. Jr.; Carney, D.N.; Gazdar, A.F.; Battey, J.F.; Sausville, E.A.; Minna, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found that 6 of 31 independently derived human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines have 5- to 170-fold amplified N-myc gene sequences. The amplification is seen with probes from two separate exons of N-myc, which are homologous to either the second or the third exon of the c-myc gene. Amplified N-myc sequences were found in a tumor cell line started prior to chemotherapy, in SCLC tumor samples harvested directly from tumor metastases at autopsy, and from a resected primary lung cancer. Several N-myc-amplified tumor cell lines also exhibited N-myc hybridizing fragments not in the germ-line position. In one patient's tumor, an additional amplitifed N-myc DNA fragment was observed and this fragment was heterogeneously distributed in liver metastases. In contrast to SCLC with neuroendocrine properties, no non-small-cell lung cancer lines examined were found to have N-myc amplification. Fragments encoding two N-myc exons also detect increased amounts of a 3.1-kilobase N-myc mRNA in N-myc-amplified SCLC lines and in one cell line that does not show N-myc gene amplification. Both DNA and RNA hybridization experiments, using a 32 P-labelled restriction probe, show that in any one SCLC cell line, only one myc-related gene is amplified and expressed. They conclude that N-myc amplification is both common and potentially significant in the tumorigenesis or tumor progression of SCLC

  18. Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells: a platform for human disease modeling and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiho; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Dongjin R; Kim, Ji Young; Huh, Yong Jun; Kim, Dae-Sung; Park, Chul-Yong; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Kim, Han-Soo; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2012-03-31

    The generation of disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from patients with incurable diseases is a promising approach for studying disease mechanisms and drug screening. Such innovation enables to obtain autologous cell sources in regenerative medicine. Herein, we report the generation and characterization of iPSCs from fibroblasts of patients with sporadic or familial diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), juvenile-onset, type I diabetes mellitus (JDM), and Duchenne type muscular dystrophy (DMD), as well as from normal human fibroblasts (WT). As an example to modeling disease using disease-specific iPSCs, we also discuss the previously established childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD)- and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN)-iPSCs by our group. Through DNA fingerprinting analysis, the origins of generated disease-specific iPSC lines were identified. Each iPSC line exhibited an intense alkaline phosphatase activity, expression of pluripotent markers, and the potential to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Expression of endogenous pluripotent markers and downregulation of retrovirus-delivered transgenes [OCT4 (POU5F1), SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC] were observed in the generated iPSCs. Collectively, our results demonstrated that disease-specific iPSC lines characteristically resembled hESC lines. Furthermore, we were able to differentiate PD-iPSCs, one of the disease-specific-iPSC lines we generated, into dopaminergic (DA) neurons, the cell type mostly affected by PD. These PD-specific DA neurons along with other examples of cell models derived from disease-specific iPSCs would provide a powerful platform for examining the pathophysiology of relevant diseases at the cellular and molecular levels and for developing new drugs and therapeutic regimens.

  19. Efficient generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulin, X; Lizhen, L; Lifei, Z; Shan, F; Ru, L; Kaimin, H; Huang, H

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic expression of defined sets of genetic factors can reprogramme somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that closely resemble embryonic stem cells. However, the low reprogramming efficiency is a significant handicap for mechanistic studies and potential clinical application. In this study, we used human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) as target cells for reprogramming and investigated efficient iPSC generation from hBMMSCs using the compounds of p53 siRNA, valproic acid (VPA) and vitamin C (Vc) with four transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC (compound induction system). The synergetic mechanism of the compounds was studied. Our results showed that the compound induction system could efficiently reprogramme hBMMSCs to iPSCs. hBMMSC-derived iPSC populations expressed pluripotent markers and had multi-potential to differentiate into three germ layer-derived cells. p53 siRNA, VPA and Vc had a synergetic effect on cell reprogramming and the combinatorial use of these substances greatly improved the efficiency of iPSC generation by suppressing the expression of p53, decreasing cell apoptosis, up-regulating the expression of the pluripotent gene OCT4 and modifying the cell cycle. Therefore, our study highlights a straightforward method for improving the speed and efficiency of iPSC generation and provides versatile tools for investigating early developmental processes such as haemopoiesis and relevant diseases. In addition, this study provides a paradigm for the combinatorial use of genetic factors and molecules to improve the efficiency of iPSC generation.

  20. Knockdown of stat3 expression by RNAi inhibits in vitro growth of human ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shu-Hua; Zhao, Fan; Zheng, Jing-Ying; Gao, Li-Fang; Zhao, Xue-Jian; Cui, Man-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the suppressive effects of pSilencer2.1-U6-siRNA-stat3 recombinant plasmids on the growth of ovarian cancer in vitro. Three pairs of DNA template (stat3-1, stat3-2, stat3-3) specific for different target sites on stat3 mRNA were synthesized to reconstruct pSilencer2.1-U6-siRNA-stat3s, which were transfected into SKOV3 cells. The expressions of STAT3, BcL-2, cyclin D1 and C-myc in these cells were detected by Western blot and Northern blot. The cell cycle and the growth were determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and MTT assay, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. Of the three siRNAs, only siRNA targeting stat3-3 markedly suppressed the protein expression of stat3 in SKOV3 cells; MTT assay and FCM showed that transfection of stat3-3 siRNA could significantly suppress the growth of SKOV3 cells and arrest the cell cycle in vitro. TUNEL staining also showed massive apoptosis in SKOV3 cells transfected with stat3-3 siRNA. pSilencer2.1-U6-siRNA-stat3-3 can significantly inhibit the STAT3 expression in human ovarian cancer cells resulting in the inhibition of the cancer growth and the increase of apoptosis of cancer cells

  1. Toll like receptors TLR1/2, TLR6 and MUC5B as binding interaction partners with cytostatic proline rich polypeptide 1 in human chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galoian, Karina; Abrahamyan, Silva; Chailyan, Gor; Qureshi, Amir; Patel, Parthik; Metser, Gil; Moran, Alexandra; Sahakyan, Inesa; Tumasyan, Narine; Lee, Albert; Davtyan, Tigran; Chailyan, Samvel; Galoyan, Armen

