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Sample records for human bronchoalveolar h358

  1. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    of KS. We hypothesized that these sequences are present in samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with pulmonary KS. Utilizing a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 7/12 BAL cell samples from HIV-infected patients with endobronchial KS were positive for HHV-8 DNA. In contrast......, and PCR amplification of HHV-8 in BAL cells provides a non-invasive method with a high positive predictive value....

  2. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum samples by polymerase chain reaction: correlation of virus isolation and clinical outcome for patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K K; Vestbo, Jørgen; Benfield, T

    1997-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and serum samples from 153 patients with pulmonary symptoms who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and underwent BAL were examined for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by conventional culture and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR...... technique than conventional culture. Detection of CMV DNA in BAL fluid or serum predicted subsequent development of extrapulmonary CMV disease but not death for HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms....

  3. Human herpes virus-8 DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Dodt, K K; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated neoplasm, and often disseminates to visceral organs, including the lungs. An ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary KS is difficult. Recently, DNA sequences resembling a new human herpes virus (HHV-8), have been identified in various forms...

  4. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid Modulates Inflammatory Mediator Release in Human Alveolar Cells Exposed to Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of ARDS Patients

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    Paolo Cotogni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigated whether the 1 : 2 ω-3/ω-6 ratio may reduce proinflammatory response in human alveolar cells (A549 exposed to an ex vivo inflammatory stimulus (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS patients. Methods. We exposed A549 cells to the BALF collected from 12 ARDS patients. After 18 hours, fatty acids (FA were added as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ω-3 and arachidonic acid (AA, ω-6 in two ratios (1 : 2 or 1 : 7. 24 hours later, in culture supernatants were evaluated cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGE3 release. The FA percentage content in A549 membrane phospholipids, content of COX-2, level of PPARγ, and NF-κB binding activity were determined. Results. The 1 : 2 DHA/AA ratio reversed the baseline predominance of ω-6 over ω-3 in the cell membranes (P < 0.001. The proinflammatory cytokine release was reduced by the 1 : 2 ratio (P < 0.01 to <0.001 but was increased by the 1 : 7 ratio (P < 0.01. The 1 : 2 ratio reduced COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.001 as well as NF-κB translocation into the nucleus (P < 0.01, while it increased activation of PPARγ and IL-10 release (P < 0.001. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that shifting the FA supply from ω-6 to ω-3 decreased proinflammatory mediator release in human alveolar cells exposed to BALF of ARDS patients.

  5. Molecular analysis of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage in a mouse model of influenza reveals markers of disease severity that can be clinically useful in humans.

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    Yadunanda Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of influenza, a major contributor to the worldwide disease burden, is complicated by lack of reliable methods for early identification of susceptible individuals. Identification of molecular markers that can augment existing diagnostic tools for prediction of severity can be expected to greatly improve disease management capabilities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have analyzed cytokines, proteome flux and protein adducts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and sera from mice infected with influenza A virus (PR8 strain using a previously established non-lethal model of influenza infection. Through detailed cytokine and protein adduct measurements of murine BAL, we first established the temporal profile of innate and adaptive responses as well as macrophage and neutrophil activities in response to influenza infection. A similar analysis was also performed with sera from a longitudinal cohort of influenza patients. We then used an iTRAQ-based, comparative serum proteome analysis to catalog the proteome flux in the murine BAL during the stages correlating with "peak viremia," "inflammatory damage," as well as the "recovery phase." In addition to activation of acute phase responses, a distinct class of lung proteins including surfactant proteins was found to be depleted from the BAL coincident with their "appearance" in the serum, presumably due to leakage of the protein following loss of the integrity of the lung/epithelial barrier. Serum levels of at least two of these proteins were elevated in influenza patients during the febrile phase of infection compared to healthy controls or to the same patients at convalescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings from this study provide a molecular description of disease progression in a mouse model of influenza and demonstrate its potential for translation into a novel class of markers for measurement of acute lung injury and improved case management.

  6. Evidence for an intracellular niche for Bordetella pertussis in broncho-alveolar lavage cells of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellwig, SMM; Hazenbos, WLW; van de Winkel, JGJ; Mooi, FR

    1999-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis can attach, invade and survive intracellularly in human macrophages in vitro. To study the significance of this bacterial feature in vivo, we analyzed the presence of viable bacteria in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) cells of mice infected with B, pertussis. We found B. pertussis

  7. Translational research in pediatrics III: bronchoalveolar lavage.

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    Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka; Yamashita, Cory; Gillio-Meina, Carolina; Fraser, Douglas D

    2014-07-01

    The role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the care of children with airway and pulmonary diseases is well established, with collected BAL fluid most often used clinically for microbiologic pathogen identification and cellular analyses. More recently, powerful analytic research methods have been used to investigate BAL samples to better understand the pathophysiological basis of pediatric respiratory disease. Investigations have focused on the cellular components contained in BAL fluid, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, as well as the noncellular components such as serum molecules, inflammatory proteins, and surfactant. Molecular techniques are frequently used to investigate BAL fluid for the presence of infectious pathologies and for cellular gene expression. Recent advances in proteomics allow identification of multiple protein expression patterns linked to specific respiratory diseases, whereas newer analytic techniques allow for investigations on surfactant quantification and function. These translational research studies on BAL fluid have aided our understanding of pulmonary inflammation and the injury/repair responses in children. We review the ethics and practices for the execution of BAL in children for translational research purposes, with an emphasis on the optimal handling and processing of BAL samples. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of a Series of 2-Amino-Naphthoquinones against Human Cancer Cells

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    Thiago A. P. de Moraes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxicity of a series of aminonaphthoquinones resulting from the reaction of suitable aminoacids with 1,4-naphthoquinone was assayed against SF-295 (glioblastoma, MDAMB-435 (breast, HCT-8 (colon, HCT-116 (colon, HL-60 (leukemia, OVCAR-8 (ovarian, NCI-H358M (bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma and PC3-M (prostate cancer cells and also against PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results demonstrated that all the synthetic aminonaphthoquinones had relevant cytotoxic activity against all human cancer lines used in this experiment. Five of the compounds showed high cytotoxicity and selectivity against all cancer cell lines tested (IC50 = 0.49 to 3.89 µg·mL−1. The title compounds were less toxic to PBMC, since IC50 was 1.5 to eighteen times higher (IC50 = 5.51 to 17.61 µg·mL−1 than values shown by tumour cell lines. The mechanism of cell growth inhibition and structure–activity relationships remains as a target for future investigations.

  9. Mycoplasma alkalescens demonstrated in bronchoalveolar lavage of cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...

  10. Cloning of T lymphocytes from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, B. E.; Krouwels, F. H.; Bruinier, B.; Reijneke, R. M.; Mengelers, H. J.; Koenderman, L.; Jansen, H. M.; Out, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    We have prepared T-cell clones from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from four healthy, nonsmoking persons and from four patients with allergic asthma. T cells were cloned by direct limiting dilution and with the use of a fluorescent activated cell sorter with an automated cell deposition unit.

  11. Comparison of methenamine silver nitrate and Giemsa stain for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, W; Kolmos, H J

    1989-01-01

    Seventy-seven bronchoalveolar lavages from human immunosuppressive virus infected patients with pulmonary symptoms were examined routinely for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii, using Giemsa stain to detect trophozoites and methenamine silver nitrate to detect cysts. Thirty-seven samples were...

  12. Therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage with Conventional Treatment in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the role of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage in addition to conventional treatment among two groups, with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in terms of regression in serum IgE levels and clinical recurrence at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Study Design: Aquasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2010 to December 2013. Methodology: The study was carried out on 132 patients who fulfilled the Greenberger and Patterson criteria and underwent a chest X-ray, an HRCT chest and classified radiologically as with Central Bronchiectasis (CB), High Attenuation Mucus (HAM) or Other Radiological Features (ORF). Baseline serum IgE levels were noted. All patients were given treatment including prednisolone and antifungal agent itraconazole for 4 months. Patients with ORF on HRCT chest and just received the medical treatment were labeled as conventional group. Those patients who had CB or HAM radiological features also underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), labeled as BAL group. Clinical recurrence and serum IgE levels were noted at 3 and 6 months. Values were compared using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests respectively. Results: Around 78 (59.1 percentage) of patients underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage to remove the mucus plugs. The mean serum IgE levels at baseline were 3312.04 ± 2526.217 and 3486.15 ± 2528.324 IU/ml in the BAL and conventional groups respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean serum IgE levels at 3 (p < 0.00) and 6 months (p < 0.001) of follow-up in BALas compared to conventional group. There was no significant difference in the clinical recurrence rate in both the groups (p=0.078 at 3 and 0.343 at 6 months respectively). Conclusion: Therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage may be a useful adjunct to treatment in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary

  13. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined

  14. The V protein of canine distemper virus is required for virus replication in human epithelial cells.

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    Noriyuki Otsuki

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV becomes able to use human receptors through a single amino acid substitution in the H protein. In addition, CDV strains possessing an intact C protein replicate well in human epithelial H358 cells. The present study showed that CDV strain 007Lm, which was isolated from lymph node tissue of a dog with distemper, failed to replicate in H358 cells, although it possessed an intact C protein. Sequence analyses suggested that a cysteine-to-tyrosine substitution at position 267 of the V protein caused this growth defect. Analyses using H358 cells constitutively expressing the CDV V protein showed that the V protein with a cysteine, but not that with a tyrosine, at this position effectively blocked the interferon-stimulated signal transduction pathway, and supported virus replication of 007Lm in H358 cells. Thus, the V protein as well as the C protein appears to be functional and essential for CDV replication in human epithelial cells.

  15. Detection of Bacterial Pathogens from Broncho-Alveolar Lavage by Next-Generation Sequencing.

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    Leo, Stefano; Gaïa, Nadia; Ruppé, Etienne; Emonet, Stephane; Girard, Myriam; Lazarevic, Vladimir; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2017-09-20

    The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner. We tackled these issues with a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample from an immunocompromised patient who had developed severe chronic pneumonia. We extracted DNA from the BAL sample with protocols based either on sequential lysis of human and bacterial cells or on the mechanical disruption of all cells. Metagenomic libraries were sequenced on Illumina HiSeq platforms. Microbial community composition was determined by k-mer analysis or by mapping to taxonomic markers. Results were compared to those obtained by conventional clinical culture and molecular methods. Compared to mechanical cell disruption, a sequential lysis protocol resulted in a significantly increased proportion of bacterial DNA over human DNA and higher sequence coverage of Mycobacterium abscessus , Corynebacterium jeikeium and Rothia dentocariosa , the bacteria reported by clinical microbiology tests. In addition, we identified anaerobic bacteria not searched for by the clinical laboratory. Our results further support the implementation of WMGS in clinical routine diagnosis for bacterial identification.

  16. Changes of bronchoalveolar cell pattern and lecithin content in experimental interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Hideki; Yasuoka, Susumu; Tsubura, Eiro

    1978-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diffuse interstitial fibrosing pneumonitis (DIFP) was studied by histological observations and analysis of the cells and lecithin content of bronchoalveolar lavage of rats with cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced pneumonitis or irradiation pneumonitis. The rats developed diffuse interstitial pneumonitis one week after the last of 5 intraperitoneal injections of 50 mg/kg of CY and gradually recovered in the next 14 weeks. The number of alveolar macrophages and the lecithin content in the bronchoalveolar lavage from these rats corresponded to the degree of inflammatory change of the lung tissue. The results of cell counts and analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage from rats with irradiated pneumonitis were similar to those on rats with CY-induced pneumonitis, except that in irradiated rats the lecithin content of the lavage decreased with increase in severity of pulmonary fibrosis. These results indicate that the cell number and lecithin content of bronchoalveolar lavage are good parameters for use in diagnosis of DIFP. (auth.)

  17. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

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    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage and partial liquid ventilation on meconium-aspirated newborn piglets.

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    Jeng, Mei-Jy; Soong, Wen-Jue; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Hua-Lun; Shen, Chung-Min; Wang, Chua-Ho; Yang, Shyh-Sheng; Hwang, Betau

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with either diluted surfactant (SBAL) or perfluorochemical liquid (PBAL), followed by either conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) or partial liquid ventilation (PLV), on lung injury and proinflammatory cytokine production induced by meconium aspiration in newborn piglets. A prospective, randomized, experimental study. An animal research laboratory at a medical center. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated newborn piglets (n = 27). The animals were instilled with 3-5 mL/kg 25% human meconium via an endotracheal tube to induce meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). After stabilization, animals were randomly assigned to either CMV group (no BAL) or one of the treatment groups (SBAL-CMV, SBAL-PLV, PBAL-CMV, and PBAL-PLV). Cardiopulmonary variables were monitored, and interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 content of the serum and lung tissue was measured. The animals without any treatment (CMV group) displayed the worst outcome; the animals in the PBAL-PLV group had the best gas exchange, lung compliance, and least pulmonary damage; and the SBAL-CMV, PBAL-CMV, and SBAL-PLV groups had intermediate effects. The serum interleukin-1beta concentration of the CMV group was significantly higher than all other groups over time (p CMV group and lowest in the PBAL-PLV group. Initial therapeutic BAL and therapeutic BAL followed by PLV with the same perfluorochemical liquid provided significant therapeutic effects in treating an animal model with severe MAS and therefore warrant consideration in cases that are intractable to other therapies.

  19. Determination of albumin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by flow-injection fluorometry using chromazurol S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaji; Saito, Yoshihiro; Chikuma, Masahiko; Saito, Yutaka; Nagai, Sonoko

    2008-03-01

    A highly sensitive flow injection fluorometry for the determination of albumin was developed and applied to the determination of albumin in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). This method is based on binding of chromazurol S (CAS) to albumin. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5-200 microg/ml of albumin. A highly linear correlation (r=0.986) was observed between the albumin level in BALF samples (n=25) determined by the proposed method and by a conventional fluorometric method using CAS (CAS manual method). The IgG interference was lower in the CAS flow injection method than in the CAS manual method. The albumin level in BALF collected from healthy volunteers (n=10) was 58.5+/-13.1 microg/ml. The albumin levels in BALF samples obtained from patients with sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were increased. This finding shows that the determination of albumin levels in BALF samples is useful for investigating lung diseases and that CAS flow injection method is promising in the determination of trace albumin in BALF samples, because it is sensitive and precise.

  20. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

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    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  1. QPCR detection of Mucorales DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to diagnose pulmonary mucormycosis.

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    Scherer, Emeline E; Iriart, Xavier; Bellanger, Anne Pauline; Dupont, Damien; Guitard, Juliette; Gabriel, Frederic; Cassaing, Sophie; Charpentier, Eléna; Guenounou, Sarah; Cornet, Murielle; Botterel, Françoise; Rocchi, Steffi; Berceanu, Ana; Millon, Laurence

    2018-06-06

    Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improving the outcome of mucormycosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of quantitative PCR detection of Mucorales DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids for early diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis.Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (n=450) from 374 patients with pneumonia and immunosuppressive conditions were analyzed using a combination of 3 quantitative PCR assays targeting the main genera involved in mucormycosis in France ( Rhizomucor, Mucor/Rhizopus, Lichtheimia ).Among these 374 patients, 24 had at least one bronchoalveolar lavage with a positive PCR; 23/24 patients had radiological criteria for invasive fungal infections according to consensual criteria : 10 patients with probable or proven mucormycosis, and 13 additional patients with other invasive fungal infections (4 probable aspergillosis, 1 proven fusariosis, and 8 possible invasive fungal infections). Only 2/24 patients with a positive PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage had a positive Mucorales culture.PCR was also positive on serum in 17/24 patients. In most cases, PCR was first detected positive on sera (15/17). However, a positive PCR on bronchoalveolar lavage was the earliest and/or the only biological test revealing mucormycosis in 4 patients with a final diagnosis of probable or proven mucormycosis, 3 patients with probable aspergillosis and one patient with a possible invasive fungal infection.Mucorales PCR performed on bronchoalveolar lavage could provide additional arguments for earlier administration of Mucorales-directed antifungal therapy, thus improving the outcome of lung mucormycosis. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe......, but sensitivity dropped markedly with this system. A further 33 patients had both induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage performed and the induced sputum was analysed using PCR and routine microbiological methods. The PCR sensitivity on induced sputum was equal to that of routine methods. At present...... the evaluated PCR cannot replace routine microbiological methods for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, on either BAL fluid or induced sputum....

  3. Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay and Quantitative PCR for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Musher, Benjamin; Fredricks, David; Leisenring, Wendy; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Smith, Caitlin; Marr, Kieren A.

    2004-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is frequent and often fatal in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathologic demonstration of the organism in tissues; however, cultivation of Aspergillus species from respiratory secretions has low diagnostic sensitivity. Assays to detect Aspergillus antigen or DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could facilitate earlier diagnosis, thereby guiding optimal therapy and obviating the need for addit...

  4. Cytomegalovirus Viral Load in Bronchoalveolar Lavage to Diagnose Lung Transplant Associated CMV Pneumonia

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    Lodding, Isabelle Paula; Schultz, Hans Henrik; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic yield for cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR viral load in Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) or in plasma to diagnose CMV pneumonia in lung transplant recipients remains uncertain, and was investigated in a large cohort of consecutive lung transplant recipients. METHODS: Bronchoscopi...

  5. Synthesis of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and evaluation of cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro G.; Camara, Celso A.; Silva, Tania M.S.; Feitosa, Anderson C.S.; Meira, Assuero S.; Pessoa, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    A series of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized from 2,3-dibromo- 1,4-naphthoquinone and various functionalized terminal alkynes using palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The diynes were evaluated as potential cytotoxic agents against three tumor cell lines: human ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), human metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3M) and human bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma (NCI-H358M), presenting, in general, satisfactory results for inhibition of cell growth. (author)

  6. Synthesis of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and evaluation of cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines

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    Silva, Mauro G.; Camara, Celso A.; Silva, Tania M.S., E-mail: ccelso@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (LSCB/UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares. Lab. de Sintese de Compostos Bioativos; Feitosa, Anderson C.S.; Meira, Assuero S.; Pessoa, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Ceara (LOE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia. Lab. de Oncologia Experimental

    2013-09-15

    A series of 2,3-diyne-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized from 2,3-dibromo- 1,4-naphthoquinone and various functionalized terminal alkynes using palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The diynes were evaluated as potential cytotoxic agents against three tumor cell lines: human ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), human metastatic prostate cancer (PC-3M) and human bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma (NCI-H358M), presenting, in general, satisfactory results for inhibition of cell growth. (author)

  7. Detection and identification of Toxocara canis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage of infected mice using a novel real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, E; Roelfsema, J H; Brandes, S; Kortbeek, T

    2013-04-15

    Toxocarosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution caused by Toxocara spp. of dogs and cats. In humans, diagnosis relies mainly on detection of parasite-specific antibodies. Although serological assays in current use have defined sensitivity and specificity, the problem of cross-reactivity still remains, particularly in areas of endemic polyparasitism. Microscopic detection of the parasite in tissue biopsies is not recommended for diagnosis because larvae can be difficult to locate, and finding the parasite eggs in faeces is not applicable since the larvae do not develop to the adult stage in the human host. In this study we describe a novel real-time PCR ('Nemo-PCR') that, in combination with DNA sequencing, allows the detection and identification of Toxocara canis and other nematodes in the Superfamily Ascaridoidea. Results indicate that this approach can detect Toxocara spp. DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of experimentally-infected mice. For diagnostic purposes further studies are necessary to evaluate this assay including testing human BAL fluid. The availability of such a direct assay would improve diagnosis of toxocarosis particularly for patients with pulmonary signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The clinical significance of the substance P in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bangping; Jiang Changbin

    2003-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay to measure the substance P (SP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in thirty patients with bronchial asthma and thirty healthy persons. Compered with healthy group (33.4±24.5 pmol/L), the SP in bronchial asthma group (240.2±18.7 pmol/L) increased significantly (p < 0.01). SP may play a role in the development of bronchial asthma

  9. Association between the miRNA Signatures in Plasma and Bronchoalveolar Fluid in Respiratory Pathologies

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    Sonia Molina-Pinelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of new less invasive biomarkers is necessary to improve the detection and prognostic outcome of respiratory pathological processes. The measurement of miRNA expression through less invasive techniques such as plasma and serum have been suggested to analysis of several lung malignancies including lung cancer. These studies are assuming a common deregulated miRNA expression both in blood and lung tissue. The present study aimed to obtain miRNA representative signatures both in plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction that could serve as biomarker in respiratory diseases. Ten patients were evaluated to assess the expression levels of 381 miRNAs. We found that around 50% miRNAs were no detected in both plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction and only 20% of miRNAs showed similar expression in both samples. These results show a lack of association of miRNA signatures between plasma and bronchoalveolar cytology in the same patient. The profiles are not comparable; however, there is a similarity in the relative expression in a very small subset of miRNAs (miR-17, miR-19b, miR-195 and miR-20b between both biological samples in all patients. This finding supports that the miRNAs profiles obtained from different biological samples have to be carefully validated to link with respiratory diseases.

  10. Procoagulant, tissue factor-bearing microparticles in bronchoalveolar lavage of interstitial lung disease patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Novelli

    Full Text Available Coagulation factor Xa appears involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Through its interaction with protease activated receptor-1, this protease signals myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibroblasts. Although fibrogenic stimuli induce factor X synthesis by alveolar cells, the mechanisms of local posttranslational factor X activation are not fully understood. Cell-derived microparticles are submicron vesicles involved in different physiological processes, including blood coagulation; they potentially activate factor X due to the exposure on their outer membrane of both phosphatidylserine and tissue factor. We postulated a role for procoagulant microparticles in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases. Nineteen patients with interstitial lung diseases and 11 controls were studied. All subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage; interstitial lung disease patients also underwent pulmonary function tests and high resolution CT scan. Microparticles were enumerated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with a solid-phase assay based on thrombin generation. Microparticles were also tested for tissue factor activity. In vitro shedding of microparticles upon incubation with H₂O₂ was assessed in the human alveolar cell line, A549 and in normal bronchial epithelial cells. Tissue factor synthesis was quantitated by real-time PCR. Total microparticle number and microparticle-associated tissue factor activity were increased in interstitial lung disease patients compared to controls (84±8 vs. 39±3 nM phosphatidylserine; 293±37 vs. 105±21 arbitrary units of tissue factor activity; mean±SEM; p<.05 for both comparisons. Microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was inversely correlated with lung function as assessed by both diffusion capacity and forced vital capacity (r² = .27 and .31, respectively; p<.05 for both correlations. Exposure of lung epithelial cells to H₂O₂ caused an increase in microparticle-bound tissue factor

  11. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  12. Respiratory mechanics and results of cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in healthy adult alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ana P; Bedenice, Daniela; Mazan, Melissa R; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory mechanical function and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytologic results in healthy alpacas. 16 client-owned adult alpacas. Measurements of pulmonary function were performed, including functional residual capacity (FRC) via helium dilution, respiratory system resistance via forced oscillatory technique (FOT), and assessment of breathing pattern by use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) in standing and sternally recumbent alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed orotracheally during short-term anesthesia. Mean ± SD measurements of respiratory function were obtained in standing alpacas for FRC (3.19 ± 0.53 L), tidal volume (0.8 ± 0.13 L), and respiratory system resistance at 1 Hz (2.70 ± 0.88 cm H(2)O/L/s), 2 Hz (2.98 ± 0.70 cm H(2)O/L/s), 3 Hz (3.14 ± 0.77 cm H(2)O/L/s), 5 Hz (3.45 ± 0.91 cm H(2)O/L/s), and 7 Hz (3.84 ± 0.93 cm H(2)O/L/s). Mean phase angle, as a measurement of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, was 19.59 ± 10.06°, and mean difference between nasal and plethysmographic flow measurements was 0.18 ± 0.07 L/s. Tidal volume, peak inspiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow were significantly higher in sternally recumbent alpacas than in standing alpacas. Cytologic examination of BAL fluid revealed 58.52 ± 12.36% alveolar macrophages, 30.53 ± 13.78% lymphocytes, 10.95 ± 9.29% neutrophils, 0% mast cells, and several ciliated epithelial cells. Pulmonary function testing was tolerated well in nonsedated untrained alpacas. Bronchoalveolar lavage in alpacas yielded samples with adequate cellularity that had a greater abundance of neutrophils than has been reported in horses.

  13. Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

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    Paola Faverio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 influenza virus infection as well as reparative cellular activation after diffuse alveolar damage.

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme, and 67Ga scanning in extrathoracic sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Fournier, E.; Tonnel, A.B.; Voisin, C.

    1982-01-01

    Results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), 67Ga scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) assay are compared in the assessment of pulmonary involvement in ten cases of extrathoracic sarcoidosis. Standard clinical, radiologic, and pulmonary function tests detected no pulmonary changes in these patients, but BAL demonstrated an increased alveolar lymphocytosis in eight of ten cases. SACE levels were increased in two cases, and the thoracic gallium uptake was normal in all cases. BAL appears to be the best technique for diagnosing latent pulmonary involvement in extrathoracic sarcoidosis

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Solid Phases of Bronchoalveolar Lavage and Oral Fluid in Children with Acute Necrotizing Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Grona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of acute lung abscesses, and pleural empyema, high invalidization and mortality determine the necessity for search of new methods of its diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this research was to study the morphological characteristics of in bronchoalveolar lavage and oral fluid facies in children with acute destructive pneumonias and to find out correlations between them. We examined 24 patients of department of purulent surgery in age from 1 to 14 years. Collection of mixed unstimulated oral fluid was carried out by spitting into special tubes, bronchoalveolar lavage was obtained by bronchoscopy. There has been revealed a correlation between morphological pattern of bronchoalveolar lavage and oral fluid in children depending on the pathological condition of the body.

  16. Effects of smoking and irradiated volume on inflammatory response in the lung of irradiated breast cancer patients evaluated with bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Franzen, L.; Littbrand, B.; Nilsson, K.; Angstroem, T.H.; Henriksson, R.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the effects of irradiation on normal tissues in humans have been hard to obtain because most tissues are inaccessible and/or direct responses are difficult to quantify in a nondestructive manner. Pneumonitis and fibrotic lung disease are adverse effects seen in varying intensity in patients treated with radiotherapy for carcinomas of the thorax, e.g., breast cancer. In the present study the aim was to evaluate the inflammatory reaction in the underlying parenchyma following postoperative irradiation with bronchoalveolar lavage technique. Twenty-one patients with breast cancer stage T1N0M0 received radiotherapy with photons to a target dose of 56 Gy following breast conservative surgery. Nineteen healthy controls were also included. The results showed a clear elevation of neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the total irradiated groups, compared to controls. When subclassifying the material according to smoking habit, it was obvious that the smokers displayed a significantly decreased inflammatory reaction, i.e., reduced levels of mast cells and lymphocytes, compared to both nonsmoking controls and patients. Eosinophils were seen in an elevated number in all irradiated patients. Radiological signs of pneumonitis were observed in three patients, all in the nonsmoking group. No correlation was found between the volume of lung irradiated and the inflammatory response. It is concluded that bronchoalveolar lavage is a suitable and sensitive method for investigating radiotherapy-induced reactions in the human lung. Furthermore, ongoing smoking during the treatment depressed the inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma induced by irradiation. The present study as well as earlier observations justify further studies concerning the possibility of interaction of smoking with cancer treatment

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and influenza A virus stimulate human bronchoalveolar cells to release histamine and leukotrienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1989-01-01

    persons were stimulated with Staph. aureus no release of leukotriene C4 was found. The mediator release caused by bacteria and virus might be of importance for the exacerbation of bronchial asthma in upper respiratory tract infections, since histamine is assumed to increase the epithelial permeability...

  18. Bacteria-induced histamine release from human bronchoalveolar cells and blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementsen, P; Milman, N; Struve-Christensen, E

    1991-01-01

    23187 resulted in histamine release. S. aureus-induced histamine release from basophils was examined in leukocyte suspensions obtained from the same individuals, and in all experiments release was found. The dose-response curves were similar to those obtained with BAL cells. The bacteria...

  19. Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum: detection with a nested polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, J; Lerche, A G; Kolmos, H J

    1995-01-01

    was performed. The sensitivity and specificity were 85 and 100% 934/40 and 77/77) respectively. A non-radioactive labelling system BluGENE was evaluated on all specimens, and found to be as effective as P32-labelling. To increase the speed and convenience of detection, a dot blot system was tested......To evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, 117 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, from HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy, were processed and a nested PCR, followed by Southern blot and hybridization with a P32-labelled probe...... the evaluated PCR cannot replace routine microbiological methods for detection of Pneumocystis carinii, on either BAL fluid or induced sputum....

  20. Bronchoalveolar lavage: role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniele, R.P.; Elias, J.A.; Epstein, P.E.; Rossman, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage has emerged as a useful technique for the study of pulmonary interstitial disorders. Several types of information are provided by the evaluation of lavage fluid. First, the identification of cellular constituents helps to separate inflammatory processes in which lymphocytes predominate (for example, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and berylliosis) from those in which neutrophils or macrophages predominate (for example, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histiocytosis X). Second, the cells removed during lavage can be studied for their immune properties and function; tested with specific antigens, in diseases such as berylliosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and examined for the presence of unique surface antigens with monoclonal antibodies (for example, histiocytosis X). Third, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and electron probe analysis, lavage makes possible the identification of inorganic particles in alveolar macrophages of patients with pneumoconiotic lung disease. Finally, although lavage is still an investigative procedure for most pulmonary disorders, it has an established role in the diagnosis of opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised patient

  1. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of pigs by PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, A.K.; Runge, M.; Ganter, Martin

    1998-01-01

    In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification...... other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Frus medium...... inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 10(2) CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11...

  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage as a tool for evaluation of cellular alteration during Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infection in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor M. Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL is a procedure that retrieves cells and other elements from the lungs for evaluation, which helps in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to perform this procedure for cellular analysis of BAL fluid alterations during experimental infection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. Fourteen cats were individually inoculated with 800 third stage larvae of A. abstrusus and five non-infected cats lined as a control group. The BAL procedure was performed through the use of an endotracheal tube on the nineteen cats with a mean age of 18 months, on 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 270 days after infection. Absolute cell counts in the infected cats revealed that alveolar macrophages and eosinophils were the predominant cells following infection. This study shows that the technique allows us to retrieve cells and first stage larvae what provides information about the inflammatory process caused by aelurostrongylosis.

  3. Detection of plant DNA in the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

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    Sabri Bousbia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections such as nosocomial pneumonia are a serious cause of mortality for hospitalized patients, especially for those admitted to intensive care units (ICUs. Despite the number of the studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely known. Herein, we found by molecular technique that vegetable and tobacco DNA may be detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we studied bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL from patients admitted to ICUs with ventilator-associated pneumonia. BAL fluids were assessed with molecular tests, culture and blood culture. We successfully identified plant DNA in six patients out of 106 (6% with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Inhalation was confirmed in four cases and suspected in the other two cases. Inhalation was significantly frequent in patients with plant DNA (four out of six patients than those without plant DNA (three out of 100 patients (P<0.001. Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast DNA was identified in three patients who were smokers (cases 2, 3 and 6. Cucurbita pepo, Morus bombycis and Triticum aestivum DNA were identified in cases 1, 4 and 5 respectively. Twenty-three different bacterial species, two viruses and five fungal species were identified from among these six patients by using molecular and culture techniques. Several of the pathogenic microorganisms identified are reported to be food-borne or tobacco plant-associated pathogens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that plants DNA may be identified in the BAL fluid of pneumonia patients, especially when exploring aspiration pneumonia, but the significance of the presence of plant DNA and its role in the pathogenesis of pneumonia is unknown and remains to be investigated. However, the identification of these plants may be a potential marker of aspiration in patients with pneumonia.

  4. A case of radiation pneumonitis with eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Seiko; Baba, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Daisuke; Yagi, Takeo; Hattori, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Etsuro

    2008-01-01

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for irradiation therapy of non-resectable primary lung squamous cell carcinoma of the right middle lobe (T3N2M0). The Linac irradiation through opposing 2 gates (2 Gy per day and 60 Gy in total) was performed to the affected area including the metastatic right hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. One week after completing the irradiation therapy, fever developed with infiltrates in the area from the right middle lobe to the right lower lobe, which did not necessarily coincide with the irradiated area Antibiotic therapies were not effective. Both the serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level and eosinophil count in the peripheral blood increased. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at the right B 8 , and differential cell counts of the lavage fluid were macrophages, 17%; lymphocytes, 60%; neutrophils, 5%; and eosinophils, 18%. No significant organisms were obtained by culture of the lavage fluid. The %VC and D LCO /VA became lower than before the irradiation therapy. Thus, the patient was given a diagnosis of radiation pneumonitis. Treatment with 40 mg/day oral prednisolone was commenced with a stepwise dose-reduction (5 mg every two weeks) until reaching the maintenance dose of 15 mg/day. The serum LDH level and blood eosinophil count recovered promptly to the normal range. The pulmonary infiltrates and the lung functions substantially improved. There have been few reports of radiation pneumonitis in which eosinophil counts increased in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after irradiation therapy. In the present case report, the possible mechanisms for the irradiation-induced eosinophilia were also reviewed. (author)

  5. Mycoplasma detection by triplex real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from bovine respiratory disease complex cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Jan B.W.J.; Bree, de Freddy M.; Wal, van der Fimme J.; Kooij, Engbert A.; Koene, Miriam G.J.; Bossers, Alex; Smid, Bregtje; Antonis, Adriaan F.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In this study we evaluated the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR for the detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Mycoplasma (M.) dispar, M. bovis and M. bovirhinis, all three associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Primers and probes of the RespoCheck

  6. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of spontaneous respiratory tract disease in dogs: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, E.C.; DeNicola, D.B.; Plier, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Results of cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were compared with clinical diagnoses in dogs that presented with signs of respiratory disease to referral hospitals. Of 68 dogs in which a clinical diagnosis was possible, BAL cytological findings were considered definitive for the diagnosis in 17 cases (25%), supportive of the diagnosis in 34 cases (50%), and not helpful in 17 cases (25%). Findings were most often considered supportive of or definitive for the clinical diagnosis in dogs with alveolar or bronchial radiographic patterns, or the presence of pulmonary masses. BAL results among lung lobes differed in 23 of 63 dogs (37%) with diffuse radiographic patterns. Tracheal wash cytology differed from BAL fluid cytology in 45 of 66 dogs (68%). Bronchoalveolar lavage was a clinically useful procedure for the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with signs of respiratory disease

  7. [Current possibilities of the biometrology of dust in specimens of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, P

    1982-01-01

    This study attempts to present the current possibilities of investigation of an occupational risk, in particular that of asbestosis, by metrology of dusts in bronchoalveolar washings (BAW). This is a retrospective evaluation of metrological data obtained in a period of six years by study of almost all of the 1338 samples of BAW referred to this laboratory from various pulmonary medicine departments. With regard to the metrology of asbestos fibres in BAW samples, an explanation is given for the fact that routine analytical possibilities are limited to the numbering of asbestos bodies (AB). The specificity of the AB marker is discussed. Reference data are indicated concerning the efficacity of the collection of AB from washings, the relationship between concentrations of AB in BAW samples, parenchyma samples and sputum, and the interpretation of AB concentrations in BAW samples. Current data show that BAW samples are sensitive indications, but there is a lack of specificity. With regard to the biometrological investigation of BAW samples concerning occupational hazards other than asbestos, a large number of studies remain to be undertaken.

