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Sample records for human butyrylcholinesterase hbche

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of lycorine derivatives as dual inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yue-Hu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurologically degenerative disorder that affects more than 20 million people worldwide. The selective butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitors and bivalent cholinesterase (ChE inhibitors represent new treatments for AD. Findings A series of lycorine derivatives (1–10 were synthesized and evaluated for anti-cholinesterase activity. Result showed that the novel compound 2-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-1-O-(methylthiomethyllycorine (7 was a dual inhibitor of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE and butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE with IC50 values of 11.40 ± 0.66 μM and 4.17 ± 0.29 μM, respectively. The structure-activity relationships indicated that (i the 1-O-(methylthiomethyl substituent in lycorine was better than the 1-O-acetyl group for the inhibition of cholinesterase; (ii the acylated or etherified derivatives of lycorine and lycorin-2-one were more potent against hBChE than hAChE; and (iii the oxidation of lycorine at C-2 decreases the activity. Conclusion Acylated or etherified derivatives of lycorine are potential dual inhibitors of hBChE and hAChE. Hence, further study on the modification of lycorine for ChE inhibition is necessary.

  2. Expression of Recombinant Human Butyrylcholinesterase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockridge, Oksana

    1997-01-01

    .... The G117H enzyme has the potential to be useful for decontamination of skin and eye. To determine how many amino acids could be deleted from butyrylcholinesterase without loss of activity, deletion mutants were expressed...

  3. Human butyrylcholinesterase polymorphism: Molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchekina, S; Delacour, H; Lockridge, O; Masson, P

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged apnoea following injection of ester-containing myoralaxants was first described in 1953. Because a large part of administered succinylcholine is shortly hydrolyzed by plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) under normal conditions, prolonged apnoea was attributed to deficiency in BChE. It was found that BChE deficiency was due to genetic variations. Human BChE gene shows a large polyallelism. About 75 natural mutations of the BCHE gene have been documented so far [1]. Most of them cause alteration in BChE activity through point mutation effect on catalytic activity. Frame shifts and stop codons may also affect expression, or cause truncations in the sequence. Recently, two novel BChE "silent" variants, Val204Asp [2] and Ala34Val [3], causing prolonged neuromuscular block after administration of mivacurium, were discovered. Mutations were genetically and kinetically characterized. The aim of the current study was to understand how these mutations determine "silent" phenotype. Molecular dynamics studies were carried out with NAMD 2.9 software at the Lomonosov supercomputer. Charmm 36 force field was used, periodical boundary conditions, 1 atm pressure, 298 K. 100 ns molecular dynamics runs were performed for the wild-type BChE and its mutants Val204Asp and Ala34Val. Unlike wild-type BChE, which retained its operative catalytic triad through the whole MD simulation, the catalytic triad of mutants was disrupted, making chemical step impossible. Val204Asp mutation leads to reorganization of hydrogen bonding network around the catalytic triad, which in turn increases the distance between catalytic residue main chains. Mutation Ala34Val, located on the protein surface, leads to increased fluctuations in the Ω-loop and subsequent disruption of the gorge structure, including disruption of the catalytic triad and formation of new hydrogen bonds involving catalytic center residues. Comparative study of the "silent" Ala328Asp mutant and the catalytically active mutant

  4. Tissue distribution of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jbilo, O.; Barteles, C.F.; Chatonnet, A.; Toutant, J.P.; Lockridge, O.

    1994-12-31

    Tissue distribution of human acetyicholinesterase and butyryicholinesterase messenger RNA. 1 Cholinesterase inhibitors occur naturally in the calabar bean (eserine), green potatoes (solanine), insect-resistant crab apples, the coca plant (cocaine) and snake venom (fasciculin). There are also synthetic cholinesterase inhibitors, for example man-made insecticides. These inhibitors inactivate acetyicholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase as well as other targets. From a study of the tissue distribution of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase mRNA by Northern blot analysis, we have found the highest levels of butyrylcholinesterase mRNA in the liver and lungs, tissues known as the principal detoxication sites of the human body. These results indicate that butyrylcholinesterase may be a first line of defense against poisons that are eaten or inhaled.

  5. Flavonoids as Inhibitors of Human Butyrylcholinesterase Variants

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    Maja Katalinić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8 appears to be of interest in treating diseases with symptoms of reduced neurotransmitter levels, such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, BCHE gene polymorphism should not be neglected in research since it could have an effect on the expected outcome. Several well-known cholinergic drugs (e.g. galantamine, huperzine and rivastigmine originating from plants, or synthesised as derivatives of plant compounds, have shown that herbs could serve as a source of novel target-directed compounds. We focused our research on flavonoids, biologically active polyphenolic compounds found in many plants and plant-derived products, as BChE inhibitors. All of the tested flavonoids: galangin, quercetin, fisetin and luteolin reversibly inhibited usual, atypical, and fluoride-resistant variants of human BChE. The inhibition potency increased in the following order, identically for all three BChE variants: luteolin

  6. Delipidation of Plasma Has Minimal Effects on Human Butyrylcholinesterase

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    Seda Onder

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE is purified in large quantities from Cohn fraction IV-4 to use for protection against the toxicity of chemical warfare agents. Small scale preliminary experiments use outdated plasma from the American Red Cross as the starting material for purifying BChE (P06276. Many of the volunteer donor plasma samples are turbid with fat, the donor having eaten fatty food before the blood draw. The turbid fat interferes with enzyme assays performed in the spectrophotometer and with column chromatography. Our goal was to find a method to remove fat from plasma without loss of BChE activity. Satisfactory delipidation was achieved by adding a solution of 10% dextran sulfate and calcium chloride to fatty plasma, followed by centrifugation, and filtration through a 0.8 μm filter. Treatment with Aerosil also delipidated fatty plasma, but was accompanied by loss of 50% of the plasma volume. BChE activity and the BChE isozyme pattern on nondenaturing gel electrophoresis were unaffected by delipidation. BChE in delipidated plasma was efficiently captured by immobilized monoclonal antibodies B2 18-5 and mAb2. The immunopurified BChE was released from antibody binding with acid and visualized as a highly enriched, denatured BChE preparation by SDS gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, delipidation with dextran sulfate/CaCl2 preserves BChE activity and the tetramer structure of BChE.

  7. An evaluation of the inhibition of human butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase by the organophosphate chlorpyrifos oxon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenouda, Josephine; Green, Paula; Sultatos, Lester

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are enzymes that belong to the superfamily of α/β-hydrolase fold proteins. While they share many characteristics, they also possess many important differences. For example, whereas they have about 54% amino acid sequence identity, the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase is considerably smaller than that of butyrylcholinesterase. Moreover, both have been shown to display simple and complex kinetic mechanisms, depending on the particular substrate examined, the substrate concentration, and incubation conditions. In the current study, incubation of butyrylthiocholine in a concentration range of 0.005-3.0 mM, with 317 pM human butyrylcholinesterase in vitro, resulted in rates of production of thiocholine that were accurately described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a K m of 0.10 mM. Similarly, the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase in vitro by the organophosphate chlorpyrifos oxon was described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a k i of 3048 nM -1 h -1 , and a K D of 2.02 nM. In contrast to inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase, inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase by chlorpyrifos oxon in vitro followed concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics, with the k i increasing as the inhibitor concentration decreased. Chlorpyrifos oxon concentrations of 10 and 0.3 nM gave k i s of 1.2 and 19.3 nM -1 h -1 , respectively. Although the mechanism of concentration-dependent inhibition kinetics is not known, the much smaller, more restrictive active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase almost certainly plays a role. Similarly, the much larger active site gorge of butyrylcholinesterase likely contributes to its much greater reactivity towards chlorpyrifos oxon, compared to acetylcholinesterase.

  8. Retrospective detection of exposure to organophosphorus anti-cholinesterases: Mass spectrometric analysis of phosphylated human butyrylcholinesterase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidder, A.; Hulst, A.G.; Noort, D.; Ruiter, R. de; Schans, M.J. van der; Benschop, H.P.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a novel and general procedure is presented for detection of organophosphate-inhibited human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBuChE), which is based on electrospray tandem mass spectrometric analysis of phosphylated nonapeptides obtained after pepsin digestion of the enzyme. The utility of this

  9. Plant-derived human butyrylcholinesterase, but not an organophosphorous-compound hydrolyzing variant thereof, protects rodents against nerve agents

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Brian C.; Kannan, Latha; Garnaud, Pierre-Emmanuel; Broomfield, Clarence A.; Cadieux, C. Linn; Cherni, Irene; Hodgins, Sean M.; Kasten, Shane A.; Kelley, Karli; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Oliver, Zeke P.; Otto, Tamara C.; Puffenberger, Ian; Reeves, Tony E.; Robbins, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The concept of using cholinesterase bioscavengers for prophylaxis against organophosphorous nerve agents and pesticides has progressed from the bench to clinical trial. However, the supply of the native human proteins is either limited (e.g., plasma-derived butyrylcholinesterase and erythrocytic acetylcholinesterase) or nonexisting (synaptic acetylcholinesterase). Here we identify a unique form of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase that mimics the native enzyme assembly into tetramers; t...

  10. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Musilek; Kamil Kuca; Daniel Jun; Lucie Musilova

    2011-01-01

    We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6) to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos). We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic...

  11. Identification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase in human plasma using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Uma K.; Lin, Chiann Tso; Kim, Jong Seo; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Wang, Jun; Qian, Weijun; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-04-20

    Paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate) is an active metabolite of the common insecticide parathion and is acutely toxic due to the inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the nervous systems. The Inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity by paraoxon is due to the formation of phosphorylated BChE adduct, and the detection of the phosphorylated BChE adduct in human plasma can serve as an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. In this study, we performed immunoaffinity purification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for identifying phosphorylated BChE in human plasma treated by paraoxon. BChE was captured by biotinylated anti-BChE polyclonal antibodies conjugated to streptavidin magnetic beads. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody was effective to recognize both native and modified BChE with high specificity. The exact phosphorylation site of BChE was confirmed on Serine 198 by MS/MS with a 108 Da modification mass and accurately measured parent ion masses. The phosphorylated BChE peptide was also successfully detected in the immunoaffinity purified sample from paraoxon treated human plasma. Thus, immunoaffinity purification combined with mass spectrometry represents a viable approach for the detection of paraoxon-modified BChE and other forms of modified BChE as exposure biomarkers of organophosphates and nerve agents.

  12. Modeling Evolution of Hydrogen Bonding and Stabilization of Transition States in the Process of Cocaine Hydrolysis Catalyzed by Human Butyrylcholinesterase

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Daquan; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations were performed on the prereactive enzyme-substrate complex, transition states, intermediates, and product involved in the process of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of (−)-cocaine. The computational results consistently reveal a unique role of the oxyanion hole (consisting of G116, G117, and A199) in BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of cocaine, as compared to acetylcholinester...

  13. Calcium-activated butyrylcholinesterase in human skin protects acetylcholinesterase against suicide inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallreuter, Karin U.; University of Bradford; Elwary, Souna M.; Parkin, Susan M.; Wood, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The human epidermis holds an autocrine acetylcholine production and degradation including functioning membrane integrated and cytosolic butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE). Here we show that BuchE activities increase 9-fold in the presence of calcium (0.5 x 10 -3 M) via a specific EF-hand calcium binding site, whereas acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is not affected. 45 Calcium labelling and computer simulation confirmed the presence of one EF-hand binding site per subunit which is disrupted by H 2 O 2 -mediated oxidation. Moreover, we confirmed the faster hydrolysis by calcium-activated BuchE using the neurotoxic organophosphate O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)-phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). Considering the large size of the human skin with 1.8 m 2 surface area with its calcium gradient in the 10 -3 M range, our results implicate calcium-activated BuchE as a major protective mechanism against suicide inhibition of AchE by organophosphates in this non-neuronal tissue

  14. Structure of the gene for human butyrylcholinesterase. Evidence for a single copy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpagaus, M.; Kott, M.; Vatsis, K.P.; Bartels, C.F.; La Du, B.N.; Lockridge, O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have isolated five genomic clones for human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), using cDNA probes encoding the catalytic subunit of the hydrophilic tetramer. The BChE gene is at least 73 kb long and contains for exons. Exon 1 contains untranslated sequences and two potential translation initiation sites at codons -69 and -47. Exon 2 (1525 bp) contains 83% of the coding sequence for the mature protein, including the N-terminal and the active-site serine, and a third possible translation initiation site (likely functional), at codon -28. Exon 3 is 167 nucleotides long. Exon 4 (604 bp) codes for the C-terminus of the protein and the 3' untranslated region where two polyadenylation signals were identified. Intron 1 is 6.5 km long, and the minimal sizes of introns 2 and 3 are estimated to be 32 km each. Southern blot analysis of total human genomic DNA is in complete agreement with the gene structure established by restriction endonuclease mapping of the genomic clones: this strongly suggests that the BChE gene is present in a single copy

  15. A repeated injection of polyethyleneglycol-conjugated recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase elicits immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilukuri, Nageswararao; Sun Wei; Parikh, Kalpana; Naik, Ramachandra S.; Tang Lin; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-01-01

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) serves as an efficacious bioscavenger of highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Since there is a concern that the supply of native Hu BChE may be limited, monomeric and tetrameric forms of recombinant Hu BChE (rHu BChE) were evaluated as replacements and found that they lacked sufficient stability in vivo. However, their in vivo stability could be significantly prolonged by conjugation with polyethyleneglycol-20K (PEG) suggesting that monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChE could function as bioscavengers. Here, the immunogenicity of PEG-rHu BChE was evaluated in mice following two injections given four weeks apart. In addition to pharmacokinetic parameters, such as mean residence time, maximal concentration, time to reach the maximal concentration, elimination half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies was also determined. Although the pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly improved for the first injection of monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs, they were much lower for the second injection. Anti-rHu BChE antibodies were detected in the blood of mice following the first and second enzyme injections and their levels were approximately higher by 5-fold and 2-fold in mice injected with monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs as compared to mice injected with unconjugated enzymes. The findings that the rapid clearance of a repeat injection of PEG-rHu BChEs in mice which coincides with the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies suggest that PEG conjugation prolonged the circulatory stability of rHu BChE but failed to eliminate its immunogenicity in mice

  16. The effect of fluoride on the scavenging of organophosphates by human butyrylcholinesterase in buffer solutions and human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashani, Yacov; Segev, Omri; Balan, Ayala

    2004-01-01

    Fluoride ion is a reversible inhibitor of human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) that is a viable drug candidate against organophosphates (OPs) toxicity. Since large numbers of communities in many countries are occasionally exposed to relatively high amount of fluoride, its effect on the kinetics of inhibition of HuBChE by OPs was investigated. In saline phosphate, pH 7.4, fluoride in the lower millimolar range significantly slowed the inhibition of HuBChE by paraoxon, DFP, echothiophate, soman, sarin, and VX. The kinetics of the inhibition was found consistent with the formation of a reversible fluoride-HuBChE complex that is at least 25-fold less active towards phosphorylation or phosphonylation than the free enzyme. Heat inactivation experiments indicate that the binding of fluoride to HuBChE probably involves enhanced cross-domain interaction via hydrogen bonds formation that may decrease enzyme activity. In spite of distinct structural differences among the OP used, the dissociation constants of the fluoride-HuBChE reversible complex varied over a narrow range (K F , 0.31-0.70 mM); however, K F in human plasma increased to 2.75-3.40 mM. 19 F-NMR spectroscopy revealed that fluoride ion is complexed to plasma components, an observation that explains in part the apparent increase in K F . Results suggest that an estimate of the relative decrease in the rate of OPs sequestration in presence of fluoride can be obtained from the fraction of the free HuBChE (1 + [F]/K F ) -1 . Considering K F values in human plasma, it is concluded that the scavenging efficacy of OPs by HuBChE is not compromised by the normal concentration range of circulating fluoride ions

  17. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

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    Kamil Musilek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6 to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE, inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos. We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic” bioscavenger in combination with this enzyme. Such a combination could allow an increase of prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the administered enzyme. According to our results, the best broad-spectrum AChE reactivators were trimedoxime and obidoxime in the case of paraoxon, leptophos-oxon, and methamidophos-inhibited AChE. Methamidophos and leptophos-oxon were quite easily reactivatable by all tested reactivators. In the case of methamidophos-inhibited AChE, the lower oxime concentration (10−5 M had higher reactivation ability than the 10−4 M concentration. Therefore, we evaluated the reactivation ability of obidoxime in a concentration range of 10−3–10−7 M. The reactivation of methamidophos-inhibited AChE with different obidoxime concentrations resulted in a bell shaped curve with maximum reactivation at 10−5 M. In the case of BChE, no reactivator exceeded 15% reactivation ability and therefore none of the oximes can be recommended as a candidate for “pseudocatalytic” bioscavengers with BChE.

  18. Coamplification of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase genes in blood cells: Correlation with various leukemias and abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot-Lifson, Y.; Prody, C.A.; Ginzberg, D.; Meytes, D.; Zakut, H.; Soreq, H.

    1989-01-01

    To study the yet unknown role of the ubiquitous family of cholinesterases (ChoEases) in developing blood cells, the recently isolated cDNAs encoding human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were used in blot hybridization with peripheral blood DNA from various leukemic patients. Hybridization signals and modified restriction patterns were observed with both cDNA probes in 4 of the 16 leukemia DNA preparations examined. These reflected the amplification of the corresponding AcCho-Ease and BtChoEase genes (ACHE and CHE) and alteration in their structure. Parallel analysis of 30 control samples revealed nonpolymorphic, much weaker hybridization signals for each of the probes. In view of previous reports on the effect of acetylcholine analogs and ChoEase inhibitors in the induction of megakaryocytopoiesis and production of platelets in the mouse. The authors further searched for such phenomena in nonleukemic patients with platelet production disorders. Amplifications of both ACHE and CHE genes were found in 2 of the 4 patients so far examined. Pronounced coamplification of these two related but distinct genes in correlation with pathological production of blood cells suggests a functional role for members of the ChoEase family in megakaryocytopoiesis and raises the question whether the coamplification of these genes could be casually involved in the etiology of hemocytopoietic disorders

  19. Resistance to organophosphorus agent toxicity in transgenic mice expressing the G117H mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxia; Ticu Boeck, Andreea; Duysen, Ellen G.; Van Keuren, Margaret; Saunders, Thomas L.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2004-01-01

    Organophosphorus toxicants (OP) include chemical nerve agents and pesticides. The goal of this work was to find out whether an animal could be made resistant to OP toxicity by genetic engineering. The human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) mutant G117H was chosen for study because it has the unusual ability to hydrolyze OP as well as acetylcholine, and it is resistant to inhibition by OP. Human G117H BChE, under the control of the ROSA26 promoter, was expressed in all tissues of transgenic mice. A stable transgenic mouse line expressed 0.5 μg/ml of human G117H BChE in plasma as well as 2 μg/ml of wild-type mouse BChE. Intestine, kidneys, stomach, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, brain, and muscle expressed 0.6-0.15 μg/g of G117H BChE. Transgenic mice were normal in behavior and fertility. The LD50 dose of echothiophate for wild-type mice was 0.1 mg/kg sc. This dose caused severe cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality in wild-type mice, but caused no deaths and only mild toxicity in transgenic animals. The mechanism of protection was investigated by measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE activity. It was found that AChE and endogenous BChE were inhibited to the same extent in echothiophate-treated wild type and transgenic mice. This led to the hypothesis that protection against echothiophate toxicity was not explained by hydrolysis of echothiophate. In conclusion, the transgenic G117H BChE mouse demonstrates the factors required to achieve protection from OP toxicity in a vertebrate animal

  20. Modeling evolution of hydrogen bonding and stabilization of transition states in the process of cocaine hydrolysis catalyzed by human butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daquan; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations were performed on the prereactive enzyme-substrate complex, transition states, intermediates, and product involved in the process of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of (-)-cocaine. The computational results consistently reveal a unique role of the oxyanion hole (consisting of G116, G117, and A199) in BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of cocaine, compared to acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine. During BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of cocaine, only G117 has a hydrogen bond with the carbonyl oxygen (O31) of the cocaine benzoyl ester in the prereactive BChE-cocaine complex, and the NH groups of G117 and A199 are hydrogen-bonded with O31 of cocaine in all of the transition states and intermediates. Surprisingly, the NH hydrogen of G116 forms an unexpected hydrogen bond with the carboxyl group of E197 side chain and, therefore, is not available to form a hydrogen bond with O31 of cocaine in the acylation. The NH hydrogen of G116 is only partially available to form a weak hydrogen bond with O31 of cocaine in some structures involved in the deacylation. The change of the estimated hydrogen-bonding energy between the oxyanion hole and O31 of cocaine during the reaction process demonstrates how the protein environment can affect the energy barrier for each step of the BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of cocaine. These insights concerning the effects of the oxyanion hole on the energy barriers provide valuable clues on how to rationally design BChE mutants with a higher catalytic activity for the hydrolysis of (-)-cocaine. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Thermostabilisation of human serum butyrylcholinesterase for detection of its inhibitors in water and biological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmanan Jaganathan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of gelatine-trehalose to convert the normally fragile, dry human serum BChE into a thermostable enzyme and its use in the detection of cholinesterase inhibitors in water and biological fluids is described. Gelatine or trehalose alone is unable to protect the dry enzyme against exposure to high temperature, while a combination of gelatine and trehalose were able to protect the enzyme activity against prolonged exposure to temperature as high as +50°C. A method for rapid, simple and inexpensive means of screening for cholinesterase inhibitors such as carbamates and organophosphates in water, vegetables and human blood has been developed.A capacidade da gelatina-trehalose em converter a frágil BChE do soro humano em uma enzima termoestável e seu uso na descoberta de inibidores de colinesterase em água e fluidos biológicos é apresentado. A Gelatina ou trehalose são incapazes de proteger a enzima seca BchE do soro humano contra exposição a elevadas temperaturas, enquanto que uma combinação de gelatina e trehalose são capazes de proteger a atividade de enzima contra exposição prolongada a temperaturas elevadas e da ordem de 50° C. Um método barato, simples e rápido de screening para inibidores de colinesterase tal como carbamatos e organofosfatos em água, verduras e sangue humano foi desenvolvido.

  2. Inhibition kinetics of human serum butyrylcholinesterase by Cd2+, Zn2+ and Al3+: comparison of the effects of metal ions on cholinesterases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkarati, B.; Cokugras, A.N.; Tezcan, E.F.

    1999-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) has been purified about 6600-fold from human serum with a procedure including ammonium sulfate fractionation (55-70%) with acid step at pH 4.5 and procainamide-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited negative cooperativity with respect to butyrylthiocholine (BTCh) binding at pH 7.5. K S was found to be 0.128±0.012 mM. Inhibition kinetics of the enzyme by Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Al 3+ were studied in detail. The 1/v vs 1/[BTCh] plots in the absence (control plot) and in the presence of different concentrations of cations intersected above 1/[BTCh]-axis. The data were analyzed by means of a nonlinear curve fitting program. The results demonstrated that all of the three cations are the linear mixed-type inhibitors of BChE. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ had no effect on the enzyme activity in the experimental conditions. But when the enzyme was inhibited by 0.5 mM Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ partially reactivated the inhibited allosteric form of BChE. Results were compared with data obtained from brain BChE purified from sheep. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Acetylcholinesterase assay for cerebrospinal fluid using bupivacaine to inhibit butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jens

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most test systems for acetylcholinesterase activity (E.C.3.1.1.7. are using toxic inhibitors (BW284c51 and iso-OMPA to distinguish the enzyme from butyrylcholinesterase (E.C.3.1.1.8. which occurs simultaneously in the cerebrospinal fluid. Applying Ellman's colorimetric method, we were looking for a non-toxic inhibitor to restrain butyrylcholinesterase activity. Based on results of previous in vitro studies bupivacaine emerged to be a suitable inhibitor. Results Pharmacokinetic investigations with purified cholinesterases have shown maximum inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase activity and minimal interference with acetylcholinesterase activity at bupivacaine final concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 mmol/l. Based on detailed analysis of pharmacokinetic data we developed three equations representing enzyme inhibition at bupivacaine concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mmol/l. These equations allow us to calculate the acetylcholinesterase activity in solutions containing both cholinesterases utilizing the extinction differences measured spectrophotometrically in samples with and without bupivacaine. The accuracy of the bupivacaine-inhibition test could be confirmed by investigations on solutions of both purified cholinesterases and on samples of human cerebrospinal fluid. If butyrylcholinesterase activity has to be assessed simultaneously an independent test using butyrylthiocholine iodide as substrate (final concentration 5 mmol/l has to be conducted. Conclusions The bupivacaine-inhibition test is a reliable method using spectrophotometrical techniques to measure acetylcholinesterase activity in cerebrospinal fluid. It avoids the use of toxic inhibitors for differentiation of acetylcholinesterase from butyrylcholinesterase in fluids containing both enzymes. Our investigations suggest that bupivacaine concentrations of 0.1, 0.2 or 0.5 mmol/l can be applied with the same effect using 1 mmol/l acetylthiocholine iodide as substrate.