    2018-01-01

    Metastatic chondrosarcoma is a bone malignancy not responsive to conventional therapies; new approaches and therapies are urgently needed. We have previously reported that mTORC1 inhibitor, antitumorigenic cytostatic proline rich polypeptide 1 (PRP-1), galarmin caused a significant upregulation of tumor suppressors including TET1/2 and SOCS3 (known to be involved in inflammatory processes), downregulation of oncoproteins and embryonic stem cell marker miR-302C and its targets Nanog, c-Myc and Bmi-1 in human chondrosarcoma. To understand better the mechanism of PRP-1 action it was very important to identify the receptor it binds to. Nuclear pathway receptor and GPCR assays indicated that PRP-1 receptors are not G protein coupled, neither do they belong to family of nuclear or orphan receptors. In the present study, we have demonstrated that PRP-1 binding interacting partners belong to innate immunity pattern recognition toll like receptors TLR1/2 and TLR6 and gel forming secreted mucin MUC5B. MUC5B was identified as PRP-1 receptor in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line using Ligand-receptor capture technology. Toll like receptors TLR1/2 and TLR6 were identified as binding interaction partners with PRP-1 by western blot analysis in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line lysates. Immunocytochemistry experiments confirmed the finding and indicated the localization of PRP-1 receptors in the tumor nucleus predominantly. TLR1/2, TLR6 and MUC5B were downregulated in human chondrosarcoma and upregulated in dose-response manner upon PRP-1 treatment. Experimental data indicated that in this cellular context the mentioned receptors had tumor suppressive function.

  2. Cadmium modifies the cell cycle and apoptotic profiles of human breast cancer cells treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asara, Yolande; Marchal, Juan A; Carrasco, Esther; Boulaiz, Houria; Solinas, Giuliana; Bandiera, Pasquale; Garcia, Maria A; Farace, Cristiano; Montella, Andrea; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-08-12

    Industrialisation, the proximity of factories to cities, and human work activities have led to a disproportionate use of substances containing heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), which may have deleterious effects on human health. Carcinogenic effects of Cd and its relationship with breast cancer, among other tumours, have been reported. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a fluoropyrimidine anticancer drug used to treat solid tumours of the colon, breast, stomach, liver, and pancreas. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of Cd on cell cycle, apoptosis, and gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with 5-FU. Cd altered the cell cycle profile, and its effects were greater when used either alone or in combination with 5-FU compared with 5-FU alone. Cd significantly suppressed apoptosis of MCF-7 cells pre-treated with 5-FU. Regarding gene and protein expression, bcl2 expression was mainly upregulated by all treatments involving Cd. The expression of caspase 8 and caspase 9 was decreased by most of the treatments and at all times evaluated. C-myc expression was increased by all treatments involving Cd, especially 5-FU plus Cd at the half time of treatment. Cd plus 5-FU decreased cyclin D1 and increased cyclin A1 expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that exposure to Cd blocks the anticancer effects of 5-FU in MCF-7 cells. These results could have important clinical implications in patients treated with 5-FU-based therapies and who are exposed to high levels of Cd.

  3. Cadmium Modifies the Cell Cycle and Apoptotic Profiles of Human Breast Cancer Cells Treated with 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Madeddu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrialisation, the proximity of factories to cities, and human work activities have led to a disproportionate use of substances containing heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd, which may have deleterious effects on human health. Carcinogenic effects of Cd and its relationship with breast cancer, among other tumours, have been reported. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU is a fluoropyrimidine anticancer drug used to treat solid tumours of the colon, breast, stomach, liver, and pancreas. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of Cd on cell cycle, apoptosis, and gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with 5-FU. Cd altered the cell cycle profile, and its effects were greater when used either alone or in combination with 5-FU compared with 5-FU alone. Cd significantly suppressed apoptosis of MCF-7 cells pre-treated with 5-FU. Regarding gene and protein expression, bcl2 expression was mainly upregulated by all treatments involving Cd. The expression of caspase 8 and caspase 9 was decreased by most of the treatments and at all times evaluated. C-myc expression was increased by all treatments involving Cd, especially 5-FU plus Cd at the half time of treatment. Cd plus 5-FU decreased cyclin D1 and increased cyclin A1 expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that exposure to Cd blocks the anticancer effects of 5-FU in MCF-7 cells. These results could have important clinical implications in patients treated with 5-FU-based therapies and who are exposed to high levels of Cd.

  4. Cadmium Modifies the Cell Cycle and Apoptotic Profiles of Human Breast Cancer Cells Treated with 5-Fluorouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asara, Yolande; Marchal, Juan A.; Carrasco, Esther; Boulaiz, Houria; Solinas, Giuliana; Bandiera, Pasquale; Garcia, Maria A.; Farace, Cristiano; Montella, Andrea; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Industrialisation, the proximity of factories to cities, and human work activities have led to a disproportionate use of substances containing heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), which may have deleterious effects on human health. Carcinogenic effects of Cd and its relationship with breast cancer, among other tumours, have been reported. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a fluoropyrimidine anticancer drug used to treat solid tumours of the colon, breast, stomach, liver, and pancreas. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of Cd on cell cycle, apoptosis, and gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with 5-FU. Cd altered the cell cycle profile, and its effects were greater when used either alone or in combination with 5-FU compared with 5-FU alone. Cd significantly suppressed apoptosis of MCF-7 cells pre-treated with 5-FU. Regarding gene and protein expression, bcl2 expression was mainly upregulated by all treatments involving Cd. The expression of caspase 8 and caspase 9 was decreased by most of the treatments and at all times evaluated. C-myc expression was increased by all treatments involving Cd, especially 5-FU plus Cd at the half time of treatment. Cd plus 5-FU decreased cyclin D1 and increased cyclin A1 expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that exposure to Cd blocks the anticancer effects of 5-FU in MCF-7 cells. These results could have important clinical implications in patients treated with 5-FU-based therapies and who are exposed to high levels of Cd. PMID:23941782