  8. Clinical significance of determination of 3 tumor markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Hu Huacheng; Hu Yunzhu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of 3 tumor markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosis and evaluation of disease extent in patients with lung cancer. Methods: The level of CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE in BALF was measured in 92 patients with lung cancer and 40 patients with benign lung diseases by using chemoluminescence, RIA and ELISA methods respectively. Results: The level of all 3 tumor markers measured in BALF was much higher in lung cancer group than that in benign lung disease group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and it was higher in patients with advanced disease (stage III and IV) than that in stage I and II. These tumor markers increased in different degrees among the patients in various pathological classifications. It was also found the level of these tumor markers was higher and more sensitive in BALF than that in serum. Conclusion: The measurement of the tumor markers in BALF has more significant value than the measurement in serum, which contribute to the early diagnosis, pathological classification and prognosis evaluation of lung cancer

  9. Immune complexes, gallium lung scans, and bronchoalveolar lavage in idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelb, A.F.; Dreisen, R.B.; Epstein, J.D.; Silverthorne, J.D.; Bickel, Y.; Fields, M.; Border, W.A.; Taylor, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    We obtained results of lung immune complexes (LIC), circulating immune complexes (CIC), 48-hour gallium lung scans (scans), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and pulmonary function tests in 20 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis-fibrosis. Sixteen patients had predominantly interstitial (13 cases UIP) and/or intraalveolar (3 cases DIP) cellular disease (group 1). Prior to corticosteroid therapy in group 1, scans were positive in 75 percent, CIC were elevated in 86 percent, LIC were present in 64 percent, and BAL was abnormal in 90 percent. Duration of follow-up after treatment was 3.5 +/- 1.0 year. In group 1 after treatment with corticosteroids in 13 patients and corticosteroids and penicillamine (three patients) and plasmapheresis (one patient), only four patients remain stable or improved. After corticosteroid therapy, elevated CIC returned to normal values despite progressive patient deterioration. In three patients, lung immune complexes were still detected after circulating immune complexes had returned to normal after corticosteroid therapy. In group 2 were four patients with fibrotic disease; scans and CIC were uniformly negative, LIC were weakly present in only one patient, and BAL was abnormal in all. Despite corticosteroid therapy, all have died or deteriorated. These results suggest that positive gallium lung scans, BAL, circulating immune complexes, and to a lesser extent, lung immune complexes are associated with the cellular phase of interstitial pneumonia, but do not reliably identify a corticosteroid-responsive group

  10. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Balf) from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Baughman, R.P. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Waide, J.J.

    1995-12-01

    The pathogenesis of ARDS is largely unknown, but many factors are known to predispose one to ARDS: sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, pneumonia, fracture, multiple transfusions, cardiopulmonary bypass, burn, dissemination intravascular coagulation, pulmonary contusion, near drowning, and pancreatitis. ARDS is characterized by severe hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and decreased pulmonary compliance. Current treatment methods still result in 50% mortality. Studies are underway at the University of Cincinnati to determine if treatment with a synthetic pulmonary surfactant, Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} (contains dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline, Burroughs-Wellcome), improves the prognosis of these patients. BALF from these patients, before and after treatment, was analyzed to determine if the treatment resulted in an increase in disaturated phospholipids (surfactant phospholipids) in the epithelial lining fluid and if the treatments reduced the concentration of markers of inflammation and toxicity in the BALF. This study indicates that the method of administering Exosurf{sup {reg_sign}} did not lead to an increase in surfactant lipid or protein in the bronchoalveolar region of the respiratory tract.

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted porcine surfactant in mechanically ventilated term infants with meconium aspiration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Gianluca; Bianchi, Silvia; Castoldi, Francesca; Fontana, Paola; Cavigioli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with diluted porcine surfactant in mechanically ventilated term infants with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Eight consecutive mechanically ventilated term infants with severe ARDS due to MAS underwent BAL with 15 mL/kg of diluted (5.3mg phospholipid/mL) surfactant saline suspension (porcine surfactant [Curosurf]). Treatment was administered slowly in aliquots of 2.5 mL. The mean age of neonates at treatment was 3.5 (range 1-8) hours. Heart rate, systemic blood pressure and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously. Arterial blood gases were measured immediately before treatment, and again at 3 and 6 hours post-treatment. Chest x-rays were taken 6 and 24 hours after treatment. Radiological improvement was evident in all eight patients 6 hours post-treatment. Compared with pre-BAL values, significant improvements (p fluids that had been meconium-stained prior to BAL were clear of meconium after BAL. Only one patient required nitric oxide therapy for transient pulmonary hypertension. No adverse sequelae of treatment occurred during the study. BAL with dilute porcine surfactant administered slowly in 2.5 mL aliquots improved oxygenation and chest x-ray findings, without causing major adverse effects, in mechanically ventilated term infants with ARDS due to MAS.

  12. The study of the lung accumulation of I-123 IMP by the broncho-alveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itasaka, Miyoko; Ikeda, Hideki; Yakuwa, Naoshi; Kato, Shuichi; Takahashi, Keiji; Yasui, Shoji

    1989-01-01

    We studied the accumulated portion and the movement of I-123 IMP in the lung. Ten subjects were studied. They were four patients with fibrosing lung disease, two with lung cancer, and four with other lung disease. They underwent the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) for the diagnosis of their diseases. l.5 mCi of I-123 IMP was injected into the ante-cubital vein. The BAL examination was carried out about 40 minutes after the injection of I-123 IMP. The subjects' blood was sampled at the same time. The total BAL liquid (BAL-T) was divided into the fluid component (BAL-F) and the cell component (BAL-C) by centrifugation. The radioactivities in BAL-T, BAL-F, BAL-C, and serum (B-S) were measured by the well-counter. The average of BAL-T/B-S, BAL-F/B-S and BAL-C/B-S were 6.86, 4.26 and 2.71 respectively. It was confirmed that I-123 IMP was transported from the pulmonary capillary to the alveolar space and was taken up by the alveolar cells. It was considered that the analysis of the I-123 IMP release from the lung showed not only the endothelial cell uptake function but also the interstitial and material cells' amine transport and uptake function. (author)

  13. Asbestosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins and their relationship to pulmonary epithelial permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellert, A.R.; Perry, D.; Langford, J.A.; Riches, P.G.; Rudd, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors measured levels of albumin and immunoglobulins in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in 28 men with asbestosis and 11 control subjects. The half-time clearance of inhaled diethylene triamine pentacetate labelled with technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) from the lungs (t1/2LB) was measured in 26 patients with asbestosis and in 31 normal nonsmoking controls. In those individuals in whom immunoglobulins were detected in BAL fluid, the mean IgG:albumin ratio in BAL fluid was 0.30, significantly less than the ratio of 0.43 in control subjects. There was no significant difference in IgA:albumin ratios between patients and control subjects. The mean BAL:serum albumin ratio in patients with asbestosis was 2.3 X 10(-3). The t1/2LB was significantly shorter in both smokers and nonsmokers with asbestosis, compared with 31 normal nonsmoking controls, but there were no relationships between t1/2LB and BAL:serum albumin ratio or any other BAL protein levels in either smokers or nonsmokers with asbestosis

  14. Molecular and Culture-Based Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Testing for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Susanna K; Burgener, Elizabeth B; Waggoner, Jesse J; Gajurel, Kiran; Gonzalez, Sarah; Chen, Sharon F; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, with CMV pneumonitis among the most severe manifestations of infection. Although bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples are frequently tested for CMV, the clinical utility of such testing remains uncertain. Methods.  Retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing BAL testing via CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), shell vial culture, and conventional viral culture between August 2008 and May 2011 was performed. Cytomegalovirus diagnostic methods were compared with a comprehensive definition of CMV pneumonitis that takes into account signs and symptoms, underlying host immunodeficiency, radiographic findings, and laboratory results. Results.  Seven hundred five patients underwent 1077 bronchoscopy episodes with 1090 BAL specimens sent for CMV testing. Cytomegalovirus-positive patients were more likely to be hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (26% vs 8%, P definition, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR, shell vial culture, and conventional culture were 91.3% and 94.6%, 54.4% and 97.4%, and 28.3% and 96.5%, respectively. Compared with culture, PCR provided significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (P ≤ .001), without significantly lower positive predictive value. Cytomegalovirus quantitation did not improve test performance, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic curve with an area under the curve of 0.53. Conclusions.  Cytomegalovirus PCR combined with a comprehensive clinical definition provides a pragmatic approach for the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis.

  15. Utility of galactomannan antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownback, Kyle R; Pitts, Lucas R; Simpson, Steven Q

    2013-09-01

    Diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a challenging process in immunocompromised patients. Galactomannan (GM) antigen detection in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a method to detect IPA with improved sensitivity over conventional studies. We sought to determine the diagnostic yield of BAL GM assay in a diverse population of immunocompromised patients. A retrospective review of 150 fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) with BAL for newly diagnosed pulmonary infiltrate in immunocompromised patients was performed. Patient information, procedural details and laboratory studies were collected. BAL and serum samples were evaluated for GM using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Of 150 separate FOB with BAL, BAL GM was obtained in 143 samples. There were 31 positive BAL GM assays. In those 31 positive tests, 13 were confirmed as IPA, giving a positive predictive value of 41.9%. There was one false negative BAL GM. Of the 18 false positive BAL GM, 4 were receiving piperacillin-tazobactam and 11 were receiving an alternative beta-lactam antibiotic. BAL GM assay shows excellent sensitivity for diagnosing IPA. There was a significant number of false positive BAL GM assays and several of those patients were receiving beta-lactam antibiotics at the time of bronchoscopy. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen: An unusual presentation of a common tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne E Moul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma presenting as a primary lung disease is rare. We present a 52-year-old male with a 3-month history of cough, shortness of breath, and weight loss with clinical and radiological findings suggestive of a primary lung disease: Bilateral interstitial and alveolar opacities with blunting of the costophrenic angles, multiple diffuse foci of consolidations and nodules, predominantly subpleural and located in the lower lobes, and diffuse interlobular septal thickening and peribronchial thickening. The patient underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was obtained. Cytospin smears were diagnostic for a low-grade adenocarcinoma. Clinically, the patient had elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels greater than 5,000 ng/mL. Because of this, immunocytochemistry for PSA was performed which was positive, confirming the diagnosis of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. This unusual case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate first diagnosed by BAL highlights the significance of available clinical information and the use of immunocytochemistry for proper diagnosis.

  17. Airway Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Clinically Well Infants with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Laguna

    Full Text Available Upper airway cultures guide the identification and treatment of lung pathogens in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF; however, this may not fully reflect the spectrum of bacteria present in the lower airway. Our objectives were to characterize the airway microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF from asymptomatic CF infants during the first year of life and to investigate the relationship between BALF microbiota, standard culture and clinical characteristics.BALF, nasopharyngeal (NP culture and infant pulmonary function testing data were collected at 6 months and one year of age during periods of clinical stability from infants diagnosed with CF by newborn screening. BALF was analyzed for total bacterial load by qPCR and for bacterial community composition by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Clinical characteristics and standard BALF and NP culture results were recorded over five years of longitudinal follow-up.12 BALF samples were collected from 8 infants with CF. Streptococcus, Burkholderia, Prevotella, Haemophilus, Porphyromonas, and Veillonella had the highest median relative abundance in infant CF BALF. Two of the 3 infants with repeat BALF had changes in their microbial communities over six months (Morisita-Horn diversity index 0.36, 0.38. Although there was excellent percent agreement between standard NP and BALF cultures, these techniques did not routinely detect all bacteria identified by sequencing.BALF in asymptomatic CF infants contains complex microbiota, often missed by traditional culture of airway secretions. Anaerobic bacteria are commonly found in the lower airways of CF infants.

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with interstitial lung diseases: side effects and factors affecting fluid recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, D P; Haslam, P L; Townsend, P J; Primett, Z; Collins, J V; Turner-Warwick, M

    1986-05-01

    One hundred and seventy patients with interstitial lung diseases undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were contrasted with 51 patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy alone to define the factors which predispose to post-lavage side-effects. Transient post-bronchoscopy fall in the peak expired flow (PEF) greater than or equal to 20% occurred in both groups (24% and 23% respectively), and thus was probably related to the bronchoscopy procedure. Post-lavage pyrexia (greater than or equal to 1 degree C) occurred only in the patients undergoing BAL (26%), p less than 0.001. Only 4% with pyrexia required antibiotics, and only 2% with falls in PEF needed bronchodilator therapy. The only significant clinical association was more frequent pyrexia in patients on treatment with prednisolone, particularly in women (p less than 0.01). Pyrexia was also associated with higher lavage fluid introduction volumes (greater than 240 ml). Side effects did not relate to the percentages of lavage fluid recovered, although smokers had lower recoveries and, recoveries tended to be higher in sarcoidosis than cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Serial lavages in 25 patients caused no significant increase in side effects.

  19. Predictive Role of ADA in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Making the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Halvani, Abolhassan

    2013-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) are time-consuming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of ADA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with pulmonary TB. A cross-sectional study was performed in Yazd, Iran, between 2009 and 2010. Patients suspected of pulmonary TB with negative sputum smear for AFB were included in the study. Mean ADA levels in BAL fluids were measured and compared between study groups. Sixty-three patients were enrolled in the study among which 15 cases had pulmonary TB, 33 had pulmonary diseases other than TB, and 15 subjects with normal bronchoscopy results were considered as controls. Mean ADA levels in BAL fluid were 4.13 ± 2.55, 2.42 ± 1.06, and 1.93 ± 0.88, respectively. This rate was significantly higher in the pulmonary TB group compared to the other two groups (P = 0.001). Using ROC curve with a cut-off value of 3.5 IU/L, the highest sensitivity (57%) and specificity (84%) were obtained in diagnosis of TB. The results showed that although ADA activity in BAL fluid of pulmonary TB patients was higher than those seen in other diseases, a negative test does not rule out pulmonary TB.

  20. Bronchoalveolar permeability changes in rats inhaling gas/particle combinations during rest or exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, D.K.; Phalen, R.F.; Mannix, R.C.; Lavan, S.M.; Crocker, T.T.

    1986-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar (BA) injury in rats exposed at rest or exercise to air pollutants was studied by changes in epithelial permeability. Rats exposed to air, single gases or pollutant combinations were anesthetized, tracheostomized, and placed on an incline. /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was delivered directly to a major bronchus. Radioactivity measurements were made on blood samples collected during first 10 min. Exposure of resting rats to 0.6 ppm O 3 increased BA permeability just after exposure, but it was normal 24 hrs later; in exercising rats the increase was greater than in rats exposed at rest, and it persisted up to 24 hrs. NO 2 at 6 ppm did not affect permeability. Exposure of resting rats to 2.5 ppm NO 2 + 0.6 ppm O 3 only increased permeability right after the exposure, but in exercising rats this exposure resulted in a greater permeability which remained elevated up to 24 hrs. Exposure of exercising rats to 0.8 ppm O 3 + 10 ppm HCHO increased permeability. Exposure of resting rats to an atmosphere of 0.6 ppm O 3 + 2.5 ppm NO 2 + 5 ppm SO 2 + 1 mg/m 3 sulfates of ferric, ammonium and manganese also produced an increase in permeability that persisted up to 24 hrs. The results suggest potentiation of the pollutant effects by exercise, but there is no indication of synergistic effect of pollutant combinations on BA permeability

  1. Evaluation of optimized bronchoalveolar lavage sampling designs for characterization of pulmonary drug distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewe, Oskar; Karlsson, Mats O; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a pulmonary sampling technique for characterization of drug concentrations in epithelial lining fluid and alveolar cells. Two hypothetical drugs with different pulmonary distribution rates (fast and slow) were considered. An optimized BAL sampling design was generated assuming no previous information regarding the pulmonary distribution (rate and extent) and with a maximum of two samples per subject. Simulations were performed to evaluate the impact of the number of samples per subject (1 or 2) and the sample size on the relative bias and relative root mean square error of the parameter estimates (rate and extent of pulmonary distribution). The optimized BAL sampling design depends on a characterized plasma concentration time profile, a population plasma pharmacokinetic model, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the BAL method and involves only two BAL sample time points, one early and one late. The early sample should be taken as early as possible, where concentrations in the BAL fluid ≥ LOQ. The second sample should be taken at a time point in the declining part of the plasma curve, where the plasma concentration is equivalent to the plasma concentration in the early sample. Using a previously described general pulmonary distribution model linked to a plasma population pharmacokinetic model, simulated data using the final BAL sampling design enabled characterization of both the rate and extent of pulmonary distribution. The optimized BAL sampling design enables characterization of both the rate and extent of the pulmonary distribution for both fast and slowly equilibrating drugs.

  2. [Microbiology of bronchoalveolar lavage in infants with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia with poor outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Palma-Alaniz, Laura; García-Bolaños, Carlos; Ruelas-Vargas, Consuelo; Méndez-Tovar, Socorro; Del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious causes of morbidity and mortality in children <5 years of age. The aim of the study was to clarify the bacterial etiologic diagnosis in infants with CAP. A prospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study in patients 6 months to 2 years 11 months of age with CAP with poor outcome was conducted. Patients were admitted to the Pediatric Pneumology Service and underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), taking appropriate measures during the procedure to limit the risk of contamination. Aerobic bacteria isolated were Moraxella sp. 23%, Streptococcus mitis 23%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 18%, Haemophilus influenzae 12%, Streptococcus oralis 12%, and Streptococcus salivarius 12%. In contrast to other reports, we found Moraxella sp. to be a major bacterial pathogen, possibly because of improved detection with bronchoscopy plus BAL. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2011-02-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated.

  4. Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay and Quantitative PCR for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher, Benjamin; Fredricks, David; Leisenring, Wendy; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Smith, Caitlin; Marr, Kieren A.

    2004-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is frequent and often fatal in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathologic demonstration of the organism in tissues; however, cultivation of Aspergillus species from respiratory secretions has low diagnostic sensitivity. Assays to detect Aspergillus antigen or DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could facilitate earlier diagnosis, thereby guiding optimal therapy and obviating the need for additional costly and potentially morbid diagnostic evaluation. We evaluated the performance of a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM EIA; Bio-Rad) by using a range of index cutoffs to define positivity and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection of Aspergillus species from BAL samples of patients with proven and probable IPA (case patients; n = 49) and without IPA (control patients; n = 50). The sensitivity of the GM EIA was 61% with an index cutoff of 1.0 and 76% with an index cutoff of 0.5; the corresponding specificities were 98 and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of qPCR assay were 67 and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity with 22 culture-negative BAL specimens from patients with IPA was 41% for GM EIA with an index cutoff of 1.0, 59% for GM EIA with an index cutoff of 0.5, and 36% for qPCR assay. GM EIA indices and DNA quantities corresponded to BAL fungal burdens, with culture-positive samples having larger amounts of antigen and DNA compared to culture-negative samples. GM EIA and qPCR assay add to the sensitivity of BAL for diagnosing IPA in high-risk patients, with excellent specificity. Adjunctive use of these tests may reduce dependence on invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:15583275

  5. Changes in surfactant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after hemithorax irradiation in patients with mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, M.; Maasilta, P.; Kivisaari, L.; Mattson, K.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that the surfactant system of the lung is affected shortly after irradiation. It is unclear, however, whether surfactant plays a role in the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. In the present study surfactant components (saturated phosphatidylcholine, surfactant protein A, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol) and other phospholipids of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were studied in four patients with pleural mesothelioma before and during hemithorax irradiation (70 Gy) as well as zero, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months following irradiation. The concentrations of these same components and of soluble proteins were also estimated in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) using urea as a marker of dilution. After radiotherapy, the concentrations of the surfactant components in ELF decreased to 12 to 55% of the control values before radiation, whereas the concentration of sphingomyelin in ELF increased ninefold. There were small changes in the other phospholipids. The concentration of soluble protein in ELF increased sevenfold. The minimum surface activity of crude BAL increased from 12 +/- 4 to 32 +/- 6 mN/m, and that of the sediment fraction of BAL increased from 7 +/- 4 to 22 +/- 6 mN/m, p less than 0.001. The protein-rich supernatant fraction of BAL from irradiated lung had a inhibitory effect on normal surfactant. There were significant correlations between the increasing severity of the radiologic changes on the one hand and, on the other, the saturated phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio (p less than 0.001), the concentrations of soluble protein (p less than 0.001), and the concentrations of the surfactant components (p less than 0.02-0.001) in ELF

  6. Inhaled concentrated ambient particles are associated with hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage changes in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W; Coull, B; Reinisch, U; Catalano, P; Killingsworth, C R; Koutrakis, P; Kavouras, I; Murthy, G G; Lawrence, J; Lovett, E; Wolfson, J M; Verrier, R L; Godleski, J J

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammatory and hematologic responses of canines were studied after exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) using the Harvard ambient particle concentrator (HAPC). For pulmonary inflammatory studies, normal dogs were exposed in pairs to either CAPs or filtered air (paired studies) for 6 hr/day on 3 consecutive days. For hematologic studies, dogs were exposed for 6 hr/day for 3 consecutive days with one receiving CAPs while the other was simultaneously exposed to filtered air; crossover of exposure took place the following week (crossover studies). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs exposure samples included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. No statistical differences in biologic responses were found when all CAPs and all sham exposures were compared. However, the variability in biologic response was considerably higher with CAPs exposure. Subsequent exploratory graphical analyses and mixed linear regression analyses suggested associations between CAPs constituents and biologic responses. Factor analysis was applied to the compositional data from paired and crossover experiments to determine elements consistently associated with each other in CAPs samples. In paired experiments, four factors were identified; in crossover studies, a total of six factors were observed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and hematologic data were regressed on the factor scores. Increased BAL neutrophil percentage, total peripheral white blood cell (WBC) counts, circulating neutrophils, and circulating lymphocytes were associated with increases in the aluminum/silicon factor. Increased circulating neutrophils and increased BAL macrophages were associated with the vanadium/nickel factor. Increased BAL neutrophils were associated with the bromine/lead factor when only the compositional data from the third day of CAPs exposure were used. Significant decreases in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels were correlated with the sulfur

  7. The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916 for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926 for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic.

  8. Lung malignancy: Diagnostic accuracies of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, and fine needle aspiration cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Rateesh; Pandey, C L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of lung cancer plays a pivotal role in reducing lung cancer death rate. Cytological techniques are safer, economical and provide quick results. Bronchoscopic washing, brushing and fine needle aspirations not only complement tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of lung cancer but also comparable. Objectives: (1) To find out diagnostic yields of bronchioalveolar lavage, bronchial brushings, FNAC in diagnosis of lung malignancy. (2) To compare relative accuracy of these three cytological techniques. (3) To correlate the cytologic diagnosis with clinical, bronchoscopic and CT findings. (4) Cytological and histopathological correlation of lung lesions. Methods: All the patients who came with clinical or radiological suspicion of lung malignancy in two and a half year period were included in study. Bronchoalveolar lavage was the most common type of cytological specimen (82.36%), followed by CT guided FNAC (9.45%) and bronchial brushings (8.19%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for all techniques and correlation with histopathology was done using standard formulas. Results: The most sensitive technique was CT FNAC – (87.25%) followed by brushings (77.78%) and BAL (72.69%). CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield (90.38%), followed by brushings (86.67%) and BAL (83.67%). Specificity and positive predictive value were 100 % each of all techniques. Lowest false negatives were obtained in CT FNAC (12.5%) and highest in BAL (27.3%). Highest negative predictive value was of BAL 76.95 % followed by BB 75.59% and CT FNAC 70.59%. Conclusion: Before administering antitubercular treatment every effort should be made to rule out malignancy. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield among three cytological techniques. BAL is an important tool in screening central as well as in accessible lesions. It can be used at places where CT guided FNAC is not available or could not be done due to technical or financial limitations PMID:27890992

  9. A Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Manual and Wall Suction in the Performance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, Luis M; Flandes, Javier; Somiedo, Maria V; Naya, Alba; Manjón, Josefina; Álvarez, Susana; Fernández-Navamuel, Iker

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) may be performed using a hand-held syringe or wall suction. The aim was to study BAL volume and diagnostic yields based on BAL technique. A total of 220 consecutive patients undergoing BAL at our center were included. Manual aspiration was performed in 115 patients (group 1), and wall suction (<50 mm Hg of negative pressure) was used in 105 patients (group 2). All bronchoscopies were performed under conscious sedation applying topical anesthesia with lidocaine. Three 50-ml sterile saline aliquots were instilled in all patients. The mean total amount of fluid recovered was 67 ± 20 ml in group 1 and 55 ± 22 ml in group 2 (p < 0.001). More patients in the manual aspiration group met American Thoracic Society criteria (recovery of ≥30% of instilled fluid) for an optimal BAL (81 vs. 59%; p < 0.001). The quantity of recovered fluid was also related to BAL location (p < 0.001) and radiologic findings (p = 0.002). Forty-eight (22%) BALs were diagnostic (23 in group 1 and 25 in group 2), including 37 positive bacterial cultures, 6 positive stains for Pneumocystis, and 5 cases of malignancy. No statistically significant difference in diagnostic yield was observed between the two groups. A BAL diagnosis was more likely in patients with certain radiologic (p = 0.033) and endoscopic findings (p = 0.001). When taking into account all bronchoscopic techniques performed during the procedure (e.g. biopsies, brushing, etc.), bronchoscopy was diagnostic in 37% of patients. Manual aspiration is superior to wall suction during BAL yielding a larger quantity of aspirate. Diagnostic yields are similar for both techniques. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of patients with interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branley, Howard M.; Bois, Roland M. du; Wells, Athol U.; Jones, Hazel A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: PK11195 is a ligand with high affinity for peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs), which are present in large numbers in macrophages. PBRs play a role in antioxidant pathways and apoptosis, key factors in control of lung health. Intrapulmonary PBRs, assessed in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET), are decreased in interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite increased macrophage numbers. We wished to ascertain whether the observed decrease in in vivo expression of PBRs in the PET scans could be accounted for by a reduction in PBRs per cell by saturation-binding assays of R-PK11195 in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Methods: We performed receptor saturation-binding assays with [ 3 H]-R-PK11195 on a mixed population of cells recovered by BAL to quantify the number of R-PK11195 binding sites per macrophage in 10 subjects with ILD and 10 normal subjects. Results: Receptor affinity [dissociation constant (Kd)] was similar in ILD patients and controls. However, R-PK11195 binding sites per cell [(maximal binding sites available (B max )] were decreased in macrophages obtained by BAL from subjects with ILD compared to normal (P<.0005). Microautoradiography confirmed localization of R-PK11195 to macrophages in a mixed inflammatory cell population obtained by BAL. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that in vitro PBR expression per cell on macrophages obtained by BAL is reduced in patients with ILD indicating a potentially functionally different macrophage phenotype. As PBRs are involved in the orchestration of lung inflammatory responses, this finding offers further insight into the role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of ILDs and offers a potential avenue for pharmacological strategy

  11. Gene Expression Profiling of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cells Preceding a Clinical Diagnosis of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Samuel Weigt

    Full Text Available Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction (CLAD is the main limitation to long-term survival after lung transplantation. Although CLAD is usually not responsive to treatment, earlier identification may improve treatment prospects.In a nested case control study, 1-year post transplant surveillance bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples were obtained from incipient CLAD (n = 9 and CLAD free (n = 8 lung transplant recipients. Incipient CLAD cases were diagnosed with CLAD within 2 years, while controls were free from CLAD for at least 4 years following bronchoscopy. Transcription profiles in the BAL cell pellets were assayed with the HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray (Affymetrix. Differential gene expression analysis, based on an absolute fold change (incipient CLAD vs no CLAD >2.0 and an unadjusted p-value ≤0.05, generated a candidate list containing 55 differentially expressed probe sets (51 up-regulated, 4 down-regulated.The cell pellets in incipient CLAD cases were skewed toward immune response pathways, dominated by genes related to recruitment, retention, activation and proliferation of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD8+ T-cells and natural killer cells. Both hierarchical clustering and a supervised machine learning tool were able to correctly categorize most samples (82.3% and 94.1% respectively into incipient CLAD and CLAD-free categories.These findings suggest that a pathobiology, similar to AR, precedes a clinical diagnosis of CLAD. A larger prospective investigation of the BAL cell pellet transcriptome as a biomarker for CLAD risk stratification is warranted.

  12. Usefulness of FTA® cards as a Pneumocystis-DNA extraction method in bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiño, Jenniffer M; Aguilar, Yudy A; Rueda, Zulma Vanessa; Vélez, Lázaro A

    2016-01-01

    FTA® cards (Fast Technology for Analysis of Nucleic Acids) are an alternative DNA extraction method in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples for Pneumocystis jirovecii molecular analyses. The goal was to evaluate the usefulness of FTA® cards to detect P. jirovecii-DNA by PCR in BAL samples compared to silica adsorption chromatography (SAC). This study used 134 BAL samples from immunocompromised patients previously studied to establish microbiological aetiology of pneumonia, among them 15 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) documented by staining and 119 with other alternative diagnoses. The FTA® system and SAC were used for DNA extraction and then amplified by nested PCR to detect P. jirovecii. Performance and concordance of the two DNA extraction methods compared to P. jirovecii microscopy were calculated. The influence of the macroscopic characteristics, transportation of samples and the duration of the FTA® card storage (1, 7, 10 or 12 months) were also evaluated. Among 134 BAL samples, 56% were positive for P. jirovecii-DNA by SAC and 27% by FTA®. All 15 diagnosed by microscopy were detected by FTA® and SAC. Specificity of the FTA® system and SAC were 82.4% and 49.6%, respectively. Compared to SAC, positivity by FTA® decreased with the presence of blood in BAL (62% vs 13.5%). The agreement between samples at 7, 10 and 12 months was 92.5% for FTA®. Positive cases by FTA® remained the same after shipment by mail. Results suggest that FTA® is a practical, safe and economical method to preserve P. jirovecii-DNA in BAL samples for molecular studies.

  13. Analysis of Trace Elements in Rat Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Wajhul; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman; Ali, Raisuddin; Abuelizz, Hatem A

    2017-08-01

    The main objective was to determine the elemental profile of the lung lining fluid of rats which are used as model animals in various experiments. Lung lining fluid elemental constitution obtained after bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the biological trace elements along with calcium and magnesium. BALF was collected from healthy rats using a tracheal cannula. However, cells in BALF were counted to monitor any underlying inflammatory lung condition. Cell free BALF samples were processed and analyzed for the elements including magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), and iodine (I). In view of this, calcium concentration was the highest (6318.08 ± 3094.3 μg/L) and copper concentration was the lowest (0.89 ± 0.21 μg/L). The detected elements, from high to low concentration, include Ca > Mg > Fe > Br > I > Cr > Ni > Zn > Mn > Se > Cu. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed no significant correlation between cell count and concentration of any of the element detected in BALF. Correlation analysis also revealed significant positive correlation among Fe, I, Cr, Ni, and Mn. Ca was found to be correlated negatively with Cu and positively with Se. Br and Mg found to be positively correlated with each other. Zn remained the only element that was not found to be correlated with any of the elements in the rat BALF.

  14. Endopulmonary Bronchoalveolar Lavage Cytogram in the Prediction of Infective Pulmonary Complications in Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kartavenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the time course of changes in the cellular composition of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid to assess the possibilities of using the values of an endopulmonary cytogram (EPC for the prediction of the development of infectious pulmonary complications and death in victims with severe concomitant injury. Sixty-three victims divided into 2 groups by the injury severity scale (ISS (Beaker et al., 1974 were examined. For BAL sampling, a BF-XT40 endoscope (Olympus, Japan was applied to bronchofibroscopy. To study BAL, the authors used the routine cyto-logical techniques and compared the latter’s results with those of EPC. The data were statistically processed, by employing the Statistica 6.0 programs; p Kozlov I. A., Poptsov V. N. Combined Therapy with Nitric Oxide and Surfactant-BL for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome After Operations Using Extracorporeal Circulation ….15 Abstract Выбрать Показать The present study was undertaken to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of inhalational nitric oxide alone and in combination with surfactant-BL in the complex therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS after surgery under extracorporeal circulation (EC. The study included 53 patients aged 21 to 76 years. It has revealed that in ARDS that complicates operations under EC, the use of surfactant-BL during therapy with inhalational nitric oxide enhances the latter’s effects on arterial oxygenation, accelerates the regression of pulmonary oxygenizing dysfunction, and reduces the duration of artificial ventilation and the length of stay in an intensive care unit.