  4. Estudos de QSAR 3D para um conjunto de inibidores de butirilcolinesterase humana QSAR 3D studies of a series of human butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto F. Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is considered the main cause of cognitive decline in adults. The available therapies for AD treatment seek to maintain the activity of cholinergic system through the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. However, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE can be considered an alternative target for AD treatment. Aiming at developing new BuChE inhibitors, robust QSAR 3D models with high predictive power were developed. The best model presents a good fit (r²=0.82, q²=0.76, with two PCs and high predictive power (r²predict=0.88. Analysis of regression vector shows that steric properties have considerable importance to the inhibition of the BuChE.

  5. Discovery of Highly Selective and Nanomolar Carbamate-Based Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors by Rational Investigation into Their Inhibition Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Edgar; Wehle, Sarah; Kling, Beata; Wendrich, Jan; Bringmann, Gerhard; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Heilmann, Jörg; Decker, Michael

    2016-03-10

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a promising target for the treatment of later stage cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. A set of pseudo-irreversible BChE inhibitors with high selectivity over hAChE was synthesized based on carbamates attached to tetrahydroquinazoline scaffolds with the 2-thiophenyl compound 2p as the most potent inhibitor of eqBChE (KC = 14.3 nM) and also of hBChE (KC = 19.7 nM). The inhibitors transfer the carbamate moiety onto the active site under release of the phenolic tetrahydroquinazoline scaffolds that themselves act as neuroprotectants. By combination of kinetic data with molecular docking studies, a plausible binding model was probed describing how the tetrahydroquinazoline scaffold guides the carbamate into a close position to the active site. The model explains the influence of the carrier scaffold onto the affinity of an inhibitor just before carbamate transfer. This strategy can be used to utilize the binding mode of other carbamate-based inhibitors.

  6. Caffeine Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase, But Not Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dobes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is an alkaloid with a stimulant effect in the body. It can interfere in transmissions based on acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and glutamate. Clinical studies indicate that it can be involved in the slowing of Alzheimer disease pathology and some other effects. The effects are not well understood. In the present work, we focused on the question whether caffeine can inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE and/or, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, the two enzymes participating in cholinergic neurotransmission. A standard Ellman test with human AChE and BChE was done for altering concentrations of caffeine. The test was supported by an in silico examination as well. Donepezil and tacrine were used as standards. In compliance with Dixon’s plot, caffeine was proved to be a non-competitive inhibitor of AChE and BChE. However, inhibition of BChE was quite weak, as the inhibition constant, Ki, was 13.9 ± 7.4 mol/L. Inhibition of AChE was more relevant, as Ki was found to be 175 ± 9 µmol/L. The predicted free energy of binding was −6.7 kcal/mol. The proposed binding orientation of caffeine can interact with Trp86, and it can be stabilize by Tyr337 in comparison to the smaller Ala328 in the case of human BChE; thus, it can explain the lower binding affinity of caffeine for BChE with reference to AChE. The biological relevance of the findings is discussed.

  7. Molecular characterization and polymorphisms of butyrylcholinesterase in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Mahadhi, Hassan M D; Ohura, Kayoko; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko

    2018-06-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an enzyme essential for drug metabolism, has been investigated as antidotes against organophosphorus nerve agents, and the efficacy and safety have been studied in cynomolgus macaques. BChE polymorphisms partly account for variable BChE activities among individuals in humans, but have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques. Molecular characterization was carried out by analyzing primary sequence, gene, tissue expression, and genetic variants. In cynomolgus and human BChE, phylogenetically closely related, amino acid residues important for enzyme function were conserved, and gene and genomic structure were similar. Cynomolgus BChE mRNA was most abundantly expressed in liver among the 10 tissue types analyzed. Re-sequencing found 26 non-synonymous genetic variants in 121 cynomolgus and 23 rhesus macaques, indicating that macaque BChE is polymorphic, although none of these variants corresponded to the null or defective alleles of human BChE. These results suggest molecular similarities of cynomolgus and human BChE. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Butyrylcholinesterase activity in Nigerian type 2 diabetics with and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Butyrylcholinesterase activity in diabetes and metabolic syndrome is generally under reported. Blood samples and demographic data were obtained from one hundred ... compared with acetyl cholinesterase although it may.

  9. Butyrylcholinesterase activity in Nigerian type 2 diabetics with and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Butyrylcholinesterase ... Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic progressive disease typified by a loss of glycaemic control over time as the ..... susceptibility locus on chromosome position 3q27 but.

  10. Butyrylcholinesterase as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvesh, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    The serine hydrolase butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), like the related enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), co-regulates metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the human brain BChE is mainly expressed in white matter and glia and in distinct populations of neurons in regions that are important in cognition and behavior, functions compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia with no cure nor means for definitive diagnosis during life. In AD, BChE is found in association with pathology, such as β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, particularly in the cerebral cortex where BChE is not normally found in quantity. Up to 30% of cognitively normal older adults have abundant Aβ deposition in the brain. We have designed an imaging agent that can detect, through autoradiography, BChE-associated Aβ plaques in the cerebral cortex of AD brains, but does not visualize Aβ plaques in brains of cognitively normal individuals. Furthermore, in an AD mouse model with BChE gene knocked out, there are up to 70% fewer fibrillar Aβ brain plaques, suggesting diminished BChE activity could prove beneficial as a curative approach to AD. To that end, we have examined numerous N-10-carbonyl phenothiazines that are specific inhibitors of human BChE, revealing important details of the enzyme's active site gorge. These phenothiazines can be designed without potential side effects caused by neurotransmitter receptor interactions. In conclusion, BChE is potentially an important target for diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  11. A new detection method for the K variant of butyrylcholinesterase based on PCR primer introduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuta, K; Abe, M; Suzuki, T

    1994-01-01

    The K variant of human butyrylcholinesterase is caused by a G/A transition in the butyrylcholinesterase gene, which neither creates nor destroys any restriction site. In an attempt to detect the K variant both simply and rapidly, we developed a two step method of "PCR primer introduced restriction analysis" (PCR-PIRA). The first step was used to introduce a new Fun4HI site into the normal allele for a screening test, while the second step was performed to create a new MaeIII site on the variant allele for a specific test. This method thus enabled us to distinguish clearly the K variant from the normal allele, and also showed that the frequency of the K variant allele is 0.164 in the Japanese population. Images PMID:7966197

  12. Cocrystallization studies of full-length recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with cocaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin Ajibola; Asojo, Oluyomi Adebola; Ngamelue, Michelle N.; Homma, Kohei; Lockridge, Oksana (Nebraska-Med)

    2011-09-16

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8) is a 340 kDa tetrameric glycoprotein that is present in human serum at about 5 mg l{sup -1} and has well documented therapeutic effects on cocaine toxicity. BChE holds promise as a therapeutic that reduces and finally eliminates the rewarding effects of cocaine, thus weaning an addict from the drug. There have been extensive computational studies of cocaine hydrolysis by BChE. Since there are no reported structures of BChE with cocaine or any of the hydrolysis products, full-length monomeric recombinant wild-type BChE was cocrystallized with cocaine. The refined 3 {angstrom} resolution structure appears to retain the hydrolysis product benzoic acid in sufficient proximity to form a hydrogen bond to the active-site Ser198.

  13. A comprehensive evaluation of novel oximes in creation of butyrylcholinesterase-based nerve agent bioscavengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katalinić, Maja; Maček Hrvat, Nikolina; Baumann, Krešimir; Morasi Piperčić, Sara; Makarić, Sandro; Tomić, Srđanka; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica; Miličević, Ante; Jelić, Dubravko; Žunec, Suzana; Primožič, Ines; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    A well-considered treatment of acute nerve agents poisoning involves the exogenous administration of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) as a stoichiometric bioscavenger efficient in preventing cholinergic crises caused by acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition. An additional improvement in medical countermeasures would be to use oximes that could reactivate BChE as well to upgrade bioscavenging from stoichiometric to oxime-assisted catalytic. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the potency of 39 imidazolium and benzimidazolium oximes (36 compounds synthesized for the first time) to be considered as the reactivators specifically designed for reactivation of phosphylated human BChE. Their efficiency in the reactivation of paraoxon-, VX-, and tabun-inhibited human BChE, as well as human AChE was tested and compared with the efficiencies of HI-6 and obidoxime, used in medical practice today. A comprehensive analysis was performed for the most promising oximes defining kinetic parameters of reactivation as well as interactions with uninhibited BChE. Furthermore, experimental data were compared with computational studies (docking, QSAR analysis) as a starting point in future oxime structure refinement. Considering the strict criteria set for in vivo applications, we determined the cytotoxicity of lead oximes on two cell lines. Among the tested oxime library, one imidazolium compound was selected for preliminary in vivo antidotal study in mice. The obtained protection in VX poisoning outlines its potential in development oxime-assisted OP-bioscavenging with BChE. - Highlights: • 36 new imidazolium and benzimidazolium oximes were designed and synthesized. • In vitro reactivation kinetics of phosphylated butyrylcholinesterase was studded. • The modes of actions were elucidated by QSAR and docking simulations. • Protection in VX poisoning was 6.3 × LD 50 in in vivo antidotal study in mice. • Imidazolium oxime-assisted catalysis is feasible

  14. A comprehensive evaluation of novel oximes in creation of butyrylcholinesterase-based nerve agent bioscavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katalinić, Maja; Maček Hrvat, Nikolina [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, POB 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Baumann, Krešimir; Morasi Piperčić, Sara; Makarić, Sandro; Tomić, Srđanka; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Miličević, Ante [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, POB 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Jelić, Dubravko [Fidelta Ltd., HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Žunec, Suzana [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, POB 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Primožič, Ines, E-mail: ines.primozic@chem.pmf.hr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia); Kovarik, Zrinka, E-mail: zkovarik@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, POB 291, HR-10001 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-11-01

    A well-considered treatment of acute nerve agents poisoning involves the exogenous administration of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) as a stoichiometric bioscavenger efficient in preventing cholinergic crises caused by acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition. An additional improvement in medical countermeasures would be to use oximes that could reactivate BChE as well to upgrade bioscavenging from stoichiometric to oxime-assisted catalytic. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the potency of 39 imidazolium and benzimidazolium oximes (36 compounds synthesized for the first time) to be considered as the reactivators specifically designed for reactivation of phosphylated human BChE. Their efficiency in the reactivation of paraoxon-, VX-, and tabun-inhibited human BChE, as well as human AChE was tested and compared with the efficiencies of HI-6 and obidoxime, used in medical practice today. A comprehensive analysis was performed for the most promising oximes defining kinetic parameters of reactivation as well as interactions with uninhibited BChE. Furthermore, experimental data were compared with computational studies (docking, QSAR analysis) as a starting point in future oxime structure refinement. Considering the strict criteria set for in vivo applications, we determined the cytotoxicity of lead oximes on two cell lines. Among the tested oxime library, one imidazolium compound was selected for preliminary in vivo antidotal study in mice. The obtained protection in VX poisoning outlines its potential in development oxime-assisted OP-bioscavenging with BChE. - Highlights: • 36 new imidazolium and benzimidazolium oximes were designed and synthesized. • In vitro reactivation kinetics of phosphylated butyrylcholinesterase was studded. • The modes of actions were elucidated by QSAR and docking simulations. • Protection in VX poisoning was 6.3 × LD{sub 50} in in vivo antidotal study in mice. • Imidazolium oxime-assisted catalysis is

  15. Butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase inhibiting and antifungal alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat

    2008-06-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6. Compounds 3, 2 were found to be potent butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase enzymes inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC(50) values 16.3 +/- 0.06 and 19.7 +/- 0.03 microM against BChE and 30.6 +/- 0.02 and 33.7 +/- 0.05 microM against LOX, respectively. The compounds (1-6) showed significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton schoen leinii, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichophyton simii, and Macrophomina phaseolina.

  16. Identification of C5+ extraband of butyrylcholinesterase and two protein bands cathodic to it

    OpenAIRE

    F. D. Suyatna; R. Setiabudy; O. Tjandra; E. Herwana

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoresis of human plasma yields 4 butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) protein bands, i.e. C1, C2, C3, C4 and in some individuals also an extraband C5+. In addition to that other protein bands called "S" bands are also invariably detected. In order to know whether the C5+ and the "S" bands are related to the BChE protein, we have carried out immunological and peptide mapping studies on these proteins. The immunology approach was done by raising polyclonal antibodies against each protein bands ...

  17. Functional variability in butyrylcholinesterase activity regulates intrathecal cytokine and astroglial biomarker profiles in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darreh-Shori, Taher; Vijayaraghavan, Swetha; Aeinehband, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity is associated with activated astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease brain. The BuChE-K variant exhibits 30%-60% reduced acetylcholine (ACh) hydrolyzing capacity. Considering the increasing evidence of an immune-regulatory role of ACh, we investigated if genetic...... findings, such as high cerebral glucose utilization, low β-amyloid load, and less severe progression of clinical symptoms. In vitro analysis on human astrocytes confirmed the involvement of a regulated BuChE status in the astroglial responses to TNF-α and ACh. Histochemical analysis in a rat model of nerve...

  18. Butyrylcholinesterase gene mutations in patients with prolonged apnea after succinylcholine for electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Hannah Malthe; Gätke, M R

    2011-01-01

    patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often receive succinylcholine as part of the anesthetic procedure. The duration of action may be prolonged in patients with genetic variants of the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE), the most common being the K- and the A-variants. The aim...... of the study was to assess the clinical significance of genetic variants in butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) in patients with a suspected prolonged duration of action of succinylcholine after ECT....

  19. Genetic variants of serum butyrylcholinesterase in Chilean Mapuche Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, M; Eaton, L; Ramírez, N R; Cifuentes, L; Llop, E

    2003-05-01

    We estimated the frequencies of serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) alleles in three tribes of Mapuche Indians from southern Chile, using enzymatic methods, and we estimated the frequency of allele BCHE*K in one tribe using primer reduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA). The three tribes have different degrees of European admixture, which is reflected in the observed frequencies of the atypical allele BCHE*A: 1.11% in Huilliches, 0.89% in Cuncos, and 0% in Pehuenches. This result is evidence in favor of the hypothesis that BCHE*A is absent in native Amerindians. The frequencies of BCHE*F were higher than in most reported studies (3.89%, 5.78%, and 4.41%, respectively). These results are probably due to an overestimation of the frequency of allele BCHE*F, since none of the 20 BCHE UF individuals (by the enzymatic test) individuals analyzed showed either of the two DNA base substitutions associated with this allele. Although enzymatic methods rarely detect the presence of allele BCHE*K, PCR-PIRA found the allele in an appreciable frequency (5.76%), although lower than that found in other ethnic groups. Since observed frequencies of unusual alleles correspond to estimated percentages of European admixture, it is likely that none of these unusual alleles were present in Mapuche Indians before the arrival of Europeans. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of phloroglucinol derivatives possessing α-glycosidase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmaoglu, Serdar; Yilmaz, Ali O; Taslimi, Parham; Algul, Oztekin; Kilic, Deryanur; Gulcin, Ilhami

    2018-02-01

    A series of novel phloroglucinol derivatives were designed, synthesized, characterized spectroscopically and tested for their inhibitory activity against selected metabolic enzymes, including α-glycosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and human carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I and II). These compounds displayed nanomolar inhibition levels and showed K i values of 1.14-3.92 nM against AChE, 0.24-1.64 nM against BChE, 6.73-51.10 nM against α-glycosidase, 1.80-5.10 nM against hCA I, and 1.14-5.45 nM against hCA II. © 2018 Deutsche Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft.

  1. New Insights into Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay: Serum Dilution Factor as a Crucial Parameter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jońca

    Full Text Available Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE activity assay and inhibitor phenotyping can help to identify patients at risk of prolonged paralysis following the administration of neuromuscular blocking agents. The assay plays an important role in clinical chemistry as a good diagnostic marker for intoxication with pesticides and nerve agents. Furthermore, the assay is also commonly used for in vitro characterization of cholinesterases, their toxins and drugs. There is still lack of standardized procedure for measurement of BChE activity and many laboratories use different substrates at various concentrations. The purpose of this study was to validate the BChE activity assay to determine the best dilution of human serum and the most optimal concentration of substrates and inhibitors. Serum BChE activity was measured using modified Ellman's method applicable for a microplate reader. We present our experience and new insights into the protocol for high-throughput routine assays of human plasma cholinesterase activities adapted to a microplate reader. During our routine assays used for the determination of BChE activity, we have observed that serum dilution factor influences the results obtained. We show that a 400-fold dilution of serum and 5mM S-butyrylthiocholine iodide can be successfully used for the accurate measurement of BChE activity in human serum. We also discuss usage of various concentrations of dibucaine and fluoride in BChE phenotyping. This study indicates that some factors of such a multicomponent clinical material like serum can influence kinetic parameters of the BChE. The observed inhibitory effect is dependent on serum dilution factor used in the assay.

  2. Butyrylcholinesterase gene mutations in patients with prolonged apnea after succinylcholine for electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Hannah Malthe; Gätke, M R

    2011-01-01

    patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often receive succinylcholine as part of the anesthetic procedure. The duration of action may be prolonged in patients with genetic variants of the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE), the most common being the K- and the A-variants. The aim...

  3. Hupresin Retains Binding Capacity for Butyrylcholinesterase and Acetylcholinesterase after Sanitation with Sodium Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Onder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hupresin is a new affinity resin that binds butyrylcholinesterase (BChE in human plasma and acetylcholinesterase (AChE solubilized from red blood cells (RBC. Hupresin is available from the CHEMFORASE company. BChE in human plasma binds to Hupresin and is released with 0.1 M trimethylammonium bromide (TMA with full activity and 10–15% purity. BChE immunopurified from plasma by binding to immobilized monoclonal beads has fewer contaminating proteins than the one-step Hupresin-purified BChE. However, when affinity chromatography on Hupresin follows ion exchange chromatography at pH 4.5, BChE is 99% pure. The membrane bound AChE, solubilized from human RBC with 0.6% Triton X-100, binds to Hupresin and remains bound during washing with sodium chloride. Human AChE is not released in significant quantities with non-denaturing solvents, but is recovered in 1% trifluoroacetic acid. The denatured, partially purified AChE is useful for detecting exposure to nerve agents by mass spectrometry. Our goal was to determine whether Hupresin retains binding capacity for BChE and AChE after Hupresin is washed with 0.1 M NaOH. A 2 mL column of Hupresin equilibrated in 20 mM TrisCl pH 7.5 was used in seven consecutive trials to measure binding and recovery of BChE from 100 mL human plasma. Between each trial the Hupresin was washed with 10 column volumes of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. A similar trial was conducted with red blood cell AChE in 0.6% Triton X-100. It was found that the binding capacity for BChE and AChE was unaffected by washing Hupresin with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Hupresin could be washed with sodium hydroxide at least seven times without losing binding capacity.

  4. Patients with prolonged effect of succinylcholine or mivacurium had novel mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Sine; Færk, Gitte; Bundgaard, Jens R.

    2016-01-01

    with prolonged duration of action to succinylcholine and mivacurium. Patients were studied if they had equivocal phenotypes on the basis of BChE activity, biochemical inhibitor reactions and with pedigree if possible. Complete nucleotide sequencing was performed to describe the genotype and pedigree was used......Introduction Mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (BChE) can result in prolonged duration of action of the neuromuscular blocking agents, succinylcholine and mivacurium, as BChE hydrolyses these drugs. Hereditary low BChE activity can cause extensively prolonged apnoea during general...... anaesthesia when these drugs are used. The aim of this study was to describe novel mutations in the butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) in patients who have experienced prolonged duration of action of mivacurium or succinylcholine. Methods The Danish Cholinesterase Research Unit registers patients...

  5. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Docking Studies of Novel Bisquaternary Aldoxime Reactivators on Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Paraoxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kuca

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nerve agents and oxon forms of organophosphorus pesticides act as strong irreversible inhibitors of two cholinesterases in the human body: acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7 and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8, and are therefore highly toxic compounds. For the recovery of inhibited AChE, antidotes from the group of pyridinium or bispyridinium aldoxime reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 are used in combination with anticholinergics and anticonvulsives. Therapeutic efficacy of reactivators (called “oximes” depends on their chemical structure and also the type of organophosphorus inhibitor. Three novel oximes (K131, K142, K153 with an oxime group in position four of the pyridinium ring were designed and then tested for their potency to reactivate human (Homo sapiens sapiens AChE (HssACHE and BChE (HssBChE inhibited by the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate. According to the obtained results, none of the prepared oximes were able to satisfactorily reactivate paraoxon-inhibited cholinesterases. On the contrary, extraordinary activity of obidoxime in the case of paraoxon-inhibited HssAChE reactivation was confirmed. Additional docking studies pointed to possible explanations for these results.

  6. The interactions of azure B, a metabolite of methylene blue, with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzer, Anél; Harvey, Brian H.; Petzer, Jacobus P.

    2014-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is reported to possess diverse pharmacological actions and is attracting increasing attention for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Among the pharmacological actions of MB, is the significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). These activities may, at least in part, underlie MB's beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. MB is metabolized to yield N-demethylated products of which azure B, the monodemethyl metabolite, is the predominant species. Azure B has been shown to be pharmacologically active and also possesses a variety of biological actions. Azure B therefore may contribute to the pharmacological profile of MB. Based on these considerations, the present study investigates the possibility that azure B may, similar to MB, act as an inhibitor of human AChE and BuChE. The results document that azure B inhibits AChE and BuChE with IC 50 values of 0.486 μM and 1.99 μM, respectively. The results further show that azure B inhibits AChE and BuChE reversibly, and that the modes of inhibition are most likely competitive. Although the AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities of azure B are twofold and fivefold, respectively, less potent than those recorded for MB [IC 50 (AChE) = 0.214 μM; IC 50 (BuChE) = 0.389 μM] under identical conditions, azure B may be a contributor to MB's in vivo activation of the cholinergic system and beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease. - Highlights: • Methylene blue (MB) is a known inhibitor of AChE and BuChE. • Azure B, the major metabolite of MB, also is an inhibitor of AChE and BuChE. • Azure B may be a contributor to MB's in vivo activation of the cholinergic system. • Azure B may contribute to MB's potential in Alzheimer's disease therapy

  7. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongthanaracht N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natsalil Pongthanaracht,1 Somchai Yanarojana,1 Darawan Pinthong,1 Supeenun Unchern,1 Amnuay Thithapandha,1 Prasert Assantachai,2 Porntip Supavilai11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, 2Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandObjective: To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai community-dwelling patients.Methods: One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman’s method.Results: The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12% was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%, suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity.Conclusion: Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.Keywords: butyrylcholinesterase K variant, butyrylcholinesterase activity, mild cognitive impairment, Thai community-dwelling patients

  8. Effect of viologen-phosphorus dendrimers on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, Karol; Weber, Monika; Katir, Nadia; Caminade, Anne-Marie; El Kadib, Abdelkrim; Klajnert, Barbara; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is the first step in checking whether new compounds can be considered as drugs for treating neurodegenerative diseases. The effect of viologen-phosphorus dendrimers on AChE and BChE activities was studied. The results show that the effects on the cholinesterase activities depend on dendrimer type and size. Viologen dendrimers can interact with the enzymes in two ways: they can bind either to a peripheral site of the enzyme or to amino acids located near the active site, inhibiting catalysis by both cholinesterases. All tested non-toxic viologen-phosphorus dendrimers inhibited the activities of both cholinesterases, showing their potential as new drugs for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of some new 3-coumaranone and coumarin derivatives as dual inhibitors of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Masoumeh; Khoobi, Mehdi; Nadri, Hamid; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Moradi, Alireza; Ghandi, Mehdi; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2013-08-01

    A novel series of coumarin and 3-coumaranone derivatives encompassing the phenacyl pyridinium moiety were synthesized and evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activity using Ellman's method. All compounds presented inhibitory activity against both AChE and BuChE in the micromolar range. The molecular docking simulations revealed that all compounds were dual binding site inhibitors of AChE. A kinetic study was performed and the mechanism of enzyme inhibition was proved to be of mixed type. All compounds were tested for their antioxidant activity and no significant activity was observed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Butyrylcholinesterase Levels on Admission Predict Severity and 12-Month Mortality in Hospitalized AIDS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Huang, Ying; Yang, Zongxing; Sun, Jia; Xu, Yan; Zheng, Jinlei; Kinloch, Sabine; Yin, Michael T.; Weng, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    Background Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is synthesized mainly in the liver and an important marker in many infectious/inflammatory diseases, but its role in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients is not clear. We wished to ascertain if BChE level is associated with the progression/prognosis of AIDS patients. Methods BChE levels (in U/L) were measured in 505 patients; assessed. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess associations between low BChE levels and mortality, after adjustment for age, CD4 count, WHO stage, and laboratory parameters. Results A total of 129 patients (25.5%) had a lower BChE level. BChE was closely associated with CD4 count, WHO stage, CRP level, and BMI (all P AIDS severity and is an independent risk factor for increased mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:29736152

  11. Plant-expressed cocaine hydrolase variants of butyrylcholinesterase exhibit altered allosteric effects of cholinesterase activity and increased inhibitor sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Larrimore, Katherine E.; Kazan, I. Can; Kannan, Latha; Kendle, R. Player; Jamal, Tameem; Barcus, Matthew; Bolia, Ashini; Brimijoin, Stephen; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Ozkan, S. Banu; Mor, Tsafrir S.