  5. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh; Aghdami, Nasser; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, α-globulin, and γ-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  6. DNA rearrangements from γ-irradiated normal human fibroblasts preferentially occur in transcribed regions of the genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, H.B.; Radford, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: DNA rearrangement events leading to chromosomal aberrations are central to ionizing radiation-induced cell death. Although DNA double-strand breaks are probably the lesion that initiates formation of chromosomal aberrations, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms that generate and modulate DNA rearrangement. Examination of the sequences that flank sites of DNA rearrangement may provide information regarding the processes and enzymes involved in rearrangement events. Accordingly, we developed a method using inverse PCR that allows the detection and sequencing of putative radiation-induced DNA rearrangements in defined regions of the human genome. The method can detect single copies of a rearrangement event that has occurred in a particular region of the genome and, therefore, DNA rearrangement detection does not require survival and continued multiplication of the affected cell. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA rearrangements were detected in several different regions of the genome of human fibroblast cells that were exposed to 30 Gy of γ-irradiation and then incubated for 24 hours at 37 deg C. There was a 3- to 5-fold increase in the number of products amplified from irradiated as compared with control cells in the target regions 5' to the C-MYC, CDKN1A, RB1, and FGFR2 genes. Sequences were examined from 121 DNA rearrangements. Approximately half of the PCR products were derived from possible inter-chromosomal rearrangements and the remainder were from intra-chromosomal events. A high proportion of the sequences that rearranged with target regions were located in genes, suggesting that rearrangements may occur preferentially in transcribed regions. Eighty-four percent of the sequences examined by reverse transcriptase PCR were from transcribed sequences in IMR-90 cells. The distribution of DNA rearrangements within the target regions is non-random and homology occurs between the sequences involved in rearrangements in some cases but is not

  7. Identification of genes potentially regulated by human polynucleotide phosphorylase (hPNPase old-35 using melanoma as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upneet K Sokhi

    Full Text Available Human Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (hPNPase(old-35 or PNPT1 is an evolutionarily conserved 3'→ 5' exoribonuclease implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological processes including maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis, mtRNA import and aging-associated inflammation. From an RNase perspective, little is known about the RNA or miRNA species it targets for degradation or whose expression it regulates; except for c-myc and miR-221. To further elucidate the functional implications of hPNPase(old-35 in cellular physiology, we knocked-down and overexpressed hPNPase(old-35 in human melanoma cells and performed gene expression analyses to identify differentially expressed transcripts. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that knockdown of hPNPase(old-35 resulted in significant gene expression changes associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and cholesterol biosynthesis; whereas overexpression of hPNPase(old-35 caused global changes in cell-cycle related functions. Additionally, comparative gene expression analyses between our hPNPase(old-35 knockdown and overexpression datasets allowed us to identify 77 potential "direct" and 61 potential "indirect" targets of hPNPase(old-35 which formed correlated networks enriched for cell-cycle and wound healing functional association, respectively. These results provide a comprehensive database of genes responsive to hPNPase(old-35 expression levels; along with the identification new potential candidate genes offering fresh insight into cellular pathways regulated by PNPT1 and which may be used in the future for possible therapeutic intervention in mitochondrial- or inflammation-associated disease phenotypes.

  8. Human Ocular Epithelial Cells Endogenously Expressing SOX2 and OCT4 Yield High Efficiency of Pluripotency Reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wai Poon

    Full Text Available A variety of pluripotency reprogramming frequencies from different somatic cells has been observed, indicating cell origin is a critical contributor for efficiency of pluripotency reprogramming. Identifying the cell sources for efficient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs generation, and defining its advantages or disadvantages on reprogramming, is therefore important. Human ocular tissue-derived conjunctival epithelial cells (OECs exhibited endogenous expression of reprogramming factors OCT4A (the specific OCT 4 isoform on pluripotency reprogramming and SOX2. We therefore determined whether OECs could be used for high efficiency of iPSCs generation. We compared the endogenous expression levels of four pluripotency factors and the pluripotency reprograming efficiency of human OECs with that of ocular stromal cells (OSCs. Real-time PCR, microarray analysis, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were employed to compare OECiPSCs with OSCiPSCs on molecular bases of reprogramming efficiency and preferred lineage-differentiation potential. Using the traditional KMOS (KLF4, C-MYC, OCT4 and SOX2 reprogramming protocol, we confirmed that OECs, endogenously expressing reprogramming factors OCT4A and SOX2, yield very high efficiency of iPSCs generation (~1.5%. Furthermore, higher efficiency of retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation (RPE cells was observed in OECiPSCs compared to OSCiPSCs or skin fibroblast iMR90iPSCs. The findings in this study suggest that conjunctival-derived epithelial (OECs cells can be easier converted to iPSCs than conjunctival-derived stromal cells (OSCs. This cell type may also have advantages in retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation.

  9. Human Ocular Epithelial Cells Endogenously Expressing SOX2 and OCT4 Yield High Efficiency of Pluripotency Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Ming-Wai; He, Jia; Fang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Junwen; Qiu, Fangfang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Li, Wei; Liu, Zuguo; Lian, Qizhou

    2015-01-01

    A variety of pluripotency reprogramming frequencies from different somatic cells has been observed, indicating cell origin is a critical contributor for efficiency of pluripotency reprogramming. Identifying the cell sources for efficient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation, and defining its advantages or disadvantages on reprogramming, is therefore important. Human ocular tissue-derived conjunctival epithelial cells (OECs) exhibited endogenous expression of reprogramming factors OCT4A (the specific OCT 4 isoform on pluripotency reprogramming) and SOX2. We therefore determined whether OECs could be used for high efficiency of iPSCs generation. We compared the endogenous expression levels of four pluripotency factors and the pluripotency reprograming efficiency of human OECs with that of ocular stromal cells (OSCs). Real-time PCR, microarray analysis, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were employed to compare OECiPSCs with OSCiPSCs on molecular bases of reprogramming efficiency and preferred lineage-differentiation potential. Using the traditional KMOS (KLF4, C-MYC, OCT4 and SOX2) reprogramming protocol, we confirmed that OECs, endogenously expressing reprogramming factors OCT4A and SOX2, yield very high efficiency of iPSCs generation (~1.5%). Furthermore, higher efficiency of retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation (RPE cells) was observed in OECiPSCs compared to OSCiPSCs or skin fibroblast iMR90iPSCs. The findings in this study suggest that conjunctival-derived epithelial (OECs) cells can be easier converted to iPSCs than conjunctival-derived stromal cells (OSCs). This cell type may also have advantages in retinal pigmented epithelial differentiation.