  15. CYFRA 21.1 in bronchoalveolar lavage of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercauteren, Inge M; Verleden, Stijn E; McDonough, John E; Vandermeulen, Elly; Ruttens, David; Lammertyn, Elise J; Bellon, Hannelore; De Dycker, Els; Dooms, Christophe; Yserbyt, Jonas; Verleden, Geert M; Vanaudenaerde, Bart M; Wuyts, Wim A

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is one of the most aggressive forms of interstitial lung diseases, however, clinically relevant biomarkers of diagnosis or prognosis are lacking. In this study, we investigated the levels of a fragment of Cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA 21.1) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of IPF patients at time of diagnosis. We further evaluated associations between CYFRA 21.1, pulmonary function evolution, mortality, and BAL cell count. Using the Lumipulse® G1200, CYFRA 21.1 was measured in BAL samples of 81 IPF patients and 9 controls. Based upon the median detected level (1.2 ng/mL) of CYFRA 21.1 in IPF patients, they were subdivided into an IPF CYFRA 21.1 low group (≤ 1.2 ng/mL) and IPF CYFRA 21.1 high group (> 1.2 ng/mL). The CYFRA 21.1 levels were significantly higher in BAL of IPF patients compared to controls (P = .0015).Worse survival was observed, but no changes in pulmonary function, for IPF patients with high CYFRA 21.1 levels versus patients with low CYFRA 21.1 levels [P = .030, HR: 0.41, (0.18-0.92)[. The CYFRA 21.1 level correlated with both neutrophils (%: R = 0.60, P < .0001; #: R = 0.47, P < .0001) and eosinophils (%: R = 0.38, P = .0005; #: R = 0.30, P < .0072). CYFRA 21.1 is increased in BAL of IPF patients. IPF patients with a high CYFRA 21.1 concentration have a worse survival. CYFRA 21.1 levels correlate with eosinophils and neutrophils. Further studies are warranted in using CYFRA 21.1 as a biomarker for IPF prognosis.

  16. Euthanasia and Lavage Mediated Effects on Bronchoalveolar Measures of Lung Injury and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Robert M; Birukova, Anastasiya; Yeager, Michael J; Reece, Sky W; Gowdy, Kymberly M

    2018-02-26

    Accurate and reproducible assessments of experimental lung injury and inflammation are critical to basic and translational research. In particular, investigators use varied methods of bronchoalveolar lavage and euthanasia but their impact to assessments of injury and inflammation are unknown. To define potential effects, we compared methods of lavage and euthanasia in uninjured mice and following a mild lung injury model (ozone). C57BL/6J male mice age 8-10 weeks underwent BAL following euthanasia with ketamine/xylazine, carbon dioxide (C0 2 ), or isoflurane. BAL methods included 800-μL instilled and withdrawn three times, and 1 or 3 passive fill(s) and drainage to 20cm H20. Parallel experiments were performed 24hr following 3hr of ozone (O 3 ) exposure at 2 parts per million (ppm). BAL total cell counts/differentials and total protein/albumin were determined. Lung histology was evaluated for lung inflammation/injury. BAL cells were cultured and stimulated with PBS, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4hr and supernatants were evaluated for cytokine content. In uninjured mice, we observed differences due to the lavage and euthanasia methods. The lavage method increased uninjured and O 3 exposure total cells and total protein/albumin with 800-μL instillation having the highest values. Isoflurane increased uninjured total BAL cells, while C0 2 euthanasia increased the uninjured total protein/albumin levels. These effects limited the ability to detect differences in BAL injury measures following O 3 exposure. In conclusion, the method of lavage and euthanasia affects measures of lung inflammation/injury and should be considered a variable in model assessment.

  17. Modulation of gene expression in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exposed to bronchoalveolar fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul G Lone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, is an important pathogen of swine throughout the world. It must rapidly overcome the innate pulmonary immune defenses of the pig to cause disease. To better understand this process, the objective of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in a medium that mimics the lung environment early in the infection process. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF contains innate immune and other components found in the lungs, we examined gene expression of a virulent serovar 1 strain of A. pleuropneumoniae after a 30 min exposure to BALF, using DNA microarrays and real-time PCR. The functional classes of genes found to be up-regulated most often in BALF were those encoding proteins involved in energy metabolism, especially anaerobic metabolism, and in cell envelope, DNA, and protein biosynthesis. Transcription of a number of known virulence genes including apxIVA and the gene for SapF, a protein which is involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides, was also up-regulated in BALF. Seventy-nine percent of the genes that were up-regulated in BALF encoded a known protein product, and of these, 44% had been reported to be either expressed in vivo and/or involved in virulence. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that in early stages of infection, A. pleuropneumoniae may modulate expression of genes involved in anaerobic energy generation and in the synthesis of proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis, as well as established virulence factors. Given that many of these genes are thought to be expressed in vivo or involved in virulence, incubation in BALF appears, at least partially, to simulate in vivo conditions and may provide a useful medium for the discovery of novel vaccine or therapeutic targets.

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal rats stimulates DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of alveolar type II cells after lung injury is important for the restoration of the alveolar epithelium. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) may represent an important source of growth factors for alveolar type II cells. To test this possibility, BALF fluid was collected from normal rats, concentrated 10-fold by Amicon filtration, and tested for its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. BALF induced a dose-dependent increase in type II cell DNA synthesis resulting in a 6-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar doses also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into rat lung fibroblasts by 6- to 8-fold. Removal of pulmonary surface active material by centrifugation did not significantly reduce the stimulatory activity of BALF for type II cells. The stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by BALF was reduced by 100% after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, and by approximately 80% after reduction with dithiothreitol, and after trypsin treatment. Dialysis of BALF against 1 N acetic acid resulted in a 27% reduction in stimulatory activity. The effect of BALF in promoting type II cell DNA synthesis was more pronounced when tested in the presence of serum, although serum itself has very little effect on type II cell DNA synthesis. When BALF was tested in combination with other substances that stimulate type II cell DNA synthesis (cholera toxin, insulin, epidermal growth factor, and acidic fibroblast growth factor), additive effects or greater were observed. When BALF was chromatographed over Sephadex G150, the activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa

  19. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluids of Pigs by PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, A. Katrin; Runge, Martin; Ganter, Martin; Feenstra, Anne A.; Delbeck, Friedrich; Kirchhoff, Helga

    1998-01-01

    In the present investigation we developed a method for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs by PCR with a primer pair flanking a DNA fragment of 853 bp specific for M. hyopneumoniae. Several methods were tested to eliminate the amplification inhibitors present in BALFs. The best results were obtained by the extraction of the DNA from the BALFs. By the PCR performed with the extracted DNA, 102 CFU of M. hyopneumoniae could be detected in 1 ml of BALF from specific-pathogen-free swine experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae. DNA from 11 other mycoplasma species and 17 cell-walled bacterial species colonizing the respiratory tracts of pigs was not amplified. In a field study BALFs from 40 pigs from farms with a history of chronic pneumonia were tested for M. hyopneumoniae by cultivation and by PCR (i) with BALFs incubated in Friis medium and (ii) with DNA extracted from the BALFs. In addition, PCR was performed with postmortem lung washings from 19 of the 40 pigs, and immunofluorescence tests were carried out with sections of lungs from 18 of the 40 pigs. M. hyopneumoniae could not be detected in 18 of the 40 pigs by any of the five methods tested. The remaining 22 pigs showed a positive reaction by the PCR with DNA extracted from the BALFs and variable positive reactions by the other tests. A complete correspondence could be observed between the immunofluorescence test result and the result of PCR with DNA. The investigation shows that the PCR with DNA extracted from BALFs is a suitable technique for the sensitive and specific in vivo detection of M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:9650949

  20. Concentrations of cysteinyl leukotrienes in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of cats with experimentally induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Londa J; Berghaus, Roy D; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate changes in cysteinyl leukotriene (LT) concentrations in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in cats with experimentally induced asthma. 19 cats with experimentally induced asthma and 5 control cats. Cats were sensitized to Bermuda grass or house dust mite allergen, and phenotypic features of asthma were confirmed with intradermal skin testing, evaluation of BALF eosinophil percentages, and pulmonary function testing. A competitive ELISA kit for LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 was used for quantitative analysis of LTs. Urinary creatinine concentrations and BALF total protein (TP) concentrations were measured, and urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios and BALF LT-to-TP ratios were calculated. Mean urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios did not differ significantly between control cats and allergen-sensitized cats before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or allergen, respectively. In BALF the mean LT-to-TP ratio of control cats did not differ significantly before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline. Asthmatic cats had BALF LT-to-TP ratios that were significantly lower than control cats at all time points, whereas ratios for asthmatic cats did not differ significantly among the various time points. Although LTs were readily detectable in urine, no significant increases in urinary LT concentrations were detected after challenge in allergen-sensitized cats. Spot testing of urinary LT concentrations appears to have no clinical benefit for use in monitoring the inflammatory asthmatic state in cats. The possibility that cysteinyl LTs bind effectively to their target receptors in BALF and, thus, decrease free LT concentrations deserves further study.

  1. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, gallium-67 lung scanning and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in asbestos exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delclos, G.L.; Flitcraft, D.G.; Brousseau, K.P.; Windsor, N.T.; Nelson, D.L.; Wilson, R.K.; Lawrence, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined different markers of lung immunologic and inflammatory responses to previous asbestos exposure. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) lung scans and measured serum and BAL soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels in 32 subjects with a history of significant asbestos exposure, 14 without (EXP) and 18 with (ASB) radiographic evidence of asbestosis. BAL analysis revealed increases in neutrophils in both ASB and EXP when compared to controls (P less than 0.01), which persisted after adjustment for smoking category. Although significant abnormalities of macrophage and total lymphocyte profiles were not found in the study population, lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed elevation of BAL T4/T8 ratios in the entire study group (ASB + EXP) when compared to controls (P less than 0.05), independent of smoking category. 67 Ga lung scan activity was increased in 56% of ASB and in 36% of EXP: no correlations between positive scans and different radiological and functional parameters could be found. There was no significant elevation of mean SACE, serum, or BAL IL-2R levels in any of the study categories. These data suggest that asbestos exposure may be associated with parenchymal inflammation, even in the absence of clinical criteria for asbestosis. Abnormalities of gallium uptake and of BAL analysis reflect the clinically inapparent inflammation. The increased BAL T4/T8 ratios observed suggest that abnormal local pulmonary immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung diseases

  2. Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Gene Xpert in Smear-Negative and Sputum-Scarce Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.; Butt, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) gene Xpert (Xpert MTB/RIF assay), to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance and compare it with that of mycobacterial cultures in a suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, from December 2012 to August 2013. Methodology: BAL specimens of 93 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis with smear-negative or sputumscarce disease, who presented to the Department of Pulmonology, FFH, Rawalpindi were inducted. A smear-negative case was one in whom three consecutive early morning sputum samples did not reveal acid fast bacilli when examined by microscopy with Zeihl Nelson (ZN) stain. Patients who had sputum amount less than 1 ml were defined to have sputumscarce disease. The same was evaluated with ZN stain, gene Xpert and mycobacterial cultures. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using culture as the gold standard. Results: The frequency of positive mycobacterial cultures was 85 (91.4%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of BAL gene Xpert to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 91.86%, 71.42%, 97.53% and 41.66% respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.33% and 100% to detect rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Bronchoalveolar lavage gene Xpert had a superior diagnostic yield in patients with either smear-negative or sputum-scarce pulmonary tuberculosis. Hence a positive Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. (author)

  3. Role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, J A; Adams, J A; Saldana, M A; Mavunda, K; Goldfinger, S; Vernon, D; Holzman, B; McKey, R M

    1991-06-01

    Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 16 pediatric patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and deterioration in pulmonary function suggestive of opportunistic infection. In 62% of the patients Pneumocystis carinii was identified. Culture results showed a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for one patient in addition to the Pneumocystis carinii. Bronchoscopy with lavage was well tolerated, with few complications even among patients with significant tachypnea and hypoxia. Because of its relative safety and effectiveness, this procedure should be considered the first invasive measurement used for evaluation of parenchymal lung disease in this population of patients.

  4. Soluble L-selectin concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from infants who develop chronic lung disease of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, S; Silverman, M; Shaw, R; Klein, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To explore the changes in neutrophil adhesion molecule expression and release into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) obtained from infants who developed chronic lung disease (CLD).
METHODS—BAL fluid was obtained from 37 infants: 18 (median gestation 26 weeks, birthweight 835 g) who developed CLD, 12 (29 weeks, 1345 g) with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and seven control infants (33 weeks, 2190g).
RESULTS—Soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin) in BAL fluid from the CLD and no...

  5. Toxic-oil syndrome. Gallium-67 scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage studies in patients with abnormal lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz, J.L.; Oteo, L.A.; Lopez, C.; Curto, L.M.; Burgaleta, C.; Campos, A.; Sueiro, A.

    1985-01-01

    The toxic-oil syndrome (TOS) is a multisystem disorder whose etiology and pathogenesis are as yet unknown. Lung alterations persist in a significant number of TOS patients due to the underlying vascular lesion. Computer-assisted 67 Ga scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) studies were performed in 14 TOS patients with sustained abnormal diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (Dco). No significant difference was observed between the 67 Ga uptake index of the TOS and control populations. Likewise, there was no significant difference in the number of effector cells recovered from the lungs of TOS patients and controls by bronchoalveolar lavage. However, a rise in IgA and IgG concentrations (p less than 0.002) and a fall in alpha 1-antitrypsin (p less than 0.05) and transferrin (p less than 0.01) were observed in the TOS group. Phospholipid and lecithin concentrations in the lavage fluid were similar for patients and controls. The alveolar macrophage function assayed in three TOS patients was normal. These observations raise new questions about the outcome of lung pathology in TOS and warrant further follow-up studies of the lung abnormalities observed

  6. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile

    2015-10-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the proinflammatory activity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in lung cancer and inflammatory diseases of respiratory organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Makarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proinflammatory activity of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was investigated using the biological test system (donor blood in 71 patients with lung cancer and inflammatory disease of respiratory organs (lung abscess, infiltrative tuberculosis, tuberculoma, fibrocavernous tuberculosis. The supernatant of BALF was purified by filtration through millipores and added to blood, and a nitroblue tetrazolium recovery test (HBT was carried out. Hank’s balanced salt solution was used in the control. The proinflammatory effect of BALF was defined as a diformazan-positive neutrophil count ratio in the experimental and control samples (stimulation index. The inflammatory process developing in lung cancer was active, as suggested by the accumulation of neutrophils in the lung and by the high proinflammatory activity of BALF, which were comparable with the similar indicators in lung abscess and fibrocavernous tuberculosis.

  8. Independent risk of mechanical ventilation for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Emborg, J.; Elkjaer, J.

    2001-01-01

    The use of mechanical ventilation (MV) for AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) has varied over time. The introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy has changed the pathophysiology of PCP. In the present study, we attempted to identify factors predictive of severe respiratory......%). In a logistic regression analysis, higher age, increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophilia and a positive BAL cytomegalovirus CMV culture were associated with the need of MV. In multivariate analyses, only BAL neutrophilia remained independently predictive of mechanical ventilation. In conclusion, short......-term mortality remained high after the introduction of adjunctive corticosteroid therapy. BAL neutrophilia may be a useful prognostic marker to identify patients at high risk of requiring mechanical ventilation Udgivelsesdato: 2001/8...

  9. Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia syndrome presenting with neutrophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after breast-conserving therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Sahoko; Jinta, Torahiko; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko; Fujie, Toshihide; Sumi, Yuki; Inase, Naohiko

    2012-01-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with a dry cough and fever 4 months after tangential radiation therapy (RT) following conserving surgery for breast cancer. Chest radiography and CT demonstrated consolidation with air bronchogram outside the irradiated area. Neutrophil granulocytes were abundant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (39.6% of total cells), and transbronchial lung biopsy revealed organising pneumonia (OP) histologically. Antibiotic therapy had no effect, but corticosteroid therapy brought about clinical improvement. Her condition was diagnosed as bronchiolitis obliterans OP (BOOP) syndrome. Lymphocytic BALF has been identified as a characteristic of BOOP syndrome induced after RT for breast cancer. The BALF in this case, however, was neutrophilic. In our analysis of differential cell counts in the BALF of 24 patients with BOOP syndrome, the BALF was neutrophilic (>5%) in 16 (76%) cases, and the neutrophilia was severe in some of those patients. PMID:22605699

  10. Bacteriological Profile of Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery and Evaluation of a Bacterial Filter using Protected Broncho-Alveolar Lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempe, D K; Mehta, N; Mishra, B; Tondon, M S; Tomar, A S; Budharaja, P; Nigam, M

    1998-01-01

    Twenty seven patients undergoing elective open heart surgery were included in this prospective study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group C (n = 12) constituted the control group in whom no breathing filter was used in the anaesthesia circuit in the operating room or in the ICU. Humidification of breathing gases was achieved with the help of conventional heated humidifier. In group F (n = 15), heat and moisture exahanging bacterial / viral filter was incorporated in the breathing circuit at the patient end between the catheter mount and Y connection of the breathing circuit. In both the groups, samples of throat swab, protected broncho-alveolar lavage with double catheter and Ryles tube aspirate were collected preoperatively (in the operation theatre) and postoperatively (in the Intensive Care Unit on day 1). All the samples were sent to the laboratory immediately after the collection for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity. Pathogenic organisms were isolated from a total of 9 patients (33%) preoperatively. Exogenous spread of the organisms to the lungs was considered to have occurred if new pathogenic organisms were isolated from the postoperative bronchoalveolar lavage and the simultaneous samples of the throat swab and Ryles tube did not contain the same organism. By this definition, the exogenous spread of the organisms occurred in one patient in group C and in no patient in group F (P = 0.46, Fishers test). The commonest organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. We conclude that colonization of the pathogenic organisms is common (33%) in orophrynx and gastrointestinal tract in hospitalized patients. There was no difference in the exogenous spread of the organisms between the two groups. The unity of the filter, therefore, appears to be limited to prevent contamination of anaesthesia machines or ventilators as has been shown by earlier studies.

  11. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies

  12. Radiation-induced increase in hyaluronan and fibronectin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from breast cancer patients is suppressed by smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Nilsson, K.; Haellgren, R.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R.; Sandstroem, T.; Saernstrand, B.

    1992-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was analysed from 21 patients with breast cancer, stage T 1 N 0 M 0 , who had undergone tumour resection and postoperative local irradiation (accumulated dose 56 Gy). The lavage was performed two months after radiotherapy, in the anterior part of the lingula (left side) or of the right middle lobe (right side), depending on which side had been exposed to radiation. The patients had significantly increased concentrations of fibronectin (FN) (p<0.001), hyaluronan (HA) (p<0.01) and albumin (p<0.05) in BAL fluid compared with the healthy controls (n=19). However, when the patients were separated, according to smoking history, it was obvious that the inflammatory reaction occurred entirely in the nonsmoking patient group (n=10), whilst no difference could be found between the smoking patients (n=11) and the controls. In the nonsmoking patient group, there was a sevenfold increase in BAL concentrations of FN and a threefold increase in HA. Moreover, four patients had detectable levels of procollagen III peptide in BAL, all were nonsmokers. The smoking habits of the controls had no influence on the BAL measurements. These findings indicate that smoking interferes with the radiation-induced early inflammatory connective tissue reaction of the lung. Finally, the results justify further investigation of interaction of smoking with cancer treatment, both from the view of therapy effectiveness and reduction of adverse effects. (au)

  13. An Uncommon Procedure for a Rare Ailment: Massive Bronchoalveolar Lavage in a Patient with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Samurkaşoğlu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As a rare procedure, massive bronchoalveolar lavage (MBAL is a large-volume lavage which necessitates general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation (OLV. During MBAL isotonic saline is instilled into one lung and drained through one lumen of a double-lumen tube. MBAL is the most effective treatment for symptomatic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP. A 27-year-old male with PAP was scheduled for therapeutic MBALs. After standard preoxygenation, monitoring and anesthesia induction, a double-lumen tube was placed. Tube position was verified by a fiberoptic bronchoscope. The internal jugular vein, radial and pulmonary arteries were cannulated. A temperature probe and foley catheter were inserted. The nonventilated lung was filled with 1000 mL saline and then drained in each session. The left and right lung were lavaged with an interval of 2 weeks. A total of 20 L saline was used in each MBAL without retention. MBALs were terminated after the effluent became clear. Duration of the left and right MBALs were 325 and 275 minutes, respectively. Despite increased shunt fraction, oxygenation was within acceptable limits during OLV. The trachea was extubated in the operating room uneventfully after each MBAL. The patient’s clinical and laboratory findings were evidently improved. Consequently, if proper conditions are provided, MBAL is safe and beneficial despite its risks and the long duration.

  14. Identification of Oxidative Stress Related Proteins as Biomarkers for Lung Cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amancio Carnero

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD commonly coexist in smokers, and the presence of COPD increases the risk of developing LC. Cigarette smoke causes oxidative stress and an inflammatory response in lung cells, which in turn may be involved in COPD and lung cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify differential proteomic profiles related to oxidative stress response that were potentially involved in these two pathological entities. Protein content was assessed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of 60 patients classified in four groups: COPD, COPD and LC, LC, and control (neither COPD nor LC. Proteins were separated into spots by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and examined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF. A total of 16 oxidative stress regulatory proteins were differentially expressed in BAL samples from LC and/or COPD patients as compared with the control group. A distinct proteomic reactive oxygen species (ROS protein signature emerged that characterized lung cancer and COPD. In conclusion, our findings highlight the role of the oxidative stress response proteins in the pathogenic pathways of both diseases, and provide new candidate biomarkers and predictive tools for LC and COPD diagnosis.

  15. Correlation between Either Cupriavidus or Porphyromonas and Primary Pulmonary Tuberculosis Found by Analysing the Microbiota in Patients' Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuhua; Lin, Feishen; Cui, Zelin; Zhang, Xiangrong; Hu, Chunmei; Shen, Tian; Chen, Chunyan; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Xiaokui

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has gained attention in recent decades because of its rising incidence trend; simultaneously, increasing numbers of studies have identified the relationship between microbiota and chronic infectious diseases. In our work, we enrolled 32 patients with primary TB characterised by unilateral TB lesion formation diagnosed by chest radiographic exam. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was taken from both lungs. Twenty-four healthy people were chosen as controls. Pyrosequencing was performed on the V3 hypervariable region of 16S rDNA in all bacterial samples and used as a culture-independent method to describe the phylogenetic composition of the microbiota. Through pyrosequencing, 271,764 amplicons were detected in samples and analysed using tools in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and bioinformatics. These analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) of TB patients compared with healthy controls; in contrast, the microbiota of intra/extra-TB lesions were similar. These results showed that the dominant bacterial genus in the LRT of TB patients was Cupriavidus and not Streptococcus, which resulted in a significant change in the microbiota in TB patients. The abundance of Mycobacteria and Porphyromonas significantly increased inside TB lesions when compared with non-lesion-containing contralateral lungs. From these data, it can be concluded that Cupriavidus plays an important role in TB's secondary infection and that in addition to Mycobacteria, Porphyromonas may also be a co-factor in lesion formation. The mechanisms underlying this connection warrant further research.

  16. Analysis of culture-dependent versus culture-independent techniques for identification of bacteria in clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Prescott, Hallie C; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Lama, Vibha N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or "pathogen" species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Semi-quantitative X-ray microanalysis of bronchoalveolar lavage samples from silica-exposed and nonexposed subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusuardi, M.; Capelli, A.; Donner, C.F.; Capelli, O.; Velluti, G.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of quantifying alveolar dust burden in conditions of exposure to silica, four groups of subjects were submitted to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL): 10 healthy control subjects and 39 patients affected by diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD) never exposed to dust, 23 silicotic patients and 12 chronic bronchitis patients with a history of occupational exposure to silica dust. Five to ten million BAL recovered cells were analysed with an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA) system to determine the silicon content, expressed in a semi-quantitative way as silicon to sulphur (Si/S) ratio. The results were independent of smoking habit. The Si/S median values (interquartile range in brackets) for the four groups were 0.53 (0.5-0.65), 0.60 (0.41-0.8), 1.23 (1.06-1.39); 1.31 (1.11-1.97), respectively. Silicotics and simply exposed individuals did not show a significant discrepancy, but they were both significantly different in comparison with normal and DILD patients without history of exposure (p<0.001). 14.3% false negative cases were found, and 4.1% false positive cases (none among normal subjects). We did not se any significant relationships between the amount of silicon and the duration of exposure or the degree of chest X-ray involvement. A study of cytocentrifuge slides from the same subjects by polarizing light microscopy revealed a lower sensitivity (34% false negative cases). (au)

  18. Elevated IP-10 and IL-6 from bronchoalveolar lavage cells are biomarkers of non-cavitary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, A; Condos, R; Huie, M L; Dawson, R; Dheda, K; Bateman, E; Rom, W N; Weiden, M D

    2013-07-01

    Active TB disease can destroy lung parenchyma leading to cavities. Immune responses that predispose or protect individuals from lung damage during TB are poorly defined. To sample lung immune cells and assay bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell cytokine production. Enrolled subjects (n = 73) had bilateral infiltrates and underwent BAL. All had sputum culture demonstrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 22/73 (30%) had cavities on their chest radiograph. Those with cavities at presentation had a higher percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in BAL as well as lower inducible protein (IP) 10 (P IP-10 was negatively associated with BAL PMN. IP-10 and IL-6 expression above median reduces the odds of cavities by 79% and 78% in logistic regression models. IP-10 and IL-6 clustered with interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in a principal component analysis, while IL-4 clustered with PMN. Increasing IP-10 and IL-6 production by BAL cells is associated with non-cavitary TB in patients who present with radiographically advanced TB. IP-10 and IL-6 may reflect an effective T-helper 1 immune control pathway for TB, attenuating tuberculous lung destruction.

  19. Bronchoalveolar lavage is an ideal tool in evaluation of local immune response of pigs vaccinated with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine

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    Shiney George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL technique in evaluating the local immune response of pig immunized with Pasteurella multocida bacterin vaccine. Materials and Methods: Weaned piglets were immunized with formalin-inactivated P52 strain of P. multocida bacterin and evaluated for pulmonary immune response in BAL fluid. BAL was performed before vaccination and at different post vaccination days. The BAL fluid was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the development of P. multocida specific antibody isotypes and also evaluated for different cell populations using standard protocol. Results: The average recovery percentage of BAL fluid varies from 58.33 to 61.33 in vaccinated and control group of piglets. The BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs showed increase in antibody titer up to 60th days post vaccination (8.98±0.33, IgG being the predominant isotype reached maximum titer of 6.12±0.20 on 45th days post vaccination, followed by IgM and a meager concentration of IgA could be detected. An increased concentration of the lymphocyte population and induction of plasma cells was detected in the BAL fluid of vaccinated pigs. Conclusion: Though intranasal vaccination with P. multocida plain bacterin vaccine could not provoke a strong immune response, but is promising as lymphocyte population was increased and plasma cells were detected. BAL can be performed repeatedly up to 3/4 months of age in pigs to study pulmonary immune response without affecting their health.

  20. Functional and phenotypical comparison of myofibroblasts derived from biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage in mild asthma and scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Lennart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated fibroblasts, which have previously been obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, are proposed to be important cells in the fibrotic processes of asthma and scleroderma (SSc. We have studied the motility for BALF derived fibroblasts in patients with SSc that may explain the presence of these cells in the airway lumen. Furthermore, we have compared phenotypic alterations in activated fibroblasts from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc that may account for the distinct fibrotic responses. Methods Fibroblasts were cultured from BALF and bronchial biopsies from patients with mild asthma and SSc. The motility was studied using a cell migration assay. Western Blotting was used to study the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, ED-A fibronectin, and serine arginine splicing factor 20 (SRp20. The protein expression pattern was analyzed to reveal potential biomarkers using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and sequencing dual matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF. The Mann-Whitney method was used to calculate statistical significance. Results Increased migration and levels of ED-A fibronectin were observed in BALF fibroblasts from both groups of patients, supported by increased expression of RhoA, Rac1, and the splicing factor SRp20. However, these observations were exclusively accompanied by increased expression of α-SMA in patients with mild asthma. Compared to BALF fibroblasts in mild asthma, fibroblasts in SSc displayed a differential protein expression pattern of cytoskeletal- and scavenger proteins. These identified proteins facilitate cell migration, oxidative stress, and the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix observed in patients with SSc. Conclusion This study demonstrates a possible origin for fibroblasts in the airway lumen in patients with SSc and important differences between fibroblast

  1. Diagnostic Performance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid CD4/CD8 Ratio for Sarcoidosis: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongchun; Pang, Caishuang; Wu, Yanqiu; Li, Diandian; Wan, Chun; Liao, Zenglin; Yang, Ting; Chen, Lei; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-06-01

    The usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) CD4/CD8 ratio for diagnosing sarcoidosis has been reported in many studies with variable results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the overall diagnostic accuracy of BALF CD4/CD8 ratio based on the bulk of published evidence. Studies published prior to June 2015 and indexed in PubMed, OVID, Web of Science, Scopus and other databases were evaluated for inclusion. Data on sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were pooled from included studies. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were used to summarize overall test performance. Deeks's funnel plot was used to detect publication bias. Sixteen publications with 1885 subjects met our inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates of the diagnostic performance of the BALF CD4/CD8 ratio were as follows: sensitivity, 0.70 (95%CI 0.64-0.75); specificity, 0.83 (95%CI 0.78-0.86); PLR, 4.04 (95%CI 3.13-5.20); NLR, 0.36 (95%CI 0.30-0.44); and DOR, 11.17 (95%CI 7.31-17.07). The area under the SROC curve was 0.84 (95%CI 0.81-0.87). There was no evidence of publication bias. Measuring the BALF CD4/CD8 ratio may assist in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis when interpreted in parallel with other diagnostic factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia treated with a broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenadel, I; Kiworr, M; Genitsariotis, R; Zeidler, D; Lorenz, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In a retrospective study the value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in the diagnosis of pneumonia was investigated in 95 immunocompromised patients suffering from haematological disorders and receiving a regimen of broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents (BSAR).
METHODS—With the exception of four afebrile patients, all had fever, raised C reactive protein (CRP) levels, and new infiltrates visible on chest radiography. All patients underwent BAL to identify the organism causing the pneumonia and surveillance cultures were performed regularly for pathogens at different sites. Following classification of the isolates, patients with positive cultures were subdivided into two groups, pathogenic or contaminated. We investigated whether relevant pathogens were cultured only from the BAL fluid and whether they were susceptible to BSAR.
RESULTS—Although 77 of the 95 patients were thrombocytopenic, bleeding during BAL occurred in only 15% of all patients. Ten days after the procedure the fever improved in 88% of patients, radiographic findings improved in 71%, and CRP levels improved in 75% of patients; 22% of patients died within 28 days. Pathologically relevant isolates were found in 65% of all patients. Respiratory pathogens were detected only in the BAL fluid of 29 of the 95 patients (35% Gram positive species, 40% Gram negative species, 11% Mycobacterium, 11% fungi, and 3% cytomegalovirus). In 16 of these 29 patients (55%) the pathogens cultured only from the BAL fluid were resistant to treatment. Pathogens detected only in the BAL fluid were not susceptible to a standard broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal regimen including teicoplanin, ceftriaxon, tobramycin, and amphotericin B in 12 of the 29 patients (41%).
CONCLUSIONS—Our data suggest that 12 patients were treated with broad spectrum antimicrobial agents which were not directed at the appropriate organism on in vitro sensitivity tests without BAL. BAL is a relatively safe

  3. Coinfection and Mortality in Pneumonia-Related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients with Bronchoalveolar Lavage: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kuo-Chin; Chiu, Li-Chung; Hung, Chen-Yiu; Chang, Chih-Hao; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Huang, Chung-Chi; Hu, Han-Chung

    2017-05-01

    Pneumonia is the leading risk factor of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is increasing studies in patients with pneumonia to reveal that coinfection with viral and bacterial infection can lead to poorer outcomes than no coinfection. This study evaluated the role of coinfection identified through bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) examination on the outcomes of pneumonia-related ARDS. We performed a prospective observational study at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from October 2012 to May 2015. Adult patients were included if they met the Berlin definition of ARDS. The indications for BAL were clinically suspected pneumonia-related ARDS and no definite microbial sample identified from tracheal aspirate or sputum. The presence of microbial pathogens and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Of the 19,936 patients screened, 902 (4.5%) fulfilled the Berlin definition of ARDS. Of these patients, 255 (22.7%) had pneumonia-related ARDS and were included for analysis. A total of 142 (55.7%) patients were identified to have a microbial pathogen through BAL and were classified into three groups: a virus-only group (n = 41 [28.9%]), no virus group (n = 60 [42.2%]), and coinfection group (n = 41 [28.9%]). ARDS severity did not differ significantly between the groups (P = 0.43). The hospital mortality rates were 53.7% in virus-only identified group, 63.3% in no virus identified group, and 80.5% in coinfection identified group. The coinfection group had significantly higher mortality than virus-only group (80.5% vs. 53.7%; P = 0.01). In patients with pneumonia-related ARDS, the BAL pathogen-positive patients had a trend of higher mortality rate than pathogen-negative patients. Coinfection with a virus and another pathogen was associated with increased hospital mortality in pneumonia-related ARDS patients.