    2017-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme with broad substrate and ligand specificities and may function as a generalized bioscavenger by binding and/or hydrolyzing various xenobiotic agents and toxicants, many of which target the central and peripheral nervous systems. Variants of BChE were rationally designed to increase the enzyme?s ability to hydrolyze the psychoactive enantiomer of cocaine. These variants were cloned, and then expressed using the magnICON transient expression system in p...

  12. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, a novel mutated butyrylcholinesterase treatment for cocaine addiction, after single and multiple intramuscular injections in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Barak, Orit; Wildeman, Jacqueline; van de Wetering, Jeroen; Hettinga, Judith; Schuilenga-Hut, Petra; Gross, Aviva; Clark, Shane; Bassan, Merav; Gilgun-Sherki, Yossi; Mendzelevski, Boaz; Spiegelstein, Ofer

    2015-05-01

    Human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) contributes to cocaine metabolism and has been considered for use in treating cocaine addiction and cocaine overdose. TV-1380 is a recombinant protein composed of the mature form of human serum albumin fused at its amino terminus to the carboxy-terminus of a truncated and mutated BChE. In preclinical studies, TV-1380 has been shown to rapidly eliminate cocaine in the plasma thus forestalling entry of cocaine into the brain and heart. Two randomized, blinded phase I studies were conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TV-1380, following single and multiple administration in healthy subjects. TV-1380 was found to be safe and well tolerated with a long half-life (43-77 hours) and showed a dose-proportional increase in systemic exposure. Consistent with preclinical results, the ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis, TV-1380 activity clearly increased upon treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, there was a direct relationship between ex vivo cocaine hydrolysis (kel ) and TV-1380 serum concentrations. There was no evidence that TV-1380 affected heart rate, the uncorrected QT interval, or the heart-rate-corrected QTcF interval. TV-1380, therefore, offers a safe once-weekly therapy to increase cocaine hydrolysis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Synthesis and discovery of potent carbonic anhydrase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and α-glycosidase enzymes inhibitors: The novel N,N'-bis-cyanomethylamine and alkoxymethylamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimi, Parham; Caglayan, Cuneyt; Farzaliyev, Vagif; Nabiyev, Oruj; Sujayev, Afsun; Turkan, Fikret; Kaya, Ruya; Gulçin, İlhami

    2018-04-01

    During this investigation, N,N'-bis-azidomethylamines, N,N'-bis-cyanomethylamine, new alkoxymethylamine and chiral derivatives, which are considered to be a new generation of multifunctional compounds, were synthesized, functional properties were investigated, and anticholinergic and antidiabetic properties of those compounds were studied through the laboratory tests, and it was approved that they contain physiologically active compounds rather than analogues. Novel N-bis-cyanomethylamine and alkoxymethylamine derivatives were effective inhibitors of the α-glycosidase, cytosolic carbonic anhydrase I and II isoforms, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with K i values in the range of 0.15-13.31 nM for α-glycosidase, 2.77-15.30 nM for human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes I (hCA I), 3.12-21.90 nM for human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes II (hCA II), 23.33-73.23 nM for AChE, and 3.84-48.41 nM for BChE, respectively. Indeed, the inhibition of these metabolic enzymes has been considered as a promising factor for pharmacologic intervention in a diversity of disturbances. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Pinus species essential oils and their constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonesi, Marco; Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Conforti, Filomena; Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the essential oils from Pinus nigra subsp. nigra, P. nigra var. calabrica, and P. heldreichii subsp. leucodermis. This activity is relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), since cholinesterase drugs are currently the only drugs available to treat AD. P. heldreichii subsp. leucodermis exhibited the most promising activity, with IC(50) values of 51.1 and 80.6 microg/mL against AChE and BChE, respectively. An interesting activity against AChE was also observed with P. nigra subsp. nigra essential oil, with an IC(50) value of 94.4 microg/mL. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS with the purpose of investigating their relationships with the observed activities. Among the identified constituents, terpinolene, beta-phellandrene, linalyl acetate, trans-caryophyllene, and terpinen-4-ol were tested. trans-Caryophyllene and terpinen-4-ol inhibited BChE with IC(50) values of 78.6 and 107.6 microg/mL, respectively. beta-Phellandrene was selective against AChE (IC(50) value of 120.2 microg/mL).

  15. New Cinchona Oximes Evaluated as Reactivators of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Organophosphorus Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Katalinić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For the last six decades, researchers have been focused on finding efficient reactivators of organophosphorus compound (OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. In this study, we have focused our research on a new oxime scaffold based on the Cinchona structure since it was proven to fit the cholinesterases active site and reversibly inhibit their activity. Three Cinchona oximes (C1, C2, and C3, derivatives of the 9-oxocinchonidine, were synthesized and investigated in reactivation of various OP-inhibited AChE and BChE. As the results showed, the tested oximes were more efficient in the reactivation of BChE and they reactivated enzyme activity to up to 70% with reactivation rates similar to known pyridinium oximes used as antidotes in medical practice today. Furthermore, the oximes showed selectivity towards binding to the BChE active site and the determined enzyme-oxime dissociation constants supported work on the future development of inhibitors in other targeted studies (e.g., in treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Also, we monitored the cytotoxic effect of Cinchona oximes on two cell lines Hep G2 and SH-SY5Y to determine the possible limits for in vivo application. The cytotoxicity results support future studies of these compounds as long as their biological activity is targeted in the lower micromolar range.

  16. Novel 2-pheynlbenzofuran derivatives as selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Pintus, Francesca; Di Petrillo, Amalia; Medda, Rosaria; Caria, Paola; Matos, Maria João; Viña, Dolores; Pieroni, Enrico; Delogu, Francesco; Era, Benedetta; Delogu, Giovanna L; Fais, Antonella

    2018-03-13

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder representing the leading cause of dementia and is affecting nearly 44 million people worldwide. AD is characterized by a progressive decline in acetylcholine levels in the cholinergic systems, which results in severe memory loss and cognitive impairments. Expression levels and activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme has been noted to increase significantly in the late stages of AD, thus making it a viable drug target. A series of hydroxylated 2-phenylbenzofurans compounds were designed, synthesized and their inhibitory activities toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE enzymes were evaluated. Two compounds (15 and 17) displayed higher inhibitory activity towards BChE with IC 50 values of 6.23 μM and 3.57 μM, and a good antioxidant activity with EC 50 values 14.9 μM and 16.7 μM, respectively. The same compounds further exhibited selective inhibitory activity against BChE over AChE. Computational studies were used to compare protein-binding pockets and evaluate the interaction fingerprints of the compound. Molecular simulations showed a conserved protein residue interaction network between the compounds, resulting in similar interaction energy values. Thus, combination of biochemical and computational approaches could represent rational guidelines for further structural modification of these hydroxy-benzofuran derivatives as future drugs for treatment of AD.

  17. Structural and functional analysis of glycoprotein butyrylcholinesterase using atomistic molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Austen; Faller, Roland

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) has proven to be a powerful tool for studying the structure and dynamics of biological systems on nanosecond to microsecond time scales and nanometer length scales. In this work we study the effects of modifying the glycan distribution on the structure and function of full length monomeric butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). BChE exists as a monomer, dimer, or tetramer, and is a therapeutic glycoprotein with nine asparagine glycosylation sites per monomer. Each monomer acts as a stoichiometric scavenger for organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents (e.g. sarin, soman). Glycan distributions are highly heterogeneous and have been shown experimentally to affect certain glycoproteins' stability and reactivity. We performed structural analysis of various biologically relevant glycoforms of BChE using classical atomistic MD. Functional analysis was performed through binding energy simulations using umbrella sampling with BChE and OP cofactors. Additionally, we assess the quality of the glycans' conformational sampling. We found that the glycan distribution has a significant effect on the structure and function of BChE on timescales available to atomistic MD. This project is funded by the DTRA Grant HDTRA1-15-1-0054.

  18. New anthrarobin acyl derivatives as butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors: synthesis, in vitro and in silico studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Lateef

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To treat Alzheimer's disease (AD, the available candidates are effective only against mild AD or have side effects. So, a study was planned to synthesis new candidates that may have good potential to treat AD. A series of new anthrarobin acyl derivatives (2–8 were synthesized by the reaction of anthrarobin (1 and acetic anhydride/acyl chlorides. The product were characterized by 1H NMR and EI-MS, and evaluated for butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE inhibition activity. Compounds 5 and 4 showed notable BuChE inhibitory potential with IC50 5.3 ± 1.23 and 17.2 ± 0.47 μM, respectively when compared with the standard eserine (IC50 7.8 ± 0.27 μM, compound 5 showed potent BuChE inhibition potential than the standard eserine. The active compounds 5 and 4 have acyl groups at 2-OH and 10-OH positions which may be responsible for inhibitory potential as this orientation is absent in other products. In silico studies of 5 and 4 products revealed the high inhibitory potential due to stable binding of ligand with the BuChE active sites with docking energy score −18.8779 kcal/mol and −23.1159 kcal/mol, respectively. Subsequently, compound 5 that have potent BuChE inhibitory activity could be the potential candidate for drug development for Alzheimer’s disease.

  19. Unexpected Reaction Pathway for butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed inactivation of “hunger hormone” ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianzhuang; Yuan, Yaxia; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Extensive computational modeling and simulations have been carried out, in the present study, to uncover the fundamental reaction pathway for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of ghrelin, demonstrating that the acylation process of BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ghrelin follows an unprecedented single-step reaction pathway and the single-step acylation process is rate-determining. The free energy barrier (18.8 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step is reasonably close to the experimentally-derived free energy barrier (~19.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that the obtained mechanistic insights are reasonable. The single-step reaction pathway for the acylation is remarkably different from the well-known two-step acylation reaction pathway for numerous ester hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by a serine esterase. This is the first time demonstrating that a single-step reaction pathway is possible for an ester hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by a serine esterase and, therefore, one no longer can simply assume that the acylation process must follow the well-known two-step reaction pathway.

  20. Monitoring of plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity and hematological parameters in pesticide sprayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S K; Singh, Vipul K; Kesavachandran, C; Jyoti; Siddiqui, M K J; Mathur, N; Bharti, R S

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the health impact of spraying organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), 34 male sprayers in the mango belt of Malihabad, a small town located 27 km from Lucknow in North India was selected. Plasma butyryl cholinesterase (PBChE) and complete blood count were assessed among sprayers after spraying pesticides and the findings obtained were compared with those determined in a reference group (n = 18). The most common symptoms observed were burning sensation in the eyes (8.82%), itching/skin irritation (23.52%) and chest symptoms (32.35%) in the exposed workers. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (PBChE) was significantly decreased in workers. The results indicated significant decrease in the mean value of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets count; however, significantly higher count of leukocytes was also observed in the exposed group (sprayers) compared to that observed in the control group (P < 0.05). Monitoring of PBChE in pesticide sprayers could be useful to predict and prevent health hazards of OPs.

  1. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongthanaracht, Natsalil; Yanarojana, Somchai; Pinthong, Darawan; Unchern, Supeenun; Thithapandha, Amnuay; Assantachai, Prasert; Supavilai, Porntip

    2017-01-01

    To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K) and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai community-dwelling patients. One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman's method. The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12%) was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%), suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity. Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.

  2. Magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 Nanoparticles-based Test Strip Immunosensing Device for Rapid Detection of Phosphorylated Butyrylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2013-12-15

    An integrated magnetic nanoparticles-based test-strip immunosensing device was developed for rapid and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the biomarker of exposure to organophosphous pesticides (OP), in human plasma. In order to overcome the difficulty in scarce availability of OP-specific antibody, here magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles were used and adsorbed on the test strip through a small magnet inserted in the device to capture target OP-BChE through selective binding between TiO2 and OP moiety. Further recognition was completed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anti-BChE antibody (Ab) co-immobilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Their strong affinities among Fe3O4@TiO2, OP-BChE and HRP/Ab-GNPs were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements. After cutting off from test strip, the resulted immunocomplex (HRP/Ab-GNPs/OP-BChE/Fe3O4@TiO2) was measured by SWV using a screen printed electrode under the test zone. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by introduction of GNPs to link enzyme and antibody at high ratio, which amplifies electrocatalytic signal significantly. Moreover, the use of test strip for fast immunoreactions reduces analytical time remarkably. Coupling with a portable electrochemical detector, the integrated device with advanced nanotechnology displays great promise for sensitive, rapid and in-filed on-site evaluation of OP poisoning.

  3. Reduced butyrylcholinesterase activity is an early indicator of trauma-induced acute systemic inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivkovic AR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandar R Zivkovic, Jochen Bender, Thorsten Brenner, Stefan Hofer,* Karsten Schmidt* Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Early diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome is fundamentally important for an effective and a goal-directed therapy. Various inflammation biomarkers have been used in clinical and experimental practice. However, a definitive diagnostic tool for an early detection of systemic inflammation remains to be identified. Acetylcholine (Ach has been shown to play an important role in the inflammatory response. Serum cholinesterase (butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] is the major Ach hydrolyzing enzyme in blood. The role of this enzyme during inflammation has not yet been fully understood. This study tests whether a reduction in the BChE activity could indicate the onset of the systemic inflammatory response upon traumatic injury. Patients and methods: This observational study measured BChE activity in patients with traumatic injury admitted to the emergency room by using point-of-care-test system (POCT. In addition, the levels of routine inflammation biomarkers during the initial treatment period were measured. Injury Severity Score was used to assess the trauma severity. Results: Altered BChE activity was correlated with trauma severity, resulting in systemic inflammation. Reduction in the BChE activity was detected significantly earlier compared to those of routinely measured inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusion: This study suggests that the BChE activity reduction might serve as an early indicator of acute systemic inflammation. Furthermore, BChE activity, measured using a POCT system, might play an important role in the early diagnosis of the trauma-induced systemic inflammation. Keywords: trauma, injury, early diagnostics, cholinergic, pseudocholinesterase, SIRS

  4. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some selected Nigerian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Elufioye

    Full Text Available Plants have been found to be useful as memory enhansers as well as antiaging. Twenty two of such plants from sixteen families were investigated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE inhibitory activities using the in vitro Ellman's spectrophotometric and in situ bioautographic methods with physostigmine as standard. At least three morphological parts were examined for each of the plants investigated and the test concentration was 42.5 µg/ mL. Some plants were active on both enzymes though with some morphological parts being more active than others. The root bark of Spondias mombin showed the highest activity to the two enzymes; 64.77% and 83.94% on AChE and BuChE respectively. Other plant parts of the selected plants exhibited some remarkable selectivity in their actions. Those selectively active against AChE were Alchornia laxiflora stem bark (41.12% and root bark, Callophyllum inophyllurn root bark (56.52%. The leaves of C. jagus (74.25%, Morinda lucida leaves (40.15%, Peltophorum pterocarpum leaves and stem bark (49.5% and 68.85%, respectively, physiostigmine gave 90.31% inhibition. Generally higher activities were found against BuChE. Bombax bromoposenze leaves, root bark and stem bark were particularly active. The inhibition was over 80%. Other selective plant parts are the leaves Antiaris africana, Cissampelos owarensis aerial parts (78.96%, Combretum molle leaves and stem bark (90.42% and 88.13%, respectively, Dioscorea dumentorum root bark and tuber (over 87%, G. kola leaves, Markhamia tomentosa root bark, Pycnanthus angolensis stem bark and Tetrapleura tetraptera leaves. Most of these plants are taken as food or are food ingredients in Nigeria and may account for the low incidence of Alzheimer's disease in the country and may play certain roles in the mediation of the disease.

  5. Effects of energetic restriction diet on butyrylcholinesterase in obese women from southern Brazil - A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Willian Dos; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Saliba, Louise Farah; Schenknecht, Caroline Schovanz; Scaraboto, Débora; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen R; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2017-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity has been associated with obesity, lipid concentrations, and CHE2 locus phenotypes. This, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an energetic restriction diet intervention on anthropometrical and biochemical variables and on absolute and relative BChE activity in CHE2 C5+ and CHE2 C5- individuals. One hundred eleven premenopausal obese women from Southern Brazil participated in an energetic restriction diet intervention (deficit of 2500 kJ/day) for 8 weeks. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after the intervention. Plasma BChE activity was measured, and BChE bands in plasma and CHE2 locus phenotypes were detected by electrophoresis. The dietetic intervention decreased anthropometric and biochemical parameters as well as absolute BChE activity and relative activity of the G4 band. The CHE2 C5+ phenotype presented a different effect when compared with the CHE2 C5- phenotype. The CHE2 C5+ phenotype showed an effect in absolute BChE activity and in the relative activity of the G4 form, maintaining higher BChE activity regardless of the metabolic changes. In our study, 8 weeks was not sufficient time to lower the body mass index to normal, but it was enough to significantly reduce the absolute BChE activity, which became similar to the levels in nonobese individuals. CHE2 C5+ individuals were resistant to the decrease in BChE activity compared to CHE2 C5- individuals. This shows that the diet did not affect the CHE2 and G4 fraction complex and that the products of the CHE2 locus in association with BChE have a role in energy metabolism, maintaining high levels of enzymatic activity even after dietary intervention.

  6. Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Kartal, Murat; Kan, Yüksel; Sener, Bilge

    2008-01-01

    We have tested acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of nineteen essential oils obtained from cultivated plants, namely one from Anethum graveolens L. (organic fertilizer), two from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. collected at fully-mature and flowering stages (organic fertilizer), two from Melissa officinalis L. (cultivated using organic and chemical fertilizers), two from Mentha piperita L. and M. spicata L. (organic fertilizer), two from Lavandula officinalis Chaix ex Villars (cultivated using organic and chemical fertilizers), two from Ocimum basilicum L. (green and purple-leaf varieties cultivated using only organic fertilizer), four from Origanum onites L., O. vulgare L., O. munitiflorum Hausskn., and O. majorana L. (cultivated using organic fertilizer), two from Salvia sclarea L. (organic and chemical fertilizers), one from S. officinalis L. (organic fertilizer), and one from Satureja cuneifolia Ten. (organic fertilizer) by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate-reader at 1 mg/ml concentration. In addition, a number of single components widely encountered in most of the essential oils [gamma-terpinene, 4-allyl anisole, (-)-carvone, dihydrocarvone, (-)-phencone, cuminyl alcohol, cumol, 4-isopropyl benzaldehyde, trans-anethole, camphene, iso-borneol, (-)-borneol, L-bornyl acetate, 2-decanol, 2-heptanol, methyl-heptanol, farnesol, nerol, iso-pulegol, 1,8-cineole, citral, citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, linalool, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, piperitone, iso-menthone, menthofurane, linalyl oxide, linalyl ester, geranyl ester, carvacrol, thymol, menthol, vanilline, and eugenol] was also screened for the same activity in the same manner. Almost all of the essential oils showed a very high inhibitory activity (over 80%) against both enzymes, whereas the single components were not as active as the essential oils.

  7. Reference values for acetyl and butyrylcholinesterases in cattle under actual management conditions, hepatic and renal function by application of chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Daniela M; Lentini, Valeria R; Romano, R Raquel; Ludueña, Hector R; Jotallán, Paola J; Gorla, Nora B M

    2018-03-04

    Chlorpyrifos is an anticholinesterase organophosphate insecticide widely used in Argentina in the production of food derived from animal, fruit and horticultural origin and is reported as a residue within these products. Local reference values for acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase were determined in Aberdeen Angus bovine and cross bred cattle (n = 25), a requirement to be able to evaluate toxicity of commercial organophosphate and carbamate formulations. The activity of cholinesterase enzymes presented an overall mean of 2,183.00 ± 485.6 IU L -1 for erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and 203.1 ± 42.06 IU L -1 for plasma butyrylcholinesterase, which are used as reference values for meat steers within a system of intensive production in a semi-arid region. The toxic potential of chlorpyrifos in steers of the same breeds (n = 12) was assessed applying chlorpyrifos 15.00% Tipertox® in a single therapeutic dose of 7.50 mg kg -1 by topical route. Prior to application and then on day 1 and day 21 post-application, both blood cholinesterases, serum chlorpyrifos concentration by ultra-high resolution liquid chromatography with mass detector, analysis of blood counts, total proteins, liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were evaluated. The mean plasma concentration of chlorpyrifos was 27.90 ug L -1 at 24 h. The findings indicate that the therapeutic treatment of castrated male bovines treated with chlorpyrifos, applied by pour-on according to the manufacturer's instructions, does not cause changes in the variables evaluated.

  8. Inhibition of plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity in the lizard Gallotia galloti palmae by pesticides: a field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C.; Carbonell, R.; Henriquez Perez, A.; Montealegre, M.; Gomez, L.

    2004-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the effect of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides on the lizard Gallotia galloti palmae. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was measured in the plasma of 420 lizards collected from agricultural and reference areas on the Island of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain) in two sampling periods. Exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides was evaluated by a statistical criterion based on a threshold value (two standard deviations below the mean enzyme activity) calculated for the reference group, and a chemical criterion based on the in vitro reactivation of BChE activity using pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) or after water dilution of the sample. Mean (±SD) BChE activity for lizards from agricultural areas was significantly lower (Fuencaliente site = 2.00 ± 0.98 μmol min -1 ml -1 , Tazacorte site = 2.88 ± 1.08) than that for lizards from the reference areas (Los Llanos site = 3.06 ± 1.17 μmol min -1 ml -1 , Tigalate site = 3.96 ± 1.62). According to the statistical criterion, the number of lizards with BChE depressed was higher at Fuencaliente (22% of males and 25.4% of females) than that sampled at Tazacorte (7.8% of males and 6.2% of females). According to the chemical criterion, Fuencaliente also yielded a higher number of individuals (112 males and 47 females) with BChE activity inhibited by both OP and CB pesticides. CBs appeared to be the pesticides most responsible for BChE inhibition because most of the samples showed reactivation of BChE activity after water treatment (63.3% from Fuencaliente and 29% from Tazacorte). We concluded that the use of reactivation techniques on plasma BChE activity is a better and more accurate method for assessing field exposure to OP/CB pesticides in this lizard species than making direct comparisons of enzyme activity levels between sampling areas. - Capsule: Chemical reactivation of lizard BChE activity is a suitable diagnostic method for

  9. Synthesis of (E)-N'-[1-(2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]substituted hydrazides as possible alpha-glucosidase and butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.A.; Shah, S.A.H.; Siddiqui, S.Z.; Khan, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the current research work, (E)-N'-[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]substituted hydrazides were synthesized in a couple of steps and their enzyme inhibition potential was analyzed. Firstly 2,4-hydroxyacetophenone (1) was reacted with hydrated hydrazine (2) under stirring to yield (E)-4-(1-hydrazonoethyl)benzene-1,3-diol (3) which was further reacted with different acid halides, (4a-i) to afford (E)-[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]substituted hydrazides (5a-i). These synthesized compounds were characterized by EI-MS, 1H-NMR spectral techniques and were also evaluated against a-glucosidase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes. The synthesized compounds were found to be acceptable inhibitors of a-glucosidase and decent inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase. (author)

  10. Large-scale studies of the functional K variant of the butyrylcholinesterase gene in relation to Type 2 diabetes and insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A; Nielsen, E-M D; Andersen, G

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphisms of the butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) are reported to associate with Alzheimer's disease and a recent study found a significant association of the BCHE K variant (G1615A/Ala539Thr) with Type 2 diabetes. The objectives of our study were to examine whether the BCHE K variant is ass...... is associated with Type 2 diabetes or estimates of pancreatic beta cell function in large-scale populations of glucose-tolerant Caucasians....

