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Sample records for human bronchial trees

  1. Helical CT in evaluation of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perhomaa, M.; Laehde, S.; Rossi, O.; Suramo, I.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a protocol for and to assess the value of helical CT in the imaging of the bronchial tree. Material and Methods: Noncontrast helical CT was performed in 30 patients undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy for different reasons. Different protocols were compared; they included overlapping 10 mm, 5 mm, or 3 mm slices and non-tilted, cephalad or caudal tilted images. Ordinary cross-sectional and multiplanar 2D reformats were applied for visualization of the bronchial branches. The effect of increasing the helical pitch was tested in one patient. Results: A total of 92.1-100% of the segmental bronchi present in the helical acquisitions were identified by the different protocols. The collimation had no significant impact on the identification of the bronchial branches, but utilization of 3-mm overlapping slices made it easier to distinguish the nearby branches and provided better longitudinal visualization of the bronchi in 2D reformats. The tilted scans illustrated the disadvantage of not covering all segmental bronchi in one breath-hold. An increase of the pitch from 1 to 1.5 did not cause noticeable blurring of the images. CT and bronchoscopic findings correlated well in the area accessible to bronchoscopy, but CT detected 5 additional pathological lesions (including 2 cancers) in the peripheral lung. Conclusion: Helical CT supplemented with bronchography-like 2D reformats provides an effective method complementary to bronchoscopy in the examination of the bronchial tree. (orig.)

  2. Rare anomalies of the architecture of the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, W.; Eger, H.

    1986-12-01

    Six cases of rare bronchial anomalies are presented (3 complete rightsided hyparterial bronchial distributions, 1 partial rightsided hyparterial bronchial supply of the upper lobe, 2 cases of atresia of the left apico-posterior bronchus). Emphasis is placed on the bronchographic elucidation of the changed bronchial segmental topic if additive or subtractive bronchial anomalies are found endoscopically especially with regard to preoperative aspects.

  3. DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Lechner, J.F.; Grafstrom, R.C.; Harris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents

  4. Rare anomalies of the architecture of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, W.; Eger, H.

    1986-01-01

    Six cases of rare bronchial anomalies are presented (3 complete rightsided hyparterial bronchial distributions, 1 partial rightsided hyparterial bronchial supply of the upper lobe, 2 cases of atresia of the left apico-posterior bronchus). Emphasis is placed on the bronchographic elucidation of the changed bronchial segmental topic if additive or subtractive bronchial anomalies are found endoscopically especially with regard to preoperative aspects. (orig.) [de

  5. Variations of right bronchial tree: a study with multi-detector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Meng, Min; Huang, Min; Zhao, Xinya

    2018-05-03

    The aim was to display variations of right bronchial tree. The bronchial tree images of 238 patients were reconstructed using the postprocessing technique of CT. We revealed four cases rare bronchial branching patterns of right superior lobe. 1 case was referred to as tracheal bronchus. In 1 case, B1 was located in the place of the right superior lobar bronchus and B2 + 3 arose from the right merge of the IB. In 1 case, the right superior lobar bronchus has only two divisions for B1 and B3, and the bronchus B2 arose from the right merge of the IB. In 1 case, B1 branched into four bronchi. We revealed 15 cases of rare bronchial branching patterns of right inferior lobe. In nine cases, the basal trunk bronchus bifurcated into B7 + 8 and B9 + l0. In three cases, B8 branched from the basal trunk bronchus before B7. In two cases, basal trunk bronchus bifurcated into B7 + 8 + 9 and B10. In 1 case, the basal trunk bronchus bifurcated into the common stem of B7 + 10 and B8 + 9. Variations of right bronchial tree were displayed in the present study. This information may have important implications for diagnosis of symptomatic patients and performing certain procedures, including bronchoscopy, endotracheal intubation, and lung resection.

  6. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

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    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  7. In Vitro Experimental Model for the Long-Term Analysis of Cellular Dynamics During Bronchial Tree Development from Lung Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Maruta, Naomichi; Marumoto, Moegi

    2017-06-01

    Lung branching morphogenesis has been studied for decades, but the underlying developmental mechanisms are still not fully understood. Cellular movements dynamically change during the branching process, but it is difficult to observe long-term cellular dynamics by in vivo or tissue culture experiments. Therefore, developing an in vitro experimental model of bronchial tree would provide an essential tool for developmental biology, pathology, and systems biology. In this study, we succeeded in reconstructing a bronchial tree in vitro by using primary human bronchial epithelial cells. A high concentration gradient of bronchial epithelial cells was required for branching initiation, whereas homogeneously distributed endothelial cells induced the formation of successive branches. Subsequently, the branches grew in size to the order of millimeter. The developed model contains only two types of cells and it facilitates the analysis of lung branching morphogenesis. By taking advantage of our experimental model, we carried out long-term time-lapse observations, which revealed self-assembly, collective migration with leader cells, rotational motion, and spiral motion of epithelial cells in each developmental event. Mathematical simulation was also carried out to analyze the self-assembly process and it revealed simple rules that govern cellular dynamics. Our experimental model has provided many new insights into lung development and it has the potential to accelerate the study of developmental mechanisms, pattern formation, left-right asymmetry, and disease pathogenesis of the human lung.

  8. Updating radon daughter bronchial dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is of value to update radon daughter bronchial dosimetry as new information becomes available. Measurements have now been performed using hollow casts of the human bronchial tree with a larynx to determine convective or turbulent deposition in the upper airways. These measurements allow a more realistic calculation of bronchial deposition by diffusion. Particle diameters of 0.15 and 0.2 μm were used which correspond to the activity median diameters for radon daughters in both environmental and mining atmospheres. The total model incorporates Yeh/Schum bronchial morphometry, deposition of unattached and attached radon daughters, build up and decay of the daughters and mucociliary clearance. The alpha dose to target cells in the bronchial epithelium is calculated for the updated model and compared with previous calculations of bronchial dose

  9. Proinflammatory effects of cookstove emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, B; Volckens, J

    2013-02-01

    Approximately half of the world's population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many 'improved' stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner-burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 h following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner-burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional three-stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs. Emissions from more efficient, cleaner-burning cookstoves produced less inflammation in well-differentiated bronchial lung cells. The results support evidence that more efficient cookstoves can reduce the health burden associated with exposure to indoor pollution from the combustion of biomass. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Surface to nuclear distances in human bronchial epithelium: Relationships to penetration by Rn daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, F.; Hovey, A.; McEwen, T.; O'Connor, R.; Unruh, H.; Bowden, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer in U miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of particulate Rn daughters. Since the depth of penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium lining the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the study were to measure the thickness of the epithelium at all levels of the human bronchial tree, to determine the distances of epithelial nuclei from the mucociliary surface, and to compare these parameters in smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens were examined; 26 were from smokers. No significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers, allowing us to treat the 29 cases as a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness, and distances of nuclei from the surface are also less in the peripheral bronchi. Allowing for artefacts of tissue preparation, the mean distance from the mucociliary surface to the underlying nuclei varies between 17 and 38 microns

  11. Stochastic model of radon daughter deposition and clearance in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1996-01-01

    Morphometric measurements of human airway casts have repealed that the human bronchial tree is an asymmetrically dividing network, exhibiting individual variations of airway dimensions within a given airway generation Thus, a statistical correlation exists between the linear dimensions of a given parent airway and those of the asymmetrically dividing daughter branches. This statistical relationship, however, is constrained by correlations among various geometrical parameters. i.e., the human lung is not a fully stochastic system. From a statistical analysis of these morphometric data, the following geometrical parameters could be obtained for each airway generation or bifurcation: (i) probability distributions for diameters and lengths, ratios of parent cross section to the combined cross section of both daughters, ratios of major to minor daughter diameters, and branching angles for major and minor branches; (ii) correlations of diameters and lengths; and (iii) the probability of terminating the bronchial region as a function of both diameter and generation number. Since the original lung morphometry refers to total lung capacity, airway diameters and lengths were scaled down to functional residual capacity. (author)

  12. [Identification and characterization of proteins from human bronchial secretion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, A; Hayem, A

    1976-03-01

    An analysis of bronchial mucus proteins was carried out by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Before electrophoretic migration, sputum was treated with Ecteola-cellulose, which retains acid mucins. The proteins were then extracted by a phosphate/saline buffer pH 7.5. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the "bronchial extracts" was carried out with an anti-human serum: fifteen proteins were detected. Among them, IgA and protease inhibitiors play an important role in bronchial pathology. Bronchial extracts were also studied with immune serums against milk proteins, whole saliva and proteins of bronchial mucus. Bronchotransferrin, amylase and two esterases were characterized. Four other proteins were also detected with immune serums against bronchial mucus-proteins: their biological role is still unknown.

  13. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, A.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author)

  14. Using radioaerosols to monitor physiotherapy-enhanced mucus clearance at different levels of the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani, A.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.; Agnew, J.E. (Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Patients with airways obstruction often find it difficult to clear excess lung secretions. Frequent coughing can clear the larger airways but may itself further damage the airways ciliated epithelium. Various physiotherapy regimes have been proposed yet objective evidence of their efficacy is sparse. Deposited aerosol particles - with an appropriate label for gamma imaging - can track clearance from different lung regions. Published reports have however tended to be equivocal in respect of clearance from the more distal conducting airways. Questions also arise as to coordination of transport rates at different levels of the bronchial tree. We therefore sought to re-assess requirements for effective analysis of physiotherapy-enhanced clearance to yield data on both peripheral and central airways clearance. (author).

  15. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Oksuz, Betul Akgol [Genome Technology Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Shen, Steven [Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. - Highlights: • Tungsten (W) induces cell transformation and increases migration in vitro. • W increases xenograft growth in nude mice. • W altered the expression of cancer-related genes such as those involved in leukemia. • Some of the dysregulated leukemia genes include, CD74, CTGF, MST4, and HOXB5. • For the first time, data is presented that demonstrates tungsten's carcinogenic potential.

  16. Neutrophil-induced human bronchial hyperresponsiveness in vitro--pharmacological modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J M; McKay, K O; Johnson, P R; Tragoulias, S; Black, J L; Armour, C L

    1993-04-01

    Although it has been postulated that inflammatory cells cause the bronchial hyperresponsiveness which is diagnostic of asthma, until recently there has been little direct evidence of such a link. We have recently shown that calcium ionophore-activated human neutrophils and eosinophils can induce a state of human airway hyperresponsiveness in vitro. In this study we have shown that the anti-inflammatory agent nedocromil sodium, 10(-7) M, inhibited the hyperresponsiveness induced by products released from ionophore activated neutrophils but did not inhibit the release of leukotriene B4 from the same cells. Neutrophil-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness was also inhibited by pre-treatment of the bronchial tissues with a thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin receptor antagonist, GR32191, 10(-7) M. These findings indicate that cyclooxygenase products are involved in bronchial hyperresponsiveness induced by inflammatory cell products in vitro and that their release can be inhibited by nedocromil sodium.

  17. Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, L.T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision

  18. [Clinical characteristics and condition of the bronchial tree in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in combination with hyperoxaluria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseev, G B; Petrova, M A; Shaĭlieva, L O; Kakliugin, A P; Zorina, M L; Sakharov, A N; Pavliukova, N O

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate peculiarities of a clinical course and changes in bronchial mucosa in bronchial asthma (BA) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in combination with hyperoxaluria (HOU); informative value of some laboratory and device findings including oxalates assay in bronchial lavage fluid for specification of the diagnosis, role of oxalates in development of obstructive syndrome and choice of optimal therapy. Oxalates were examined in daily urine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled air condensate of 104 patients with BA and COPD, 77 of which had HOU and an atypical course of bronchial obstruction syndrome. Conception of airways inflammation in patients with oxalate metabolism disturbances is proposed. It is shown that insoluble oxalates participate in pathogenesis of bronchial obstruction. Oxalate metabolism disturbances are an important factor in pathogenesis of airways inflammation and development of bronchial obstruction in predisposed patients. Therefore, administration of insoluble oxalates lowering therapy may effectively prevent formation and progression of obstructive pulmonary diseases in this group of patients.

  19. Local deposition patterns of inhaled radon progeny in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heistracher, T.; Hofmann, W.; Balashazy, I.

    1996-01-01

    The local distribution of radon decay products deposited within bronchial bifurcations, particularly the formation of hot spots, may be more relevant for the determination of cellular doses in bronchial tissue than the commonly computed deposition efficiency, which is conceptually equivalent to the assumption of a uniform nuclide distribution. It is well known that the initial states of lung cancer in humans preferably occur in upper airways close to the cardinal location. In this study we use a recently developed geometric approach of a physiologically realistic bifurcation to demonstrate the site sensitivity of radon progeny deposition for two particle sizes, which are representative of the unattached and attached fraction of radon progeny

  20. Consideration of Dose Limits for Organs at Risk of Thoracic Radiotherapy: Atlas for Lung, Proximal Bronchial Tree, Esophagus, Spinal Cord, Ribs, and Brachial Plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Feng-Ming; Ritter, Timothy; Quint, Douglas J.; Senan, Suresh; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Komaki, Ritsuko U.; Hurkmans, Coen W.; Timmerman, Robert; Bezjak, Andrea; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Movsas, Benjamin; Marsh, Lon; Okunieff, Paul; Choy, Hak; Curran, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review the dose limits and standardize the three-dimenional (3D) radiographic definition for the organs at risk (OARs) for thoracic radiotherapy (RT), including the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: The present study was performed by representatives from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and Soutwestern Oncology Group lung cancer committees. The dosimetric constraints of major multicenter trials of 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT were reviewed and the challenges of 3D delineation of these OARs described. Using knowledge of the human anatomy and 3D radiographic correlation, draft atlases were generated by a radiation oncologist, medical physicist, dosimetrist, and radiologist from the United States and reviewed by a radiation oncologist and medical physicist from Europe. The atlases were then critically reviewed, discussed, and edited by another 10 radiation oncologists. Results: Three-dimensional descriptions of the lung, proximal bronchial tree, esophagus, spinal cord, ribs, and brachial plexus are presented. Two computed tomography atlases were developed: one for the middle and lower thoracic OARs (except for the heart) and one focusing on the brachial plexus for a patient positioned supine with their arms up for thoracic RT. The dosimetric limits of the key OARs are discussed. Conclusions: We believe these atlases will allow us to define OARs with less variation and generate dosimetric data in a more consistent manner. This could help us study the effect of radiation on these OARs and guide high-quality clinical trials and individualized practice in 3D-conformal RT and stereotactic body RT.

  1. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  2. Comparison of gene expression profiles of normal human bronchial epithelial cells in 2D and 3D cultural conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The experiment is part of a project to study DNA repair process after ionizing radiation in organotypic 3-dimentional human bronchial epithlial cell culture. Human...

  3. Anti-apoptotic effects of Z alpha1-antitrypsin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C M

    2010-05-01

    alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency is a genetic disease which manifests as early-onset emphysema or liver disease. Although the majority of alpha(1)-AT is produced by the liver, it is also produced by bronchial epithelial cells, amongst others, in the lung. Herein, we investigate the effects of mutant Z alpha(1)-AT (ZAAT) expression on apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) and delineate the mechanisms involved. Control, M variant alpha(1)-AT (MAAT)- or ZAAT-expressing cells were assessed for apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, cell viability, phosphorylation of Bad, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and induced expression of a selection of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Expression of ZAAT in 16HBE14o- cells, like MAAT, inhibited basal and agonist-induced apoptosis. ZAAT expression also inhibited caspase-3 activity by 57% compared with control cells (p = 0.05) and was a more potent inhibitor than MAAT. Whilst ZAAT had no effect on the activity of Bad, its expression activated NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression above control or MAAT-expressing cells. In 16HBE14o- cells but not HEK293 cells, ZAAT upregulated expression of cIAP-1, an upstream regulator of NF-kappaB. cIAP1 expression was increased in ZAAT versus MAAT bronchial biopsies. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which ZAAT may promote human bronchial epithelial cell survival.

  4. Retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT of the chest: does ECG-gating improve three-dimensional visualization of the bronchial tree?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schertler, T.; Wildermuth, S.; Willmann, J.K.; Crook, D.W.; Marincek, B.; Boehm, T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of retrospectively ECG-gated multi-detector row CT (MDCT) on three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the bronchial tree and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) as compared to non-ECG-gated data acquisition. Materials and Methods: Contrast-enhanced retrospectively ECG-gated and non-ECG-gated MDCT of the chest was performed in 25 consecutive patients referred for assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts and pathology of the ascending aorta. ECG-gated MDCT data were reconstructed in diastole using an absolute reverse delay of -400 msec in all patients. In 10 patients additional reconstructions at -200 msec, -300 msec, and -500 msec prior to the R-wave were performed. Shaded surface display (SSD) and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) for visualization of the bronchial segments was performed with ECG-gated and non-ECG-gated MDCT data. The visualization of the bronchial tree underwent blinded scoring. Effective radiation dose and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both techniques were compared. Results: There was no significant difference in visualizing single bronchial segments using ECG-gated compared to non-ECG-gated MDCT data. However, the total sum of scores for all bronchial segments visualized with non-ECG-gated MDCT was significantly higher compared to ECG-gated MDCT (P [de

  5. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah.; Cho, Michael H.; Mancini, John D.; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M.; Litonjua, Gus; Bakke, Per S.; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Perrella, Mark A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. PMID:23459001

  6. Effects of fenspiride on human bronchial cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes: functional and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, J; Naline, E; Ortiz, J L; Berto, L; Girard, V; Malbezin, M; Advenier, C; Morcillo, E J

    1998-01-02

    We have investigated the role of human bronchial cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in the effects of fenspiride, a drug endowed with bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. Functional studies on human isolated bronchi showed that fenspiride (10(-6)-3 x 10(-3) M, 30 min) induced a shift to the left of the concentration-response curves for isoprenaline and sodium nitroprusside with -logEC50 values of 4.1+/-0.1 (n = 7) and 3.5+/-0.2 (n = 8), respectively. Biochemical studies were carried out on three human bronchi in which separation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isoenzymes was performed by ion exchange chromatography followed by determination of phosphodiesterase activity with a radioisotopic method. Phosphodiesterase 4 (cyclic AMP-specific) and phosphodiesterase 5 (cyclic GMP-specific) were the major phosphodiesterase isoforms present in the human bronchial tissue. The presence of phosphodiesterase 1 (Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated), phosphodiesterase 2 (cyclic GMP-stimulated) and, in two cases, phosphodiesterase 3 (cyclic GMP-inhibited) was also identified. Fenspiride inhibited phosphodiesterase 4 and phosphodiesterase 3 activities with -logIC50 values of 4.16+/-0.09 and 3.44+/-0.12, respectively. Phosphodiesterase 5 activity was also inhibited with a -logIC50 value of approximately 3.8. Fenspiride (fenspiride is an effective inhibitor of both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP hydrolytic activity in human bronchial tissues and this action may contribute to its airway effects.

  7. Translocation of SiO2-NPs across in vitro human bronchial epithelial monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, I; Vranic, S; Boland, S; Borot, M C; Marano, F; Baeza-Squiban, A

    2013-01-01

    Safe development and application of nanotechnologies in many fields require better knowledge about their potential adverse effects on human health. Evidence of abilities of nanoparticles (NPs) to cross epithelial barriers and reach secondary organs via the bloodstream led us to investigate the translocation of SiO 2 NPs of 50 nm (50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs) across human bronchial epithelial cells that are primary targets after exposure to inhaled NPs. We quantified the translocation of fluorescently labelled SiO 2 NPs at non-cytotoxic concentrations (5 and 10 μg/cm 2 ) across Calu-3 epithelial monolayer. After 14 days in culture Calu-3 cells seeded onto 3 μm-polycarbonate Transwell membranes formed an efficient bronchial barrier assessed by measurement of the transepithelial electric resistance and quantification of the permeability of the monolayer. After 24 hours of exposure, we observed a significant translocation of NPs that was more important when the initial NP concentration decreased. Confocal microscopy observations revealed NP uptake by cells and an important NP retention inside the porous membrane. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO 2 -NPs can cross the human bronchial epithelial barrier without affecting the integrity of the epithelial cell monolayer.

  8. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  9. The influence of propofol, remifentanil and lidocaine on the tone of human bronchial smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogliani, Paola; Calzetta, Luigino; Rendina, Erino A; Massullo, Domenico; Dauri, Mario; Rinaldi, Barbara; Capuano, Annalisa; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2013-06-01

    Bronchoscopy is generally a safe procedure, but the induction of anaesthesia can induce bronchospasm. Consequently we investigated the influence of propofol, remifentanil and lidocaine on the tone of the human bronchial smooth muscle. The influence of propofol, remifentanil and lidocaine on the contractile response of human bronchial smooth muscle to electrical field stimulation (EFS) has been evaluated. The role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and of inducible nitric oxide synthase has also been assessed. Furthermore, the interaction between these three dugs has been measured by Bliss Independence (BI) theory. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) was assessed by Student's t test or ANOVA. Propofol (1.3 μg ml(-1)) and lidocaine (1 mg ml(-1)) reduced the baseline tone of bronchial rings (-14.45 ± 4.53% and -33.40 ± 1.07%, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas remifentanil had not such effect. Aminoguanidine prevented the relaxant effect of propofol. Propofol did not alter the bronchial contractile response to EFS following 30 min of treatment, whereas remifentanil enhanced the bronchial tension (133.83 ± 9.38%, control 101.93 ± 6.82%, P < 0.05 P < 0.05) and lidocaine completely abolished the contractility at 1 mg ml(-1) (P < 0.05). The desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves normalized the hyperresponsiveness induced by remifentanil (-26.77 ± 1.68%, P < 0.05). Significant BI antagonism (P < 0.001) was detected for propofol and lidocaine on the bronchial hyperresponsiveness induced by remifentanil. Propofol and remifentanil may be used safely for bronchoscopy, although remifentanil should be associated with propofol or lidocaine to prevent the potential opioid-mediated bronchospasm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Kristin; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter; Drugge, Ninni; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Persson, Jan-Olov; Rutkowska, Eva; Tullgren, Owe; Lax, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm 3 up to 2.0 cm 3 ]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm 3 (D 0.1cm3 ) was used for further analysis. The median value of D 0.1cm3 (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD 2,LQ = 147 Gy 3 (range, 20-293 Gy 3 ). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD 2,LQ = 210 Gy 3 , and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD 2,LQ = 105 Gy 3 . Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown

  11. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to α-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMVΒ vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells

  12. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  13. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  14. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Shen, Steven [Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A. [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  15. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  16. Nobiletin Stimulates Chloride Secretion in Human Bronchial Epithelia via a cAMP/PKA-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from tangerines, alters ion transport functions in intestinal epithelia, and has antagonistic effects on eosinophilic airway inflammation of asthmatic rats. The present study examined the effects of nobiletin on basal short-circuit current (ISC in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-, and characterized the signal transduction pathways that allowed nobiletin to regulate electrolyte transport. Methods: The ISC measurement technique was used for transepithelial electrical measurements. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and cAMP were also quantified. Results: Nobiletin stimulated a concentration-dependent increase in ISC, which was due to Cl- secretion. The increase in ISC was inhibited by a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitor (CFTRinh-172, but not by 4,4'-diisothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, Chromanol 293B, clotrimazole, or TRAM-34. Nobiletin-stimulated ISC was also sensitive to a protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor, H89, and an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, MDL-12330A. Nobiletin could not stimulate any increase in ISC in a cystic fibrosis (CF cell line, CFBE41o-, which lacked a functional CFTR. Nobiletin stimulated a real-time increase in cAMP, but not [Ca2+]i. Conclusion: Nobiletin stimulated transepithelial Cl- secretion across human bronchial epithelia. The mechanisms involved activation of adenylate cyclase- and cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways, leading to activation of apical CFTR Cl- channels.

  17. Detection of genomic instability in normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Fukushima, N.H.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Alpha particle-emitting radon daughters constitute a risk for development of lung cancer in humans. The development of this disease involves multiple genetic alterations. These changes and the time course they follow are not yet defined despite numerous in vitro endeavors to transform human lung cells with various physical or chemical agents. However, genomic instability, characterized both by structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations and by elevated rates of point mutations, is a common feature of tumor cells. Further, both types of genomic instability have been reported in the noncancerous progeny of normal murine hemopoietic cells exposed in vitro to α-particles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if genomic instability is also a prominent feature of normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to α-particle irradiation from the decay of inhaled radon daughters

  18. Heat shock protein-27 protects human bronchial epithelial cells against oxidative stress–mediated apoptosis: possible implication in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merendino, Anna M.; Paul, Catherine; Vignola, Antonio M.; Costa, Maria A.; Melis, Mario; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Izzo, V.; Bousquet, J.; Arrigo, André-Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Inflammation of the human bronchial epithelium, as observed in asthmatics, is characterized by the selective death of the columnar epithelial cells, which desquamate from the basal cells. Tissue repair initiates from basal cells that resist inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the extent of apoptosis as well as the Hsp27 level of expression in epithelial cells from bronchial biopsy samples taken from normal and asthmatic subjects. Hsp27 is a chaperone whose expression protects against oxidative stress. We report that in asthmatic subjects the basal epithelium cells express a high level of Hsp27 but no apoptotic morphology. In contrast, apoptotic columnar cells are devoid of Hsp27 expression. Moreover, we observed a decreased resistance to hydrogen peroxide–induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial 16–HBE cells when they were genetically modified to express reduced levels of Hsp27. PMID:12482203

  19. [Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) associated to severe bronchial asthmatic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M A; Kusznierz, G F; Imaz, M S; Cociglio, R; Tedeschi, F A; Zalazar, F E

    2006-01-01

    Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently reported agent of acute infection in the respiratory tract. It has been found in children as well as in young adults and elders. The clinical manifestations produced by hMPV are indistinguishable from those by common respiratory virus, and can evolve from asymptomatic infection into severe pneumonia. On the other hand, some authors have described cases of bronchial asthma exacerbation associated with hMPV infection. In this work we report a case of a child who presented a severe bronchial asthmatic crisis with a suspected viral associated infection. Immunofluorescence tests yielded negative results for sincitial respiratory virus, adenovirus, a-b influenza virus and parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, virus. In an attempt to detect the presence of hMPV, a RT-PCR was carried out to amplify sequences from both N and F genes. Using this approach, a positive result for hMPV was obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case of asthma exacerbation associated to hMPV in our region. In addition, these results are similar to previous reports where it was hypothesized that, like RSV, hMPV can trigger a respiratory chronic disease as asthma.

  20. Oscillatory flow in the human airways from the mouth through several bronchial generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banko, Andrew J.; Coletti, Filippo; Elkins, Christopher J.; Eaton, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oscillatory flow in the human airways is studied experimentally. • The realistic anatomy is obtained from the CT scan of a healthy adult. • Integral parameters are calculated to quantify streamwise and lateral dispersion. • Flow in real human anatomy is qualitatively different from idealized models. - Abstract: The time-varying flow is studied experimentally in an anatomically accurate model of the human airways from the mouth through several generations of bronchial branching. The airway geometry is obtained from the CT scan of a healthy adult male of normal height and build. The three-component, three-dimensional mean velocity field is obtained throughout the entire model using phase-locked Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry. A pulsatile pump drives a sinusoidal waveform (inhalation and exhalation) with frequency and stroke-length such that the mean trachea Reynolds number at peak inspiration is 4200 and the Womersley number is 7. Integral parameters are defined to quantify the degree of velocity profile non-uniformity (related to axial dispersion) and secondary flow strength (lateral dispersion). It is found that the extrathoracic airways significantly modify the tracheal flow and that the flow at the first bifurcation is highly asymmetric. The effect of flow oscillation is to produce time dependent flow features which are asymmetric with respect to the acceleration and deceleration periods surrounding peak inhalation and exhalation. This is most pronounced in regions of separation and on the secondary flow structure, which are sensitive to local attributes of the real anatomy. This is reflected in the integral parameters, which behave non-monotonically between successive bronchial generations. In general, the measured oscillatory flow in a realistic anatomy confirms many trends derived from idealized models but also possesses qualitatively different large scale flow structures as compared to idealized representations of the upper airways.

  1. Inhibition of acrolein-stimulated MUC5AC production by fucoidan in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Yoon, Se Young; Kim, Sang Kyum; Li, Jian-Dong; Kang, Keon Wook

    2008-10-01

    Fucoidan, a marine sulfated polysaccharide has both antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects. We determined the effect of fucoidan on MUC5AC expression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, NCI-H292. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that fucoidan inhibited MUC5AC expression and protein secretion in cells stimulated with acrolein, a toxic aldehyde present in tobacco smoke. The activation of both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are key steps in the transcriptional activation of MUC5AC. We found that the acrolein-mediated transactivation of MUC5AC was selectively dependent on AP-1 activation and was suppressed by fucoidan. Fucoidan-induced AP-1 inhibition and MUC5AC repression might be associated with fucoidan's protective effects against respiratory diseases.

  2. Uptake and cytotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cytotoxic to several cell types. However, the mechanism of CNT toxicity has not been fully studied, and dosimetric analyses of CNT in the cell culture system are lacking. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method to measure cellular uptake of CNT using turbimetry. BEAS-2B, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to investigate cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory effects of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT). The cytotoxicity of MWCNT was higher than that of crocidolite asbestos in BEAS-2B cells. The IC 50 of MWCNT was 12 μg/ml, whereas that of asbestos (crocidolite) was 678 μg/ml. Over the course of 5 to 8 h, BEAS-2B cells took up 17-18% of the MWCNT when they were added to the culture medium at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 μg/ml of MWCNT, and total RNA was extracted for cytokine cDNA primer array assays. The culture supernatant was collected for cytokine antibody array assays. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a dose dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) also increased in the culture supernatant in response to MWCNT. A phosphokinase array study using lysates from BEAS-2B cells exposed to MWCNT indicated that phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and HSP27 increased significantly in response to MWCNT. Results from a reporter gene assays using the NF-κB or AP-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene in transiently transfected CHO-KI cells revealed that NF-κB was activated following MWCNT exposure, while AP-1 was not changed. Collectively, MWCNT activated NF-κB, enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinase pathway components, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  3. Exploring connections between trees and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey Donovan; Marie. Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Humans have intuitively understood the value of trees to their physical and mental health since the beginning of recorded time. A scientist with the Pacific Northwest Research Station wondered if such a link could be scientifically validated. His research team took advantage of an infestation of emerald ash borer, an invasive pest that kills ash trees, to conduct a...

  4. Experimental studies in the bronchial circulation. Which is the ideal animal model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Ioannis; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Melachrinou, Maria; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the role of bronchial arteries is notable in modern days thoracic surgery. The significance of their anastomoses with adjusted structures has not yet been sufficiently rated, especially in cases of haemoptysis, heart-lung transplantations and treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. The need of a thorough study is more relevant than ever and appropriate laboratory animals are required. Methods We review the literature in order to highlight the ideal experimental animal for the implementation of pilot programs relative to the bronchial circulation. A comparative analysis of the anatomy of the bronchial arterial system in humans along with these of pigs, dogs, rats, and birds, as being the most commonly used laboratory animals, is presented in details. Results The pig has the advantage that the broncho-oesophageal artery usually originates from the aorta as a single vessel, which makes the recognition and dissection of the artery easy to perform. In dogs, there is significant anatomical variation of the origin of the bronchial arteries. In rats, bronchial artery coming from the aorta is a rare event while in birds the pattern of the bronchial artery tree is clearly different from the human analog. Conclusions The pig is anatomically and physiologically suited for experimental studies on the bronchial circulation. The suitable bronchial anatomy and physiology along with the undeniable usefulness of the pig in experimental research and the low maintenance cost make the pig the ideal model for experiments in bronchial circulation. PMID:25364530

  5. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aug, Argo; Altraja, Siiri; Kilk, Kalle; Porosk, Rando; Soomets, Ursel; Altraja, Alan

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL) on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1) to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  6. Correspondence regarding "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuyderduyn Scott D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the work of Chari et al. entitled "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome" the authors use SAGE to identify candidate gene expression changes in bronchial brushings from never, former, and current smokers. These gene expression changes are categorized into those that are reversible or irreversible upon smoking cessation. A subset of these identified genes is validated on an independent cohort using RT-PCR. The authors conclude that their results support the notion of gene expression changes in the lungs of smokers which persist even after an individual has quit. Results This correspondence raises questions about the validity of the approach used by the authors to analyze their data. The majority of the reported results suffer deficiencies due to the methods used. The most fundamental of these are explained in detail: biases introduced during data processing, lack of correction for multiple testing, and an incorrect use of clustering for gene discovery. A randomly generated "null" dataset is used to show the consequences of these shortcomings. Conclusion Most of Chari et al.'s findings are consistent with what would be expected by chance alone. Although there is clear evidence of reversible changes in gene expression, the majority of those identified appear to be false positives. However, contrary to the authors' claims, no irreversible changes were identified. There is a broad consensus that genetic change due to smoking persists once an individual has quit smoking; unfortunately, this study lacks sufficient scientific rigour to support or refute this hypothesis or identify any specific candidate genes. The pitfalls of large-scale analysis, as exemplified here, may not be unique to Chari et al.

  7. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Aug

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1 to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  8. Naturally occurring variants of human Α9 nicotinic receptor differentially affect bronchial cell proliferation and transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chikova

    Full Text Available Isolation of polyadenilated mRNA from human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D revealed the presence of multiple isoforms of RNA coded by the CHRNA9 gene for α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR. BEP2D cells were homozygous for the rs10009228 polymorphism encoding for N442S amino acid substitution, and also contained mRNA coding for several truncated isoforms of α9 protein. To elucidate the biologic significance of the naturally occurring variants of α9 nAChR, we compared the biologic effects of overexpression of full-length α9 N442 and S442 proteins, and the truncated α9 variant occurring due to a loss of the exon 4 sequence that causes frame shift and early termination of the translation. These as well as control vector were overexpressed in the BEP2D cells that were used in the assays of proliferation rate, spontaneous vs. tobacco nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK-induced cellular transformation, and tumorigenicity in cell culture and mice. Overexpression of the S442 variant significantly increased cellular proliferation, and spontaneous and NNK-induced transformation. The N442 variant significantly decreased cellular transformation, without affecting proliferation rate. Overexpression of the truncated α9 significantly decreased proliferation and suppressed cellular transformation. These results suggested that α9 nAChR plays important roles in regulation of bronchial cell growth by endogenous acetylcholine and exogenous nicotine, and susceptibility to NNK-induced carcinogenic transformation. The biologic activities of α9 nAChR may be regulated at the splicing level, and genetic polymorphisms in CHRNA9 affecting protein levels, amino acid sequence and RNA splicing may influence the risk for lung cancer.