  4. Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Species Isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples Using Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Kianipour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida dubliniensis is a newly diagnosed species very similar to Candida albicans phenotypically and first discovered in the mouth of people with AIDS in 1995. Among the different phenotypic and genotypic methods, a cost-effective method should be selected which makes it possible to differentiate these similar species. Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism with MspI enzyme and the Duplex-PCR method were done by DNA extraction using boiling. The sequencing of the amplified ribosomal region was used to confirm the C. dubliniensis species. Direct examination and colony count of the yeasts were applied for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL samples and the growth rate of the yeasts were studied at 45°C. To understand the ability formation of chlamydoconidia in yeast isolates, they were separately cultured on the sunflower seed agar, wheat flour agar, and corn meal agar media. Results: Fifty-nine (49.2% yeast colonies were identified from the total of 120 BAL specimens. Twenty-nine isolated yeasts; including 17 (58.6% of C. albicans/dubliniensis complex and 12 (41.4% of nonalbicans isolates produced pseudohypha or blastoconidia in direct smear with a mean colony count of 42000 CFU/mL. C. albicans with the frequency of 15 (42.9% were the most common isolated yeasts, whereas C. dubliniensis was identified in two nonHIV patients. Conclusion: Sequencing of the replicated gene fragment is the best method for identifying the yeasts, but the determination of the species by phenotypic methods such as the creation of chlamydoconidia in sunflower seeds agar and wheat flour agar media can be cost-effective, have sensitivity and acceptable quality.

  5. Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Species Isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples Using Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianipour, Sahar; Ardestani, Mohammad Emami; Dehghan, Parvin

    2018-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a newly diagnosed species very similar to Candida albicans phenotypically and first discovered in the mouth of people with AIDS in 1995. Among the different phenotypic and genotypic methods, a cost-effective method should be selected which makes it possible to differentiate these similar species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism with MspI enzyme and the Duplex-PCR method were done by DNA extraction using boiling. The sequencing of the amplified ribosomal region was used to confirm the C. dubliniensis species. Direct examination and colony count of the yeasts were applied for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and the growth rate of the yeasts were studied at 45°C. To understand the ability formation of chlamydoconidia in yeast isolates, they were separately cultured on the sunflower seed agar, wheat flour agar, and corn meal agar media. Fifty-nine (49.2%) yeast colonies were identified from the total of 120 BAL specimens. Twenty-nine isolated yeasts; including 17 (58.6%) of C. albicans / dubliniensis complex and 12 (41.4%) of nonalbicans isolates produced pseudohypha or blastoconidia in direct smear with a mean colony count of 42000 CFU/mL. C. albicans with the frequency of 15 (42.9%) were the most common isolated yeasts, whereas C. dubliniensis was identified in two nonHIV patients. Sequencing of the replicated gene fragment is the best method for identifying the yeasts, but the determination of the species by phenotypic methods such as the creation of chlamydoconidia in sunflower seeds agar and wheat flour agar media can be cost-effective, have sensitivity and acceptable quality.

  6. Correlation between HRCT findings, pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology in interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Reuter, M.; Schnabel, A.; Gross, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    A prospective study correlating high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), lung function tests (PFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fifty-three RA patients with suspected ILD (19 men, 34 women) underwent 71 HRCT (14 of 53 with sequential HRCT, mean follow-up 24.3 months). The HRCT evaluation by two observers on consensus included a semi-quantitative characterisation of lesion pattern and profusion on representative anatomical levels. Fifty-two HRCT were followed by PFT and BAL. Agreement or discordance of HRCT-, PFT- and BAL findings were analysed with Pearson's correlation, κ score and McNemar's test. Tobacco-fume exposure was estimated in pack years. Smoking/non-smoking groups were compared with Student's t test. In 49 of 53 patients, HRCT was suggestive of ILD associated with RA (66 of 71 HRCT). Reticular lesions were found in 40 of 53 patients, in 15 of 40 presenting as mixed pattern with ground-glass opacities (GGO). Pure reticular patterns predominated in patients with long duration of ILD (p>0.01). Pure GGO were not observed. Lesion profusion was highly variable and correlated moderately negative with diffusion capacity (mean 88.2% (SD±20.9%); r=-0.54; p 0.2), but not towards lymphocytosis (κ=0.10; p=0.23; McNemar test p>0.2). Differences in smoking history were not significant (p>0.1). The HRCT appears most appropriate for the detection and follow-up of ILD associated with RA. The PFT and BAL correlate only partially with lesion profusion or grading on HRCT, but they contribute valuable information about dynamic lung function and differential diagnoses (pneumonia, medication side effects). (orig.)

  7. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG producing IL-18 reduces IL-5 production and bronchoalveolar eosinophilia induced by an allergic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biet, F; Duez, C; Kremer, L; Marquillies, P; Amniai, L; Tonnel, A-B; Locht, C; Pestel, J

    2005-08-01

    Allergic reactions occur through the exacerbated induction of a Th2 cell type expression profile and can be prevented by agents favoring a Th1 profile. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is able to induce high IFN-gamma levels and has been shown to decrease experimentally induced allergy. The induction of IFN-gamma is mediated by interleukin (IL)-12 known to be secreted upon mycobacterial infections and can be enhanced by IL-18 acting in synergy with IL-12. We evaluated the ability of a recombinant BCG strain producing IL-18 (rBCG) to modify the Th2 type responses in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-dependent allergic reaction. Mice were injected intraperitoneally or intranasally with OVA at days 0 and 15 and exposed to an OVA aerosol challenge at days 29, 30, 31 and 34. At days 0 and 15, two additional groups of mice received OVA together with 5 x 10(6) colony forming units of either rBCG or nonrecombinant BCG. A time-course analysis of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1 and IgG2a levels indicated no significant difference between the three groups of mice. However, following in vitro stimulation with OVA, lymph node cells from rBCG-treated mice produced less IL-5 and more IFN-gamma than those of mice injected with nonrecombinant BCG. In addition, 48 h after the last OVA challenge, a strong reduction of bronchoalveolar eosinophilia was found in the rBCG-injected mice compared to the nontreated or nonrecombinant BCG-treated groups. These results indicate that the production of IL-18 by rBCG may enhance the immunomodulatory properties of BCG that suppress pulmonary Th2 responses and, in particular, decrease airway eosinophilia.

  8. Corticosteroid therapy and airflow obstruction influence the bronchial microbiome, which is distinct from that of bronchoalveolar lavage in asthmatic airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denner, Darcy R.; Sangwan, Naseer; Becker, Julia B.; Hogarth, D. Kyle; Oldham, Justin; Castillo, Jamee; Sperling, Anne I.; Solway, Julian; Naureckas, Edward T.; Gilbert, Jack A.; White, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    The lung has a diverse microbiome that is modest in biomass. This microbiome differs in asthmatic patients compared with control subjects, but the effects of clinical characteristics on the microbial community composition and structure are not clear. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the composition and structure of the lower airway microbiome correlated with clinical characteristics of chronic persistent asthma, including airflow obstruction, use of corticosteroid medications, and presence of airway eosinophilia. METHODS: DNA was extracted from endobronchial brushings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from 39 asthmatic patients and 19 control subjects, along with negative control samples. 16S rRNA V4 amplicon sequencing was used to compare the relative abundance of bacterial genera with clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Differential feature selection analysis revealed significant differences in microbial diversity between brush and lavage samples from asthmatic patients and control subjects. Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Rickettsia species were significantly enriched in samples from asthmatic patients, whereas Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Veillonella species were enriched in brush samples from control subjects. Generalized linear models on brush samples demonstrated oral corticosteroid use as an important factor affecting the relative abundance of the taxa that were significantly enriched in asthmatic patients. In addition, bacterial α-diversity in brush samples from asthmatic patients was correlated with FEV1 and the proportion of lavage eosinophils. CONCLUSION: The diversity and composition of the bronchial airway microbiome of asthmatic patients is distinct from that of nonasthmatic control subjects and influenced by worsening airflow obstruction and corticosteroid use. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from lung cancer patients using label-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmmier, Abduladim; O'Brien, Michael Emmet; Lynch, Vincent; Clynes, Martin; Morgan, Ross; Dowling, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women throughout the world. The need to detect lung cancer at an early, potentially curable stage, is essential and may reduce mortality by 20%. The aim of this study was to identify distinct proteomic profiles in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and plasma that are able to discriminate individuals with benign disease from those with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using label-free mass spectrometry analysis of BALF during discovery-phase analysis, a significant number of proteins were found to have different abundance levels when comparing control to adenocarcinoma (AD) or squamous cell lung carcinoma (SqCC). Validation of candidate biomarkers identified in BALF was performed in a larger cohort of plasma samples by detection with enzyme-linked immunoassay. Four proteins (Cystatin-C, TIMP-1, Lipocalin-2 and HSP70/HSPA1A) were selected as a representative group from discovery phase mass spectrometry BALF analysis. Plasma levels of TIMP-1, Lipocalin-2 and Cystatin-C were found to be significantly elevated in AD and SqCC compared to control. The results presented in this study indicate that BALF is an important proximal biofluid for the discovery and identification of candidate lung cancer biomarkers. There is good correlation between the trend of protein abundance levels in BALF and that of plasma which validates this approach to develop a blood biomarker to aid lung cancer diagnosis, particularly in the era of lung cancer screening. The protein signatures identified also provide insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with lung malignancy.

  10. Effects of Asian dust event particles on inflammation markers in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage in pulmonary hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y.-C.; Chan, C.-C.; Wang, P.-Y.; Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, T.-J.

    2004-01-01

    The health impact of dust events from China has become a concern within China and in its neighboring countries. Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between particulate matter exposure and cardiopulmonary mortality. Here, we use pulmonary hypertensive rat models to examine inflammation markers in the lung and in peripheral blood after exposure to Asian dust storm particles. Using a nose-only inhalation system, eight pulmonary hypertensive rats were exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from an actual Asian dust storm that took place between March 18 and 19, 2002; four control rats were also exposed to room air. Four rats exposed to CAPs of 315.6 μg/m 3 for 6 h were classified as the low-exposure group, and another four rats exposed to CAPs of 684.5 μg/m 3 for 4.5 h were classified as the high-exposure group. The animals were sacrificed 36 h after exposure. Inflammation markers in the peripheral blood and in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were analyzed, and IL-6 in BAL was also determined using ELISA. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood increased with increased CAP exposure levels (P<0.001, test for trend). In BAL analysis, total cell numbers and the proportion of neutrophil also increased with increased CAP levels (P<0.001, test for trend for both markers). Positive dose-response relationships between CAP exposure and total protein (P<0.05) and between CAPs and LDH activity (P<0.05) were also observed. Moreover, IL-6 protein in BAL increasing with CAP levels (P<0.05, test for trend) was demonstrated. Our results revealed that exposure to particulate matters during an Asian dust storm could increase lung inflammation and injury in pulmonary hypertensive rats. Further studies are needed to determine the components of dust storm particles that may contribute to the particle toxicity

  11. The Prevalence of Pneumocystis jiroveci in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens of Lung Transplant Recipients Examined by the Nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Sadraei, Javid; Mahmoodzadeh Poornaki, Abbas; Rezavand, Babak; Zarrinfar, Hossein; Abdi, Jahangir; Mohammadi, Younes

    2014-12-01

    The use of immune suppressive drugs for organ transplant recipients predisposes them to opportunistic infections, especially by fungal agents. Pneumocystis jiroveci, as an opportunistic pathogen, endangers the patients' life in those with immune system disorders. Early detection of latent Pneumocystis infection in susceptible patients may help choose the optimal treatment for these patients. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the colonization of latent P. jiroveci infection among lung transplant recipients. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on lung transplant recipients. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens were collected from 32 patients undergoing bronchoscopy. The samples were aseptically homogenized by 10 mM dithiothreitol, and their DNA was extracted. The mtLSUrRNA gene of P. jiroveci was amplified using nested PCR in two stages. Nested PCR was performed using external primers of pAZ-102-E and pAZ102-H followed by using the PCR product of the first stage and internal primers of pAZ-102-E and pAZ102-L2. The genome of P. jiroveci was revealed by a 346 bp PCR product in the initial amplification and a 120 bp product in the nested PCR. The results showed that seven BAL specimens (21.9%) from lung transplant recipients were positive for P. jiroveci. In molecular epidemiology studies, nested PCR has higher sensitivity than PCR. Results of this study support the colonization of P. jiroveci in patients receiving lung transplantation. Patients who are carriers of P. jiroveci are at a higher risk of P. jiroveci pneumonia.

  12. Diagnostic usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage, Ga scintigraphy and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in granulomatous lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Ikuo; Tsuneta, Yasuhiro; Terai, Tsugio; Nishimura, Masaharu; Munakata, Mitsuru

    1983-01-01

    Cellular components of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were studied in 26 sarcoid patients, 8 patients with farmer's lung, 10 healthy controls and 10 control patients. The investigations by Ga scintigraphy or transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and measurement of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) activity were also carried out in 21 sarcoid patients and 8 patients with farmer's lung. 1) Percentage of foamy cells in alveolar ma crophage fraction, percentage of lymphocytes and number of mast cells were increased significantly in BLA fluid from patients with farmer's lung as compared with that from sarcoid patients. Analysis of cellular component of BAL flu id is useful for differential diagnosis of these diseases. 2) Granulomatous lung lesions were frequently observed in specimens obtained by TBLB from patients with sarcoidosis and farmer's lung who showed abnormal Ga uptake in lung. In contrast, there was no significant difference in percentage of lymphocytes in BAL fluid between patients whose pulmonary Ga uptake was positive and those in whom pulmonary Ga uptake was negative. To investigate the mechanism of pulmonary Ga accumulation in granulomatous lung disease, BAL was performed in 2 sarcoid patients and 3 patients with farmer's lung at 48 to 72 hrs after Ga injection. The radioactivity in cell fractions was evaluated at 96 hrs after Ga injection. Most of the radioactivity was found in macrophages, with little in lymphocytes. Pulmonary Ga uptake in patients with sarcoidosis and farmer' s lung reflects granuloma formation or accumulation of activated macrophages in lung, but not the intensity of T-cell alveolitis. 3) Some relationship among SACE, granulomatous lung lesions in specimens obtained by TBLB and abnormal Ga accumulation in lung or hilar lymphnodes in sarcoid patients was observed, suggesting that SACE might reflect the degree of granuloma formation in sarcoidosis. (J.P.N.)

  13. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  14. The impact of surfactant protein-A on ozone-induced changes in the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage proteome

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    Floros Joanna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ozone is a major component of air pollution. Exposure to this powerful oxidizing agent can cause or exacerbate many lung conditions, especially those involving innate immunity. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A plays many roles in innate immunity by participating directly in host defense as it exerts opsonin function, or indirectly via its ability to regulate alveolar macrophages and other innate immune cells. The mechanism(s responsible for ozone-induced pathophysiology, while likely related to oxidative stress, are not well understood. Methods We employed 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, a discovery proteomics approach, coupled with MALDI-ToF/ToF to compare the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL proteomes in wild type (WT and SP-A knockout (KO mice and to assess the impact of ozone or filtered air on the expression of BAL proteins. Using the PANTHER database and the published literature most identified proteins were placed into three functional groups. Results We identified 66 proteins and focused our analysis on these proteins. Many of them fell into three categories: defense and immunity; redox regulation; and protein metabolism, modification and chaperones. In response to the oxidative stress of acute ozone exposure (2 ppm; 3 hours there were many significant changes in levels of expression of proteins in these groups. Most of the proteins in the redox group were decreased, the proteins involved in protein metabolism increased, and roughly equal numbers of increases and decreases were seen in the defense and immunity group. Responses between WT and KO mice were similar in many respects. However, the percent change was consistently greater in the KO mice and there were more changes that achieved statistical significance in the KO mice, with levels of expression in filtered air-exposed KO mice being closer to ozone-exposed WT mice than to filtered air-exposed WT mice. Conclusion We postulate that SP-A plays a role

  15. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid related cytokines in patients with IPF

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    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb combined with prednisone on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF related cytokines in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Methods: A total of 60 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/kg•d, continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg•d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg•d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb, ie. ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12- week treatment. ELISA was used to detect the levels of TNF-毩, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in BALF. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of serum HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN. The pulmonary function detector was used to measure TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT. Results: After treatment, TNF-毩 level in the control group was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05, while HA, ColⅢ, PCⅢ, and LN levels in the observation group were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. After treatment, TLC, VC, DLCO, and 6MWT in the two groups were significantly improved when compared with before treatment (P<0.05, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: EGb combined with prednisone can effectively enhance the levels of TNF-毩, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ in BALF in patients with IPF, and

  16. Mild hypothermia attenuates changes in respiratory system mechanics and modifies cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostál, P; Senkeřík, M; Pařízková, R; Bareš, D; Zivný, P; Zivná, H; Cerný, V

    2010-01-01

    Hypothermia was shown to attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury due to large tidal volumes. It is unclear if the protective effect of hypothermia is maintained under less injurious mechanical ventilation in animals without previous lung injury. Tracheostomized rats were randomly allocated to non-ventilated group (group C) or ventilated groups of normothermia (group N) and mild hypothermia (group H). After two hours of mechanical ventilation with inspiratory fraction of oxygen 1.0, respiratory rate 60 min(-1), tidal volume 10 ml x kg(-1), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 2 cm H2O or immediately after tracheostomy in non-ventilated animals inspiratory pressures were recorded, rats were sacrificed, pressure-volume (PV) curve of respiratory system constructed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and aortic blood samples obtained. Group N animals exhibited a higher rise in peak inspiratory pressures in comparison to group H animals. Shift of the PV curve to right, higher total protein and interleukin-6 levels in BAL fluid were observed in normothermia animals in comparison with hypothermia animals and non-ventilated controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was lower in the hypothermia group in comparison with normothermia and non-ventilated groups. Mild hypothermia attenuated changes in respiratory system mechanics and modified cytokine concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during low lung volume ventilation in animals without previous lung injury.

  17. Adenosine monophosphate is elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice with acute respiratory toxicity induced by nanoparticles with high surface hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Lea Ann; Hernández-Prieto, Raquel; Casas-Ferreira, Ana Maria; Jones, Marie-Christine; Riffo-Vasquez, Yanira; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Spina, Domenico; Jones, Stuart A; Smith, Norman W; Forbes, Ben; Page, Clive; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Inhaled nanomaterials present a challenge to traditional methods and understanding of respiratory toxicology. In this study, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to investigate relationships between nanoparticle hydrophobicity, inflammatory outcomes and the metabolic fingerprint in bronchoalveolar fluid. Measures of acute lung toxicity were assessed following single-dose intratracheal administration of nanoparticles with varying surface hydrophobicity (i.e. pegylated lipid nanocapsules, polyvinyl acetate nanoparticles and polystyrene beads; listed in order of increasing hydrophobicity). Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected from mice exposed to nanoparticles at a surface area dose of 220 cm(2) and metabolite fingerprints were acquired via ultra pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Particles with high surface hydrophobicity were pro-inflammatory. Multivariate analysis of the resultant small molecule fingerprints revealed clear discrimination between the vehicle control and polystyrene beads (p < 0.05), as well as between nanoparticles of different surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.0001). Further investigation of the metabolic fingerprints revealed that adenosine monophosphate (AMP) concentration in BAL correlated with neutrophilia (p < 0.01), CXCL1 levels (p < 0.05) and nanoparticle surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that extracellular AMP is an intermediary metabolite involved in adenine nucleotide-regulated neutrophilic inflammation as well as tissue damage, and could potentially be used to monitor nanoparticle-induced responses in the lung following pulmonary administration.

  18. Comparison of gallium-67 scanning, bronchoalveolar lavage, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Predicting response to therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baughman, R.P.; Fernandez, M.; Bosken, C.H.; Mantil, J.; Hurtubise, P.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium scan, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level determination prior to treatment with corticosteroids. Pulmonary function was tested before and after therapy. Increase in vital capacity after treatment ranged from 40 to 1,030 ml; 12 of the 16 patients studied had an increase of more than 200 ml. There was a close correlation between the percentage uptake of gallium scan and the increase of the vital capacity after therapy (r . 0.95, p less than 0.01). There was no relationship between the percentage of lymphocytes obtained on lavage and the changes in vital capacity with therapy (r . 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the changes in vital capacity and the ratio of T4(+):T8(+)lymphocytes (r . 0.62, p less than 0.05) and number of T4 (+) lymphocytes (r . 0.92, p less than 0.01) in the bronchoalveolar fluid. There was a low correlation between the pretreatment ACE level and the change in vital capacity (r . 0.368, p greater than 0.05)

  19. Lung inflammation in sarcoidosis: comparison of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels with bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 scanning assessment of the T lymphocyte alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberger, C.I.; Line, B.R.; Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Crystal, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is elevated in many patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and has been proposed as a measure of disease activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible relationship between serum ACE and direct measures of the intensity of the alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis as measured by bronchoalveolar lavage and gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scans. To accomplish this, 64 measurements of serum ACE, lavage T lymphocytes, and lung uptake of 67 Ga were performed in 41 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis. Elevations of serum ACE were found on at least one occasion in 17 patients (41%). However, serum ACE was found to be a poor predictor of the intensity of alveolitis in sarcoidosis as assessed by the quantitation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells that were T lymphocytes and by 67 Ga scanning. Elevated serum ACE did not predict which patients would have elevated proportions of lavage T lymphocytes, which patients would demonstrate increased pulmonary uptake of 67 Ga, or which patients would have high-intensity alveolitis as defined by a combination of these criteria. These observations suggest that while serum ACE may be useful in diagnosing sarcoidosis, it does not reflect accurately the intensity of the alveolitis of the pulmonary component of this disease. (author)

  20. Measuring (1,3)-β-D-glucan in tracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum for detection of suspected Candida pneumonia in immunocompromised and critically ill patients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kang-Cheng; Chou, Kun-Ta; Hsiao, Yi-Han; Tseng, Ching-Min; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Lee, Yu-Chin; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Kou, Yu Ru

    2017-04-08

    While Candida pneumonia is life-threatening, biomarker measurements to early detect suspected Candida pneumonia are lacking. This study compared the diagnostic values of measuring levels of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan in endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum to detect suspected Candida pneumonia in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. This prospective, observational study enrolled immunocompromised, critically ill, and ventilated patients with suspected fungal pneumonia in mixed intensive care units from November 2010 to October 2011. Patients with D-glucan confounding factors or other fungal infection were excluded. Endotracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were collected from each patient to perform a fungal smear, culture, and D-glucan assay. After screening 166 patients, 31 patients completed the study and were categorized into non-Candida pneumonia/non-candidemia (n = 18), suspected Candida pneumonia (n = 9), and non-Candida pneumonia/candidemia groups (n = 4). D-glucan levels in endotracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage were highest in suspected Candida pneumonia, while the serum D-glucan level was highest in non-Candida pneumonia/candidemia. In all patients, the D-glucan value in endotracheal aspirate was positively correlated with that in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. For the detection of suspected Candida pneumonia, the predictive performance (sensitivity/specificity/D-glucan cutoff [pg/ml]) of D-glucan in endotracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was 67%/82%/120 and 89%/86%/130, respectively, accounting for areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.833 and 0.939 (both P pneumonia in the absence of concurrent candidemia. D-glucan levels in both endotracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage, but not in serum, provide good diagnostic values to detect suspected Candida pneumonia and to serve as potential biomarkers for early detection in this patient population.

  1. Alveolar recruitment of ficolin-3 in response to acute pulmonary inflammation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plovsing, Ronni R; Berg, Ronan M G; Munthe-Fog, Lea

    2016-01-01

    acute lung and systemic inflammation induce recruitment of lectins in humans. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers received LPS intravenously (IV) or in a lung subsegment on two different occasions. Volunteers were evaluated by consecutive blood samples and by bronchoalveolar lavage 2, 4, 6, 8, or 24h...... acute phase response with an increase in CRP (precruitment...

  2. Allergen-specific IgG and IgA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in a model of experimental feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, C R; Byerly, J R; Decile, K C; Berghaus, R D; Walby, W F; Schelegle, E S; Hyde, D M; Gershwin, L J

    2003-12-15

    Allergic asthma, a Th2 cell driven response to inhaled allergens, has classically been thought of as predominantly mediated by IgE antibodies. To investigate the role of other immunoglobulin classes (e.g., IgG and IgA) in the immunopathogenesis of allergic asthma, levels of these allergen-specific immunoglobulins were measured in serum and mucosal fluids. Bermuda grass allergen (BGA)-specific IgG and IgA ELISAs in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were developed and optimized in an experimental model of BGA-induced feline asthma. Levels of BGA-specific IgG and IgA significantly increased over time in serum and BALF after allergen sensitization. Additionally, these elevated levels of BGA-specific IgG and IgA were seen in conjunction with the development of an asthmatic phenotype indicated by positive intradermal skin tests, enhanced airways hyperreactivity, and increased eosinophil percentages in the BALF.

  3. Correlative analysis of longitudinal changes in bronchoalveolar lavage, 67Gallium scanning, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Mitsuko; Takahashi, Hideki; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Matsuoka, Rokuro; Furuse, Makoto; Kitamura, Satoshi; Kira, Shiro.

    1987-01-01

    Despite the relatively high cost and complicated procedures, Gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) are increasingly advocated as more sensitive indicators of disease activity in sarcoidosis than chest X-ray and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (SACE). To evaluate the clinical usefulness of 67 Ga scanning and BAL, we followed 31 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, using these four parameters, at 9- to 24-month intervals over periods of 9 to 48 months. We obtained 68 complete evaluations. Close correlations were observed among chest X-ray, 67 Ga scanning, SACE, and the percent-age of lymphocytes in BAL fluid (p 67 Ga scanning and BAL are not necessarily indicated in the long-term management of pulmonary sarcoidosis. (author)

  4. A simple evaluation of numbers of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid under light microscopy. Analysis of 35 pulmonary nodular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Kawasumi, Hiromi; Nagano, Teruaki; Sasada, Shinji; Okamoto, Norio

    2008-01-01

    More than 1 asbestos body (AB) per ml of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) under light microscopy was defined as AB positive (ABP) and suggests an occupational asbestos exposure. We microscopically evaluated the AB number per one ml of BALF, which we defined as the AB concentration (ABC), using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytocentrifuge slides obtained from 35 patients having pulmonary nodular lesions (20 carcinoma and 15 nonneoplastic disease) and examined the correlation between ABC and clinicopathological data including findings on Helical computed tomography scan (HCTS) and occupational history of asbestos exposure (OHAE). BAL was performed by the standard technique without removing mucous with a gauze filter. AB was microscopically defined as a structure consisting of a core of transparent asbestos surrounded by an iron-protein coat. Twenty of 35 patients were ABP (ABP rate; 57%) and ABC ranged from 0 to 207.98/ml (mean ABC; 11.33/ml). Mean ABC was significantly higher in patients with OHAE (15.04/ml) compared to that in patients without OHAE (3.23/ml). Twenty-two of 35 patients (63%) lacked abnormality on HCTS and among these, 12 patients (55%) were ABP. In 20 pulmonary carcinoma patients, the ABP rate was 85% and ABC ranged from 0 to 31.1/ml (Mean ABC; 2.99/ml). The ABP rate of pulmonary carcinoma patients was 40% (8 patients) and among these, 5 patients (63%) did not show any abnormality on HCTS. In conclusion, our method was simple and useful and should be applied to patients with pulmonary nodular lesions and OHAE, even if there are no abnormalities on HCTS. (author)

  5. OSCAR Is a Receptor for Surfactant Protein D That Activates TNF-α Release from Human CCR2+ Inflammatory Monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrow, Alexander D; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Bugatti, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    of recombinant SP-D and captured native SP-D from human bronchoalveolar lavage. OSCAR localized in an intracellular compartment of alveolar macrophages together with SP-D. Moreover, we found OSCAR on the surface of interstitial lung and blood CCR2(+) inflammatory monocytes, which secreted TNF-α when exposed...

  6. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analyses in conjunction with high-resolution computed tomography imaging as a diagnostic intervention for patients with suspected interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammaiyappan Chockalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL has gained acceptance for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease (ILD. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has reduced the clinical utility of BAL. This work has utilized the recommendations of the American Thoracic Society (ATS to optimize BAL and the findings have been associated with clinical examination and HRCT to precisely narrow down the cause of ILD. Materials and Methods: BAL was performed on ILD suspects at the target site chosen based on HRCT. The procedure, transport, processing, and analysis of BAL fluid were performed as per the ATS guidelines. The clinical data, HRCT findings and BAL report were used to narrow down the diagnosis of ILD. The statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance. Results: The BAL procedure was optimized as per the recommendations of the ATS. In a cohort of 50 patients, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, (8 hypersensitivity pneumonitis, (17 connective tissue disorder, (9 sarcoidosis, (3 pneumoconiosis, (5 acute respiratory distress syndrome, (2 eosinophilic lung disease (2 and lymphangitic carcinomatosa, (2 aspiration bronchiolitis (1 and pulmonary histiocytosis (1 were diagnosed. Statistically significant variation in differential counts was found in different ILDs. The different ILDs were classified based on the criteria described by the ATS. Clinical Significance: BAL along with clinical and HRCT findings improved the diagnostic accuracy by incorporating, the acute or chronic nature of the disease and the cause for acute exacerbation, which helped in the better management of ILDs.

  7. A Fast, Easy, and Customizable Eight-Color Flow Cytometric Method for Analysis of the Cellular Content of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubeuf, François; Becker, Julien; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Ebel, Claudine; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Hérault, Yann; Frossard, Nelly

    2017-06-19

    The cell composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) is an important indicator of airway inflammation. It is commonly determined by cytocentrifuging leukocytes on slides, then staining, identifying, and counting them as eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, or lymphocytes according to morphological criteria under light microscopy, where it is not always easy to distinguish macrophages from lymphocytes. We describe here a one-step, easy-to-use, and easy-to-customize 8-color flow cytometric method for performing differential cell count and comparing it to morphological counts on stained cytospins. This method identifies BAL cells by a simultaneous one-step immunolabeling procedure using antibodies to identify T cells, B cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. Morphological analysis of flow-sorted cell subsets is used to validate this protocol. An important advantage of this basic flow cytometry protocol is the ability to customize it by the addition of antibodies to study receptor expression at leukocyte cell surfaces and identify subclasses of inflammatory cells as needed. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Correlation of levels of alpha-defensins determined by HPLC-ESI-MS in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with the diagnosis of pneumonia in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirone, Chiara; Boccacci, Simona; Inzitari, Rosanna; Tana, Milena; Aurilia, Claudia; Fanali, Chiara; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Castagnola, Massimo; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    The presence of alpha-defensins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was investigated in a cohort of preterm newborns with gestational age (GA) groups: pneumonia group of nine neonates suffering from pulmonary infection (GA: 26.1 +/- 2.1 wk; birth weight: 787.4 +/- 309.9 g), with or without associated bloodstream infection, and nonpneumonia group of 15 neonates (GA: 27.7 +/- 2.0 wk; birth weight: 1019.0 +/- 319.8 g). BALF culture was positive for CONS (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 1), and Candida spp (n = 3). BALF samples were analyzed by HPLC-electrospray Ionization-mass spectrometer. The alpha-defensins 1-4 concentration, absolute and differential white cells count were measured. Relative amounts of alpha-defensins 1-4 and the absolute number of neutrophils were found significantly higher in the pneumonia group with respect to the nonpneumonia group (p < 0.05). Moreover, positive significant correlations between the number of neutrophils and the alpha-defensins 1-3 levels were observed. In conclusion, our data show that preterm newborns, also at the lower GA, are able to produce alpha-defensins, underlining that their innate defense system is already active before the at-term delivery date.

  9. Patients with collagen vascular disease and dyspnea. The value of gallium scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage in predicting response to steroid therapy and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.B.; Solinger, A.M.; Baughman, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with collagen vascular disease with or without pulmonary symptoms were studied to determine the value of gallium scan and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in predicting clinical outcome and response to steroid therapy. Thirty-six subjects, 20 with progressive dyspnea, were studied. Gallium uptake was seen in the lung in 17 of the 20 progressively dyspneic patient's and none of the 16 nonprogressive patients. The BAL fluid in the progressive patients had a higher percentage of neutrophils (13.4 percent +/- 2.88) and lymphocytes (16.1 percent +/- 2.75) than in the nonprogressive patients (neutrophils = 3.3 +/- 1.30 percent; lymphocytes = 5.6 +/- 1.57 percent. Of the 19 progressive patients who were treated with steroids or cyclophosphamide, six had only increased neutrophils in their BAL fluid and all died. The remaining 13 treated progressive patients had increased lymphocytes or a normal BAL (two patients): six had improvement in their vital capacity, six have had stable function, and one died. We found gallium scan and BAL useful in assessing progressive pulmonary fibrosis in collagen vascular disease

  10. Lower leukotriene C4 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatic subjects after 2.5 years of inhaled corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Oosterhoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids has been shown to result in improvement of symptoms and lung function in subjects with asthma. Arachidonic acid (AA metabolites are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. It was assessed whether differences could be found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL AA metabolite levels between subjects with asthma who were treated for 2.5 years with inhaled bronchodilators alone or in combination with inhaled corticosteroids. Prostaglandin (PGD2, PGF2α, 6-keto-PGF1α, thromboxane B2, leukotriene (LTC4 and LTB4 levels and cell numbers were assessed in BAL fluid from 22 non-smoking asthmatic subjects. They were participating in a randomized, double-blind multicentre drug trial over a period of 2.5 years. Results of the group treated with inhaled corticosteroids (CS+: beclomethasone 200 μg four times daily were compared with the other group (CS− which was treated with either ipratropium bromide (40 μg four times daily or placebo. BAL LTC4 levels of asthmatic subjects were significantly lower after 2.5 years inhaled corticosteroid therapy (CS+, 9(1–17 pg/ml vs. CS−, 16(6-53 pg/ml; p = 0.01. The same trend was observed for the PGD2 levels. The results suggest that inhaled corticosteroids may exert their beneficial effect on lung function via a mechanism in which inhibition of LTC4 synthesis in the airways is involved.