  11. Acute effects of chlorpyryphos-ethyl and secondary treated effluents on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in Carcinus maenas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jihene Ghedira; Jamel Jebali; Zied Bouraoui; Mohamed Banni; Lassaad Chouba; Hamadi Boussetta

    2009-01-01

    The acute effects of commercial formulation of chlorpyrifos-ethyl (Dursban(r)) and the secondary treated industrial/urban effluent (STIUE) exposure on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities in hepatopancreas and gills of Mediterranean crab Carcinus maenas were investigated. After 2 d of exposure to chlorpyriphos-ethyl, the AChE activity was inhibited in both organs at concentrations of 3.12 and 7.82 μg/L, whereas the BuChE was inhibited only at higher concentration 7.82 μg/L of commercial preparation Dursban(r). The exposure of crabs to Dursban(r) (3.12 μg/L) showed a significant decrement of AChE activity at 24 and 48 h, whereas the BuChE was inhibited only after 24 h and no inhibition for both enzymes was observed after 72 h. Moreover, a significant repression of AChE activity was observed in both organs of C. maenas exposed to 5% of STIUE. Our experiments indicated that the measurement of AChE activity in gills and hepatopancreas of C. meanas would be useful biomarker of organophosphorous (OP) and of neurotoxic effects of STIUE in Tunisia.

  12. Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Michał; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

    2013-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase on Intrauterine Insemination, Contribution to Inflammations, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status; A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnazari, Lida; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Keshvarzi, Farahnaz; Ferdowsi, Farivar; Goodarzi, Massoud; Rahimi, Zohreh; Baniamerian, Hossin; Tavilani, Haidar; Vaisi-Raygani, Hadis; Vaisi-Raygani, Hessam; Pourmotabbed, Tayehbeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress affects women fertility and influences on the sperm quality by alterating activities of cholinesterases, a molecular marker of stress-related infertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities and phenotypes in patients with unexplained infertility (idiopathic). It’s possible association with inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and other oxidative stress markers, i.e. before and after intra uterine insemination (IUI). Methods: In this study, blood samples of 60 patients with unexplained infertility were collected the day before and 24 hr after IUI (between 8 AM and 9 AM after the overnight fasting) and activities of BuChE, AChE, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GpX) and serum levels of thiol proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Statistical significance was assumed at poxidative stress and inflammation and reduction in fertility rates by IUI. PMID:27478769

  14. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2015-06-11

    Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman's assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone's integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans's assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.). It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results' relevance.

  15. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Pohanka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman’s assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone’s integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans’s assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.. It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results’ relevance.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of β-Carboline and Quinoline Alkaloids Derivatives from the Plants of Genus Peganum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that the main chemical constituents in plants of genus Peganum were a serial of β-carboline and quinoline alkaloids. These alkaloids were quantitatively assessed for selective inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE by in vitro Ellman method. The results indicated that harmane was the most potent selective AChE inhibitor with an IC50 of 7.11 ± 2.00 μM and AChE selectivity index (SI, IC50 of BChE/IC50 of AChE of 10.82. Vasicine was the most potent BChE inhibitor with feature of dual AChE/BChE inhibitory activity, with an IC50 versus AChE/BChE of 13.68 ± 1.25/2.60 ± 1.47 μM and AChE SI of 0.19. By analyzing and comparing the IC50 and SI of those chemicals, it was indicated that the β-carboline alkaloids displayed more potent AChE inhibition but less BChE inhibition than quinoline alkaloids. The substituent at the C7 position of the β-carboline alkaloids and C3 and C9 positions of quinoline alkaloids played a critical role in AChE or BChE inhibition. The potent inhibition suggested that those alkaloids may be used as candidates for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationship of those compounds investigated might provide guidance for the design and synthesis of AChE and BChE inhibitors.

  17. A novel mutation in the BCHE gene and phenotype identified in a child with low butyrylcholinesterase activity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rentao; Guo, Yanzhi; Dan, Yunjie; Tan, Wenting; Mao, Qing; Deng, Guohong

    2018-04-10

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an ester hydrolase produced mainly by the liver, hydrolyzes certain short-acting neuromuscular blocking agents, like succinylcholine and mivacurium that are widely used during anesthesia. Patients with BChE deficiency are possibly in danger of postanesthetic apnea. Hereditary BChE deficiency results from the mutations of BCHE gene located on chromosome 3, 3q26.1-q26.2, between nucleotides 165,490,692-165,555,260. This study describes a novel mutation in a child with BChE deficiency. In general, this child appeared healthy and well-developed with a normal appearance. However, the results of Wechsler Intelligence Scale showed that the full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) was 53, classified into the group with the minor defect. The BChE activity was 32.0 U/L, considerably lower than the normal lower limit (reference range: 5000-12,000 U/L). Sanger sequencing showed that there were 2 mutations in the exon 2 of BCHE gene of this child. One is a heterozygous mutation rs764588882 (NM_000055.3: c.401_402insA, p.Asn134Lysfs*23). The other one is a heterozygous mutation (NM_000055.3: c.73A > T, p.Lys25Ter) that has never been reported before. The two mutations lead to a premature stop of transcription. Double heterozygous recessive mutations are the cause of BChE deficiency of this boy in this study, including a novel mutation c.73A > T. Intellectual disability is a new phenotype that is probably associated with this mutation.

  18. Butyryl-cholinesterase is related to muscle mass and strength. A new biomarker to identify elderly subjects at risk of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Francesco; Della-Morte, David; Basile, Claudia; Curcio, Francesco; Liguori, Ilaria; Roselli, Mario; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Galizia, Gianluigi; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between Butyryl-cholinesterase (α-glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, b-CHE) and muscle mass and strength. Muscle mass by bioimpedentiometer and muscle strength by grip strength were evaluated in 337 elderly subjects (mean age: 76.2 ± 6.7 years) admitted to comprehensive geriatric assessment. b-CHE levels were lower in sarcopenic than in nonsarcopenic elderly subjects (p elderly subjects. Thus, b-CHE may be considered to be a fair biomarker for identifying elderly subjects at risk of sarcopenia.

  19. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and docking study of 5-oxo-4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2-c]chromene derivatives as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoobi, Mehdi; Alipour, Masoumeh; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Nadri, Hamid; Moradi, Alireza; Ghandi, Mehdi; Emami, Saeed; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2013-10-01

    A series of fused coumarins namely 5-oxo-4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2-c]chromenes linked to N-benzylpyridinium scaffold were synthesized and evaluated as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors. The 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)pyridinium derivative 6g showed the most potent anti-AChE activity (IC50 value=0.038 μM) and the highest AChE/BuChE selectivity (SI>48). The docking study permitted us to rationalize the observed structure-affinity relationships and to detect possible binding modes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitation of ortho-cresyl phosphate adducts to butyrylcholinesterase in human serum by immunomagnetic-UHPLC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, D.; Carter, M.D.; Crow, B.S.; Isenberg, S.L.; Graham, L.A.; Erol, H.A.; Watson, C.M.; Pantazides, B.G.; Schans, M.J. van der; Langenberg, J.P.; Noort, D.; Blake, T.A.; Thomas, J.D.; Johnson, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (ToCP) is an anti-wear, flame retardant additive used in industrial lubricants, hydraulic fluids and gasoline. The neurotoxic effects of ToCP arise from the liver-activated metabolite 2-(o-cresyl)-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one (cresyl saligenin phosphate or CBDP),

  1. Effect of Pretreatment With Human Butyrylcholinesterase Scavengers on the Toxicokinetics and Binding of Nerve Agents in Guinea Pigs and Marmosets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langenberg, Jan

    2002-01-01

    ... of (+/-)-sarin in guinea pigs was studied. After i.m. administration of HuBuChE, the BuChE activity in blood gradually increased, reaching a maximum after 20-24 h, and remaining stable for about another 24 h...

  2. A step toward the reactivation of aged cholinesterases-crystal structure of ligands binding to aged human butyrylcholinesterase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wandhammer, M.; Koning, M. de; Grol, M. van; Loiodice, M.; Saurel, L.; Noort, D.; Goeldner, M.; Nachon, F.

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus nerve agents irreversibly inhibit cholinesterases. Phosphylation of the catalytic serine can be reversed by the mean of powerful nucleophiles like oximes. But the phosphyl adduct can undergo a rapid spontaneous reaction leading to an aged enzyme, i.e., a conjugated enzyme that is no

  3. Synthesis, structural characterization, docking, lipophilicity and cytotoxicity of 1-[(1R)-1-(6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)ethyl]-3-alkyl carbamates, novel acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase pseudo-irreversible inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pejchal, V.; Štěpánková, Š.; Pejchalová, M.; Královec, K.; Havelek, R.; Růžičková, Z.; Ajani, Haresh; Lo, Rabindranath; Lepšík, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 7 (2016), s. 1560-1572 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : halogenated benzothiazole * carbamates * acetylcholinesterase * butyrylcholinesterase inhibition * pseudo-irreversible mechanism * covalent docking Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.930, year: 2016

  4. New derivatives of 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid with free-radical scavenging, D-amino acid oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecka, Jolanta; Guśpiel, Adam; Postek, Magdalena; Ziemska, Joanna; Kawęcki, Robert; Lęczycka, Katarzyna; Osior, Agnieszka; Pietrzak, Bartłomiej; Pypowski, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowska, Agata

    2014-09-30

    A series of 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesised and tested for their free-radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS·+), superoxide anion radical (O2·-) and nitric oxide radical (·NO) assays. We also studied d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activity. Almost each of newly synthesised compounds exhibited radical scavenging capabilities. Moreover, several compounds showed moderate inhibitory activities against DAAO, AChE and BuChE. Compounds with significant free-radical scavenging activity may be potential candidates for therapeutics used in oxidative-stress-related diseases.

  5. Aspirin Hydrolysis in Plasma Is a Variable Function of Butyrylcholinesterase and Platelet-activating Factor Acetylhydrolase 1b2 (PAFAH1b2)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K.; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L.; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W. H. Wilson; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed within erythrocytes by a heterodimer of PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 but also in plasma by an unidentified activity. Hydrolysis in both compartments was variable, with a 12-fold variation in plasma among 2226 Cleveland Clinic GeneBank patients. Platelet inhibition by aspirin was suppressed in plasma that rapidly hydrolyzed aspirin. Plasma aspirin hydrolysis was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared with control subjects (16.5 ± 4.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.7 nmol/ml/min; p = 3.4 × 10−8). A genome-wide association study of 2054 GeneBank subjects identified a single locus immediately adjacent to the BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) gene associated with plasma aspirin hydrolytic activity (lead SNP, rs6445035; p = 9.1 × 10−17). However, its penetrance was low, and plasma from an individual with an inactivating mutation in BCHE still effectively hydrolyzed aspirin. A second aspirin hydrolase was identified in plasma, the purification of which showed it to be homomeric PAFAH1b2. This is distinct from the erythrocyte PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 heterodimer. Inhibitors showed that both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PAFAH1b2 contribute to aspirin hydrolysis in plasma, with variation primarily reflecting non-genetic variation of BChE activity. Therefore, aspirin is hydrolyzed in plasma by two enzymes, BChE and a new extracellular form of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, PAFAH1b2. Hydrolytic effectiveness varies widely primarily from non-genetic variation of BChE activity that affects aspirin bioavailability in blood and the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation. PMID:23508960

  6. Aspirin hydrolysis in plasma is a variable function of butyrylcholinesterase and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b2 (PAFAH1b2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W H Wilson; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2013-04-26

    Aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed within erythrocytes by a heterodimer of PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 but also in plasma by an unidentified activity. Hydrolysis in both compartments was variable, with a 12-fold variation in plasma among 2226 Cleveland Clinic GeneBank patients. Platelet inhibition by aspirin was suppressed in plasma that rapidly hydrolyzed aspirin. Plasma aspirin hydrolysis was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared with control subjects (16.5 ± 4.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.7 nmol/ml/min; p = 3.4 × 10(-8)). A genome-wide association study of 2054 GeneBank subjects identified a single locus immediately adjacent to the BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) gene associated with plasma aspirin hydrolytic activity (lead SNP, rs6445035; p = 9.1 × 10(-17)). However, its penetrance was low, and plasma from an individual with an inactivating mutation in BCHE still effectively hydrolyzed aspirin. A second aspirin hydrolase was identified in plasma, the purification of which showed it to be homomeric PAFAH1b2. This is distinct from the erythrocyte PAFAH1b2/PAFAH1b3 heterodimer. Inhibitors showed that both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and PAFAH1b2 contribute to aspirin hydrolysis in plasma, with variation primarily reflecting non-genetic variation of BChE activity. Therefore, aspirin is hydrolyzed in plasma by two enzymes, BChE and a new extracellular form of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, PAFAH1b2. Hydrolytic effectiveness varies widely primarily from non-genetic variation of BChE activity that affects aspirin bioavailability in blood and the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation.

  7. Synthesis of Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Coupled between α-Lipoic Acid and Polyphenols by Using 2-(Piperazin-1-yl)ethanol Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeun, Go Heun; Lee, Seung Hwan; LIm, Yong Bae; Lee, Hye Sook; Lee, Bong Ho; Park, Jeong Ho [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Won, Mooho [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In the previous paper (Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 2011, 32, 2997), the hybrid molecules between α-lipoic acid (ALA) and polyphenols (PPs) connected with neutral 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol linker (linker-1) showed new biological activity such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition. In order to increase the binding affinity of the hybrid compounds to cholinesterase (ChE), the neutral 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol (linker 1) was switched to the cationic 2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethanol linker (linker 2). The IC{sub 50} values of the linker-2 hybrid molecules for BuChE inhibition were lower than those of linker-1 hybrid molecules (except 9-2) and they also had the same great selectivity for BuChE over AChE (> 800 fold) as linker-1 hybrid molecules. ALA-acetyl caffeic acid (10-2, ALA-AcCA) was shown as an effective inhibitor of BuChE (IC{sub 50} = 0.44 ± 0.24 μM). A kinetic study using 7-2 showed that it is the same mixed type inhibition as 7-1. Its inhibition constant (Ki) to BuChE is 4.3 ± 0.09 μM.

  8. Synthesis of Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Coupled between α-Lipoic Acid and Polyphenols by Using 2-(Piperazin-1-yl)ethanol Linker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeun, Go Heun; Lee, Seung Hwan; LIm, Yong Bae; Lee, Hye Sook; Lee, Bong Ho; Park, Jeong Ho; Won, Mooho

    2013-01-01

    In the previous paper (Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 2011, 32, 2997), the hybrid molecules between α-lipoic acid (ALA) and polyphenols (PPs) connected with neutral 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol linker (linker-1) showed new biological activity such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition. In order to increase the binding affinity of the hybrid compounds to cholinesterase (ChE), the neutral 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol (linker 1) was switched to the cationic 2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethanol linker (linker 2). The IC 50 values of the linker-2 hybrid molecules for BuChE inhibition were lower than those of linker-1 hybrid molecules (except 9-2) and they also had the same great selectivity for BuChE over AChE (> 800 fold) as linker-1 hybrid molecules. ALA-acetyl caffeic acid (10-2, ALA-AcCA) was shown as an effective inhibitor of BuChE (IC 50 = 0.44 ± 0.24 μM). A kinetic study using 7-2 showed that it is the same mixed type inhibition as 7-1. Its inhibition constant (Ki) to BuChE is 4.3 ± 0.09 μM

  9. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity is associated with the risk of preeclampsia: influence on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Reza; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Rahimi, Ziba; Bahrehmand, Fariborz; Parsian, Abbas

    2013-11-01

    To determine the butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and phenotypes in preeclampsia and its possible association with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and oxidative stress in preeclamptic women. In a case-control study, 101 pregnant women with normal pregnancy and 198 women with preeclampsia from Western Iran were studied. The serum BChE activity and phenotypes were measured using spectrophotometric method. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes were identified using PCR-RFLP. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined by HPLC and commercial kits, respectively. The BChE activity and the frequency of non-usual BChE phenotype in preeclamptic women were significantly lower and higher, respectively compared to controls. There was a higher BChE activity in the presence of APOE ε3ε4 compared to ε3ε3 genotype in preeclamptic women. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between BChE activity and the levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC) and TAC. However, there was a negative but significant correlation between BChE activity and MDA level. Our study for the first time indicated that BChE activity might be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia through influence on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and oxidative stress.

  10. Rivastigmine: the advantages of dual inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and its role in subcortical vascular dementia and Parkinson’s disease dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandiah N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nagaendran Kandiah,1,2 Ming-Chyi Pai,3,4 Vorapun Senanarong,5 Irene Looi,6,7 Encarnita Ampil,8 Kyung Won Park,9 Ananda Krishna Karanam,10 Stephen Christopher11 1Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Duke-NUS, Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 3Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, 4Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan; 5Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 6Clinical Research Centre, 7Department of Medicine, Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang, Malaysia; 8Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines; 9Department of Neurology and Cognitive Disorders and Dementia Center, Institute of Convergence Bio-Health, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea; 10Novartis Healthcare Private Limited, Hyderabad, India; 11Novartis (Singapore Pte. Ltd., Singapore Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of sustained cholinesterase inhibition with rivastigmine in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD. Unlike donepezil and galantamine that selectively inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7, rivastigmine is a unique cholinesterase inhibitor with both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE; EC 3.1.1.8 inhibitory activity. Rivastigmine is also available as transdermal patch that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe AD as well as mild-to-moderate PDD. In this review, we explore the role of BuChE inhibition in addition to AChE inhibition with rivastigmine in the outcomes of cognition, global function, behavioral symptoms, and activities of daily living. Additionally, we review the evidence supporting the use of dual

  11. Evaluation of Novel Dual Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors as Potential Anti-Alzheimer’s Disease Agents Using Pharmacophore, 3D-QSAR, and Molecular Docking Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong Pang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available DL0410, containing biphenyl and piperidine skeletons, was identified as an acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE inhibitor through high-throughput screening assays, and further studies affirmed its efficacy and safety for Alzheimer’s disease treatment. In our study, a series of novel DL0410 derivatives were evaluated for inhibitory activities towards AChE and BuChE. Among these derivatives, compounds 6-1 and 7-6 showed stronger AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities than DL0410. Then, pharmacophore modeling and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR models were performed. The R2 of AChE and BuChE 3D-QSAR models for training set were found to be 0.925 and 0.883, while that of the test set were 0.850 and 0.881, respectively. Next, molecular docking methods were utilized to explore the putative binding modes. Compounds 6-1 and 7-6 could interact with the amino acid residues in the catalytic anionic site (CAS and peripheral anionic site (PAS of AChE/BuChE, which was similar with DL0410. Kinetics studies also suggested that the three compounds were all mixed-types of inhibitors. In addition, compound 6-1 showed better absorption and blood brain barrier permeability. These studies provide better insight into the inhibitory behaviors of DL0410 derivatives, which is beneficial for rational design of AChE and BuChE inhibitors in the future.

  12. Design, synthesis, docking study and biological evaluation of some novel tetrahydrochromeno [3',4':5,6]pyrano[2,3-b]quinolin-6(7H)-one derivatives against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoobi, Mehdi; Alipour, Masoumeh; Moradi, Alireza; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Nadri, Hamid; Razavi, Seyyede Faeze; Ghandi, Mehdi; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas

    2013-10-01

    Novel hybrid derivatives of two known scaffolds; tetrahydroaminoquinoline and coumarin were synthesized and evaluated for both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities. By means of an efficient nanocatalyst, the reaction time for the syntheses of the target compounds was reduced. Subsequently, Ellman's modified method was used to evaluate the enzyme inhibitory activity of the synthesized structures. It was observed that most hybrid structures were moderate to potent inhibitors of AChE compared to Tacrine as the reference drug among which 7f with 4-fluorophenyl substituent was the most active compound (IC50=5 nM). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis, cytotoxicity and molecular modelling studies of new phenylcinnamide derivatives as potent inhibitors of cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Mahesar, Parvez Ali; Zaib, Sumera; Khan, Muhammad Siraj; Matin, Abdul; Shahid, Mohammad; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-05-06

    The present study reports the synthesis of cinnamide derivatives and their biological activity as inhibitors of both cholinesterases and anticancer agents. Controlled inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) may slow neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's diseases (AD). The anticholinesterase activity of phenylcinnamide derivatives was determined against Electric Eel acetylcholinesterase (EeAChE) and horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) and some of the compounds appeared as moderately potent inhibitors of EeAChE and hBChE. The compound 3-(2-(Benzyloxy)phenyl)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylamide (3i) showed maximum activity against EeAChE with an IC50 0.29 ± 0.21 μM whereas 3-(2-chloro-6-nitrophenyl)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylamide (3k) was proved to be the most potent inhibitor of hBChE having IC50 1.18 ± 1.31 μM. To better understand the enzyme-inhibitor interaction of the most active compounds toward cholinesterases, molecular modelling studies were carried out on high-resolution crystallographic structures. The anticancer effects of synthesized compounds were also evaluated against cancer cell line (lung carcinoma). The compounds may be useful leads for the design of a new class of anticancer drugs for the treatment of cancer and cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. PMID:23566956

  15. Differential effects of developmental hypo- and hyperthyroidism on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity in the spinal cord of developing postnatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Brown, Chester M; Meisami, Esmail

    2012-11-01

    The plasticity and vulnerability of the rat spinal cord (SC) during postnatal development has been less investigated compared to other CNS structures. In this study, we determined the effects of thyroid hormonal (TH) deficiency and excess on postnatal growth and neurochemical development of the rat SC. The growth as well as the specific and total activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzymes of the SC were determined in hypo- and hyperthyroid rat pups at postnatal (P) days P1, P5, P10 and P21 (weaning), and were compared to age-matched untreated normal controls. AChE is a cholinergic synaptic enzyme while BuChE is a metabolic enzyme mainly found in glial cells and neurovascular cells. The SC is rich in somatic motor, autonomic cholinergic neurons and associated interneurons. Daily subcutaneous injection of pups with thyroxine (T4) and administration of antithyroid goitrogen propylthiouracil (PTU) in the litter's drinking water were used to induce hyper- and hypothyroidism, respectively. Enzyme assays were carried out spectrophotometrically at the above-mentioned ages, using SC homogenates with acetylthiocholine-chloride as the substrate, together with specific cholinesterase inhibitors, which specifically target AChE and BuChE. SC weights were significantly lower at P10 and P21 in hypothyroid pups but unchanged in the hyperthyroid ones. Hypothyroidism significantly reduced both specific and total AChE activity in SC of P10 and P21 rat pups, while having no effects on the BuChE activity, although total BuChE activity was decreased due to reduced total tissue weight. In contrast both specific and total AChE activities were markedly and significantly increased (>100%) in the P10 and P21 hyperthyroid pups. However, BuChE specific activity was unaffected by this treatment. The results indicate that hypothyroid condition significantly reduces, while hyperthyroidism increases, the postnatal development of cholinergic synapses, thereby

  16. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates

  17. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Eyer, Peter, E-mail: peter.eyer@lrz.uni-muenchen.de [Walther-Straub-Institut Für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336 München (Germany); Eddleston, Michael, E-mail: M.Eddleston@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: wjiang@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  18. Development of organophosphate hydrolase activity in a bacterial homolog of human cholinesterase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Patricia; Boisvert, Susanne; Compton, Jaimee; Millard, Charles

    2014-07-01

    We applied a combination of rational design and directed evolution (DE) to Bacillus subtilis p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBE) with the goal of enhancing organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolase (OPAAH) activity. DE started with a designed variant, pNBE A107H, carrying a histidine homologous with human butyrylcholinesterase G117H to find complementary mutations that further enhance its OPAAH activity. Five sites were selected (G105, G106, A107, A190, and A400) within a 6.7 Å radius of the nucleophilic serine O?. All 95 variants were screened for esterase activity with a set of five substrates: pNP-acetate, pNP-butyrate, acetylthiocholine, butyrylthiocholine, or benzoylthiocholine. A microscale assay for OPAAH activity was developed for screening DE libraries. Reductions in esterase activity were generally concomitant with enhancements in OPAAH activity. One variant, A107K, showed an unexpected 7-fold increase in its kcat/Km for benzoylthiocholine, demonstrating that it is also possible to enhance the cholinesterase activity of pNBE. Moreover, DE resulted in at least three variants with modestly enhanced OPAAH activity compared to wild type pNBE. A107H/A190C showed a 50-fold increase in paraoxonase activity and underwent a slow time- and temperature-dependent change affecting the hydrolysis of OPAA and ester substrates. Structural analysis suggests that pNBE may represent a precursor leading to human cholinesterase and carboxylesterase 1 through extension of two vestigial specificity loops; a preliminary attempt to transfer the Ω-loop of BChE into pNBE is described. pNBE was tested as a surrogate scaffold for mammalian esterases. Unlike butyrylcholinesterase and pNBE, introducing a G143H mutation (equivalent to G117H) did not confer detectable OP hydrolase activity on human carboxylesterase 1. We discuss the importance of the oxyanion-hole residues for enhancing the OPAAH activity of selected serine hydrolases.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Paraoxon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuča, K.; Musilová, L.; Paleček, J.; Církva, Vladimír; Paar, M.; Musílek, K.; Hrabinová, M.; Pohanka, M.; Zdarová Karasová, J.; Jun, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2009), s. 4915-4921 ISSN 1420-3049 Grant - others:MO0(CZ) FZV0000604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : acetylcholinesterase * reactivator * oxime Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.738, year: 2009

  20. Molecular cloning and construction of the coding region for human acetylcholinesterase reveals a G + C-rich attenuating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soreq, H.; Ben-Aziz, R.; Prody, C.A.; Seidman, S.; Gnatt, A.; Neville, L.; Lieman-Hurwitz, J.; Lev-Lehman, E.; Ginzberg, D.; Lapidot-Lifson, Y.; Zakut, H.