  9. Human reliability analysis using event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslinga, G.

    1983-01-01

    The shut-down procedure of a technologically complex installation as a nuclear power plant consists of a lot of human actions, some of which have to be performed several times. The procedure is regarded as a chain of modules of specific actions, some of which are analyzed separately. The analysis is carried out by making a Human Reliability Analysis event tree (HRA event tree) of each action, breaking down each action into small elementary steps. The application of event trees in human reliability analysis implies more difficulties than in the case of technical systems where event trees were mainly used until now. The most important reason is that the operator is able to recover a wrong performance; memory influences play a significant role. In this study these difficulties are dealt with theoretically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) in principle event trees may be used in human reliability analysis; (2) although in practice the operator will recover his fault partly, theoretically this can be described as starting the whole event tree again; (3) compact formulas have been derived, by which the probability of reaching a specific failure consequence on passing through the HRA event tree after several times of recovery is to be calculated. (orig.)

  10. The species translation challenge-a systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to 'translate' the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies.

  11. The species translation challenge—A systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to ‘translate’ the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies. PMID:25977767

  12. Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauroy, Benjamin; Merckx, Jacques; Flaud, Patrice; Fausser, Christian; Pelca, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance and cough are the two main natural mucus draining methods in the bronchial tree. If they are affected by a pathology, they can become insufficient or even ineffective, then therapeutic draining of mucus plays a critical role to keep mucus levels in the lungs acceptable. The manipulations of physical therapists are known to be very efficient clinically but they are mostly empirical since the biophysical mechanisms involved in these manipulations have never been studied. We develop in this work a model of mucus clearance in idealized rigid human bronchial trees and focus our study on the interaction between (1) tree geometry, (2) mucus physical properties and (3) amplitude of flow rate in the tree. The mucus is considered as a Bingham fluid (gel-like) which is moved upward in the tree thanks to its viscous interaction with air flow. Our studies point out the important roles played both by the geometry and by the physical properties of mucus (yield stress and viscosity). More particularly, the yield stress has to be overcome to make mucus flow. Air flow rate and yield stress determine the maximal possible mucus thickness in each branch of the tree at equilibrium. This forms a specific distribution of mucus in the tree whose characteristics are strongly related to the multi-scaled structure of the tree. The behavior of any mucus distribution is then dependent on this distribution. Finally, our results indicate that increasing air flow rates ought to be more efficient to drain mucus out of the bronchial tree while minimizing patient discomfort

  13. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by human bronchial epithelial cells in response to cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Dong-Yang; Wong, Wing-Yan; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lau, Andy T Y

    2015-09-01

    For years, many studies have been conducted to investigate the intracellular response of cells challenged with toxic metal(s), yet, the corresponding secretome responses, especially in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide a secretome analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying secreted proteins in response to Cd toxicity. Proteins from control and spent media were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Differentially-secreted proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and database searching. We characterized, for the first time, the extracellular proteome changes of BEAS-2B dosed with Cd. Our results unveiled that Cd treatment led to the marked upregulation of molecular chaperones, antioxidant enzymes, enzymes associated with glutathione metabolic process, proteins involved in cellular energy metabolism, as well as tumor-suppressors. Pretreatment of cells with the thiol antioxidant glutathione before Cd treatment effectively abrogated the secretion of these proteins and prevented cell death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cd causes oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity; and the differentially-secreted protein signatures could be considered as targets for potential use as extracellular biomarkers upon Cd exposure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Interleukin-17A induces bicarbonate secretion in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, James L.; Bertrand, Carol A.; Lee, Robert J.; Karasic, Thomas; Aujla, Shean; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune functions of human airways include mucociliary clearance and antimicrobial peptide activity. Both functions may be affected by changes in epithelial ion transport. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which has a receptor at the basolateral membrane of airway epithelia, is a T cell cytokine that has been shown to increase mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production by human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Furthermore, IL-17A levels are increased in sputum from patients during pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL-17A on basal, amiloride-sensitive, and forskolin-stimulated ion transport in mature, well-differentiated HBE cells. Exposure of HBE monolayers to IL-17A for 48 h induced a novel forskolin-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in addition to forskolin-stimulated chloride secretion and resulted in alkalinization of liquid on the mucosal surface of polarized cells. IL-17A-induced bicarbonate secretion was cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent, mucosal chloride-dependent, partially Na+-dependent, and sensitive to serosal, but not mucosal, stilbene inhibition. These data suggest that IL-17A modulates epithelial bicarbonate secretion and implicate a mechanism by which airway surface liquid pH changes may be abnormal in cystic fibrosis. PMID:19074559

  15. Apple Flavonoids Suppress Carcinogen-Induced DNA Damage in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazhappilly Cijo George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. Human neoplastic transformation due to DNA damage poses an increasing global healthcare concern. Maintaining genomic integrity is crucial for avoiding tumor initiation and progression. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an apple flavonoid fraction (AF4 against various carcinogen-induced toxicity in normal human bronchial epithelial cells and its mechanism of DNA damage response and repair processes. Methods and Results. AF4-pretreated cells were exposed to nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketones (NNK, NNK acetate (NNK-Ae, methotrexate (MTX, and cisplatin to validate cytotoxicity, total reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, and DNA tail damage. Furthermore, phosphorylated histone (γ-H2AX and proteins involved in DNA damage (ATM/ATR, Chk1, Chk2, and p53 and repair (DNA-PKcs and Ku80 mechanisms were evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blotting, respectively. The results revealed that AF4-pretreated cells showed lower cytotoxicity, total ROS generation, and DNA fragmentation along with consequent inhibition of DNA tail moment. An increased level of γ-H2AX and DNA damage proteins was observed in carcinogen-treated cells and that was significantly (p≤0.05 inhibited in AF4-pretreated cells, in an ATR-dependent manner. AF4 pretreatment also facilitated the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs and thus initiation of repair mechanisms. Conclusion. Apple flavonoids can protect in vitro oxidative DNA damage and facilitate repair mechanisms.

  16. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Hiroko [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories 10-1, Tebiro 6-chome, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan); Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agencourt Bioscience Corp., 500 Cummings Center, Suite 2450, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Marcelino, Luisa A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gruhl, Amanda N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); SLC Ontario, 690 Dorval Drive, Suite 200, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3W7 Canada (Canada); Zarbl, Helmut [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, 170 Freylinghuysen Road, Room 426, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Willey, James C. [Medical College of Ohio, 3120 Glendale Avenue, Room 12, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Furth, Emma E. [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 3400 Spruce Street, 6 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Morgenthaler, Stephan [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), SB/IMA, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2008-11-10

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 10{sup 6} tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of {approx}1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from {approx}2{sup 6} to 2{sup 15} mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation.

  17. Hexavalent chromium causes the oxidation of thioredoxin in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Judith M.; Antholine, William E.; Myers, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] species such as chromates are cytotoxic. Inhalational exposure is a primary concern in many Cr-related industries and their immediate environments, and bronchial epithelial cells are directly exposed to inhaled Cr(VI). Chromates are readily taken up by cells and are reduced to reactive Cr species which may also result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The thioredoxin (Trx) system has a key role in the maintenance of cellular thiol redox balance and is essential for cell survival. Cells normally maintain the cytosolic (Trx1) and mitochondrial (Trx2) thioredoxins largely in the reduced state. Redox Western blots were used to assess the redox status of the thioredoxins in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) incubated with soluble Na 2 CrO 4 or insoluble ZnCrO 4 for different periods of time. Both chromates caused a dose- and time-dependent oxidation of Trx2 and Trx1. Trx2 was more susceptible in that it could all be converted to the oxidized form, whereas a small amount of reduced Trx1 remained even after prolonged treatment with higher Cr concentrations. Only one of the dithiols, presumably the active site, of Trx1 was oxidized by Cr(VI). Cr(VI) did not cause significant GSH depletion or oxidation indicating that Trx oxidation does not result from a general oxidation of cellular thiols. With purified Trx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in vitro, Cr(VI) also resulted in Trx oxidation. It was determined that purified TrxR has pronounced Cr(VI) reducing activity, so competition for electron flow from TrxR might impair its ability to reduce Trx. The in vitro data also suggested some direct redox interaction between Cr(VI) and Trx. The ability of Cr(VI) to cause Trx oxidation in cells could contribute to its cytotoxic effects, and could have important implications for cell survival, redox-sensitive cell signaling, and the cells' tolerance of other oxidant insults

  18. The effects of acrolein on peroxiredoxins, thioredoxins, and thioredoxin reductase in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Charles R.; Myers, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation is a common form of exposure to acrolein, a toxic reactive volatile aldehyde that is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Bronchial epithelial cells would be directly exposed to inhaled acrolein. The thioredoxin (Trx) system is essential for the maintenance of cellular thiol redox balance, and is critical for cell survival. Normally, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) maintains the cytosolic (Trx1) and mitochondrial (Trx2) thioredoxins in the reduced state, and the thioredoxins keep the peroxiredoxins (Prx) reduced, thereby supporting their peroxidase function. The effects of acrolein on TrxR, Trx and Prx in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells were determined. A 30-min exposure to 5 μM acrolein oxidized both Trx1 and Trx2, although significant effects were noted for Trx1 at even lower acrolein concentrations. The effects on Trx1 and Trx2 could not be reversed by treatment with disulfide reductants. TrxR activity was inhibited 60% and >85% by 2.5 and 5 μM acrolein, respectively. The endogenous electron donor for TrxR, NADPH, could not restore its activity, and activity did not recover in cells during a 4-h acrolein-free period in complete medium. The effects of acrolein on TrxR and Trx therefore extend beyond the duration of exposure. While there was a strong correlation between TrxR inhibition and Trx1 oxidation, the irreversible effects on Trx1 suggest direct effects of acrolein rather than loss of reducing equivalents from TrxR. Trx2 did not become oxidized until ≥90% of TrxR was inhibited, but irreversible effects on Trx2 also suggest direct effects of acrolein. Prx1 (cytosolic) and Prx3 (mitochondrial) shifted to a largely oxidized state only when >90 and 100% of their respective Trxs were oxidized. Prx oxidation was readily reversed with a disulfide reductant, suggesting that Prx oxidation resulted from lack of reducing equivalents from Trx and not direct reaction with acrolein. The effects of acrolein on the thioredoxin system and

  19. LINE-1 couples EMT programming with acquisition of oncogenic phenotypes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Aispuro, Ivan; Tavera-Garcia, Marco A; Field, Matthew; Moore, Sara; Ramos, Irma; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2017-11-28

    Although several lines of evidence have established the central role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) in malignant progression of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), the molecular events connecting EMT to malignancy remain poorly understood. This study presents evidence that Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon couples EMT programming with malignancy in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). This conclusion is supported by studies showing that: 1) activation of EMT programming by TGF-β1 increases LINE-1 mRNAs and protein; 2) the lung carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene coregulates TGF-β1 and LINE-1 mRNAs, with LINE-1 positioned downstream of TGF-β1 signaling; and, 3) forced expression of LINE-1 in BEAS-2B cells recapitulates EMT programming and induces malignant phenotypes and tumorigenesis in vivo . These findings identify a TGFβ1-LINE-1 axis as a critical effector pathway that can be targeted for the development of precision therapies during malignant progression of intractable NSCLCs.

  20. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 μM triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure

  1. The Fate of ZnO Nanoparticles Administered to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Fakra, Sirine C.; Xia, Tian; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    A particular challenge for nanotoxicology is the evaluation of the biological fate and toxicity of nanomaterials that dissolve in aqueous fluids. Zinc oxide nanomaterials are of particular concern because dissolution leads to release of the toxic divalent zinc ion. Although dissolved zinc ions have been implicated in ZnO cytotoxicity, direct identification of the chemical form of zinc taken up by cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles, and its intracellular fate, has not yet been achieved. We combined high resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy and high elemental sensitivity X-ray microprobe analyses to determine the fate of ZnO and less soluble iron-doped ZnO nanoparticles following exposure to cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B. We complemented two-dimensional X-ray imaging methods with atomic force microscopy of cell surfaces to distinguish between nanoparticles that were transported inside the cells from those that adhered to the cell exterior. The data suggest cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles is a mechanism of zinc accumulation in cells. Following uptake, ZnO nanoparticles dissolved completely generating intracellular Zn2+ complexed by molecular ligands. These results corroborate a model for ZnO nanoparticle toxicity that is based on nanoparticle uptake followed by intracellular dissolution. PMID:22646753

  2. PKC activation induces inflammatory response and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Kim

    Full Text Available A variety of airborne pathogens can induce inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells, which is a crucial component of host defence. However, excessive inflammatory responses and chronic inflammation also contribute to different diseases of the respiratory system. We hypothesized that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC is one of the essential mechanisms of inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells. In the present study, we stimulated human bronchial lung epithelial (BEAS-2B cells with the phorbol ester Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu, and examined gene expression profile using microarrays. Microarray analysis suggests that PKC activation induced dramatic changes in gene expression related to multiple cellular functions. The top two interaction networks generated from these changes were centered on NFκB and TNF-α, which are two commonly known pathways for cell death and inflammation. Subsequent tests confirmed the decrease in cell viability and an increase in the production of various cytokines. Interestingly, each of the increased cytokines was differentially regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels by different sub-classes of PKC isozymes. We conclude that pathological cell death and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells in various situations may be mediated through PKC related signaling pathways. These findings suggest that PKCs can be new targets for treatment of lung diseases.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of antibacterials on human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatz Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Bronchial epithelial cells (hu-BEC have been claimed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory airway diseases like COPD. In this context IL-8 and GM-CSF have been shown to be key cytokines. Some antibiotics which are routinely used to treat lower respiratory tract infections have been shown to exert additional immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated whether these effects can also be detected in hu-BEC. Methods Hu-BEC obtained from patients undergoing lung resections were transferred to air-liquid-interface (ALI culture. These cultures were incubated with cefuroxime (CXM, 10-62.5 mg/l, azithromycin (AZM, 0.1-1.5 mg/l, levofloxacin (LVX, 1-8 mg/l and moxifloxacin (MXF, 1-16 mg/l. The spontaneous and TNF-α (10 ng/ml induced expression and release of IL-8 and GM-CSF were measured using PCR and ELISA in the absence or presence of these antibiotics. Results The spontaneous IL-8 and GM-CSF release was significantly reduced with MXF (8 mg/l by 37 ± 20% and 45 ± 31%, respectively (both p Conclusion Using ALI cultures of hu-BEC we observed differential effects of antibiotics on spontaneous and TNF-α induced cytokine release. Our data suggest that MXF and AZM, beyond bactericidal effects, may attenuate the inflammatory process mediated by hu-BEC.

  4. Penta- and octa-bromodiphenyl ethers promote proinflammatory protein expression in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takigami, Hidetaka; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in consumer products. Humans can be exposed to PBDEs mainly through the inhalation of air or dust. Thus, PBDEs can affect respiratory and immune systems. In the present study, we investigated whether PBDEs stimulate bronchial epithelial cells. We examined commercial penta-BDE (DE-71), octa-BDE (DE-79), and deca-BDE (DE-83R). Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to each PBDE for 24h. Subsequently, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and proinflammatory cytokines were investigated. DE-71 and DE-79, but not DE-83R, significantly increased the expression of ICAM-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-8 in BEAS-2B. Because these remarkable effects were observed with DE-71, we further investigated the underlying intracellular mechanisms. DE-71 promoted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation. Inhibitors of EGFR-selective tyrosine kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase effectively blocked the increase of IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, antagonists of thyroid hormone receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor significantly suppressed the increase in IL-6 and/or IL-8 production. In conclusion, penta- and octa-BDE, but not deca-BDE, might promote the expression of proinflammatory proteins in bronchial epithelial cells possibly by activating protein kinases and/or stimulating nuclear receptors related to subsequent activation of transcriptional factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Amidated joining peptide in the human pituitary, gut, adrenal gland and bronchial carcinoids. Immunocytochemical and immunochemical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjartell, A; Fenger, M; Ekman, R

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of the proopiomelanocortin-derivated amidated joining peptide (JP-N) was examined in the human pituitary gland, adrenal gland, gut and in three bronchial carcinoids. Double immunostaining showed coexistence of immunoreactive JP-N and other proopiomelanocortin derivatives, e......-N, respectively, but under reduced conditions most of the immunoreactive material appeared as of low molecular weight in both extracts. In conclusion, immunoreactive JP-N is a major product from the processing of proopiomelanocortin in human extrapituitary tissues. The molecular forms of immunoreactive JP......-N correspond to previous findings in the human pituitary gland....

  6. Mechanism of cigarette smoke condensate-induced acute inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To demonstrate the involvement of tobacco smoking in the pathophysiology of lung disease, the responses of pulmonary epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC — the particulate fraction of tobacco smoke — were examined. Methods The human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs were exposed to 0.4 μg/ml CSC, a concentration that resulted in >90% cell survival and Results NHBEs exposed to CSC showed increased expression of the inflammatory mediators sICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-8 and GM-CSF, as determined by RT-PCR. CSC-induced IL-1β expression was reduced by PD98059, a blocker of mitogen-actived protein kinase (MAPK kinase (MEK, and by PDTC, a NFκB inhibitor. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways, using antibodies specific for phosphorylated MAPKs (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]-1/2, demonstrated an increased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2 with increasing CSC concentration. Nuclear localization of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was seen within 30 min of CSC exposure and was inhibited by PD98059. Increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IκB was also seen after CSC exposure. A549 cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing a NFκB-inducible promoter sequence and exposed to CSC (0.4 μg/ml or TNF-α (50 ng/ml had an increased reporter activity of approximately 2-fold for CSC and 3.5-fold for TNF-α relative to untreated controls. Conclusion The acute phase response of NHBEs to cigarette smoke involves activation of both MAPK and NFκB.

  7. IL-17A induces Pendrin expression and chloride-bicarbonate exchange in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Adams

    Full Text Available The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A, which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4 as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease.

  8. Xianyu decoction attenuates the inflammatory response of human lung bronchial epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenyi; Xiang, Qiangwei; Zhang, Hailin

    2018-06-01

    Xianyu decoction (XD), a Chinese experience recipe, shows inhibitory effects on lung cancer. However, the potential functions of XD on pneumonia were unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of XD on inflammatory response of childhood pneumonia. Human lung bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was cultured in different doses of LPS with or without XD treatment. The expression of miR-15a and IKBKB were altered by transfection assay. RT-PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the effects of XD and miR-15a mimic/inhibitor on the expression levels of miR-15a, IKBKB, p65 and IκBα. ELISA was used to determine the levels of CRP, IL-6 and IL-8. High expression of miR-15a was observed in serum and cell model of pneumonia. miR-15a promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, CRP and IKBKB in vitro. XD treatment downregulated the level of miR-15a in pneumonia children. In addition, XD reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the phosphorylation levels of p65 and IκBα by inhibition of miR-15a and IKBKB expression in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. XD downregulated the level of miR-15a in serum of pneumonia children. Additionally, XD inhibited inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells possibly by blocking IKBKB/NF-κB signal pathway which was regulated by miR-15a. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The spatiotemporal organization of cilia activity drives multiscale circular flows of mucus in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Etienne; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Viallat, Annie

    2017-11-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The bronchial epithelium is the first barrier to protect the respiratory tract via an innate mechanism called mucociliary clearance. It consists in the active transport of a sticky fluid, the mucus, via a myriad of cilia at the epithelial surface of the airways. The mucus traps inhaled pathogens and the protective role of the mucociliary clearance relies on the ability of the cilia to self-organize and coordinate their beating to transport the mucus over the full bronchial tree till its elimination through swallowing or expectoration. Despite a rich corpus of clinical studies, chronic respiratory diseases remain poorly understood and quantitative biophysical studies are still missing. Here we will present the physical mechanisms underlying the mucociliary transport. We will show how the cilia self-organize during the ciliogenesis and how the coordination of their beating direction leads to the formation of fluid flow patterns at the macroscopic scale. Finally, we will discuss the role of long range hydrodynamics interactions in this intricate coupled system. ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 and European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant agreement n. PCOFUND-GA-2013-609102.

  10. [Quantitative image analysis in pulmonary pathology - digitalization of preneoplastic lesions in human bronchial epithelium (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, T; Müller, K M; Kämper, H

    1979-01-01

    The report concerns the first phase of a quantitative study of normal and abnormal bronchial epithelium with the objective of establishing the digitalization of histologic patterns. Preparative methods, data collecting and handling, and further mathematical analysis are described. In cluster and discriminatory analysis the digitalized histologic features can be used to separate and classify the individual cases into the respective diagnostic groups.

  11. NiO nanoparticles induce apoptosis through repressing SIRT1 in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wei-Xia; He, Min-Di; Mao, Lin [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Qian, Feng-Hua [Department of Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Li, Yu-Ming [Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, XinQiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Pi, Hui-Feng; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Chun-Hai; Lu, Yong-Hui; Cao, Zheng-Wang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Zhou, E-mail: lunazhou00@163.com [Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2015-07-15

    With application of nano-sized nickel-containing particles (Nano-Ni) expanding, the health concerns about their adverse effects on the pulmonary system are increasing. However, the mechanisms for the pulmonary toxicity of these materials remain unclear. In the present study, we focused on the impacts of NiO nanoparticles (NiONPs) on sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, and investigated whether SIRT1 was involved in NiONPs-induced apoptosis. Although the NiONPs tended to agglomerate in fluid medium, they still entered into the human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and released Ni{sup 2+} inside the cells. NiONPs at doses of 5, 10, and 20 μg/cm{sup 2} inhibited the cell viability. NiONPs' produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process, indicated by increased numbers of Annexin V positive cells and caspase-3 activation. The expression of SIRT1 was markedly down-regulated by the NiONPs, accompanied by the hyperacetylation of p53 (tumor protein 53) and overexpression of Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein). However, overexpression of SIRT1 through resveratrol treatment or transfection clearly attenuated the NiONPs-induced apoptosis and activation of p53 and Bax. Our results suggest that the repression of SIRT1 may underlie the NiONPs-induced apoptosis via p53 hyperacetylation and subsequent Bax activation. Because SIRT1 participates in multiple biologic processes by deacetylation of dozens of substrates, this knowledge of the impact of NiONPs on SIRT1 may lead to an improved understanding of the toxic mechanisms of Nano-Ni and provide a molecular target to antagonize Nano-Ni toxicity. - Highlights: • NiONPs were taken up by BEAS-2B cells and released Ni{sup 2+}. • NiONPs produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process. • NiONPs repressed SIRT1 expression and activated p53 and Bax. • Overexpression of SIRT1 attenuated NiONPs-induced apoptosis via deacetylation p53.

  12. Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMAIII Has an Adverse Effect on the Innate Immune Response of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G Notch

    Full Text Available Arsenic is the number one contaminant of concern with regard to human health according to the World Health Organization. Epidemiological studies on Asian and South American populations have linked arsenic exposure with an increased incidence of lung disease, including pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both of which are associated with bacterial infection. However, little is known about the effects of low dose arsenic exposure, or the contributions of organic arsenic to the innate immune response to bacterial infection. This study examined the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC by inorganic sodium arsenite (iAsIII and two major metabolites, monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAV, at concentrations relevant to the U.S.Neither iAsIII nor DMAV altered P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion. By contrast, MMAIII increased P. aeruginosa induced secretion of IL-8, IL-6 and CXCL2. A combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV (10 pbb total reduced IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that exposure to MMAIII alone, and a combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV at levels relevant to the U.S. may have negative effects on the innate immune response of human bronchial epithelial cells to P. aeruginosa.

  13. Bronchial effects of leukotriene D4 inhalation in normal human lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Groth, S

    1987-01-01

    airways in asthmatic patients out of attack. LTD4 caused a dose-dependent obstruction of the airways as measured by partial flow-volume curves and volume of trapped gas, yet only minor changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate. LTD4 was 1900-7000 times more potent......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhaled leukotriene (LT) D4 could mimic the characteristics of asthmatic patients after allergen-induced attack, i.e. a prolonged subclinical bronchial obstruction, an increased reactivity of the airways and a late reaction. The effects of LTD4 were...... than histamine. LTD4 inhalations were almost symptomless as opposed to the irritative and dyspnoeic symptoms seen after inhalation of histamine. The time duration for the induced change in partial flow-volume curves was the same for the two drugs. Approximately 30 min elapsed until the bronchial...

  14. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV. Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NFkappaB, activator protein (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i., resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  15. Interleukin-13-induced MUC5AC is regulated by 15-lipoxygenase 1 pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinming; Maskrey, Ben; Balzar, Silvana; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Mustovich, Anthony; Hu, Haizhen; Trudeau, John B; O'Donnell, Valerie; Wenzel, Sally E

    2009-05-01

    15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15LO1) and MUC5AC are highly expressed in asthmatic epithelial cells. IL-13 is known to induce 15LO1 and MUC5AC in human airway epithelial cells in vitro. Whether 15LO1 and/or its product 15-HETE modulate MUC5AC expression is unknown. To determine the expression of 15LO1 in freshly harvested epithelial cells from subjects with asthma and normal control subjects and to determine whether IL-13-induced 15LO1 expression and activation regulate MUC5AC expression in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Human airway epithelial cells from subjects with asthma and normal subjects were evaluated ex vivo for 15LO1 and MUC5AC expression. The impact of 15LO1 on MUC5AC expression in vitro was analyzed by inhibiting 15LO1 through pharmacologic (PD146176) and siRNA approaches in human bronchial epithelial cells cultured under air-liquid interface. We analyzed 15 hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) by liquid chromatography/UV/mass spectrometry. MUC5AC and 15LO1 were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluoresence, and Western blot. Epithelial 15LO1 expression increased with asthma severity (P < 0.0001). 15LO1 significantly correlated with MUC5AC ex vivo and in vitro. IL-13 increased 15LO1 expression and stimulated formation of two molecular species of 15-HETE esterified to phosphotidylethanolamine (15-HETE-PE). Inhibition of 15LO1 suppressed 15-HETE-PE and decreased MUC5AC expression in the presence of IL-13 stimulation. The addition of exogenous 15-HETE partially restored MUC5AC expression. Epithelial 15LO1 expression increases with increasing asthma severity. IL-13 induction of 15-HETE-PE enhances MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. High levels of 15LO1 activity could contribute to the increases of MUC5AC observed in asthma.

  16. Development of Combining of Human Bronchial Mucosa Models with XposeALI® for Exposure of Air Pollution Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    Full Text Available Exposure to agents via inhalation is of great concerns both in workplace environment and in the daily contact with particles in the ambient air. Reliable human airway exposure systems will most likely replace animal experiment in future toxicity assessment studies of inhaled agents.In this study, we successfully established a combination of an exposure system (XposeALI with 3D models mimicking both healthy and chronic bronchitis-like mucosa by co-culturing human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC and fibroblast at air-liquid interface (ALI. Light-, confocal microscopy, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER measurement and RT-PCR were performed to identify how the PBEC differentiated under ALI culture condition. Both models were exposed to palladium (Pd nanoparticles which sized 6-10 nm, analogous to those released from modern car catalysts, at three different concentrations utilizing the XposeALI module of the PreciseInhale® exposure system.Exposing the 3D models to Pd nanoparticles induced increased secretion of IL-8, yet the chronic bronchitis-like model released significantly more IL-8 than the normal model. The levels of IL-8 in basal medium (BM and apical lavage medium (AM were in the same ranges, but the secretion of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the AM compared to the BM.This combination of relevant human bronchial mucosa models and sophisticated exposure system can mimic in vivo conditions and serve as a useful alternative animal testing tool when studying adverse effects in humans exposed to aerosols, air pollutants or particles in an occupational setting.

  17. Development of Combining of Human Bronchial Mucosa Models with XposeALI® for Exposure of Air Pollution Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Hedelin, Anna; Malmlöf, Maria; Kessler, Vadim; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Gerde, Per; Palmberg, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to agents via inhalation is of great concerns both in workplace environment and in the daily contact with particles in the ambient air. Reliable human airway exposure systems will most likely replace animal experiment in future toxicity assessment studies of inhaled agents. In this study, we successfully established a combination of an exposure system (XposeALI) with 3D models mimicking both healthy and chronic bronchitis-like mucosa by co-culturing human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) and fibroblast at air-liquid interface (ALI). Light-, confocal microscopy, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and RT-PCR were performed to identify how the PBEC differentiated under ALI culture condition. Both models were exposed to palladium (Pd) nanoparticles which sized 6-10 nm, analogous to those released from modern car catalysts, at three different concentrations utilizing the XposeALI module of the PreciseInhale® exposure system. Exposing the 3D models to Pd nanoparticles induced increased secretion of IL-8, yet the chronic bronchitis-like model released significantly more IL-8 than the normal model. The levels of IL-8 in basal medium (BM) and apical lavage medium (AM) were in the same ranges, but the secretion of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the AM compared to the BM. This combination of relevant human bronchial mucosa models and sophisticated exposure system can mimic in vivo conditions and serve as a useful alternative animal testing tool when studying adverse effects in humans exposed to aerosols, air pollutants or particles in an occupational setting.

  18. Mutation induction in γ-irradiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells and molecular analysis of the HPRT- mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Hei, Tom K.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined various radiobiological parameters using commercially-available primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, which can be subcultured more than 20 population doublings, and have established the mutation system in order to characterize the molecular changes in γ-irradiated primary cells. The survival curve, obtained after irradiation of cells with 137 Cs γ-rays, indicates that the D 0 , D q , and n values are 1.34 Gy, 1.12 Gy, and 2.3, respectively. The induction of HPRT - mutation was dose-dependent and the mutant fraction increased in a non-linear fashion. Since the doubling number of NHBE cells is limited, DNA was extracted directly from the single mutant colonies and alteration in the HPRT gene locus was analyzed using multiplex PCR technique. Among spontaneous mutants, the proportion with total and partial deletions of the gene was 10.0% (2/20) and 60.0% (12/20), respectively, while 30.0% (6/20) did not have any detectable changes in the nine exons examined. On the other hand, the fraction of total deletion increased by more than 2-fold among mutants induced by γ-rays in that 26.3% (10/38) of them showed the total gene deletions. Twenty-five out of 38 γ-induced mutants (65.8%) had partial deletions and 3 mutants (7.9%) had no detectable alteration. The present results showed that γ-irradiation efficiently induced HPRT gene mutation in primary human epithelial cells and that most of the induced mutants suffered larger deletions compared to that observed in spontaneous mutants. This system provides a useful tool for determination of mutagenicity and understanding the molecular mechanisms of environmental carcinogens in primary human bronchial cells

  19. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM 10 and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM 10 collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM 10 exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  20. Techniques in human airway inflammation - Quantity and morphology of bronchial biopsy specimens taken by forceps of three sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, RM; Kraan, J; Smith, M; ten Hacken, NHT; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    Background: In recent years, fiberoptic bronchoscopy has been introduced successfully in the research of bronchial asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by this procedure are small, and an optimal biopsy technique is necessary to obtain high-quality tissue samples, as sufficient length of

  1. Interleukin-13–induced MUC5AC Is Regulated by 15-Lipoxygenase 1 Pathway in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinming; Maskrey, Ben; Balzar, Silvana; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Mustovich, Anthony; Hu, Haizhen; Trudeau, John B.; O'Donnell, Valerie; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15LO1) and MUC5AC are highly expressed in asthmatic epithelial cells. IL-13 is known to induce 15LO1 and MUC5AC in human airway epithelial cells in vitro. Whether 15LO1 and/or its product 15-HETE modulate MUC5AC expression is unknown. Objectives: To determine the expression of 15LO1 in freshly harvested epithelial cells from subjects with asthma and normal control subjects and to determine whether IL-13–induced 15LO1 expression and activation regulate MUC5AC expression in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Methods: Human airway epithelial cells from subjects with asthma and normal subjects were evaluated ex vivo for 15LO1 and MUC5AC expression. The impact of 15LO1 on MUC5AC expression in vitro was analyzed by inhibiting 15LO1 through pharmacologic (PD146176) and siRNA approaches in human bronchial epithelial cells cultured under air–liquid interface. We analyzed 15 hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) by liquid chromatography/UV/mass spectrometry. MUC5AC and 15LO1 were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluoresence, and Western blot. Measurements and Main Results: Epithelial 15LO1 expression increased with asthma severity (P < 0.0001). 15LO1 significantly correlated with MUC5AC ex vivo and in vitro. IL-13 increased 15LO1 expression and stimulated formation of two molecular species of 15-HETE esterified to phosphotidylethanolamine (15-HETE-PE). Inhibition of 15LO1 suppressed 15-HETE-PE and decreased MUC5AC expression in the presence of IL-13 stimulation. The addition of exogenous 15-HETE partially restored MUC5AC expression. Conclusions: Epithelial 15LO1 expression increases with increasing asthma severity. IL-13 induction of 15-HETE-PE enhances MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. High levels of 15LO1 activity could contribute to the increases of MUC5AC observed in asthma. PMID:19218191

  2. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S., E-mail: jsf2@cdc.gov; Thompson, Janet A.; Meighan, Terence G.; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Antonini, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167–166.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18 h transepithelial potential difference (V{sub t}), resistance (R{sub t}), and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) were measured. Particle effects on Na{sup +} and Cl¯ channels and the Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167–16.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) increased basal V{sub t}. Only 16.7 μg/cm{sup 2} GMA-MS increased basal V{sub t} significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I{sub sc} responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R{sub t} were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V{sub t}, R{sub t}, and I{sub sc} at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na{sup +} transport and Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na{sup +} absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. - Highlights: • Welding fume particle toxicity was investigated in human bronchial

  3. Clinical applications of virtual navigation bronchial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Maehara, Sachio; Maeda, Junichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Okano, Tetsuya; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2018-01-01

    In patients with bronchial tumors, we frequently consider endoscopic treatment as the first treatment of choice. All computed tomography (CT) must satisfy several conditions necessary to analyze images by Synapse Vincent. To select safer and more precise approaches for patients with bronchial tumors, we determined the indications and efficacy of virtual navigation intervention for the treatment of bronchial tumors. We examined the efficacy of virtual navigation bronchial intervention for the treatment of bronchial tumors located at a variety of sites in the tracheobronchial tree using a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system, Synapse Vincent. Constructed images can be utilized to decide on the simulation and interventional strategy as well as for navigation during interventional manipulation in two cases. Synapse Vincent was used to determine the optimal planning of virtual navigation bronchial intervention. Moreover, this system can detect tumor location and alsodepict surrounding tissues, quickly, accurately, and safely. The feasibility and safety of Synapse Vincent in performing useful preoperative simulation and navigation of surgical procedures can lead to safer, more precise, and less invasion for the patient, and makes it easy to construct an image, depending on the purpose, in 5-10 minutes using Synapse Vincent. Moreover, if the lesion is in the parenchyma or sub-bronchial lumen, it helps to perform simulation with virtual skeletal subtraction to estimate potential lesion movement. By using virtual navigation system for simulation, bronchial intervention was performed with no complications safely and precisely. Preoperative simulation using virtual navigation bronchial intervention reduces the surgeon's stress levels, particularly when highly skilled techniques are needed to operate on lesions. This task, including both preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation, leads to greater safety and precision. These technological instruments

  4. MicroRNA-146a modulates human bronchial epithelial cell survival in response to the cytokine-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiangde; Nelson, Amy; Wang Xingqi; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Kim, Miok; Sato, Tadashi; Nakanishi, Masanori; Li Yingji; Sun Jianhong; Michalski, Joel; Patil, Amol; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I.