  10. Proteomic analysis of cell proliferation in a human hepatic cell line (HL-7702) induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate using iTRAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ruina; Zhang, Hongxia [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Xuejiang [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Cui, Qianqian; Wang, Jianshe [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Dai, Jiayin, E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • PFOS stimulates cell proliferation of human liver cell line (HL-7702). • Differential expressed proteins are identified by iTRAQ. • Most of differential proteins caused by PFOS are related to cell proliferation. • Up-regulation of cyclin/cdk by PFOS plays a role in driving cells into cell cycle. - Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a commonly used and widely distributed perfluorinated compound proven to cause adverse health outcomes. However, how PFOS affects liver cell proliferation is not well understood. In this experiment, we exposed a human liver cell line (HL-7702) to 50 μM PFOS for 48 h and 96 h. We identified 52 differentially expressed proteins using a quantitative proteomic approach. Among them, 27 were associated with cell proliferation, including hepatoma-derived growth factor (Hdgf) and proliferation biomarkers Mk167 (Ki67) and Top2α. Results from MTT, cell counting, and cell cycle analysis showed low-dose PFOS (<200 μM) stimulated HL-7702 cell viability at 48 h and 96 h, reduced the G0/G1 percentage, and increased the S + G2/M percentage. Moreover, levels of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E2, Cyclin A2, Cyclin B1 and their partner Cdks were elevated, and the expression of regulating proteins like c-Myc, p53, p21 waf/cip1 and Myt1, as well as the phosphorylation levels of p-Wee1(S642), p-Chk1(S345) and p-Chk2(T68), were disturbed. We hypothesized that low-dose PFOS stimulated HL-7702 proliferation by driving cells into G1 through elevating cyclins/cdks expression, and by promoting cell cycle progression through altering other regulating proteins. This research will shed light on the mechanisms behind PFOS-mediated human hepatotoxicity.

  11. Generation of human β-thalassemia induced pluripotent cell lines by reprogramming of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells using modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ioanna; Karagiannidou, Angeliki; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Tzetis, Maria; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Siapati, Elena-Konstantina; Vassilopoulos, George; Graphakos, Stelios; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Goussetis, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic modified mRNA molecules encoding pluripotency transcription factors have been used successfully in reprogramming human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We have applied this method on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) obtained from a patient with β-thalassemia (β-thal) with the aim to generate trangene-free β-thal-iPSCs. Transfection of 10(4) BM-MSCs by lipofection with mRNA encoding the reprogramming factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, cMyc, and Lin28 resulted in formation of five iPSC colonies, from which three were picked up and expanded in β-thal-iPSC lines. After 10 serial passages in vitro, β-thal-iPSCs maintain genetic stability as shown by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and are capable of forming embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Their gene expression profile compared to human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and BM-MSCs seems to be similar to that of ESCs, whereas it differs from the profile of the parental BM-MSCs. Differentiation cultures toward a hematopoietic lineage showed the generation of CD34(+) progenitors up to 10%, but with a decreased hematopoietic colony-forming capability. In conclusion, we report herein the generation of transgene-free β-thal-iPSCs that could be widely used for disease modeling and gene therapy applications. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the mRNA-based reprogramming method, used mainly in fibroblasts, is also suitable for reprogramming of human BM-MSCs.

  12. Proteomic analysis of cell proliferation in a human hepatic cell line (HL-7702) induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate using iTRAQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Ruina; Zhang, Hongxia; Guo, Xuejiang; Cui, Qianqian; Wang, Jianshe; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PFOS stimulates cell proliferation of human liver cell line (HL-7702). • Differential expressed proteins are identified by iTRAQ. • Most of differential proteins caused by PFOS are related to cell proliferation. • Up-regulation of cyclin/cdk by PFOS plays a role in driving cells into cell cycle. - Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a commonly used and widely distributed perfluorinated compound proven to cause adverse health outcomes. However, how PFOS affects liver cell proliferation is not well understood. In this experiment, we exposed a human liver cell line (HL-7702) to 50 μM PFOS for 48 h and 96 h. We identified 52 differentially expressed proteins using a quantitative proteomic approach. Among them, 27 were associated with cell proliferation, including hepatoma-derived growth factor (Hdgf) and proliferation biomarkers Mk167 (Ki67) and Top2α. Results from MTT, cell counting, and cell cycle analysis showed low-dose PFOS (<200 μM) stimulated HL-7702 cell viability at 48 h and 96 h, reduced the G0/G1 percentage, and increased the S + G2/M percentage. Moreover, levels of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E2, Cyclin A2, Cyclin B1 and their partner Cdks were elevated, and the expression of regulating proteins like c-Myc, p53, p21 waf/cip1 and Myt1, as well as the phosphorylation levels of p-Wee1(S642), p-Chk1(S345) and p-Chk2(T68), were disturbed. We hypothesized that low-dose PFOS stimulated HL-7702 proliferation by driving cells into G1 through elevating cyclins/cdks expression, and by promoting cell cycle progression through altering other regulating proteins. This research will shed light on the mechanisms behind PFOS-mediated human hepatotoxicity.

  13. Detection of c-myc amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) allows evaluation of genetic abnormalities, such as changes in chromosome number, chromosome translocations or gene amplifications, by hybridization of tagged DNA (or RNA) probes with complementary DNA (or RNA) sequences in interphase nuclei of target tissue. However, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is also applicable to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, besides metaphase chromosome spreads. CISH is similar to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) regarding pretreatments and hybridization protocols but differs in the way of visualization. Indeed, CISH signal detection is similar to that used in immunohistochemistry, making use of a peroxidase-based chromogenic reaction instead of fluorescent dyes. In particular, tagged DNA probes are indirectly detected using an enzyme-conjugated antibody targeting the tags. The enzymatic reaction of the chromogenic substrate leads to the formation of strong permanent brown signals that can be visualized by bright-field microscopy at 40 × magnification. The advantage of CISH is that it allows the simultaneous observation of gene amplification and tissue morphology and the slides can be stored for a long time.

  14. miR-449 overexpression inhibits papillary thyroid carcinoma cell growth by targeting RET kinase-β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongyu; Huang, Xin; Xu, Jinkai; Su, Qinghua; Zhao, Jun; Ma, Jiancang

    2016-10-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer and represent approximately 80% of all thyroid cancers. The present study is aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-449 in the progression of PTC. Our results revealed that miR-449 was underexpressed in the collected PTC specimens compared with non-cancerous PTC tissues. Overexpression of miR-449 induced a cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and inhibited PTC cell growth in vitro. Further studies revealed that RET proto-oncogene (RET) is a novel miR-449 target, due to miR-449 bound directly to its 3'-untranslated region and miR-449 mimic reduced the protein expression of RET. Similar to the effects of miR-449 overexpression, RET downregulation inhibited cell growth, whereas RET overexpression reversed the inhibitive effect of miR-449 mimic. Furthermore, miR-449 overexpression inhibited the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and reduced the expression of several downstream genes, including c-Myc, cyclin D1, T cell-specific transcription factor (TCF) and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1), and inactivated the β-catenin pathway in TPC-1 cells. Moreover, overexpression of β-catenin prevented miR-449-reduced cell cycle arrest and cell viability. In xenograft animal experiments, miR-449 overexpression effectively suppressed the tumor growth of PTC. Taken together, our research indicated that miR-449 functions as an anti-oncogene by targeting RET, and that miR-449 overexpression inhibited the growth of PTC by inactivating the β-catenin pathway. Thus, miR-449 may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PTC.