    1990-01-01

    To study the primary structure of human acetylcholinesterase and its gene expression and amplification, cDNA libraries from human tissues expressing oocyte-translatable AcChoEase mRNA were constructed and screened with labeled oligodeoxynucleotide probes. Several cDNA clones were isolated that encoded a polypeptide with ≥50% identically aligned amino acids to Torpedo AcChoEase and human butyrylcholinesterase. However, these cDNA clones were all truncated within a 300-nucleotide-long G + C-rich region with a predicted pattern of secondary structure having a high Gibbs free energy downstream from the expected 5' end of the coding region. Screening of a genomic DNA library revealed the missing 5' domain. When ligated to the cDNA and constructed into a transcription vector, this sequence encoded a synthetic mRNA translated in microinjected oocytes into catalytically active AcChoEase with marked preference for acetylthiocholine over butyrylthiocholine as a substrate, susceptibility to inhibition by the AcChoEase inhibitor BW284C51, and resistance to the AcChoEase inhibitor tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide. Blot hybridization of genomic DNA from different individuals carrying amplified AcChoEase genes revealed variable intensities and restriction patterns with probes from the regions upstream and downstream from the predicted G + C-rich structure. Thus, the human AcChoEase gene includes a putative G + C-rich attenuator domain and is subject to structural alterations in cases of AcChoEase gene amplification

  1. The reactivation effect of pralidoxime in human blood on parathion and paraoxon–induced cholinesterase inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Jafari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation the reactivation of cholinesterases by pralidoxime in parathion and paraoxon intoxication in plasma and erythrocytes were studied. For this purpose, human plasma and erythrocytes were incubated with various concentrations of parathion (0.1-10 µM and paraoxon (0.03-0.3 µM at 37 oC for 10 min. Then, pralidoxime (10-300 µM was added to the samples and incubated for 10 min before cholinesterases assay. The results showed that effects of parathion and paraoxon were dose dependent. These agents inhibited more than 85% of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and the inhibitory effect of paraoxon was 10 times more than parathion. BChE activity was significantly higher than the control at 100 µM of pralidoxime and it reduced inhibitory effects of parathion to less than 50% and of paraoxon to 42% of control. When pralidoxime (10 µM was added to erythrocytes, the inhibitory effects of two organophosphates were reduced to less than 15%. At higher concentrations of pralidoxime (>100 µM, both BChE and AChE activities were inhibited.

  2. Resorcinol-, catechol- and saligenin-based bronchodilating β2-agonists as inhibitors of human cholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosak, Anita; Knežević, Anamarija; Gazić Smilović, Ivana; Šinko, Goran; Kovarik, Zrinka

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of bronchodilating β2-agonists on the activity of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and usual, atypical and fluoride-resistant butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). We determined the inhibition potency of racemate and enantiomers of fenoterol as a resorcinol derivative, isoetharine and epinephrine as catechol derivatives and salbutamol and salmeterol as saligenin derivatives. All of the tested compounds reversibly inhibited cholinesterases with K i constants ranging from 9.4 μM to 6.4 mM and had the highest inhibition potency towards usual BChE, but generally none of the cholinesterases displayed any stereoselectivity. Kinetic and docking results revealed that the inhibition potency of the studied compounds could be related to the size of the hydroxyaminoethyl chain on the benzene ring. The additional π-π interaction of salmeterol's benzene ring and Trp286 and hydrogen bond with His447 probably enhanced inhibition by salmeterol which was singled out as the most potent inhibitor of all the cholinesterases.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Compounds from Corydalis cava (Fumariaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlebek, J.; Macáková, K.; Cahlíková, L.; Kurfürst, Milan; Kuneš, J.; Opletal, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2011), s. 607-610 ISSN 1934-578X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : corydalis cava * fumariaceae * alzheimer ´s disease Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.242, year: 2011

  4. Metformin and Its Sulfenamide Prodrugs Inhibit Human Cholinesterase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of epidemiological and pathophysiological studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may predispose to Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The two conditions present similar glucose levels, insulin resistance, and biochemical etiologies such as inflammation and oxidative stress. The diabetic state also contributes to increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, which is one of the factors leading to neurodegeneration in AD. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the effects of metformin, phenformin, and metformin sulfenamide prodrugs on the activity of human AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE and establish the type of inhibition. Metformin inhibited 50% of the AChE activity at micromolar concentrations (2.35 μmol/mL, mixed type of inhibition and seemed to be selective towards AChE since it presented low anti-BuChE activity. The tested metformin prodrugs inhibited cholinesterases (ChE at nanomolar range and thus were more active than metformin or phenformin. The cyclohexyl sulfenamide prodrug demonstrated the highest activity towards both AChE (IC50 = 890 nmol/mL, noncompetitive inhibition and BuChE (IC50 = 28 nmol/mL, mixed type inhibition, while the octyl sulfenamide prodrug did not present anti-AChE activity, but exhibited mixed inhibition towards BuChE (IC50 = 184 nmol/mL. Therefore, these two bulkier prodrugs were concluded to be the most selective compounds for BuChE over AChE. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that biguanides present a novel class of inhibitors for AChE and BuChE and encourages further studies of these compounds for developing both selective and nonselective inhibitors of ChEs in the future.

  5. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  6. Studies on the molecular dissection of human cholinesterase variants and their genomic origins. Final report, 1 June 1994-30 May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soreq, H.

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the capacity of overexpressed recombinant human cholinesterases or mutated variants thereof to confer protection against anti-cholinesterase toxicity, we employed transiently transgenic Xenopus laevis tadpoles and stably transgenic mice. Normal and mutant variants of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) revealed partially overlapping binding sites for several inhibitors and demonstrated the involvement of the oxyanion hole in BuChE catalysis. In the developing tadpoles the isoform of AChE, which terminates with the 3`-exon 6, was efficiently accumulated in neuromuscular junctions and conferred resistance to the organophosphate paraoxon. In transgenic mice, exon 6-terminated AChE, under control of its authentic promoter, accumulated in CNS synapses and conferred resistance to paraoxon and several cholinergic agonists, but caused progressive deterioration in both neuromotor and cognitive functioning. Finally, in a human patient carrying the atypical`1 (D7OG) gene for BuChE, we observed adverse responses to prophylactic doses of the carbamate pyridostigmine and from this and in vitro studies predicted a generalized genetic predisposition to anti-cholinesterase therapies, including that approved for the treatment of Alzheimer`s disease.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators (HI-6, Obidoxime, Trimedoxime, K027, K075, K127, K203, K282: Structural Evaluation of Human Serum Albumin Binding and Absorption Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Zemek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE reactivators (oximes are compounds predominantly targeting the active site of the enzyme. Toxic effects of organophosphates nerve agents (OPNAs are primarily related to their covalent binding to AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, critical detoxification enzymes in the blood and in the central nervous system (CNS. After exposure to OPNAs, accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh overstimulates receptors and blocks neuromuscular junction transmission resulting in CNS toxicity. Current efforts at treatments for OPNA exposure are focused on non-quaternary reactivators, monoisonitrosoacetone oximes (MINA, and diacylmonoxime reactivators (DAM. However, so far only quaternary oximes have been approved for use in cases of OPNA intoxication. Five acetylcholinesterase reactivator candidates (K027, K075, K127, K203, K282 are presented here, together with pharmacokinetic data (plasma concentration, human serum albumin binding potency. Pharmacokinetic curves based on intramuscular application of the tested compounds are given, with binding information and an evaluation of structural relationships. Human Serum Albumin (HSA binding studies have not yet been performed on any acetylcholinesterase reactivators, and correlations between structure, concentration curves and binding are vital for further development. HSA bindings of the tested compounds were 1% (HI-6, 7% (obidoxime, 6% (trimedoxime, and 5%, 10%, 4%, 15%, and 12% for K027, K075, K127, K203, and K282, respectively.

  8. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  9. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  10. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  11. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  12. Human niche, human behaviour, human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2017-10-06

    The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails. There is a need for a robust and dynamic theoretical toolkit in order to develop a richer, and more nuanced, understanding of the cognitively sophisticated genus Homo and the diverse sorts of niches humans constructed and occupied across the Pleistocene, Holocene, and into the Anthropocene. Here I review current evolutionary approaches to 'human nature', arguing that we benefit from re-framing our investigations via the concept of the human niche and in the context of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). While not a replacement of standard evolutionary approaches, this is an expansion and enhancement of our toolkit. I offer brief examples from human evolution in support of these assertions.

  13. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  14. Human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.; Neill, R.; Williams, R.; Bauser, M.; Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

  15. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul....... The paper will investigate how technology, humanity, affects, and synaesthesia are presented and combined with examples from everyday aesthetics, e.g. early computer tv-commercial, net-commercial for mobile phones. Technology and affects point, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not he...

  16. Human Parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27806994

  17. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  18. Bioscavengers for the protection of humans against organophosphate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Bhupendra P; Saxena, Ashima

    2005-12-15

    Current antidotes for organophosphorus compounds (OP) poisoning consist of a combination of pretreatment with carbamates (pyridostigmine bromide), to protect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from irreversible inhibition by OP compounds, and post-exposure therapy with anti-cholinergic drugs (atropine sulfate) to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and oximes (e.g., 2-PAM chloride) to reactivate OP-inhibited AChE. These antidotes are effective in preventing lethality from OP poisoning, but they do not prevent post-exposure incapacitation, convulsions, seizures, performance decrements, or in many cases permanent brain damage. These symptoms are commonly observed in experimental animals and are likely to occur in humans. The problems intrinsic to these antidotes stimulated attempts to develop a single protective drug, itself devoid of pharmacological effects, which would provide protection against the lethality of OP compounds and prevent post-exposure incapacitation. One approach is the use of enzymes such as cholinesterases (ChEs), beta-esterases in general, as single pretreatment drugs to sequester highly toxic OP anti-ChEs before they reach their physiological targets. This approach turns the irreversible nature of the OP: ChE interaction from disadvantage to an advantage; instead of focusing on OP as an anti-ChE, one can use ChE as an anti-OP. Using this approach, it was shown that administration of fetal bovine serum AChE (FBSAChE) or equine serum butyrylcholinesterase (EqBChE) or human serum BChE (HuBChE) protected the animals from multiple LD50s of a variety of highly toxic OPs without any toxic effects or performance decrements. The bioscavengers that have been explored to date for the detoxification of OPs fall into three categories: (A) those that can catalytically hydrolyze OPs and thus render them non-toxic, such as OP hydrolase and OP anhydrase; (B) those that stoichiometrically bind to OPs, that is, 1 mol of enzyme neutralizes one or 2 mol of OP

  19. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  20. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct homini...

  1. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  2. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  3. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  4. New pyridine derivatives as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and amyloid aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Fabiana; De Vita, Daniela; Bortolami, Martina; Coluccia, Antonio; Di Santo, Roberto; Costi, Roberta; Andrisano, Vincenza; Alabiso, Francesco; Bergamini, Christian; Fato, Romana; Bartolini, Manuela; Scipione, Luigi

    2017-12-01

    A new series of pyridine derivatives with carbamic or amidic function has been designed and synthesized to act as cholinesterase inhibitors. The synthesized compounds were tested toward EeAChE and hAChE and toward eqBChE and hBChE. The carbamate 8 was the most potent hAChE inhibitor (IC 50  = 0.153 ± 0.016 μM) while the carbamate 11 was the most potent inhibitor of hBChE (IC 50  = 0.828 ± 0.067 μM). A molecular docking study indicated that the carbamate 8 was able to bind AChE by interacting with both CAS and PAS, in agreement with the mixed inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, the carbamates 8, 9 and 11 were able to inhibit Aβ 42 self-aggregation and possessed quite low toxicity against human astrocytoma T67 and HeLa cell lines, being the carbamate 8 the less toxic compound on both cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting...

  6. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  7. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  8. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  9. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  10. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available risk of deaths and injuries by drowning in floods and migration- related health effects. • Increased migration, which can result in human suffering, human rights violations, conflicts and political instability. • Loss of property and livelihoods.... The vulnerability of settlements in southern Africa is impacted by various and complex socio-economic processes related to the cultural, political and institutional contexts and demographic pressure, as well as specific high-risk zones susceptible to flash floods...

  11. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission...not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh...research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public

  12. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  13. Beyond Humanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant) is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer t...

  14. A New Assay for Measurement of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase in Canine Whole Blood Combining Specific Substrates and Ethopropazine Hydrochloride as a Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tecles, A Tvarijonaviciute and JJ Cerón*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, a new assay combining specific substrates and a selective BChE inhibitor (ethopropazine hydrochloride was used to measure both AChE and BChE in canine whole blood samples. Acetylthiocholine iodide (ATCI and butyrylthiocholine iodide (BTCI were used as substrates, whereas 2,2’-dithiodipiridine was used as chromophore. Ethopropazine concentration inhibiting over 95% BChE with minimum AChE inhibition was fixed at 0.3mM. The results confirmed that whole blood cholinesterase activity measured with BTCI in absence of ethopropazine corresponded with serum BChE, whereas whole blood cholinesterase analysed with ATCI in presence of ethopropazine reflected mainly erythrocytes and plasma AChE activity. This procedure showed good repeatability, it was easy and fast, and can be routinely used in veterinary laboratories.

  15. Human Parechoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Harvala, Heli; Midgley, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeV) are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of HPeV infection is often indistinguishable from that of enterovirus (EV) infection and may vary from mild disease...

  16. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  17. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  18. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  19. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...

  20. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  1. Human Rights and Human Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly explores some theories of Human Rights justification and then assents to the theory that Human Rights is based on justified moral values. In order to justify moral values, Aristotle’s approach called “Function Argument” is reviewed. Propounding this argument, the writer attempts to show that all analysis of human identity will directly contribute to the man’s view of his rights. Not only Human rights is really determined by human function or human distinguishing characteristic i.e. human identity, but in the world of knowledge the proper method to know human rights is to know human being himself. n cloning violates man’s rights due to two reasons: damage of human identity and violation of the right to be unique. Attempting to clarify the nature of human cloning, this article examines the aspects to be claimed to violate human rights and evaluates the strength of the reasons for this claim. این مقاله پس از بررسی اجمالی برخی از نظریه‌های توجیه حقوق بشر، نظریة ابتنای آن بر ارزش‌های اخلاقی موجّه را می‌پذیرد. دربارة چگونگی توجیه ارزش اخلاقی، رویکرد ارسطو که به «برهان ارگن» موسوم است، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. مؤلف با طرح این برهان می‌کوشد نشان دهد ارائه هرگونه تحلیل از هویت انسان در نگرش آدمی به حقوق خود تأثیر مستقیم خواهد گذاشت. حقوق آدمی نه فقط از ناحیة کارویژه یا فصل ممیز وی (هویت انسان تعیّن واقعی می‌گیرد، بلکه در عالم معرفت هم راه درست شناخت حقوق بشر، شناخت خود انسان است.

  2. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  3. Simultaneous detection of dual biomarkers from humans exposed to organophosphorus pesticides by combination of immunochromatographic test strip and ellman assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingming; Zhao, Yuting; Wang, Limin; Paulsen, Michael; Simpson, Christopher D; Liu, Fengquan; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2018-05-01

    A novel sandwich immunoassay based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) has been developed for simultaneously measuring both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and the total amount of BChE (including inhibited and active enzyme) from 70 μLpost-exposure human plasma sample. The principle of this method is based on the BChE monoclonal antibody (MAb) capable of acting as both capture antibody and detection antibody. The BChE MAb which was immobilized on the test line was able to recognize both organophosphorus BChE adducts (OP-BChE) and BChE and provided equal binding affinity, permitting detection of the total enzyme amount in post-exposure human plasma samples. The formed immunocomplexes on the test line can further be excised from the test-strip for subsequent off-line measurement of BChE activity using the Ellman assay. Therefore, dual biomarkers of BChE activity and phosphorylation (OP-BChE) will be obtained simultaneously. The whole sandwich-immunoassay was performed on one ICTS, greatly reducing analytical time. The ICTS sensor showed excellent linear responses for assaying total amount of BChE and active BChE ranging from 0.22 to 3.58nM and 0.22-7.17nM, respectively. Both the signal detection limits are 0.10nM. We validated the practical application of the proposed method to measure 124 human plasma samples from orchard workers and cotton farmers with long-term exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). The results were in highly agreement with LC/MS/MS which verified our method is extremely accurate. Combining the portability and rapidity of test strip and the compatibility of BChE MAb as both capture antibody and detection antibody, the developed method provides a baseline-free, low-cost and rapid tool for in-field monitoring of OP exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human Face as human single identity

    OpenAIRE

    Warnars, Spits

    2014-01-01

    Human face as a physical human recognition can be used as a unique identity for computer to recognize human by transforming human face with face algorithm as simple text number which can be primary key for human. Human face as single identity for human will be done by making a huge and large world centre human face database, where the human face around the world will be recorded from time to time and from generation to generation. Architecture database will be divided become human face image ...

  5. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  6. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  7. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  8. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  9. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  10. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  11. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  12. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading to the r......In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  14. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  15. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  16. Managing the Human in Human Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Susan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical and social realities, mental biases and limitations of being human differentiate human brands from others. It is their very humanness that introduces risk while generating the ability for enhanced returns. Four particular human characteristics can create imbalance or inconsistency between the person and the brand: mortality, hubris, unpredictability and social embeddedness. None of these qualities manifest in traditional non-human brands, and all of them present risks requiring active managerial attention. Rather than treating humans as brands and making humans into brands for sale in the commercial marketplace, our framework forces a focus on keeping a balance between the person and the personified object.

  17. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  18. Serum cholinesterases are differentially regulated in normal and dystrophin-deficient mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Durrant

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase, are abundant in the nervous system and in other tissues. The role of acetylcholinesterase in terminating transmitter action in the peripheral and central nervous system is well understood. However, both knowledge of the function(s of the cholinesterases in serum, and of their metabolic and endocrine regulation under normal and pathological conditions, is limited. This study investigates acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in sera of dystrophin-deficient mdx mutant mice, an animal model for the human Duchenne muscular dystrophy and in control healthy mice. The data show systematic and differential variations in the concentrations of both enzymes in the sera, and specific changes dictated by alteration of hormonal balance in both healthy and dystrophic mice. While acetylcholinesterase in mdx-sera is elevated, butyrylcholinesterase is markedly diminished, resulting in an overall cholinesterase decrease compared to sera of healthy controls. The androgen testosterone (T is a negative modulator of butyrylcholinesterase, but not of acetylcholinesterase, in male mouse sera. T-removal elevated both butyrylcholinesterase activity and the butyrylcholinesterase/acetylcholinesterase ratio in mdx male sera to values resembling those in healthy control male mice. Mechanisms of regulation of the circulating cholinesterases and their impairment in the dystrophic mice are suggested, and clinical implications for diagnosis and treatment are considered.

  19. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  20. An in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the efficacy of recombinant human liver prolidase as a catalytic bioscavenger of chemical warfare nerve agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Peter E; Zdenka, Pierre; Sabnekar, Praveena; Kajih, Takwen; Mata, David G; Wrobel, Chester; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Chilukuri, Nageswararao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we determined the ability of recombinant human liver prolidase to hydrolyze nerve agents in vitro and its ability to afford protection in vivo in mice. Using adenovirus containing the human liver prolidase gene, the enzyme was over expressed by 200- to 300-fold in mouse liver and purified to homogeneity by affinity and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed sarin, cyclosarin and soman with varying rates of hydrolysis. The most efficient hydrolysis was with sarin, followed by soman and by cyclosarin {apparent kcat/Km [(1.9 ± 0.3), (1.7 ± 0.2), and (0.45 ± 0.04)] × 10(5 )M(-1 )min(-1), respectively}; VX and tabun were not hydrolyzed by the recombinant enzyme. The enzyme hydrolyzed P (+) isomers faster than the P (-) isomers. The ability of recombinant human liver prolidase to afford 24 hour survival against a cumulative dose of 2 × LD50 of each nerve agent was investigated in mice. Compared to mice injected with a control virus, mice injected with the prolidase expressing virus contained (29 ± 7)-fold higher levels of the enzyme in their blood on day 5. Challenging these mice with two consecutive 1 × LD50 doses of sarin, cyclosarin, and soman resulted in the death of all animals within 5 to 8 min from nerve agent toxicity. In contrast, mice injected with the adenovirus expressing mouse butyrylcholinesterase, an enzyme which is known to afford protection in vivo, survived multiple 1 × LD50 challenges of these nerve agents and displayed no signs of toxicity. These results suggest that, while prolidase can hydrolyze certain G-type nerve agents in vitro, the enzyme does not offer 24 hour protection against a cumulative dose of 2 × LD50 of G-agents in mice in vivo.

  1. The Identification of Butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) Polymorphisms in a Small Australian Defence Force Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Table D1: Summary of populations and number of individuals Population Approved individual DNA samples Approved Individual cell cultures Yoruba in...P65S Silent phenotype Protein expressed at low levels in culture . Poor activity 1-2% to BZ, BTC, ACT, PTA [11] rs75995351 N/A C373A F71L Unknown...codon at position 129 No protein expressed [8] BCHE*125F A619T L153F Silent phenotype Protein expressed at low levels in culture . Poor activity 1

  2. Monitoring of plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity and hematological parameters in pesticide sprayers

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, S. K.; Singh, Vipul K.; Kesavachandran, C.; Jyoti,; Siddiqui, M. K. J.; Mathur, N.; Bharti, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the health impact of spraying organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), 34 male sprayers in the mango belt of Malihabad, a small town located 27 km from Lucknow in North India was selected. Plasma butyryl cholinesterase (PBChE) and complete blood count were assessed among sprayers after spraying pesticides and the findings obtained were compared with those determined in a reference group ( n = 18). The most common symptoms observed were burning sensation in the eyes (8.82%), it...

  3. Premature awakening and underuse of neuromuscular monitoring in a registry of patients with butyrylcholinesterase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J L; Nielsen, C V; Palmqvist, D F

    2015-01-01

    , neuromuscular monitoring, and postoperative respiratory complications, defined as arterial oxygen desaturation prematurely awakened if anaesthesia had been terminated while the patient was still...... paralysed. RESULTS: We included 123 patients. Neuromuscular monitoring was applied before awakening in 48 (39%) patients. A nerve stimulator was never used or only after attempted awakening in the remaining 75 (61%) patients. Premature awakening occurred in 75 (100%) and 14 (29%) of the unmonitored...

  4. Modern Human Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-01

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  5. Modern Human Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-15

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  6. HUMANISM OF ANTROPOCENTRISM AND ANTROPOCENTRISM WITHOUT HUMANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Shilovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the distinction of humanism and anthropocentrism which is based on the parity of the person and being. Genetic communication of humanism and anthropocentrism and their historical break comes to light.