  11. Anti-citrullinated heat shock protein 90 antibodies identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are a marker of lung-specific immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Lisa; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Rosas, Ivan O; Doyle, Tracy J; Osorio, Juan C; Travers, Timothy S; Camacho, Carlos C; Oddis, Chester V; Ascherman, Dana P

    2014-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a correlation between serum anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). To further investigate this potential pathogenic relationship, we used ELISA-based techniques to assess anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibody profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with different stages of RA-ILD. 9/21 RA-derived BALF specimens demonstrated IgG and/or IgA antibodies targeting citrullinated HSP90 proteins/peptides, highlighting disease specific responses (with a predilection for RA-ILD) that did not occur in IPF patients (0/5) or healthy control subjects (0/5). Comparison of antibody profiles between BALF and matching serum specimens revealed various recognition patterns favoring predominant production of anti-citrullinated HSP90 antibodies within the lung microenvironment-further supporting the connection between this antibody specificity and parenchymal lung disease. Equally important, qualitative as well as quantitative differences in anti-citrullinated HSP90 profiles between BALF and serum indicate that the lung plays a direct role in shaping the immune repertoire of RA/RA-ILD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Performance of 2 commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of Aspergillus and Pneumocystis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from critical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Carlotta Francesca; Gennari, William; Venturelli, Claudia; La Regina, Annunziata; Pecorari, Monica; Righi, Elena; Machetti, Marco; Blasi, Elisabetta

    2012-06-01

    This article investigates the performance of 2 commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, MycAssay™ Aspergillus (Myc(Asp)Assay) and MycAssay™ Pneumocystis (Myc(PCP)Assay), on the ABI 7300 platform for the detection of Aspergillus (Asp) or Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pj) DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 20 patients. Operationally, patients enrolled were clustered into 3 groups: invasive aspergillosis group (IA, 7 patients), Pj pneumonia group (PCP, 8 patients), and negative control group (5 patients). All the IA patients were Myc(Asp)Assay positive, whereas 12 non-IA patients returned negative PCR results. Furthermore, 7 of 8 PCP patients were Myc(PCP)Assay positive, while 9 non-PCP patients were PCR negative. In conclusion, these data provide an early indication of the effectiveness of both the Myc(Asp)Assay and Myc(PCP)Assay on the ABI 7300 platform for the detection of either Asp or Pj DNA in BAL from patients with deep fungal infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of endotracheal aspirate and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız-Atıkan, Başak; Karapınar, Bülent; Aydemir, Şöhret; Vardar, Fadıl

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia occuring in any period of mechanical ventilation. There is no optimal diagnostic method in current use and in this study we aimed to compare two non-invasive diagnostic methods used in diagnosis of VAP in children. This prospective study was conducted in 8 bedded Pediatric Intensive Care Unit at Ege University Children´s Hospital. Endotracheal aspiration (ETA) and non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in case of developing VIP after 48 hours of ventilation. Quantitative cultures were examined in Ege University Department of Diagnostic Microbiology, Bacteriology Laboratory. Fourty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of study subjects was 47.2±53.6 months. A total of 28 in 82 specimens taken with both methods were negative/negative; 28 had positive result with ETA and a negative result with non-bronchoscopic BAL and both results were negative in 26 specimens. There were no patients whose respiratory specimen culture was negative with ETA and positive with non-bronchoscopic BAL. These results imply that there is a significant difference between two diagnostic methods (p VAP; therefore, ETA results were compared with this method. ETA's sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were 100%, 50%, 100% and 48% respectively. The study revealed the ease of usability and the sensitivity of non-bronchoscopic BAL, in comparison with ETA.

  14. Circulating and broncho-alveolar interleukin-6 in relation to body temperature in an experimental model of bovine Chlamydia psittaci infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Prohl

    Full Text Available In rodent models of experimentally induced fever, the important role of interleukin-6 (IL-6 as a circulating endogenous pyrogen is well established. Studies employing larger animal species and real infections are scarce. Therefore, we assessed bioactive IL-6 in peripheral blood and in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF of calves after intra-bronchial inoculation with vital Chlamydia psittaci (Cp, with inactivated Cp, or with BGM cells. Only calves inoculated with vital Cp developed fever (peak at 2-3 days after challenge and significantly increased IL-6 activity. Controls inoculated with either inactivated Cp or BGM cells also expressed increased bioactive IL-6, but no fever developed. Activity of IL-6 in BALF was significantly higher compared to blood serum. This experimental model of Cp infection revealed no apparent relation between IL-6 in blood and body temperature, but did reveal a relation between IL-6 and other markers of inflammation in BALF. We conclude that a local inflammatory response in the lungs of infected calves caused fever, which developed by mechanisms including other mediators besides IL-6.

  15. Lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis. Assessment of interlobar variation by bronchoalveolar lavage and comparison with noninvasive evaluation of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.S.; Smith, E.A.; Kinsella, M.; Schabel, S.I.; Silver, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a disease of unknown etiology that involves many organ systems, including the lungs. The interstitial lung disease of systemic sclerosis is becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. This process has been previously evaluated with single-site bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium scanning, pulmonary function testing, and, occasionally, by open lung biopsy. As BAL has been shown to correlate well with open lung biopsy in systemic sclerosis, we sought to determine if single-site BAL accurately reflects alveolitis in a second site in the lung, and if BAL results correlate with other noninvasive tests of lung inflammation: gallium uptake, chest radiography, or arterial blood gas analysis. We performed 17 studies in 13 patients with scleroderma and found no significant lobar differences in lavage results or gallium scanning. By our criteria for normal versus active alveolitis, only two of 17 patient lavages would have been classified as normal by one side and abnormal by the other side. Although percent gallium uptake was equal bilaterally and supported the concept of alveolitis uniformity, gallium uptake intensity did not correlate with activity as measured by BAL. Furthermore, chest radiograph and arterial blood gas analysis did not correlate with BAL results or gallium scanning. We believe these data support the suitability of single-site lavage in the investigation of systemic-sclerosis-associated alveolitis and diminish the importance of gallium scanning in the investigation of systemic sclerosis pulmonary disease

  16. Assessment of pulmonary antibodies with induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage induced by nasal vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a clinical phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freihorst Joachim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a desirable albeit challenging strategy for prevention of airway infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. We assessed the immunogenicity of a nasal vaccine based on the outer membrane proteins F and I from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lower airways in a phase I/II clinical trial. Methods N = 12 healthy volunteers received 2 nasal vaccinations with an OprF-OprI gel as a primary and a systemic (n = 6 or a nasal booster vaccination (n = 6. Antibodies were assessed in induced sputum (IS, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, and in serum. Results OprF-OprI-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were found in both BAL and IS at comparable rates, but differed in the predominant isotype. IgA antibodies in IS did not correlate to the respective serum levels. Pulmonary antibodies were detectable in all vaccinees even 1 year after the vaccination. The systemic booster group had higher IgG levels in serum. However, the nasal booster group had the better long-term response with bronchial antibodies of both isotypes. Conclusion The nasal OprF-OprI-vaccine induces a lasting antibody response at both, systemic and airway mucosal site. IS is a feasible method to non-invasively assess bronchial antibodies. A further optimization of the vaccination schedule is warranted.

  17. Lung fibrosis-associated soluble mediators and bronchoalveolar lavage from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients promote the expression of fibrogenic factors in subepithelial lung myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouros, Evangelos; Filidou, Eirini; Arvanitidis, Konstantinos; Mikroulis, Dimitrios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Bamias, George; Bouros, Demosthenes; Kolios, George

    2017-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, excessive collagen production and accumulation of myofibroblasts. We explored the possible role of subepithelial lung myofibroblasts (SELMs) in the development of fibrosis in IPF. SELMs, isolated from surgical specimens of healthy lung tissue, were cultured with pro-inflammatory factors or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with IPF or idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (iNSIP) and their fibrotic activity was assessed. Stimulation of SELMs with pro-inflammatory factors induced a significant increase of Tissue Factor (TF) and Tumor necrosis factor-Like cytokine 1 A (TL1A) expression and collagen production in culture supernatants. Stimulation with BALF from IPF patients with mild to moderate, but not severe disease, and from iNSIP patients induced a significant increase of TF expression. BALF from all IPF patients induced a significant increase of TL1A expression and collagen production, while BALF from iNSIP patients induced a significant increase of TL1A, but not of collagen production. Interestingly, TGF-β1 and BALF from all IPF, but not iNSIP patients, induced a significant increase in SELMs migration. In conclusion, BALF from IPF patients induces fibrotic activity in lung myofibroblasts, similar to mediators associated with lung fibrosis, indicating a key role of SELMs in IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Usefulness of Two Aspergillus PCR Assays and Aspergillus Galactomannan and β-d-Glucan Testing of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Diagnosis of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Naohisa; Sakamoto, Susumu; Sano, Go; Suzuki, Junko; Hebisawa, Akira; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Koyama, Kazuya; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Homma, Sakae

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of an Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) test, a β-d-glucan (βDG) test, and two different Aspergillus PCR assays of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples for the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). BALF samples from 30 patients with and 120 patients without CPA were collected. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio for each test individually and in combination with other tests. The optical density index values, as determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis, for the diagnosis of CPA were 0.5 and 100 for GM and βDG testing of BALF, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the GM test, βDG test, and PCR assays 1 and 2 were 77.8% and 90.0%, 77.8% and 72.5%, 86.7% and 84.2%, and 66.7% and 94.2%, respectively. A comparison of the PCR assays showed that PCR assay 1 had a better sensitivity, a better negative predictive value, and a better negative likelihood ratio and PCR assay 2 had a better specificity, a better positive predictive value, and a better positive likelihood ratio. The combination of the GM and βDG tests had the highest diagnostic odds ratio. The combination of the GM and βDG tests on BALF was more useful than any single test for diagnosing CPA. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. A prospective study to evaluate the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in sputum smear negative patients with high suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the utility of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL by flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB in sputum smear negative patients with clinical and radiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in 30 sputum smear negative patients of age group 20 to 70 years, who were highly suspicious for PTB by clinical and radiographic criteria. All patients were subjected to sputum culture, BAL stains and cultures, and cytopathology. Patients with moderate to massive pleural effusion, obvious accessible lymph node, history of antitubercular therapy (ATT, and contraindication to FOB were excluded. Results: Sputum culture for acid fast bacilli (AFB was positive in four (12% patients, BAL fluid was positive for Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN stain in nine (27% patients, including four sputum culture patients, while BAL culture for AFB on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ medium was positive in 18 (60%, including 9 BAL fluid ZN stain positive patients. Six (20% patients had growth on pyogenic culture, while two (7% patients had malignant cell on cytological examination of BAL fluid. Remaining four (13% patients were empirically started on ATT. They had complete response to ATT at 2 months and were retrospectively diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. All the bacteriologically confirmed PTB patients were given ATT for 6 months and all patients had complete response. Conclusion: We concluded that FOB guided BAL is extremely useful for establishing diagnosis of PTB or other pulmonary diseases in sputum smear negative patients, who have high suspicion for PTB by clinical and radiographic criteria.

  20. Prediction of therapeutic response in steroid-treated pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of clinical parameters, bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium-67 lung scanning, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollinger, W.M.; Staton, G.W. Jr.; Fajman, W.A.; Gilman, M.J.; Pine, J.R.; Check, I.J.

    1985-01-01

    To find a pretreatment predictor of steroid responsiveness in pulmonary sarcoidosis the authors studied 21 patients before and after steroid treatment by clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium-67 lung scan, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) level. Although clinical score, forced vital capacity (FVC), BAL percent lymphocytes (% lymphs), quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels all improved with therapy, only the pretreatment BAL % lymphs correlated with the improvement in FVC (r = 0.47, p less than 0.05). Pretreatment BAL % lymphs of greater than or equal to 35% predicted improvement in FVC of 10/11 patients, whereas among 10 patients with BAL % lymphs less than 35%, 5 patients improved and 5 deteriorated. Clinical score, pulmonary function parameters, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE level used alone, in combination with BAL % lymphs or in combination with each other, did not improve this predictive value. The authors conclude that steroid therapy improves a number of clinical and laboratory parameters in sarcoidosis, but only the pretreatment BAL % lymphs are useful in predicting therapeutic responsiveness

  1. Periodontitis-associated septic pulmonary embolism caused by Actinomyces species identified by anaerobic culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shun; Mishima, Eikan; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Ohi, Takashi; Ishida, Masatsugu; Yanai, Masaru; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Nagasawa, Tasuku; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Periodontal disease is a less common but important cause of septic pulmonary embolism (SPE). However, the pathogens causing periodontal disease-associated SPE (PD-SPE) have been poorly understood. Actinomyces species are resident microbiota in the oral cavity. Here we report a case of PD-SPE caused by Actinomyces species, which was identified by anaerobic culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). A 64-year-old Asian man, complicated with severe chronic periodontitis, was admitted with chest pain and fever. Chest CT revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules located subpleurally. We diagnosed the case as SPE associated with periodontitis. Although blood cultures were negative for the usual 5-day incubation, anaerobic culture of the BAL fluid sample yielded Actinomyces species. Antibacterial therapy alone did not ameliorate the symptoms; however, additional dental treatment, including tooth extraction, promptly did. The patient was discharged 23 days after admission. The 3-month follow-up revealed no recurrence of the symptoms and complete resolution of the lung lesions. This case demonstrated that Actinomyces species can cause PD-SPE. Additionally, clinicians should consider performing appropriate anaerobic culture of BAL fluid to identify the pathogen of SPE, and to ordering dental treatment, if necessary, in addition to antibiotics for the initial management of PD-SPE.

  2. Metabolic profiling of potential lung cancer biomarkers using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the integrated direct infusion/ gas chromatography mass spectrometry platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón-Leblic, Belén; García-Barrera, Tamara; Grávalos-Guzmán, Jesús; Pereira-Vega, Antonio; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2016-08-11

    Lung cancer is one of the ten most common causes of death worldwide, so that the search for early diagnosis biomarkers is a very challenging task. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) provides information on cellular and biochemical epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract constituents and no previous metabolomic studies have been performed with BALF samples from patients with lung cancer. Therefore, this fluid has been explored looking for new contributions in lung cancer metabolism. In this way, two complementary metabolomics techniques based on direct infusion high resolution mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-QTOF-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been applied to compare statistically differences between lung cancer (LC) and control (C) BALF samples, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) in order to find and identify potential biomarkers of the disease. A total of 42 altered metabolites were found in BALF from LC. The metabolic pathway analysis showed that glutamate and glutamine metabolism pathway was mainly altered by this disease. In addition, we assessed the biomarker specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, indicating that glycerol and phosphoric acid were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The search for early diagnosis of lung cancer is a very challenging task because of the high mortality associated to this disease and its critical linkage to the initiation of treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid provides information on cellular and biochemical epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract constituents and no previous metabolomic studies have been performed with BALF samples from patients with lung cancer. Since BALF is in close interaction with lung tissue it is a more representative sample of lung status than other peripheral biofluids as blood or urine studied in previous works

  3. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis organisms isolated from human lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneshiro, E S; Amit, Z; Chandra, Jan Suresh

    1999-01-01

    in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human...... infections, it is important to determine whether the 24-alkylsterols of organisms found in rats are also present in organisms in humans. In the present study, sterol analyses of P. carinii hominis organisms isolated from cryopreserved human P. carinii-infected lungs and from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were...

  4. Increased production of IL-4 and IL-12p40 from bronchoalveolar lavage cells are biomarkers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nolan

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB causes 1.45 million deaths annually world wide, the majority of which occur in the developing world. Active TB disease represents immune failure to control latent infection from airborne spread. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB seen on sputum smear is a biomarker for contagiousness.We enrolled 73 tuberculosis patients with extensive infiltrates into a research study using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL to sample lung immune cells and assay BAL cell cytokine production. All patients had sputum culture demonstrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 59/73 (81% had AFB identified by microscopy of the sputum. Compared with smear negative patients, smear positive patients at presentation had a higher proportion with smoking history, a higher proportion with temperature >38.5(0 C, higher BAL cells/ml, lower percent lymphocytes in BAL, higher IL-4 and IL-12p40 in BAL cell supernatants. There was no correlation between AFB smear and other BAL or serum cytokines. Increasing IL-4 was associated with BAL PMN and negatively associated with BAL lymphocytes. Each 10-fold increase in BAL IL-4 and IL-12p40 increased the odds of AFB smear positivity by 7.4 and 2.2-fold, respectively, in a multi-variable logistic model.Increasing IL-4 and IL-12p40 production by BAL cells are biomarkers for AFB in sputum of patients who present with radiographically advanced TB. They likely reflect less effective immune control of pathways for controlling TB, leading to patients with increased infectiousness.

  5. Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. HRCT findings as their correlation with the clinical data, with function tests and with bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosda, R.; Domingo, M. L.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Rodrigo, C.; Torregrosa, A.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in rheumatoid arthritis and their correlation with clinical data, respiratory function tests (RFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nineteen patients were studied by inspiratory and expiratory HRCT scan and clinical examination: 17 also underwent RFT and 12 were also subjected to BAL. The χ''2 test was used to analyze the correlation among the clinical data, RAFT, BAL and the HRCT images. Six patients had no respiratory symptoms and seven were smokers. The most common findings was bronchiectasis (37%), followed by nodules (26%), ground glass (26%), non septal lines (21%), septal lines (16%), emphysema (21%), lymph nodes (21%), pleural changes (16%), pericardial changes (11%) and enlarged pulmonary artery (5%). All the patients presented a mosaic pattern on expiration. The RFT disclosed obstructive lung disease in 74% of cases, normal in 41% and restrictive disease in 12%. BAL was normal in 50% of the patients, containing a high neutrophil count in 42% and high lymphocyte count in 8%. Only the correlations between smoking and emphysema and between the results of RFT and bronchiectasis, septal and non septal lines, ground glass and honey combing were found to be statistically significant. HRCT detects pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. The most common finding is bronchiectasis. Air trapping is always present in expiration, obstructive lung disease being the most common finding in RFT. The only significant associations were those between smoking and emphysema and between the results of RFT and the HRCT findings, as indicated by the high incidence of restrictive lung disease in these patients. (Author) 10 refs

  6. Bacteriological incidence in pneumonia patients with pulmonary emphysema: a bacterial floral analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Kei; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Akata, Kentaro; Noguchi, Shingo; Kawanami, Toshinori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is an important radiological finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, but bacteriological differences in pneumonia patients according to the severity of emphysematous changes have not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the bacteriological incidence in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pneumonia patients using cultivation and a culture-independent molecular method. Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia (83) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (94) between April 2010 and February 2014 were evaluated. The BALF obtained from pneumonia lesions was evaluated by both cultivation and a molecular method. In the molecular method, ~600 base pairs of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes in the BALF were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and clone libraries were constructed. The nucleotide sequences of 96 randomly selected colonies were determined, and a homology search was performed to identify the bacterial species. A qualitative radiological evaluation of pulmonary emphysema based on chest computed tomography (CT) images was performed using the Goddard classification. The severity of pulmonary emphysema based on the Goddard classification was none in 47.4% (84/177), mild in 36.2% (64/177), moderate in 10.2% (18/177), and severe in 6.2% (11/177). Using the culture-independent molecular method, Moraxella catarrhalis was significantly more frequently detected in moderate or severe emphysema patients than in patients with no or mild emphysematous changes. The detection rates of Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were unrelated to the severity of pulmonary emphysematous changes, and Streptococcus species - except for the S. anginosus group and S. pneumoniae - were detected more frequently using the molecular method we used for the BALF of patients with pneumonia than using culture methods. Our findings suggest that M. catarrhalis is more frequently detected in pneumonia patients with moderate or

  7. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (phyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of bacterial culture of nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; DeDonder, Keith D; Larson, Robert L; Harhay, Greg P; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Harhay, Dayna M; Kalbfleisch, Ted S; Schuller, Gennie; Clawson, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD. PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration. For each culture-positive sample, up to 12 Mannheimia haemolytica, 6 Pasteurella multocida, and 6 Histophilus somni colonies underwent gamithromycin susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on all M haemolytica isolates. For paired NPS and BALF samples collected 5 days after gamithromycin administration, the positive and negative predictive values for culture results of NPS samples relative to those of BALF samples and the extent of agreement between the sampling methods were determined. RESULTS Positive and negative predictive values of NPS samples were 67% and 100% for M haemolytica, 75% and 100% for P multocida, and 100% and 96% for H somni. Extent of agreement between results for NPS and BALF samples was substantial for M haemolytica (κ, 0.71) and H somni (κ, 0.78) and almost perfect for P multocida (κ, 0.81). Gamithromycin susceptibility varied within the same sample and between paired NPS and BALF samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated culture results of NPS and BALF samples from calves with BRD should be interpreted cautiously considering disease prevalence within the population, sample collection relative to antimicrobial administration, and limitations of diagnostic testing methods.

  9. Diagnostic value of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in ICU patients with bacterial lung infections: a bivariate meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia-Xin; Li, Jia-Shu; Hu, Rong; Li, Chun-Hua; Wen, Yan; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Feng; Li, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) is a useful biomarker in differentiating bacterial infections from others. However, the diagnostic value of sTREM-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in lung infections has not been well established. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the accuracy of sTREM-1 in BALF for diagnosis of bacterial lung infections in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge (from January 1966 to October 2012) databases for relevant studies that reported diagnostic accuracy data of BALF sTREM-1 in the diagnosis of bacterial lung infections in ICU patients. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated by a bivariate regression analysis. Measures of accuracy and Q point value (Q*) were calculated using summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. The potential between-studies heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analysis. Nine studies were included in the present meta-analysis. Overall, the prevalence was 50.6%; the sensitivity was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.95); the specificity was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.56-0.92); the positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 4.18 (95% CI, 1.78-9.86); the negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.16 (95% CI, 0.07-0.36), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 25.60 (95% CI, 7.28-89.93). The area under the SROC curve was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.93), with a Q* of 0.83. Subgroup analysis showed that the assay method and cutoff value influenced the diagnostic accuracy of sTREM-1. BALF sTREM-1 is a useful biomarker of bacterial lung infections in ICU patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the optimized cutoff value.

  10. Variations of cytology, IL-8 and TNF-α of bronchoalveolar lavaage fluid after fiberoptic bronchoscopy in the patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Weibing; Chu Chengchun; Zhang Yongjun; Gao Xiang; Liu Yajun; Tang Yanfen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate variations of cytology, IL-8 and TNF-α of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Methods: Sixty-eight patients with severe traumatic brain injury were divided into two groups: the FOB group and the control group. variations of cytology in BALF were observed by microscope, and the levels of IL-8 and TNF-α were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: Compared with the control group, the counts of cells of BALF were significantly lower at the 7th and 9th day after treatment in the FOB group (P<0.01, respectively); the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were significantly lower at the 5th, 7th, 9th day in the FOB group (P<0.01, respectively); the level of IL-8 was significantly lower at the 5th, 7th, 9th day in the FOB group (P<0.01, respectively); the level of TNF-α was significantly lower at the 5th , 7th, 9th day in the FOB group (P<0.01, respectively). Moreover, the level of IL-8 was positively correlated with the count of cells and the percentage of PMN of BALF (r=0.979, 0.982, P<0.01, respectively), and the level of TNF-α was also positively correlated with the count of cells and the percentage of PMN of BALF(r=0.953, 0.949, P<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: FOB could play an important role in ameliorating the inflammation of airway in the patients with severe traumatic brain injury, moreover, the level of IL-8 and TNF-α could reflect the status of inflammation of airway. (authors)

  11. Correlation between viral loads of cytomegalovirus in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from lung transplant recipients determined by histology and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Castilla, Elias A; Reilly, Amy; Arrigain, Susana; Farver, Carol; Avery, Robin K; Gordon, Steven M; Procop, Gary W

    2004-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in lung transplant recipients. Early detection of CMV end-organ disease should help with treatment management. We determined the CMV viral load by hybrid capture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from patients who had undergone lung transplantation. For 39 of these samples (from 25 patients), corresponding transbronchial biopsy samples were available for CMV immunohistochemistry (IHC). The CMV IHC results were interpreted and categorized as positive or negative, and the positive results were subcategorized as typical if cells with both significant nuclear enlargement or Cowdry A-type inclusions and positive staining were present or as atypical if definitive nuclear staining was seen but significant nuclear enlargement was not. Diagnostic CMV viral inclusions were reported in the anatomic diagnosis, based on hematoxylin-eosin staining alone, for three (8%) of the biopsy samples. CMV was detected by IHC in 13 (33%) samples (5 typical, 8 atypical). The median CMV viral load in BAL samples was 0 copies/ml for BAL samples from patients with IHC-negative biopsy samples; 47,678 copies/ml for BAL samples from patients with biopsy samples with positive, atypical staining; and 1,548,827 copies/ml for BAL samples from patients with biopsy samples with positive, typical staining (P < 0.001). Compared to routine pathology of biopsy samples, the use of IHC increased the diagnostic yield of CMV. Also, the CMV viral load in BAL fluid samples increased along with immunoreactivity from negative to positive, atypical staining to positive, typical staining. The CMV viral load determined with the end-organ sample, the BAL fluid sample, was higher than the corresponding viral load determined with blood. Both IHC and determination of the CMV viral load in BAL samples may be useful for the detection of individuals at risk for the development of fulminant invasive CMV disease.

  12. A Comparison of Aspergillus and Mucorales PCR Testing of Different Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Fractions from Patients with Suspected Invasive Pulmonary Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Jan; White, P Lewis; Kessel, Johanna; Wieters, Imke; Teschner, Daniel; Korczynski, Daniel; Liebregts, Tobias; Cornely, Oliver A; Schwartz, Stefan; Elgeti, Thomas; Meintker, Lisa; Krause, Stefan W; Posso, Raquel B; Heinz, Werner J; Fuhrmann, Sandra; Vehreschild, Jörg Janne; Einsele, Hermann; Rickerts, Volker; Loeffler, Juergen

    2018-02-01

    In patients with hematological malignancies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens are commonly used for the diagnosis of mold infections. However, it is not clear whether the cell pellet (P) or the supernatant fraction (S) of the BALF specimen is optimal for molecular diagnostic testing. Thus, 99 BALF specimens were collected from 96 hematology patients with or without allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The cell pellets and supernatants were processed alone and in combination (S/P) for testing by two fungus-specific real-time PCR assays compliant with international recommendations. The results achieved with S/P were revealed to be superior in comparison to those achieved with S and P alone, with the use of each single fraction showing a reduced sensitivity for the detection of Aspergillus DNA (82% and 43% for S and P, respectively). In 57% of the samples, testing of the combination of S and P generated a lower quantification cycle value than testing of S or P alone. Molds would have been missed in 5 and 16 out of 28 samples if only S or P, respectively, was analyzed. No sample was positive by testing of S or P only. Similar results were obtained for the detection of Mucorales DNA in BALF specimens (reduced sensitivity of 67% and 50% for S and P, respectively). Study patients were categorized according to the current European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group classification for invasive fungal disease (IFD), revealing that 35 patients had proven/probable IFD (36%), 47 patients had possible IFD (49%), and 14 patients had undetermined IFD (15%). Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. The microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage from young children with chronic lung disease includes taxa present in both the oropharynx and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R L; Kaestli, M; Chang, A B; Binks, M J; Pope, C E; Hoffman, L R; Smith-Vaughan, H C

    2016-07-07

    Invasive methods requiring general anaesthesia are needed to sample the lung microbiota in young children who do not expectorate. This poses substantial challenges to longitudinal study of paediatric airway microbiota. Non-invasive upper airway sampling is an alternative method for monitoring airway microbiota; however, there are limited data describing the relationship of such results with lung microbiota in young children. In this study, we compared the upper and lower airway microbiota in young children to determine whether non-invasive upper airway sampling procedures provide a reliable measure of either lung microbiota or clinically defined differences. The microbiota in oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 78 children (median age 2.2 years) with and without lung disease were characterised using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) detected significant differences between the microbiota in BAL and those in both OP swabs (p = 0.0001, Pseudo-F = 12.2, df = 1) and NP swabs (p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 21.9, df = 1) with the NP and BAL microbiota more different than the OP and BAL, as indicated by a higher Pseudo-F value. The microbiota in combined OP and NP data (upper airways) provided a more comprehensive representation of BAL microbiota, but significant differences between the upper airway and BAL microbiota remained, albeit with a considerably smaller Pseudo-F (PERMANOVA p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 4.9, df = 1). Despite this overall difference, paired BAL and upper airway (OP and NP) microbiota were >50 % similar among 69 % of children. Furthermore, canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP analysis) detected significant differences between the microbiota from clinically defined groups when analysing either BAL (eigenvalues >0.8; misclassification rate 26.5 %) or the combined OP and NP data (eigenvalues >0

  14. Bacteriological incidence in pneumonia patients with pulmonary emphysema: a bacterial floral analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito K

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Keisuke Naito,1 Kei Yamasaki,1 Kazuhiro Yatera,1 Kentaro Akata,1 Shingo Noguchi,1 Toshinori Kawanami,1 Kazumasa Fukuda,2 Takashi Kido,1 Hiroshi Ishimoto,3 Hiroshi Mukae3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, 3Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki, Japan Abstract: Pulmonary emphysema is an important radiological finding in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, but bacteriological differences in pneumonia patients according to the severity of emphysematous changes have not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the bacteriological incidence in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of pneumonia patients using cultivation and a culture-independent molecular method. Japanese patients with community-acquired pneumonia (83 and healthcare-associated pneumonia (94 between April 2010 and February 2014 were evaluated. The BALF obtained from pneumonia lesions was evaluated by both cultivation and a molecular method. In the molecular method, ~600 base pairs of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes in the BALF were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and clone libraries were constructed. The nucleotide sequences of 96 randomly selected colonies were determined, and a homology search was performed to identify the bacterial species. A qualitative radiological evaluation of pulmonary emphysema based on chest computed tomography (CT images was performed using the Goddard classification. The severity of pulmonary emphysema based on the Goddard classification was none in 47.4% (84/177, mild in 36.2% (64/177, moderate in 10.2% (18/177, and severe in 6.2% (11/177. Using the culture-independent molecular method, Moraxella catarrhalis was significantly more frequently detected in moderate or severe emphysema patients than in patients with no or mild emphysematous changes. The

  15. Análise do lavado broncoalveolar em vítimas de queimaduras faciais graves Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis in victims of severe facial burns

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    Eucir Rabello

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o lavado broncoalveolar (LBA de vítimas de queimaduras que inalaram fumaça a fim de identificar alterações que possam estar associadas à morte ou à sobrevida. MÉTODOS: Dezoito vítimas de queimaduras faciais foram submetidas a LBA até 24 h após o evento, sendo realizadas a análise do conteúdo celular e proteico, incluindo TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 e iNOS. RESULTADOS: Dos 18 pacientes submetidos à broncoscopia, 8 (44,4% morreram durante o seguimento. A média de idade dos pacientes que morreram foi significativamente maior (44,7 vs. 31,5 anos. A superfície corporal queimada foi em média de 60,1% nos pacientes que morreram e de 26,1% nos sobreviventes (p OBJECTIVE: To analyze bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL specimens of burn victims who inhaled smoke, in order to identify alterations associated with mortality or survival. METHODS: Eighteen victims of facial burns were submitted to BAL up to 24 h after the event. We investigated cell and protein content, including TNF-α, HLA-DR, CD14, CD68 and iNOS. RESULTS: Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 8 (44.4% died during the follow-up period. The mean age of patients who died was significantly higher (44.7 vs. 31.5 years. On average, the patients who died had burns covering 60.1% of the total body surface area, compared with 26.1% in the survivors (p < 0.0001. Of the 18 patients submitted to bronchoscopy, 11 (61.1% showed endoscopic signs of smoke inhalation injury, and 4 (36.4% of those 11 died. Of the 7 patients with no signs of smoke inhalation injury, 4 (57.1% died. The mean number of ciliated epithelial cells in the BAL fluid was significantly higher in the patients who died than in the survivors (6.6% vs. 1.4%; p = 0.03. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of any of the other parameters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The total body surface area burned was a predictive factor for mortality. Increased numbers of ciliated epithelial cells

  16. Expression of T helper cell-associated inflammatory mediator mRNAs in cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and oxygen concentration in arterial blood samples from healthy horses exposed to hyperbaric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looijen, Maty G P; New, Dallas J; Fischer, Carrie D; Dardari, Rkia; Irwin, Karyn M; Berezowski, Christopher J; Bond, Stephanie L; Léguillette, Renaud

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the mRNA expression of T helper (Th)1, Th2, and Th17 cell-associated inflammatory mediators in cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from healthy horses exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and to monitor blood oxygen concentration during and following HBO therapy. ANIMALS 8 healthy horses. PROCEDURES In a randomized controlled crossover design study, each horse was exposed (beginning day 1) to 100% oxygen at a maximum of 3 atmospheres absolute (304 kPa) daily for 10 days or ambient air at atmospheric pressure in the HBO chamber for an equivalent amount of time (control). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected on days 0 and 10. After validation of candidate reference genes, relative mRNA expressions of various innate inflammatory, Th1 cell-derived, Th2 cell-derived (including eotaxin-2), Th17 cell-derived, and regulatory cytokines were measured by quantitative PCR assays. For 3 horses, arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis during a separate HBO session. RESULTS The optimal combination of reference genes was glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase, and ribosomal protein L32. Compared with day 0 findings, expression of eotaxin-2 mRNA was significantly lower (0.12-fold reduction) and the percentage of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples was significantly lower on day 10 when horses received HBO therapy. Values of Pao2 rapidly increased (> 800 mm Hg) but immediately decreased to pretreatment values when HBO sessions ended. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HBO therapy does not increase mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, but reduces eotaxin-2 mRNA transcription. The Pao2 increase was transient with no cumulative effects of HBO.