  15. N-Myc Differentially Regulates Expression of MXI1 Isoforms in Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Armstrong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of the MYCN proto-oncogene is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with metastatic neuroblastoma (NB. MYCN encodes the N-Myc protein, a transcriptional regulator that dimerizes with the Max transcription factor, binds to E-box DNA sequences, and regulates genes involved in cell growth and apoptosis. Overexpression of N-Myc leads to transcriptional activation and an increase in NB cell proliferation. Mxi1, a member of the Myc family of transcriptional regulators, also binds to Max. However, Mxi1 is a transcriptional repressor and inhibits proliferation of NB cells, suggesting that Mxi1 functions as an N-Myc antagonist. Our laboratory previously identified Mxi1-0, an alternatively transcribed Mxi1 isoform. Mxi1-0 has properties distinct from those of Mxi1; in contrast to Mxi1, Mxi1-0 is unable to suppress c-Myc-dependent transcription. We now show that Mxi1-0 expression increases in response to MYCN overexpression in NB cells, with a positive correlation between MYCN and MXI1-0 RNA levels. We also show that N-Myc expression differentially regulates the MXI1 and MXI1-0 promoters: Increased MYCN expression suppresses MXI1 promoter activity while enhancing transcription through the MXI1-0 promoter. Finally, induction of Mxi1-0 leads to increased proliferation, whereas expression of Mxi1 inhibits cell growth, indicating differential roles for these two proteins. These data suggest that N-Myc differentially regulates the expression of MXI1 and MXI1-0 and can alter the balance between the two transcription factors. Furthermore, MXI1-0 appears to be a downstream target of MYCN-dependent signaling pathways and may contribute to N-Myc-dependent cell growth and proliferation.

  16. N-Myc Differentially Regulates Expression of MXI1 Isoforms in Neuroblastoma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael B; Mody, Rajen J; Ellis, D Christian; Hill, Adam B; Erichsen, David A; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    Amplification of the MYCN proto-oncogene is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with metastatic neuroblastoma (NB). MYCN encodes the N-Myc protein, a transcriptional regulator that dimerizes with the Max transcription factor, binds to E-box DNA sequences, and regulates genes involved in cell growth and apoptosis. Overexpression of N-Myc leads to transcriptional activation and an increase in NB cell proliferation. Mxi1, a member of the Myc family of transcriptional regulators, also binds to Max. However, Mxi1 is a transcriptional repressor and inhibits proliferation of NB cells, suggesting that Mxi1 functions as an N-Myc antagonist. Our laboratory previously identified Mxi1-0, an alternatively transcribed Mxi1 isoform. Mxi1-0 has properties distinct from those of Mxi1; in contrast to Mxi1, Mxi1-0 is unable to suppress c-Myc-dependent transcription. We now show that Mxi1-0 expression increases in response to MYCN overexpression in NB cells, with a positive correlation between MYCN and MXI1-0 RNA levels. We also show that N-Myc expression differentially regulates the MXI1 and MXI1-0 promoters: Increased MYCN expression suppresses MXI1 promoter activity while enhancing transcription through the MXI1-0 promoter. Finally, induction of Mxi1-0 leads to increased proliferation, whereas expression of Mxi1 inhibits cell growth, indicating differential roles for these two proteins. These data suggest that N-Myc differentially regulates the expression of MXI1 and MXI1-0 and can alter the balance between the two transcription factors. Furthermore, MXI1-0 appears to be a downstream target of MYCN-dependent signaling pathways and may contribute to N-Myc-dependent cell growth and proliferation. PMID:24403858

  17. Modulation of miR-203 and its regulators as a function of time during the development of 7, 12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced mouse skin tumors in presence or absence of the antitumor agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Prakash; Gupta, Krishna P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the chemopreventive effects of naturally occurring compounds like butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) individually or in combination in 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin at 4 and 16 weeks, the time before and after the tumor development. DMBA application did not show any skin tumors at 4 weeks but well defined tumors appeared at 16 weeks. BA, NA or CAG prevented the tumor development significantly but the protection was highly enhanced when all these compounds were given together. In order to see the molecular changes progressing with tumors, we showed the downregulation of tumor suppressor miR-203 at 16 weeks and upregulation of histone deacetylases (HDAC), DNA methyltransferase, promoter methylation of miR-203 at 4 or 16 weeks. Regulators of micro RNA biogenesis such as DICER1 and Ago2 were also deregulated by DMBA. Proto-oncogene c-myc and BMI1 were upregulated and tumor suppressor gene p16 was downregulated by DMBA as a function of time. Effects of BA, NA or CAG were more pronounced after 16 weeks as compared to 4 weeks in preventing the tumor development and altered gene expression. Concomitant administration of BA, NA and CAG tried to prevent these alterations more effectively than that of individual compound possibly by regulating miR-203 status through epigenetic or biogenetic modulations before and after the tumor development. Study provides a rationale for chemoprevention by combination of different compounds targeting miR-203. - Highlights: • DMBA modulates miR-203 and its regulator before and after the onset of tumors. • Suppression of miR-203 and p16 could be the result of gene promoter methylation. • BA, NA or CAG prevents the effects of DMBA. • Combination of BA, NA or CAG is more effective in preventing the DMBA modulations

  18. Lymphoma and the control of B cell growth and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Lixin; Goodnow, Christopher C

    2006-05-01

    It is now widely accepted that lymphomagenesis is a multistep transformation process. A number of genetic changes and environmental and infectious factors contributing to the development and malignant progression of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are well documented. Reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin loci are a hallmark of most mature B cell lymphomas and lead to dysregulated expression of proto-oncogenes (c-myc) important for cell proliferation or genes involved in cell cycle progression (cyclin D1), differentiation block (bcl-6, PAX5) and cell survival (bcl-2, NF-kappaB). In addition, genetic alterations that inactivate tumor suppressor genes (p53, p16) have been frequently detected in some lymphoma tissues. Many of these genes are normally regulated by signals from the B cell antigen receptor. The high prevalence of bacterial and viral infection in lymphoma patients supports the hypothesis that infectious agents may play a contributory role in the development and evolution of B cell lymphoproliferative disorders by either directly inducing polyclonal B cell hyperactivation (EBV, HCV), or providing a chronic antigenic stimulus (EBV, HCV, HBV, H. pylori), or mimicking B cell antigen receptor signaling (EBV, HCV, HHV8), although whether these are causative factors or they are secondary to genetic changes in lymphomagenesis remains to be defined. Stimulatory signals from reactive T cells, local cytokines and growth factors can also contribute, to some extent, to the progression of transformation. Modulation of B cell antigen receptor signaling therefore emerges as a potentially powerful strategy for controlling the growth of certain B cell lymphomas.