  7. Superintelligence, Humans, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Recent studies of the human mind debunk the myth that humans only use 10-20 percent of the human mind. A healthy human mind uses up to 90 percent...way. They will eat what is in front of them to satiate their appetite not knowing if there is anymore food for the future. Humans can predict

  8. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  9. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  10. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  11. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  12. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  13. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  14. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  15. Boundaries of Humanities: Writing Medical Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Gillie

    2008-01-01

    Literature and medicine is a discipline within medical humanities, which challenges medicine to reconfigure its scientific model to become interdisciplinary, and be disciplined by arts and humanities as well as science. The psychological, emotional, spiritual and physical are inextricably linked in people, inevitably entailing provisionality,…

  16. Human algorithmic stability and human Rademacher complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahdat, Mehrnoosh; Oneto, L.; Ghio, A; Anguita, D.; Funk, M.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In Machine Learning (ML), the learning process of an algo- rithm given a set of evidences is studied via complexity measures. The way towards using ML complexity measures in the Human Learning (HL) domain has been paved by a previous study, which introduced Human Rademacher Complexity (HRC): in this

  17. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  18. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  19. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  20. Human Exposure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  1. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  2. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  3. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  5. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  6. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  7. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  8. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  10. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  11. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia ...

  12. Human Document Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jeroen; Abelmann, Leon; Manz, A; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2012-01-01

    “The Human Document Project‿ is a project which tries to answer all of the questions related to preserving information about the human race for tens of generations of humans to come or maybe even for a future intelligence which can emerge in the coming thousands of years. This document mainly

  13. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  14. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  15. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  16. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  17. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    The article puts forward an aesthetic and psychoanalytic analysis of Titian's painting, The Flaying of Marsyas, arguing that the painting is a reflection on the human subject as a being constituted by skin and by a core of non-humanity. The analysis is partly an answer to Melanie Hart's (2007) ar...... of the 'Muselmann', and Anton Ehrenzweig's psychoanalytic theory of artistic creation. Whereas Hart is focusing on form and colour, I also turn my attention towards the texture of the painting....

  18. Universe, human immortality and future human evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This book debates the universe, the development of new technologies in the 21st century and the future of the human race. Dr Bolonkin shows that a human soul is only the information in a person's head. He offers a new unique method for re-writing the main brain information in chips without any damage to the human brain. This is the scientific prediction of the non-biological (electronic) civilization and immortality of the human being. Such a prognosis is predicated upon a new law, discovered by the author, for the development of complex systems. According to this law, every self-copying system tends to be more complex than the previous system, provided that all external conditions remain the same. The consequences are disastrous: humanity will be replaced by a new civilization created by intellectual robots (which Dr Bolonkin refers to as "E-humans" and "E-beings"). These creatures, whose intellectual and mechanical abilities will far exceed those of man, will require neither food nor oxygen to sustain their...

  19. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  20. Rethinking medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  1. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  2. Butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities in essential oils of Salvia species and their constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelev, Sergey U; Okello, Edward J; Perry, Elaine K

    2004-04-01

    Extracts of Salvia (sage) species have been reported to have cholinergic activities relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A lack of information on the inhibition of the enzyme butyrylcholinesterase, also considered to be a target in the treatment of the disease, prompted this in vitro investigation of the essential oils of S. fruticosa, S. lavandulaefolia, S. of ficinalis and S. of ficinalis var. purpurea for anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity. Dose-dependent inhibition of human cholinesterases by the extracts and constituents was determined using the method of Ellman. A time dependent increase in the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase by the oils of S. fruticosa and S. of ficinalis var. purpurea was evident. IC(50) values decreased from 0.15 +/- 0.007 and 0.14 +/- 0.007 mg/mL after 5 min to 0.035 +/- 0.016 and 0.06 +/- 0.018 mg/mL after 90 min incubation time respectively. The slow onset of inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was also shown by individual constituents, such as 3-carene and beta-pinene. Analyses of the chemical composition of the oils and anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity of their constituents revealed that none of the compounds tested would account for the total activity of the oils and that synergy is likely. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  4. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  5. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  6. The Human Cell Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  7. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.; LaRhette, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluating human error or human performance problems and correcting the root causes can help preclude recurrence. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), working with several members and participant utilities in an extended pilot program, has developed a nonpunitive program designed to identify, evaluate, and correct situations that cause human performance errors. The program is called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). Its primary goal is to improve human reliability in overall nuclear plant operations by reducing human error through correction of the conditions that cause the errors. Workers at participating nuclear utilities are encouraged to report their errors and a specially trained plant coordinator investigates and recommends actions to correct the root causes of these errors

  8. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  9. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  10. Human intrusion: New ideas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Inadvertent human intrusion has been an issue for the disposal of solid radioactive waste for many years. This paper discusses proposals for an approach for evaluating the radiological significance of human intrusion as put forward by ICRP with contribution from work at IAEA. The approach focuses on the consequences of the intrusion. Protective actions could, however, include steps to reduce the probability of human intrusion as well as the consequences. (author)

  11. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  12. The human genome project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worton, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Human Genome Project is a massive international research project, costing 3 to 5 billion dollars and expected to take 15 years, which will identify the all the genes in the human genome - i.e. the complete sequence of bases in human DNA. The prize will be the ability to identify genes causing or predisposing to disease, and in some cases the development of gene therapy, but this new knowledge will raise important ethical issues

  13. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  14. Options for human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauser, M.; Williams, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses options for dealing with human intrusion in terms of performance requirements and repository siting and design requirements. Options are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of certain approaches. At the conclusion, a conceptual approach is offered emphasizing both the minimization of subjective judgements concerning future human activity, and specification of repository requirements to minimize the likelihood of human intrusion and any resulting, harmful effects should intrusion occur

  15. Human Engineering Procedures Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Research Laboratory AFETR Air Force Eastern Test Range AFFTC Air Force Flight Test Center AFHRL Air Force Human Resources Laboratory AFR Air Force...performance requirements through the most effective use of man’s performance capability. 13 Human Engineering is one of five elements in the Human...applied judiciously and tailored to fit * the program or program phase and the acquisition strategy to achieve cost effective acquisition and life cycle

  16. Human babesiosis: Recent discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Sanja M.; Kranjčić-Zec Ivana F.; Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina S.; Džamić Aleksandar M.; Radonjić Ivana V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia, which is a common animal infection worldwide. This protozoa requires both a competent vertebrate and a nonvertebrate host (Ixodes sp. etc.) to maintain the transmission cycle. Human babesiosis Human babesiosis is predominantly caused by Babesia microti (rodent-borne piroplasm, an emerging zoonosis in humans in North America) and by Babesia divergens (bovine pathogen, in Europe). Occasionally, infection in A...

  17. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  18. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  19. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  20. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  1. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  2. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  3. Human trafficking in Germany: strengthening victim's human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Follmar-Otto, Petra; Rabe, Heike

    2009-01-01

    The first study - "A human rights approach against human trafficking - International obligations and the status of implementation in Germany" - analyses how the prohibition of human trafficking and the resulting state obligations are anchored in human rights. The more recent specialised international agreements on human trafficking and law-making in the European Union are then presented. The emphasis is on the Council of Europe Convention, which professes to treat human trafficking in a human...

  4. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  5. Rationality in Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  6. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  7. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  8. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  9. Human Powered Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  10. Kinship and Human Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergendorff, Steen

    This book offers a exiting new explanation of human evolution. Based on insight from Anthropology is shows that human became 'cultured' beings capable of symbolic thought by developing rasting kinship based between groups that could not other wise survive in the harah climate condition during...

  11. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  12. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  13. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  14. Evaluating the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  15. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  16. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  17. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  18. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  19. Human Intestinal Spirochaetosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochaetosis is a condition of the colon that is characterized by the presence of spirochaetes attached to the mucosal cells of the colon. These spirochaetes belong to the family Brachyspiraceae and two species are known to occur in humans: Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira

  20. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    , which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  1. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  2. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  3. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  4. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  5. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  6. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  7. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...... towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...

  8. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  9. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  10. UN human rights council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Mlrjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structure, mechanisms, practices and perspectives of the Human Rights Council, the UN body that, at universal level is the most important body in this area. Introductory section provides for a brief overview of the origins of human rights and the work of the Commission on Human Rights, in whose jurisdiction were questions of human rights before the establishment of the Council. After the introductory section the author gives an analysis of the structure, objectives, mandate and main procedures for the protection of human rights within the united Nations. In the final section the authorpoints out the advantages of this authority and criticism addressed to it, with emphasis on the possibility and the need for its reform.

  11. Waste - the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Waste is a human concept, referring to things that have no use to human beings and arising entirely from human activities. It is the useless residue of any human process that affects the economy or environment. The changes brought about by the industrial revolution are enormous; fossil fuels, not just photosynthesis, now provide energy and wastes at rates far exceeding the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb or recycle. Three major problems face the Planet: accelerated population growth, accelerated use of resources for energy and industry, and the disproportionate use of resources and waste between the northern and southern parts of the Planet. Knowledge and science are in a position to provide both human creativity and the directed technology to take remedial action and rediscover harmony between nature and mankind. Only social and political will is lacking

  12. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strucic, M.; Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    Human performance remains a significant factor for management attention not only from a reactor safety perspective, but also from a financial one. Recent significant events analysis shows that human errors are still dominant causes and contributors to them. An analysis of significant events in nuclear industry occurred through 15-years period revealed that three of four significant events were triggered by human error, although the number of events have dropped by more than a factor of four. A number of human performance breakdowns occurred in the application of errorprevention techniques. These included a lack of pre-job briefs, inadequate turnover of tasks, ineffective use of peer checking, inadequate procedure adherence, and failure to apply a questioning attitude when unexpected changes were encountered in the task. Attempts by the industry to improve human performance have traditionally focused at the worker level. However, human error occurs within the context of the organization, which can either foster or resist human error. The greatest room for improvement lies not only in the continued improvement of front-line worker performance but more so in the identification and elimination of weaknesses in the organizational and managerial domains that contributes to worker performance at the job site. Based on mentioned analysis, other industrial sources and own operating experience, NPP Krsko is paying more attention to improve human performance among own as well as contractor workers. Through series of programs and activities, such as Reactivity Management Program, Safety Culture Program, Self-assessment Program, Corrective Action Program, Plant Performance Monitoring Program, developed in last few years, and through new procedures, written guides and publications, training and management efforts, number of human errors is going to be reduced. Involvement of higher levels of NPP Krsko organization in promotion and use of Human Performance techniques is

  13. Digital Human Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The development of models to represent human characteristics and behaviors in human factors is broad and general. The term "model" can refer to any metaphor to represent any aspect of the human; it is generally used in research to mean a mathematical tool for the simulation (often in software, which makes the simulation digital) of some aspect of human performance and for the prediction of future outcomes. This section is restricted to the application of human models in physical design, e.g., in human factors engineering. This design effort is typically human interface design, and the digital models used are anthropometric. That is, they are visual models that are the physical shape of humans and that have the capabilities and constraints of humans of a selected population. They are distinct from the avatars used in the entertainment industry (movies, video games, and the like) in precisely that regard: as models, they are created through the application of data on humans, and they are used to predict human response; body stresses workspaces. DHM enable iterative evaluation of a large number of concepts and support rapid analysis, as compared with use of physical mockups. They can be used to evaluate feasibility of escape of a suited astronaut from a damaged vehicle, before launch or after an abort (England, et al., 2012). Throughout most of human spaceflight, little attention has been paid to worksite design for ground workers. As a result of repeated damage to the Space Shuttle which adversely affected flight safety, DHM analyses of ground assembly and maintenance have been developed over the last five years for the design of new flight systems (Stambolian, 2012, Dischinger and Dunn Jackson, 2014). The intent of these analyses is to assure the design supports the work of the ground crew personnel and thereby protect the launch vehicle. They help the analyst address basic human factors engineering questions: can a worker reach the task site from the work platform

  14. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  16. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  17. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  18. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  19. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  20. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  2. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  3. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refractoriness of cardiac cells limits maximum frequency of electrical activity and protects the heart from tonic contractions. Short refractory periods support major arrhythmogenic substrates and augmentation of refractoriness is therefore seen as a main mechanism of antiarrhythmic...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  4. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for developing them, such as taking oral contraceptives . A safety review of Gardasil in Denmark and ... and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark ...

  6. Human-Machine Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbrot, J.E.; Nihlwing, Ch.; Svengren, H.

    2005-01-01

    New requirements for enhanced safety and design changes in process systems often leads to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room of older nuclear power plants, where nowadays modern digital I and C solutions with screen-based human-machine interfaces (HMI) most often are introduced. Human factors (HF) expertise is then required to assist in specifying a unified, integrated HMI, where the entire integration of information is addressed to ensure an optimal and effective interplay between human (operators) and machine (process). Following a controlled design process is the best insurance for ending up with good solutions. This paper addresses the approach taken when introducing modern human-machine communication in the Oskarshamn 1 NPP, the results, and the lessons learned from this work with high operator involvement seen from an HF point of view. Examples of possibilities modern technology might offer for the operators are also addressed. (orig.)

  7. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  8. OAS :: Accountability :: Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's staffing, vacant posts, and a list of procurement notices for formal bids, links to the performance contract and travel control Plan Human Resources Organizational Structure Functions of each organizational unit Vacant Posts

  9. Spaceflight Versus Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    Spaceflight is challenging. Human spaceflight is far more challenging,.Those familiar with spaceflight recognize that human spaceflight is more than tacking an environmental control system on an existing spacecraft, that there are a number of serious technical challenges involved in sending people out into space and bringing them back home safely.The return trip, bringing the crew back to the surface of the earth safely, is more than just an additional task, it's the new imperative. Differences between manned and unmanned spaceflight are more than technical. The human element forces a change in philosophy, a mindset that will likely touch every aspect of flight from launch through mission and return. Seasoned space professionals used to the paradigms and priorities of unmanned flight need to be cognizant of these differences and some of the implications, perhaps most especially because mission success and human safety priorities are sometimes contradictory.

  10. Calvin and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vorster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity has become a major moral directive in the contemporary ethical reflection on human rights and bio-ethics. This article examines the theological foundations laid by the reformer Calvin regarding the inherent dignity of people, and his influence on post-World War ethical reflection about the violations of human rights. In this article his views on the “imago dei” and common grace, the “lex naturae” and the obligations of the civil authority are investigated in order to illuminate his ideas about the dignity of human beings. The article then deals with the influence of these ideas in the influential works of the twentieth century’s reformed theologians Barth, Berkhouwer and Moltmann.

  11. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...

  12. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryosections are associated with anatomical terminology. AnatLine : A prototype system consisting of an anatomical image database and ... further information is available Publications VHJOE: Visible Human Journal of Endoscopy. NLM's Current Bibliographies in Medicine, Visible ...

  13. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  14. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  15. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  16. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  17. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  18. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  19. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  20. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ... into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

  1. Biotechnology and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Le Mintier, B

    2001-12-01

    Biotechnology permits our world to progress. It's a tool to better apprehend the human being, but as well to let him go ahead. Applied to the living, biotechnologies present the same finality. But since their matter concerns effectively the living, they are the sources of specific dangers and particularly of that one to use the improvements obtained on the human to modify the human species. The right of the persons has to find its place to avoid that the fundamental rights of the human personality shall undergo harm. This mission assigned to the right of the persons is as so much invaluable that the economical stakes are particularly important in the domain of the biotechnologies.

  2. Human-Robot Teams Informed by Human Performance Moderator Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    performance factors that affect the ability of a human to drive at night, which includes the eyesight of the driver, the fatigue level of the driver...where human factors are factors that affect the performance of an individual. 7 for human interaction. For instance, they explain the various human... affecting trust in human-robot interaction. Human Factors 53(5), 517-527 (2001) 35. Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. Development of NASA-TLX (Task

  3. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  4. Pushing Human Frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  5. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  6. Quality and human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  7. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Germline Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E

    2017-08-03

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  11. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  12. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  13. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  14. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  15. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  16. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  17. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2014-01-01

    for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http

  18. Human dignity, humiliation, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2009-09-01

    Modern human rights instruments ground human rights in the concept of human dignity, without providing an underlying theory of human dignity. This paper examines the central importance of human dignity, understood as not humiliating people, in traditional Jewish ethics. It employs this conception of human dignity to examine and criticize U.S. use of humiliation tactics and torture in the interrogation of terrorism suspects.

  19. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  20. Why Geo-Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  1. The Human Serum Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  2. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  3. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  4. Healthy human gut phageome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  5. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  6. Reduced Acetylcholine Receptor Density, Morphological Remodeling, and Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Can Sustain Muscle Function in Acetylcholinesterase Knockout Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Michael; Manley, Heather A; Deshpande, Sharad S; Hamilton, Tracey A; Kan, Robert K; Oyler, George; Lockridge, Oksana; Duysen, Ellen G; Sheridan, Robert E

    2004-01-01

    ...) and can survive into adulthood. Twitch tensions elicited in diaphragms of AChE-/- mice by single supramaximal stimuli had larger amplitudes and slower rise and decay times than did those in wild-type animals...

  7. Recombinant butyryl-cholinesterase (RBuChe) therapy following VX poisoning by the percutaneous route: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speakman, P.; Armstrong, S.

    2009-01-01

    Medical countermeasures to prevent or mitigate the effects of nerve agent poisoning are part of the UK MoD's integrated approach to CBRN defence. Protexia is currently in advanced development as a pretreatment for nerve agent poisoning by PharmAthene in collaboration with US DoD. The principle of its use in this context has been demonstrated in a model of inhalation exposure. Nerve agent poisoning by the percutaneous route poses additional challenges for medical countermeasures. The present study investigates the effects of non-pegylated rBuChE administered following poisoning by VX in an animal model of percutaneous exposure. This investigation is part of an ongoing programme of work assessing the potential of candidate medical interventions. Male guinea pigs implanted with dermal and blood microdialysis probes were maintained under anaesthesia. VX (296 micro g/kg or 740 micro g/kg) was applied to the dorsal skin and non-pegylated rBuChE or placebo was administered (i.v.) 30 minutes later. Dialysate fractions were collected for 8 hours and VX was analysed by LC-MS-MS. Cholinesterase levels were measured in selected tissues post mortem. Following VX (296 micro g/kg), non-pegylated rBuChE significantly reduced the concentration of VX in the blood but had no effect on dermal concentrations; additionally following VX (740 micro g/kg), non-pegylated rBuChE prevented lethality. Tissue cholinesterase activity was inhibited following VX exposure but in those animals treated with rhBuChE, activities were similar to control values. To our knowledge these results provide the first evidence of the mechanism of therapeutic intervention with rBuChE. Further work is necessary to increase confidence in these preliminary observations by conducting confirmatory studies. Crown Copyright 2008. This work was carried out as part of the UK MoD NBC Research Programme. Non-pegylated rBuChE was supplied by PharmAthene under a materials transfer and non-disclosure agreement. (author)

  8. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of the Essential Oil of Thymus haussknechtii Velen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan G. Sevindik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Thymus haussknechtii Velen. was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major component of the essential oil was thymol (52.2%. Total phenolic content of the essential oil was determined as 132.9 µg gallic acid equivalent. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities along with ferrous ion-chelating power test, ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and ferric thiocyanate methods. In addition to antioxidant activity, anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil was also evaluated. It exhibited inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE which play an important role in Alzheimer’s disease, along with significant antioxidant activity.

  9. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  10. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey

    2007-01-01

    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  11. HUMAN MISSION OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  12. Seaweed and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  13. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...... and their disease relationships from the reported TDDB database. The resulting human EDN takes into consideration the level of evidence of the toxicant-disease relationships allowing including some degrees of significance in the disease-disease associations. Such network can be used to identify uncharacterized...

  14. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  15. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2017-01-01

    -matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...... legal fields and jurisdictions may warrant different understandings of such concept. It reviews a number of different and often divergent concepts and taxonomies of human enhancement and concludes with the proposal and analysis of a definition: Use of technological means with the intention to improve......Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...

  16. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  17. Human factors guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penington, J [PHF Services Inc., (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  19. Models of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB and C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such models have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Unfortunately, many potential model users remain skeptical about their practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part to disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of commonsense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB and C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. (author)

  20. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  1. Human cryptosporidiosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuo, P O

    2009-02-01

    To provide an overview of risk factors, presentation and management of human cryptosporidium infection. Literature review was obtained through PubMed search. Published articles on the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium and the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of cryptosporidiosis were reviewed. Abstracts and complete articles relevant to the objective were selected, read and analysed to extract information for this article. Human cryptosporidiosis is a severe diarrhoeal disease in malnourished children and immuno-compromised adults in whom it confers poor prognosis. Management is mainly supportive as drug therapy remains elusive. Fortunately the prevalence in AIDS patients is declining due to the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

  2. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan

    2013-01-01

    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  3. Human push capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ralph L; Liber, Theodore

    2006-02-22

    Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending on the scenario, human push capability involves strength, weight, weight distribution, push angle, footwear/floor friction, and the friction between the upper body and the pushed object. Simple models are used to establish the relationships among these factors.

  4. Ayahuasca and human destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  5. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  6. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...

  7. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  8. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  9. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    to become part of a global cultural flow, thus calling into question the physical connection between viewer and image. This article analyses what happens to that connection when not only the image but also the physical body is mediated and challenged in post-human relations, and examines the ensuing ethical...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  10. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...

  11. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  12. The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination

    OpenAIRE

    McClennen, Sophia A.

    2007-01-01

    In her paper "The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination" Sophia A. McClennen argues that understanding the relationship between culture and human rights depends on humanist perspectives attentive to the relationship between storytelling and identity, mass culture and ideology, text and audience, critical thinking and engaged citizenship. After briefly considering how the divide between the humanities and human rights advocates developed and how it might best be overcome, s...

  13. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  14. Human Dignity – Constitutional Principle of Fundamental Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Pop

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a constitutional principle of the human rights, the human dignity is a supreme value, a norm and a right, thus that the reconfiguration of protection standards of fundamental human rights is made by cohesion of the legal, social and moral dimensions of human dignity. With this article, the author argues that legal meaning, social meaning and moral meaning of human dignity, are centerpiece of protection of freedom under law.

  15. The Case for the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the current impoverishment of the humanities and the gulf separating the humanities from the sciences. Discusses the need for adequate humanities instruction at the elementary-secondary level. Suggests that humanities teachers rediscover the Italian Renaissance spirit to improve their teaching. (SB)

  16. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  17. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  18. Human modeling in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Furuta, Kazuo.

    1994-01-01

    Review on progress of research and development on human modeling methods is made from the viewpoint of its importance on total man-machine system reliability surrounding nuclear power plant operation. Basic notions on three different approaches of human modeling (behavioristics, cognitives and sociologistics) are firstly introduced, followed by the explanation of fundamental scheme to understand human cognitives at man-machine interface and the mechanisms of human error and its classification. Then, general methodologies on human cognitive model by AI are explained with the brief summary of various R and D activities now prevailing in the human modeling communities around the world. A new method of dealing with group human reliability is also introduced which is based on sociologistic mathematical model. Lastly, problems on human model validation are discussed, followed by the introduction of new experimental method to estimate human cognitive state by psycho-physiological measurement, which is a new methodology plausible for human model validation. (author)

  19. Human perspectives in horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  20. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  1. Human Performance Westinghouse Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, A.; Gil, C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Program consists in the excellence actuation, achieving the client success with a perfect realisation project. This program consists of different basic elements to reduce the human mistakes: the HuP tools, coaching, learning clocks and iKnow website. There is, too, a document file to consult and practice. All these elements are expounded in this paper.

  2. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  3. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  4. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in

  5. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  6. Haptic Physical Human Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation covers three aspects of upper-extremity exoskeleton design: 1) Kinematics & motion: How to support the full range of motion of the human shoulder? We present a 2D visualization method that can show coupling between the range of motion (ROM) of rotations of the glenohumeral joint.

  7. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  8. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  9. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...

  10. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  11. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  12. Human Resource Outsourcing Success

    OpenAIRE

    Hasliza Abdul-Halim; Elaine Ee; T. Ramayah; Noor Hazlina Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR) outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that par...

  13. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  14. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  15. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  16. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  17. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  18. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  19. HUMAN PARAGONIMIASIS IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    this disease, training of technicians in anti-tuberculosis centers would be the most realistic attitude to detect mycobacteria and/or Paragonimus eggs during the same sputum examination. Key words: Paragonimus spp., Africa, human paragonimiasis, intermediate hosts, tuberculosis. Résumé. Une revue sur la paragonimose ...