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNA plays an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and cell death. The current study found that miRNA-146a was up-regulated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in response to stimulation by TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (a mixture of IL-1ss, IFN-γ and TNF-α). TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (TCM) induced apoptosis in HBECs (3.4 ± 0.6% of control vs 83.1 ± 4.0% of TCM treated cells, p < 0.01), and this was significantly blocked by the miRNA-146a mimic (8.8 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01). In contrast, a miRNA-146a inhibitor had only a modest effect on cell survival but appeared to augment the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to the cytokines. The MicroRNA-146a mimic appears to modulate HBEC survival through a mechanism of up-regulating Bcl-XL and STAT3 phosphorylation, and by this mechanism it could contribute to tissue repair and remodeling.

  5. Ultrafine titanium dioxide particles in the absence of photoactivation can induce oxidative damage to human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurr, J.-R.; Wang, Alexander S.S.; Chen, C.-H.; Jan, K.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafine titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) particles have been shown to exhibit strong cytotoxicity when exposed to UVA radiation, but are regarded as a biocompatible material in the absence of photoactivation. In contrast to this concept, the present results indicate that anatase-sized (10 and 20 nm) TiO 2 particles in the absence of photoactivation induced oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and micronuclei formation, and increased hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line. However, the treatment with anatase-sized (200 and >200 nm) particles did not induce oxidative stress in the absence of light irradiation; it seems that the smaller the particle, the easier it is for the particle to induce oxidative damage. The photocatalytic activity of the anatase form of TiO 2 was reported to be higher than that of the rutile form. In contrast to this notion, the present results indicate that rutile-sized 200 nm particles induced hydrogen peroxide and oxidative DNA damage in the absence of light but the anatase-sized 200 nm particles did not. In total darkness, a slightly higher level of oxidative DNA damage was also detected with treatment using an anatase-rutile mixture than with treatment using either the anatase or rutile forms alone. These results suggest that intratracheal instillation of ultrafine TiO 2 particles may cause an inflammatory response

  6. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  7. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the wound healing of human bronchial epithelial cells via PKC and MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Min; Sun, Guo-Ying; Liu, Yong-Ping; Ran, Wen-Zhuo; Peng, Li; Guan, Cha-Xiang

    2013-06-10

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide derived from the calcitonin gene. CGRP is widely distributed in the central and peripheral neuronal systems. In the lung, CGRP could modulate dendritic cell function, stimulate proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells and mediate lung injury in mice. In this study, we investigated the effect of CGRP on the wound healing of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. The results showed that CGRP accelerated the recovery of wound area of monolayer HBECs in a dose-dependent manner. CGRP inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in HBECs. The percentage of S phase and G2/M phase was increased in HBECs after CGRP treatment. CGRP upregulated the expression of Ki67 in a dose-dependent manner. Some pathway inhibitors were used to investigate the signal pathway in which CGRP was involved. We found out that PKC pathway inhibitor (H-7) and MAPK pathway inhibitor (PD98059) could partially attenuate the effect of CGRP, which indicated that CGRP might promote the wound healing of HBECs via PKC and/or MAPK dependent pathway by accelerating migration and proliferation, and inhibiting apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PM2.5 promotes human bronchial smooth muscle cell migration via the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiuqin; Hong, Wei; Hao, Binwei; Peng, Gongyong; Huang, Lingmei; Zhao, Zhuxiang; Zhou, Yumin; Zheng, Mengning; Li, Chenglong; Liang, Chunxiao; Yi, Erkang; Pu, Jinding; Li, Bing; Ran, Pixin

    2018-03-02

    The contribution of airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been well documented, with airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration playing a role in the remodeling process. Here, we aimed to verify the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on human bronchial smooth muscle cell (HBSMC) migration and to explore the underlying signaling pathways. HBSMC apoptosis, proliferation and migration were measured using flow cytometry, cell counting and transwell migration assays, respectively. The role of the hedgehog pathway in cell migration was assessed by western blotting to measure the expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Gli1 and Snail. Furthermore, siRNA was used to knock down Gli1 or Snail expression. PM2.5 induced HBSMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, although certain concentrations of PM2.5 did not induce HBSMC proliferation or apoptosis. Interestingly, cell migration was stimulated by PM2.5 doses far below those that induced apoptosis. Additional experiments revealed that these PM2.5 doses enhanced the expression of Shh, Gli1 and Snail in HBSMCs. Furthermore, PM2.5-induced cell migration and protein expression were enhanced by recombinant Shh and attenuated by cyclopamine. Similar results were obtained by knocking down Gli1 or Snail. These findings suggest that PM2.5, which may exert its effects through the Shh signaling pathway, is necessary for the migration of HBSMCs. These data define a novel role for PM2.5 in airway remodeling in COPD.

  9. Effects of gasoline and ethanol-gasoline exhaust exposure on human bronchial epithelial and natural killer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michèle; Usemann, Jakob; Bisig, Christoph; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas C R; Beier, Konstantin; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Latzin, Philipp; Müller, Loretta

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution exposure, including passenger car emissions, may cause substantial respiratory health effects and cancer death. In western countries, the majority of passenger cars are driven by gasoline fuel. Recently, new motor technologies and ethanol fuels have been introduced to the market, but potential health effects have not been thoroughly investigated. We developed and verified a coculture model composed of bronchial epithelial cells (ECs) and natural killer cells (NKs) mimicking the human airways to compare toxic effects between pure gasoline (E0) and ethanol-gasoline-blend (E85, 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) exhaust emitted from a flexfuel gasoline car. We drove a steady state cycle, exposed ECs for 6h and added NKs. We assessed exhaust effects in ECs alone and in cocultures by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and oxidative stress assay. We found no toxic effects after exposure to E0 or E85 compared to air controls. Comparison between E0 and E85 exposure showed a weak association for less oxidative DNA damage after E85 exposure compared to E0. Our results indicate that short-term exposure to gasoline exhaust may have no major toxic effects in ECs and NKs and that ethanol as part of fuel for gasoline cars may be favorable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptation to acrolein through upregulating the protection by glutathione in human bronchial epithelial cells: the materialization of the hormesis concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthijns, Mireille M J P E; Randall, Matthew J; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2014-04-18

    Acrolein is a thiol reactive compound present in cigarette smoke and plays a pivotal role in the deleterious effects of smoking. Acrolein causes toxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose dependent manner. GSH forms the first line of defense against acrolein-induced toxicity. At high doses of acrolein (⩾10 μM) the capacity of the cellular protection by GSH is overwhelmed and GSH is not able to quench all the acrolein, resulting in cytotoxicity. At a relatively low dose of acrolein (3 μM), no cytotoxicity is observed due to protection by GSH. Moreover we found that exposure to a low dose of acrolein protects cells against the toxic effect of a second higher dose of acrolein. The adaptation to acrolein is induced via Nrf2 mediated gene expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase leading to elevated GSH levels. This upregulation of the protection by GSH demonstrates a hormetic response to acrolein. Hormesis is an adaptive or compensatory response induced by a relatively subtle challenge of homeostasis by a toxic compound. Insight into the mechanism of hormesis is mandatory for a more accurate societal regulation of toxic compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  12. TGF-β1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells is enhanced by IL-1β but not abrogated by corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraw Bruce L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic persistent asthma is characterized by ongoing airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The processes leading to airway remodeling are poorly understood, and there is increasing evidence that even aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy does not completely prevent this process. We sought to investigate whether TGFβ1 stimulates bronchial epithelial cells to undergo transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, and whether this transition can be abrogated by corticosteroid treatment or enhanced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Methods BEAS-2B and primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with TGFβ1 and expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and zymography. In some cases the epithelial cells were also incubated with corticosteroids or IL-1β. Results were analyzed using non-parametric statistical tests. Results Treatment of BEAS-2B or primary human bronchial epithelial cells with TGFβ1 significantly reduced the expression level of the epithelial adherence junction protein E-cadherin. TGFβ1 then markedly induced mesenchymal marker proteins such as collagen I, tenascin C, fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin mRNA in a dose dependant manner. The process of mesenchymal transition was accompanied by a morphological change towards a more spindle shaped fibroblast cell type with a more motile and invasive phenotype. Corticosteroid pre-treatment did not significantly alter the TGFβ1 induced transition but IL-1β enhanced the transition. Conclusion Our results indicate, that TGFβ1 can induce mesenchymal transition in the bronchial epithelial cell line and primary cells. Since asthma has been strongly associated with increased expression of TGFβ1 in the airway, epithelial to mesenchymal transition may contribute to the contractile and fibrotic remodeling process that accompanies chronic asthma.

  13. Nicotine signals through muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in both human bronchial epithelial cells and airway fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luketich James D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-neuronal cells, including those derived from lung, are reported to express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. We examined nAChR subunit expression in short-term cultures of human airway cells derived from a series of never smokers, ex-smokers, and active smokers. Methods and Results At the mRNA level, human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells and airway fibroblasts expressed a range of nAChR subunits. In multiple cultures of both cell types, mRNA was detected for subunits that constitute functional muscle-type and neuronal-type pentomeric receptors. Two immortalized cell lines derived from HBE cells also expressed muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChR subunits. Airway fibroblasts expressed mRNA for three muscle-type subunits (α1, δ, and ε significantly more often than HBE cells. Immunoblotting of HBE cell and airway fibroblast extracts confirmed that mRNA for many nAChR subunits is translated into detectable levels of protein, and evidence of glycosylation of nAChRs was observed. Some minor differences in nAChR expression were found based on smoking status in fibroblasts or HBE cells. Nicotine triggered calcium influx in the immortalized HBE cell line BEAS2B, which was blocked by α-bungarotoxin and to a lesser extent by hexamethonium. Activation of PKC and MAPK p38, but not MAPK p42/44, was observed in BEAS2B cells exposed to nicotine. In contrast, nicotine could activate p42/44 in airway fibroblasts within five minutes of exposure. Conclusions These results suggest that muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChRs are functional in airway fibroblasts and HBE cells, that prior tobacco exposure does not appear to be an important variable in nAChR expression, and that distinct signaling pathways are observed in response to nicotine.

  14. Mitochondrial electron transport is inhibited by disappearance of metallothionein in human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to silver nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Arai, Yuta; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Hirano, Seishiro

    2013-03-08

    Silver (Ag) possesses antibacterial activity and has been used in wound dressings and deodorant powders worldwide. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag in mammals have not been well characterized. In the present study, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to AgNO3 and investigated uptake and intracellular distribution of Ag, expression of metallothionein (MT), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes in mitochondrial respiration. The culture medium concentration of Ag decreased with time and stabilized at 12h. The concentration of both Ag and MT in the soluble cellular fraction increased up to 3h and then decreased, indicating that cytosolic Ag relocated to the insoluble fraction of the cells. The levels of mRNAs for the major human MT isoforms MT-I and MT-II paralleled with the protein levels of Ag-MT. The intensity of fluorescence derived from ROS was elevated in the mitochondrial region at 24h. Ag decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption in a dose-dependent manner and the activity of mitochondrial complex I-IV enzymes was significantly inhibited following exposure to Ag. In a separate experiment, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at concentrations as low as 0.001% (equivalent to the concentration of H2O2 in Ag-exposed cells) removed Ag from MT. These results suggest MT was decomposed by cytosolic H2O2, and then Ag released from MT relocated to insoluble cellular fractions and inhibited electron chain transfer of mitochondrial complexes, which eventually led to cell damage. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of NFkappaB activation and IL-8 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells by acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Pagnin, Elisa; Phung, Anh; Nardini, Mirella; Schock, Bettina C; Cross, Carroll E; van der Vliet, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Lipid oxidation and environmental pollutants are major sources of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal. Acrolein (2-propenal), a major product of organic combustion such as tobacco smoke, represents the most reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, with high reactivity toward nucleophilic targets such as sulfhydryl groups. To investigate how acrolein affects respiratory tract cell activation, we exposed either primary (NHBE) or immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBE1) to 0-25 microM acrolein, and determined effects on basal and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-induced production of the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8. Cell exposure to acrolein dose-dependently suppressed IL-8 mRNA levels in HBE1 cells (26, 40, and 79% at 5, 10, and 25 microM acrolein concentrations, respectively) and resulted in corresponding decreases in IL-8 production. Studies of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) activation, an essential event in IL-8 production, showed decreased TNFalpha-induced NFkappaB activation by acrolein, illustrated by inhibition of nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and reduced IkappaBalpha degradation. Immunochemical analysis of IkappaB kinase (IKK), a redox-sensitive regulator of NFkappaB activation, indicated direct modification of the IKK beta-subunit by acrolein, suggesting that acrolein may act directly on IKK. In summary, our results demonstrate that acrolein can suppress inflammatory processes in the airways by inhibiting epithelial IL-8 production through direct or indirect inhibitory effects on NFkappaB activation.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of the synergy between cysteinyl-leukotrienes and receptor tyrosine kinase growth factors on human bronchial fibroblast proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Yoshisue

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs synergise not only with epidermal growth factor (EGF but also with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF and fibroblast growth factor (FGF to induce mitogenesis in human bronchial fibroblasts. We now describe the molecular mechanisms underlying this synergism. Mitogenesis was assessed by incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and changes in protein phosphorylation by Western blotting. Surprisingly, no CysLT receptor antagonists (MK-571, montelukast, BAY u9773 prevented the synergistic mitogenesis. LTD4 did not cause phosphorylation of EGFR nor did it augment EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, and the synergy between LTD4 and EGF was not blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 or by an HB-EGF neutralising antibody. The EGFR-selective kinase inhibitor, AG1478, suppressed the synergy by LTD4 and EGF, but had no effect on the synergy with PDGF and FGF. While inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC prevented the synergy, these drugs also inhibited mitogenesis elicited by EGF alone. In contrast, pertussis toxin (PTX efficiently inhibited the potentiating effect of LTD4 on EGF-induced mitogenesis, as well as that provoked by PDGF or FGF, but had no effect on mitogenesis elicited by the growth factors alone. Whereas LTD4 alone did not augment phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk-1/2 and Akt, it increased phosphorylation of PKC in a Gi-dependent manner. Addition of LTD4 prolonged the duration of EGF-induced phosphorylation of Erk-1/2 and Akt, both of which were sensitive to PTX. The effect of cys-LTs involves a PTX-sensitive and PKC-mediated intracellular pathway leading to sustained growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of Erk-1/2 and Akt.

  17. Measurement of IL-13–Induced iNOS-Derived Gas Phase Nitric Oxide in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Vinod; Mih, Justin D.; George, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is altered in numerous diseases including asthma, and is thought broadly to be a noninvasive marker of inflammation. However, the precise source of exhaled NO has yet to be identified, and the interpretation is further hampered by significant inter-subject variation. Using fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, we sought to determine (1) the rate of NO release (flux, pl·s−1.cm−2) into the gas; (2) the effect of IL-13, a prominent mediator of allergic inflammation, on NO release; and (3) inter-subject/donor variability in NO release. NHBE cells from three different donors were cultured at an air–liquid interface and stimulated with different concentrations of IL-13 (0, 1, and 10 ng/ml) for 48 h. Gas phase NO concentrations in the headspace over the cells were measured using a chemiluminescence analyzer. The basal NO flux from the three donors (0.05 ± 0.03) is similar in magnitude to that estimated from exhaled NO concentrations, and was significantly increased by IL-13 in a donor-specific fashion. The increase in NO release was strongly correlated with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression. There was a trend toward enhanced production of nitrate relative to nitrite as an end product of NO metabolism in IL-13–stimulated cells. NO release from airway epithelial cells can be directly measured. The rate of release in response to IL-13 is strongly dependent on the individual donor, but is primarily due to the expression of iNOS. PMID:17347445

  18. Measurement of IL-13-induced iNOS-derived gas phase nitric oxide in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Vinod; Mih, Justin D; George, Steven C

    2007-07-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is altered in numerous diseases including asthma, and is thought broadly to be a noninvasive marker of inflammation. However, the precise source of exhaled NO has yet to be identified, and the interpretation is further hampered by significant inter-subject variation. Using fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, we sought to determine (1) the rate of NO release (flux, pl.s(-1.)cm(-2)) into the gas; (2) the effect of IL-13, a prominent mediator of allergic inflammation, on NO release; and (3) inter-subject/donor variability in NO release. NHBE cells from three different donors were cultured at an air-liquid interface and stimulated with different concentrations of IL-13 (0, 1, and 10 ng/ml) for 48 h. Gas phase NO concentrations in the headspace over the cells were measured using a chemiluminescence analyzer. The basal NO flux from the three donors (0.05 +/- 0.03) is similar in magnitude to that estimated from exhaled NO concentrations, and was significantly increased by IL-13 in a donor-specific fashion. The increase in NO release was strongly correlated with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression. There was a trend toward enhanced production of nitrate relative to nitrite as an end product of NO metabolism in IL-13-stimulated cells. NO release from airway epithelial cells can be directly measured. The rate of release in response to IL-13 is strongly dependent on the individual donor, but is primarily due to the expression of iNOS.

  19. Multiplexed quantitative high content screening reveals that cigarette smoke condensate induces changes in cell structure and function through alterations in cell signaling pathways in human bronchial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Charleata A.; Hamm, Jonathan T.

    2009-01-01

    Human bronchial cells are one of the first cell types exposed to environmental toxins. Toxins often activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and protein kinase C (PKC). We evaluated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, activates PKC-α and NF-κB, and concomitantly disrupts the F-actin cytoskeleton, induces apoptosis and alters cell function in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Compared to controls, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to doses of 30 μg/ml CSC significantly activated PKC-α, while CSC doses above 20 μg/ml CSC significantly activated NF-κB. As NF-κB was activated, cell number decreased. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced a decrease in cell size and an increase in cell surface extensions including filopodia and lamellipodia. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced F-actin rearrangement such that stress fibers were no longer prominent at the cell periphery and throughout the cells, but relocalized to perinuclear regions. Concurrently, CSC induced an increase in the focal adhesion protein vinculin at the cell periphery. CSC doses above 30 μg/ml induced a significant increase in apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells evidenced by an increase in activated caspase 3, an increase in mitochondrial mass and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. As caspase 3 increased, cell number decreased. CSC doses above 30 μg/ml also induced significant concurrent changes in cell function including decreased cell spreading and motility. CSC initiates a signaling cascade in human bronchial epithelial cells involving PKC-α, NF-κB and caspase 3, and consequently decreases cell spreading and motility. These CSC-induced alterations in cell structure likely prevent cells from performing their normal function thereby contributing to smoke-induced diseases.

  20. Radiological study of bronchial mucoid impaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoyi; Yan Hongzhen; Wang Tongde; Gan Chunlan; Liu Wei; Wang Linhui

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiological findings of bronchial mucoid impaction in 28 patients in order to improve diagnostic efficacy. Methods: Standard posteroanterior high voltage radiographs were performed in all 28 cases. Among them CT scans were taken in 14 cases, while 3 patients underwent HRCT examination at the same time. Twenty-two patients had a history of expectoration of mucous plugs; in one case with pulmonary atelectasis, a mucous plug was picked out through bronchoscopy. The other 5 cases experienced a lung operation, and a tumor and bronchial mucoid impaction were discovered. Results: Radiographs showed most mucoid impaction as thick, branching structures resembling branches of tree; others were in the shapes of spherical, small clubs, and cuttle fish. In one patient, pulmonary atelectasis was the only radiographic finding. Similarly on CT, most bronchial mucoid impaction were likened to tree branches; the rest presented as small clubs and bunches of grape. A prominent feature of bronchial mucoid impaction, either on plain radiograph or on CT, was that its axis pointed to the hilum, completely consistent with the branching and distribution of the bronchi, and accompanied by bronchiectasis. Conclusions: It is an optimal approach to exploit plain radiograph combined with CT to find out bronchial mucoid impaction. An awareness of its clinical and radiological features may improve better understanding and recognition of the disease

  1. Bronchial arteries: an arteriosclerosis-resistant circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoulas, Christophoros; Melachrinou, Maria; Konstantinou, George N; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Until now, it is unknown whether and to what extent arteriosclerotic disease affects the bronchial arteries. We conducted this pilot study to estimate the prevalence of arteriosclerosis of the bronchial arteries, to correlate it with certain clinicolaboratory arteriosclerotic parameters or any coexistent coronary artery disease (CAD) and to validate the clinical significance. Bronchial arteries 10-15 mm long were obtained from 40 patients with a mean age of 62.3 years who underwent major thoracic procedures. Their medical history and detailed clinical and laboratory arteriosclerotic risk factors were documented. The mean diameter of bronchial artery specimens was 0.97 mm. Histology revealed medial calcific sclerosis only in 1 patient (2.5%) without simultaneous, established atherosclerotic lesions or narrowing of the lumen. Furthermore, the vessel diameter was significantly correlated not only with the advanced stage of the disease (p = 0.031), but also with the proximal occlusion of the bronchial tree (p = 0.042). We noted a marginally not significant correlation between arteriosclerosis and metabolic syndrome (p = 0.075), independent from a history of CAD (p = 0.84). Bronchial arteries exhibit only medial calcific sclerosis. CAD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease do not seem to affect them in terms of atherosclerotic alteration findings or vessel diameter changes. The bronchial resistance to arteriosclerosis might support the mediastinal status quo through their anastomoses, contributing to all its structures, and might be indirect evidence of a different physiological function of the bronchial endothelium, which needs to be further investigated. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. HO-1 inhibits IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia associated with CLCA1 suppression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, Kei; Shinkai, Masaharu; Shimokawaji, Tadasuke; Nagashima, Akimichi; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoriko; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Rubin, Bruce K; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Mucus hypersecretion and goblet cell hyperplasia are common features that characterize asthma. IL-13 increases mucin (MUC) 5AC, the major component of airway mucus, in airway epithelial cells. According to the literature, IL-13 receptor activation leads to STAT6 activation and consequent induction of chloride channel accessory 1 (CLCA1) gene expression, associated with the induction of MUC5AC. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of heme to biliverdin, and has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. We examined the effects of HO-1 on mucin production and goblet cell hyperplasia induced by IL-13. Moreover, we assessed the cell signaling intermediates that appear to be responsible for mucin production. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were grown at air liquid interface (ALI) in the presence or absence of IL-13 and hemin, a HO-1 inducer, for 14 days. Protein concentration was analyzed using ELISA, and mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR. Histochemical analysis was performed using HE staining, andWestern blotting was performed to evaluate signaling transduction pathway. Hemin (4 μM) significantly increased HO-1 protein expression (p b 0.01) and HO-1 mRNA expression (p b 0.001). IL-13 significantly increased goblet cells, MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.01) and MUC5AC mRNA (p b 0.001), and these were decreased by hemin by way of HO-1. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)-IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the effect of hemin restoring MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.05) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Hemin decreased the expression of CLCA1 mRNA (p b 0.05) and it was reversed by SnPP-IX, but could not suppress IL-13-induced phosphorylation of STAT6 or SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) and Forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) mRNA expression. In summary, HO-1 overexpression suppressed IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia and MUC5AC production, and involvement of CLCA1 in the mechanism was suggested.

  3. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S; Thompson, Janet A; Meighan, Terence G; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Antonini, James M

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167-166.7μg/cm 2 ) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18h transepithelial potential difference (V t ), resistance (R t ), and short circuit current (I sc ) were measured. Particle effects on Na + and Cl¯ channels and the Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167-16.7μg/cm 2 ) increased basal V t . Only 16.7μg/cm 2 GMA-MS increased basal V t significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I sc responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R t were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V t , R t , and I sc at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na + transport and Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na + absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin [Center for Research on Environmental Diseases, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous

  5. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H 2 O 2 ) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O 2 ·− ) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The

  6. Measurement of the thickness of the bronchial epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, D.H.; Baldwin, F.

    1989-02-01

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of gaseous radon daughters which become attached to molecules of water vapour or to dust particles. Since, the depth of tissue penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium that lines the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to measure the thickness of human bronchial epithelium; 2) to determine the distribution and depth of the nuclei of basal cells in the bronchial epithelium; and 3) to compare these parameters in groups of smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens of the lung were examined (26 smokers, 3 non-smokers). The specimens were fixed and prepared for examination by light and electron microscopy. Blocks of tissue were oriented so that the maximum number of bronchi were cut in cross-section; measurements included bronchi of all sizes from bronchial generations (1≥ 9.01 mm) diameter to the smallest bronchioles, generations 7 - 16 (0.26 - 2.0 mm). Comparison of measurements in smokers and non-smokers show no significant differences, so that the 29 cases are considered to represent a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness. Of more importance are the figures relating to the distance from the cell surface to the underlying nucleus. Here too, with the exception of goblet cells, the measurements are significantly smaller in generations 7 - 16 than in generation 1

  7. Cellular dosimetry for radon progeny alpha particles in bronchial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; Hofmann, W.; Balashazy, I.

    1996-01-01

    Inhaled radon progeny are deposited in different regions of the human bronchial tree as functions of particle size and flow rate. Following deposition and mucociliary clearance, the sensitive bronchial basal and secretory cells are irradiated by two different alpha particle sources: (i) radon progeny in the sol and/or gel phase of the mucous layer, and (ii) radon progeny within the bronchial epithelium. In the case of internally deposited radionuclides, direct measurement of the energy absorbed from the ionizing radiation emitted by the decaying radionuclides is rarely, if ever, possible. Therefore, one must rely on dosimetric models to obtain estimates of the spatial and temporal patterns of energy deposition in tissues and organs of the body. When the radionuclide is uniformly distributed throughout the volume of a tissue of homogeneous composition and when the size of the tissue is large compared to the range of the particulate emissions of the radionuclide, then the dose rate within the tissue is also uniform and the calculation of absorbed dose can proceed without complication. However, if non-uniformities in the spatial and temporal distributions of the radionuclide are coupled with heterogeneous tissue composition, then the calculation of absorbed dose becomes complex and uncertain. Such is the case with the dosimetry of inhaled radon and radon progeny in the respiratory tract. There are increasing demands to obtain a definitive explanation of the role of alpha particles emitted from radon daughters in the induction of lung cancer. Various authors have attempted to evaluate the dose to the bronchial region of the respiratory tract due to the inhalation of radon daughters

  8. Proinflammatory effects and oxidative stress within human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM>2.5) collected from Cotonou, Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, Boris Fresnel; Firmin, Stéphane; Verdin, Anthony; Ayi-Fanou, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    After particulate matter (PM) collection in Cotonou (Benin), a complete physicochemical characterization of PM 2.5 and PM >2.5 was led. Then, their adverse health effects were evaluated by using in vitro culture of human lung cells. BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells) were intoxicated during short-term exposure at increasing PM concentrations (1.5–96 μg/cm 2 ) to determine global cytotoxicity. Hence, cells were exposed to 3 and 12 μg/cm 2 to investigate the potential biological imbalance generated by PM toxicity. Our findings showed the ability of both PM to induce oxidative stress and to cause inflammatory cytokines/chemokines gene expression and secretion. Furthermore, PM were able to induce gene expression of enzymes involved in the xenobiotic metabolism pathway. Strong correlations between gene expression of metabolizing enzymes, proinflammatory responses and cell cycle alteration were found, as well as between proinflammatory responses and cell viability. Stress oxidant parameters were highly correlated with expression and protein secretion of inflammatory mediators. Highlights: • The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic potential of collected particles. • Toxicological effects were determined by using human bronchial epithelial cells. • Both particles induced oxidative stress, proinflammatory response and cell alterations. • Metabolizing enzymes were linked to proinflammatory responses and cell alterations. • Oxidative stress was highly correlated to the proinflammatory mediators. -- This study evidences the toxic potential of African fine and coarse particulate matters on respiratory epithelial cells

  9. Three-Dimensional Human Bronchial-Tracheal Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLAs) as Hosts for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, M. T.; McCarthy, M.; Mossell, E.; Watts, D. M.; Peters, C. J.; Shope, R.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-like assembly (TLA) of human bronchial-tracheal mesenchymal (HBTC) cells with an overlay of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells was constructed using a NASA Bioreactor to survey the infectivity of SARS-CoV. This TLA was inoculated with a low passage number Urbani strain of SARS-CoV. At selected intervals over a 10-day period, media and cell aliquots of the 3-D TLA were harvested for viral titer assay and for light and electron microscopy examination. All viral titer assays were negative in both BEAS-2B two-dimensional monolayer and TLA. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry demonstrated antigen-antibody reactivity with anti-SARS-CoV polyclonal antibody to spike and nuclear proteins on cell membranes and cytoplasm. Coronavirus Group 2 cross-reactivity was demonstrated by positive reaction to anti-FIPV 1 and anti-FIPV 1 and 2 antibodies. TLA examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated increasing cytoplasmic vacuolation with numerous electron-dense bodies measuring 45 to 270 nm from days 4 through 10. There was no evidence of membrane blebbing, membrane duplication, or fragmentation of organelles in the TLAs. However, progressive disruption of endoplasmic reticulum was observed throughout the cells. Antibody response to SARS-CoV specific spike and nucleocapsid glycoproteins, cross-reactivity with FIPV antibodies, and the cytoplasmic pathology suggests this HBTE TLA model is permissive to SARS-CoV infection.

  10. Stochastic rat lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny: a surrogate for the human lung for lung cancer risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Heil, R.; Hofmann, W. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Hussain, M. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    Laboratory rats are frequently used in inhalation studies as a surrogate for human exposures. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop a stochastic dosimetry model for inhaled radon progeny in the rat lung, to predict bronchial dose distributions and to compare them with corresponding dose distributions in the human lung. The most significant difference between human and rat lungs is the branching structure of the bronchial tree, which is relatively symmetric in the human lung, but monopodial in the rat lung. Radon progeny aerosol characteristics used in the present study encompass conditions typical for PNNL and COGEMA rat inhalation studies, as well as uranium miners and human indoor exposure conditions. It is shown here that depending on exposure conditions and modeling assumptions, average bronchial doses in the rat lung ranged from 5.4 to 7.3 mGy WLM{sup -1}. If plotted as a function of airway generation, bronchial dose distributions exhibit a significant maximum in large bronchial airways. If, however, plotted as a function of airway diameter, then bronchial doses are much more uniformly distributed throughout the bronchial tree. Comparisons between human and rat exposures indicate that rat bronchial doses are slightly higher than human bronchial doses by about a factor of 1.3, while lung doses, averaged over the bronchial (BB), bronchiolar (bb) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) regions, are higher by about a factor of about 1.6. This supports the current view that the rat lung is indeed an appropriate surrogate for the human lung in case of radon-induced lung cancers. Furthermore, airway diameter seems to be a more appropriate morphometric parameter than airway generations to relate bronchial doses to bronchial carcinomas. (orig.)

  11. Interactive navigation and bronchial tube tracking in virtual bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, P A; Fung, P F; Wong, T T; Siu, Y H; Sun, H

    1999-01-01

    An interactive virtual environment for simulation of bronchoscopy is developed. Medical doctor can safely plan their surgical bronchoscopy using the virtual environment without any invasive diagnosis which may risk the patient's health. The 3D pen input device of the system allows the doctor to navigate and visualize the bronchial tree of the patient naturally and interactively. To navigate the patient's bronchial tree, a vessel tracking process is required. While manual tracking is tedious and labor-intensive, fully automatic tracking may not be reliable. We propose a semi-automatic tracking technique called Intelligent Path Tracker which provides automation and enough user control during the vessel tracking. To support an interactive frame rate, we also introduce a new volume rendering acceleration technique, named as IsoRegion Leaping. The volume rendering is further accelerated by distributed rendering on a TCP/IP-based network of low-cost PCs. With these approaches, a 256 x 256 x 256 volume data of human lung, can be navigated and visualized at a frame rate of over 10 Hz in our virtual bronchoscopy system.

  12. Modelling the effect of non-uniform radon progeny activities on transformation frequencies in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakir, H.; Hofmann, W.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of radiological and morphological source heterogeneities in straight and Y-shaped bronchial airways on hit frequencies and Micro-dosimetric quantities in epithelial cells have been investigated previously. The goal of the present study is to relate these physical quantities to transformation frequencies in sensitive target cells and to radon-induced lung cancer risk. Based on an effect-specific track length model, computed linear energy transfer (LET) spectra were converted to corresponding transformation frequencies for different activity distributions and source - target configurations. Average transformation probabilities were considerably enhanced for radon progeny accumulations and target cells at the carinal ridge, relative to uniform activity distributions and target cells located along the curved and straight airway portions at the same exposure level. Although uncorrelated transformation probabilities produce a linear dose - effect relationship, correlated transformations first increase depending on the LET, but then decrease significantly when exceeding a defined number of hits or cumulative exposure level. (authors)

  13. Long-term low-dose α-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Multi-exposures of 25 mGy α-ray enhanced cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. • MAPK/Akt but not JNK/P66 was positively correlated with cell invasive phenotypes. • LDR of α-irradiation triggers cell malignant transformation through MAPK/Akt. - Abstract: Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy α-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1–2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1–2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of α-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway.