  17. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  18. The Mu opioid receptor promotes opioid and growth factor-induced proliferation, migration and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT in human lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E Lennon

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiologic studies implying differences in cancer recurrence based on anesthetic regimens raise the possibility that the mu opioid receptor (MOR can influence cancer progression. Based on our previous observations that overexpression of MOR in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells increased tumor growth and metastasis, this study examined whether MOR regulates growth factor receptor signaling and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT in human NSCLC cells. We utilized specific siRNA, shRNA, chemical inhibitors and overexpression vectors in human H358 NSCLC cells that were either untreated or treated with various concentrations of DAMGO, morphine, fentanyl, EGF or IGF. Cell function assays, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation assays were then performed. Our results indicate MOR regulates opioid and growth factor-induced EGF receptor signaling (Src, Gab-1, PI3K, Akt and STAT3 activation which is crucial for consequent human NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. In addition, human NSCLC cells treated with opioids, growth factors or MOR overexpression exhibited an increase in snail, slug and vimentin and decrease ZO-1 and claudin-1 protein levels, results consistent with an EMT phenotype. Further, these effects were reversed with silencing (shRNA or chemical inhibition of MOR, Src, Gab-1, PI3K, Akt and STAT3 (p<0.05. Our data suggest a possible direct effect of MOR on opioid and growth factor-signaling and consequent proliferation, migration and EMT transition during lung cancer progression. Such an effect provides a plausible explanation for the epidemiologic findings.

  19. Effect of clarithromycin on the cell profile of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice with neutrophil-predominant lung disease Efeito da claritromicina na celularidade do lavado broncoalveolar em camundongos com doença pulmonar neutrofílica induzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Araújo Pinto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Macrolide antibiotics have anti-inflammatory properties in lung diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clarithromycin in pulmonary cellular inflammatory response in mice. METHOD: Eight adult Swiss mice were studied. All animals received an intranasal challenge (80 µL with dead Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.0 x 10(12 CFU/mL. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 2 days later, with total cell count and differential cell analysis. The study group (n = 4 received clarithromycin treatment (50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal for 5 days. Treatment was initiated 2 days before intranasal challenge. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in total cell count between the groups (mean: 2.0 x 10(6 and 1.3 x 10(6, respectively. In both groups, there was a predominance of neutrophils. However, the study group had a higher percentage of lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage than the control group (median of 19% vs 2.5%, P = .029. CONCLUSION: Clarithromycin alters the cytological pattern of bronchoalveolar lavage of Swiss mice with neutrophil pulmonary inflammation, significantly increasing the percentage of lymphocytes.OBJETIVO: Os antibióticos macrolídeos podem apresentar um efeito antiinflamatório em doenças pulmonares. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar o efeito da claritromicina na resposta inflamatória celular pulmonar em camundongos Swiss. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 8 camundongos Swiss adultos (6-8 semanas. Todos os animais receberam um desafio intranasal (80 µL com Pseudomonas aeruginosa mortas (1 x 10(12 UFC/mL. Dois dias após o desafio, foi realizado lavado broncoalveolar (LBA com contagem total de células (CTC e exame citológico diferencial. O grupo em estudo (n=4 recebeu tratamento com claritromicina (50mg/kg/dia, intraperitoneal por 5 dias, sendo iniciado o tratamento 2 dias antes do desafio intranasal. O grupo controle (n=4 não recebeu tratamento com claritromicina. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferen

  20. The clinical significance of measurement of TXB2 and 6-K-PGF1α of plasma and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Nanhua; Shang Weimin; Qin Jian

    2002-01-01

    In order to observe the changes in thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1α (6-K-PGF 1α ) levels in bronchial asthma, asthmatic chronic bronchitis as well as simple chronic bronchitis, the TXB 2 and 6-K-PGF 1α levels in plasma and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for control and patients with bronchial asthma, asthmatic chronic bronchitis and simple chronic bronchitis, 30 in each group, were measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the TXB 2 and 6-K-PGF 1α levels in plasma and BALF in patients of the three groups increased and those in patients with bronchial asthma increased markedly with significant difference, as compared with those in patients with chronic bronchitis (P 2 and 6-K-PGF 1α levels in BALF in patients with asthmatic chronic bronchitis were much higher than those in patients with simple chronic bronchitis (P 2 and 6-K-PGF 1α play an important role in pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and asthmatic chronic bronchitis. Consequently, the changes of the two parameters in BALF provide certain reference basis for differential diagnosis of the two types of chronic bronchitis

  1. Caracterização imunofenotípica das subpopulações de linfócitos do lavado broncoalveolar de pacientes com silicose Phenotypic characterization of lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÂNGELA FERREIRA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A lavagem broncoalveolar é um procedimento simples e seguro, na avaliação das pneumopatias relacionadas à exposição a poeiras minerais. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar as subpopulações celulares no lavado broncoalveolar (LBA de pacientes silicóticos. A lavagem broncoalveolar foi realizada em 26 trabalhadores com diferentes formas de silicose: forma simples (n = 12, complicada (n = 13 e um paciente com a forma aguda da doença. Como grupo controle, foram incluídos sete indivíduos sadios. Os pacientes com silicose apresentaram intensa pleocitose com predomínio de macrófagos alveolares e tendência à linfocitose. As subpopulações de linfócitos presentes no lavado broncoalveolar (LBA dos indivíduos sadios apresentaram fenótipo de células maduras. A grande maioria era constituída por células CD2+TCRab (87,3% e somente 2,9% das células T apresentaram marcação CD2+TCRgd. A relação CD4/CD8 foi de 1,8, com poucas (16% células T imaturas duplo-negativas CD4-CD8-. Em contraste, pacientes com silicose apresentaram redução acentuada das subpopulações dos linfócitos maduros CD2+CD4+, CD2+CD8+ e aumento marcante (47% de células imaturas (DN duplo-negativas (CD4-CD8-. Não foi observado aumento das células NK (CD56+. A análise do conteúdo protéico e a determinação da relação Ig/albumina permitiram caracterizar produção local de imunoglobulinas no microambiente pulmonar. Como não foi observado aumento percentual de plasmócitos e linfócitos B (CD19+ no LBA desses pacientes, é possível concluir que as células produtoras de imunoglobulinas estão possivelmente localizadas no interstício pulmonar. Estes resultados sugerem que, durante a evolução da silicose, ocorre o desenvolvimento de linfopoese extratímica e surgimento de órgão linfóide terciário, no microambiente pulmonar desses pacientes.Bronchoalveolar lavage is a safe and simple technique to evaluate lung disease related to exposure to mineral

  2. [Pulmonary cystic disease may be a rare complication to recurrent respiratory human papilloma virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Peter Thaysen; Weinreich, Ulla M Øller

    2014-12-08

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis (JLP), treated since childhood with multiple resections, was admitted with symptoms of pneumonia. A chest X-ray and CAT-scan revealed multiple lung cysts and a bronchoalveolar lavage detected human papilloma virus 11. The patient responded well to antibiotics. A body plethysmography showed small lung volumes and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, but normal volume diffusion capacity divided by alveolar volume. Pulmonary cystic disease should be considered when patients with JLP have symptoms of pneumonia.

  3. Long-term smoking alters abundance of over half of the proteome in bronchoalveolar lavage cell in smokers with normal spirometry, with effects on molecular pathways associated with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxing; Kohler, Maxie; Heyder, Tina; Forsslund, Helena; Garberg, Hilde K; Karimi, Reza; Grunewald, Johan; Berven, Frode S; Magnus Sköld, C; Wheelock, Åsa M

    2018-03-08

    Smoking represents a significant risk factor for many chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To identify dysregulation of specific proteins and pathways in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells associated with smoking, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based shotgun proteomics analyses were performed on BAL cells from healthy never-smokers and smokers with normal lung function from the Karolinska COSMIC cohort. Multivariate statistical modeling, multivariate correlations with clinical data, and pathway enrichment analysis were performed. Smoking exerted a significant impact on the BAL cell proteome, with more than 500 proteins representing 15 molecular pathways altered due to smoking. The majority of these alterations occurred in a gender-independent manner. The phagosomal- and leukocyte trans endothelial migration (LTM) pathways significantly correlated with FEV 1 /FVC as well as the percentage of CD8 + T-cells and CD8 + CD69 + T-cells in smokers. The correlations to clinical parameters in healthy never-smokers were minor. The significant correlations of proteins in the phagosome- and LTM pathways with activated cytotoxic T-cells (CD69+) and the level of airway obstruction (FEV 1 /FVC) in smokers, both hallmarks of COPD, suggests that these two pathways may play a role in the molecular events preceding the development of COPD in susceptible smokers. Both pathways were found to be further dysregulated in COPD patients from the same cohort, thereby providing further support to this hypothesis. Given that not all smokers develop COPD in spite of decades of smoking, it is also plausible that some of the molecular pathways associated with response to smoking exert protective mechanisms to smoking-related pathologies in resilient individuals. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02627872 ; Retrospectively registered on December 9, 2015.

  4. Effect of a syringe aspiration technique versus a mechanical suction technique and use of N-butylscopolammonium bromide on the quantity and quality of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Jacquelyn E; Costa, Lais R R; Rodil, Alba U; Lopp, Christine T; Johnson, Melanie E; Wills, Robert W; Swiderski, Cyprianna E

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of 2 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) sampling techniques and the use of N-butylscopolammonium bromide (NBB) on the quantity and quality of BAL fluid (BALF) samples obtained from horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma. ANIMALS 8 horses with the summer pasture endophenotype of equine asthma. PROCEDURES BAL was performed bilaterally (right and left lung sites) with a flexible videoendoscope passed through the left or right nasal passage. During lavage of the first lung site, a BALF sample was collected by means of either gentle syringe aspiration or mechanical suction with a pressure-regulated wall-mounted suction pump. The endoscope was then maneuvered into the contralateral lung site, and lavage was performed with the alternate fluid retrieval technique. For each horse, BAL was performed bilaterally once with and once without premedication with NBB (21-day interval). The BALF samples retrieved were evaluated for volume, total cell count, differential cell count, RBC count, and total protein concentration. RESULTS Use of syringe aspiration significantly increased total BALF volume (mean volume increase, 40 mL [approx 7.5% yield]) and decreased total RBC count (mean decrease, 142 cells/μL), compared with use of mechanical suction. The BALF nucleated cell count and differential cell count did not differ between BAL procedures. Use of NBB had no effect on BALF retrieval. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that retrieval of BALF by syringe aspiration may increase yield and reduce barotrauma in horses at increased risk of bronchoconstriction and bronchiolar collapse. Further studies to determine the usefulness of NBB and other bronchodilators during BAL procedures in horses are warranted.

  5. Detection of Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Specimens of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants and Hematological Malignancies Patients by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Nested PCR and Mycological Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Mirhendi, Hossein; Fata, Abdolmajid; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kordbacheh, Parivash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised patients, in particular among hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and patients with hematological malignancies. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of PA and utility of molecular methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, four methods including direct examination, culture, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: During 16 months, 46 BAL specimens were obtained from individuals with allogeneic HSCT (n = 18) and patients with hematological malignancies (n = 28). Direct wet mounts with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture on mycological media were performed. The molecular detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus was done by amplifying the conserved sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal DNA by nested-PCR and the β-tubulin gene by TaqMan real-time PCR. Results: Seven (15.2%) out of 46 specimens were positive in direct examination and showed branched septate hyphae; 11 (23.9%) had positive culture including eight (72.7%) A. flavus and three (27.3%) A. fumigatus; 22 (47.8%) had positive nested-PCR and eight (17.4%) had positive real-time PCR. The incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in these patients included proven IPA in 1 (2.2%), probable IPA in 10 (21.7%), possible IPA in 19 (41.3%) and not IPA in 16 cases (34.8%). Conclusions: The incidence of IPA in allogeneic HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies was relatively high and A. flavus was the most common cause of PA. As molecular methods had higher sensitivity, it may be useful as screening methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, or to determine when empirical antifungal therapy can be withheld. PMID:25763133

  6. The diagnostic value of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and detection of pepsin and bile acids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Nicholas P; Davis, Christopher S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Fisichella, P Marco

    2014-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is thought to lead to aspiration and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Unfortunately, the identification of patients with GERD who aspirate still lacks clear diagnostic indicators. The authors hypothesized that symptoms of GERD and detection of pepsin and bile acids in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are effective for identifying lung transplantation patients with GERD-induced aspiration. From November 2009 to November 2010, 85 lung transplantation patients undergoing surveillance bronchoscopy were prospectively enrolled. For these patients, self-reported symptoms of GERD were correlated with levels of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC and with GERD status assessed by 24-h pH monitoring. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin and bile acids in BAL and EBC also were compared with the presence of GERD in 24-h pH monitoring. The typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation) had modest sensitivity and specificity for detecting GERD and aspiration. The atypical symptoms of GERD (aspiration and bronchitis) showed better identification of aspiration as measured by detection of pepsin and bile acids in BAL. The sensitivity and specificity of pepsin in BAL compared with GERD by 24-h pH monitoring were respectively 60 and 45 %, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of bile acids in BAL were 67 and 80 %. These data indicate that the measurement of pepsin and bile acids in BAL can provide additional data for identifying lung transplantation patients at risk for GERD-induced aspiration compared with symptoms or 24-h pH monitoring alone. These results support a diagnostic role for detecting markers of aspiration in BAL, but this must be validated in larger studies.

  7. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cellular and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Haematological indices and BALf cells were analysed from 300 goats randomly selected from 700 goats .... MQ-N ratio macrophage:neutrophil ratio, EOS- eosinophil, MAST- Mast cells. ... are suggestive of tissue injury and or inflammation.

  8. Gene Expression Analysis to Assess the Relevance of Rodent Models to Human Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Timothy E; Lofgren, Shane; Khatri, Purvesh; Rogers, Angela J

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of animal models to human diseases is an area of intense scientific debate. The degree to which mouse models of lung injury recapitulate human lung injury has never been assessed. Integrating data from both human and animal expression studies allows for increased statistical power and identification of conserved differential gene expression across organisms and conditions. We sought comprehensive integration of gene expression data in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rodents compared with humans. We performed two separate gene expression multicohort analyses to determine differential gene expression in experimental animal and human lung injury. We used correlational and pathway analyses combined with external in vitro gene expression data to identify both potential drivers of underlying inflammation and therapeutic drug candidates. We identified 21 animal lung tissue datasets and three human lung injury bronchoalveolar lavage datasets. We show that the metasignatures of animal and human experimental ALI are significantly correlated despite these widely varying experimental conditions. The gene expression changes among mice and rats across diverse injury models (ozone, ventilator-induced lung injury, LPS) are significantly correlated with human models of lung injury (Pearson r = 0.33-0.45, P human lung injury. Predicted therapeutic targets, peptide ligand signatures, and pathway analyses are also all highly overlapping. Gene expression changes are similar in animal and human experimental ALI, and provide several physiologic and therapeutic insights to the disease.

  9. [Human herpesvirus-6 pneumonitis following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Yuu; Gotoh, Moritaka; Yoshizawa, Seiichiro; Akahane, Daigo; Fujimoto, Hiroaki; Ito, Yoshikazu; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2018-01-01

    A-46-year-old man was diagnosed with peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. He achieved a complete remission after pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (THP-COP) therapy and successful autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation (AutoSCT). However, 6 months post AutoSCT, he complained of fever. Chest computed tomography of the patient displayed bilateral interstitial pneumonitis. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) DNA was detected in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Therefore, the patient was confirmed for HHV-6 pneumonitis. The treatment with foscarnet was effective, and no relapse was noticed in the patient. Besides, we have experienced pneumonitis of unknown origin in some patients after autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantations. Moreover, most of the above patients were clinically diagnosed using serum or plasma markers. Therefore, examining respiratory symptoms after AutoSCT would enable a more accurate diagnosis as well as treatment of patients with HHV-6 pneumonitis.

  10. Case Report: Human Bocavirus Associated Pneumonia as Cause of Acute Injury, Cologne, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakau, Michael; Gerbershagen, Kathrin; Frost, Ulrich; Hinzke, Markus; Brockmann, Michael; Schildgen, Verena; Gomann, Axel; Limmroth, Volker; Dormann, Arno; Schildgen, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Although the human bocavirus (HBoV) is known since a decade, limited information about its pathogenesis is available due to the lack of an animal model. Thus, clinical cases and studies are the major source of novel information about the course of infection and the related pathophysiology.In this context, a clinical case of an adult patient suffering from severe HBoV-pneumonia is described that was associated with loss of consciousness followed by acute rib fracture and subsequent neurological disorder.Following initial global respiratory dysfunction the clinical respiratory symptoms recovered but the neurological symptoms maintained after weaning and intensive care in the stroke unit. During the initial phase, an acute active HBoV infection was confirmed by positive polymerase chain reactions from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum.The case further demonstrates that HBoV can cause severe pneumonia, induce secondary disease also in adults, and may be associated with neurological symptoms as previously assumed.

  11. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  12. A method for comparison of animal and human alveolar dose and toxic effect of inhaled ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, G.E.; Koren, H.; Aissa, M.

    1989-01-01

    Present models for predicting the pulmonary toxicity of O 3 in humans from the toxic effects observed in animals rely on dosimetric measurements of O 3 mass balance and species comparisons of mechanisms that protect tissue against O 3 . The goal of the study described was to identify a method to directly compare O 3 dose and effect in animals and humans using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid markers. The feasibility of estimating O 3 dose to alveoli of animals and humans was demonstrated through assay of reaction products of 18 O-labeled O 3 in lung surfactant and macrophage pellets of rabbits. The feasibility of using lung lavage fluid protein measurements to quantify the O 3 toxic response in humans was demonstrated by the finding of significantly increased lung lavage protein in 10 subjects exposed to 0.4 ppm O 3 for 2 h with intermittent periods of heavy exercise. The validity of using the lavage protein marker to quantify the response in animals has already been established. The positive results obtained in both the 18 O 3 and the lavage protein studies reported here suggest that it should be possible to obtain a direct comparison of both alveolar dose and toxic effect of O 3 to alveoli of animals or humans

  13. Acute Exposure to Electronic and Combustible Cigarette Aerosols: Effects in an Animal Model and in Human Alveolar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husari, Ahmad; Shihadeh, Alan; Talih, Soha; Hashem, Yasmine; El Sabban, Marwan; Zaatari, Ghazi

    2016-05-01

    Smoking electronic cigarettes (ECIG) is promoted as a safer alternative to smoking combustible cigarettes. This study investigates the effects of ECIG aerosol and cigarette smoke (CS) in an animal model and in human alveolar cell cultures (A549). Mice were divided into Control, ECIG, and CS. Animals were exposed for 6h/d to either lab air, ECIG or CS, for of 3 days. Total particulate matter exposure for the ECIG was set at higher levels compared to CS. Lung injury was determined by: (1) measurement of wet-to-dry ratio; (2) albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; (3) transcriptional expression of inflammatory mediators IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α; (4) oxidative stress; (5) assessment of cell death; and (6) lung histopathology. Human alveolar cell cultures were treated with various concentrations of ECIG and CS aerosol extracts and the effects on cell proliferation were evaluated. Wet-to-dry ratio was higher in CS when compared to ECIG. Albumin leak in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was evident in CS but not in ECIG. ECIG exposure was only associated with a significant increase in IL-1β. In contrast, CS exposure resulted in significant increases in IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α expression, and oxidative stress. TUNEL staining demonstrated significant cell death in CS but not in ECIG. At the cellular level, ECIG and CS extracts reduced cell proliferation, however, CS exhibited effects at lower concentrations. Despite higher exposure conditions, ECIG exhibited less toxic effects on lungs of experimental animals and on A549 cell cultures when compared to CS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Estudo da Incidência de Fungos Isolados de Amostras de Lavado Bronco Alveolar, Biópsia Transbrônquica e de Escarro / Study of the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsy and sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thays Gabrielle Lins de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a incidência de fungos isolados de amostras de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e escarro de pacientes assistidos no Hospital Otávio de Freitas. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo descritivo com análise dos registros de 756 pacientes que realizaram exame direto e culturas de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e/ou escarro no Laboratório de Micologia Médica do Hospital Otávio de Freitas em Recife-PE, no período de março de 2012 a maio de 2015. Foram também analisados os resultados das sorologias para Aspergillus realizadas no mesmo período no Laboratório de Imunodiagnóstico de Micoses Sistêmicas do Departamento de Micologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Resultados: Foram isolados 248 (54,14% Candida albicans, 119 (25,98% Candida sp. e 41 (10,04% espécies Candida não albicans, 33 (7,21% Aspergillus fumigatus, dois (0,44% A. niveus, um (0,22% A. niger, 3 (0,65% A. japonicus, dois (0,44% A. flavus, duas (0,44% Paecilomyces variotii, um (0,22% Rhizomucor sp. e um (0,22% Rhizopus sp. Conclusões: Candida albicans e Aspergillus fumigatus continuam sendo as espécies mais comumente isoladas nas amostras estudadas, entretanto C. kefyr, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, A. niveus, A. japonicus, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor sp. e Rhizopus sp. indicam sua importância como patógenos oportunistas, sendo relatadas pela primeira vez em estudo realizado com pacientes acompanhados neste hospital. Houve comprovação de doença em cinco pacientes que realizaram cultura de fragmento de tecido pulmonar das quais foram isolados Candida albicans, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus fumigatus. Objective: To study the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue fragments and sputum of patients from Hospital Otavio de Freitas. Materials and methods: Descriptive retrospective observational study with analysis of records

  15. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  16. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  17. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  18. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  19. Human niche, human behaviour, human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2017-10-06

    The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails. There is a need for a robust and dynamic theoretical toolkit in order to develop a richer, and more nuanced, understanding of the cognitively sophisticated genus Homo and the diverse sorts of niches humans constructed and occupied across the Pleistocene, Holocene, and into the Anthropocene. Here I review current evolutionary approaches to 'human nature', arguing that we benefit from re-framing our investigations via the concept of the human niche and in the context of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). While not a replacement of standard evolutionary approaches, this is an expansion and enhancement of our toolkit. I offer brief examples from human evolution in support of these assertions.

  20. Nitric oxide production by rat bronchoalveolar macrophages or ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. L J Huffman1 D J Prugh2 L Millecchia2 K C Schuller2 S Cantrell2 D W Porter1. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA; Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, ...

  1. Nitric oxide production by rat bronchoalveolar macrophages or ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    inflammatory responses to either LPS or silica. For in- stance, the capacity of AMs to respond directly to LPS with increases in NO production has been well docu- mented (Jorens et al 1991; Warner et al 1995). AMs also are a likely source of the NO produced following silica exposure (Huffman et al 1998; Porter et al 2002).

  2. Nitric oxide production by rat bronchoalveolar macrophages or ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Media levels of nitrate and nitrite (NOx; the stable decomposition products of NO) ... have the capacity to express iNOS mRNA and produce. NO, much of ... Sil, < 5 µm diameter, US Silica Corp., Berkeley Springs, ..... provides new information.

  3. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  4. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  5. Gallium-67 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauth, H.A.; Heimes, K.; Schubotz, R.; von Wichert, P.

    1986-01-01

    Roentgenograms and gallium-67 scans and gallium-67 counts of BAL fluid samples, together with differential cell counts, have proved to be useful in assessing activity and lung involvement in sarcoidosis. In active pulmonary sarcoidosis gallium-67 scans are usually positive. Quantitation of gallium-67 uptake in lung scans, however, may be difficult. Because gallium-67 uptake and cell counts in BAL fluid may be correlated, we set out to investigate gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid recovered from patient of different groups. Sixteen patients with recently diagnosed and untreated sarcoidosis, nine patients with healthy lungs, and five patients with CFA were studied. Gallium-67 uptake of the lung, gallium-67 activity in the lavage fluid, SACE and LACE levels, and alpha 1-AT activity were measured. Significantly more gallium-67 activity was found in BAL fluid from sarcoidosis patients than in that from CFA patients (alpha = .001) or patients with healthy lungs (alpha = .001). Gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid could be well correlated with the number of lymphocytes in BAL fluid, but poorly with the number of macrophages. Subjects with increased levels of SACE or serum alpha 1-AT showed higher lavage gallium-67 activity than did normals, but no correlation could be established. High gallium-67 activity in lavage fluid may be correlated with acute sarcoidosis or physiological deterioration; low activity denotes change for the better. The results show that gallium-67 counts in BAL fluid reflects the intensity of gallium-67 uptake and thus of activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis

  6. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  7. Human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.; Neill, R.; Williams, R.; Bauser, M.; Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

  8. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul....... The paper will investigate how technology, humanity, affects, and synaesthesia are presented and combined with examples from everyday aesthetics, e.g. early computer tv-commercial, net-commercial for mobile phones. Technology and affects point, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not he...

  9. Human Parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27806994

  10. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  11. BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID BACTERIAL ISOLATION AND SENSIBILITY IN HEALTH AND SICK DOGS La identificación bacteriana y sensibilidad antimicrobiana de líquido de lavado tracheobronchial de sanos y enfermos perros IDENTIFICAÇÃO BACTERIANA E SENSIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DO FLUIDO DE LAVAGEM TRAQUEOBRÔNQUICA DE CÃES SADIOS E DOENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Basso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Research of antimicrobials use and resistance in food animals have been developed in various countries, although few studies include the bacteria prevalence in respiratory tract of companion animal. The aim of this paper was to verify antimicrobial resistance profile from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of health and sick dogs. Twenty animals were evaluated, 10 in the health group (group 1 and 10 in respiratory distress group (group 2. The bronchoalveolar lavage was performed through an endotracheal tube or guided by a rigid endoscope. Culture, identification and bacterial sensibility of the fluid were performed through agar diffusion method. The bacterial isolated were: Haemophilus aphrophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosas e Proteus mirabilis. Of all samples, 63% showed resistance to at least one class of antibiotics. Therefore antibiotic resistance is present in sick as well in health animals and ceftriaxone and amoxicilin associated with clavulanic acid are effective against respiratory tract bacteria.

    KEY WORDS: Antibiotic resistance, bacteria, respiratory distress.

    Nacional de Encuestas sobre el uso de antibióticos y la resistencia a los antibióticos en la producción animal se llevan a cabo en varios países, sin embargo pocos estudios que incluyen agentes bacterianos asociados con las vías respiratorias de los animales domésticos. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobianos en el líquido de lavado tracheobronchial sanos y enfermos perros. Hemos utilizado 20 animales, 10 clínicamente sanos (grupo 1 y 10 con trastorno respiratorio (grupo 2. La colecci��n de la tracheobronchial lavado se realizó con el tubo endotraqueal o guiado con la ayuda de un endoscopio rígido. Se han realizado el cultivo y la identificaci

  12. Secreted osteopontin is highly polymerized in human airways and fragmented in asthmatic airway secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arjomandi

    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is a member of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING family and a cytokine with diverse biologic roles. OPN undergoes extensive post-translational modifications, including polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, which alters its biologic activity. Recent studies suggest that OPN may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma.To determine whether secreted OPN (sOPN is polymerized in human airways and whether it is qualitatively different in asthma, we used immunoblotting to examine sOPN in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples from 12 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects (and in sputum samples from 27 healthy and 21 asthmatic subjects. All asthmatic subjects had mild to moderate asthma and abstained from corticosteroids during the study. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between airway sOPN and cellular inflammation.We found that sOPN in BAL fluid and sputum exists in polymeric, monomeric, and cleaved forms, with most of it in polymeric form. Compared to healthy subjects, asthmatic subjects had proportionately less polymeric sOPN and more monomeric and cleaved sOPN. Polymeric sOPN in BAL fluid was associated with increased alveolar macrophage counts in airways in all subjects.These results suggest that sOPN in human airways (1 undergoes extensive post-translational modification by polymerization and proteolytic fragmentation, (2 is more fragmented and less polymerized in subjects with mild to moderate asthma, and (3 may contribute to recruitment or survival of alveolar macrophages.

  13. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  14. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct homini...

  15. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  16. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  17. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  18. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting...

  19. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  20. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  1. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  2. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  3. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available risk of deaths and injuries by drowning in floods and migration- related health effects. • Increased migration, which can result in human suffering, human rights violations, conflicts and political instability. • Loss of property and livelihoods.... The vulnerability of settlements in southern Africa is impacted by various and complex socio-economic processes related to the cultural, political and institutional contexts and demographic pressure, as well as specific high-risk zones susceptible to flash floods...

  4. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission...not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh...research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public

  5. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases expression in human dental pulp cells by all-trans retinoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Man Kim; Sang Wook Kang; Su-Mi Shin; Duck Su Kim; Kyong-Kyu Choi; Eun-Cheol Kim; Sun-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fibroblasts, skin fibroblasts, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and cancer cells, but activates MMP-9 in neuroblast and leukemia cells. Very little is known regarding whether ATRA can activate or inhibit MMPs in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ATRA on the production and secretion of MMP-2 and-9 in HDPCs. The productions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of MMP-2 and-9 were accessed by gelatin zymography and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. ATRA was found to decrease MMP-2 level in a dose-dependent manner. Significant reduction in MMP-2 mRNA expression was also observed in HDPCs treated with 25 mmol?L21 ATRA. However, HDPCs treated with ATRA had no effect on the pattern of MMP-9 produced or secreted in either cell extracts or conditioned medium fractions. Taken together, ATRA had an inhibitory effect on MMP-2 expression in HDPCs, which suggests that ATRA could be a candidate as a medicament which could control the inflammation of pulp tissue in vital pulp therapy and regenerative endodontics.

  6. An assay for the assessment of lipocortin 1 levels in human lung lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S F; Goulding, N J; Godolphin, J L; Tetley, T D; Roberts, C M; Guz, A; Flower, R J

    1990-07-20

    The physiological function of the lipocortins, proteins which are thought to be glucocorticoid-regulated, is unclear. An improved assay for lipocortins might help to elucidate their role. A rapid and specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for lipocortin 1 with a working range of 1-2000 ng/ml and an interrun coefficient of variation of less than 10% is described and used in this pilot study to quantify human lipocortin 1 for the first time in acellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and in media conditioned by BAL cells, from control patients and those with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Using this assay a statistically significant relationship, not previously observed in man, has been demonstrated between concentrations of lipocortin 1/ml of BALF and serum cortisol levels (n = 10, rs = 0.6939, P less than 0.05). Although lipocortin 1 levels in acellular BALF were the same in control and sarcoid patients, significantly more lipocortin 1 was released from sarcoid BAL cells in culture (median 21.6, range 8.1-45.4 ng lipocortin/10(6) cells/h in culture) than from control cells (2.5, 1.5-7.6 ng lipocortin/10(6) cells/h in culture). The possible clinical significance of these data is discussed, but remains to be established.

  7. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  8. Morphometric Characterization of Rat and Human Alveolar Macrophage Cell Models and their Response to Amiodarone using High Content Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ewelina; Patel, Aateka; Ball, Doug; Klapwijk, Jan; Millar, Val; Kumar, Abhinav; Martin, Abigail; Mahendran, Rhamiya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Forbes, Ben; Hutter, Victoria

    2017-12-01

    Progress to the clinic may be delayed or prevented when vacuolated or "foamy" alveolar macrophages are observed during non-clinical inhalation toxicology assessment. The first step in developing methods to study this response in vitro is to characterize macrophage cell lines and their response to drug exposures. Human (U937) and rat (NR8383) cell lines and primary rat alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using high content fluorescence imaging analysis quantification of cell viability, morphometry, and phospholipid and neutral lipid accumulation. Cell health, morphology and lipid content were comparable (p content. Responses to amiodarone, a known inducer of phospholipidosis, required analysis of shifts in cell population profiles (the proportion of cells with elevated vacuolation or lipid content) rather than average population data which was insensitive to the changes observed. A high content image analysis assay was developed and used to provide detailed morphological characterization of rat and human alveolar-like macrophages and their response to a phospholipidosis-inducing agent. This provides a basis for development of assays to predict or understand macrophage vacuolation following inhaled drug exposure.

  9. Beyond Humanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant) is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer t...

  10. Human Parechoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Harvala, Heli; Midgley, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeV) are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of HPeV infection is often indistinguishable from that of enterovirus (EV) infection and may vary from mild disease...

  11. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  12. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  13. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  14. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...

  15. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  16. Human Rights and Human Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly explores some theories of Human Rights justification and then assents to the theory that Human Rights is based on justified moral values. In order to justify moral values, Aristotle’s approach called “Function Argument” is reviewed. Propounding this argument, the writer attempts to show that all analysis of human identity will directly contribute to the man’s view of his rights. Not only Human rights is really determined by human function or human distinguishing characteristic i.e. human identity, but in the world of knowledge the proper method to know human rights is to know human being himself. n cloning violates man’s rights due to two reasons: damage of human identity and violation of the right to be unique. Attempting to clarify the nature of human cloning, this article examines the aspects to be claimed to violate human rights and evaluates the strength of the reasons for this claim. این مقاله پس از بررسی اجمالی برخی از نظریه‌های توجیه حقوق بشر، نظریة ابتنای آن بر ارزش‌های اخلاقی موجّه را می‌پذیرد. دربارة چگونگی توجیه ارزش اخلاقی، رویکرد ارسطو که به «برهان ارگن» موسوم است، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. مؤلف با طرح این برهان می‌کوشد نشان دهد ارائه هرگونه تحلیل از هویت انسان در نگرش آدمی به حقوق خود تأثیر مستقیم خواهد گذاشت. حقوق آدمی نه فقط از ناحیة کارویژه یا فصل ممیز وی (هویت انسان تعیّن واقعی می‌گیرد، بلکه در عالم معرفت هم راه درست شناخت حقوق بشر، شناخت خود انسان است.

  17. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  18. HPLC-MS/MS method optimisation for matrix metalloproteinase 3 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 determination in human blood serum using target analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, Petra; Krajnc, Metka Koren; Pahor, Artur; Finšgar, Matjaž; Knez, Željko

    2018-02-20

    A quantitative analysis of zinc endopeptidases matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) from human blood serum are presented. Both matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are present in human blood serum and can be used as biomarkers for different diseases. The analysis was performed using LC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, based on two specific peptides of each MMP in comparison with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). While the conditions for the LC-MS/MS analysis of MMP9 peptides were previously reported for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the analysis of MMP3 peptides was newly quantified for human blood serum herein for the first time. For MMP3, the linear behaviour was determined in the concentration range from 1.0-200.0ng/mL (R 2 =0.997) with an LLOD of 0.5ng/mL. For MMP9, linearity was determined in the concentration range from 6.5-65.0ng/mL (R 2 =0.995) with an LLOD of 2.0ng/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human Face as human single identity

    OpenAIRE

    Warnars, Spits

    2014-01-01

    Human face as a physical human recognition can be used as a unique identity for computer to recognize human by transforming human face with face algorithm as simple text number which can be primary key for human. Human face as single identity for human will be done by making a huge and large world centre human face database, where the human face around the world will be recorded from time to time and from generation to generation. Architecture database will be divided become human face image ...