  19. Effects of JS-K, a novel anti-cancer nitric oxide prodrug, on gene expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ray; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Huan; Liu, Zhengyun; Liu, Jie; Saavedra, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    JS-K is a novel anticancer nitric oxide (NO) prodrug effective against a variety of cancer cells, including the inhibition of AM-1 hepatoma cell growth in rats. To further evaluate anticancer effects of JS-K, human hepatoma Hep3B cells were treated with JS-K and the compound control JS-43-126 at various concentrations (0-100μM) for 24h, and cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay. The compound control JS-43-126 was not cytotoxic to Hep3B cells at concentrations up to 100μM, while the LC 50 for JS-K was about 10μM. To examine the molecular mechanisms of antitumor effects of JS-K, Hep3B cells were treated with 1-10μM of JS-K for 24h, and then subjected to gene expression analysis via real time RT-PCR and protein immunostain via confocal images. JS-K is a GST-α targeting NO prodrug, and decreased immunostaining for GST-α was associated with JS-K treatment. JS-K activated apoptosis pathways in Hep3B cells, including induction of caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and immunostaining for caspase-3 was intensified. The expressions of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were increased by JS-K at both transcript and protein levels. JS-K treatment also increased the expression of differentiation-related genes CD14 and CD11b, and depressed the expression of c-myc in Hep3B cells. Thus, multiple molecular events appear to be associated with anticancer effects of JS-K in human hepatoma Hep3B cells, including activation of genes related to apoptosis and induction of genes involved in antiangiogenesis and tumor cell migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: Moving towards 'universal-donor' red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghdami, Nasser [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahbazi, Ebrahim [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdi, Reza Salman [Department of Genetics, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini, E-mail: Salekdeh@royaninstitute.org [Department of Molecular Systems Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Systems Biology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Hossein, E-mail: Baharvand@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, P.O. Box 19395-4644, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, {alpha}-globulin, and {gamma}-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  1. GM-CSF and IL-3 Modulate Human Monocyte TNF-α Production and Renewal in In Vitro Models of Trained Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Di Somma, Sarah; Loffredo, Stefania; Scamardella, Eloise; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Varricchi, Gilda; Granata, Francescopaolo; Portella, Giuseppe; Marone, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    GM-CSF and IL-3 are hematopoietic cytokines that also modulate the effector functions of several immune cell subsets. In particular, GM-CSF and IL-3 exert a significant control on monocyte and macrophage effector functions, as assessed in experimental models of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and also in human studies. Here, we sought to investigate the mechanisms and the extent to which GM-CSF and IL-3 modulate the pro-inflammatory, LPS-mediated, activation of human CD14 + monocytes taking into account the new concept of trained immunity (i.e., the priming stimulus modulates the response to subsequent stimuli mainly by inducing chromatin remodeling and increased transcription at relevant genetic loci). We demonstrate that GM-CSF and IL-3 priming enhances TNF-α production upon subsequent LPS stimulation (short-term model of trained immunity) in a p38- and SIRT2-dependent manner without increasing TNF primary transcript levels (a more direct measure of transcription), thus supporting a posttranscriptional regulation of TNF-α in primed monocytes. GM-CSF and IL-3 priming followed by 6 days of resting also results in increased TNF-α production upon LPS stimulation (long-term model of trained immunity). In this case, however, GM-CSF and IL-3 priming induces a c-Myc-dependent monocyte renewal and increase in cell number that is in turn responsible for heightened TNF-α production. Overall, our results provide insights to understand the biology of monocytes in health and disease conditions in which the hematopoietic cytokines GM-CSF and IL-3 play a role and also extend our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of trained immunity.

  2. Identification and targeting of a TACE-dependent autocrine loopwhich predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2005-06-15

    The ability to proliferate independently of signals from other cell types is a fundamental characteristic of tumor cells. Using a 3D culture model of human breast cancer progression, we have delineated a protease-dependent autocrine loop which provides an oncogenic stimulus in the absence of proto-oncogene mutation. Inhibition of this protease, TACE/ADAM17, reverts the malignant phenotype by preventing mobilization of two crucial growth factors, Amphiregulin and TGF{alpha}. We show further that the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors is overcome by physiological levels of growth factors and that successful EGFR inhibition is dependent on reducing ligand bioavailability. Using existing patient outcome data, we demonstrate a strong correlation between TACE and TGF{alpha} expression in human breast cancers that is predictive of poor prognosis.

  3. Giant hub Src and Syk tyrosine kinase thermodynamic profiles recapitulate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic scaling theory, previously applied mainly to small proteins, here analyzes quantitative evolution of the titled functional network giant hub enzymes. The broad domain structure identified homologically is confirmed hydropathically using amino acid sequences only. The most surprising results concern the evolution of the tyrosine kinase globular surface roughness from avians to mammals, which is first order, compared to the evolution within mammals from rodents to humans, which is second order. The mystery of the unique amide terminal region of proto oncogene tyrosine protein kinase is resolved by the discovery there of a rare hydroneutral septad targeting cluster, which is paralleled by an equally rare octad catalytic cluster in tyrosine kinase in humans and a few other species (cat and dog). These results, which go far towards explaining why these proteins are among the largest giant hubs in protein interaction networks, use no adjustable parameters.

  4. Characterization of a human cell line stably over-expressing the candidate oncogene, dual specificity phosphatase 12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Cain

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of chromosomal rearrangements within primary tumors has been influential in the identification of novel oncogenes. Identification of the "driver" gene(s within cancer-derived amplicons is, however, hampered by the fact that most amplicons contain many gene products. Amplification of 1q21-1q23 is strongly associated with liposarcomas and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization narrowed down the likely candidate oncogenes to two: the activating transcription factor 6 (atf6 and the dual specificity phosphatase 12 (dusp12. While atf6 is an established transcriptional regulator of the unfolded protein response, the potential role of dusp12 in cancer remains uncharacterized.To evaluate the oncogenic potential of dusp12, we established stable cell lines that ectopically over-express dusp12 in isolation and determined whether this cell line acquired properties frequently associated with transformed cells. Here, we demonstrate that cells over-expressing dusp12 display increased cell motility and resistance to apoptosis. Additionally, over-expression of dusp12 promoted increased expression of the c-met proto-oncogene and the collagen and laminin receptor intergrin alpha 1 (itga1 which is implicated in metastasis.Collectively, these results suggest that dusp12 is oncologically relevant and exposes a potential association between dusp12 and established oncogenes that could be therapeutically targeted.