  14. TRX-ASK1-JNK signaling regulation of cell density-dependent cytotoxicity in cigarette smoke-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Chan; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Lee, Pak-Kei; Lee, Jin-Soo; Harper, Richart W; Buckpitt, Alan B; Wu, Reen; Oslund, Karen

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a major environmental air pollutant that injures airway epithelium and incites subsequent diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lesion that smoke induces in airway epithelium is still incompletely understood. Using a LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity assay, we observed that subconfluent cultures of bronchial epithelial cells derived from both human and monkey airway tissues and an immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cell line (HBE1) were more susceptible to injury by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and by direct cigarette smoke exposure than cells in confluent cultures. Scraping confluent cultures also caused an enhanced cell injury predominately in the leading edge of the scraped confluent cultures by CSE. Cellular ATP levels in both subconfluent and confluent cultures were drastically reduced after CSE exposure. In contrast, GSH levels were significantly reduced only in subconfluent cultures exposed to smoke and not in confluent cultures. Western blot analysis demonstrated ERK activation in both confluent and subconfluent cultures after CSE. However, activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), JNK, and p38 were demonstrated only in subconfluent cultures and not in confluent cultures after CSE. Using short interfering RNA (siRNA) to JNK1 and JNK2 and a JNK inhibitor, we attenuated CSE-mediated cell death in subconfluent cultures but not with an inhibitor of the p38 pathway. Using the tetracycline (Tet)-on inducible approach, overexpression of thioredoxin (TRX) attenuated CSE-mediated cell death and JNK activation in subconfluent cultures. These results suggest that the TRX-ASK1-JNK pathway may play a critical role in mediating cell density-dependent CSE cytotoxicity.

  15. Long-term low-dose α-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-exposures of 25 mGy α-ray enhanced cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. • MAPK/Akt but not JNK/P66 was positively correlated with cell invasive phenotypes. • LDR of α-irradiation triggers cell malignant transformation through MAPK/Akt. - Abstract: Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy α-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1–2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1–2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of α-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

  16. H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable of degrading basement membrane collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, I.E.; Wilhelm, S.M.; Eisen, A.Z.

    1988-01-01

    H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. The substrates in their order of preference are: gelatin, type IV collagen, type V collagen, fibronectin, and type VII collagen; but the enzyme does not cleave the interstitial collagens or laminin. This protease is identical to gelatinase isolated from normal human skin explants, normal human skin fibroblasts, and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts. Based on this ability to initiate the degradation of type IV collagen in a pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule, it will be referred to as type IV collagenase. This enzyme is most likely the human analog of type IV collagenase detected in several rodent tumors. Type IV collagenase consists of three domains. Type IV collagenase represents the third member of a newly recognized gene family coding for secreted extracellular matrix metalloproteases, which includes interstitial fibroblast collagenase and stromelysin

  17. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  18. Cadmium induces cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells through upregulation of eIF5A1 and NF-kappaB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Du, Ji-Ying [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Huang, Dong-Yang [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Lau, Andy T.Y., E-mail: andytylau@stu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Epigenetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong 515041 (China)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were dosed with cadmium (Cd). • A low level (2 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h elicited negligible cytotoxicity. • High levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h induced cell death. • High levels of Cd can upregulate the protein levels of eIF5A1 and NF-κB p65. • We suggest that eIF5A1 level is possibly modulated by NF-κB. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and Cd compounds are widely-distributed in the environment and well-known carcinogens. Here, we report that in CdCl{sub 2}-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), the level of p53 is dramatically decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the observed Cd-induced cytotoxicity is not likely due to the pro-apoptotic function of p53. Therefore, this prompted us to further study the responsive pro-apoptotic factors by proteomic approaches. Interestingly, we identified that high levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd can significantly upregulate the protein levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A1 (eIF5A1) and redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB p65. Moreover, there is an enhanced NF-κB nuclear translocation as well as chromatin-binding in Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. We also show that small interfering RNA-specific knockdown of eIF5A1 in Cd-exposed cells attenuated the Cd cytotoxicity, indicating the potential role of eIF5A1 in Cd cytotoxicity. As eIF5A1 is reported to be related with cell apoptosis but little is known about its transcriptional control, we hypothesize that NF-κB might likely modulate eIF5A1 gene expression. Notably, by bioinformatic analysis, several potential NF-κB binding sites on the upstream promoter region of eIF5A1 gene can be found. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that indeed there is enhanced NF-κB binding on eIF5A1 promoter region of Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, our findings suggest for the first time a regulatory mechanism for the pro

  19. Reactive oxygen species contribute to arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation in human bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingzhi; Qiu, Ping; Chen, Bailing; Lu, Yongju; Wu, Kai; Thakur, Chitra; Chang, Qingshan; Sun, Jiaying; Chen, Fei, E-mail: fchen@wayne.edu

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies suggested that arsenic is able to induce serine 21 phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein through activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt signaling pathways in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. In the present report, we further demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the arsenic-induced protein kinase activation that leads to EZH2 phosphorylation. Several lines of evidence supported this notion. First, the pretreatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, abolishes arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation along with the inhibition of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. Second, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the most important form of ROS in the cells in response to extracellular stress signals, can induce phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein and the activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. By ectopic expression of the myc-tagged EZH2, we additionally identified direct interaction and phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein by Akt in response to arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, both arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were able to induce the translocation of ectopically expressed or endogenous EZH2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. In summary, the data presented in this report indicate that oxidative stress due to ROS generation plays an important role in the arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. - Highlights:: • Arsenic (As{sup 3+}) induces EZH phosphorylation. • JNK, STAT3, and Akt contribute to EZH2 phosphorylation. • Oxidative stress is involved in As{sup 3+}-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. • As{sup 3+} induces direct interaction of Akt and EZH2. • Phosphorylated EZH2 localized in cytoplasm.

  20. Thoracic lymphangiectasis presenting with chyloptysis and bronchial cast expectoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliaguet, O.; Beauclair, P.; Gavazzi, G.; Winckel, P.; Laporte, F.; Coulomb, M.; Ferretti, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with recurrent undiagnosed episodes of bronchial cast expectoration and pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography for 15 years is described. The diagnosis of chyloptysis was established by chemical analysis of the bronchial aspiration. We emphasize the radiological findings of this rare observation. The CT-associated lymphangiography showed mediastinal lymphangiectasis with retrograde opacification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes as well as submucosal lymphatic vessels protruding into the lumen of the tracheo-bronchial tree without evidence of thoracic duct obstruction as well as a ''crazy-paving appearance.'' Congenital incompetence of the valves of the lymphatic vessels originating from the thoracic duct is held to be the cause. Chyloptysis and pulmonary lymphatic disorder should be sought in cases of bronchial cast expectoration. (orig.)

  1. STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 promotes angiogenesis and is involved in neoplastic processes of transformed human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Huiqiao; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xinlu; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Xu, Wenchao; Lu, Lu; Qin, Yu; Xiang, Quanyong; Liu, Qizhan

    2016-01-01

    Although microRNA (miRNA) enclosed in exosomes can mediate intercellular communication, the roles of exosomal miRNA and angiogenesis in lung cancer remain unclear. We investigated functions of STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 derived from cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in the angiogenesis of CSE-induced carcinogenesis. miR-21 levels in serum were higher in smokers than those in non-smokers. The medium from transformed HBE cells promoted miR-21 levels in normal HBE cells and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Transformed cells transferred miR-21 into normal HBE cells via exosomes. Knockdown of STAT3 reduced miR-21 levels in exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells, which blocked the angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HBE cells and thereby promoted angiogenesis in HUVEC cells. Inhibition of exosomal miR-21, however, decreased VEGF levels in recipient cells, which blocked exosome-induced angiogenesis. Thus, miR-21 in exosomes leads to STAT3 activation, which increases VEGF levels in recipient cells, a process involved in angiogenesis and malignant transformation of HBE cells. These results, demonstrating the function of exosomal miR-21 from transformed HBE cells, provide a new perspective for intervention strategies to prevent carcinogenesis of lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cyclic mechanical stretch down-regulates cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression and activates a pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Karadottir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37. Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative stress in the VA10 cells. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor (TLR 3, TLR5 and TLR8 was reduced, while the gene expression of TLR2 was increased in VA10 cells after cyclic stretch. In conclusion, our in vitro results indicate that cyclic stretch may differentially modulate innate immunity by down-regulation of antimicrobial peptide expression and increase in pro-inflammatory responses.

  3. Genotoxicity of nanomaterials: DNA damage and micronuclei induced by carbon nanotubes and graphite nanofibres in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Falck, Ghita C-M; Suhonen, Satu; Vippola, Minnamari; Vanhala, Esa; Catalán, Julia; Savolainen, Kai; Norppa, Hannu

    2009-05-08

    Despite the increasing industrial use of different nanomaterials, data on their genotoxicity are scant. In the present study, we examined the potential genotoxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs; >50% single-walled, approximately 40% other CNTs; 1.1 nm x 0.5-100 microm; Sigma-Aldrich) and graphite nanofibres (GNFs; 95%; outer diameter 80-200 nm, inner diameter 30-50 nm, length 5-20 microm; Sigma-Aldrich) in vitro. Genotoxicity was assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and the micronucleus assay (cytokinesis-block method) in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells cultured for 24h, 48h, or 72h with various doses (1-100 microg/cm(2), corresponding to 3.8-380 microg/ml) of the carbon nanomaterials. In the comet assay, CNTs induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage at all treatment times, with a statistically significant effect starting at the lowest dose tested. GNFs increased DNA damage at all doses in the 24-h treatment, at two doses (40 and 100 microg/cm(2)) in the 48-h treatment (dose-dependent effect) and at four doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)) in the 72-h treatment. In the micronucleus assay, no increase in micronucleated cells was observed with either of the nanomaterials after the 24-h treatment or with CNTs after the 72-h treatment. The 48-h treatment caused a significant increase in micronucleated cells at three doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)) of CNTs and at two doses (5 and 10 microg/cm(2)) of GNFs. The 72-h treatment with GNFs increased micronucleated cells at four doses (lowest 10 microg/cm(2)). No dose-dependent effects were seen in the micronucleus assay. The presence of carbon nanomaterial on the microscopic slides disturbed the micronucleus analysis and made it impossible at levels higher than 20 microg/cm(2) of GNFs in the 24-h and 48-h treatments. In conclusion, our results suggest that both CNTs and GNFs are genotoxic in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro. This activity may be due to the fibrous nature

  4. Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Allison Bodine; Eric. Greenfield

    2014-01-01

    Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and...

  5. New method in radiotherapy of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macha, H.N.; Mai, J.; Stadler, M.; Koch, K.; Loddenkemper, R.; Krumhaar, D.; Schumacher, W.; Lungenklinik Heckeshorn, Berlin; Staedtisches Rudolf-Virchow-Krankenhaus, Berlin

    1986-01-01

    106 patients with inoperable malignant tumours constricting the central bronchial tree underwent endobronchial small-field radiotherapy with iridium-192 at high dose between June 1983 and September 1985. Treatment was performed using the computer-guided after-loading technique and a flexible bronchoscope under local anaesthesia. In complete occlusion of a bronchus by the tumour, a neodymium YAG-laser was applied (57 patients) to allow insertion of the afterloading probe. Endoscopy showed tumour regression in 75% of the patients, accompanied by clinical improvement. Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas analyses and pulmonary perfusion scans yielded a highly significant improvement of data after treatment. The procedure also proved effective upon exhaustion of external radiation. Apart from its positive palliation, endobronchial small-field radiotherapy using high doses of iridium-192 also has a curative effect, thus opening up a new approach to the therapy of advanced bronchial carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  6. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA SUPERVISION AMONG TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Nenasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of the act test based bronchial asthma supervision evaluation among teenagers and defines the interrelation of the objective and subjective asthma supervision parameters. The researchers examined 214 male teenagers aged from 16 to 18, suffering from the bronchial asthma, who were sent to the allergy department to verify the diagnosis. Bronchial asthma supervision evaluation was assisted by the act test. The research has showed that over a half (56% of teenagers, suffering from mild bronchial asthma, mention its un control course, do not receive any adequate pharmacotherapy and are consequently a risk group in terms of the bronchial asthma exacerbation. Act test results correlate with the functional indices (fev1, as well as with the degree of the bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which is one of the markers of an allergic inflammation in the lower respiratory passages.Key words: bronchial asthma supervision, act test, teenagers.

  7. Involvement of p53 Mutation and Mismatch Repair Proteins Dysregulation in NNK-Induced Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome integrity is essential for normal cellular functions and cell survival. Its instability can cause genetic aberrations and is considered as a hallmark of most cancers. To investigate the carcinogenesis process induced by tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK, we studied the dynamic changes of two important protectors of genome integrity, p53 and MMR system, in malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells after NNK exposure. Our results showed that the expression of MLH1, one of the important MMR proteins, was decreased early and maintained the downregulation during the transformation in a histone modification involved and DNA methylation-independent manner. Another MMR protein PMS2 also displayed a declined expression while being in a later stage of transformation. Moreover, we conducted p53 mutation analysis and revealed a mutation at codon 273 which led to the replacement of arginine by histidine. With the mutation, DNA damage-induced activation of p53 was significantly impaired. We further reintroduced the wild-type p53 into the transformed cells, and the malignant proliferation can be abrogated by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings indicate that p53 and MMR system play an important role in the initiation and progression of NNK-induced transformation, and p53 could be a potential therapeutic target for tobacco-related cancers.

  8. TPX2 in malignantly transformed human bronchial epithelial cells by anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lijuan; Huang He; Deng Luyao; Chu Ming; Xu Lan; Fu Juanling; Zhu Yunlan; Zhang Xiuchun; Liu Shulin; Zhou Zongcan; Wang Yuedan

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the function of the targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (Xklp2) (TPX2) in the malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by anti-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7, 8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide (anti-BPDE), TPX2 was characterized in cells at both the gene and the protein levels. TPX2 was present at higher levels in 16HBE-C cells than in 16HBE cells as demonstrated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunocytochemistry, Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. TPX2 was also detected in lung squamous-cell carcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry, but not in normal lung tissues. Depression of TPX2 by RNA interference in 16HBE-C cells led to a decrease in cell proliferation, S-phase cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Abnormal TPX2 tyrosine phosphorylation was detected in 16HBE-C cells, and this could be inhibited, to different degrees, by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation in 16HBE-C cells by three selected tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors, tyrphostin 47, AG112 and AG555, caused G 0 /G 1 -phase cell cycle arrest. Our results suggest that anti-BPDE can cause the over-expression of TPX2 and its aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation. Misregulation of TPX2 affects the cell cycle state, proliferation rates and apoptosis

  9. Hexavalent chromium, a lung carcinogen, confers resistance to thermal stress and interferes with heat shock protein expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Patrícia L; Cunha-Oliveira, Teresa; Ferreira, Leonardo M R; Urbano, Ana M

    2018-03-16

    Exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a lung carcinogen, triggers several types of cellular stresses, namely oxidative, genotoxic and proteotoxic stresses. Given the evolutionary character of carcinogenesis, it is tempting to speculate that cells that survive the stresses produced by this carcinogen become more resistant to subsequent stresses, namely those encountered during neoplastic transformation. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether pre-incubation with Cr(VI) increased the resistance of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) to the antiproliferative action of acute thermal shock, used here as a model for stress. In line with the proposed hypothesis, it was observed that, at mildly cytotoxic concentrations, Cr(VI) attenuated the antiproliferative effects of both cold and heat shock. Mechanistically, Cr(VI) interfered with the expression of two components of the stress response pathway: heat shock proteins Hsp72 and Hsp90α. Specifically, Cr(VI) significantly depleted the mRNA levels of the former and the protein levels of the latter. Significantly, these two proteins are members of heat shock protein (Hsp) families (Hsp70 and Hsp90, respectively) that have been implicated in carcinogenesis. Thus, our results confirm and extend previous studies showing the capacity of Cr(VI) to interfere with the expression of stress response components.

  10. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  11. Data Fusion Research of Triaxial Human Body Motion Gesture based on Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development status of human body motion gesture data fusion domestic and overseas has been analyzed. A triaxial accelerometer is adopted to develop a wearable human body motion gesture monitoring system aimed at old people healthcare. On the basis of a brief introduction of decision tree algorithm, the WEKA workbench is adopted to generate a human body motion gesture decision tree. At last, the classification quality of the decision tree has been validated through experiments. The experimental results show that the decision tree algorithm could reach an average predicting accuracy of 97.5 % with lower time cost.

  12. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xu [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dapeng [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yamanaka, Kenzo [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); An, Yan, E-mail: dranyan@126.com [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-12-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  13. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian; Yamanaka, Kenzo; An, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  14. SRC-mediated EGF Receptor Activation Regulates Ozone-induced Interleukin 8 Expression in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Human exposure to ozone (03) results in pulmonary function decrements and airway inflammation. The mechanisms underlying these adverse effects remain unclear. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation. ...

  15. Bronchial Thermoplasty in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Mitzner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the potential of a new procedure, termed Bronchial Thermoplasty to prevent serious consequences resulting from excessive airway narrowing. The most important factor in minimizing an asthmatic attack is limiting the degree of smooth muscle shortening. The premise that airway smooth muscle can be either inactivated or obliterated without any long-term alteration of other lung tissues, and that airway function will remain normal, albeit with reduced bronchoconstriction, has now been demonstrated in dogs, a subset of normal subjects, and mild asthmatics. Bronchial Thermoplasty may thus develop into a useful clinical procedure to effectively impair the ability for airway smooth muscle to reach the levels of pathologic narrowing that characterizes an asthma attack. It may also enable more successful treatment of asthma patients who are unresponsive to more conventional therapies. Whether this will remain stable for the lifetime of the patient still remains to be determined, but at the present time, there are no indications that the smooth muscle contractility will return. This successful preliminary experience showing that Bronchial Thermoplasty could be safely performed in patients with asthma has led to an ongoing clinical trial at a number of sites in Europe and North America designed to examine the effectiveness of this procedure in subjects with moderately severe asthma.

  16. DNA damage and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells following exposure to 2-nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone: role in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Elisabeth; Ovrevik, Johan; Arlt, Volker M; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H; Holme, Jørn A

    2011-11-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants found in diesel exhaust and on urban air pollution particles. In the present study, human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). DNA damage responses were compared to those observed after exposure to 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Examination by microscopy revealed that 3-NBA was the most potent toxic compound while weaker responses were observed with 1-NP and B[a]P. Most interestingly, 2-NBA did not induce cell death or any other stress-related responses. 3-NBA induced a typical apoptotic cell death judged by nuclear condensation and little plasma membrane damage as well as cleavage of caspase 3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Exposure to 3-NBA resulted in an accumulation of cells in S-phase, and further analysis by Western blotting, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry revealed that 3-NBA induced a DNA damage response characterized by phosphorylation of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), checkpoint kinase (Chk) 2/Chk1, H2AX and p53. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis while small effects were seen using pifithrin-μ, suggesting that 3-NBA-induced cell death is a result of transcriptional activation of p53. In conclusion, 3-NBA is a potent inducer of apoptosis, which seemed to be triggered by the DNA damage response. Furthermore, a change of the nitro-group to the second position (i.e. 2-NBA) dramatically changed the cellular reactivity of the compound.

  17. Use of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to study immunological markers resulting from exposure to PM2.5 organic extract from Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Rivera, Evasomary; Gioda, Adriana; Sanchez-Rivera, Diana; Roman-Velazquez, Felix R.; Jimenez-Velez, Braulio D.

    2010-01-01

    Fine particulate air pollutants, mainly their organic fraction, have been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular and respiratory health problems. Puerto Rico has been reported to have the highest prevalence of pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma) in the United States. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the immunological response of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to organic extracts isolated from airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in Puerto Rico. Organic extracts from PM 2.5 collected throughout an 8-month period (2000-2001) were pooled (composite) in order to perform chemical analysis and biological activity testing. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM 2.5 organic extract to assess cytotoxicity, levels of cytokines and relative gene expression of MHC-II, hPXR and CYP3A5. Our findings show that organic PM 2.5 consist of toxic as well as bioactive components that can regulate the secretion of cytokines in BEAS-2B, which could modulate inflammatory response in the lung. Trace element analyses confirmed the presence of metals in organic extracts highlighting the relative high abundance of Cu and Zn in polar organic extracts. Polar organic extracts exhibited dose-dependant toxicity and were found to significantly induce the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β and IL-7 while significantly inhibiting the secretion of IL-8, G-CSF and MCP-1. Moreover, MHC-II transcriptional activity was up-regulated after 24 h of exposure, whereas PXR and CYP3A5 were down-regulated. This research provides a new insight into the effects of PM 2.5 organic fractions on specific effectors and their possible role in the development of respiratory inflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico.

  18. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  19. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, Stéphane G.; Banner, David; Chi, Le Thi Bao; Leon, Alberto J.; Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi; Huang, Stephen S.H.; Farooqui, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development

  20. Cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles decrease arsenite (As(III)) cytotoxicity to 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao; Nguyen, Chi; Boitano, Scott; Field, Jim A; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2018-07-01

    The production and application of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are increasing in demand with the rapid development of nanotechnology. However, there are concerns that some of these novel materials could lead to emerging environmental and health problems. Some NPs are able to facilitate the transport of contaminants into cells/organisms via a "Trojan Horse" effect which enhances the toxicity of the adsorbed materials. In this work, we evaluated the toxicity of arsenite (As(III)) adsorbed onto cerium dioxide (CeO 2 ) NPs to human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) using the xCELLigence real time cell analyzing system (RTCA). Application of 0.5 mg/L As(III) resulted in 81.3% reduction of cell index (CI, an RTCA measure of cell toxicity) over 48 h when compared to control cells exposed to medium lacking As(III). However, when the cells were exposed to 0.5 mg/L As(III) in the presence of CeO 2 NPs (250 mg/L), the CI was only reduced by 12.9% compared to the control. The CeO 2 NPs had a high capacity for As(III) adsorption (20.2 mg/g CeO 2 ) in the bioassay medium, effectively reducing dissolved As(III) in the aqueous solution and resulting in reduced toxicity. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the transport of CeO 2 NPs into 16HBE14o- cells. NP uptake via engulfment was observed and the internalized NPs accumulated in vesicles. The results demonstrate that dissolved As(III) in the aqueous solution was the decisive factor controlling As(III) toxicity of 16HBE14o- cells, and that CeO 2 NPs effectively reduced available As(III) through adsorption. These data emphasize the evaluation of mixtures when assaying toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A single low dose of Fe ions can cause long-term biological responses in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qianlin; Wang, Jingdong; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying [Medical College of Soochow University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Wei [Soochow University, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2018-03-15

    Space radiation cancer risk may be a potential obstacle for long-duration spaceflight. Among all types of cancer space radiation may induce, lung cancer has been estimated to be the largest potential risk. Although previous animal study has shown that Fe ions, the most important contributor to the total dose equivalent of space radiation, induced a higher incidence of lung tumorigenesis per dose than X-rays, the underlying mechanisms at cellular level remained unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated long-term biological changes in NL20 human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to Fe ion or X-ray irradiation. We found that compared with sham control, the progeny of NL20 cells irradiated with 0.1 Gy of Fe ions showed slightly increased micronucleus formation, significantly decreased cell proliferation, disturbed cell cycle distribution, and obviously elevated intracellular ROS levels accompanied by reduced SOD1 and SOD2 expression, but the progeny of NL20 cells irradiated with 0.9 Gy of X-rays did not show any significant changes. More importantly, Fe ion exposure caused much greater soft-agar colony formation than X-rays did in the progeny of irradiated NL20 cells, clearly suggesting higher cell transformation potential of Fe ions compared with X-rays. These data may shed the light on the potential lung tumorigenesis risk from Fe ion exposure. In addition, ATM inhibition by Ku55933 reversed some of the changes in the progeny of Fe ion-irradiated cells but not others such as soft-agar colony formation, suggesting complex processes from DNA damage to carcinogenesis. These data indicate that even a single low dose of Fe ions can induce long-term biological responses such as cell transformation, etc., suggesting unignorable health risk from space radiation to astronauts. (orig.)

  2. A case of endobronchial lipoma mimicking bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevket Ozkaya

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sevket Ozkaya1, Hasan Demir1, Serhat Findik21Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun, TurkeyAbstract: Endobronchial lipoma is a rare neoplasm of the tracheobronchial tree and it may cause irreversible pulmonary damage due to recurrent pneumonia. Rarely, it may mimic bronchial asthma. We present a 53-year-old woman with an endobronchial lipoma, which had been treated as a bronchial asthma for four years. She also had developed recurrent pneumonia three times.Keywords: endobronchial lipoma, asthma, radiology, bronchoscopy

  3. Metapneumovirus humano (hMPV asociado con exacerbación de asma aguda bronquial severa Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV associated to severe bronchial asthmatic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. López

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El metapneumovirus humano (hMPV es un nuevo agente causal de infección aguda del tracto respiratorio, recientemente reportado tras su hallazgo en niños, jóvenes, adultos y ancianos. Las manifestaciones clínicas producidas por el hMPV son indistinguibles de aquellas provocadas por los virus respiratorios clásicamente conocidos, y varían desde infección asintomática hasta neumonía complicada. Por otro lado, se han descrito casos de exacerbación de asma bronquial asociados a la infección con hMPV. En este trabajo se describe el caso de un niño hospitalizado que presentó una crisis asmática bronquial severa con sospecha de una infección viral asociada. Por el test de inmunofluorescencia indirecta no se detectaron virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR, adenovirus, virus influenza a - b ni virus parainfluenza 1, 2 y 3. En un intento por detectar la presencia de hMPV, se realizó una RT-PCR para la amplificación de los genes N y F con resultado positivo. Conforme a nuestro conocimiento, esta sería la primera descripción de un caso de exacerbación de asma asociado a hMPV en nuestra región. Los resultados de este estudio serían similares a los reportados por otros autores, quienes postulan que, a semejanza de lo que ocurre con el VSR, una infección por hMPV puede gatillar una enfermedad respiratoria crónica, como el asma.Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV is a recently reported agent of acute infection in the respiratory tract. It has been found in children as well as in young adults and elders. The clinical manifestations produced by hMPV are indistinguishable from those by common respiratory virus, and can evolve from asymptomatic infection into severe pneumonia. On the other hand, some authors have described cases of bronchial asthma exacerbation associated with hMPV infection. In this work we report a case of a child who presented a severe bronchial asthmatic crisis with a suspected viral associated infection. Immunofluorescence tests

  4. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuejiao [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Jiaojiang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 518 Jingdong Rd., Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Wang, Shou-Lin, E-mail: wangshl@njmu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  5. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  6. Inflammatory effects induced by selected limonene oxidation products: 4-OPA, IPOH, 4-AMCH in human bronchial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsa, Dorelia; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Coelhan, Mehmet

    2016-11-16

    Limonene, a monoterpene abundantly present in most of the consumer products (due to its pleasant citrus smell), easily undergoes ozonolysis leading to several limonene oxidation products (LOPs) such as 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (4-AMCH), 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA) and 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanal (IPOH). Toxicological studies have indicated that human exposure to limonene and ozone can cause adverse airway effects. However, little attention has been paid to the potential health impact of specific LOPs, in particular of IPOH, 4-OPA and 4-AMCH. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects of the selected LOPs on human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar epithelial (A549) cell lines by generating concentration-response curves using the neutral red uptake assay and analyzing the inflammatory response with a series of cytokines/chemokines. The cellular viability was mostly reduced by 4-OPA [IC 50 =1.6mM (A549) and 1.45mM (16HBE14o-)] when compared to IPOH [IC 50 =3.5mM (A549) and 3.4mM (16HBE14o-)] and 4-AMCH [IC 50 could not be calculated]. As a result from the inflammatory response, IPOH [50μM] induced an increase of both IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in A549 (1.5-fold change) and in 16HBE14o- (2.8- and 7-fold change respectively). 4-OPA [50μM] treatment of A549 increased IL-6 (1.4-times) and IL-8 (1.3-times) levels, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. A549 treated with 4-AMCH [50μM] elevate both IL-6 and IL-8 levels by 1.2-times, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. Based on our results, lung cellular injury characterized by inflammatory cytokine release was observed for both cell lines treated with the selected chemicals at concentrations that did not affect their cellular viability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and human health in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoshi Hirabayashi; David J. Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Trees remove air pollutants through dry deposition processes depending upon forest structure, meteorology, and air quality that vary across space and time. Employing nationally available forest, weather, air pollution and human population data for 2010, computer simulations were performed for deciduous and evergreen trees with varying leaf area index for rural and...

  8. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components contribute to the mitochondria-antiapoptotic effect of fine particulate matter on human bronchial epithelial cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeza-Squiban Armelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are well-documented and related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies show that PM2.5 exposure is correlated with an increase of pulmonary cancers and the remodeling of the airway epithelium involving the regulation of cell death processes. Here, we investigated the components of Parisian PM2.5 involved in either the induction or the inhibition of cell death quantified by different parameters of apoptosis and delineated the mechanism underlying this effect. Results In this study, we showed that low levels of Parisian PM2.5 are not cytotoxic for three different cell lines and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Conversely, a 4 hour-pretreatment with PM2.5 prevent mitochondria-driven apoptosis triggered by broad spectrum inducers (A23187, staurosporine and oligomycin by reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, the subsequent ROS production, phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeabilization and typical morphological outcomes (cell size decrease, massive chromatin and nuclear condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies. The use of recombinant EGF and specific inhibitor led us to rule out the involvement of the classical EGFR signaling pathway as well as the proinflammatory cytokines secretion. Experiments performed with different compounds of PM2.5 suggest that endotoxins as well as carbon black do not participate to the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5. Instead, the water-soluble fraction, washed particles and organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH could mimic this antiapoptotic activity. Finally, the activation or silencing of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR showed that it is involved into the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5 at the mitochondrial checkpoint of apoptosis. Conclusions The PM2.5-antiapoptotic effect in addition

  10. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  11. Human impacts affect tree community features of 20 forest fragments of a vanishing neotropical hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Aldo Alves; de Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Miranda, Pedro L S; de Lemos Filho, José Pires

    2015-02-01

    The loss in forest area due to human occupancy is not the only threat to the remaining biodiversity: forest fragments are susceptible to additional human impact. Our aim was to investigate the effect of human impact on tree community features (species composition and abundance, and structural descriptors) and check if there was a decrease in the number of slender trees, an increase in the amount of large trees, and also a reduction in the number of tree species that occur in 20 fragments of Atlantic montane semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. We produced digital maps of each forest fragment using Landsat 7 satellite images and processed the maps to obtain morphometric variables. We used investigative questionnaires and field observations to survey the history of human impact. We then converted the information into scores given to the extent, severity, and duration of each impact, including proportional border area, fire, trails, coppicing, logging, and cattle, and converted these scores into categorical levels. We used linear models to assess the effect of impacts on tree species abundance distribution and stand structural descriptors. Part of the variation in floristic patterns was significantly correlated to the impacts of fire, logging, and proportional border area. Structural descriptors were influenced by cattle and outer roads. Our results provided, for the first time, strong evidence that tree species occurrence and abundance, and forest structure of Atlantic seasonal forest fragments respond differently to various modes of disturbance by humans.

  12. Competition for dead trees between humans and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in central eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rose T; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Irwin, Mitchell T

    2017-04-01

    The destruction and degradation of forest habitats are major threats to the sustainability of lemur populations in Madagascar. Madagascan landscapes often contain forest fragments that represent refuges for native fauna, while also being used for firewood and timber by local human populations. As undisturbed forest becomes increasingly scarce, understanding resource competition between humans and wildlife in disturbed habitats will be increasingly important. We tested the hypothesis that Malagasy and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) compete for the limited number of dead trees in rainforest fragments at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar. We surveyed 2.16 ha within five fragments (range 5-228 ha) surrounding human settlements to quantify the density of dead trees and traces of both human and aye-aye activity. Neither aye-aye nor human traces were distributed according to the availability of particular trees species, and aye-ayes and Malagasy apparently preferred several different species. Although overlap was recorded in tree species used, human use tended to be positively correlated with a species' desirability as firewood, while a negative relationship was seen for aye-ayes. Both consumers used trees of similar diameter at breast height, but those used by aye-ayes tended to be older, suggesting that human use might precede usefulness for aye-ayes. Finally, the density of dead trees and aye-aye traces were highest in smaller fragments, but human traces did not vary across fragment size. Although further study is needed to better quantify the aye-aye diet in this region, these data suggest that aye-ayes and local people compete for dead trees, and this competition could constitute a pressure on aye-aye populations.

  13. [Can obstructive bronchitis be a risk factor of bronchial asthma in infants and small children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowska, Joanna; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława

    2009-01-01

    One of more frequent reasons for hospitalizations concerning infants and small children are obstructive bronchitis. Great prevalence of bronchial tree obturation during infancy and in small children is a result of anatomical and functional differences of airways and immunological differences that occur in infants and small children. The most frequent cause of bronchial tree obturation is infection induced by viruses, rarely by bacteria. Recurrences of bronchial tree obturation are observed in some patients. Obturation recurrences can be caused by number of diseases that appear during infancy and in small children, for example cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. Also the presence of foreign body in the airways, immotile cilia syndrome, immunological disturbances, innate anomalies of the respiratory system and the circulatory system and bronchial asthma can result in obturation recurrences. Various clinical criteria are established and new markers of allergic inflammation are searched in view of difficulties to diagnose bronchial asthma in the youngest children. There are no unequivocal rules to diagnose bronchial asthma in infants and small children despite these searches.