  20. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  1. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  2. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  3. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  4. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  5. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  6. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  7. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  8. Adherent Human Alveolar Macrophages Exhibit a Transient Pro-Inflammatory Profile That Confounds Responses to Innate Immune Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Gillian S.; Booth, Helen; Petit, Sarah J.; Potton, Elspeth; Towers, Greg J.; Miller, Robert F.; Chain, Benjamin M.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) are thought to have a key role in the immunopathogenesis of respiratory diseases. We sought to test the hypothesis that human AM exhibit an anti-inflammatory bias by making genome-wide comparisons with monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Adherent AM obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of patients under investigation for haemoptysis, but found to have no respiratory pathology, were compared to MDM from healthy volunteers by whole genome transcriptional profiling before and after innate immune stimulation. We found that freshly isolated AM exhibited a marked pro-inflammatory transcriptional signature. High levels of basal pro-inflammatory gene expression gave the impression of attenuated responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the RNA analogue, poly IC, but in rested cells pro-inflammatory gene expression declined and transcriptional responsiveness to these stimuli was restored. In comparison to MDM, both freshly isolated and rested AM showed upregulation of MHC class II molecules. In most experimental paradigms ex vivo adherent AM are used immediately after isolation. Therefore, the confounding effects of their pro-inflammatory profile at baseline need careful consideration. Moreover, despite the prevailing view that AM have an anti-inflammatory bias, our data clearly show that they can adopt a striking pro-inflammatory phenotype, and may have greater capacity for presentation of exogenous antigens than MDM. PMID:22768282

  9. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cyclic mechanical stretch down-regulates cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression and activates a pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Karadottir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37. Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative stress in the VA10 cells. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR 3, TLR5 and TLR8 was reduced, while the gene expression of TLR2 was increased in VA10 cells after cyclic stretch. In conclusion, our in vitro results indicate that cyclic stretch may differentially modulate innate immunity by down-regulation of antimicrobial peptide expression and increase in pro-inflammatory responses.

  11. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading to the r......In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  12. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  13. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  14. Managing the Human in Human Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Susan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical and social realities, mental biases and limitations of being human differentiate human brands from others. It is their very humanness that introduces risk while generating the ability for enhanced returns. Four particular human characteristics can create imbalance or inconsistency between the person and the brand: mortality, hubris, unpredictability and social embeddedness. None of these qualities manifest in traditional non-human brands, and all of them present risks requiring active managerial attention. Rather than treating humans as brands and making humans into brands for sale in the commercial marketplace, our framework forces a focus on keeping a balance between the person and the personified object.

  15. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  16. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  17. Lung fibroblasts accelerate wound closure in human alveolar epithelial cells through hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Correll, Kelly; Schiel, John A; Finigan, Jay H; Prekeris, Rytis; Mason, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    There are 190,600 cases of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) each year in the United States, and the incidence and mortality of ALI/ARDS increase dramatically with age. Patients with ALI/ARDS have alveolar epithelial injury, which may be worsened by high-pressure mechanical ventilation. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells are the progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium and are required to reestablish the alveolar epithelium during the recovery process from ALI/ARDS. Lung fibroblasts (FBs) migrate and proliferate early after lung injury and likely are an important source of growth factors for epithelial repair. However, how lung FBs affect epithelial wound healing in the human adult lung has not been investigated in detail. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is known to be released mainly from FBs and to stimulate both migration and proliferation of primary rat ATII cells. HGF is also increased in lung tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum in patients with ALI/ARDS. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF secreted by FBs would enhance wound closure in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Wound closure was measured using a scratch wound-healing assay in primary human AEC monolayers and in a coculture system with FBs. We found that wound closure was accelerated by FBs mainly through HGF/c-Met signaling. HGF also restored impaired wound healing in AECs from the elderly subjects and after exposure to cyclic stretch. We conclude that HGF is the critical factor released from FBs to close wounds in human AEC monolayers and suggest that HGF is a potential strategy for hastening alveolar repair in patients with ALI/ARDS. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Distinct Properties of Human M-CSF and GM-CSF Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to Simulate Pathological Lung Conditions In Vitro: Application to Systemic and Inflammatory Disorders with Pulmonary Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescoat, Alain; Ballerie, Alice; Augagneur, Yu; Morzadec, Claudie; Vernhet, Laurent; Fardel, Olivier; Jégo, Patrick; Jouneau, Stéphane; Lecureur, Valérie

    2018-03-17

    Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and fibrotic lung diseases. However, alveolar macrophages (AM) are poorly available in humans to perform in vitro studies due to a limited access to broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL). In this study, to identify the best alternative in vitro model for human AM, we compared the phenotype of AM obtained from BAL of patients suffering from three lung diseases (lung cancers, sarcoidosis and Systemic Sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease) to human blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) differentiated with M-CSF or GM-CSF. The expression of eight membrane markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. Globally, AM phenotype was closer to GM-CSF MDMs. However, the expression levels of CD163, CD169, CD204, CD64 and CD36 were significantly higher in SSc-ILD than in lung cancers. Considering the expression of CD204 and CD36, the phenotype of SSc-AM was closer to MDMs, from healthy donors or SSc patients, differentiated by M-CSF rather than GM-CSF. The comparative secretion of IL-6 by SSc-MDMs and SSc-AM is concordant with these phenotypic considerations. Altogether, these results support the M-CSF MDM model as a relevant in vitro alternative to simulate AM in fibrotic disorders such as SSc.

  19. In vitro cytotoxicity of Manville Code 100 glass fibers: Effect of fiber length on human alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones William

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs are inorganic noncrystalline materials widely used in residential and industrial settings for insulation, filtration, and reinforcement purposes. SVFs conventionally include three major categories: fibrous glass, rock/slag/stone (mineral wool, and ceramic fibers. Previous in vitro studies from our laboratory demonstrated length-dependent cytotoxic effects of glass fibers on rat alveolar macrophages which were possibly associated with incomplete phagocytosis of fibers ≥ 17 μm in length. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fiber length on primary human alveolar macrophages, which are larger in diameter than rat macrophages, using length-classified Manville Code 100 glass fibers (8, 10, 16, and 20 μm. It was hypothesized that complete engulfment of fibers by human alveolar macrophages could decrease fiber cytotoxicity; i.e. shorter fibers that can be completely engulfed might not be as cytotoxic as longer fibers. Human alveolar macrophages, obtained by segmental bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking volunteers, were treated with three different concentrations (determined by fiber number of the sized fibers in vitro. Cytotoxicity was assessed by monitoring cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase release and loss of function as indicated by a decrease in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence. Results Microscopic analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages completely engulfed glass fibers of the 20 μm length. All fiber length fractions tested exhibited equal cytotoxicity on a per fiber basis, i.e. increasing lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing chemiluminescence in the same concentration-dependent fashion. Conclusion The data suggest that due to the larger diameter of human alveolar macrophages, compared to rat alveolar macrophages, complete phagocytosis of longer fibers can occur with the human cells. Neither incomplete phagocytosis nor length-dependent toxicity was

  20. Modern Human Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-01

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  1. Modern Human Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-15

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  2. Multi-platform metabolomics assays for human lung lavage fluids in an air pollution exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Karimpour, Masoumeh; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Wu, Junfang; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Blomberg, Anders; Pourazar, Jamshid; Sandström, Thomas; Behndig, Annelie F; Trygg, Johan; Nording, Malin L

    2016-07-01

    Metabolomics protocols are used to comprehensively characterize the metabolite content of biological samples by exploiting cutting-edge analytical platforms, such as gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) assays, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assays. We have developed novel sample preparation procedures combined with GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR metabolomics profiling for analyzing bronchial wash (BW) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from 15 healthy volunteers following exposure to biodiesel exhaust and filtered air. Our aim was to investigate the responsiveness of metabolite profiles in the human lung to air pollution exposure derived from combustion of biofuels, such as rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel, which are increasingly being promoted as alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Our multi-platform approach enabled us to detect the greatest number of unique metabolites yet reported in BW and BAL fluid (82 in total). All of the metabolomics assays indicated that the metabolite profiles of the BW and BAL fluids differed appreciably, with 46 metabolites showing significantly different levels in the corresponding lung compartments. Furthermore, the GC-MS assay revealed an effect of biodiesel exhaust exposure on the levels of 1-monostearylglycerol, sucrose, inosine, nonanoic acid, and ethanolamine (in BAL) and pentadecanoic acid (in BW), whereas the LC-MS assay indicated a shift in the levels of niacinamide (in BAL). The NMR assay only identified lactic acid (in BW) as being responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Our findings demonstrate that the proposed multi-platform approach is useful for wide metabolomics screening of BW and BAL fluids and can facilitate elucidation of metabolites responsive to biodiesel exhaust exposure. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract illustrating the study workflow. NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, LC-TOFMS Liquid chromatography-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry, GC Gas

  3. Scavenger receptors in human airway epithelial cells: role in response to double-stranded RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dieudonné

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs cooperate in response to danger signals to adjust the host immune response. The TLR3 agonist double stranded (dsRNA is an efficient activator of innate signalling in bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, we aimed at defining the role played by scavenger receptors expressed by bronchial epithelial cells in the control of the innate response to dsRNA both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of several scavenger receptor involved in pathogen recognition was first evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells in steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Their implication in the uptake of dsRNA and the subsequent cell activation was evaluated in vitro by competition with ligand of scavenger receptors including maleylated ovalbumin and by RNA silencing. The capacity of maleylated ovalbumin to modulate lung inflammation induced by dsRNA was also investigated in mice. Exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α increased expression of the scavenger receptors LOX-1 and CXCL16 and the capacity to internalize maleylated ovalbumin, whereas activation by TLR ligands did not. In contrast, the expression of SR-B1 was not modulated in these conditions. Interestingly, supplementation with maleylated ovalbumin limited dsRNA uptake and inhibited subsequent activation of bronchial epithelial cells. RNA silencing of LOX-1 and SR-B1 strongly blocked the dsRNA-induced cytokine production. Finally, administration of maleylated ovalbumin in mice inhibited the dsRNA-induced infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar spaces and lung draining lymph nodes. Together, our data characterize the function of SR-B1 and LOX-1 in bronchial epithelial cells and their implication in dsRNA-induced responses, a finding that might be relevant during respiratory viral infections.

  4. Application of a neutral community model to assess structuring of the human lung microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Arvind; Bassis, Christine M; Beck, James M; Young, Vincent B; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Huffnagle, Gary B; Schmidt, Thomas M

    2015-01-20

    DNA from phylogenetically diverse microbes is routinely recovered from healthy human lungs and used to define the lung microbiome. The proportion of this DNA originating from microbes adapted to the lungs, as opposed to microbes dispersing to the lungs from other body sites and the atmosphere, is not known. We use a neutral model of community ecology to distinguish members of the lung microbiome whose presence is consistent with dispersal from other body sites and those that deviate from the model, suggesting a competitive advantage to these microbes in the lungs. We find that the composition of the healthy lung microbiome is consistent with predictions of the neutral model, reflecting the overriding role of dispersal of microbes from the oral cavity in shaping the microbial community in healthy lungs. In contrast, the microbiome of diseased lungs was readily distinguished as being under active selection. We also assessed the viability of microbes from lung samples by cultivation with a variety of media and incubation conditions. Bacteria recovered by cultivation from healthy lungs represented species that comprised 61% of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Neutral distribution of microbes is a distinguishing feature of the microbiome in healthy lungs, wherein constant dispersal of bacteria from the oral cavity overrides differential growth of bacteria. No bacterial species consistently deviated from the model predictions in healthy lungs, although representatives of many of the dispersed species were readily cultivated. In contrast, bacterial populations in diseased lungs were identified as being under active selection. Quantification of the relative importance of selection and neutral processes such as dispersal in shaping the healthy lung microbiome is a first step toward understanding its impacts on host health. Copyright © 2015 Venkataraman et al.

  5. HUMANISM OF ANTROPOCENTRISM AND ANTROPOCENTRISM WITHOUT HUMANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Shilovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the distinction of humanism and anthropocentrism which is based on the parity of the person and being. Genetic communication of humanism and anthropocentrism and their historical break comes to light.

  6. Superintelligence, Humans, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Recent studies of the human mind debunk the myth that humans only use 10-20 percent of the human mind. A healthy human mind uses up to 90 percent...way. They will eat what is in front of them to satiate their appetite not knowing if there is anymore food for the future. Humans can predict

  7. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  8. Human adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells and their extracellular vesicles act differentially on lung mechanics and inflammation in experimental allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ligia Lins; Xisto, Debora Gonçalves; Kitoko, Jamil Zola; Cruz, Fernanda Ferreira; Olsen, Priscilla Christina; Redondo, Patricia Albuquerque Garcia; Ferreira, Tatiana Paula Teixeira; Weiss, Daniel Jay; Martins, Marco Aurélio; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-06-24

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be difficult to treat due to its complex pathophysiology. Most current drugs focus on controlling the inflammatory process, but are unable to revert the changes of tissue remodeling. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are effective at reducing inflammation and tissue remodeling; nevertheless, no study has evaluated the therapeutic effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) on established airway remodeling in experimental allergic asthma. C57BL/6 female mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Control (CTRL) animals received saline solution using the same protocol. One day after the last challenge, each group received saline, 10 5 human AD-MSCs, or EVs (released by 10 5  AD-MSCs). Seven days after treatment, animals were anesthetized for lung function assessment and subsequently euthanized. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lungs, thymus, and mediastinal lymph nodes were harvested for analysis of inflammation. Collagen fiber content of airways and lung parenchyma were also evaluated. In OVA animals, AD-MSCs and EVs acted differently on static lung elastance and on BALF regulatory T cells, CD3 + CD4 + T cells, and pro-inflammatory mediators (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin), but similarly reduced eosinophils in lung tissue, collagen fiber content in airways and lung parenchyma, levels of transforming growth factor-β in lung tissue, and CD3 + CD4 + T cell counts in the thymus. No significant changes were observed in total cell count or percentage of CD3 + CD4 + T cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes. In this immunocompetent mouse model of allergic asthma, human AD-MSCs and EVs effectively reduced eosinophil counts in lung tissue and BALF and modulated airway remodeling, but their effects on T cells differed in lung and thymus. EVs may hold promise for asthma; however, further studies are required to elucidate the different

  9. Computational and serologic analysis of novel and known viruses in species human adenovirus D in which serology and genomics do not correlate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Liu

    Full Text Available In November of 2007 a human adenovirus (HAdV was isolated from a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL sample recovered from a biopsy of an AIDS patient who presented with fever, cough, tachycardia, and expiratory wheezes. To better understand the isolated virus, the genome was sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatic and phylogenomic analysis. The results suggest that this novel virus, which is provisionally named HAdV-D59, may have been created from multiple recombination events. Specifically, the penton, hexon, and fiber genes have high nucleotide identity to HAdV-D19C, HAdV-D25, and HAdV-D56, respectively. Serological results demonstrated that HAdV-D59 has a neutralization profile that is similar yet not identical to that of HAdV-D25. Furthermore, we observed a two-fold difference between the ability of HAdV-D15 and HAdV-D25 to be neutralized by reciprocal antiserum indicating that the two hexon proteins may be more similar in epitopic conformation than previously assumed. In contrast, hexon loops 1 and 2 of HAdV-D15 and HAdV-D25 share 79.13 and 92.56 percent nucleotide identity, respectively. These data suggest that serology and genomics do not always correlate.

  10. Feasibility and Safety of Local Treatment with Recombinant Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in a Rat Model of Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florry E van den Boogaard

    Full Text Available Pulmonary coagulopathy is intrinsic to pulmonary injury including pneumonia. Anticoagulant strategies could benefit patients with pneumonia, but systemic administration of anticoagulant agents may lead to suboptimal local levels and may cause systemic hemorrhage. We hypothesized nebulization to provide a safer and more effective route for local administration of anticoagulants. Therefore, we aimed to examine feasibility and safety of nebulization of recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI in a well-established rat model of Streptococcus (S. pneumoniae pneumonia. Thirty minutes before and every 6 hours after intratracheal instillation of S. pneumonia causing pneumonia, rats were subjected to local treatment with rh-TFPI or placebo, and sacrificed after 42 hours. Pneumonia was associated with local as well as systemic activation of coagulation. Nebulization of rh-TFPI resulted in high levels of rh-TFPI in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was accompanied by an attenuation of pulmonary coagulation. Systemic rh-TFPI levels remained undetectable, and systemic TFPI activity and systemic coagulation were not affected. Histopathology revealed no bleeding in the lungs. We conclude that nebulization of rh-TFPI seems feasible and safe; local anticoagulant treatment with rh-TFPI attenuates pulmonary coagulation, while not affecting systemic coagulation in a rat model of S. pneumoniae pneumonia.

  11. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  12. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  13. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  14. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  15. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  16. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  17. Mechanisms of Surface Antigenic Variation in the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Siegert, Emanuel; Richard, Sophie; Luraschi, Amanda; Mühlethaler, Konrad; Pagni, Marco; Hauser, Philippe M

    2017-11-07

    Microbial pathogens commonly escape the human immune system by varying surface proteins. We investigated the mechanisms used for that purpose by Pneumocystis jirovecii This uncultivable fungus is an obligate pulmonary pathogen that in immunocompromised individuals causes pneumonia, a major life-threatening infection. Long-read PacBio sequencing was used to assemble a core of subtelomeres of a single P. jirovecii strain from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen from a single patient. A total of 113 genes encoding surface proteins were identified, including 28 pseudogenes. These genes formed a subtelomeric gene superfamily, which included five families encoding adhesive glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoproteins and one family encoding excreted glycoproteins. Numerical analyses suggested that diversification of the glycoproteins relies on mosaic genes created by ectopic recombination and occurs only within each family. DNA motifs suggested that all genes are expressed independently, except those of the family encoding the most abundant surface glycoproteins, which are subject to mutually exclusive expression. PCR analyses showed that exchange of the expressed gene of the latter family occurs frequently, possibly favored by the location of the genes proximal to the telomere because this allows concomitant telomere exchange. Our observations suggest that (i) the P. jirovecii cell surface is made of a complex mixture of different surface proteins, with a majority of a single isoform of the most abundant glycoprotein, (ii) genetic mosaicism within each family ensures variation of the glycoproteins, and (iii) the strategy of the fungus consists of the continuous production of new subpopulations composed of cells that are antigenically different. IMPORTANCE Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus causing severe pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. It is the second most frequent life-threatening invasive fungal infection. We have studied the mechanisms

  18. Aspirin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation in human models of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, U; Krasnodembskaya, A; Fitzgerald, M; Shyamsundar, M; Kissenpfennig, A; Scott, C; Lefrancais, E; Looney, M R; Verghis, R; Scott, J; Simpson, A J; McNamee, J; McAuley, D F; O'Kane, C M

    2017-11-01

    Platelets play an active role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal and observational studies have shown aspirin's antiplatelet and immunomodulatory effects may be beneficial in ARDS. To test the hypothesis that aspirin reduces inflammation in clinically relevant human models that recapitulate pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of ARDS. Healthy volunteers were randomised to receive placebo or aspirin 75  or 1200 mg (1:1:1) for seven days prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 6 hours after inhaling 50 µg of LPS. The primary outcome measure was BAL IL-8. Secondary outcome measures included markers of alveolar inflammation (BAL neutrophils, cytokines, neutrophil proteases), alveolar epithelial cell injury, systemic inflammation (neutrophils and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)) and platelet activation (thromboxane B2, TXB2). Human lungs, perfused and ventilated ex vivo (EVLP) were randomised to placebo or 24 mg aspirin and injured with LPS. BAL was carried out 4 hours later. Inflammation was assessed by BAL differential cell counts and histological changes. In the healthy volunteer (n=33) model, data for the aspirin groups were combined. Aspirin did not reduce BAL IL-8. However, aspirin reduced pulmonary neutrophilia and tissue damaging neutrophil proteases (Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-8/-9), reduced BAL concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α and reduced systemic and pulmonary TXB2. There was no difference between high-dose and low-dose aspirin. In the EVLP model, aspirin reduced BAL neutrophilia and alveolar injury as measured by histological damage. These are the first prospective human data indicating that aspirin inhibits pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation, at both low and high doses. Further clinical studies are indicated to assess the role of aspirin in the

  19. Boundaries of Humanities: Writing Medical Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Gillie

    2008-01-01

    Literature and medicine is a discipline within medical humanities, which challenges medicine to reconfigure its scientific model to become interdisciplinary, and be disciplined by arts and humanities as well as science. The psychological, emotional, spiritual and physical are inextricably linked in people, inevitably entailing provisionality,…

  20. Human algorithmic stability and human Rademacher complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahdat, Mehrnoosh; Oneto, L.; Ghio, A; Anguita, D.; Funk, M.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In Machine Learning (ML), the learning process of an algo- rithm given a set of evidences is studied via complexity measures. The way towards using ML complexity measures in the Human Learning (HL) domain has been paved by a previous study, which introduced Human Rademacher Complexity (HRC): in this

  1. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  2. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  3. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  4. Human Exposure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  5. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  6. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  7. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  9. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  10. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  11. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  12. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells reduce systemic inflammation and attenuate LPS-induced acute lung injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianjun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess potent immunomodulatory properties and simultaneously lack the ability to illicit immune responses. Hence, MSCs have emerged as a promising candidate for cellular therapeutics for inflammatory diseases. Within the context of this study, we investigated whether human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs could ameliorate lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury (ALI in a rat model. Methods ALI was induced via injection of LPS. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 saline group(control, (2 LPS group, and (3 MSC + LPS group. The rats were sacrificed at 6, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and lungs were collected for cytokine concentration measurements, assessment of lung injury, and histology. Results UC-MSCs increased survival rate and suppressed LPS-induced increase of serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 without decreasing the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The MSC + LPS group exhibited significant improvements in lung inflammation, injury, edema, lung wet/dry ratio, protein concentration, and neutrophil counts in the BALF, as well as improved myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the lung tissue. Furthermore, UC-MSCs decreased malondialdehyde (MDA production and increased Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1 protein production and activity in the lung tissue. Conclusion UC-MSCs noticeably increased the survival rate of rats suffering from LPS-induced lung injury and significantly reduced systemic and pulmonary inflammation. Promoting anti-inflammatory homeostasis and reducing oxidative stress might be the therapeutic basis of UC-MSCs.

  13. N-acetylcysteine-pretreated human embryonic mesenchymal stem cell administration protects against bleomycin-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Wu-Gang; Guo, Xiao-Can; Wu, Min-Juan; Xu, Zhen-Yu; Jiang, Jun-feng; Shen, Ce; Liu, Hou-Qi

    2013-08-01

    The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been reported to be a promising approach in the treatment of acute lung injury. However, the poor efficacy of transplanted MSCs is one of the serious handicaps in the progress of MSC-based therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the pretreatment of human embryonic MSCs (hMSCs) with an antioxidant, namely N-acetylcysteine (NAC), can improve the efficacy of hMSC transplantation in lung injury. In vitro, the antioxidant capacity of NAC-pretreated hMSCs was assessed using intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione assays and cell adhesion and spreading assays. In vivo, the therapeutic potential of NAC-pretreated hMSCs was assessed in a bleomycin-induced model of lung injury in nude mice. The pretreatment of hMSCs with NAC improved antioxidant capacity to defend against redox imbalances through the elimination of cellular ROS, increasing cellular glutathione levels, and the enhancement of cell adhesion and spreading when exposed to oxidative stresses in vitro. In addition, the administration of NAC-pretreated hMSCs to nude mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury decreased the pathological grade of lung inflammation and fibrosis, hydroxyproline content and numbers of neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and apoptotic cells, while enhancing the retention and proliferation of hMSCs in injured lung tissue and improving the survival rate of mice compared with results from untreated hMSCs. The pretreatment of hMSCs with NAC could be a promising therapeutic approach to improving cell transplantation and, therefore, the treatment of lung injury.

  14. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  16. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  17. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia ...

  18. Human Document Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jeroen; Abelmann, Leon; Manz, A; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2012-01-01

    “The Human Document Project‿ is a project which tries to answer all of the questions related to preserving information about the human race for tens of generations of humans to come or maybe even for a future intelligence which can emerge in the coming thousands of years. This document mainly

  19. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  20. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  1. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  2. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  3. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    The article puts forward an aesthetic and psychoanalytic analysis of Titian's painting, The Flaying of Marsyas, arguing that the painting is a reflection on the human subject as a being constituted by skin and by a core of non-humanity. The analysis is partly an answer to Melanie Hart's (2007) ar...... of the 'Muselmann', and Anton Ehrenzweig's psychoanalytic theory of artistic creation. Whereas Hart is focusing on form and colour, I also turn my attention towards the texture of the painting....

  4. Universe, human immortality and future human evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This book debates the universe, the development of new technologies in the 21st century and the future of the human race. Dr Bolonkin shows that a human soul is only the information in a person's head. He offers a new unique method for re-writing the main brain information in chips without any damage to the human brain. This is the scientific prediction of the non-biological (electronic) civilization and immortality of the human being. Such a prognosis is predicated upon a new law, discovered by the author, for the development of complex systems. According to this law, every self-copying system tends to be more complex than the previous system, provided that all external conditions remain the same. The consequences are disastrous: humanity will be replaced by a new civilization created by intellectual robots (which Dr Bolonkin refers to as "E-humans" and "E-beings"). These creatures, whose intellectual and mechanical abilities will far exceed those of man, will require neither food nor oxygen to sustain their...

  5. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  6. Rethinking medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  7. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  8. Activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis in the human lung on bronchial instillation of lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, Jacobien J.; de Vos, Alex F.; Levi, Marcel; Bresser, Paul; van der Zee, Jaring S.; Draing, Christian; von Aulock, Sonja; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Pneumonia is characterized by an acute inflammatory response in the lung, which is frequently associated with changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis in the bronchoalveolar space. Here, we compared the effects of lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a major cell wall component of Gram-positive

  9. Changes in CD11b and L-selectin expression on eosinophils are mediated by human lung fibroblasts in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, FM; Hovenga, H; Noordhoek, JA; Postma, DS; Kauffman, HF

    Eosinophilic airway infiltration is a central feature in asthma. Eosinophils recovered from bronchoalveolar fluid show an activated phenotype, e.g., increased CD11b and decreased L-selectin expression. We investigated whether lung fibroblasts are able to activate eosinophils in vitro, and if so,

  10. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  11. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  12. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  13. The Human Cell Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  14. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.; LaRhette, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluating human error or human performance problems and correcting the root causes can help preclude recurrence. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), working with several members and participant utilities in an extended pilot program, has developed a nonpunitive program designed to identify, evaluate, and correct situations that cause human performance errors. The program is called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). Its primary goal is to improve human reliability in overall nuclear plant operations by reducing human error through correction of the conditions that cause the errors. Workers at participating nuclear utilities are encouraged to report their errors and a specially trained plant coordinator investigates and recommends actions to correct the root causes of these errors

  15. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  16. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  17. Human intrusion: New ideas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Inadvertent human intrusion has been an issue for the disposal of solid radioactive waste for many years. This paper discusses proposals for an approach for evaluating the radiological significance of human intrusion as put forward by ICRP with contribution from work at IAEA. The approach focuses on the consequences of the intrusion. Protective actions could, however, include steps to reduce the probability of human intrusion as well as the consequences. (author)

  18. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  19. The human genome project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worton, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Human Genome Project is a massive international research project, costing 3 to 5 billion dollars and expected to take 15 years, which will identify the all the genes in the human genome - i.e. the complete sequence of bases in human DNA. The prize will be the ability to identify genes causing or predisposing to disease, and in some cases the development of gene therapy, but this new knowledge will raise important ethical issues

  20. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  1. Options for human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauser, M.; Williams, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses options for dealing with human intrusion in terms of performance requirements and repository siting and design requirements. Options are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of certain approaches. At the conclusion, a conceptual approach is offered emphasizing both the minimization of subjective judgements concerning future human activity, and specification of repository requirements to minimize the likelihood of human intrusion and any resulting, harmful effects should intrusion occur

  2. Human Engineering Procedures Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Research Laboratory AFETR Air Force Eastern Test Range AFFTC Air Force Flight Test Center AFHRL Air Force Human Resources Laboratory AFR Air Force...performance requirements through the most effective use of man’s performance capability. 13 Human Engineering is one of five elements in the Human...applied judiciously and tailored to fit * the program or program phase and the acquisition strategy to achieve cost effective acquisition and life cycle

  3. Human babesiosis: Recent discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Sanja M.; Kranjčić-Zec Ivana F.; Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina S.; Džamić Aleksandar M.; Radonjić Ivana V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia, which is a common animal infection worldwide. This protozoa requires both a competent vertebrate and a nonvertebrate host (Ixodes sp. etc.) to maintain the transmission cycle. Human babesiosis Human babesiosis is predominantly caused by Babesia microti (rodent-borne piroplasm, an emerging zoonosis in humans in North America) and by Babesia divergens (bovine pathogen, in Europe). Occasionally, infection in A...

  4. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  5. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  6. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  7. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  8. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  9. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  10. Cell recovery in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in smokers is dependent on cumulative smoking history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females never-smokers served as reference. RESULT: The median [5-95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6-132.1]×10(6 and 382.1 [189.7-864.3]×10(6/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4-99.0] followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8-7.7] and neutrophils (0.6% [0-2.9]. The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001. Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. CONCLUSION: Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context.

  11. Neutrophil chemotactic activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Kharazmi, A; Larsen, C G

    1997-01-01

    been shown to confer a poor prognosis in PCP. We therefore investigated the potential of BAL fluid from 17 patients with PCP to induce neutrophil chemotaxis. BAL fluid from patients induced considerable neutrophil chemotactic activity compared to normal controls. Elevated levels of IL-8 were detected...... in patient samples as compared to controls. A specific anti-IL-8 antibody significantly reduced chemotactic activity of patient samples by more than 50%. In conclusion, IL-8 appears to be a significant participant of neutrophil chemotaxis in AIDS-associated PCP, and may participate in the recruitment...

  12. Thrombin contributes to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid mitogenicity in lung disease of the premature infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Willem A.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Naber, Brigitta A.; Janssen, Daphne J.; van Kaam, Anton H. L. C.; Versnel, Marjan A.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is a common consequence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and is characterized by pulmonary fibrosis. Increased thrombin activity in the alveolar compartment is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in adults and animals, and contributes to

  13. Association of bronchoalveolar lavage yield with chest computed tomography findings and symptoms in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R Brownback

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: CT findings of reticular and nodular infiltrates portend a worse diagnostic yield from BAL than those that are alveolar in nature. Symptomatic patients are more likely to have diagnostic FOB with BAL than asymptomatic patients.

  14. Sulfite-induced protein radical formation in LPS aerosol-challenged mice: Implications for sulfite sensitivity in human lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to (bisulfite (HSO3– and sulfite (SO32– has been shown to induce a wide range of adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. Studies have shown that peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of (bisulfite leads to formation of several reactive free radicals, such as sulfur trioxide anion (.SO3–, peroxymonosulfate (–O3SOO., and especially the sulfate (SO4. – anion radicals. One such peroxidase in neutrophils is myeloperoxidase (MPO, which has been shown to form protein radicals. Although formation of (bisulfite-derived protein radicals is documented in isolated neutrophils, its involvement and role in in vivo inflammatory processes, has not been demonstrated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate (bisulfite-derived protein radical formation and its mechanism in LPS aerosol-challenged mice, a model of non-atopic asthma. Using immuno-spin trapping to detect protein radical formation, we show that, in the presence of (bisulfite, neutrophils present in bronchoalveolar lavage and in the lung parenchyma exhibit, MPO-catalyzed oxidation of MPO to a protein radical. The absence of radical formation in LPS-challenged MPO- or NADPH oxidase-knockout mice indicates that sulfite-derived radical formation is dependent on both MPO and NADPH oxidase activity. In addition to its oxidation by the MPO-catalyzed pathway, (bisulfite is efficiently detoxified to sulfate by the sulfite oxidase (SOX pathway, which forms sulfate in a two-electron oxidation reaction. Since SOX activity in rodents is much higher than in humans, to better model sulfite toxicity in humans, we induced SOX deficiency in mice by feeding them a low molybdenum diet with tungstate. We found that mice treated with the SOX deficiency diet prior to exposure to (bisulfite had much higher protein radical formation than mice with normal SOX activity. Altogether, these results demonstrate the role of MPO and NADPH oxidase in (bisulfite-derived protein radical formation and show the involvement of

  15. Human trafficking in Germany: strengthening victim's human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Follmar-Otto, Petra; Rabe, Heike

    2009-01-01

    The first study - "A human rights approach against human trafficking - International obligations and the status of implementation in Germany" - analyses how the prohibition of human trafficking and the resulting state obligations are anchored in human rights. The more recent specialised international agreements on human trafficking and law-making in the European Union are then presented. The emphasis is on the Council of Europe Convention, which professes to treat human trafficking in a human...

  16. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  17. Rationality in Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  18. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  19. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  20. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  1. Human Powered Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  2. Kinship and Human Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergendorff, Steen

    This book offers a exiting new explanation of human evolution. Based on insight from Anthropology is shows that human became 'cultured' beings capable of symbolic thought by developing rasting kinship based between groups that could not other wise survive in the harah climate condition during...

  3. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  4. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  5. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  6. Evaluating the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  7. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  8. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  9. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  10. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  11. Human Intestinal Spirochaetosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochaetosis is a condition of the colon that is characterized by the presence of spirochaetes attached to the mucosal cells of the colon. These spirochaetes belong to the family Brachyspiraceae and two species are known to occur in humans: Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira

  12. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    , which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  13. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  14. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  15. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  16. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  17. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  18. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  19. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...... towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...