  20. Human Performance and Biosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    Fuel Cells • Artificial Photosynthesis Overview of Topic Areas 3003 Human Performance/Biosystems • Photo-Electro-Magnetic Stimulation of...1) Electronic transport in bacterial nanowires was demonstrated using nanofabrication enabled approaches (2) Identified the biophysical... bacterial nanowires and outer-membrane vesicles enhancing the electron transfer and respiration of individual cells Outlook The first demonstration

  1. Human Babesiosis, Bolivia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Macchioni, Fabio; Zuñiga, Freddy; Rojas, Patricia; Lara, Yuni; Roselli, Mimmo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    To investigate human babesiosis in the Bolivian Chaco, in 2013 we tested blood samples from 271 healthy persons living in 2 rural communities in this region. Microscopy and PCR indicated that 3.3% of persons were positive for Babesia microti parasites (US lineage); seroprevalence was 45.7%. Appropriate screening should mitigate the risk for transfusion-associated babesiosis.

  2. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  3. Human Sexuality Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claremont Univ. Center, CA.

    This program provides information to students about human sexual biology, behavior and attitudes. The primary intent of the workshops described is to provide fuller information and opportunity for self awareness to encourage participants to be more responsible as sexual beings, and to restructure their attitudes. The program presents the…

  4. Is human fecundity changing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Sapra, Katherine J; Gemmill, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen ...

  5. Fourth human parechovirus serotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Kimberley S. M.; Schinkel, Janke; Luken, Manon E.; van den Broek, Peter J. M.; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Menelik, Negassi; van Eijk, Hetty W. M.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Wolthers, Katja C.

    2006-01-01

    We identified a novel human parechovirus (HPeV) type (K251176-02) from a neonate with fever. Analysis of the complete genome showed K251176-02 to be a new HPeV genotype. Since K251176-02 could not be neutralized with antibodies against known HPeV serotypes 1-3, it should be classified as a fourth

  6. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  7. Human genome I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    An international conference, Human Genome I, was held Oct. 2-4, 1989 in San Diego, Calif. Selected speakers discussed: Current Status of the Genome Project; Technique Innovations; Interesting regions; Applications; and Organization - Different Views of Current and Future Science and Procedures. Posters, consisting of 119 presentations, were displayed during the sessions. 119 were indexed for inclusion to the Energy Data Base

  8. Human and Organizational Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshiett, P.B.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Human and Organizational Factors Approach to Industrial Safety (HOFS) consists of identifying and putting in place conditions which encourage a positive contribution from operators (individually and in a team) with regards to industrial safety. The knowledge offered by the HOFS approach makes it possible better to understand what conditions human activity and to act on the design of occupational situations and the organization, in the aim of creating the conditions for safe work. Efforts made in this area can also lead to an improvement in results in terms of the quality of production or occupational safety (incidence and seriousness rates) (Daniellou, F., et al., 2011). Research on industrial accidents shows that they rarely happen as a result of a single event, but rather emerge from the accumulation of several, often seemingly trivial, malfunctions, misunderstandings, incorrect assumptions and other issues. The nuclear community has established rigorous international safety standards and concepts to ensure the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation (IAEA, 2014). A review of major human induced disasters in a number of countries and in different industries yields insights into several of the human and organizational factors involved in their occurrence. Some of these factors relate to failures in: • Design or technology; • Training; • Decision making; • Communication; • Preparation for the unexpected; • Understanding of organizational interdependencies

  9. Human social genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  10. Ubiquitous human computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittrain, Jonathan

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous computing means network connectivity everywhere, linking devices and systems as small as a drawing pin and as large as a worldwide product distribution chain. What could happen when people are so readily networked? This paper explores issues arising from two possible emerging models of ubiquitous human computing: fungible networked brainpower and collective personal vital sign monitoring.

  11. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  12. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  13. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  14. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  15. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    , men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg...

  16. Television and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  17. Human automation integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, M.; Cosenzo, K.; Galster, s.; Hollnagel, E.; Miller, C.; Parasuraman, R.; Reising, J.; Taylor, R.; Breda, L. van

    2007-01-01

    Many versions of future concept of operations (CONOPS) rely heavily on UMVs. The pressure to take the human out of immediate control of these vehicles is being driven by several factors. These factors include a reduction in cost for the production and maintenance of the vehicle, operational

  18. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  19. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-01-01

    The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity i...

  20. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  1. Human nature, human culture: the case of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2017-10-06

    In recent years, far from arguing that evolutionary approaches to our own species permit us to describe the fundamental character of human nature, a prominent group of cultural evolutionary theorists has instead argued that the very idea of 'human nature' is one we should reject. It makes no sense, they argue, to speak of human nature in opposition to human culture. The very same sceptical arguments have also led some thinkers-usually from social anthropology-to dismiss the intimately related idea that we can talk of human culture in opposition to human nature. How, then, are we supposed to understand the cultural evolutionary project itself, whose proponents seem to deny the distinction between human nature and human culture, while simultaneously relying on a closely allied distinction between 'genetic' (or sometimes 'organic') evolution and 'cultural' evolution? This paper defends the cultural evolutionary project against the charge that, in refusing to endorse the concept of human nature, it has inadvertently sabotaged itself.

  2. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Morishima, H.; Terano, T.; Sugeno, M.

    1984-01-01

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  3. How Do Humans Perceive Emotion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen

    2017-01-01

    Emotion carries crucial qualities of the human condition, representing one of the major challenges in artificial intelligence. Re-search in psychology and neuroscience in the past two to three decades has generated rich insights into the processes underlying human emotion. Cognition and emotion represent the two main pillars of the human psyche and human intelligence. While the hu-man cognitive system and cognitive brain has inspired and informed computer science and artificial intelligence, the future is ripe for the human emotion system to be integrated into artificial intelligence and robotic systems. Here, we review behavioral and neu-ral findings in human emotion perception, including facial emotion perception, olfactory emotion perception, multimodal emotion perception, and the time course of emotion perception. It is our hope that knowledge of how humans perceive emotion will help bring artificial intelligence strides closer to human intelligence.

  4. Digitalization of the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason, since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they have not been able to resolve in full the human problems, and therefore, the same issues were taken by the representatives of the socalled “critical theory”, who used the theory to criticize the way of live Western civilization was offering, known as digitalization of the human mind. The human problems are addressed in a poly-dimensional manner. The factors affecting the human mind are: industrial civilization, technical progress, automation, overtly influence of machinery on humans, substitution of cultural values, which in sum have developed a new World Order, where the ruler is technology. In the modern world, the human fails to recognize himself, since he is out of himself and lives according to the rules set forth by the “remote control”. In the flow of this kind of livelihood, human alienates, or in other words, the human goes out of himself, trying to adapt maximally to the requirements of the new way of life.

  5. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  6. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  7. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  8. Human freedom and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  9. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior......, and the problem of surviving the hostile forces of nature. Moreover, the supernatural elements of the novel resonate with evolved intuitions about non-material, moral forces at work in the world. That is why the novel continues to engage readers worldwide. Most critics, however, have overlooked or distorted...... the psychological underpinnings of the novel and the crucial function of the supernatural elements in the meaning structure of the novel. Hence we need an evolutionary psychological perspective which builds on recent findings in the sciences of human nature to account for the novel’s meaning, effects, and continued...

  10. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  11. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    written about philanthropy from a political, sociological, anthropological and managerial perspective. However, an essential question remains: what does philanthropy mean? In a Greek context, philanthropy is connected to a friendly act towards one’s owns close connections such as family or fellow citizens......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern...

  12. Human waves in stadiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, I.; Helbing, D.; Vicsek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Mexican wave first widely broadcasted during the 1986 World Cup held in Mexico, is a human wave moving along the stands of stadiums as one section of spectators stands up, arms lifting, then sits down as the next section does the same. Here we use variants of models originally developed for the description of excitable media to demonstrate that this collective human behaviour can be quantitatively interpreted by methods of statistical physics. Adequate modelling of reactions to triggering attempts provides a deeper insight into the mechanisms by which a crowd can be stimulated to execute a particular pattern of behaviour and represents a possible tool of control during events involving excited groups of people. Interactive simulations, video recordings and further images are available at the webpage dedicated to this work: http://angel.elte.hu/wave.

  13. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  14. Management and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Past human performance and management problems have been well documented. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have significant root causes in human factors and in plant management. The failure of plant personnel to recognize the safety significance of their actions, procedures which were knowingly violated, a lack of awareness of plant conditions and status, and operators being misled by incorrect data and information were root causes of these accidents. Safety culture starts with personal dedication and accountability beginning at the top with senior corporate management. It is formed by policies and administrative controls which when implemented ensure that correct practices are followed. Senior management fosters an attitude and safety consciousness in all personnel with responsibility for supervision, operation and maintenance of the nuclear power plant

  15. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non...

  16. Development of human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-10-01

    Neural control of locomotion in human adults involves the generation of a small set of basic patterned commands directed to the leg muscles. The commands are generated sequentially in time during each step by neural networks located in the spinal cord, called Central Pattern Generators. This review outlines recent advances in understanding how motor commands are expressed at different stages of human development. Similar commands are found in several other vertebrates, indicating that locomotion development follows common principles of organization of the control networks. Movements show a high degree of flexibility at all stages of development, which is instrumental for learning and exploration of variable interactions with the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Marketing of human organs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, E

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the highly controversial question whether human organs should be allowed to be the object of a contract aimed at profit. The author comes to the conclusion that--seen from a consequentialist viewpoint--the legislature is not well-advised to allow organ donations for consideration. However, it is admitted that a more deontological approach could come to quite the opposite conclusion.

  18. The Human Body Sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The human body shield problem involves an apparent dilemma for a libertarian, forcing him to choose between his own death and the death of an innocent person. This paper argues that the non-aggression principle permits a forceful response against the property of innocent individuals when a conflict is initiated with that property. In other words, a libertarian may shoot the hostage in order to save himself.

  19. Decoding the human genome

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Antonerakis, S E

    2002-01-01

    Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges. Ethical and social aspects of genomics.

  20. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes

  1. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Impact of Human Systems Community of Interest D O T M L P F $450M COI Budget Has Broad Impact in Several DOTMLPF Areas Decision Making Selection...and fit to a military career. • 26 personality dimensions such as optimism, excitement seeking, and non- delinquency • Applicant chooses from...Adaptive Collaborative Control Technologies ( IMPACT ) architecture designed • IMPACT “DoD Virtual Lab” established (Year 1) • 1 operator x 6 vehicles

  2. Climatic Change. Human Influence?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Dionísio; Leite, Solange; Ribeiro, A.C.; Figueiredo, Tomás de

    2016-01-01

    We begin by presenting the functioning of the Climate System and the variety of climates that occurs on the surface of the globe. We analyze climate change based on the sun's orbital parameters and other causes, focusing on the current interglacial period and the influence it had on the development of human societies. The following text looks on developing of the climate of the last 1000 years, with considerations about the warm medieval climate, the little ice age, the recovery...

  3. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  4. FIGHTING HUMAN TRAFFIKING

    OpenAIRE

    Alketa ELEZI

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, “trafficking in persons” or “human trafficking” have been used as umbrella terms for activities involved when one person obtains or holds another person in compelled service. This compelled service describes a number of different terms: involuntary servitude, slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor. A person may be a trafficking victim regardless of whether they once consented, participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked, were transported into the ex...

  5. Glycogen metabolism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; González-Lucán, Manuel; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Ameneiros-Rodríguez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the human body, glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose stored mainly in the liver and the skeletal muscle that supplies glucose to the blood stream during fasting periods and to the muscle cells during muscle contraction. Glycogen has been identified in other tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, and erythrocytes, but glycogen function in these tissues is mostly unknown. Glycogen synthesis requires a series of reactions that include glucose entrance into the cell through...

  6. Human Germline Genome Editing

    OpenAIRE

    Ormond, Kelly E.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Scholes, Derek T.; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C.; Faucett, W. Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa’ A.; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E.

    2017-01-01

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Gen...

  7. Wilhelm Roepke: Economic humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic ideas of the great German thinker Wilhelm Roepke advocated a free market acting in a particular social context (comprising of market insti­tutions, and a particular system of values created within the society and not by the market itself. He substantiated why free market economy has to be supplemented with a particular social ethics. He argued in favor of a society that defends and advances human liberty.

  8. Human Parvovirus B19

    OpenAIRE

    Yarkın, Fügen

    1992-01-01

    Human parvavirus B19'un morfolojisi, oluşturduğu enfeksiyonun klinik belirtileri,tanı yöntemleri, epidemik özellikleri göz önüne alındığında, özellikle kronik olgularda B19 antikorlarının ilave edildiği immünglobulinlerin intravenöz infüzyonunun tedavide etkili olabilmektedir.

  9. Human talent forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelcu Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The demand for talent has increased while the offer has declined and these worrying trends don’t seem to show any sign of change in the near future. According to Bloomberg Businessweek, USA, Canada, UK, and Japan (among many others will face varying degrees of talent shortages in almost every industry in the coming years. The performed study focuses on identifying patterns which relates to human skills. Recently, with the new demand and increasing visibility, human resources are seeking a more strategic role by harnessing data mining methods. This can be achieved by discovering generated patterns from existing useful data in HR databases. The main objective of the paper is to determine which data mining algorithm suits best for extracting knowledge from human resource data, when in it comes to determining how suited is a candidate for a specific job. First of all, it must be determined a way to evaluate a candidate as objective as possible and rate the candidate with a mark from 0 to 10. To do so, some data sets had to be generated with different numbers of values or different values and wore processed using Weka. The results had been plotted so that it would be easier to interpret. Also, the study shows the importance of using large volumes of data in order to take informed decisions has recently become extremely discussed in most organizations. While finances, marketing and other departments within a company receive data systems and customized analysis, human resources are still not supported by expert systems to process large data volumes. The software prototype designed for the experiment rates individuals (working for the company, or in trials on a scale from 0 to 10, offering the decision makers an objective analysis. This way, a company looking for talent will know whether the person applying for the job is suited or not, and how much the hiring will influence the overall rating of the department.

  10. Digitalization of the human mind

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti

    2013-01-01

    The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason), since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they hav...

  11. Human Capital Accumulation: The Role of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Morley, Michael; Gunnigle, Patrick; Collins, Eammon

    2001-01-01

    Presents definitions of intellectual and human capital. Examines human capital from the individual perspective (employability, performance, career development) and organization perspective (investment, ownership, knowledge management). Reviews papers in the theme issue. (Contains 117 references.) (SK)

  12. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  13. Human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  14. in Human Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Fujimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathways are strictly coordinated by several mechanisms to regulate adequate innate immune responses. Recent lines of evidence indicate that the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family proteins, originally identified as negative-feedback regulators in cytokine signaling, are involved in the regulation of TLR-mediated immune responses. SOCS1, a member of SOCS family, is strongly induced upon TLR stimulation. Cells lacking SOCS1 are hyperresponsive to TLR stimulation. Thus, SOCS1 is an important regulator for both cytokine and TLR-induced responses. As an immune organ, the liver contains various types of immune cells such as T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, and Kupffer cells and is continuously challenged with gut-derived bacterial and dietary antigens. SOCS1 may be implicated in pathophysiology of the liver. The studies using SOCS1-deficient mice revealed that endogenous SOCS1 is critical for the prevention of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancers. Recent studies on humans suggest that SOCS1 is involved in the development of various liver disorders in humans. Thus, SOCS1 and other SOCS proteins are potential targets for the therapy of human liver diseases.

  15. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  16. Human factoring administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following

  17. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, H.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Human exploration mission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  19. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Volcanoes and human history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Giordano, G.

    2008-10-01

    The study of volcanic hazards leads inevitably to questions of how past cultures have lived in volcanically active regions of the world. Here we summarize linkages between volcanological, archaeological and anthropological studies of historic and prehistoric volcanic eruptions, with the goal of evaluating the impact of past eruptions on human populations to better prepare for future events. We use examples from papers collected in this volume to illustrate ways in which volcanological studies aid archaeological investigations by providing basic stratigraphic markers and information about the nature and timing of specific volcanic events. We then turn to archaeological perspectives, which provide physical evidence of the direct impacts of volcanic eruptions, such as site abandonment and human migration, as well as indirect impacts on local cultures as reflected in human artifacts. Finally we review anthropological studies of societal responses to past and recent volcanic eruptions. We pay particular attention to both the psychological impact of catastrophic events and records of these impacts encoded within oral traditions. Taken together these studies record drastic short-term eruption impacts but adaptation to volcanic activity over the longer term, largely through strategies of adaptive land use.

  1. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  2. Human herpesvirus 8 – A novel human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelman Daniel C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1994, Chang and Moore reported on the latest of the gammaherpesviruses to infect humans, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 1. This novel herpesvirus has and continues to present challenges to define its scope of involvement in human disease. In this review, aspects of HHV-8 infection are discussed, such as, the human immune response, viral pathogenesis and transmission, viral disease entities, and the virus's epidemiology with an emphasis on HHV-8 diagnostics.

  3. Human Provenancing: It's Elemental…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp

    2009-04-01

    Forensic science already uses a variety of methods often in combination to determine a deceased person's identity if neither personal effects nor next of kin (or close friends) can positively identify the victim. While disciplines such as forensic anthropology are able to work from a blank canvass as it were and can provide information on age, gender and ethnical grouping, techniques such as DNA profiling do rely on finding a match either in a database or a comparative sample presumed to be an ante-mortem sample of the victim or from a putative relation. Chances for either to succeed would be greatly enhanced if information gained from a forensic anthropological examination and, circumstances permitting a facial reconstruction could be linked to another technique that can work from a blank canvass or at least does not require comparison to a subject specific database. With the help of isotope ratio mass spectrometry even the very atoms from which a body is made can be used to say something about a person that will help to focus human identification using traditional techniques such as DNA, fingerprints and odontology. Stable isotope fingerprinting works on the basis that almost all chemical elements and in particular the so-called light elements such as carbon (C) that comprise most of the human body occur naturally in different forms, namely isotopes. 2H isotope abundance values recorded by the human body through food and drink ultimately reflect averaged isotopic composition of precipitation or ground water. Stable isotope analysis of 2H isotopic composition in different human tissue such as hair, nails, bone and teeth enables us to construct a time resolved isotopic profile or ‘fingerprint' that may not necessarily permit direct identification of a murder victim or mass disaster victim but in conjunction with forensic anthropological information will provide sufficient intelligence to construct a profile for intelligence lead identification stating where a

  4. Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development: Evolution and Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research agrees that a high performance organization (HPO) cannot exist without an elevated value placed on human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). However, a complementary pairing of HRM and HRD has not always existed. The evolution of HRD from its roots in human knowledge transference to HRM and present day HRD…

  5. Securing Humanity - Situating 'Human Security' as Concept and Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The label ‘human security’ (HS) has attracted much attention since the 1994 Human Development Report, but there are numerous conflicting definitions and agendas and widespread scepticism. The Ogata-Sen Commission report Human Security Now has proposed a unified yet

  6. Human dignity according to international instruments on human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Alzina de Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to international instruments on human rights, the dignity of the human person is the foundation of human rights, and both human dignity and human rights are inherent to the human being, universal and inviolable. This understanding of human dignity is not a fruitless truism, but the solid foundation on which to build a world community under the rule of the new ius gentium: the International Law for Humankind. Moreover, it is the clue to answer many questions raised by the new world of globalization and of the exponential growth of international rules.Consequently, there is a need to a common doctrine on a notion of human dignity which will allow the implementation and adjudication of the aforementioned instruments, at the service of the human person and in conformity with the juridical conscience which they reflect. Philosophy of Law concepts which can be traced back to Aristotle provide that notion. According to these concepts, the demanding nature of “human dignity” sustains the notion of “legal personhood”, and both notions pertain to the realm of Law and Right, not of Morale and Values. Thus, human dignity and human rights are and must be, respectively, a basic principle and a necessary part of any Law system, including international law

  7. Human-centered Computing: Toward a Human Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes, Alejandro; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Sebe, Nicu; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-01-01

    Human-centered computing studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. HCC is emerging from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned both with understanding human beings and with the design of computational artifacts.

  8. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Byron E.; Barzon, Luisa; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fuente, de la José; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Wammes, Linda J.; Takken, Willem; Rij, van Ronald P.; Papa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  9. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, B.E.; Barzon, L.; Pijlman, G.P.; Fuente, J. de la; Rizzoli, A.; Wammes, L.J.; Takken, W.; Rij, R.P. van; Papa, A.

    2017-01-01

    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  10. Human-Robot Interaction and Human Self-Realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marco

    2014-01-01

    is to test the basis for this type of discrimination when it comes to human-robot interaction. Furthermore, the paper will take Heidegger's warning concerning technology as a vantage point and explore the possibility of human-robot interaction forming a praxis that might help humans to be with robots beyond...

  11. Challenges in human behavior understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.; Sebe, N.; Vinciarelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern Recognition explores a number of different

  12. Linking Microbiota to Human Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, F

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota encompasses a densely populated ecosystem that provides essential functions for host development, immune maturation, and metabolism. Alterations to the gut microbiota have been observed in numerous diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2...

  13. Critical Theory of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    International human rights have become an important global norm that has increasingly been incorporated into international law and global conventions. Human rights are a key reference point of mobilizations by diverse groups and international nongovernmental organization (INGOs) in global publics

  14. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with pollution ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. The ...

  15. Human-Systems Integration Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to baseline a Human-Systems Integration Processes (HSIP) document as a companion to the NASA-STD-3001 and Human Integration Design...

  16. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  17. 21st Century Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth Colvin

    1995-01-01

    Technology can extend human memory and improve performance, but bypassing human intelligence has its dangers. Cognitive apprenticeships that compress learning experiences, provide coaching, and allow trial and error can build complex problem-solving skills and develop expertise. (SK)

  18. What's special about human technology?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Aunger

    2010-01-01

    Human technology is difficult to understand because it is so complex. However, human technology evolved from the simpler technologies of other species. Comparison with these other technologies should illuminate why human technology is distinct. Some birds and primates make tools, or simple technological objects whose function is closely related to their form. Humans, on the other hand, make machines--relatively complex objects whose functionality derives from the interaction of parts with res...

  19. Rejecting medical humanism: medical humanities and the metaphysics of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2008-03-01

    The call for a narrative medicine has been touted as the cure-all for an increasingly mechanical medicine. It has been claimed that the humanities might create more empathic, reflective, professional and trustworthy doctors. In other words, we can once again humanise medicine through the addition of humanities. In this essay, I explore how the humanities, particularly narrative medicine, appeals to the metaphysical commitments of the medical institution in order to find its justification, and in so doing, perpetuates a dualism of humanity that would have humanism as the counterpoint to the biopsychosociologisms of our day.

  20. Human factors in network security

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Francis B.

    1991-01-01

    Human factors, such as ethics and education, are important factors in network information security. This thesis determines which human factors have significant influence on network security. Those factors are examined in relation to current security devices and procedures. Methods are introduced to evaluate security effectiveness by incorporating the appropriate human factors into network security controls

  1. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed

  2. Oil companies and human rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Geoffrey

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights the need for oil companies in the future to take into account human rights in corporate decision making. The influence oil companies can bring to bear on government violating human rights, excuses for not voicing condemnation of abuses, and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights are discussed. (UK)

  3. Human Rights and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  4. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  5. Protocols in human molecular genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathew, Christopher G

    1991-01-01

    ... sequences has led to the development of DNA fingerprinting. The application of these techniques to the study of the human genome has culminated in major advances such as the cloning of the cystic fibrosis gene, the construction of genetic linkage maps of each human chromosome, the mapping of many genes responsible for human inherited disorders, genet...

  6. A Hierarchy of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, Charles

    To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

  7. Leadership in a Humane Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the way leadership influences an organization to become humane through its features and behaviors; as well as the organizational circumstances in which humane leadership can be nurtured. The first empirical case study, in the fields of Human Resource Development (HRD) and hospitality management, to…

  8. The human and fire connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  9. Timescales of Massive Human Entrainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Perlman, Marcus; Mislove, Alan

    2014-01-01

    of distinct scales, in an exquisitely time locked fashion. Using a large scale database of human communication data, we analyze and describe three different time scales of human entrainment in electronic media. We sought a distinct shared experience that provided a test bed for quantifying large scale human...