  14. [Anesthesia in bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremerich, D H

    2000-09-01

    Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory airway disease in response to a wide variety of provoking stimuli. Characteristic clinical symptoms of asthma are bronchial hyperreactivity, reversible airway obstruction, wheezing and dyspnea. Asthma presents a major public health problem with increasing prevalence rates and severity worldwide. Despite major advances in our understanding of the clinical management of asthmatic patients, it remains a challenging population for anesthesiologists in clinical practice. The anesthesiologist's responsibility starts with the preoperative assessment and evaluation of the pulmonary function. For patients with asthma who currently have no symptoms, the risk of perioperative respiratory complications is extremely low. Therefore, pulmonary function should be optimized preoperatively and airway obstruction should be controlled by using steroids and bronchodilators. Preoperative spirometry is a simple means of assessing presence and severity of airway obstruction as well as the degree of reversibility in response to bronchodilator therapy. An increase of 15% in FEV1 is considered clinically significant. Most asymptomatic persons with asthma can safely undergo general anesthesia with and without endotracheal intubation. Volatile anesthetics are still recommended for general anesthetic techniques. As compared to barbiturates and even ketamine, propofol is considered to be the agent of choice for induction of anesthesia in asthmatics. The use of regional anesthesia does not reduce perioperative respiratory complications in asymptomatic asthmatics, whereas it is advantageous in symptomatic patients. Pregnant asthmatic and parturients undergoing anesthesia are at increased risk, especially if regional anesthetic techniques are not suitable and prostaglandin and its derivates are administered for abortion or operative delivery. Bronchial hyperreactivity associated with asthma is an important risk factor of perioperative bronchospasm. The

  15. Antioxidant ability and radiosensitivity in malignant transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D induced by α-particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Qiao; Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Su Xu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant ability and radiosensitivity in the malignant transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D induced by α-particle exposure. Methods: Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione (GSH) assay kits were employed to detect GPX and CAT enzyme abilities and the levels of GSH in BEP2D, RH21 (passage 21 of α-particle-irradiated BEP2D cells), and BERP35T-1 cells (derived from nude mice bearing malignant transformed cells generated from cells of passage 35 of α-particle-irradiated BEP2D cells). MTT assay were used to test the growth rate of BEP2D, RH21 and BERP35T-1 cells treated with 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μmoL/L H 2 O 2 . Colony-forming test and MTT assay were used to examine the cell survival fraction and the growth rate of BEP2D, RH21 and BERP35T-1 cells exposed to 0, 2, 4, and 8 Gy of γ-rays,respectively. Results: GPX and CAT enzyme activities in RH21 and BERP35T-1 cells were obviously lower than in BEP2D (t=5.75-67.92, P<0.05). CAT enzyme activity in BERP35T-1 was lower than that in RH21 cells (t=22.25, P<0.01). Compared to BEP2D cells, decreased level of GSH was detected in BERP35T-1 cells (t=7.76, P<0.05), but there was no change in RH21. After treatment with 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μmol/L H 2 O 2 , the growth rates of BEP2D were all higher than those of BERP35T-1 cells (t=10.37-58.36, P<0.01). Meanwhile,the growth rates of BEP2D were all higher than those of RH21 cells after treatment with 60, 90, 120, and 150 μ mol/L H 2 O 2 (t =29.90-84.68, P<0.01). In addition,compared to BEP2D cells,decreased cell survival fraction and growth rate of BERP35T-1 cells were observed after irradiation with 2, 4, and 8 Gy of y-rays (t=5.87-34.17, P<0.05). The cell survival fraction and growth rate of RH21 were all lower than those of BEP2D cells at 4 and 8 Gy post-irradiation (t=6.33- 45.00, P<0.05). Conclusion: The function of antioxidant system decreased in the α-particle-induced transformed cells

  16. Bronchial dosimeter for radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, T.K.; Yu, K.N.; Nikezic, D.; Haque, A.K.M.M. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Vucic, D. [Faculty of Technology, University of Nis, Lescovac (Yugoslavia)

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally, assessments of the bronchial dose from radon progeny were carried out by measuring the unattached fraction (f{sub p}) of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), the total PAEC, activity median diameters (AMDs) and equilibrium factor, and then using dosimetric lung models. A breakthrough was proposed by Hopke et al. (1990) to use multiple metal wire screens to mimic the deposition properties of radon progeny in the nasal (N) and tracheobronchial (T-B) regions directly. In particular, they were successful in using four layers of 400-mesh wire screens with a face velocity of 12 cm s{sup -1} for the simulation of radon progeny deposition in the T-B region. Oberstedt and Vanmarcke (1995) carried out precise calibrations for the system, and named the system as the 'bronchial dosimeter'. Based on these, Yu and Guan (1998) proposed a portable bronchial dosimeter similar to a normal measurement system for radon progeny or PAEC and consisted of only a single sampler and employed only one 400-mesh wire screen and one filter. However, all these 'bronchial dosimeters' in fact only determined the fraction of potential alpha energy from radon progeny deposited in the T-B region, which required certain assumptions and calculations to further give the final bronchial dose. In the present work, a true 'bronchial dosimeter' was designed, which consisted of three 400-mesh wire screens and a filter. With a face velocity of 11 cm s{sup -1}, the deposition pattern on the wire screens was found to satisfactorily match the variation of the dose conversion factor (in the unit of mSv/WLM) with the size of radon progeny from 1 to 1000 nm. In this way, this bronchial dosimeter directly gave the bronchial dose from the alpha counts recorded on the wire-screens and the filter paper. With the development of this bronchial dosimeter, the present practice of 'dose estimation' from large-scale radon surveys can be replaced by large

  17. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future.

  18. Recent tree cover increases in eastern China linked to low, declining human pressure, steep topography, and climatic conditions favoring tree growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Nüchel

    Full Text Available Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. Our results show that between the years 2000 and 2010 2,667,875 km2 experienced an increase in tree cover while 1,854,900 km2 experienced a decline in tree cover. The area experiencing ≥10% increase in tree cover is almost twice as large as the area with ≥10% drop in tree cover. There is a clear relation between topography and tree cover change with steeper and mid-elevation areas having a larger response on tree cover increase than other areas. Furthermore, human influence, change in population density, and actual evapotranspiration are also important factors in explaining where tree cover has changed. This study adds to the understanding of tree cover change in China, as it has focus on the entire eastern half of China on three different scales and how tree cover change is linked to topography and anthropogenic pressure. Though, our results show an increase in tree cover in China, this study emphasizes the importance of incorporating anthropogenic factors together with biodiversity protection into the reforestation and afforestation programs in the future.

  19. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.

  20. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Fragola, J.; Wreathall, J.

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations

  1. LncRNA MEG3 downregulation mediated by DNMT3b contributes to nickel malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells via modulating PHLPP1 transcription and HIF-1α translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Huang, C; Wang, J; Huang, H; Li, J; Xie, Q; Liu, Y; Zhu, J; Li, Y; Zhang, D; Zhu, Q; Huang, C

    2017-07-06

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key factors in various fundamental cellular biological processes, and many of them are likely to have functional roles in tumorigenesis. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 that encodes a lncRNA, and the decreased MEG3 expression has been reported in multiple cancer tissues. However, nothing is known about the alteration and role of MEG3 in environmental carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Our present study, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, discovered that environmental carcinogen nickel exposure led to MEG3 downregulation, consequently initiating c-Jun-mediated PHLPP1 transcriptional inhibition and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein translation upregulation, in turn resulting in malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. Mechanistically, MEG3 downregulation was attributed to nickel-induced promoter hypermethylation via elevating DNMT3b expression, whereas PHLPP1 transcriptional inhibition was due to the decreasing interaction of MEG3 with its inhibitory transcription factor c-Jun. Moreover, HIF-1α protein translation was upregulated via activating the Akt/p70S6K/S6 axis resultant from PHLPP1 inhibition in nickel responses. Collectively, we uncover that nickel exposure results in DNMT3b induction and MEG3 promoter hypermethylation and expression inhibition, further reduces its binding to c-Jun and in turn increasing c-Jun inhibition of PHLPP1 transcription, leading to the Akt/p70S6K/S6 axis activation, and HIF-1α protein translation, as well as malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. Our studies provide a significant insight into understanding the alteration and role of MEG3 in nickel-induced lung tumorigenesis.

  2. Tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces cell proliferation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells through NFκB activation and cyclin D1 up-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Y.-S.; Chen, Chien-Ho; Wang, Y.-J.; Pestell, Richard G.; Albanese, Chris; Chen, R.-J.; Chang, M.-C.; Jeng, J.-H.; Lin, S.-Y.; Liang, Y.-C.; Tseng, H.; Lee, W.-S.; Lin, J.-K.; Chu, J.-S.; Chen, L.-C.; Lee, C.-H.; Tso, W.-L.; Lai, Y.-C.; Wu, C.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains several carcinogens known to initiate and promote tumorigenesis as well as metastasis. Nicotine is one of the major components of the cigarette smoke and the 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a tobacco-specific carcinogen. Here, we demonstrated that NNK stimulated cell proliferation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Cells exposed to NNK resulted in an increase in the level of cyclin D1 protein (as early as 3-6 h). Increased phosphorylation of the Rb Ser 795 was detected at 6-15 h after NNK treatment and thereby promoted cells entering into the S phase (at 15-21 h). The increased cyclin D1 protein level was induced through activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kB (NFκB), in the NHBE cells. Treatment of the NHBE cells with PD98059, an ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase)-specific inhibitor, specifically suppressed the NNK-induced IκBα phosphorylation at position 32 of the serine residue, suggesting that the ERK1/2 kinase was involved in the IκBα phosphorylation induced by NFκB activation. To determine whether the NNK-induced NFκB activation and cyclin D1 induction were also observed in vivo, A/J mice were treated with NNK (9.1 mg) for 20 weeks and the results showed a significant induction of cyclin D1 and NFκB translocation determined by immunoblotting analyses. We further demonstrated that the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR), which contains the α3-subunit, was the major target mediating NNK-induced cyclin D1 expression in the NHBE cells. In summary, our findings demonstrate for the first time that NNK could stimulate normal human bronchial cell proliferation through activation of the NFκB, which in turn up-regulated the cyclin D1 expression

  3. Processing bronchial sonograms to detect respiratory cycle fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureev, A Sh; Zhdanov, D S; Zemlyakov, I Yu; Svetlik, M V

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the authors' results of work on the development of a method for the automated assessment of the state of the human bronchopulmonary system based on acoustic data. In particular, the article covers the method of detecting breath sounds on bronchial sonograms obtained during the auscultation process

  4. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    A study on obstructive changes in airways and mucociliary clearance in children and youth with bronchial asthma was performed. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphies using 99T c-human serum albumin (HSA) were applied to 50 children and youth with bronchial asthma. The deposition patterns of the radioaerosol and aerosol clearance curves were evaluated. Abnormal deposition patterns, which consisted of non-homogeneous distribution and/or hot spot formation, were likely to be seen in patients with asthmatic attacks at the time of measurements. However, a few asymptomatic patients also revealed abnormal deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were related to FEV 1.0 %, MMF, V 50 and V 25 , but especially to FEV 1.0 %. As an index of mucociliary clearance, β, the rate constant of the 99m Tc-HSA aerosol clearance curve, was introduced. β was significantly lower in patients with abnormal aerosol deposition patterns than in normal persons. β was also significantly lower in patients undergoing asthmatic attack at the time of the measurements than in asymptomatic patients. β correlated negatively with FEV 1.0 %, MMF, V 50 and V 25 , but especially with FEV 1.0 %. Although patients with long term affection or moderate-to-severe asthma tended to reveal abnormal deposition patterns and had low β values, these differences were not statistically significant. Radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy with 99m Tc-HSA is useful for evaluating not only obstructive changes in the airways but also for evaluating mucociliary clearance in children with bronchial asthma. (author)

  5. Physiotherapy and bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, CP; Postma, DS; Koeter, GH; Rubin, BK

    Cough and expectoration of mucus are the best-known symptoms in patients with pulmonary disease, The most applied intervention for these symptoms is the use of chest physiotherapy to increase bronchial mucus transport and reduce retention of mucus in the airways, Chest physiotherapy interventions

  6. The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.; Olff, H.; Parren, M.P.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Aim Tropical rain forests are often regarded as pristine and undisturbed by humans. In Central Africa, community-wide disturbances by natural causes are rare and therefore current theory predicts that natural gap phase dynamics structure tree species composition and diversity. However, the dominant

  7. The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, Barend S. van; Olff, Han; Parren, Marc P.E.; Bongers, Frans

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Tropical rain forests are often regarded as pristine and undisturbed by humans. In Central Africa, community-wide disturbances by natural causes are rare and therefore current theory predicts that natural gap phase dynamics structure tree species composition and diversity. However, the dominant

  8. Quantifying human and organizational factors in accident management using decision trees: the HORAAM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumont, G.; Menage, F.; Schneiter, J.R.; Spurgin, A.; Vogel, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Study (PSA 2) project, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for taking into account Human and Organizational Reliability Aspects during accident management. Actions are taken during very degraded installation operations by teams of experts in the French framework of Crisis Organization (ONC). After describing the background of the framework of the Level 2 PSA, the French specific Crisis Organization and the characteristics of human actions in the Accident Progression Event Tree, this paper describes the method developed to introduce in PSA the Human and Organizational Reliability Analysis in Accident Management (HORAAM). This method is based on the Decision Tree method and has gone through a number of steps in its development. The first one was the observation of crisis center exercises, in order to identify the main influence factors (IFs) which affect human and organizational reliability. These IFs were used as headings in the Decision Tree method. Expert judgment was used in order to verify the IFs, to rank them, and to estimate the value of the aggregated factors to simplify the quantification of the tree. A tool based on Mathematica was developed to increase the flexibility and the efficiency of the study

  9. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-02-01

    Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). Objective: To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. Methods: The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. Results: In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Conclusions: Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients.

  11. The tomography of human mobility - what do shortest-path trees reveal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiemann, Christian [Eng. Sci. and Appl. Math, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Max-Planck-Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Goettingen (Germany); Grady, Daniel; Brockmann, Dirk [Eng. Sci. and Appl. Math, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Similar to illustrating the anatomy of organs using pictures of tissue slices taken at various depths, we construct shortest-path trees of different nodes to create tomograms of large-scale human mobility networks. This tomography allows us to measure global properties of the system conditioned on a reference location in the network to gain a fuller characterization of a node. It also suggests a canonical coordinate system for representing complex networks and dynamical processes thereon in a simplified way, revealing a new symmetry in the human mobility networks we investigated. Furthermore, introducing the notion of tree similarity, we devised a new technique for clustering nodes with similar topological footprint, yielding a unique and efficient method for community identification and topological backbone extraction. We applied these methods to a multi-scale human mobility network obtained from the dollar-bill-tracking site wheresgoerge.com and to the U.S. and world-wide air transportation network.

  12. Bronchial arteries: anatomy, function, hypertrophy, and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Kunin, Jeffrey R; Wible, Brandt C

    2015-01-01

    The two main sources of blood supply to the lungs and their supporting structures are the pulmonary and bronchial arteries. The bronchial arteries account for 1% of the cardiac output but can be recruited to provide additional systemic circulation to the lungs in various acquired and congenital thoracic disorders. An understanding of bronchial artery anatomy and function is important in the identification of bronchial artery dilatation and anomalies and the formulation of an appropriate differential diagnosis. Visualization of dilated bronchial arteries at imaging should alert the radiologist to obstructive disorders that affect the pulmonary circulation and prompt the exclusion of diseases that produce or are associated with pulmonary artery obstruction, including chronic infectious and/or inflammatory processes, chronic thromboembolic disease, and congenital anomalies of the thorax (eg, proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery). Conotruncal abnormalities, such as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, are associated with systemic pulmonary supply provided by aortic branches known as major aortopulmonary collaterals, which originate in the region of the bronchial arteries. Bronchial artery malformation is a rare left-to-right or left-to-left shunt characterized by an anomalous connection between a bronchial artery and a pulmonary artery or a pulmonary vein, respectively. Bronchial artery interventions can be used successfully in the treatment of hemoptysis, with a low risk of adverse events. Multidetector computed tomography helps provide a vascular road map for the interventional radiologist before bronchial artery embolization. RSNA, 2015

  13. Bronchial arterial RI-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazono, Nobuaki; Inoue, Hiroki; Kanetsuki, Ichiro; Takeshita, Tuyoshi; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Takaaki; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajo, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen bronchial arterial perfusion studies were performed in a total of 13 patients with lung tumors (11 cases of lung cancer, one metastatic tumor and one abscess), utilizing 99m TcO 4 - or 99m Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin ( 99m Tc-MAA). Regions of interest (ROI) of the same size were set over areas of tumor, the mediastinum and healthy lung areas, and each ROI count was calculated by a nuclear medicine computer during an acquisition time period of 20 min with each tracer for 7 min to evaluate tumor part perfusion. The count ratios of tumor to healthy parts ranged from 1.7 to 6.5 (mean±s.d.; 3.8±1.9) in the 99m TcO 4 - group (10 patients) and from 130 to 230 (mean±s.d.; 163±30) in the 99m Tc-MAA group (3 patients), respectively. Tumor reduction rates 2 weeks after CDDP bronchial artery infusion therapy correlated positively to the count ratio in the 99m TcO 4 - lung cancer group, although significant correlation was not obtained. This study suggests that bronchial arterial infusion of anticancer agents may result in higher concentrations of anticancer agents in the tumors than with systemic chemotherapy and chemoembolic materials may exert more potent anticancer effects on tumors than nonparticulated anticancer agents. (author)

  14. Social networks and bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Liccardi, Gennaro; D'Amato, Maria; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    To focus on both positive and negative aspects of the interaction between asthmatic patients and the social networks, and to highlight the need of a psychological approach in some individuals to integrate pharmacological treatment is the purpose of review. There is evidence that in some asthmatic patients, the excessive use of social networks can induce depression and stress triggering bronchial obstruction, whereas in others their rational use can induce beneficial effects in terms of asthma management. The increasing asthma prevalence in developed countries seen at the end of last century has raised concern for the considerable burden of this disease on society as well as individuals. Bronchial asthma is a disease in which psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing the severity of bronchial obstruction. Internet and, in particular, social media are increasingly a part of daily life of both young and adult people, thus allowing virtual relationships with peers sharing similar interests and goals. Although social network users often disclose more about themselves online than they do in person, there might be a risk for adolescents and for sensitive individuals, who can be negatively influenced by an incorrect use. However, although some studies show an increased risk of depression, other observations suggest beneficial effects of social networks by enhancing communication, social connection and self-esteem.

  15. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Ling, Min; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu; Bian, Qian; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT

  16. Cadmium, cobalt and lead cause stress response, cell cycle deregulation and increased steroid as well as xenobiotic metabolism in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells which is coordinated by at least nine transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glahn, Felix; Wiese, Jan; Foth, Heidi [Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Halle/Saale (Germany); Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Guthke, Reinhard [Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute, Jena (Germany); Zellmer, Sebastian; Gebhardt, Rolf [University of Leipzig, Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Leipzig (Germany); Golka, Klaus; Degen, Gisela H.; Hermes, Matthias; Schormann, Wiebke; Brulport, Marc; Bauer, Alexander; Bedawy, Essam [IfADo, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund (Germany); Hergenroeder, Roland [ISAS, Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund (Germany); Lehmann, Thomas [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hengstler, Jan G. [IfADo, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Workers occupationally exposed to cadmium, cobalt and lead have been reported to have increased levels of DNA damage. To analyze whether in vivo relevant concentrations of heavy metals cause systematic alterations in RNA expression patterns, we performed a gene array study using primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were incubated with 15{mu}g/l Cd(II), 25{mu}g/l Co(II) and 550{mu}g/l Pb(II) either with individual substances or in combination. Differentially expressed genes were filtered out and used to identify enriched GO categories as well as KEGG pathways and to identify transcription factors whose binding sites are enriched in a given set of promoters. Interestingly, combined exposure to Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) caused a coordinated response of at least seven stress response-related transcription factors, namely Oct-1, HIC1, TGIF, CREB, ATF4, SRF and YY1. A stress response was further corroborated by up regulation of genes involved in glutathione metabolism. A second major response to heavy metal exposure was deregulation of the cell cycle as evidenced by down regulation of the transcription factors ELK-1 and the Ets transcription factor GABP, as well as deregulation of genes involved in purine and pyrimidine metabolism. A third and surprising response was up regulation of genes involved in steroid metabolism, whereby promoter analysis identified up regulation of SRY that is known to play a role in sex determination. A forth response was up regulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, particularly of dihydrodiol dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (AKR1C1, AKR1C2). Incubations with individual heavy metals showed that the response of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 was predominantly caused by lead. In conclusion, we have shown that in vivo relevant concentrations of Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) cause a complex and coordinated response in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. This study gives an overview of the most responsive genes. (orig.)

  17. Historical human footprint on modern tree species composition in the Purus-Madeira interfluve, central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Levis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Native Amazonian populations managed forest resources in numerous ways, often creating oligarchic forests dominated by useful trees. The scale and spatial distribution of forest modification beyond pre-Columbian settlements is still unknown, although recent studies propose that human impact away from rivers was minimal. We tested the hypothesis that past human management of the useful tree community decreases with distance from rivers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In six sites, we inventoried trees and palms with DBH≥10 cm and collected soil for charcoal analysis; we also mapped archaeological evidence around the sites. To quantify forest manipulation, we measured the relative abundance, richness and basal area of useful trees and palms. We found a strong negative exponential relationship between forest manipulation and distance to large rivers. Plots located from 10 to 20 km from a main river had 20-40% useful arboreal species, plots between 20 and 40 km had 12-23%, plots more than 40 km had less than 15%. Soil charcoal abundance was high in the two sites closest to secondary rivers, suggesting past agricultural practices. The shortest distance between archaeological evidence and plots was found in sites near rivers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results strongly suggest that past forest manipulation was not limited to the pre-Columbian settlements along major rivers, but extended over interfluvial areas considered to be primary forest today. The sustainable use of Amazonian forests will be most effective if it considers the degree of past landscape domestication, as human-modified landscapes concentrate useful plants for human sustainable use and management today.

  18. Cold temperature induces mucin hypersecretion from normal human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro through a transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8)-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, MinChao; Li, Qi; Yang, Gang; Kolosov, Victor P; Perelman, Juliy M; Zhou, Xiang Dong

    2011-09-01

    Cold air stimulus is a major environmental factor that exacerbates chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. At the molecular level, cold is detected by transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). To date, TRPM8 expression has not been characterized in the airway epithelium of patients with COPD. The role of TRPM8 channels in a series of airway responses induced by cold stimuli and the molecular and biochemical pathways of TRPM8 in regulating cold-induced responses are largely unknown. We sought to explore the role of TRPM8 in cold air-provoked mucus hypersecretion and the potential signaling pathway involved in this process. The expression of TRPM8 in the bronchial epithelium was examined by means of immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. TRPM8 receptor function and hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) were characterized by means of Ca(2+) imaging and spatiotemporal dynamics of phospholipase C (PLC) δ1-pleckstrin homology-green fluorescent protein, respectively. The expression of MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC mucin protein was measured by using real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Four serine residues in the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS)-phosphorylation site domain were mutated to identify the function of MARCKS in TRPM8-mediated airway mucus hypersecretion. TRPM8 protein and mRNA expression were significantly increased in patients with COPD compared with expression seen in healthy subjects. Cold produced robust increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels and promoted translocation of PLCδ1-pleckstrin homology-green fluorescent protein. Cold increased expression of MUC5AC mRNA and intracellular and secreted MUC5AC protein in a nonsustained way. Phosphorylation site domain-mutant MARCKS cDNA hindered MUC5AC secretion induced by cold. These results indicate that the TRPM8 receptor is involved in cold-induced mucus hypersecretion through the Ca(2

  19. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Fumikazu; Fujimura, Mikihiko; Kimura, Fumiko; Fujimura, Kaori; Hayano, Toshio; Nishii, Noriko; Machida, Haruhiko; Toda, Jo; Saito, Naoko

    2002-01-01

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  20. Human Factors Reliability Analysis for Assuring Nuclear Safety Using Fuzzy Fault Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisawy, E.A.-F. I.; Sallam, H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure effective prevention of harmful events, the risk assessment process cannot ignore the role of humans in the dynamics of accidental events and thus the seriousness of the consequences that may derive from them. Human reliability analysis (HRA) involves the use of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the human contribution to risk. HRA techniques have been developed in order to provide human error probability values associated with operators’ tasks to be included within the broader context of system risk assessment, and are aimed at reducing the probability of accidental events. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a graphical model that displays the various combinations of equipment failures and human errors that can result in the main system failure of interest. FTA is a risk analysis technique to assess likelihood (in a probabilistic context) of an event. The objective data available to estimate the likelihood is often missing, and even if available, is subject to incompleteness and imprecision or vagueness. Without addressing incompleteness and imprecision in the available data, FTA and subsequent risk analysis give a false impression of precision and correctness that undermines the overall credibility of the process. To solve this problem, qualitative justification in the context of failure possibilities can be used as alternative for quantitative justification. In this paper, we introduce the approach of fuzzy reliability as solution for fault tree analysis drawbacks. A new fuzzy fault tree method is proposed for the analysis of human reliability based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy operations t-norms, co-norms, defuzzification, and fuzzy failure probability. (author)

  1. The studies of DNA double-strand break (DSB) rejoining and mRNA expression of repair gene XRCCs in malignant transformed cell lines of human bronchial epithelial cells generated by α-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingfen; Sui Jianli; Geng Yu; Zhou Pingkun; Wu Dechang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficiency of γ-ray-induced DNA DSB rejoining and the mRNA expression of DNA repair genes in malignantly transformed cell lines of human bronchial epithelial cells generated by exposure to a-particles. Methods: Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to detect DNA. DSBs mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results: The residual DNA DSB damage level after 4hrs repair following 0-150 Gy of γ-irradiation in the malignantly transformed cell lines BERP35T-1 and BERP35T-4 was significantly higher than that in their parental BEP2D cells. The analysis of mRNA level revealed a 2.5-to 6.5-fold down-regulated expression of the DNA repair genes XRCC-2, XRCC-3 and Ku80 (XRCC-5) in BERP35T-1 and BERP35T-4 cells as compared with the parental BEP2D cells. In contrast, the expression of DNA-PKcs(XRCC7) was 2.4-fold up-regulated in the transformed cell line BERP35T-4, in which there was a significantly higher proportion of polyploid cells. Conclusion: This study results show that the deficiency of DNA DSB rejoining and depressed mRNA expression of DNA repair genes could be involved in the malignant transformation process of BEP2D cells induced by exposure to α-particles

  2. Toxicological Impact of Air Pollution Particulate Matter PM 2.5 Collected under Urban Industrial or Rural Influence Occurrence of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction in BEAS 2B Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Corrected Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dergham, M.; Billet, S; Verdin, A.; Courcot, D.; Cazier, F.; Pirouz, Sh.; Garcon, G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution Particulate Matter (PM) is one of the risk factors involved in the high incidence of respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. In this work, to integrate inter-seasonal and inter-site variations, fine particle (PM2.5) samples have been collected in spring-summer 2008) and autumn 2008-winter 2009, in Dunkerque (France) under urban or industrial influence, and in Rubrouck (France), under rural influence. Attention was paid to characterize their physico-chemical characteristics, and to determine their ability to induce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B cell line). Physico-chemical characterization of the six PM samples showed their heterogeneities and complexities depending upon their respective natural and/or anthropogenic emission sources. Lung cytotoxicity of these air pollution PM2.5 samples, as shown in BEAS-2B cells, might rely on the induction of oxidative stress conditions and particularly on the excessive inflammatory response. (author)

  3. Regional deposition of thoron progeny in models of the human tracheobronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.M.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi.

    1995-01-01

    Models of the human tracheobronchial tree have been used to determine total and regional aerosol deposition of inhaled particles. Particle sizes measured in these studies have all been > 40 nm in diameter. The deposition of aerosols < 40 nm in diameter has not been measured. Particles in the ultrafine aerosol size range include some combustion aerosols and indoor radon progeny. Also, the influence of reduced lung size and airflow rates on particle deposition in young children has not been determined. With their smaller lung size and smaller minute volumes, children may be at increased risk from ultrafine pollutants. In order to accurately determine dose of inhaled aerosols, the effects of particle size, minute volume, and age at exposure must be quantified. The purpose of this study was to determine the deposition efficiency of ultrafine aerosols smaller than 40 nm in diameter in models of the human tracheobronchia tree. This study demonstrates that the deposition efficiency of aerosols in the model of the child's tracheobronchial tree may be slightly higher than in the adult models

  4. Regional deposition of thoron progeny in models of the human tracheobronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.M.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1995-12-01

    Models of the human tracheobronchial tree have been used to determine total and regional aerosol deposition of inhaled particles. Particle sizes measured in these studies have all been > 40 nm in diameter. The deposition of aerosols < 40 nm in diameter has not been measured. Particles in the ultrafine aerosol size range include some combustion aerosols and indoor radon progeny. Also, the influence of reduced lung size and airflow rates on particle deposition in young children has not been determined. With their smaller lung size and smaller minute volumes, children may be at increased risk from ultrafine pollutants. In order to accurately determine dose of inhaled aerosols, the effects of particle size, minute volume, and age at exposure must be quantified. The purpose of this study was to determine the deposition efficiency of ultrafine aerosols smaller than 40 nm in diameter in models of the human tracheobronchia tree. This study demonstrates that the deposition efficiency of aerosols in the model of the child`s tracheobronchial tree may be slightly higher than in the adult models.

  5. [Cytomorphological analysis of remodeling of the bronchial wall in different types of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereng, E A; Sukhodolo, I V; Pleshko, R I; Ogorodova, L M; Selivanova, P A; Dziuman, A N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to search for the tissue and cellular markers of remodeling of bronchial mucosa in the patients with different clinical forms of bronchial asthma (BA). The use of up-to-date morphometric techniques has demonstrated that mild and moderately severe forms of bronchial asthma are accompanied by the development of Th2-immune response associated with increased production of interleukin-4 and marked degranulation of eosinophilic granulocytes resulting in desquamation of epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia. The severe BA phenotype of "chronic asthma with fixed obstruction" is associated with the development of non-atopic inflammation in the bronchial mucous membrane that manifests itself as the increased concentration of interleukin-8 in bronchial mucosa and its neutrophilic infiltration leading to the development of pronounced subepithelial fibrosis, thickening of the basal membrane, and atrophy of epithelium. Specific structural changes in bronchial mucosa of the patients presenting with BA underlie functional disturbances that cause severe bronchial obstructive syndrome.

  6. BRONCHIAL FRACTURE FOLLOWING BLUNT CHEST TRAUMA*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-01-02

    Jan 2, 1971 ... reversal of bronchiectasis after re-anastomosing the two bronchial ends, it is felt that this is the exception rather than the rule. Coxatto and Lanari," in their study of the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis, feel that where there is complete obstruction to the distal bronchus, bronchial secretion will cease before ...

  7. RATIONALE FOR A SPECIFIC THERAPY OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Suprun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We propose a protocol of treatment in cases of bronchial asthma with cytomegalovirus (CMV persistence. This basic therapy is administered depending on the disease severity, according to the National Programme 2009. The treatment includes administration of human immunoglobulin, with dosage according on CMV antibodies titers. The study has revealed that such regimen of antibody administration based on the content of anti-CMV antibodies in bronchial asthma treatment stops active CMV replication in bronchial mucous membrane, alleviates clinical course of the disease, diminishes changes of immune system typical to children suffering from bronchial asthma and CMV reactivation, thus allowing to reduce the volume of basic therapy, along with maintaining control of asthma control.

  8. Assessing the relative importance of isolated Ficus trees to insectivorous birds in an Indian human-modified tropical landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Bregman, Tom P.

    2017-01-01

    The destruction of forest for agricultural expansion has created a vast estate of human-modified land in tropical regions. One group of organisms that are particularly vulnerable to the loss of forest habitat are insectivorous birds. Despite this, few conservation strategies have been identified...... for this group in human-modified landscapes. We survey the use of 104 isolated trees by insectivorous birds in rural Assam, India. We used an information theoretic model comparison approach to determine the important variables driving insectivorous bird diversity within these isolated trees. Our work...... demonstrates that the conservation of large trees in human-modified landscapes may play an important role in maintaining bird diversity and ecological function beyond the forest edge. More specifically, we found that isolated Ficus trees hold assemblages with particularly high insectivore abundance, richness...

  9. In vivo microscopic imaging of the bronchial mucosa using an endo-cytoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Fujiwara, Taiki; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Alaa, Mohamed; Chiyo, Masako; Nakajima, Takahiro; Hoshino, Hidehisa; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Nakatani, Yukio; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the capabilities of an endo-cytoscopy system (ECS) that enables microscopic imaging of the tracheobronchial tree during bronchoscopy, including normal bronchial epithelium, dysplastic mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma. The newly developed ECS has a 3.2 mm diameter that can be passed through the 4.2 mm working channel of a mother endoscope for insertion of the ECS. It has a high magnification of 570× on a 17 in. video monitor. Twenty-two patients (7 squamous cell carcinoma, 11 squamous dysplasia and 4 after PDT therapies) were underwent white light, NBI light and AFI bronchoscopy. Both abnormal areas of interest and normal bronchial mucosa were stained with 0.5% methylene blue and examined with ECS at high magnification (570×). Histological examinations using haematoxylin and eosin staining were made of biopsied specimens. Analyzed ECS images were compared with the corresponding histological examinations. In normal bronchial mucosa, ciliated columnar epithelial cells were visible. In bronchial squamous dysplasia, superficial cells with abundant cytoplasm were arranged regularly. In squamous cell carcinoma, large, polymorphic tumor cells showed increased cellular densities with irregular stratified patterns. These ECS images corresponded well with the light-microscopic examination of conventional histology. ECS was useful for the discrimination between normal bronchial epithelial cells and dysplastic cells or malignant cells during bronchoscopy in real time. This novel technology has an excellent potential to provide in vivo diagnosis during bronchoscopic examinations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Thoracic surgery for patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoda, A; Satoh, Y

    2012-07-01

    Thoracic surgery poses a risk for complications in the respiratory system. In particular, for patients with bronchial asthma, we need to care for perioperative complications because it is well known that these patients frequently have respiratory complications after surgery, and they may have bronchial spasms during surgery. If we can get good control of their bronchial asthma, we can usually perform surgery for these patients without limitations. For safe postoperative care, it is desirable that these patients have stable asthma conditions that are well-controlled before surgery, as thoracic surgery requires intrabronchial intubation for anesthesia and sometimes bronchial resection. These stimulations to the bronchus do not provide for good conditions because of the risk of bronchial spasm. Therefore, we should use the same agents that are used to control bronchial asthma if it is already well controlled. If it is not, we have to administer a β₂ stimulator, aminophylline, or steroidal agents for good control. Isoflurane or sevoflurane are effective for the safe control of anesthesia during surgery, and we should use a β₂ stimulator, with or without inhalation, or steroidal agents after surgery. It is important to understand that we can perform thoracic surgery for asthma patients if we can provide perioperative control of bronchial asthma, although these patients still have severe risks.