  5. Regulation of TFIIIB during F9 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athineos, Dimitris; Marshall, Lynne; White, Robert J

    2010-03-12

    Differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells into parietal endoderm (PE) provides a tractable model system for studying molecular events during early and inaccessible stages of murine development. PE formation is accompanied by extensive changes in gene expression both in vivo and in culture. One of the most dramatic is the ~10-fold decrease in transcriptional output by RNA polymerase (pol) III. This has been attributed to changes in activity of TFIIIB, a factor that is necessary and sufficient to recruit pol III to promoters. The goal of this study was to identify molecular changes that can account for the low activity of TFIIIB following F9 cell differentiation. Three essential subunits of TFIIIB decrease in abundance as F9 cells differentiate; these are Brf1 and Bdp1, which are pol III-specific, and TBP, which is also used by pols I and II. The decreased levels of Brf1 and Bdp1 proteins can be explained by reduced expression of the corresponding mRNAs. However, this is not the case for TBP, which is regulated post-transcriptionally. In proliferating cells, pol III transcription is stimulated by the proto-oncogene product c-Myc and the mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk, both of which bind to TFIIIB. However, c-Myc levels fall during differentiation and Erk becomes inactive through dephosphorylation. The diminished abundance of TFIIIB is therefore likely to be compounded by changes to these positive regulators that are required for its full activity. In addition, PE cells have elevated levels of the retinoblastoma protein RB, which is known to bind and repress TFIIIB. The low activity of TFIIIB in PE can be attributed to a combination of changes, any one of which could be sufficient to inhibit pol III transcription. Declining levels of essential TFIIIB subunits and of activators that are required for maximal TFIIIB activity are accompanied by an increase in a potent repressor of TFIIIB. These events provide fail-safe guarantees to ensure that pol III

  6. Reprogramming human amniotic fluid stem cells to functional pluripotency by manipulation of culture conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Dafni Moschidou & Pascale V Guillot ### Abstract Pluripotent stem cells have potential applications in regenerative medicine, disease modelling and drug screening. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have first been generated from fibroblasts using retroviral insertion of OCT4A, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4. Since then, a number of methods have been developed to avoid the random integration of ectopic factors in the genome and the low efficiency of the process. Those include alterna...

  7. Coexistence of Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Choriocarcinoma: Complete Response to Trastuzumab and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyda Gunduz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric choriocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm and usually accompanies gastric adenocarcinoma. The prognosis is poor due to the aggressive course of the disease. A 57-year-old female patient with weight loss and abdominal pain was examined. The patient was operated following the examination, and pathological analysis revealed the presence of a gastric adenocarcinoma associated with choriocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a positive reaction with antibodies to beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and overexpression of the cErbB2 proto-oncogene. Staging revealed multiple metastases in the liver. A complete response was obtained with a combination of trastuzumab and chemotherapy. The diagnosis of gastric choriocarcinomas without pathological examination is difficult due to their rare occurrence. A complete response can be obtained with trastuzumab in the treatment of cases with overexpression of the cErbB2 protein.

  8. CDX2 gene expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaoaut, H.H.; Mokhtar, D.A.; Samy, R.M.; Omar, Sh.A.; Khames, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    CDX genes are classically known as regulators of axial elongation during early embryogenesis. An unsuspected role for CDX genes has been revealed during hematopoietic development. The CDX gene family member CDX2 belongs to the most frequent aberrantly expressed proto-oncogenes in human acute leukemias and is highly leukemogenic in experimental models. We used reversed transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the expression level of CDX2 gene in 30 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis and 30 healthy volunteers. ALL patients were followed up to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) on days 15 and 42 of induction. We found that CDX2 gene was expressed in 50% of patients and not expressed in controls. Associations between gene expression and different clinical and laboratory data of patients revealed no impact on different findings. With follow up, we could not confirm that CDX2 expression had a prognostic significance.

  9. [HER2 gene amplification assay: is CISH an alternative to FISH?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoux, Yves; Arnould, Laurent; Fiche, Maryse; Lannes, B; Couturier, Jérôme; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Antoine, M; Balaton, A; Baranzelli, M C; Becette, V; Bellocq, J P; Bibeau, F; Ettore, F; Fridman, V; Gnassia, J P; Jacquemier, J; MacGrogan, G; Mathieu, M C; Migeon, C; Rigaud, C; Roger, P; Sigal-Zafrani, B; Simony-Lafontaine, J; Trassard, M; Treilleux, I; Verriele, V; Voigt, J J

    2003-12-01

    The HER2 proto-oncogene encodes a transmembrane protein, which is considered to function as a growth factor receptor. Overexpression of this protein found by immunohistochemistry in about 20% of infiltrating breast carcinomas, has a predictive value of response to treatment by trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody. Search for HER2 gene amplification is necessary to adapt the immunohistochemical technique quality and also in the cases of delicate analysis or weak overexpression. It is usually carried out by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). A more recent hybridization technique, named CISH because of its chromogenic revelation is an alternative method, which gives highly correlated results with FISH. We present details of this technique, which may be more familiar for the pathologists than FISH, because reading analysis is similar to that of immunohistochemical staining.

  10. Roles of Ubiquitination and SUMOylation on Prostate Cancer: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The initiation and progression of human prostate cancer are highly associated with aberrant dysregulations of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes. Despite that deletions and mutations of tumor suppressors and aberrant elevations of oncogenes at the genetic level are reported to cause cancers, emerging evidence has revealed that cancer progression is largely regulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs and epigenetic alterations. PTMs play critical roles in gene regulation, cellular functions, tissue development, diseases, malignant progression and drug resistance. Recent discoveries demonstrate that ubiquitination and SUMOylation are complicated but highly-regulated PTMs, and make essential contributions to diseases and cancers by regulation of key factors and signaling pathways. Ubiquitination and SUMOylation pathways can be differentially modulated under various stimuli or stresses in order to produce the sustained oncogenic potentials. In this review, we discuss some new insights about molecular mechanisms on ubiquitination and SUMOylation, their associations with diseases, oncogenic impact on prostate cancer (PCa and clinical implications for PCa treatment.