  20. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  1. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  2. UN human rights council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Mlrjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structure, mechanisms, practices and perspectives of the Human Rights Council, the UN body that, at universal level is the most important body in this area. Introductory section provides for a brief overview of the origins of human rights and the work of the Commission on Human Rights, in whose jurisdiction were questions of human rights before the establishment of the Council. After the introductory section the author gives an analysis of the structure, objectives, mandate and main procedures for the protection of human rights within the united Nations. In the final section the authorpoints out the advantages of this authority and criticism addressed to it, with emphasis on the possibility and the need for its reform.

  3. Waste - the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Waste is a human concept, referring to things that have no use to human beings and arising entirely from human activities. It is the useless residue of any human process that affects the economy or environment. The changes brought about by the industrial revolution are enormous; fossil fuels, not just photosynthesis, now provide energy and wastes at rates far exceeding the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb or recycle. Three major problems face the Planet: accelerated population growth, accelerated use of resources for energy and industry, and the disproportionate use of resources and waste between the northern and southern parts of the Planet. Knowledge and science are in a position to provide both human creativity and the directed technology to take remedial action and rediscover harmony between nature and mankind. Only social and political will is lacking

  4. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strucic, M.; Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    Human performance remains a significant factor for management attention not only from a reactor safety perspective, but also from a financial one. Recent significant events analysis shows that human errors are still dominant causes and contributors to them. An analysis of significant events in nuclear industry occurred through 15-years period revealed that three of four significant events were triggered by human error, although the number of events have dropped by more than a factor of four. A number of human performance breakdowns occurred in the application of errorprevention techniques. These included a lack of pre-job briefs, inadequate turnover of tasks, ineffective use of peer checking, inadequate procedure adherence, and failure to apply a questioning attitude when unexpected changes were encountered in the task. Attempts by the industry to improve human performance have traditionally focused at the worker level. However, human error occurs within the context of the organization, which can either foster or resist human error. The greatest room for improvement lies not only in the continued improvement of front-line worker performance but more so in the identification and elimination of weaknesses in the organizational and managerial domains that contributes to worker performance at the job site. Based on mentioned analysis, other industrial sources and own operating experience, NPP Krsko is paying more attention to improve human performance among own as well as contractor workers. Through series of programs and activities, such as Reactivity Management Program, Safety Culture Program, Self-assessment Program, Corrective Action Program, Plant Performance Monitoring Program, developed in last few years, and through new procedures, written guides and publications, training and management efforts, number of human errors is going to be reduced. Involvement of higher levels of NPP Krsko organization in promotion and use of Human Performance techniques is

  5. Digital Human Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The development of models to represent human characteristics and behaviors in human factors is broad and general. The term "model" can refer to any metaphor to represent any aspect of the human; it is generally used in research to mean a mathematical tool for the simulation (often in software, which makes the simulation digital) of some aspect of human performance and for the prediction of future outcomes. This section is restricted to the application of human models in physical design, e.g., in human factors engineering. This design effort is typically human interface design, and the digital models used are anthropometric. That is, they are visual models that are the physical shape of humans and that have the capabilities and constraints of humans of a selected population. They are distinct from the avatars used in the entertainment industry (movies, video games, and the like) in precisely that regard: as models, they are created through the application of data on humans, and they are used to predict human response; body stresses workspaces. DHM enable iterative evaluation of a large number of concepts and support rapid analysis, as compared with use of physical mockups. They can be used to evaluate feasibility of escape of a suited astronaut from a damaged vehicle, before launch or after an abort (England, et al., 2012). Throughout most of human spaceflight, little attention has been paid to worksite design for ground workers. As a result of repeated damage to the Space Shuttle which adversely affected flight safety, DHM analyses of ground assembly and maintenance have been developed over the last five years for the design of new flight systems (Stambolian, 2012, Dischinger and Dunn Jackson, 2014). The intent of these analyses is to assure the design supports the work of the ground crew personnel and thereby protect the launch vehicle. They help the analyst address basic human factors engineering questions: can a worker reach the task site from the work platform

  6. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  8. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  9. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  10. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  11. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  12. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  14. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  15. Clinical, virological and immunological features from patients infected with re-emergent avian-origin human H7N9 influenza disease of varying severity in Guangdong province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Feng Yang

    Full Text Available The second wave of avian influenza H7N9 virus outbreak in humans spread to the Guangdong province of China by August of 2013 and this virus is now endemic in poultry in this region.Five patients with H7N9 virus infection admitted to our hospital during August 2013 to February 2014 were intensively investigated. Viral load in the respiratory tract was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR and cytokine levels were measured by bead-based flow cytometery.Four patients survived and one died. Viral load in different clinical specimens was correlated with cytokine levels in plasma and broncho-alveolar fluid (BALF, therapeutic modalities used and clinical outcome. Intravenous zanamivir appeared to be better than peramivir as salvage therapy in patients who failed to respond to oseltamivir. Higher and more prolonged viral load was found in the sputum or endotracheal aspirates compared to throat swabs. Upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, MIP-1α/β, IL-1β and IL-8 was found in the plasma and BALF samples. The levels of cytokines in the plasma and viral load were correlated with disease severity. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1 was found in three out of five patients (60%.Expectorated sputum or endotracheal aspirate specimens are preferable to throat swabs for detecting and monitoring H7N9 virus. Severity of the disease was correlated to the viral load in the respiratory tract as well as the extents of cytokinemia. Reactivation of HSV-1 may contribute to clinical outcome.

  16. Effect of controlled human exposure to diesel exhaust and allergen on airway surfactant protein D, myeloperoxidase and club (Clara) cell secretory protein 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, B J; Tam, S; Chen, Y-W R; Sin, D D; Carlsten, C

    2016-09-01

    Air pollution is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Air pollution and aeroallergens aggravate respiratory illness, but the variable effects of air pollutants and allergens in the lung are poorly understood. To determine the effects of diesel exhaust (DE) and bronchial allergen challenge as single and dual exposures on aspects of innate immunity in the airway as reflected by surfactant protein D (SPD), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and club (Clara) cell secretory protein 16 (CC16) in 18 atopic individuals. In this double-blind, randomized crossover study, atopic individuals were exposed to DE or filtered air, followed by endobronchial allergen or saline 1 hour after inhalational exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial washings, nasal lavage and blood samples were obtained 48 hours after exposures and assayed for CC16, MPO and SPD by ELISA. In bronchial samples, the concentration of SPD increased from 53.3 to 91.8 ng/mL after endobronchial allergen, with no additional contribution from DE. MPO also increased significantly in response to allergen (6.8 to 14.7 ng/mL), and there was a small additional contribution from exposure to DE. The concentration of CC16 decreased from 340.7 to 151.0 ng/mL in response to DE, with minor contribution from allergen. These changes were not reflected in nasal lavage fluid or plasma samples. These findings suggest that allergen and DE variably influence different aspects of the innate immune response of the lung. SPD and MPO, known markers of allergic inflammation in the lung, are strongly increased by allergen while DE has a minor effect therein. DE induces a loss of CC16, a protective protein, while allergen has a minor effect therein. Results support site- and exposure-specific responses in the human lung upon multiple exposures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Intrapulmonary Human Cytomegalovirus Replication in Lung Transplant Recipients Is Associated With a Rise of CCL-18 and CCL-20 Chemokine Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weseslindtner, Lukas; Görzer, Irene; Roedl, Kevin; Küng, Erik; Jaksch, Peter; Klepetko, Walter; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In lung transplant recipients (LTRs), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA detection in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) indicates HCMV replication in the pulmonary compartment. Such local HCMV replication episodes may remain asymptomatic or may lead to symptomatic HCMV disease. Here, we investigated LTRs with intrapulmonary HCMV replication for the chemokines CCL-18 and CCL-20. In particular, we analyzed whether these chemokines rise in the allograft and/or the blood and are associated with HCMV disease. CCL-18 and CCL-20 levels were quantitated by ELISA in BALF and serum samples from 60 LTRs. During the posttransplant follow-up, these LTRs displayed HCMV DNA detection in the BALF by PCR, whereas other infectious agents were undetectable. Furthermore, we investigated samples from 10 controls who did not display any HCMV replication episode during the follow-up. HCMV replication in the allograft was associated with a significant increase of CCL-18 and CCL-20 BALF levels (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and a significant rise of CCL-20 (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test) but not of CCL-18 in the blood. In controls, no such chemokine increase was observed. Furthermore, CCL-18 BALF levels were significantly higher in 8 LTRs who additionally developed HCMV disease, as compared with the other 52 patients in whom HCMV replication remained asymptomatic (P test). HCMV replication in the allograft causes an intrapulmonary increase of CCL-18 and CCL-20 and a systemic rise of CCL-20 serum levels. Strong intrapulmonary CCL-18 responses are associated with symptomatic HCMV disease, proposing that CCL-18 BALF levels could serve as a marker.

  18. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refractoriness of cardiac cells limits maximum frequency of electrical activity and protects the heart from tonic contractions. Short refractory periods support major arrhythmogenic substrates and augmentation of refractoriness is therefore seen as a main mechanism of antiarrhythmic...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  19. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for developing them, such as taking oral contraceptives . A safety review of Gardasil in Denmark and ... and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark ...

  1. Human-Machine Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbrot, J.E.; Nihlwing, Ch.; Svengren, H.

    2005-01-01

    New requirements for enhanced safety and design changes in process systems often leads to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room of older nuclear power plants, where nowadays modern digital I and C solutions with screen-based human-machine interfaces (HMI) most often are introduced. Human factors (HF) expertise is then required to assist in specifying a unified, integrated HMI, where the entire integration of information is addressed to ensure an optimal and effective interplay between human (operators) and machine (process). Following a controlled design process is the best insurance for ending up with good solutions. This paper addresses the approach taken when introducing modern human-machine communication in the Oskarshamn 1 NPP, the results, and the lessons learned from this work with high operator involvement seen from an HF point of view. Examples of possibilities modern technology might offer for the operators are also addressed. (orig.)

  2. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  3. OAS :: Accountability :: Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's staffing, vacant posts, and a list of procurement notices for formal bids, links to the performance contract and travel control Plan Human Resources Organizational Structure Functions of each organizational unit Vacant Posts

  4. Spaceflight Versus Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    Spaceflight is challenging. Human spaceflight is far more challenging,.Those familiar with spaceflight recognize that human spaceflight is more than tacking an environmental control system on an existing spacecraft, that there are a number of serious technical challenges involved in sending people out into space and bringing them back home safely.The return trip, bringing the crew back to the surface of the earth safely, is more than just an additional task, it's the new imperative. Differences between manned and unmanned spaceflight are more than technical. The human element forces a change in philosophy, a mindset that will likely touch every aspect of flight from launch through mission and return. Seasoned space professionals used to the paradigms and priorities of unmanned flight need to be cognizant of these differences and some of the implications, perhaps most especially because mission success and human safety priorities are sometimes contradictory.

  5. Calvin and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vorster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity has become a major moral directive in the contemporary ethical reflection on human rights and bio-ethics. This article examines the theological foundations laid by the reformer Calvin regarding the inherent dignity of people, and his influence on post-World War ethical reflection about the violations of human rights. In this article his views on the “imago dei” and common grace, the “lex naturae” and the obligations of the civil authority are investigated in order to illuminate his ideas about the dignity of human beings. The article then deals with the influence of these ideas in the influential works of the twentieth century’s reformed theologians Barth, Berkhouwer and Moltmann.

  6. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...

  7. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryosections are associated with anatomical terminology. AnatLine : A prototype system consisting of an anatomical image database and ... further information is available Publications VHJOE: Visible Human Journal of Endoscopy. NLM's Current Bibliographies in Medicine, Visible ...

  8. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  9. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  10. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  11. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  12. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  13. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  14. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  15. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ... into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

  16. Biotechnology and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Le Mintier, B

    2001-12-01

    Biotechnology permits our world to progress. It's a tool to better apprehend the human being, but as well to let him go ahead. Applied to the living, biotechnologies present the same finality. But since their matter concerns effectively the living, they are the sources of specific dangers and particularly of that one to use the improvements obtained on the human to modify the human species. The right of the persons has to find its place to avoid that the fundamental rights of the human personality shall undergo harm. This mission assigned to the right of the persons is as so much invaluable that the economical stakes are particularly important in the domain of the biotechnologies.

  17. Human-Robot Teams Informed by Human Performance Moderator Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    performance factors that affect the ability of a human to drive at night, which includes the eyesight of the driver, the fatigue level of the driver...where human factors are factors that affect the performance of an individual. 7 for human interaction. For instance, they explain the various human... affecting trust in human-robot interaction. Human Factors 53(5), 517-527 (2001) 35. Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. Development of NASA-TLX (Task

  18. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  19. Pushing Human Frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  20. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  1. Quality and human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  2. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Germline Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E

    2017-08-03

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  6. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  7. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  8. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  9. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  10. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  11. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  12. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2014-01-01

    for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http

  13. Human dignity, humiliation, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2009-09-01

    Modern human rights instruments ground human rights in the concept of human dignity, without providing an underlying theory of human dignity. This paper examines the central importance of human dignity, understood as not humiliating people, in traditional Jewish ethics. It employs this conception of human dignity to examine and criticize U.S. use of humiliation tactics and torture in the interrogation of terrorism suspects.

  14. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  15. Why Geo-Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  16. The Human Serum Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  17. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  18. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  19. Healthy human gut phageome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  20. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  1. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  2. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey

    2007-01-01

    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  3. HUMAN MISSION OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  4. Seaweed and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  5. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...... and their disease relationships from the reported TDDB database. The resulting human EDN takes into consideration the level of evidence of the toxicant-disease relationships allowing including some degrees of significance in the disease-disease associations. Such network can be used to identify uncharacterized...

  6. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  7. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2017-01-01

    -matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...... legal fields and jurisdictions may warrant different understandings of such concept. It reviews a number of different and often divergent concepts and taxonomies of human enhancement and concludes with the proposal and analysis of a definition: Use of technological means with the intention to improve......Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...

  8. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  9. Human factors guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penington, J [PHF Services Inc., (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  10. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  11. Models of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB and C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such models have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Unfortunately, many potential model users remain skeptical about their practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part to disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of commonsense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB and C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. (author)

  12. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  13. Human cryptosporidiosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuo, P O

    2009-02-01

    To provide an overview of risk factors, presentation and management of human cryptosporidium infection. Literature review was obtained through PubMed search. Published articles on the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium and the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of cryptosporidiosis were reviewed. Abstracts and complete articles relevant to the objective were selected, read and analysed to extract information for this article. Human cryptosporidiosis is a severe diarrhoeal disease in malnourished children and immuno-compromised adults in whom it confers poor prognosis. Management is mainly supportive as drug therapy remains elusive. Fortunately the prevalence in AIDS patients is declining due to the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

  14. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan

    2013-01-01

    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  15. Human push capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ralph L; Liber, Theodore

    2006-02-22

    Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending on the scenario, human push capability involves strength, weight, weight distribution, push angle, footwear/floor friction, and the friction between the upper body and the pushed object. Simple models are used to establish the relationships among these factors.

  16. Ayahuasca and human destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  17. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  18. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...

  19. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  20. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  1. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    to become part of a global cultural flow, thus calling into question the physical connection between viewer and image. This article analyses what happens to that connection when not only the image but also the physical body is mediated and challenged in post-human relations, and examines the ensuing ethical...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  2. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...

  3. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  4. Identification of human pulmonary alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, A; Cerutti, C G; Lusuardi, M; Donner, C F

    1997-04-01

    An increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients affected by pulmonary fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. To characterize the ALP isoenzymes in such cases, we used gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, heat and amino acid inhibition assays, wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitation, and an immunoassay specific for the bone-isoform of ALP. Only one anodic band representing a high-molecular-weight isoform of ALP (Mr approximately 2,000 kDa) was observed on electrophoresis of BALF. The inhibition assay results were consistent for a tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme sensitive to a temperature of 56 degrees C (71.9 +/- 2.5% inhibition) and to homoarginine (65.7 +/- 1.9%), and resistant to L-phenylalanine and L-leucine. Less than 13% of ALP activity was heat-stable. After incubation of BALF specimens with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D plus Nonidet P-40, or with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C alone, an electrophoretic cathodic band (Mr approximately 220 kDa) appeared near the bone band of a standard serum. With the WGA assay, 84.4 +/- 3.3% of ALP precipitated and the band disappeared. After immunoassay for the bone isoform, a mean of less than 5% enzyme activity was measured. We conclude that the ALP found in BALF is a pulmonary isoform of a tissue nonspecific isoenzyme.

  5. The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination

    OpenAIRE

    McClennen, Sophia A.

    2007-01-01

    In her paper "The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination" Sophia A. McClennen argues that understanding the relationship between culture and human rights depends on humanist perspectives attentive to the relationship between storytelling and identity, mass culture and ideology, text and audience, critical thinking and engaged citizenship. After briefly considering how the divide between the humanities and human rights advocates developed and how it might best be overcome, s...

  6. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  7. Human Dignity – Constitutional Principle of Fundamental Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Pop

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a constitutional principle of the human rights, the human dignity is a supreme value, a norm and a right, thus that the reconfiguration of protection standards of fundamental human rights is made by cohesion of the legal, social and moral dimensions of human dignity. With this article, the author argues that legal meaning, social meaning and moral meaning of human dignity, are centerpiece of protection of freedom under law.

  8. The Case for the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the current impoverishment of the humanities and the gulf separating the humanities from the sciences. Discusses the need for adequate humanities instruction at the elementary-secondary level. Suggests that humanities teachers rediscover the Italian Renaissance spirit to improve their teaching. (SB)

  9. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  10. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  11. Human modeling in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Furuta, Kazuo.

    1994-01-01

    Review on progress of research and development on human modeling methods is made from the viewpoint of its importance on total man-machine system reliability surrounding nuclear power plant operation. Basic notions on three different approaches of human modeling (behavioristics, cognitives and sociologistics) are firstly introduced, followed by the explanation of fundamental scheme to understand human cognitives at man-machine interface and the mechanisms of human error and its classification. Then, general methodologies on human cognitive model by AI are explained with the brief summary of various R and D activities now prevailing in the human modeling communities around the world. A new method of dealing with group human reliability is also introduced which is based on sociologistic mathematical model. Lastly, problems on human model validation are discussed, followed by the introduction of new experimental method to estimate human cognitive state by psycho-physiological measurement, which is a new methodology plausible for human model validation. (author)

  12. Human perspectives in horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  13. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  14. Human Performance Westinghouse Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, A.; Gil, C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Program consists in the excellence actuation, achieving the client success with a perfect realisation project. This program consists of different basic elements to reduce the human mistakes: the HuP tools, coaching, learning clocks and iKnow website. There is, too, a document file to consult and practice. All these elements are expounded in this paper.

  15. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  16. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  17. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in

  18. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  19. Haptic Physical Human Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation covers three aspects of upper-extremity exoskeleton design: 1) Kinematics & motion: How to support the full range of motion of the human shoulder? We present a 2D visualization method that can show coupling between the range of motion (ROM) of rotations of the glenohumeral joint.

  20. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  1. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  2. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...

  3. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  4. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  5. Human Resource Outsourcing Success

    OpenAIRE

    Hasliza Abdul-Halim; Elaine Ee; T. Ramayah; Noor Hazlina Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR) outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that par...

  6. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  7. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  8. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  9. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  10. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  11. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  12. HUMAN PARAGONIMIASIS IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    this disease, training of technicians in anti-tuberculosis centers would be the most realistic attitude to detect mycobacteria and/or Paragonimus eggs during the same sputum examination. Key words: Paragonimus spp., Africa, human paragonimiasis, intermediate hosts, tuberculosis. Résumé. Une revue sur la paragonimose ...

  13. Human Performance and Biosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    Fuel Cells • Artificial Photosynthesis Overview of Topic Areas 3003 Human Performance/Biosystems • Photo-Electro-Magnetic Stimulation of...1) Electronic transport in bacterial nanowires was demonstrated using nanofabrication enabled approaches (2) Identified the biophysical... bacterial nanowires and outer-membrane vesicles enhancing the electron transfer and respiration of individual cells Outlook The first demonstration

  14. Human Babesiosis, Bolivia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Macchioni, Fabio; Zuñiga, Freddy; Rojas, Patricia; Lara, Yuni; Roselli, Mimmo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    To investigate human babesiosis in the Bolivian Chaco, in 2013 we tested blood samples from 271 healthy persons living in 2 rural communities in this region. Microscopy and PCR indicated that 3.3% of persons were positive for Babesia microti parasites (US lineage); seroprevalence was 45.7%. Appropriate screening should mitigate the risk for transfusion-associated babesiosis.

  15. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  16. Human Sexuality Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claremont Univ. Center, CA.

    This program provides information to students about human sexual biology, behavior and attitudes. The primary intent of the workshops described is to provide fuller information and opportunity for self awareness to encourage participants to be more responsible as sexual beings, and to restructure their attitudes. The program presents the…

  17. Is human fecundity changing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Sapra, Katherine J; Gemmill, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Fecundity, the biologic capacity to reproduce, is essential for the health of individuals and is, therefore, fundamental for understanding human health at the population level. Given the absence of a population (bio)marker, fecundity is assessed indirectly by various individual-based (e.g. semen ...

  18. Fourth human parechovirus serotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Kimberley S. M.; Schinkel, Janke; Luken, Manon E.; van den Broek, Peter J. M.; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Menelik, Negassi; van Eijk, Hetty W. M.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Wolthers, Katja C.

    2006-01-01

    We identified a novel human parechovirus (HPeV) type (K251176-02) from a neonate with fever. Analysis of the complete genome showed K251176-02 to be a new HPeV genotype. Since K251176-02 could not be neutralized with antibodies against known HPeV serotypes 1-3, it should be classified as a fourth

  19. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  20. Human genome I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    An international conference, Human Genome I, was held Oct. 2-4, 1989 in San Diego, Calif. Selected speakers discussed: Current Status of the Genome Project; Technique Innovations; Interesting regions; Applications; and Organization - Different Views of Current and Future Science and Procedures. Posters, consisting of 119 presentations, were displayed during the sessions. 119 were indexed for inclusion to the Energy Data Base

  1. Human and Organizational Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshiett, P.B.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Human and Organizational Factors Approach to Industrial Safety (HOFS) consists of identifying and putting in place conditions which encourage a positive contribution from operators (individually and in a team) with regards to industrial safety. The knowledge offered by the HOFS approach makes it possible better to understand what conditions human activity and to act on the design of occupational situations and the organization, in the aim of creating the conditions for safe work. Efforts made in this area can also lead to an improvement in results in terms of the quality of production or occupational safety (incidence and seriousness rates) (Daniellou, F., et al., 2011). Research on industrial accidents shows that they rarely happen as a result of a single event, but rather emerge from the accumulation of several, often seemingly trivial, malfunctions, misunderstandings, incorrect assumptions and other issues. The nuclear community has established rigorous international safety standards and concepts to ensure the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation (IAEA, 2014). A review of major human induced disasters in a number of countries and in different industries yields insights into several of the human and organizational factors involved in their occurrence. Some of these factors relate to failures in: • Design or technology; • Training; • Decision making; • Communication; • Preparation for the unexpected; • Understanding of organizational interdependencies

  2. Human social genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  3. Ubiquitous human computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittrain, Jonathan

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous computing means network connectivity everywhere, linking devices and systems as small as a drawing pin and as large as a worldwide product distribution chain. What could happen when people are so readily networked? This paper explores issues arising from two possible emerging models of ubiquitous human computing: fungible networked brainpower and collective personal vital sign monitoring.

  4. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  5. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  6. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  7. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  8. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    , men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg...

  9. Television and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  10. Human automation integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, M.; Cosenzo, K.; Galster, s.; Hollnagel, E.; Miller, C.; Parasuraman, R.; Reising, J.; Taylor, R.; Breda, L. van

    2007-01-01

    Many versions of future concept of operations (CONOPS) rely heavily on UMVs. The pressure to take the human out of immediate control of these vehicles is being driven by several factors. These factors include a reduction in cost for the production and maintenance of the vehicle, operational

  11. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  12. Cosmic Humanity: Utopia, Realities, Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-01-01

    The philosophical foundations of the theory and practice of the creation of cosmic humanity as a process of the evolution of human civilization, the emergence into space, with the prospect of resettlement outside the Earth are considered. There is a connection between myths, fantasies, ideas, concepts and projects aimed at the exploration of outer space, the creation of cosmic humanity. A new and voluminous definition of cosmic humanity in the evolutionary paradigm is given. Cosmic humanity i...

  13. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  14. Human nature, human culture: the case of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2017-10-06

    In recent years, far from arguing that evolutionary approaches to our own species permit us to describe the fundamental character of human nature, a prominent group of cultural evolutionary theorists has instead argued that the very idea of 'human nature' is one we should reject. It makes no sense, they argue, to speak of human nature in opposition to human culture. The very same sceptical arguments have also led some thinkers-usually from social anthropology-to dismiss the intimately related idea that we can talk of human culture in opposition to human nature. How, then, are we supposed to understand the cultural evolutionary project itself, whose proponents seem to deny the distinction between human nature and human culture, while simultaneously relying on a closely allied distinction between 'genetic' (or sometimes 'organic') evolution and 'cultural' evolution? This paper defends the cultural evolutionary project against the charge that, in refusing to endorse the concept of human nature, it has inadvertently sabotaged itself.

  15. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Morishima, H.; Terano, T.; Sugeno, M.

    1984-01-01

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  16. How Do Humans Perceive Emotion?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen

    2017-01-01

    Emotion carries crucial qualities of the human condition, representing one of the major challenges in artificial intelligence. Re-search in psychology and neuroscience in the past two to three decades has generated rich insights into the processes underlying human emotion. Cognition and emotion represent the two main pillars of the human psyche and human intelligence. While the hu-man cognitive system and cognitive brain has inspired and informed computer science and artificial intelligence, the future is ripe for the human emotion system to be integrated into artificial intelligence and robotic systems. Here, we review behavioral and neu-ral findings in human emotion perception, including facial emotion perception, olfactory emotion perception, multimodal emotion perception, and the time course of emotion perception. It is our hope that knowledge of how humans perceive emotion will help bring artificial intelligence strides closer to human intelligence.

  17. Digitalization of the human mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Drita Mehmeti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The human faces with various problems already in its first steps in live, and carriers of such life situations are found in various ages which bring new currents in the way of life. Starting from the ancient Greek thought, the human and its mind made the centre of the world, already orienting the Western thought towards the study of the human mind (namely human reason, since it made the key tool for human survival. Although human problems have been discussed throughout various ages, they have not been able to resolve in full the human problems, and therefore, the same issues were taken by the representatives of the socalled “critical theory”, who used the theory to criticize the way of live Western civilization was offering, known as digitalization of the human mind. The human problems are addressed in a poly-dimensional manner. The factors affecting the human mind are: industrial civilization, technical progress, automation, overtly influence of machinery on humans, substitution of cultural values, which in sum have developed a new World Order, where the ruler is technology. In the modern world, the human fails to recognize himself, since he is out of himself and lives according to the rules set forth by the “remote control”. In the flow of this kind of livelihood, human alienates, or in other words, the human goes out of himself, trying to adapt maximally to the requirements of the new way of life.

  18. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  19. Strategies of Human Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have inherited the mating strategies that led to the success of their ancestors. These strategies include long-term mating, short-term mating, extra-pair mating, mate poaching, and mate guarding. This article presents empirical evidence supporting evolution-based hypotheses about the complexities of these mating strategies. Since men and women historically confronted different adaptive problems in the mating domain, the sexes differ profoundly in evolved strategic solutions. These differences include possessing different mate preferences, different desires for short-term mating, and differences in the triggers that evoke sexual jealousy. The study of human mating is one of the “success stories” of evolutionary psychology.

  20. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  1. Human freedom and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  2. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior......, and the problem of surviving the hostile forces of nature. Moreover, the supernatural elements of the novel resonate with evolved intuitions about non-material, moral forces at work in the world. That is why the novel continues to engage readers worldwide. Most critics, however, have overlooked or distorted...... the psychological underpinnings of the novel and the crucial function of the supernatural elements in the meaning structure of the novel. Hence we need an evolutionary psychological perspective which builds on recent findings in the sciences of human nature to account for the novel’s meaning, effects, and continued...

  3. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  4. Philanthropy and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    written about philanthropy from a political, sociological, anthropological and managerial perspective. However, an essential question remains: what does philanthropy mean? In a Greek context, philanthropy is connected to a friendly act towards one’s owns close connections such as family or fellow citizens......, and normally utilized to promote one’s own prestige in the city-state. In Roman context, universal humanism, humanitas, was invented. This universal perspective was also supported by Christianity. It is this universal concept of philanthropy which is the foundation for the different philanthropic traditions...... in Germany, England, France and USA. In each tradition is developed special features of the concept of philanthropy. The four traditions are summarized in the UN universal human rights, which has become the common normative reference for global philanthropy. In this way philanthropy has become, in a modern...

  5. Human waves in stadiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, I.; Helbing, D.; Vicsek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Mexican wave first widely broadcasted during the 1986 World Cup held in Mexico, is a human wave moving along the stands of stadiums as one section of spectators stands up, arms lifting, then sits down as the next section does the same. Here we use variants of models originally developed for the description of excitable media to demonstrate that this collective human behaviour can be quantitatively interpreted by methods of statistical physics. Adequate modelling of reactions to triggering attempts provides a deeper insight into the mechanisms by which a crowd can be stimulated to execute a particular pattern of behaviour and represents a possible tool of control during events involving excited groups of people. Interactive simulations, video recordings and further images are available at the webpage dedicated to this work: http://angel.elte.hu/wave.

  6. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sironen, R.K. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tammi, M.; Tammi, R. [Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Auvinen, P.K. [Department of Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Anttila, M. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kosma, V-M., E-mail: Veli-Matti.Kosma@uef.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  7. Management and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Past human performance and management problems have been well documented. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have significant root causes in human factors and in plant management. The failure of plant personnel to recognize the safety significance of their actions, procedures which were knowingly violated, a lack of awareness of plant conditions and status, and operators being misled by incorrect data and information were root causes of these accidents. Safety culture starts with personal dedication and accountability beginning at the top with senior corporate management. It is formed by policies and administrative controls which when implemented ensure that correct practices are followed. Senior management fosters an attitude and safety consciousness in all personnel with responsibility for supervision, operation and maintenance of the nuclear power plant

  8. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non...

  9. Development of human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-10-01

    Neural control of locomotion in human adults involves the generation of a small set of basic patterned commands directed to the leg muscles. The commands are generated sequentially in time during each step by neural networks located in the spinal cord, called Central Pattern Generators. This review outlines recent advances in understanding how motor commands are expressed at different stages of human development. Similar commands are found in several other vertebrates, indicating that locomotion development follows common principles of organization of the control networks. Movements show a high degree of flexibility at all stages of development, which is instrumental for learning and exploration of variable interactions with the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Marketing of human organs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, E

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the highly controversial question whether human organs should be allowed to be the object of a contract aimed at profit. The author comes to the conclusion that--seen from a consequentialist viewpoint--the legislature is not well-advised to allow organ donations for consideration. However, it is admitted that a more deontological approach could come to quite the opposite conclusion.

  11. The Human Body Sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The human body shield problem involves an apparent dilemma for a libertarian, forcing him to choose between his own death and the death of an innocent person. This paper argues that the non-aggression principle permits a forceful response against the property of innocent individuals when a conflict is initiated with that property. In other words, a libertarian may shoot the hostage in order to save himself.

  12. Decoding the human genome

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Antonerakis, S E

    2002-01-01

    Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges. Ethical and social aspects of genomics.

  13. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes

  14. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Impact of Human Systems Community of Interest D O T M L P F $450M COI Budget Has Broad Impact in Several DOTMLPF Areas Decision Making Selection...and fit to a military career. • 26 personality dimensions such as optimism, excitement seeking, and non- delinquency • Applicant chooses from...Adaptive Collaborative Control Technologies ( IMPACT ) architecture designed • IMPACT “DoD Virtual Lab” established (Year 1) • 1 operator x 6 vehicles

  15. Climatic Change. Human Influence?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Dionísio; Leite, Solange; Ribeiro, A.C.; Figueiredo, Tomás de

    2016-01-01

    We begin by presenting the functioning of the Climate System and the variety of climates that occurs on the surface of the globe. We analyze climate change based on the sun's orbital parameters and other causes, focusing on the current interglacial period and the influence it had on the development of human societies. The following text looks on developing of the climate of the last 1000 years, with considerations about the warm medieval climate, the little ice age, the recovery...

  16. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  17. FIGHTING HUMAN TRAFFIKING

    OpenAIRE

    Alketa ELEZI

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, “trafficking in persons” or “human trafficking” have been used as umbrella terms for activities involved when one person obtains or holds another person in compelled service. This compelled service describes a number of different terms: involuntary servitude, slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor. A person may be a trafficking victim regardless of whether they once consented, participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked, were transported into the ex...

  18. Glycogen metabolism in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; González-Lucán, Manuel; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Ameneiros-Rodríguez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the human body, glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose stored mainly in the liver and the skeletal muscle that supplies glucose to the blood stream during fasting periods and to the muscle cells during muscle contraction. Glycogen has been identified in other tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, and erythrocytes, but glycogen function in these tissues is mostly unknown. Glycogen synthesis requires a series of reactions that include glucose entrance into the cell through...

  19. Human Germline Genome Editing

    OpenAIRE

    Ormond, Kelly E.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Scholes, Derek T.; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C.; Faucett, W. Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa’ A.; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E.

    2017-01-01

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Gen...

  20. Wilhelm Roepke: Economic humanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic ideas of the great German thinker Wilhelm Roepke advocated a free market acting in a particular social context (comprising of market insti­tutions, and a particular system of values created within the society and not by the market itself. He substantiated why free market economy has to be supplemented with a particular social ethics. He argued in favor of a society that defends and advances human liberty.