  11. Classification, staging and radiotherapy of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordijk, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis reports a study performed to evaluate the stage classification of bronchial carcinoma published by Thomas in 1963. The study was done in the radiotherapy department of a teaching hospital, and had three parts: a comparative analysis of the classifications and stage divisions described in the literature on bronchial carcinoma; an evaluation of the theoretical basis of the classification system introduced by Thomas as well as of the practical applicability of the division into stages, with respect to the assessment of the prognosis and the choice of therapy; and an analysis of various aspects of irradiation as well as of a number of prognostic factors in bronchial carcinoma. (Auth.)

  12. The accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in biphasic effects induced by different levels of arsenite in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuan; Li, Yuan; Li, Huiqiao; Pang, Ying; Zhao, Yue; Jiang, Rongrong; Shen, Lu; Zhou, Jianwei; Wang, Xinru; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-01-01

    The biphasic effects of arsenite, in which low levels of arsenite induce cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite induce DNA damage and apoptosis, apparently contribute to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of different levels of arsenite on cell proliferation, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as on signal transduction pathways in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Our results show that a low level of arsenite activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), which probably mediate arsenite-inhibited degradation of ubiquitinated hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in HBE cells. ERK inhibition blocks cell proliferation induced by a low level of arsenite, in part via HIF-2α. In contrast, a high level of arsenite activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), which provoke a response to suppress ubiquitinated HIF-1α degradation. Down-regulation of HIF-1α by inhibiting JNK, however, increases the DNA damage but decreases the apoptosis induced by a high level of arsenite. Thus, data in the present study suggest that the accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in different levels of arsenite-induced biphasic effects, with low levels of arsenite inducing cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite inducing DNA damage and apoptosis in HBE cells. -- Highlights: ► Biphasic effects induced by different concentrations of arsenite. ► Different regulation of ERK or JNK signal pathway by arsenite. ► Different regulation of HIF1α or HIF 2α by arsenite.

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of African urban aerosols (Abidjan in Cote d'Ivoire and Cotonou in Benin) and their toxic effects in human bronchial epithelial cells during the dry season 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adon, Jacques; Liousse, Cathy; Yoboue, Veronique; Baeza, Armelle; Akpo, Aristide; Bahino, Julien; Chiron, Christelle; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Keita, Sékou

    2017-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the WP2-DACCIWA program with the aim to characterize particulate pollution on domestic fire site, traffic sites and waste burning site of two West-African capitals (Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire and Cotonou, Benin) and to study aerosol biological impacts on lung inflammation. Such an impact is still largely unknown, especially for the particles emitted by intense African traffic sources and domestic fires. In this context, fundamental research of this study is centered on the following key scientific question: what is the link between aerosol size differentiated composition and inflammation markers for the main combustion sources prevailing in South West Africa during dry and wet seasons? To tackle this question, intensive campaigns in Abidjan and Cotonou have been conducted in July 2015, January and July 2016, and January 2017. In this paper, we will present our first results for the campaign of January 2016. In terms of aerosol size differentiated composition, main aerosol components (mass, black carbon, organic carbon, water soluble particles ...) were measured. We may notice that PM measured for all the sites is generally higher than WHO norms. Organic carbon and dust particles are the two more important contributors for the ultra-fine and fine particle sizes with more organic carbon in Abidjan and dust particles in Cotonou respectively. In terms of in vitro biological studies on sampled aerosols on these sites, size-fractionated PM from the different sampling sites were compared for their ability to induce a proinflammatory response characterized by the release of the cytokine IL-6 by human bronchial epithelial cells. PM from waste burning site did not induce significant IL-6 release whatever the size fraction whereas PM from domestic fire were the most reactive especially the ultra-fine fraction. Ultra-fine particles from traffic (Abidjan and Cotonou) always induced a dose-dependent IL-6 release. A tentative cross-analysis between

  14. Impacts of Human Activities on Tree Species Composition Along the Forest Savanna Boundary in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Ndidi Egbinola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the tree species composition along the forest-savanna boundary in Oyo state of Nigeria with the aim of assessing the impact of human activities on the floristic composition. A transect was placed along the study area and species data was collected from quadrats placed in study plots within different study sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA was used to determine vegetation assemblages, while both correlation and the analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to show the relationship between species in the different study sites. Results of the DCA revealed three species assemblages, an area with only forest species, another with only savanna species and a third with both forest/savanna species. ANOVA results further revealed that within the forest and savanna assemblages, species in mature and successional sites were alike. The study therefore revealed that human activities’ within the region is leading to the establishment of savanna species and an elimination of forest species.

  15. A hybrid method for airway segmentation and automated measurement of bronchial wall thickness on CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Mansoor, Awais; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory and infectious lung diseases commonly involve bronchial airway structures and morphology, and these abnormalities are often analyzed non-invasively through high resolution computed tomography (CT) scans. Assessing airway wall surfaces and the lumen are of great importance for diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, obtaining high accuracy from a complete 3-D airway tree structure can be quite challenging. The airway tree structure has spiculated shapes with multiple branches and bifurcation points as opposed to solid single organ or tumor segmentation tasks in other applications, hence, it is complex for manual segmentation as compared with other tasks. For computerized methods, a fundamental challenge in airway tree segmentation is the highly variable intensity levels in the lumen area, which often causes a segmentation method to leak into adjacent lung parenchyma through blurred airway walls or soft boundaries. Moreover, outer wall definition can be difficult due to similar intensities of the airway walls and nearby structures such as vessels. In this paper, we propose a computational framework to accurately quantify airways through (i) a novel hybrid approach for precise segmentation of the lumen, and (ii) two novel methods (a spatially constrained Markov random walk method (pseudo 3-D) and a relative fuzzy connectedness method (3-D)) to estimate the airway wall thickness. We evaluate the performance of our proposed methods in comparison with mostly used algorithms using human chest CT images. Our results demonstrate that, on publicly available data sets and using standard evaluation criteria, the proposed airway segmentation method is accurate and efficient as compared with the state-of-the-art methods, and the airway wall estimation algorithms identified the inner and outer airway surfaces more accurately than the most widely applied methods, namely full width at half maximum and phase congruency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene inhibit catalase activity and induce expression of oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christopher H; Catallo, W James; Wilson, Vincent L; Mitchell, James B

    2009-10-01

    1,3-Butadiene, an important petrochemical, is commonly burned off when excess amounts need to be destroyed. This combustion process produces butadiene soot (BDS), which is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates ranging in size from enzyme inactivation due to protein amino acid oxidation and (2) induce oxidative DNA damage in NHBE cells. Thus, our aims were to determine the effect of butadiene soot ethanol extract (BSEE) on both enzyme activity and the expression of proteins involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Catalase was found to be sensitive to BDS as catalase activity was potently diminished in the presence of BSEE. Using Western analysis, both the alpha isoform of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (alpha-hOGG1) and human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE-1) were shown to be significantly overexpressed as compared to untreated controls after exposure of NHBE cells to BSEE. Our results indicate that BSEE is capable of effectively inactivating the antioxidant enzyme catalase, presumably via oxidation of protein amino acids. The presence of oxidized biomolecules may partially explain the extranuclear fluorescence that is detected when NHBE cells are treated with an organic extract of BDS. Overexpression of both alpha-hOGG1 and APE-1 proteins following treatment of NHBE cells with BSEE suggests that this mixture causes oxidative DNA damage.

  17. Accelerated repair and reduced mutagenicity of DNA damage induced by cigarette smoke in human bronchial cells transfected with E.coli formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Foresta

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke (CS is associated to a number of pathologies including lung cancer. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are partially linked to the presence of reactive oxygen species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH inducing DNA damage. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG repairs both oxidized bases and different types of bulky DNA adducts. We investigated in vitro whether FPG expression may enhance DNA repair of CS-damaged DNA and counteract the mutagenic effects of CS in human lung cells. NCI-H727 non small cell lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid vector expressing FPG fused to the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP. Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG displayed accelerated repair of adducts and DNA breaks induced by CS condensate. The mutant frequencies induced by low concentrations of CS condensate to the Na(+K(+-ATPase locus (oua(r were significantly reduced in cells expressing EGFP-FPG. Hence, expression of the bacterial DNA repair protein FPG stably protects human lung cells from the mutagenic effects of CS by improving cells' capacity to repair damaged DNA.

  18. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  19. CYP3A-mediated apoptosis of dauricine in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and in lungs of CD-1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hua; Shen, Shuijie; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang; Zheng, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Dauricine is the major bioactive component isolated from the root of Menispermum dauricum DC and has shown promising pharmacologic activities with a great potential for clinical use. Recently, we found that intraperitoneal exposure of dauricine produced selective pulmonary injury in mice. A quinone methide metabolite of dauricine was identified and is suggested to be associated with the pulmonary toxicity of dauricine. The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of dauricine in cultured cells and mice, determined the change in cellular glutathione (GSH) contents after exposure to dauricine, investigated the role of GSH depletion in dauricine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and examined the role of CYP3A in dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis. Dauricine was found to induce apoptosis in NL-20 cells. Additionally, intraperitoneal administration of dauricine caused GSH depletion and apoptosis in lungs of mice. Treatment with ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A, reversed cellular GSH depletion in lungs of mice given dauricine and showed protective effect on dauricine-induced apoptosis in lungs of mice. This indicates that metabolic activation is involved in dauricine-induced GSH-depletion, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The glutathione depletor L-buthionine sulfoximine showed potentiating effect on cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. We propose that dauricine is metabolized to a quinone methide intermediate which depletes cellular GSH, and the depletion of GSH may trigger and/or intensify the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. -- Highlights: ► Dauricine induced apoptosis in lungs in mice and in cultured human pulmonary cells. ► Dauricine depleted cellular GSH in lungs of mice and in the human pulmonary cells. ► CYP3A subfamily mediated GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by dauricine. ► L-Buthionine sulfoximine potentiated dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis.

  20. CYP3A-mediated apoptosis of dauricine in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and in lungs of CD-1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hua; Shen, Shuijie [Center for Developmental Therapeutics, Seattle Children' s Research Institute, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States); Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang [Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203 (China); Zheng, Jiang, E-mail: jiang.zheng@seattlechildrens.org [Center for Developmental Therapeutics, Seattle Children' s Research Institute, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98101 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Dauricine is the major bioactive component isolated from the root of Menispermum dauricum DC and has shown promising pharmacologic activities with a great potential for clinical use. Recently, we found that intraperitoneal exposure of dauricine produced selective pulmonary injury in mice. A quinone methide metabolite of dauricine was identified and is suggested to be associated with the pulmonary toxicity of dauricine. The present study evaluated the apoptotic effect of dauricine in cultured cells and mice, determined the change in cellular glutathione (GSH) contents after exposure to dauricine, investigated the role of GSH depletion in dauricine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and examined the role of CYP3A in dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis. Dauricine was found to induce apoptosis in NL-20 cells. Additionally, intraperitoneal administration of dauricine caused GSH depletion and apoptosis in lungs of mice. Treatment with ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A, reversed cellular GSH depletion in lungs of mice given dauricine and showed protective effect on dauricine-induced apoptosis in lungs of mice. This indicates that metabolic activation is involved in dauricine-induced GSH-depletion, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The glutathione depletor L-buthionine sulfoximine showed potentiating effect on cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. We propose that dauricine is metabolized to a quinone methide intermediate which depletes cellular GSH, and the depletion of GSH may trigger and/or intensify the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by dauricine. -- Highlights: ► Dauricine induced apoptosis in lungs in mice and in cultured human pulmonary cells. ► Dauricine depleted cellular GSH in lungs of mice and in the human pulmonary cells. ► CYP3A subfamily mediated GSH depletion and apoptosis induced by dauricine. ► L-Buthionine sulfoximine potentiated dauricine-induced GSH depletion and apoptosis.

  1. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Izuhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients. To increase the efficacy of anti-asthma drugs and to decrease costs, it is important to stratify asthma patients into subgroups and to develop therapeutic strategies for each subgroup. Periostin has recently emerged as a biomarker for bronchial asthma, unique in that it is useful not in diagnosis but in categorizing asthma patients. We first found that periostin is a novel component of subepithelial fibrosis in bronchial asthma downstream of IL-13 signals. Thereafter, it was shown that periostin can be a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses, the basis of the notion that a detection system of serum periostin is potentially a companion diagnostic for type 2 antagonists. Furthermore, we have recently shown that serum periostin can predict resistance or hyporesponsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids, based on its contribution to tissue remodeling or fibrosis in bronchial asthma. Thus, serum periostin has two characteristics as a biomarker for bronchial asthma: it is both a surrogate biomarker of type 2 immune responses and a biomarker reflecting tissue remodeling or fibrosis. We can take advantage of these characteristics to develop stratified medicine in bronchial asthma.

  2. Experimental study of hypersecretion of mucus in the bronchial tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, L

    1963-01-01

    Rats were exposed to 40 or 300 to 400 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 5 hr/day, 5 day/wk. Three-mo exposure to 40 ppm yielded no great change. At 300 to 400 ppm, considerable mucus was observed in many animals by the 4th wk. There was accompanying hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mucus-secreting goblet cells.

  3. Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in the tree shrew: a possible model for human opiate addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eShen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.

  4. Dynamics of the vascular profile of the finer branches of the biliary tree in normal and diseased human livers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, Annette S. H.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Boot, Marcel; Slooff, Maarten J. H.; Poppema, Sibrand; de Jong, Koert P.

    Background/Aims: Results of our previous studies supported the concept that in the human liver, the smallest ramification of the biliary tree, the bile ductules, might contain hepatic progenitor cells. An insufficient proliferative response and loss of bile ductules preceded bile duct loss whereas

  5. A revised root for the human Y chromosomal phylogenetic tree: the origin of patrilineal diversity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Fulvio; Trombetta, Beniamino; Massaia, Andrea; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Sellitto, Daniele; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2011-06-10

    To shed light on the structure of the basal backbone of the human Y chromosome phylogeny, we sequenced about 200 kb of the male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY) from each of seven Y chromosomes belonging to clades A1, A2, A3, and BT. We detected 146 biallelic variant sites through this analysis. We used these variants to construct a patrilineal tree, without taking into account any previously reported information regarding the phylogenetic relationships among the seven Y chromosomes here analyzed. There are several key changes at the basal nodes as compared with the most recent reference Y chromosome tree. A different position of the root was determined, with important implications for the origin of human Y chromosome diversity. An estimate of 142 KY was obtained for the coalescence time of the revised MSY tree, which is earlier than that obtained in previous studies and easier to reconcile with plausible scenarios of modern human origin. The number of deep branchings leading to African-specific clades has doubled, further strengthening the MSY-based evidence for a modern human origin in the African continent. An analysis of 2204 African DNA samples showed that the deepest clades of the revised MSY phylogeny are currently found in central and northwest Africa, opening new perspectives on early human presence in the continent. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clearance of lead-212 ions from rabbit bronchial epithelium to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Greenhalgh, J.R.; Smith, H.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of 212 Pb ions from bronchial epithelium to blood has been investigated in anaesthetized rabbits. The 212 Pb ions were introduced by intubation either into the trachea or into smaller, more distal bronchi. Removal from lung was followed by external γ-counting. Mucociliary clearance to the GI tract was blocked by tracheostomy. Two distinct phases of clearance from bronchial epithelium to blood were observed. Approximately 20% of deposited 212 Pb was rapidly absorbed with a half-time of about 4 min, the remainder with a biological half-time of about 9 h, irrespective of the site of instillation in the bronchial tree. Two hours after deposition, the 212 Pb remaining in lung was found to be partitioned between mucus and the bronchial epithelium, with a substantial but minor fraction in the epithelium. Uptake of 212 Pb in the skeleton was estimated to be about 20% of the 212 Pb entering the blood circulation. Removal by the kidneys, at 25%, was comparable with skeletal uptake. These results are compared with previously published work using rodents, dogs and man which demonstrated either rapid or slow absorption but not both phases occurring together. (author)

  7. Real-time classification of humans versus animals using profiling sensors and hidden Markov tree model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Jakir; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Chari, Srikant

    2015-07-01

    Linear pyroelectric array sensors have enabled useful classifications of objects such as humans and animals to be performed with relatively low-cost hardware in border and perimeter security applications. Ongoing research has sought to improve the performance of these sensors through signal processing algorithms. In the research presented here, we introduce the use of hidden Markov tree (HMT) models for object recognition in images generated by linear pyroelectric sensors. HMTs are trained to statistically model the wavelet features of individual objects through an expectation-maximization learning process. Human versus animal classification for a test object is made by evaluating its wavelet features against the trained HMTs using the maximum-likelihood criterion. The classification performance of this approach is compared to two other techniques; a texture, shape, and spectral component features (TSSF) based classifier and a speeded-up robust feature (SURF) classifier. The evaluation indicates that among the three techniques, the wavelet-based HMT model works well, is robust, and has improved classification performance compared to a SURF-based algorithm in equivalent computation time. When compared to the TSSF-based classifier, the HMT model has a slightly degraded performance but almost an order of magnitude improvement in computation time enabling real-time implementation.

  8. Clinical, radiographic, and bronchial cytologic features of cats with bronchial disease: 65 cases (1980-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, N.S.; Wiedenkeller, D.; Yeager, A.E.; Blue, J.T.; Scarlett, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and bronchial cytologic abnormalities of 65 cats with bronchial disease were reviewed. Bronchial disease was defined as abnormality of the lower airways to the exclusion of disease originating or mainly involving the alveoli, interstitium, vasculature, or pleura. Cats with bronchial disease were more likely to be female and older. Siamese cats were over represented and had more chronic disease. In order of frequency, the following clinical signs were reported: coughing, dyspnea, occasional sneezing, wheezing, and vomiting. Radiography revealed prominent bronchial markings, with some cats having collapse of the middle lobe of the right lung (n = 7), overinflation of the lungs (n = 9), or aerophagia (n = 13). Of 65 bronchial washes, 58 were considered exudative, with the predominant cell type being eosinophil in 24%, neutrophil in 33%, macrophage in 22%, and mixed population of cells in 21%. Cultures for bacteria were considered positive in 24% of the cats. Circulating eosinophilia was not helpful in predicting the predominant cell type in bronchial cytologic exudates. Hyperproteinemia without dehydration was present in a third of the cats, indicating an immunologic response. Half the cats had resolution of clinical signs, whereas half the cats required continuing medication with bronchodilators, antimicrobial agents, or corticosteroids

  9. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Bronchial Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen O. Al-Qadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of a focal obliteration of a segmental or lobar bronchial lumen. The lung distal to the atretic bronchus is typically emphysematous along with the presence of mucus filled ectatic bronchi (mucoceles. BA is usually asymptomatic but pulmonary infections can rarely develop in the emphysematous lung distal to the atretic bronchus. We present a unique case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA in a patient with BA with no evidence of immune dysfunction. The patient was treated initially with voriconazole and subsequently underwent surgical excision of the involved area. On follow-up, she has done extremely well with no evidence for recurrence. In summary, we describe the first case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchial atresia.

  10. Radiodiagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudz', A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiological semiotics of filled retention bronchial cysts in 23 patients and of lung tuberculomes in 52 is studied on the basis of the data on roentgenography, tomography and bronchography. Characteristic radiological signs of retention bronchial cysts and tuberculomes are determined. Significance of each radiological sign for differential diagnosis of filled retention bronchial cysts and lung tuberculomes is estimated

  11. Transcriptional response of bronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: identification of early mediators of host defense.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.B.; Sterkenburg, M.A. van; Rabe, K.F.; Schalkwijk, J.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Datson, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    The airway epithelium responds to microbial exposure by altering expression of a variety of genes to increase innate host defense. We aimed to delineate the early transcriptional response in human primary bronchial epithelial cells exposed for 6 h to a mixture of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha or

  12. A continental analysis of correlations between tree patterns in African savannas and human and environmental variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, T.A.; Langevelde, van F.; Vijver, van de C.A.D.M.; Raad, de A.L.; Leeuw, de J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses possible relationships between natural processes taking place in savannas and the tree patterns found in savannas. This can lead to new hypotheses about which processes are driving savanna physiognomy. To do so tree patterns were quantified for African savannas from historical

  13. Psychological dysfunctions in women with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia G. Astafieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The importance of psychosocial factors in the management of bronchial asthma (BA is discussed in clinical guidelines, including in international and national clinical guidelines. However, a specific evaluation of their role as a cause of poor asthma control in susceptible patients is required. Aim. Assessment of psychological health of women with different levels of asthma control.Materials and methods. The study included 108 women with asthma observed in Saratov center for Allergology who were stratified into 3 groups according to the control level (good, partial, uncontrolled, according to GINA. In establishing a diagnosis of asthma, standard methods were used (medical history, symptoms, spirography. To assess the level of control, ACQ-5 (Asthma Control Questionnaire 5 items-self-administered was used, to assess the quality of life, questionnaires AQLQ-S (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire S; SF-36 (36-ltem MOS Short-Form Health Survey, a standardized and validated Russian version of the women’s health questionnaire WHQ (Women’s Health Questionnaire were used; for psychological diagnosis and evaluation of social and personal competencies that contribute to the preservation and improvement of human health (the intellectual, personal, emotional, physical, social, creative, spiritual aspects, integrated multimodal questionnaire was used. The comparison was conducted with a control group of men with bronchial asthma, comparable in age and level of control.Results. Women with poorly controlled asthma had worse performance of AQLQ-S (combined median score of 3,43 instead of 5,13 in the group of good control; p < 0,05; all scales of the SF-36, including the general condition (43,48 against 55,07, role of physical (25,93 against 57,76 and emotional problems (43,83 against 64,37; at p < 0.05. According to the WHQ questionnaire (the inverse relationship: the higher the score, the lower the quality of life in the group with poor control

  14. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  15. Associations between asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine asthma and allergy phenotypes in unselected urban black teenagers and to associate bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) with asthma, other atopic diseases and allergen sensitisation. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 211 urban highschool black children of Xhosa ethnicity. Modified ...

  16. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and anti-asthmatic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Many asthmatic patients experience shortness of breath or wheezing, when exposed to cold air, or irritants like baking fumes, exhaust gases or cigarette smoke. This clinical phenomenon has been called bronchial hypemsponsiveness (BHR), which is defined as an exaggerated broncho-obstructive response

  17. Histological and autoradiographic studies on the kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells of fetal rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, L.; Schneider, K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of bronchial epithelium cells was investigated in 14- to 20-days old rats of an inbred strain (Wistar-WU, Mueller/Haan). In agreement with the data of the relevant literature, light microscopy revealed a successive evolution of the bronchial tree which consists of a glandular, a canalicular, and an alveolar part. Prophases, metaphases and reconstruction phases are relatively long mitotic phases, while anaphases and telophases are relatively short ones. Combined nuclear volumetry and autoradiography showed that the G-1 phase nuclei are smaller than the 3 H-labelled nuclei at the onset of the S phase and these, in turn, are smaller than the nuclei at the end of the S phase with double 14 C- or 3 H-label or with 'strong' 3H label. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Peatland pines as a proxy for water table fluctuations: disentangling tree growth, hydrology and possible human influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanić, Marko; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Läänelaid, Alar; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke; Stajić, Branko; Wilmking, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Dendrochronological investigations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on Männikjärve peatland in central Estonia showed that annual tree growth of peatland pines can be used as a proxy for past variations of water table levels. Reconstruction of past water table levels can help us to better understand the dynamics of various ecological processes in peatlands, e.g. the formation of vegetation patterns or carbon and nitrogen cycling. Männikjärve bog has one of the longest water table records in the boreal zone, continuously monitored since 1956. Common uncertainties encountered while working with peatland trees (e.g. narrow, missing and wedging rings) were in our case exacerbated with difficulties related to the instability of the relationship between tree growth and peatland environment. We hypothesized that the instable relationship was mainly due to a significant change of the limiting factor, i.e. the rise of the water table level due to human activity. To test our hypothesis we had to use several novel methods of tree-ring chronology analysis as well as to test explicitly whether undetected missing rings biased our results. Since the hypothesis that the instable relationship between tree growth and environment was caused by a change in limiting factor could not be rejected, we proceeded to find possible significant changes of past water table levels using structural analysis of the tree-ring chronologies. Our main conclusions were that peatland pines can be proxies to water table levels and that there were several shifting periods of high and low water table levels in the past 200 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Low power laser biostimulation in the treatment of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojević, Momir; Kuruc, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Modern concept of acupuncture is based on the fact there are designated locations on the surface of human body, which are related to integrative systems of an organism by means of sensory nerves, correlating and synchronizing organ functioning, depending on external and internal conditions, by means of nervous and neurohumoral regulation of metabolic and regenerative processes, including also mobilisation of immunological, protective and antistress reactions. Apart from standard needle acupuncture, other methods of stimulating acupuncture points are also applied. Due to invention of low power lasers, irradiation laser acupuncture has been introduced into routine medical practice, characterised by painless and aseptic technique and outstanding clinical results. The investigation was aimed at defining therapeutic effects of low power laser irradiation by stimulating acupuncture points or local treatment of asthma. A prospective analysis included 50 patients treated at the Institute of Pulmonary Diseases in Sremska Kamenica during 2000, 2001 and 2002. Together with conservative treatment of present disease, these patients were treated with laser stimulation of acupuncture points in duration of ten days. During treatment changes of functional respiratory parameters were recorded. Results were compared with those in the control group. The control group consisted of the same number of patients and differed from the examination group only by not using laser stimulation. Patients with bronchial asthma presented with significant improvement (p lower frequency and intensity of attacks. The mechanism of laser stimulation activity in treatment of bronchial asthma is explained in detail, correlating our results to those obtained by other authors. A ten-day course of low-power laser stimulation of acupuncture points in patients with bronchial asthma improves both the lung function and gas exchange parameters. Positive effects of laser treatment in patients with bronchial asthma

  20. [Preoperative Management of Patients with Bronchial Asthma or Chronic Bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihira, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The primary goal of treatment of asthma is to maintain the state of control. According to the Japanese guidelines (JGL2012), long-term management consists of 4 therapeutic steps, and use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is recommended at all 4 steps. Besides ICS, inhalation of long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is also effective. Recently, omalizumab (a humanized antihuman IgE antibody) can be available for patients with severe allergic asthma. Although there is no specific strategy for preoperative treatment of patients with asthma, preoperative systemic steroid administration seemed to be effective to prevent asthma attack during anesthesia. The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is smoking. Even the respiratory function is within normal limits, perioperative management of patients with chronic bronchitis is often troublesome. The most common problem is their sputum. To minimize perioperative pulmonary complication in these patients, smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation are essential. It is known that more than 1 month of smoking cessation is required to reduce perioperative respiratory complication. However, even one or two weeks of smoking cessation can decrease sputum secretion. In summary, preoperative optimization is most important to prevent respiratory complication in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis.

  1. Metric Sex Determination of the Human Coxal Bone on a Virtual Sample using Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall, Frédéric; Faruch-Bilfeld, Marie; Dedouit, Fabrice; Sans, Nicolas; Rousseau, Hervé; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    Decision trees provide an alternative to multivariate discriminant analysis, which is still the most commonly used in anthropometric studies. Our study analyzed the metric characterization of a recent virtual sample of 113 coxal bones using decision trees for sex determination. From 17 osteometric type I landmarks, a dataset was built with five classic distances traditionally reported in the literature and six new distances selected using the two-step ratio method. A ten-fold cross-validation was performed, and a decision tree was established on two subsamples (training and test sets). The decision tree established on the training set included three nodes and its application to the test set correctly classified 92% of individuals. This percentage was similar to the data of the literature. The usefulness of decision trees has been demonstrated in numerous fields. They have been already used in sex determination, body mass prediction, and ancestry estimation. This study shows another use of decision trees enabling simple and accurate sex determination. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Transport and Deposition of Micro-and Nano-Particles in Human Tracheobronchial Tree by an Asymmetric Multi-Level Bifurcation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport and deposition of particles in the upper tracheobronchial tree were analyzed using a multi-level asymmetric lung bifurcation model. The first three generations of tracheobronchial tree were included in the study. The laryngeal jet at the trachea entrance was modeled as an effective turbulence disturbance, and the study was focused on how to accurately simulate the airflow and predict the motion of the inhaled particles. Downstream in the lower level of the bronchial region, a laminar flow model was used, as smoother flow condition was expected. Transport and deposition of nano- and micro-scale spherical particles in the range of 0.01 μm to 30 μm were evaluated. The particle local deposition pattern and deposition rate in the lung bifurcation was discussed. The proposed multi-level asymmetric lung bifurcation model was found to be flexible, easy to use and computationally highly efficient. It was also shown that the selection of the anisotropic Reynolds stress transport turbulence model (RSTM was appropriate, and the use of the enhanced two-layer model boundary treatment was needed for accurate simulation of the turbulent airflow conditions in the upper airways.

  3. Three-dimensional segmentation and skeletonization to build an airway tree data structure for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Lee, Zhenghong

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of intrathoracic airway tree geometry is important for objective evaluation of bronchial tree structure and function. Currently, there is more human data than small animal data on airway morphometry. In this study, we implemented a semi-automatic approach to quantitatively describe airway tree geometry by using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) images to build a tree data structure for small animals such as rats and mice. Silicon lung casts of the excised lungs from a canine and a mouse were used for micro-CT imaging of the airway trees. The programming language IDL was used to implement a 3D region-growing threshold algorithm for segmenting out the airway lung volume from the CT data. Subsequently, a fully-parallel 3D thinning algorithm was implemented in order to complete the skeletonization of the segmented airways. A tree data structure was then created and saved by parsing through the skeletonized volume using the Python programming language. Pertinent information such as the length of all airway segments was stored in the data structure. This approach was shown to be accurate and efficient for up to six generations for the canine lung cast and ten generations for the mouse lung cast

  4. Experimental chronic hepatitis B infection of neonatal tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis: A model to study molecular causes for susceptibility and disease progression to chronic hepatitis in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection continues to be an escalating global health problem. Feasible and effective animal models for HBV infection are the prerequisite for developing novel therapies for this disease. The tree shrew (Tupaia is a small animal species evolutionary closely related to humans, and thus is permissive to certain human viral pathogens. Whether tree shrews could be chronically infected with HBV in vivo has been controversial for decades. Most published research has been reported on adult tree shrews, and only small numbers of HBV infected newborn tree shrews had been observed over short time periods. We investigated susceptibility of newborn tree shrews to experimental HBV infection as well as viral clearance over a protracted time period. Results Forty-six newborn tree shrews were inoculated with the sera from HBV-infected patients or tree shrews. Serum and liver samples of the inoculated animals were periodically collected and analyzed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Southern blot, and immunohistochemistry. Six tree shrews were confirmed and four were suspected as chronically HBV-infected for more than 48 (up to 228 weeks after inoculation, including three that had been inoculated with serum from a confirmed HBV-infected tree shrew. Conclusions Outbred neonatal tree shrews can be long-term chronically infected with HBV at a frequency comparable to humans. The model resembles human disease where also a smaller proportion of infected individuals develop chronic HBV related disease. This model might enable genetic and immunologic investigations which would allow determination of underlying molecular causes favoring susceptibility for chronic HBV infection and disease establishment vs. viral clearance.

  5. Elevational patterns of Polylepis tree height (Rosaceae in the high Andes of Peru: role of human impact and climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKessler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied tree height in stands of high-Andean Polylepis forests in two cordilleras near Cuzco (Peru with respect to variations in human impact and climatic conditions, and compared air and soil temperatures between qualitatively defined dry and humid slopes. We studied 46 forest plots of 100 m2 of five Polylepis species at 3560-4680 m. We measured diameter at breast height (dbh and tree height in the stands (1229 trees in total, as well as air and soil temperatures in a subset of plots. The data was analysed combining plots of given species from different sites at the same elevation (±100 m. There was no elevational decrease of mean maximum tree height across the entire data set. On humid slopes, tree height decreased continuously with elevation, whereas on dry slopes it peaked at middle elevations. With mean maximum tree heights of 9 m at 4530 m on the humid slopes and of 13 m at 4650 m on the dry slopes, we here document the tallest high-elevation forests found so far worldwide. These highest stands grow under cold mean growing season air temperatures (3.6 °C and 3.8 °C on humid vs. dry slopes and mean growing season soil temperatures (5.1 °C vs. 4.6 °C. Mean annual air and soil temperature both decreased with elevation. Dry slopes had higher mean and maximum growing season air temperatures than humid slopes. Mean annual soil temperatures did not significantly differ and mean annual air temperatures only slightly differed between slopes. However, maximum air temperatures differed on average by 6.6 K between dry and humid slopes. This suggests that the differences in tree height between the two slopes are most likely due to differences in solar radiation as reflected by maximum air temperatures. Our study furthermore provides evidence that alpine Polylepis treelines grow under lower temperature conditions than global high-elevation treelines on average, suggesting that Polylepis species may have evolved special physiological adaptations

  6. A method and application study on holistic decision tree for human reliability analysis in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Feng; Zhong Shan; Wu Zhiyu

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a human reliability analysis method mainly used in Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment and the Holistic Decision Tree (HDT) method and how to apply it. The focus is primarily on providing the basic framework and some background of HDT method and steps to perform it. Influence factors and quality descriptors are formed by the interview with operators in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and HDT analysis performed for SGTR and SLOCA based on this information. The HDT model can use a graphic tree structure to indicate that error rate is a function of influence factors. HDT method is capable of dealing with the uncertainty in HRA, and it is reliable and practical. (authors)

  7. Impact of the Tamsulosin in Alpha Adrenergic Receptor of Airways at Patients with Increased Bronchial Reactibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Lirim; Ilazi, Ali; Dauti, Arta; Islami, Pellumb; Kastrati, Bashkim; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-08-01

    In this work, effect of tamsulosin as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B adrenergic receptor and effect of agonists of beta2 adrenergic receptor-salbutamol in patients with increased bronchial reactibility was studied. Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography six (6) hours after administration of tamsulosin. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated as well. Tamsulosin was administered in per os manner as a preparation in the shape of the capsules with a brand name of "Prolosin", produced by Niche Generics Limited, Hitchin, Herts. After six (6) hours of administration of tamsulosin, results gained indicate that blockage of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor (0.8 mg per os) has not changed significantly (p > 0.1) the bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial tree in comparison to the check-up that has inhaled salbutamol agonist of adrenergic beta2 receptor (2 inh. x 0.2 mg), (p tamsulosin. This suggests that even after six hours of administration of tamsulosin, and determining of lung function parameters, the activity of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor in the smooth bronchial musculature has not changed in patients with increased bronchial reactibility.