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira-Cunha, Melissa; Newman, William G.; Siriwardena, Ajith K.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related death. The difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapy all contribute to the high mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is expressed in normal human tissues. It is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factors receptors and is encoded by proto-oncogenes. Several studies have demonstrated that EGFR is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer. Over-expression correlates with more advanced disease, poor survival and the presence of metastases. Therefore, inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. Although several combinations of EGFR inhibitors with chemotherapy demonstrate inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor cell apoptosis and regression in xenograft models, these benefits remain to be confirmed. Multimodality treatment incorporating EGFR-inhibition is emerging as a novel strategy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  12. Phenanthroline-2,9-bistriazoles as selective G-quadruplex ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Corvinius; Larsen, Anders Foller; Abdikadir, Faisal Hussein

    2014-01-01

    G-quadruplex (G4) ligands are currently receiving considerable attention as potential anticancer therapeutics. A series of phenanthroline-2,9-bistriazoles carrying tethered positive end groups has been synthesized and evaluated as G4 stabilizers. The compounds were efficiently assembled by copper......(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) in CH2Cl2 and water in the presence of a complexing agent. Characterization of the target compounds on telomeric and c-KIT G4 sequences led to the identification of guanidinium-substituted compounds as potent G4 DNA ligands with high selectivity over duplex DNA....... The diisopropylguanidium ligands exhibited high selectivity for the proto-oncogenic sequence c-KIT over the human telomeric sequence in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay, whereas the compounds appeared potent on both G4 structures in the FRET melting temperature assay. The phenanthroline-2,9-bistriazole ligands...

  13. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Pifithrin-μ, an inhibitor of heat-shock protein 70, can increase the antitumor effects of hyperthermia against human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Sekihara

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia (HT improves the efficacy of anti-cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, HT also inevitably evokes stress responses and increases the expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs in cancer cells. Among the HSPs, HSP70 is known as a pro-survival protein. In this study, we investigated the sensitizing effect of pifithrin (PFT-μ, a small molecule inhibitor of HSP70, when three human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC-3, and DU-145 were treated with HT (43°C for 2 h. All cell lines constitutively expressed HSP70, and HT further increased its expression in LNCaP and DU-145. Knockdown of HSP70 with RNA interference decreased the viability and colony-forming ability of cancer cells. PFT-μ decreased the viabilities of all cell lines at one-tenth the dose of Quercetin, a well-known HSP inhibitor. The combination therapy with suboptimal doses of PFT-μ and HT decreased the viability of cancer cells most effectively when PFT-μ was added immediately before HT, and this combination effect was abolished by pre-knockdown of HSP70, suggesting that the effect was mediated via HSP70 inhibition. The combination therapy induced cell death, partially caspase-dependent, and decreased proliferating cancer cells, with decreased expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 and increased expression of p21(WAF1/Cip, indicating arrest of cell growth. Additionally, the combination therapy significantly decreased the colony-forming ability of cancer cells compared to therapy with either alone. Furthermore, in a xenograft mouse model, the combination therapy significantly inhibited PC-3 tumor growth. These findings suggest that PFT-μ can effectively enhance HT-induced antitumor effects via HSP70 inhibition by inducing cell death and arrest of cell growth, and that PFT-μ is a promising agent for use in combination with HT to treat prostate cancer.

  15. Vitex rotundifolia Fruit Suppresses the Proliferation of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells through Down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK4 via Proteasomal-Dependent Degradation and Transcriptional Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hun Min; Park, Gwang Hun; Park, Su Bin; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Son, Ho-Jun; Um, Yurry; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2018-01-01

    Viticis Fructus (VF) as the dried fruit from Vitex rotundifolia L. used as a traditional medicine for treating inflammation, headache, migraine, chronic bronchitis, eye pain, and gastrointestinal infections has been reported to have antiproliferative effects against various cancer cells, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which VF mediates the inhibitory effect of the proliferation of cancer cells have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of VF on the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 level associated with cancer cell proliferation. VF suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT116 and SW480. VF induced decrease in cyclin D1 and CDK4 in both protein and mRNA levels. However, the protein levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 were decreased by VF at an earlier time than the change of mRNA levels; rather it suppressed the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 via the proteasomal degradation. In cyclin D1 and CDK4 degradation, we found that Thr286 phosphorylation of cyclin D1 plays a pivotal role in VF-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. Subsequent experiments with several kinase inhibitors suggest that VF-mediated degradation of cyclin D1 may be dependent on GSK3[Formula: see text] and VF-mediated degradation of CDK4 is dependent on ERK1/2, p38 and GSK3[Formula: see text]. In the transcriptional regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4, we found that VF inhibited Wnt activation associated with cyclin D1 transcriptional regulation through TCF4 down-regulation. In addition, VF treatment down-regulated c-myc expression associated CDK4 transcriptional regulation. Our results suggest that VF has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer.

  16. Troglitazone inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with t(14;18).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenokuchi, M; Saigo, K; Nakamachi, Y; Kawano, S; Hashimoto, M; Fujioka, T; Koizumi, T; Tatsumi, E; Kumagai, S

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been detected in several human leukemia cells. Recent studies reported that PPARgamma ligands inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in both normal and malignant B-lineage cells. We investigated the expression of PPARgamma and the effects of PPARgamma ligands on UTree-O2, Bay91 and 380, three B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines with t(14;18), which show a poor prognosis, accompanying c-myc abnormality. Western blot analysis identified expression of PPARgamma protein and real-time PCR that of PPARgamma mRNA on the three cell lines. Troglitazone (TGZ), a synthetic PPARgamma ligand, inhibited cell growth in these cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with G(1) cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. We also found this effect PPARgamma independent since PPARgamma antagonists failed to reverse this effect. We assessed the expression of c-myc, an apoptosis-regulatory gene, since c-myc abnormality was detected in most B-ALL cells with t(14;18). TGZ was found to dose-dependently downregulate the expression of c-myc mRNA and c-myc protein in the three cell lines. These results suggest that TGZ inhibits cell growth via induction of G(1) cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in these cell lines and that TGZ-induced apoptosis, at least in part, may be related to the downregulation of c-myc expression. Moreover, the downregulation of c-myc expression by TGZ may depend on a PPARgamma-independent mechanism. Further