  10. Human characteristics affecting nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skof, M.

    1990-01-01

    It is important to collect data about human behavior in work situation and data about work performance. On the basis of these data we can analyse human errors. Human reliability analysis gives us the input data to improve human behavior at a work place. We have tried to define those human characteristics that have impact on safe work and operation. Estimation of a work place was used for determination of important human characteristics. Performance estimations were used to define the availability of workers at a work place. To our experience it is very important to pay attention to R.A. and R.C. also in the area of human factor. Data for quality assurance in the area of human factor should be collected from selection procedure (the level of cognitive and conative abilities, the level of physical characteristics, the level of education and other personal data). Data for quality control should be collected from the periodical examinations of annual checking and evaluation of human working capacity as well as from training. For quality control of every day human performance data of staff estimation of their daily working performance and well-being should also be collected. With all these data more effective analyses of all events in nuclear power plants could be provided. Quality assurance and quality control in the area of human factor could help us to keep the optimum performance level of the plant staff and to avoid human errors. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs

  11. Metabolism of phthalates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some...

  12. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  13. Radioimmunoassay for human myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Akira

    1981-01-01

    1 A new radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human myoglobin (Mb) using two antibody technique was developed as a microassay of Mb. This RIA is characterized as follows; 1) Radioiodination of human Mb was successfully done for the first time by chloramine T method, which yielded Iabelled Mb with high specific activities ranging 40 - 60 μCi/μg. 2) Affinity chromatography was used to obtain purified anti-human Mb antibody, which improved the sensitivity of the RIA remarkably, and excluded the effects of serum and urine. 2 The sensitivity of the RIA was 1 ng/ml in sera and 2 ng/ml in urine. The average recovery was 92.7%. Both intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. 3 With this method, Mb purified from skeletal and cardiac muscles was shown to have same immunological nature. 4 Serum concentrations of Mb in normal adults were 13.1 +- 6.1 ng/ml (mean +- S.D.) with a range of 1 - 28 ng/ml. No sex difference was observed. Urinary Mb Ievels in normal adults were less than 4 ng/ml and 24-hour urinary excretions were less than 6 μg. With this method, serum and urinary Mb concentrations were determined in patients with various disorders such as myopathies and myocardial disorders and with anesthesia. Serum Mb concentrations were revealed to be elevated to 50000 ng/ml in malignant hyperthermia, 4000 ng/ml in acute myocardial infarction, 1000 ng/ml in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and 4000 ng/ml in polymyositis. Urinary Mb level was elevated when serum Mb rose to 2000 - 3000 ng/ml. 5 In order to apply RIA of Mb in daily clinical practices, time needed for the assay was shortened by separation of free and antibody-bound Mb by the polyethylene glycol method immediately after incubation was performed at 37 0 C for 2 hours. (author)

  14. Radioimmunoassay for human myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, A. (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-04-01

    1 A new radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human myoglobin (Mb) using two antibody technique was developed as a microassay of Mb. This RIA is characterized as follows; 1) Radioiodination of human Mb was successfully done for the first time by chloramine T method, which yielded Iabelled Mb with high specific activities ranging 40 - 60 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g. 2) Affinity chromatography was used to obtain purified anti-human Mb antibody, which improved the sensitivity of the RIA remarkably, and excluded the effects of serum and urine. 2 The sensitivity of the RIA was 1 ng/ml in sera and 2 ng/ml in urine. The average recovery was 92.7%. Both intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. 3 With this method, Mb purified from skeletal and cardiac muscles was shown to have same immunological nature. 4 Serum concentrations of Mb in normal adults were 13.1 +- 6.1 ng/ml (mean +- S.D.) with a range of 1 - 28 ng/ml. No sex difference was observed. Urinary Mb Ievels in normal adults were less than 4 ng/ml and 24-hour urinary excretions were less than 6 ..mu..g. With this method, serum and urinary Mb concentrations were determined in patients with various disorders such as myopathies and myocardial disorders and with anesthesia. Serum Mb concentrations were revealed to be elevated to 50000 ng/ml in malignant hyperthermia, 4000 ng/ml in acute myocardial infarction, 1000 ng/ml in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and 4000 ng/ml in polymyositis. Urinary Mb level was elevated when serum Mb rose to 2000 - 3000 ng/ml. 5 In order to apply RIA of Mb in daily clinical practices, time needed for the assay was shortened by separation of free and antibody-bound Mb by the polyethylene glycol method immediately after incubation was performed at 37/sup 0/C for 2 hours.

  15. Voices in human agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Fester, Marie-Theres

    2017-01-01

    /perceive as organisms (or predictive brains). Rather, as human agents, they also draw on dispositions that result from a history of using both things (material engagement) and synergies that grant a sense of presence, and sensorimotor empathy. Skills in using social and solo presence enable persons to individuate...... to concerted movement in our second example. We sketch how staff use a sense of presence to reposition themselves around a hospital bed. Since no imagining is required, this is likely to be synergetic. Pursuing the argument, the third case pursues details in family conversation. Using acoustic evidence from...

  16. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  17. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  18. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D and D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the

  19. Human Outreach through Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Shukla, Padma

    2006-10-01

    In this talk unique methods for human outreach through physics are described. The focus is on identifying young talented researchers and colleagues around the globe and nourish them for the purpose of diffusing physics knowledge. The goal can be achieved through the organization of international conferences, workshops, seminars, and colleagues, at different locations, invite young and experienced researchers to those meetings, invite them to your home institution, in addition to visiting their universities/laboratories for mentoring and exchanging physics knowledge. The scientific part shall deal with collective processes and coherent nonlinear effects in space and laboratory plasmas.

  20. Den humane teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hverdagsæstetikkens forestillinger om teknologi i tv-reklamer, nærmere bestemt to mobiltelefoner fra Nokia. Nokias slogan er som bekendt: "Nokia -connecting people". Hvilken funktion tilskrives denne succes-teknologi via billeder, narrativer, lyde, interaktioner og affekter...... personifikation eller antropomorfisering er vigtig for branding af den ny teknologi. Teknologien bliver betragtet som skaber af en teknotranscendens mod en mere kvalificeret humanitet, som er i kontakt med fundamentale humane værdier som intuition, fantasi og sansning. Det drejer sig i alle tilfælde om kvaliteter...

  1. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research

  2. Detection of Human Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-05

    research (Lacey, 1974; Jennings, 1992; van der Molen , 2000; Somsen, 2004) using principally fixed foreperiod reaction time tasks demonstrated that in...U.S. Department of Transportation DOT/FAA/AM-99/28. Somsen R.J., Jennings J.R., Van der Molen M.W. (Nov 2004). The cardiac cycle time effect revisited...Temporal dynamics of the central-vagal modulation of heart rate in human reaction time tasks. Psychophysiology. 41(6), pp. 941-953. Van der Molen , M

  3. Human - Robot Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    The media and political/managerial levels focus on the opportunities to re-perform Denmark through digitization. Feeding assistive robotics is a welfare technology, relevant to citizens with low or no function in their arms. Despite national dissemination strategies, it proves difficult to recruit...... the study that took place as multi-sited ethnography at different locations in Denmark and Sweden. Based on desk research, observation of meals and interviews I examine socio-technological imaginaries and their practical implications. Human - robotics interaction demands engagement and understanding...

  4. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    Corneal epithelium is being regenerated throughout life by limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) believed to be located in histologically defined stem cell niches in corneal limbus. Defective or dysfunctional LESCs result in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) causing pain and decreased visual acuity...... subpopulations in human corneal epithelium using a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing for global transcriptomic profiling. We compared dissociation cultures, using either expansion on γ-irradiated NIH/3T3 feeder cells in serum-rich medium or expansion directly on plastic in serum...

  5. Humanizing the Information Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Billington

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Provides a brief historical perspective on the role of books and libraries in the United States and asks whether the impact of electronic media will result in the loss of the ’values of the book culture that made democracy and the responsible use of freedom possible’. Describes the efforts of the Library of Congress to create a National Digital Library of American history and culture, to make free and reliable educational content accessible on the Web and develop human mediators who can help integrate new online knowledge with the older wisdom in books.

  6. Visual Analysis of Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Moeslund, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a coherent and comprehensive overview of all aspects of video analysis of humans. Broad in coverage and accessible in style, the text presents original perspectives collected from preeminent researchers gathered from across the world. In addition to presenting state-of-the-art research, the book reviews the historical origins of the different existing methods, and predicts future trends and challenges. This title: features a Foreword by Professor Larry Davis; contains contributions from an international selection of leading authorities in the field; includes

  7. Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  8. Haptocorrin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morkbak, Anne L; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary haptocorrin is the youngest of the cobalamin-binding proteins. It evolved by duplication of the intrinsic factor gene and has been identified in most mammals examined. Its ability to bind both cobalamin and analogues is well established, but apart from that, our knowledge concerning ...... its function and its distribution in adult and foetal life is limited. In this study, we present data on the tissue expression of haptocorrin and on the relation between analogues on haptocorrin and vitamin B(12) status in humans....

  9. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, John A.; Haugen, Christian N. [CALIBRE Systems, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel in a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is difficult to

  10. Human population and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed model of human population and carbon utilization is reviewed. Depending on parameter values, one of three possible long-term outcomes is obtained. (1) Atmospheric carbon, (CO 2 ) atm , and human populations equilibrate at positive values. (2) The human population stabilizes, while (CO 2 ) atm increases without bound. (3) The human population goes extinct and atmospheric carbon declines to 0. The final possibility is qualitatively compatible with both 'consensus' views of climate change and the opinions of those who are more impressed with the manifestly adverse consequences of carbon-mitigation to human reproduction and survival

  11. Our humanity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Diversity and respect are defining aspects of CERN and something that I am very proud of. Our institution is the closest to a true meritocracy that I have ever experienced in my long career, and as such is a valuable role model for the world. It is a place where everyone is welcome, and where anyone can succeed, regardless of his or her ethnicity, beliefs or sexual orientation. It is therefore with some disappointment that I have learned of a spate of recent events concerning posters put up around the Laboratory by our LGBT community.   Freedom of expression is a fundamental human right. One needs to look no further than the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for common-sense clarity on this issue. It states that: ‘everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers’. In line with that, I fully supp...

  12. Human Life History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kristine J; Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Grant, DeMond M; Sng, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Human life history (LH) strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity-mortality). Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i) direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii) calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health), which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime), health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety), modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  13. Remember like humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual tracking is a challenging computer vision task due to the significant observation changes of the target. By contrast, the tracking task is relatively easy for humans. In this article, we propose a tracker inspired by the cognitive psychological memory mechanism, which decomposes the tracking task into sensory memory register, short-term memory tracker, and long-term memory tracker like humans. The sensory memory register captures information with three-dimensional perception; the short-term memory tracker builds the highly plastic observation model via memory rehearsal; the long-term memory tracker builds the highly stable observation model via memory encoding and retrieval. With the cooperative models, the tracker can easily handle various tracking scenarios. In addition, an appearance-shape learning method is proposed to update the two-dimensional appearance model and three-dimensional shape model appropriately. Extensive experimental results on a large-scale benchmark data set demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art two-dimensional and three-dimensional trackers in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness.

  14. Human metabolism of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, C.L.; Falk, R.; Lauridsen, Bente; Rahola, T.; Soogard-Hansen, J.

    2006-04-01

    A study of the human biokinetics of caesium in two forms, i.) incorporated in foodstuff (137Cs in perch and mushrooms) and ii.) in ionic state ( 134 Cs in aqueous solution) has been carried out at the department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe, starting in 2001. The results of the pilot study were published in 2004, and a continuation of that study has now been carried out by means of NKS funding (NKS-B Cskinetik). The aim is to, i.) investigate whether Scandinavian populations exhibit shorter biological half-time of radiocaesium than other populations; ii.) extend the biokinetic study to additional human subjects from the other Nordic countries. Results from the continued study further indicate a near complete absorption of radiocaesium in the gastro-intestinal tract, be it in ion state or contained in food matrix. So far, the literature survey of Nordic studies on biokinetics of Cs suggests that the biological half time is somewhat shorter among Scandinavian males (84 days vs. ICRP-value of 110 days), although females do not exhibit any significant difference (64 days vs ICRP value of 65 days). (au)

  15. The human gut resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem

    2015-06-05

    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes by the mobilization and transfer of resistance genes from a donor strain. The human gut contains a densely populated microbial ecosystem, termed the gut microbiota, which offers ample opportunities for the horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes. Recent technological advances allow microbiota-wide studies into the diversity and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance genes that are harboured by the gut microbiota ('the gut resistome'). Genes conferring resistance to antibiotics are ubiquitously present among the gut microbiota of humans and most resistance genes are harboured by strictly anaerobic gut commensals. The horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes, through conjugation and transduction is a frequent event in the gut microbiota, but mostly involves non-pathogenic gut commensals as these dominate the microbiota of healthy individuals. Resistance gene transfer from commensals to gut-dwelling opportunistic pathogens appears to be a relatively rare event but may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, as is illustrated by the vancomycin resistance determinants that are shared by anaerobic gut commensals and the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium.

  16. The Human Variome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, John; Watson, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The practical realization of genomics has meant a growing realization that variant interpretation is a major barrier to practical use of DNA sequence data. The late Professor Dick Cotton devoted his life to innovation in molecular genetics and was a prime mover in the international response to the need to understand the "variome." His leadership resulted in the launch first of the Human Genetic Variation Society and then, in 2006, an international agreement to launch the Human Variome Project (HVP), aimed at data integration enabled by standards and infrastructure of the databases of variants being identified in families with a range of inherited disorders. The project attracted a network of affiliates across 81 countries and earned formal recognition by UNESCO, which now hosts its biennial meetings. It has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the World Health Organization. Future progress will depend on longer term secure funding and integration with the efforts of the genomics community where the rapid advances in sequencing technology have enabled variant capture on a previously unimaginable scale. Efforts are underway to integrate the efforts of HVP with those of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health to provide a lasting legacy of Dick Cotton's vision. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2018-04-01

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. On Human Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Fernández Beites

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To offer a response to the challenge posed by the existentialism of M. Heidegger, the present work uses the ontology proposed by X. Zubiri in Sobre la esencia. The work, then, deals with thinking «about essence», but above all, «about human essence», which creates the difficulty raised by existentialism. The difference between «constitutive» and «conditional» proposed by Zubiri is studied in order to highlight the human being’s (and of all living beings in general character of not being made once and for all. If we designate essence in the classical sense (unalterable essence as «constitutive», we propose to bring Zubiri’s intuition to its limit by acknowledging another «essential» level, which is the «constitutional». The constitutional is not essential in tradition’s strict sense, but neither is it accidental; it is essential in a new sense, allowing the incorporation of changes in essenceitself. Thus, one arrives at the so-called processive (or dynamic essences, which, for not being made once and for all, necessarily include their being made.

  19. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  20. Thallium toxicity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko, Petra; Cvjetko, Ivan; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-03-01

    Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element, widely distributed in the earth's crust, but at very low concentrations. It does not have a known biological use and does not appear to be an essential element for life. It has been considered one of the most toxic heavy metals.Occasionally, there are reports on thallium poisoning as results of suicide or murder attempt or accident. The main threat to humans is through occupational exposure, environmental contamination, and accumulation in food, mainly in vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Increasing use in emerging new technologies and demanding high-tech industry constantly raise concern about exposure risk to all living organisms. Thallium is considered a cumulative poison that can cause adverse health effects and degenerative changes in many organs. The effects are the most severe in the nervous system. The exact mechanism of thallium toxicity still remains unknown, although impaired glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and disruption of potassium-regulated homeostasis may play a role. The lack of data about mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic effects of thallium compounds in humans calls for further research.

  1. Human exposure to nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. 79 references.

  2. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  3. Human brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Just as there have been dramatic advances in the molecular biology of the human brain in recent years, there also have been remarkable advances in brain imaging. This paper reports on the development and broad application of microscopic imaging techniques which include the autoradiographic localization of receptors and the measurement of glucose utilization by autoradiography. These approaches provide great sensitivity and excellent anatomical resolution in exploring brain organization and function. The first noninvasive external imaging of receptor distributions in the living human brain was achieved by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. Developments, techniques and applications continue to progress. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is also becoming important. Its initial clinical applications were in examining the structure and anatomy of the brain. However, more recent uses, such as MRI spectroscopy, indicate the feasibility of exploring biochemical pathways in the brain, the metabolism of drugs in the brain, and also of examining some of these procedures at an anatomical resolution which is substantially greater than that obtainable by PET scanning. The issues will be discussed in greater detail

  4. Human metabolism of caesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics in Malmoe (Sweden); Falk, R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden); Lauridsen, Bente [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Rahola, T. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Soogard-Hansen, J. [NRPA - Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    A study of the human biokinetics of caesium in two forms, i.) incorporated in foodstuff (137Cs in perch and mushrooms) and ii.) in ionic state ({sup 134}Cs in aqueous solution) has been carried out at the department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe, starting in 2001. The results of the pilot study were published in 2004, and a continuation of that study has now been carried out by means of NKS funding (NKS-B Cskinetik). The aim is to, i.) investigate whether Scandinavian populations exhibit shorter biological half-time of radiocaesium than other populations; ii.) extend the biokinetic study to additional human subjects from the other Nordic countries. Results from the continued study further indicate a near complete absorption of radiocaesium in the gastro-intestinal tract, be it in ion state or contained in food matrix. So far, the literature survey of Nordic studies on biokinetics of Cs suggests that the biological half time is somewhat shorter among Scandinavian males (84 days vs. ICRP-value of 110 days), although females do not exhibit any significant difference (64 days vs ICRP value of 65 days). (au)

  5. Human-Specific Endogenous Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Buzdin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a small family of human-specific genomic repetitive elements, presented by 134 members that shaped ~330 kb of the human DNA. Although modest in terms of its copy number, this group appeared to modify the human genome activity by endogenizing ~50 functional copies of viral genes that may have important implications in the immune response, cancer progression, and antiretroviral host defense. A total of 134 potential promoters and enhancers have been added to the human DNA, about 50% of them in the close gene vicinity and 22% in gene introns. For 60 such human-specific promoters, their activity was confirmed by in vivo assays, with the transcriptional level varying ~1000-fold from hardly detectable to as high as ~3% of β-actin transcript level. New polyadenylation signals have been provided to four human RNAs, and a number of potential antisense regulators of known human genes appeared due to human-specific retroviral insertional activity. This information is given here in the context of other major genomic changes underlining differences between human and chimpanzee DNAs. Finally, a comprehensive database, is available for download, of human-specific and polymorphic endogenous retroviruses is presented, which encompasses the data on their genomic localization, primary structure, encoded viral genes, human gene neighborhood, transcriptional activity, and methylation status.

  6. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  7. [A cyborg is only human].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Maartje H N

    2013-01-01

    New biomedical technologies make it possible to replace parts of the human body or to substitute its functions. Examples include artificial joints, eye lenses and arterial stents. Newer technologies use electronics and software, for example in brain-computer interfaces such as retinal implants and the exoskeleton MindWalker. Gradually we are creating cyborgs: hybrids of man and machine. This raises the question: are cyborgs still humans? It is argued that they are. First, because employing technology is a typically human characteristic. Second, because in western thought the human mind, and not the body, is considered to be the seat of personhood. However, it has been argued by phenomenological philosophers that the body is more than just an object but is also a subject, important for human identity. From this perspective, we can appreciate that a bionic body does not make one less human, but it does influence the experience of being human.

  8. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  9. The Human Urine Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  10. Ancient humans and the origin of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies and molecular methods have facilitated the sequencing of DNA from ancient human remains which has, in turn, provided unprecedented insight into human history. Within the past 4 years the genomes of Neandertals and Denisovans, as well as the genomes of at least two early modern humans, have been sequenced. These sequences showed that there have been several episodes of admixture between modern and archaic groups; including admixture from Neandertals into modern human populations outside of Africa, and admixture from Denisovans into modern human populations in Oceania. Recent results indicate that some of these introgressed regions may have been advantageous for modern humans as they expanded into new regions outside of Africa. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Issues on combining human and non-human intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connors, Mary M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to call attention to some of the issues confronting the designer of a system that combines human and non-human intelligence. We do not know how to design a non-human intelligence in such a way that it will fit naturally into a human organization. The author's concern is that, without adequate understanding and consideration of the behavioral and psychological limitations and requirements of the human member(s) of the system, the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) subsystems can exacerbate operational problems. We have seen that, when these technologies are not properly applied, an overall degradation of performance at the system level can occur. Only by understanding how human and automated systems work together can we be sure that the problems introduced by automation are not more serious than the problems solved.

  12. Human dignity and human rights in bioethics: the Kantian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Markus

    2010-08-01

    The concept of human dignity plays an important role in the public discussion about ethical questions concerning modern medicine and biology. At the same time, there is a widespread skepticism about the possibility to determine the content and the claims of human dignity. The article goes back to Kantian Moral Philosophy, in order to show that human dignity has in fact a determinable content not as a norm in itself, but as the principle and ground of human rights and any deontological norms in biomedical ethics. When it comes to defining the scope of human dignity, i.e., the question which entities are protected by human dignity, Kant clearly can be found on the "pro life"-side of the controversy. This, however, is the result of some specific implications of Kant's transcendental approach that may be put into question.

  13. Advances in human genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, H.; Hirschhorn, K. (eds.)

    1993-01-01

    This book has five chapters covering peroxisomal diseases, X-linked immunodeficiencies, genetic mutations affecting human lipoproteins and their receptors and enzymes, genetic aspects of cancer, and Gaucher disease. The chapter on peroxisomes covers their discovery, structure, functions, disorders, etc. The chapter on X-linked immunodeficiencies discusses such diseases as agammaglobulinemia, severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, animal models, linkage analysis, etc. Apolipoprotein formation, synthesis, gene regulation, proteins, etc. are the main focus of chapter 3. The chapter on cancer covers such topics as oncogene mapping and the molecular characterization of some recessive oncogenes. Gaucher disease is covered from its diagnosis, classification, and prevention, to its organ system involvement and molecular biology.

  14. Human leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikashvili, E.L.; Mosulishvili, L.M.; Belokobil'skiy, A.I.; Kharabadze, N.E.; Shonia, N.I.; Desai, L.S.; Foley, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the determination of trace elements in nucleic acids and histones in human leukaemic cells by activation analysis are reported. The Cr 2+ , Fe 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Sb 2+ content of DNA and RNA of leukaemic cells compared to that of lymphocytes from a patient with infectious mononucleosis or a normal donor are shown tabulated. Similar comparisons are shown for the same trace metal content of histones isolated from the same type of cells. It is felt that the results afford further interesting speculation that trace metals may be involved in the interactions between histones and DNA (especially at the binding sites of histones to DNA), which affect transcription characteristics. (U.K.)

  15. Watch on human experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, S

    The National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) has reaffirmed its role as reviewer of recombinant DNA research with human subjects and of any proposals to release recombinant organisms into the environment. Review is binding on recipients of federal research funds, and government agencies and industry have agreed to comply voluntarily with RAC guidelines. Activist Jeremy Rifkin protested against RAC's recent closing of a session to the public in order to discuss the planned release of frost-resistant bacteria into the environment by a private firm, and a proposal by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences to reduce the required containment level for research involving the cloning of a gene that codes for a dysentery-causing toxin.

  16. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  17. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  18. Human Resource Outsourcing Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasliza Abdul-Halim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that partnership quality variables such as trust, business understanding, and communication have significant positive impact on HR outsourcing success, whereas in general, service quality was found to partially moderate these relationships. Therefore, comprehending the HR outsourcing relationship in the context of service quality may assist the organizations to accomplish HR outsourcing success by identifying areas of expected benefits and improvements.

  19. Kinetics of Human Haematopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E. P. [Forschungsgruppe Freiburg, Institut fuer Haematologie der Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung Assoziation mit EURATOM, Freiburg/Breisgau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Medical Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1967-07-15

    An understanding of the parameters of normal cell proliferation is a prerequisite for the understanding of the disturbances induced by radiation. The disturbances induced by radiation on cell renewal systems has been presented in detail by Bond, Fliedner and Archambeau. In this paper a method of studying the concepts and actual observations on human haemopoiesis will be summarized. Details of the procedures, methods and concepts are published. The method employed is the serial.autoradiographic study of haemopoietic tissues after labelling the DNA of proliferating compartments by intravenous injection of tritiated thymidine (3HTDR) a specific DNA precursor. One can then observe the flow of labelled cells through mitosis, the transit of labelled cells from a proliferating compartment to a non proliferating compartment and the migration of cells from tissues to blood.

  20. The humanation of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L. W.

    Early developments related to human excursions to Mars are examined, taking into account plans considered by von Braun, and the 'ambitious goal of a manned flight to Mars by the end of the century', proposed at the launch of Apollo 11. In response to public reaction, plans for manned flights to Mars in the immediate future were given up, and unmanned reconnaissance of Mars was continued. An investigation is conducted concerning the advantages of manned exploration of Mars in comparison to a study by unmanned space probes, and arguments regarding a justification for interplanetary flight to Mars are discussed. Attention is given to the possibility to consider Mars as a 'back-up' planet for preserving earth life, an international Mars expedition as a world peace project, the role of Mars in connection with resource utilization considerations, and questions of exploration ethics.