  8. Building a Phylogenetic Tree of the Human and Ape Superfamily Using DNA-DNA Hybridization Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Caroline Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The study describes the process of DNA-DNA hybridization and the history of its use by Sibley and Alquist in simple, straightforward, and interesting language that students easily understand to create their own phylogenetic tree of the hominoid superfamily. They calibrate the DNA clock and use it to estimate the divergence dates of the various…

  9. Bronchial stump closure with amniotic membrane in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of the bronchial stumps (BSs with adjacent tissues can improve healing and reduce bronchial complications in complex thoracic surgery. There is no evidence for the application of human amnion allograft for prevention of air leak from the BS. The comparison of the amniotic membrane (AM and pleural patch for BS healing after lobectomy in dogs was our aim in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of eight males and females 12-24-month-old dogs between 17 and 22 kg body-weight were used in this study in 2010, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Animals were separated into two groups: group A (n = 4; amniotic membrane and group P (n = 4; pleural patch according to the BS closure technique performed. After lobectomy of the right middle lobe, the BS was closed, while a small bronchopleural fistula (BPF was created by inserting a catheter via edges of closed stump. Then, it was covered with a piece of AM3 × 3 cm in group A and with a pedicle graft of pleura in group P. Rethoracotomy was performed after 15 days of observation, and the BS was removed for histological examination. Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Neoangiogenesis was measured by Von Willebrand expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using Fisher′s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and T tests. Results: BPF complications were not seen during observation period. There was no significant difference in histological healing between two groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of neoangiogenesis based on IHC examination (P value = 0.69. Conclusion: Human amnion allograft could be as effective as pleural patch for BS wrapping following pulmonary resections.

  10. Human figure drawings and house tree person drawings as indicators of self-esteem: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth-Marnat, G; Roberts, L

    1998-02-01

    This study assessed the concurrent validity of Human Figure Drawings (HFD) and House-Tree-Person (HTP) drawings as measures of self-esteem. Adult subjects were requested to make HFD and HTP drawings and to complete measures of psychological adjustment which included the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory and Tennessee Self Concept Scale. The drawings were scored using a quantitative, composite rating scale derived from HFD and HTP empirical and theoretical literature on psychological health. Results indicated that neither the HFD nor the HTP quantitative composite ratings of psychological health related to the formal measures of self-esteem.

  11. Prevention of Bronchial Hyperplasia by EGFR Pathway Inhibitors in an Organotypic Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangsoon; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kang, Shin Myung; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Gold, Kathryn Ann; Kim, Edward S.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Hong, Waun Ki; Koo, Ja Seok

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection or prevention strategies are urgently needed to increase survival. Hyperplasia is the first morphologic change that occurs in the bronchial epithelium during lung cancer development, followed by squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumor. The current study was designed to determine the molecular mechanisms that control bronchial epithelium hyperplasia. Using primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells cultured using the 3-dimensional organotypic method, we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin induced hyperplasia, as determined by cell proliferation and multilayered epithelium formation. We also found that EGF induced increased cyclin D1 expression, which plays a critical role in bronchial hyperplasia; this overexpression was mediated by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, completely inhibited EGF-induced hyperplasia. Furthermore, a promoter analysis revealed that the activator protein-1 transcription factor regulates EGF-induced cyclin D1 overexpression. Activator protein-1 depletion using siRNA targeting its c-Jun component completely abrogated EGF-induced cyclin D1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that bronchial hyperplasia can be modeled in vitro using primary NHTBE cells maintained in a 3-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. EGFR and MEK inhibitors completely blocked EGF-induced bronchial hyperplasia, suggesting that they have a chemopreventive role. PMID:21505178

  12. CPAP increases bronchial reactivity in OSAS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Korczyski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP is a well known and safe method of treatment patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS. The effects of CPAP administration on the upper respiratory tract are known. However its effects on the lower respiratory tract still needs to be determined. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity in patients treated by CPAP are contradictory. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a 3-week CPAP treatment in patients with OSAS and to evaluate associations between changes in bronchial reactivity and clinical features of OSAS and lung function tests (LFT. Patients with newly diagnosed OSAS and lack of infection or chronic illness of the respiratory tract or other conditions which could influence bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR were included. Investigations were performed in 101 patients. There were 88 males and 13 females, mean age 51.5±11.2 years and BMI 32.6±5.4 kg·m–2. Qualified patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 76 patients to CPAP treatment group, 25 control group. Both groups did not differ in anthropometrics features, severity of OSAS and LFT. Metacholine challenge test (MchCT was performed at baseline and repeated after 3 weeks. Analysis of the individual results showed that in 11 patients the MchCT was positive (6 in the CPAP and 5 in the control groups. After 3 weeks in the group of CPAP treated patients an increase of BHR was noted. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38±0.3 to 1.26±0.5 (p<0.05. The number of patients with a positive result in the MchCT increased from 6 to 16 patients. There was no significant change in BHR in the control group. It was found that CPAP treated patients with BHR were older, had less severe OSAS and lower FEV1 (p<0.05. In none of the patients positive result of BHR did no affect compliance to CPAP treatment. Conclusions: CPAP therapy increases bronchial reactivity, but does not affect compliance to treatment.

  13. Radioaerosol Inhalation Imaging in Bronchial Asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Ha; Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Myung Hee; Chung, Soo Kyo; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1991-01-01

    Radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) has been used in radionuclide pulmonary studies for the past 20 years. The method is well accepted for assessing regional ventilation because of its usefulness, easy fabrication and simple application system. To evaluate its clinical utility in the study of impaired regional ventilation in bronchial asthma, we obtained and analysed RIIs in 31 patients (16 women and 15 men; age ranging 21-76 years) with typical bronchial asthma at the Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical college, from January, 1988 to August, 1989. Scintiscans were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a HARC(Bhabha Atomic Research Center, India) nebulizer with 15 mCi of 99m Tc-phytate. The scanning was performed in anterior, posterior and lateral projections following 5-minute inhalation of radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analysed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function study and the findings of chest radiography. Fifteen patients had concomitant lung perfusion image with 99m Tc-MAA. Follow-up scans were obtained in 5 patients after bronchodilator therapy. 1 he patients were divided into (1) attack type (4 patients), (2) resistant type (5 patients), (3) remittent type (10 patients) and (4) bronchitic type (12 patients). Chest radiography showed hyperinflation, altered pulmonary vascularity, thickening of the bronchial wall and accentuation of hasal interstitial markings in 26 of the 31 patients. Chest radiographs were normal in the remaining 5 patients. Regardless of type, the findings of RII were basically the same, and characterized by the deposition of radioaerosol in the central parts or in the main respiratory air ways along with mottled nonsegmental ventilation defects in the periphery. Peripheral parenchymal defects were more extensive than that of expected findings from clinical symptoms, pulmonary function test and chest radiograph. Broomstick sign was present in 1.7 patients

  14. Evaluation of Drug Utilization Pattern for Patients of Bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Drug Utilization Pattern for Patients of Bronchial Asthma in a Government Hospital of Saudi Arabia. ... Background: Bronchial asthma is a social and economic healthcare burden. Drug utilization studies are ... Salbutamol and budesonide were the most common from each group, respectively. 89.5% of the ...

  15. [Safe local anesthesia in patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, E N; Gromovik, M V

    The paper presents the analysis of studies of local anesthesia in patients with bronchial asthma. It was found that the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to sodium metabisulfite in patients with bronchial asthma must be optimized for development of local anesthesia selection algorithm in outpatient dentistry.

  16. The therapeutic evaluation and mechanism on treating bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the level of bronchial responsiveness, which proved a better curative effect of Chinese medicine. The mechanism is probably due to relieving the airway inflammation by keeping the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells. Keywords: Ziyinqingre prescription; cough; bronchial hyper-responsiveness; therapeutic mechanism ...

  17. Assessment of quality of life among children with bronchial asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global disease burden associated with bronchial asthma has continued to increase particularly among children. Asthma-related quality of life is a health related assessment of disease impact on patient and care givers. Aim: To determine the perceived quality of life (QOL) among children with bronchial ...

  18. Bronchial asthma among workers in Alexandria and its association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Many workers in Alexandria are exposed to a variety of occupational and environmental allergens and/or irritants that predispose them to the development of bronchial asthma. The present study was conducted to determine the role of occupational exposure as a determinant of occurrence of bronchial asthma ...

  19. December 2004 45 Bronchial Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and chole

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... Background: Gallbladder has not been associated with any allergic condition what so ever. However, certain patients with bronchial asthma and cholelithiasis have reported to the author improvement in their asthmatic attack after cholecystectomy. Methods: This was an observational study on 22 bronchial ...

  20. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  1. X-ray diagnosis of bronchial obstruction in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Combined radiobronchological examination of patients with chronic pneumonia in the phase of reverse development of the disease has been performed. Severity, localization and extent of bronchial obstruction have been studied, depending on the phase of chronic pneumonia and aspects of lung tissue alterations. Bronchial lesions characteristic of chronic pneumonia were defined, as well as importance of x-ray examination methods for bronchial obstruction diagnosis. Three types of bronchial obstruction were distinguished: bronchoconstriction, bronchodilatation and their combination. With regard to the character and severity of bronchial and pulmonary tissue lesions 3 variants of chronic pneumonia are offered to be differentiated: bronchitic, bronchoectatic, and abscess-forming. The main significance in diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is attributed to combined x-ray examination, which also includes radiobronchological investigation in the first two variants of the disease [ru

  2. Bronchial and pulmonary scintigraphy with radioactively marked aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerstle, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 97 patients with bronchitis, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, pneumoconiosis, or tumors the mucociliary clearance and/or deposit pattern after inhalation of radioactively marked aerosols (1 mCi 99m Tc sulfur colloid) was studied. Normal values of the mucociliary 30 min. clearance for the central bronchial/lung periphery are 21%/15%. There was a decreased clearance with bronchitis (11/8%), bronchial asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, trachiobronchial amyloidosis, pleural scarring or interstitial pneumona. Increased clearance (29/19%) was shown with pneumoconiosis. The correlation of deposit pattern and disease, for example, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, bullous emphysema, pleural scarring, partial lung resection, bronchopneumonia, or bronchial restriction, is described. In comparison of aerosol scintigraphy to perfusion scintigraphy and ventilation with gaseous xenon, the aerosol scintigraphy is superior to xenon for certain indications. The aerosol particles, which are larger in comparison to xenon, settle easier by obstructions or flow variations and thereby give better clinical indications of regional differences. (orig.) [de

  3. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  4. Usefulness of antioxidant drugs in bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, F.H.; Atabee, H.G.A.; Sahib, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome with possible correlation to oxidative stress, therefore the effectiveness of some antioxidant drugs has been studied in management of chronic bronchial asthma. Methods: This study was carried out in the Al- Kadhimia Teaching Hospital between December 2008 to May 2009 on 56 patients of both sexes who were randomly allocated to 7 groups, plus 10 healthy volunteers as control group. Each group was given one of the following drugs: vitamin E, vitamin C, combination of vitamin E and C, selenium, zinc, allopurinol and garlic oil, in addition to their classical treatment of asthma and their pulmonary function tests were conducted as well as measuring the levels of serum zinc, calcium, and malondialdehyde (MDA) before and after treatment. Results: All asthmatic patients were suffering from oxidative stress and this was detected by measuring the level of serum MDA which was 2-3 folds more than the control group, and all antioxidants except allopurinol showed a beneficial effect of different degrees in the pulmonary function tests accompanied with clinical improvement of patients' condition and marked decrease in the number of daily attacks. Antioxidants can compensate the oxidative stress that correlates with asthma, can reduce the symptoms of asthma, and improve pulmonary functions. (author)

  5. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  6. Recognizing human actions by learning and matching shape-motion prototype trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuolin; Lin, Zhe; Davis, Larry S

    2012-03-01

    A shape-motion prototype-based approach is introduced for action recognition. The approach represents an action as a sequence of prototypes for efficient and flexible action matching in long video sequences. During training, an action prototype tree is learned in a joint shape and motion space via hierarchical K-means clustering and each training sequence is represented as a labeled prototype sequence; then a look-up table of prototype-to-prototype distances is generated. During testing, based on a joint probability model of the actor location and action prototype, the actor is tracked while a frame-to-prototype correspondence is established by maximizing the joint probability, which is efficiently performed by searching the learned prototype tree; then actions are recognized using dynamic prototype sequence matching. Distance measures used for sequence matching are rapidly obtained by look-up table indexing, which is an order of magnitude faster than brute-force computation of frame-to-frame distances. Our approach enables robust action matching in challenging situations (such as moving cameras, dynamic backgrounds) and allows automatic alignment of action sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves recognition rates of 92.86 percent on a large gesture data set (with dynamic backgrounds), 100 percent on the Weizmann action data set, 95.77 percent on the KTH action data set, 88 percent on the UCF sports data set, and 87.27 percent on the CMU action data set.

  7. The relationship between trees and human health: evidence from the spread of the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Butry, David T; Michael, Yvonne L; Prestemon, Jeffrey P; Liebhold, Andrew M; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mao, Megan Y

    2013-02-01

    Several recent studies have identified a relationship between the natural environment and improved health outcomes. However, for practical reasons, most have been observational, cross-sectional studies. A natural experiment, which provides stronger evidence of causality, was used to test whether a major change to the natural environment-the loss of 100 million trees to the emerald ash borer, an invasive forest pest-has influenced mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory diseases. Two fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and county-level mortality from 1990 to 2007 in 15 U.S. states, while controlling for a wide range of demographic covariates. Data were collected from 1990 to 2007, and the analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. There was an increase in mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness in counties infested with the emerald ash borer. The magnitude of this effect was greater as infestation progressed and in counties with above-average median household income. Across the 15 states in the study area, the borer was associated with an additional 6113 deaths related to illness of the lower respiratory system, and 15,080 cardiovascular-related deaths. Results suggest that loss of trees to the emerald ash borer increased mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness. This finding adds to the growing evidence that the natural environment provides major public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Bronchial arterial infusion versus bronchial combined pulmonary arterial infusion for pulmonary metastatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Sheng; Dong Weihua; Jia Ningyang; Zhang Dianbo; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pulmonary metastatic tumor response to different ways of transcatheter arterial infusion. Methods: Thirty-five patients with pulmonary metastatic tumors were randomized divided into two groups: 15 patients with 49 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and 20 patients with 65 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BM)combined with pulmonary arterial infusion (PAI). The therapeutic response was assessed by the WHO evaluation criteria. Results: The total effective rate(CR + PR) of BAI was 65.3% (32/49), PAI + BAI was 61.5%(40/65) showing no statistical difference. The median survival time of BAI was 9 mo, BAI + PAI was 11.5 mo, demonstrating no statistical significance. Conclusions: BAI should be the primary treatment for pulmonary metastatic tumor. (authors)

  9. Fault trees and the impact of human variability on probabilistic risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    It has long been recognized that human reliability is an important factor in probabilistic risk analysis. In the field, this is true in a direct operational sense as well as in the areas of installation and maintenance. The interest in quantification arises from the desire to achieve optimum design in the human factors sense (operability-maintainability) and from the need to include human reliability considerations in probabilistic risk analysis to achieve complete and valid risk evaluation. In order to integrate human reliability into the system analysis, it is necessary to consider two questions. These relate to the way that human functions fit into the existing analytical models and methods as well as the nature of human failure mechanisms, modes and failure (error) rates

  10. An evaluation of the ecosystem services provided by urban trees: The role of Krasiński Gardens in air quality and human health in Warsaw (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkop Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through leaf stomata. However, to date, we have rather few empirical studies on the magnitude and value of the effects of trees on air quality and human health, especially especially within the climatic conditions of Central Europe. To investigate the significance of urban trees from the point of view of air pollution removal, an i-Tree Eco model was implemented. The results indicate that the 932 trees in Krasiński Gardens (Warsaw, Poland absorb 267.12 kg of pollutants per year: 149.9 kg of O3, 94.4 kg of NO2, 11.8 kg of SO2 and 10.9 kg of PM2.5. That makes an average removal per tree (calculated by summarizing the values of all of the pollutants of 0.287 kg/year. Furthermore, health values were used to estimate their pollution removal services in monetary terms. The total benefit of air purification by trees in Krasiński Gardens is estimated at 26250 PLN/year with an average value per tree of: 28 PLN. Although PM2.5 removal is the lowest among the four air pollutants analysed, accounting for only 4% of the total mass reduction, it provides 69% of the total economic value. The benefit associated with absorption of O3 provided 28% of the value, with the absorption of NO2 and SO2 at just 3%. The results also show that large tree species (with a crown diameter of 14-15m can provide around 10 times higher benefits, than small ones (5-6m.

  11. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells disrupt bronchial epithelial barrier integrity by targeting tight junctions through IL-13 in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Steer, Catherine A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; Altunbulakli, Can; Morita, Hideaki; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Kubo, Terufumi; Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Rückert, Beate; Sudo, Katsuko; Nakae, Susumu; Matsumoto, Kenji; O'Mahony, Liam; Akdis, Mübeccel; Takei, Fumio; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2018-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial barrier leakiness and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been separately linked to asthma pathogenesis; however, the influence of ILC2s on the bronchial epithelial barrier has not been investigated previously. We investigated the role of ILC2s in the regulation of bronchial epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and barrier function both in bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and general innate lymphoid cell- and ILC2-deficient mice. Cocultures of human ILC2s and bronchial epithelial cells were used to determine transepithelial electrical resistance, paracellular flux, and TJ mRNA and protein expressions. The effect of ILC2s on TJs was examined by using a murine model of IL-33-induced airway inflammation in wild-type, recombination-activating gene 2 (Rag2) -/- , Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- , and Rora sg/sg mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation to analyze the in vivo relevance of barrier disruption by ILC2s. ILC2s significantly impaired the epithelial barrier, as demonstrated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran permeability in air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. This was in parallel to decreased mRNAs and disrupted protein expression of TJ proteins and was restored by neutralization of IL-13. Intranasal administration of recombinant IL-33 to wild-type and Rag2 -/- mice lacking T and B cells triggered TJ disruption, whereas Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- and Rora sg/sg mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation that lack ILC2s did not show any barrier leakiness. Direct nasal administration of IL-13 was sufficient to induce deficiency in the TJ barrier in the bronchial epithelium of mice in vivo. These data highlight an essential mechanism in asthma pathogenesis by demonstrating that ILC2s are responsible for bronchial epithelial TJ barrier leakiness through IL-13. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent up-regulation of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter LAT1 (SLC7A5)/CD98hc (SLC3A2) by diesel exhaust particle extract in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Lecureur, Valérie [Institut de Recherches en Santé, Environnement et Travail (IRSET), UMR INSERM U1085, Faculté de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.fardel@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut de Recherches en Santé, Environnement et Travail (IRSET), UMR INSERM U1085, Faculté de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue du Pr Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France)

    2016-01-01

    The heterodimeric L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1/CD98hc is overexpressed in lung cancers with a poor prognosis factor. Factors that contribute to LAT1/CD98hc overexpression in lung cells remain however to be determined, but the implication of atmospheric pollution can be suspected. The present study was therefore designed to analyze the effects of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (DEPe) on LAT1/CD98hc expression in bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Exposure to DEPe up-regulated LAT1 and CD98hc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner, with DEPe EC{sub 50} values (around 0.2 μg/mL) relevant to environmental situations. DEPe concomitantly induced LAT1/CD98hc protein expression and LAT1-mediated leucine accumulation in BEAS-2B cells. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway through the use of a chemical AhR antagonist or the siRNA-mediated silencing of AhR expression was next found to prevent DEPe-mediated induction of LAT1/CD98hc, indicating that this regulation depends on AhR, known to be activated by major chemical DEP components like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. DEPe exposure was finally shown to induce mRNA expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in BEAS-2B cells, in a CD98hc/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) manner, thus suggesting that DEPe-mediated induction of CD98hc triggers activation of the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway known to be involved in MMP-2 regulation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that exposure to DEPe induces functional overexpression of the amino acid transporter LAT1/CD98hc in lung cells. Such a regulation may participate to pulmonary carcinogenic effects of DEPs, owing to the well-documented contribution of LAT1 and CD98hc to cancer development. - Highlights: • The amino acid transporter LAT1/CD98hc is up-regulated in DEPe-treated lung cells. • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is involved in DEPe-triggered induction of LAT1/CD98hc.

  13. Effect of ipratropium bromide in bronchial asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskar V

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inhalation of ipratropium bromide was evaluated in 20 patients with bronchial asthma. It was observed that there was no significant improvement in the forced vital capacity and the forced expired volume in one second, while there was significant improvement in the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR measured at 9 pm, after inhalation of 2 puffs of ipratropium bromide aerosol (0.02mg/puff three to four times a day for 2 weeks. Since PEFR is a measure of large airway function and cholinergic mechanisms are primarily involved for airflow obstruction at large airways, improvement in PEFR by ipratropium bromide highlights its role as a useful bronchodilator in patients in whom vagal reflexes are responsible for the provocation of bronchoconstriction.

  14. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, A; Bauer, T; Richter, F; Leonhardt, P

    2001-11-01

    Asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are the most important obstructive pulmonary diseases. Patient's history and physical evaluation give major hints of the underlying disease. Further diagnostic measures comprise lung function analysis including spirometry, plethysmography and--in severe cases--blood gas analysis. Bronchial hyperreactivity may be quantified with an unspecific inhalative provocation test. In many cases allergic diseases are accompanied by asthma. Thus, allergy tests--particularly skin prick tests--have to be carried out. To further define an underlying allergy, in some cases even specific inhalative provocation tests have to be performed. X-ray of the thorax and other imaging techniques, detailed blood analysis, further diagnosis of the upper respiratory tract and the cardiac system may have to be carried out a) to quantify the effects of a severe form of asthma or COPD on other organs, and b) for differential diagnostic examinations.

  15. CT diagnosis of traumatic bronchial rupture in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelman, Monica; Ofer, Amos; Guralnik, Ludmila; Klein, Yoram; Best, Leal H.; Bentur, Lea; Traubici, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Bronchial rupture is a rare and serious complication of blunt chest trauma in children. The diagnosis of this injury is challenging and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. It is frequently associated with other severe injuries that may draw the focus of attention away from this potentially catastrophic but treatable injury. The radiographic findings of bronchial rupture have been reported in very few series. We report the findings in two children with bronchial rupture diagnosed by CT, in whom CT resulted in a significant change in patient management. (orig.)

  16. Superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization in the treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jianping; He Xu; Chen Liang; Su Haobo; Lou Wensheng; Fan Chunying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety and the effect of superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization in the treatment of lung cancer. Methods: Three hundred and twenty-nine cases of lung cancer diagnosed by pathology and treated with simply bronchial artery infusion or superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization were investigated. (1) Simply bronchial artery infusion (n=221): 40-60 mg Cisplatin or 200-300 mg Carboplatin combined with 10-20 mg Mitomycin-C or 100-200 mg Etoposide were infused through the catheter which was placed in the bronchial artery trunk or intercostal-bronchial artery trunk after angiography, re-infusion was performed at 2-4 weeks intervals, 549 times of infusion were performed in 221 cases. (2) Superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization (n=108): microcatheter was superselectively inserted into the distal of feeding artery guided with road-map after selective angiography, then anticarcinogen (same as simply bronchial artery infusion) and embolic material were infused through microcatheter. 30-50 Gelfoam particles and/or 3-8 ml Lipiodol was used as embolic material. Chemoembolization was reperformed at 6-9 weeks intervals, 266 times of chemoembolization were done in 108 cases. Results: No severe complications such as spinal injury were found. 28 cases in 221 cases performed with simply bronchial infusion got complete response (CR), meanwhile, partial response (PR) in 79 cases, stable(S) in 88 cases, and processes (P) in 26 cases. The effective rate (CR + PR) was 48.4%, survival rate of 1 year and 2 years were 53.8% and 44.8%, respectively. In the 108 cases performed with superselective bronchial artery chemoembolization, there were 16 cases of CR, 53 cases of PR, 32 cases of S, and 7 cases of P. The effective rate (CR + PR) was 63.9%, survival rate of 1 year and 2 years were 77.8% and 65.7%, respectively. There were significant statistic differences in the effective rate and survival rate of 1 year and 2 years between the two

  17. Grain dust induces IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells: the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H S; Suh, J H; Kim, H Y; Kwon, O J; Choi, D C

    1999-04-01

    Recent publications have suggested an active participation of neutrophils to induce bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust (GD). To further understand the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of GD-induced asthma, this investigation was designed to determine whether human bronchial epithelial cells could produce IL-8 production and to observe the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production. We cultured Beas-2B, a bronchial epithelial cell line. To observe GD-induced responses, four concentrations (1 to 200 microg/mL) of GD were incubated for 24 hours and compared with those without incubation of GD. To evaluate the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on IL-8 production, epithelial cells were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatant, which was derived from the culture of PBMC from a GD-induced asthmatic subject under the exposure to 10 microg/mL of GD, and compared with those cultured without addition of PBMC supernatant. The level of released IL-8 in the supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on IL-8 production, four concentrations (5 to 5000 ng/mL) of dexamethasone were pre-incubated for 24 hours and the same experiments were repeated. There was significant production of IL-8 from bronchial epithelial cells with additions of GD in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05), which was significantly augmented with additions of PBMC supernatant (P < .05) at each concentration. Compared with the untreated sample, pretreatment of dexamethasone could induced a remarkable inhibitions (15% to 55%) of IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that IL-8 production from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to neutrophil recruitment occurring in GD-induced airway inflammation. The downregulation of IL-8 production by dexamethasone from bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to the efficacy of this compound in

  18. The detection, diagnosis and therapy of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram covers clinical aspects of cancers of the lung and tracheo-bronchial tree, i.e., the lower respiratory tract. This includes primary lung cancer in both early and advanced disease status. The topic includes clinically relevant aspects of the prevention, detection, diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy of lung cancer. Certain aspects of metastatic lung disease treatment or therapy which involve aspects of interest to primary lung cancer are included. With certain exceptions, general pre-clinical or animal studies not directly related to the primary human disease are excluded

  19. Fault tree model of human error based on error-forcing contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung Cheol; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    In the safety-critical systems such as nuclear power plants, the safety-feature actuation is fully automated. In emergency case, the human operator could also play the role of a backup for automated systems. That is, the failure of safety-feature-actuation signal generation implies the concurrent failure of automated systems and that of manual actuation. The human operator's manual actuation failure is largely affected by error-forcing contexts (EFC). The failures of sensors and automated systems are most important ones. The sensors, the automated actuation system and the human operators are correlated in a complex manner and hard to develop a proper model. In this paper, we will explain the condition-based human reliability assessment (CBHRA) method in order to treat these complicated conditions in a practical way. In this study, we apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of safety features such as reactor trip and safety injection in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants

  20. Metabolic activity of tree saps of different origin towards cultured human cells in the light of grade correspondence analysis and multiple regression modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wnorowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree saps are nourishing biological media commonly used for beverage and syrup production. Although the nutritional aspect of tree saps is widely acknowledged, the exact relationship between the sap composition, origin, and effect on the metabolic rate of human cells is still elusive. Thus, we collected saps from seven different tree species and conducted composition-activity analysis. Saps from trees of Betulaceae, but not from Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, nor Juglandaceae families, were increasing the metabolic rate of HepG2 cells, as measured using tetrazolium-based assay. Content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, fumarates, malates, and succinates in sap samples varied across different tree species. Grade correspondence analysis clustered trees based on the saps’ chemical footprint indicating its usability in chemotaxonomy. Multiple regression modeling showed that glucose and fumarate present in saps from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth., black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. are positively affecting the metabolic activity of HepG2 cells.

  1. Deposition of inhaled radionuclides in bronchial airways: Implications for extrapolation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashazy, I.; Hofmann, W.; Heistracher, T.

    1996-01-01

    The laboratory rat has frequently been used as a human surrogate to estimate potential health effects following the inhalation of radioactive aerosol particles. Interspecies differences in biological response are commonly related to interspecies differences in particle deposition efficiencies. In addition, the documented site selectivity of bronchial carcinomas suggests that localized particle deposition patterns within bronchial airway bifurcations may have important implications for inhalation risk assessments. Interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns may be related primarily to differences in airway morphometries. Thus the validity of extrapolating rat deposition data to human inhalation conditions depends on their morphometric similarities and differences. It is well known that there are significant structural differences between the human - rather symmetric - and the rat - monopodial - airway systems. In the present approach, we focus on localized deposition patterns and deposition efficiencies in selected asymmetric bronchial airway bifurcations, whose diameters, lengths and branching angles were derived from the stochastic airway models of human and rat lungs (Koblinger and Hofmann, 1985;1988), which are based on the morphometric data of Raabe et al. (1976). The effects of interspecies differences in particle deposition patterns are explored in this study for two asymmetric bifurcation geometries in segmental bronchi and terminal bronchioles of both the human and rat lungs at different particle sizes. In order to examine the effect of flow rate on particle deposition in the human lung, we selected two different minute volumes, i.e., 10 and 60 1 min -1 , which are representative of low and heavy physical activity breathing conditions. In the case of the rat we used a minute volume of 0.234 1 min -1 (Hofmann et al., 1993)

  2. Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults in Nigeria: A Systematic ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... Nigerian Thoracic Society, pharmaceutical industries, and the health‑care workers in general.

  3. Myocardial Infarction as a Complication of Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.labbe.1@ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Medicine (Canada); Bordeleau, Simon [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada); Drouin, Christine [Université Laval, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (Canada); Archambault, Patrick [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    Bronchial artery embolization is now a common treatment for massive pulmonary hemoptysis if flexible bronchoscopy at the bedside failed to control the bleeding. Complications of this technique range from benign chest pain to devastating neurological impairments. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who developed an ST elevation myocardial infarction during bronchial artery embolization, presumably because of coronary embolism by injected particles. In this patient who had no previously known coronary artery disease, we retrospectively found a communication between the left bronchial artery and the circumflex coronary artery. This fistula was not visible on the initial angiographic view and likely opened because of the hemodynamic changes resulting from the embolization. This case advocates for careful search for bronchial-to-coronary arterial fistulas and the need for repeated angiographic views during embolization procedures.

  4. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  5. Bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of massive hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Zubairi, M.A.; Irfan, M.; Tanveer-ul-Haq; Fatima, K.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the efficacy of bronchial arteriography and bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in the management of massive hemoptysis in a developing Asian country. A retrospective review was carried out from March 2000 to March 2005 to evaluate the demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic studies, bronchoscopy results, and complications of bronchial arteriography and BAE at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Fourteen patients (9males, 5 females) with a mean age of 49 years underwent bronchial arteriography and BAE for massive hemoptysis. Hemoptysis was caused by bronchiectasis (10 patients), active pulmonary tuberculosis (3 patients), and lung malignancy (one patient). A CT scan of the chest was carried out in 11 patients, which revealed bronchiectasis (8 patients), cavity with infiltrates (3 patients), and mass lesion (one patient). Bronchoscopy was performed in all patients. Bleeding lobe or segment was identified in 12 patients. Bronchial arteriography revealed hypervascularity (13 patients), bronchial artery hypertrophy (5 patients), hypervascularity with shunting (one patient), dense soft tissue staining (7 patients), extravasation of contrast (one patient) pseudoaneurysm (one patient). Bronchial artery embolization was carried out in all patients. Rebleeding occurred within 24 hours in 2 patients who underwent surgery and within one week another 2 patients who were managed with repeat BAE. The complication of embolization occurred in one patient (transverse myelitis). Thirteen patients improved and were discharged home. One patient with terminal lung carcinoma died due to cardiogenic shock secondary to acute myocardial infarction. Bronchial artery embolization is an effective method for management of massive hemoptysis in developing countries and has a low complication rate. (author)

  6. [State of higher nervous activity in women with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, T M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 103 women were examined with bronchial asthma, who demonstrated disturbances in the intrapsychic adaptation presenting as hystero-hypochondriacal and anxious alterations in the personality pattern with formation of a certain modus of thinking and behavior. Differences have been ascertained in the personality profile of patients with varying clinicopathogenetic forms of bronchial astma in those groups of patients differing in age, degree of severity of the condition duration of the analysis.

  7. Effect of aerosolized acetylcholine on bronchial blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, N B; Carvalho, P; Johnson, S R; Thompson, W H; Lakshminarayan, S

    1998-08-01

    We studied the effects of aerosolized as well as intravenous infusion of acetylcholine on bronchial blood flow in six anesthetized sheep. Intravenous infusion of acetylcholine, at a dose of 2 microg/kg, increased bronchial blood flow from 45 +/- 15 (SE) to 74 +/- 30 ml/min, and vascular conductance increased by 76 +/- 22%. In contrast, aerosolized acetylcholine at doses of 2 and 20 microg/kg decreased bronchial vascular conductance by approximately 10%. At an aerosolized dose of 200 microg/kg, the bronchial vascular conductance increased by approximately 15%, and there was no further increase in conductance when the aerosolized dose was increased to 2,000 microg/kg. Pretreatment of animals with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, partially blocked the vasodilatory effects of intravenous acetylcholine and completely blocked the vasodilatory effects of high-dose aerosolized acetylcholine. These data suggest that aerosolized acetylcholine does not readily penetrate the vascular wall of bronchial circulatory system and, therefore, has minimal vasodilatory effects on the bronchial vasculature.

  8. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Massive Hemoptysis: a Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: To assess the efficacy and safety of bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of massive hemoptysis.   Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on 46 patients (26 males and 20 females who were referred to the Razavi Hospital from April 2009 to May 2012 with massive hemoptysis and had bronchial artery embolization procedures. General characteristics of the patients including age, gender, etiology, and thorax computed tomograms, findings of bronchial angiographic, results of the embolization, complications related to bronchial artery embolization and clinical outcome during follow-up were reviewed. Results: The etiology included previous pulmonary tuberculosis in 20 cases, previous tuberculosis with bronchiectasis in 16 cases, bronchiectasis in 6 cases, and active pulmonary tuberculosis in one case. No identifiable causes could be detected in three patients. Moreover, massive hemoptysis was successfully and immediately controlled following the embolization procedure in all patients. One patient developed recurrent hemoptysis during one month following the procedure and was treated by re-embolization. No major procedure–related complication such as bronchial infarction was identified However none of the patientsexperienced neurological complications. Conclusion: Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective means of controlling massive hemoptysis and should be regarded as the first-line treatment for this condition.

  9. Quantitative analysis of basal dendritic tree of layer III pyramidal neurons in different areas of adult human frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeba, Martina; Jovanov-Milosević, Natasa; Petanjek, Zdravko

    2008-01-01

    Large long projecting (cortico-cortical) layer IIIc pyramidal neurons were recently disclosed to be in the basis of cognitive processing in primates. Therefore, we quantitatively examined the basal dendritic morphology of these neurons by using rapid Golgi and Golgi Cox impregnation methods among three distinct Brodmann areas (BA) of an adult human frontal cortex: the primary motor BA4 and the associative magnopyramidal BA9 from left hemisphere and the Broca's speech BA45 from both hemispheres. There was no statistically significant difference in basal dendritic length or complexity, as dendritic spine number or their density between analyzed BA's. In addition, we analyzed each of these BA's immunocytochemically for distribution of SMI-32, a marker of largest long distance projecting neurons. Within layer IIIc, the highest density of SMI-32 immunopositive pyramidal neurons was observed in associative BA9, while in primary BA4 they were sparse. Taken together, these data suggest that an increase in the complexity of cortico-cortical network within human frontal areas of different functional order may be principally based on the increase in density of large, SMI-32 immunopositive layer IIIc neurons, rather than by further increase in complexity of their dendritic tree and synaptic network.

  10. Effectiveness of thin-slice axial images of multidetector row CT for visualization of bronchial artery before bronchial arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Aibe, Hitoshi; Kubo, Yuko; Terashima, Kotaro; Kinjo, Maya; Kamano, H.; Yoshida, Atsuko

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the ability of visualization of bronchial artery (BA) by using thin-slice axial images of 4-detector multidetector row CT in 65 patients with hemoptysis. In all patients, the origins of BA were well identified with observation of consecutive axial images with 1 mm thickness by paging method and bronchial arterial embolization (BAE) was performed successfully. Thin-slice axial images were considered to be useful to recognize BA and to perform BAE in patients with hemoptysis. (author)

  11. Attenuation by a Human Body and Trees as well as Material Penetration Loss in 26 and 39 GHz Millimeter Wave Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the attenuation by a human body and trees as well as material penetration loss at 26 and 39 GHz by measurements and theoretical modeling work. The measurements were carried out at a large restaurant and a university campus by using a time domain channel sounder. Meanwhile, the knife-edge (KE model and one-cylinder and two-cylinder models based on uniform theory of diffraction (UTD are applied to model the shape of a human body and predict its attenuation in theory. The ITU (International Telecommunication Union and its modified models are used to predict the attenuation by trees. The results show that the upper bound of the KE model is better to predict the attenuation by a human body compared with UTD one-cylinder and two-cylinder models at both 26 and 39 GHz. ITU model overestimates the attenuation by willow trees, and a modified attenuation model by trees is proposed based on our measurements at 26 GHz. Penetration loss for materials such as wood and glass with different types and thicknesses is measured as well. The measurement and modeling results in this paper are significant and necessary for simulation and planning of fifth-generation (5G mm-wave radio systems in ITU recommended frequency bands at 26 and 39 GHz.

  12. Reconstruction of the mouse extrahepatic biliary tree using primary human extrahepatic cholangiocyte organoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaziotis, Fotios; Justin, Alexander W; Tysoe, Olivia C

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of common bile duct (CBD) disorders, such as biliary atresia or ischemic strictures, is restricted by the lack of biliary tissue from healthy donors suitable for surgical reconstruction. Here we report a new method for the isolation and propagation of human cholangiocytes from....... The resulting bioengineered tissue can reconstruct the gallbladder wall and repair the biliary epithelium following transplantation into a mouse model of injury. Furthermore, bioengineered artificial ducts can replace the native CBD, with no evidence of cholestasis or occlusion of the lumen. In conclusion, ECOs...

  13. Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) in bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, R.; Bittner, R.; Schoerner, W.; Weiss, T.

    1988-01-01

    Comparative studies were made of 47 patients suffering from histologically and cytologically confirmed bronchial carcinoma, using CT and MRT respectively. CT examinations were performed before and after intravenous administration of contrast medium, whereas the MR examinations were conducted via EEG-triggered T 1 and T 2 marked SE sequences in the axial and coronary planes. Both methods were assessed in respect of tumour visualisation and documentation of tumour spread. Staging of tumour and lymph nodes yielded largely concurring results for CT and MRT. Exceptions were seen in 7 of 10 patients with malignant involvement of the pericardium and in 3 of 27 patients with lymph node metastases located mediastinally and subcarinally where only MRT showed a positive involvement of the pericardium or lymph nodes (with possible consequences for the staging of the tumour or lymph nodes). Decisive advantages of MRT compared with CT were seen in the identification of infiltration of the aortic-wall, in the differentiation of the poststenotic syndrome, in the visualisation of the thoracic wall infiltration and functional information on blood flow rate in upper venolus obstruction caused by a carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  14. Lung function decline in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; Bellia, Vincenzo; Bucchieri, Salvatore; D'Anna, Silvestre; Guerrera, Daniela; Bonsignore, Giovanni

    2002-12-01

    We evaluated the longitudinal changes in lung function and the factors associated with FEV(1) changes over time in a sample of asthmatic subjects. FEV(1) measures were recorded every 3 months over a 5-year follow-up period. To compare all subjects independently of body size, FEV(1) values were normalized for the subject's height at the third power. We evaluated the possible effect of age, baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability on the rate of change of FEV(1). We studied 142 subjects with asthma diagnosed on the basis of validated clinical and functional criteria. FEV(1) showed a linear decay with aging in each subject. For a subject 1.65 m in height, the median overall FEV(1) decay was 40.9 mL/yr. FEV(1) decay slopes were significantly influenced by age and sex, being steeper in younger male subjects. A significant interaction was found between age and baseline FEV(1): the FEV(1) decay was significantly higher among younger asthmatics with a poorer baseline functional condition. A longer disease duration was associated with a lower FEV(1) slope. FEV(1) variability was strongly associated with an increased rate of FEV(1) decline. FEV(1) decline in patients with bronchial asthma is significantly influenced by baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability. Moreover, the rate of FEV(1) decline seems to increase in younger subjects only when the baseline function is poorer.

  15. Influence of age on bronchial mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchelle, E.; Zahm, J.-M.; Bertrand, A.

    1979-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance was measured in 19 healthy non-smoking male subjects, aged between 21 and 69, by analysing the decrease in bronchial radioactivity of an aerosol of resin particles (mean diameter 7.4 +- 1.5 μm) labelled with sup(99m)Tc. The mucociliary clearance was expressed as the percentage of radioactivity eliminated after 1 h. The measurements were made on two occasions with an average time lapse of 5 weeks. The intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation were 15.6% and 41.5% respectively. The mucociliary clearance was significantly lower (P 54 years) than that observed (mean 34.1 +- s.d. 14.1%) in the younger subjects (21 to 37 years). A significant negative correlation (r=-0.472, P<0.05) was obtained between the ages of the healthy subjects and their mucociliary clearance. However, the fact that the results varied considerably within each age group suggests that factors other than age may have an effect on the mucociliary clearance. (author)

  16. Bronchial lesions of mouse model of asthma are preceded by immune complex vasculitis and induced bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Ian C; Sell, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    We systematically examined by immune histology the lungs of some widely used mouse models of asthma. These models include sensitization by multiple intraperitoneal injections of soluble ovalbumin (OVA) or of OVA with alum, followed by three intranasal or aerosol challenges 3 days apart. Within 24 h after a single challenge there is fibrinoid necrosis of arterial walls with deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig) and OVA and infiltration of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells that lasts for about 3 days followed by peribronchial B-cell infiltration and slight reversible goblet cell hypertrophy (GCHT). After two challenges, severe eosinophilic vasculitis is present at 6 h, increases by 72 h, and then declines; B-cell proliferation and significant GCHT and hyperplasia (GCHTH) and bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy recur more prominently. After three challenges, there is significantly increased induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) formation, GCHTH, and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Elevated levels of Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, are present in bronchial lavage fluids. Sensitized mice have precipitating antibody and positive Arthus skin reactions but also develop significant levels of IgE antibody to OVA but only 1 week after challenge. We conclude that the asthma like lung lesions induced in these models is preceded by immune complex-mediated eosinophilic vasculitis and iBALT formation. There are elevations of Th2 cytokines that most likely produce bronchial lesions that resemble human asthma. However, it is unlikely that mast cell-activated atopic mechanisms are responsible as we found only a few presumed mast cells by toluidine blue and metachromatic staining limited to the most proximal part of the main stem bronchus, and none in the remaining main stem bronchus or in the lung periphery.

  17. The Brown Tree Snake on Guam: How the Arrival of One Invasive Species Damaged the Ecology, Commerce, Electrical Systems and Human Health on Guam: A Comprehensive Information Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Thomas H.; Leasman-Tanner, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    Synopsis -- Shortly after World War II, and before 1952, the brown tree snake was accidentally transported from its native range in the South Pacific to Guam, probably as a stowaway in ship cargo. As a result of abnormally abundant prey resources on Guam and the absence of natural predators and other population controls, brown tree snake populations reached unprecedented numbers. Snakes caused the extirpation of most of the native forest vertebrate species; thousands of power outages affecting private, commercial, and military activities; widespread loss of domestic birds and pets; and considerable emotional trauma to residents and visitors alike when snakes invaded human habitats with the potential for severe envenomation of small children. Since Guam is a major transportation hub in the Pacific, numerous opportunities exist for the brown tree snakes on Guam to be introduced accidentally to other Pacific islands as passive stowaways in ship and air traffic from Guam. Numerous sightings of this species have been reported on other islands, and an incipient population is probably established on Saipan. It is important that people who may come in contact with the brown tree snake, particularly on neighboring islands and other high-risk sites, understand the scope of this problem and how to identify the snake so proper action can be taken. This resource has been developed to provide source materials on the history of the invasion, continuing threats, research results, and containment and management of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) in Guam and its relevance to other islands and mild continental environments.

  18. Herniation of unruptured tuberculous lung abscess into chest wall without pleural or bronchial spillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Magazine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old unmarried man presented to the chest outpatient department with a history of productive cough of two-month duration. He also complained of pain and swelling on the anterior aspect of right side of chest of one-month duration. Imaging studies of the thorax, including chest roentgenography and computerized tomography, revealed an unruptured lung abscess which had herniated into the chest wall. Culture of pus aspirated from the chest wall swelling grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was diagnosed to have a tuberculous lung abscess which had extended into the chest wall, without spillage into the pleural cavity or the bronchial tree. Antituberculosis drugs were prescribed, and he responded to the treatment with complete resolution of the lesion.

  19. Peculiarities of the Lifestyle and Psychological State of Primary Schoolchildren with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Timofeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop an integrated approach to the treatment of children with bronchial asthma is conditioned by a significant increase in morbidity, emergence of more severe forms of the disease and a lack of radical treatment methods. Along with the development and implementation of modern drug treatment methods, the most topical issues are a consideration of the socio-psychological characteristics of patients and psychological and pedagogical support of children during treatment. Study Objective: To study the lifestyle peculiarities of primary schoolchildren (7–10 years with bronchial asthma and their psychological state. Patients and Methods. The study included children with bronchial asthma (atopic form, partially controlled course as well as conditionally healthy peers (health groups I and II as a comparison group. The psychological status of the observed was assessed using Dembo-Rubinstein self-evaluation method, modified «Human Figure» method, and Varga-Stolin parental relationship test. Results. The study involved 75 children (mean age 8.2 ± 0.6 years, including girls 59%, illness duration 3.2 ± 0.5 years and their parents (mothers made 79% of them. The comparison group consisted of 54 conditionally healthy children (mean age 8.4 ± 0.3, girls 54% and their parents (mothers — 85%, fathers — 15%. It is shown that the lifestyle of primary schoolchildren changed due to illness distorts the process of personality development and leads to the emergence of difficulties in the emotional and personality sphere: a reduced background of mood (35; 46.6% versus 11; 20%, blockage of experiences and difficulties in their verbalization (56; 75% versus 25; 46%, defensive-aggressive type of behavior in a stress situation (68; 91% versus 25; 46%, pronounced intrapersonal conflict (47; 62% versus 32; 59%, and communication problems (unsociability, restriction in communication, social fears. Conclusion. Bronchial asthma changes the child

  20. Decision tree analysis as a supplementary tool to enhance histomorphological differentiation when distinguishing human from non-human cranial bone in both burnt and unburnt states: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, T; Goodburn, B; Singhrao, S K

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study was undertaken to describe and record the histological characteristics of burnt and unburnt cranial bone fragments from human and non-human bones. Reference series of fully mineralized, transverse sections of cranial bone, from all variables and specimen states, were prepared by manual cutting and semi-automated grinding and polishing methods. A photomicrograph catalogue reflecting differences in burnt and unburnt bone from human and non-humans was recorded and qualitative analysis was performed using an established classification system based on primary bone characteristics. The histomorphology associated with human and non-human samples was, for the main part, preserved following burning at high temperature. Clearly, fibro-lamellar complex tissue subtypes, such as plexiform or laminar primary bone, were only present in non-human bones. A decision tree analysis based on histological features provided a definitive identification key for distinguishing human from non-human bone, with an accuracy of 100%. The decision tree for samples where burning was unknown was 96% accurate, and multi-step classification to taxon was possible with 100% accuracy. The results of this feasibility study strongly suggest that histology remains a viable alternative technique if fragments of cranial bone require forensic examination in both burnt and unburnt states. The decision tree analysis may provide an additional but vital tool to enhance data interpretation. Further studies are needed to assess variation in histomorphology taking into account other cranial bones, ontogeny, species and burning conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Human Influences on Tree Diversity and Composition of a Coastal Forest Ecosystem: The Case of Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, Rufiji, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kimaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an ecological survey conducted in Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, a biodiversity rich forest reserve within the coastal forests of Tanzania. The main goal of this study was to determine the influence of uncontrolled anthropogenic activities on tree species diversity and composition within the forest ecosystem. It was revealed that economic activities including logging, charcoaling, and shifting cultivation were the most important disturbing activities affecting ecological functioning and biodiversity integrity of the forest. Further to this, we noted that the values of species diversity, composition, and regeneration potential within the undisturbed forest areas were significantly different from those in heavily disturbed areas. These observations confirm that the ongoing human activities have already caused size quality degradation of useful plants, enhanced species diversification impacts to the forest ecosystem, and possibly negatively affected the livelihoods of the adjacent local communities. Despite these disturbances, Ngumburuni forest reserve still holds important proportions of both endemic and threatened animal and plant species. The study suggests urgent implementation of several conservation measures in order to limit accessibility to the forest resources so as to safeguard the richness and abundance of useful biodiversity stocks in the reserve.

  2. Features of Atopic Reactivity in Schoolchildren with Severe Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.I. Marusyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 30 students with severe bronchial asthma and 30 children with moderate to severe course. Patients with severe bronchial asthma revealed a clear tendency to increase the relative content of interleukin 4 in peripheral blood, which indirectly indicates the severity of inflammation in the bronchi. Almost every second child suffering from severe bronchial asthma reported an increase in the concentration of immunoglobulin E (more than 545.3 IU/ml, and the odds ratio was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1–3.4. In the group of patients with severe bronchial asthma, cases of increased skin sensitivity to household allergens were significantly more frequent compared to the second group. Thus, the size of hyperemia over 15.0 mm was recorded in 81.5 % of children of the first group and only in 51.9 % of persons (Pϕ < 0.05 in the second one. Clinical and epidemiological risk and diagnostic value of individual indicators of atopic reactivity were determined to verify the phenotype of severe bronchial asthma.

  3. Adaptive consequences of human-mediated introgression for indigenous tree species: the case of a relict Pinus pinaster population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Valiente, José Alberto; Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan José

    2014-12-01

    Human-induced gene movement via afforestation and restoration programs is a widespread phenomenon throughout the world. However, its effects on the genetic composition of native populations have received relatively little attention, particularly in forest trees. Here, we examine to what extent gene flow from allochthonous plantations of Pinus pinaster Aiton impacts offspring performance in a neighboring relict natural population and discuss the potential consequences for the long-term genetic composition of the latter. Specifically, we conducted a greenhouse experiment involving two contrasting watering treatments to test for differences in a set of functional traits and mortality rates between P. pinaster progenies from three different parental origins: (i) local native parents, (ii) exotic parents and (iii) intercrosses between local mothers and exotic fathers (intraspecific hybrids). Our results showed differences among crosses in cumulative mortality over time: seedlings of exotic parents exhibited the lowest mortality rates and seedlings of local origin the highest, while intraspecific hybrids exhibited an intermediate response. Linear regressions showed that seedlings with higher water-use efficiency (WUE, δ(13)C) were more likely to survive under drought stress, consistent with previous findings suggesting that WUE has an important role under dry conditions in this species. However, differences in mortality among crosses were only partially explained by WUE. Other non-measured traits and factors such as inbreeding depression in the relict population are more likely to explain the lower performance of native progenies. Overall, our results indicated that intraspecific hybrids and exotic individuals are more likely to survive under stressful conditions than local native individuals, at least during the first year of development. Since summer drought is the most important demographic and selective filter affecting tree establishment in Mediterranean ecosystems

  4. Delphi project in bronchial asthma. Two stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Benítez, M; Ibero Iborra, M; Sanz Ortega, J; Garde Garde, J

    2010-01-01

    From the paediatric point of view, we have undertaken two Delphi studies into bronchial asthma. The first is related to the consensus known as the consensus document of the five associations. The second is more recent and has been undertaken with GEMA (the Spanish Guidelines on the Management of Asthma). The aim of this paper is to carry out a descriptive study comparing the 2 Delphi processes and to objectively assess if in some way behaviour over the past two years has changed as far as expert opinion is concerned. In the consensus document those points giving rise to most controversy were the treatment of children under three years of age and treatment with immunotherapy in allergic asthma. It is also necessary to highlight how important it was at that particular point in time to define the phenotypes of wheezing and the predictive index of asthma in children of less than 3 years of age. Of the 52 questions in the questionnaire, in 13.6% the panel of experts reached no consensus in their positions. Following GEMA the Delphi methodology, 56 questions were asked in the first round of the questionnaire, and consensus was reached in 87.5%. As regards the paediatric part relating to diagnosis and treatment in children, agreement was reached on all the questions in the first round. Agreement was reached in 8.92% questions in the second round. Clinical guidelines and consensus documents can modify behaviour towards an illness, both in the diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Review of cause-based decision tree approach for the development of domestic standard human reliability analysis procedure in low power/shutdown operation probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Jung, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    We review the Cause-Based Decision Tree (CBDT) approach to decide whether we incorporate it or not for the development of domestic standard Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) procedure in low power/shutdown operation Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). In this paper, we introduce the cause based decision tree approach, quantify human errors using it, and identify merits and demerits of it in comparision with previously used THERP. The review results show that it is difficult to incorporate the CBDT method for the development of domestic standard HRA procedure in low power/shutdown PSA because the CBDT method need for the subjective judgment of HRA analyst like as THERP. However, it is expected that the incorporation of the CBDT method into the development of domestic standard HRA procedure only for the comparision of quantitative HRA results will relieve the burden of development of detailed HRA procedure and will help maintain consistent quantitative HRA results

  6. Problematic diagnosis of bronchial foreign bodies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, V.; Paeivaensalo, M.; Seppaenen, U.; Hyrynkangas, K.; Linna, O.; Kortelainen, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Bronchial foreign bodies by children are dangerous and require immediate therapeutic measures. Findings and significance of chest film in the diagnosis of bronchial foreign bodies in 24 children were analysed. All patients were symptomatic. 18 patients had an abnormal and 6 normal auscultation finding. In three cases the physician did not suspect aspiration, and the diagnosis was delayed, which caused the death of one child. Roentgenpositive foreign bodies were found in 8 and -negative in 16 cases. Secondary changes (obstructive emphysema, atelectasis, pneumonia) were seen in 16 cases. In emergency cases the chest films were analysed by physician and later by a radiologist, who found 88% of them to be abnormal. Fluoroscopy of expiratory chest film helps to detect the unilateral emphysema more distinctly. The diagnosis must always be confirmed with bronchoscopy and extraction thereby is the adequate treatment of bronchial bodies. (orig.) [de

  7. OMALIZUMAB FOR CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: INDICATIONS TO APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to IgE are a totally new class of medications currently used to enhance the supervision over severe persistent atopic bronchial asthma. Omalizumab is the most well studied, first and only medication of this group, which is recommended for the application and is allowed for treatment of uncontrolled bronchial asthma among adults and children aged 12 and over in different countries of the world, including Russia. High omalizumab assisted treatment costs, as well as the need in the monthly visits to the doctor for the omalizumab injections are justified for the patients, requiring repeat hospitalizations, emergency medical aid, using high doses of the inhalation and/or systemic glucocorticosteroids. The article reviews the criteria for the selection of patients fit for omalizumab assisted treatment.Key words: omalizumab, anti-ige-antibodies, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, treatment, children.

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  12. Treatment of distal bronchial stenosis after bilateral lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Golovinskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effi ciency of lung transplantation is considerably limited by the complications associated with the bronchial pathologies. Despite the progress of the treatment methods, bronchial complications are still remaining as an actual problem in the postoperative period with frequency of occurrence from 7 to 29%. However, the bronchial stenosis are the most common bronchial complications after lung transplantation with mortality from 2 to 4%.Aim. To study an experience of our center of bronchial stenosis treatment in lung recipients. Materials and methods. 34 patients underwent lung transplantation from September 2014 to January 2017. 6 (16% of them had a stenosis of lobar or segmental bronchi from 84 to 494 postoperative day. 5 (83% of them have demonstrated multifocal lesions. In all of the cases there was performed an endoscopic bougienage, which involved a balloon dilatation and electrocoagulated incision of granular tissue under X-ray control. After that the patients were administrated by everolimus.Results. Restenosis was formed in 132,0 ± 94,2 postoperative day after primary treatment in all patients. In four cases (67% we used nitinol stent placement under X-ray control. There were no complications. In 3 cases stents were dislocated distally, so we needed to use repeated endoscopic bougienage to replace the stent. Using of everolimus has allowed to decrease the rate of restenosis, but it need future research.Conclusion. Distal bronchial stenosis after lung transplantation can be managed with endoscopic bougienage and stent placement. Adding everolimus has not signifi cantly affected the risk of frequency of restenosis.

  13. Empirical description of bronchial and nonbronchial arteries with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: yuhongphd@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Dong Weihua, E-mail: dongweihua2000@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries using multi-detector row helical computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in patients with pulmonary disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 years; range, 20-82 years) with congenital and acquired pulmonary disorders of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries underwent multi-detector row helical computed tomographic angiography of the thorax using a 16-detector row scanner. Each of these patients had experienced an episode of hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiogram data, which included maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reconstruction, and three-dimensional volume-rendered images, were used to retrospectively analyse the characteristics of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries. Results: We identified a total of 128 bronchial arteries (76 on the right side and 52 on the left) in 39 patients. We detected 42 nonbronchial systemic artery branches, including 19 internal mammary artery branches, 8 subclavian artery branches, 8 inferior phrenic artery branches, 5 intercostal artery branches, 1 thyrocervical trunk branch, and 1 celiac trunk branch. Thirty-five dilated and tortuous nonbronchial systemic arteries entered into the lung parenchyma and extended down to the lesions. Every case, except the one case of sequestration, was associated with pleural thickening where the vascular structures passed through the extrapleural fat. Conclusions: The variations in both the bronchial artery anatomy and the location and type of the nonbronchial arteries were great. Nonbronchial arteries may be a significant source of hemoptysis. MDCT angiography can be used to detect detailed anatomical information about the origins and courses of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries and their pathophysiologic features.

  14. ColorTree: a batch customization tool for phylogenic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

    2009-07-31

    Genome sequencing projects and comparative genomics studies typically aim to trace the evolutionary history of large gene sets, often requiring human inspection of hundreds of phylogenetic trees. If trees are checked for compatibility with an explicit null hypothesis (e.g., the monophyly of certain groups), this daunting task is greatly facilitated by an appropriate coloring scheme. In this note, we introduce ColorTree, a simple yet powerful batch customization tool for phylogenic trees. Based on pattern matching rules, ColorTree applies a set of customizations to an input tree file, e.g., coloring labels or branches. The customized trees are saved to an output file, which can then be viewed and further edited by Dendroscope (a freely available tree viewer). ColorTree runs on any Perl installation as a stand-alone command line tool, and its application can thus be easily automated. This way, hundreds of phylogenic trees can be customized for easy visual inspection in a matter of minutes. ColorTree allows efficient and flexible visual customization of large tree sets through the application of a user-supplied configuration file to multiple tree files.

  15. [Iatrogenic bronchial obstruction: study of 4 atopic children with bronchial obstruction induced by acetyl salicylic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, L; Vuillemier, P L; Principe, A M; Petrillo, T

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied the modification of the spirometric parameters in four atopic children, during nonallergic diet, after administration of ASA (400 mg). The examination of the respiratory functionality has showed a fall of parameters starting four hours after the challenge and with an increase of respiratory resistance. This bronchospastic reaction persisted for about eighteen hours to diminish 24 h. after administration of 400 mg of ASA. The study of spirometric values has showed a remarkable fall of MMEF, sign of small airways obstruction, but also of FEV1-CV for the involvement of the higher airways. The authors attribute the reaction to the metabolites of arachidonic acid (Leukotrienes) and to their different receptor site on the bronchial mucous membrane target cells. The authors conclude showing the gravity of injury that will induce imprudent administration of ASA in hypersensitive subject.

  16. Cushing's syndrome associated with a bronchial adenoma. Possible periodic hormonogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M S; Gutman, A; Bruderman, I; Myers, B; Griffel, W B

    1975-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in a patient with ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by a malignant bronchial adenoma are discussed. Persistent Cushing's syndrome was present following apparent total adrenalectomy, but radioactive scanning with 131I-19-iodocholesterol showed the presence of residual adrenal tissue in the right suprarenal bed. Amelioration of the hypercortisolism occurred after removal of the bronchial adenoma. A paradoxical elevation of adrenocortical activity followed administration of dexamethasone and data are presented which suggest that periodic secretion of ACTH accounted for this phenomenon.

  17. Bronchial abnormalities found in a consecutive series of 40 brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Davide; Bertoncello, Diana; Drigo, Michele

    2009-10-01

    To detect abnormalities of the lower respiratory tract (trachea, principal bronchi, and lobar bronchi) in brachycephalic dogs by use of endoscopy, evaluate the correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities, and determine whether dogs with bronchial abnormalities have a less favorable postsurgical long-term outcome following correction of brachycephalic syndrome. Prospective case series study. 40 client-owned brachycephalic dogs with stertorous breathing and clinical signs of respiratory distress. Brachycephalic dogs anesthetized for pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy between January 2007 and June 2008 underwent flexible bronchoscopy for systematic evaluation of the principal and lobar bronchi. For dogs that underwent surgical correction of any component of brachycephalic syndrome, owners rated surgical outcome during a follow-up telephone survey. Correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities and association between bronchial abnormalities and long-term outcome were assessed. Pugs (n = 20), English Bulldogs (13), and French Bulldogs (7) were affected. A fixed bronchial collapse was recognized in 35 of 40 dogs with a total of 94 bronchial stenoses. Abnormalities were irregularly distributed between hemithoraces; 15 of 94 bronchial abnormalities were detected in the right bronchial system, and 79 of 94 were detected in the left. The left cranial bronchus was the most commonly affected structure, and Pugs were the most severely affected breed. Laryngeal collapse was significantly correlated with severe bronchial collapse; no significant correlation was found between severity of bronchial abnormalities and postsurgical outcome. Bronchial collapse was a common finding in brachycephalic dogs, and long-term postsurgical outcome was not affected by bronchial stenosis.

  18. The influence of variability on the optimal shape of an airway tree branching asymmetrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauroy, Benjamin; Bokov, Plamen

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetry of the bronchial tree has been reported on numerous occasions, and bronchi in the lung bifurcate most of the time into a major and a minor daughter. Asymmetry is most probably bound to play a role on the hydrodynamic resistance and volume occupation of the bronchial tree. Thus, in this work, we search for an optimal asymmetric airway tree crossed by Poiseuille flow that would be a good candidate to model the distal conductive part of the lung. The geometry is controlled by major and minor diameter reduction factors that depend on the generation. We show that the optimal asymmetric tree has diameter reduction factors that are adimensional from the second level of bifurcation and that they are highly dependent on the asymmetric ratio that defines the relative sizes of the major and minor branches in a bifurcation. This optimization also gives access to a cost function whose particularity is to be asymmetric around its minimum. Thus, the cliff-edge hypothesis predicts that if the system suffers variability, then the best tree is shifted from the optimal. We apply a recent theoretical model of cliff-edge in order to measure the role of variability on the determination of the best asymmetric tree. Then, we compare our results with lung data of the literature. In particular, we are able to quantify the variability needed to fit the data and to give hypothesis that could explain, at least partially, the shift found between the optimal tree and the measures in the case of asymmetric bronchial trees. Finally, our model predicts that, even if the population is adapted at best, there always exist individuals whose bronchial trees are associated with larger costs comparatively to the average and who ought to be more sensitive to geometrical remodeling

  19. ExpTreeDB: web-based query and visualization of manually annotated gene expression profiling experiments of human and mouse from GEO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ming; Ye, Fuqiang; Zhu, Juanjuan; Li, Zongwei; Yang, Shuai; Yang, Bite; Han, Lu; Wu, Yongge; Chen, Ying; Li, Fei; Wang, Shengqi; Bo, Xiaochen

    2014-12-01

    Numerous public microarray datasets are valuable resources for the scientific communities. Several online tools have made great steps to use these data by querying related datasets with users' own gene signatures or expression profiles. However, dataset annotation and result exhibition still need to be improved. ExpTreeDB is a database that allows for queries on human and mouse microarray experiments from Gene Expression Omnibus with gene signatures or profiles. Compared with similar applications, ExpTreeDB pays more attention to dataset annotations and result visualization. We introduced a multiple-level annotation system to depict and organize original experiments. For example, a tamoxifen-treated cell line experiment is hierarchically annotated as 'agent→drug→estrogen receptor antagonist→tamoxifen'. Consequently, retrieved results are exhibited by an interactive tree-structured graphics, which provide an overview for related experiments and might enlighten users on key items of interest. The database is freely available at http://biotech.bmi.ac.cn/ExpTreeDB. Web site is implemented in Perl, PHP, R, MySQL and Apache. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  1. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  2. IMMUNOLOGICAL MARKERS OF UNCONTROLLED ATOPIC BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Smolnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a prevalent chronic allergic disease of lungs at early ages. A priority  task in allergology  is to search  biological  markers  related  to uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma. Cytokines fulfill their distinct function in pathogenesis of atopic  bronchial asthma, participating at the initiation, development and persistence of allergic inflammation in airways, causing different  variations of clinical course of the disease (with  respect  to its acuteness, severity, frequency of exacerbations. The  present  work has studied  indices  of cellular  and  humoral links of immunity, as well as levels of some  pro and  anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood serum (IL-4, IL-10, IL-2 and TNFα, aiming to determine potential markers of uncontrolled atopic bronchial asthma in children. A group of Caucasian (European children was involved into the research: Cohort 1, moderate atopic  bronchial asthma with controlled course during the last 3 months (n = 59; Cohort 2, severe/moderate-severe atopic bronchial asthma with uncontrolled course of the disease within last 3 months (n = 51,  Cohort 3 – control, practically healthy  children without signs of atopy  (n = 33. All the  children included in the group with atopic  bronchial asthma underwent regular mono/combined basic therapy  at high/ intermediate therapeutic doses.  We performed a comparative analysis  of cell  population indices  reflecting certain cellular  immunity links,  and  determined significantly  lower  levels of CD3+   lymphocytes, as well as decrease in relative  and  absolute  contents of CD4+  and  CD8+  cells in the  cohort with  uncontrolled course of atopic  bronchial asthma, as compared with controlled-course cohort. When  evaluating concentrations  of cytokines in peripheral blood serum of the patients with controlled and uncontrolled atopic  bronchial asthma, we revealed  significantly  higher

  3. Theoretical modeling of fine-particle deposition in 3-dimensional bronchial bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.T.; Rajendran, N.; Liao, N.S.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical model is developed for the prediction of the peak to average particle deposition flux in the human bronchial airways. The model involves the determination of the peak flux by a round-nose 2-dimensional bifurcation channel and the average deposition flux by a curved-tube model. The ''hot-spot'' effect for all generations in the human respiratory system is estimated. Hot spots are usually associated with the sites of bronchoconstriction or even chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. Recent studies indicate that lung cancer in smokers may be caused by the deposition of radioactive particles produced by the burning of tobacco leaves. High local concentrations of Po-210 have been measured in epithelium from bronchial bifurcations of smokes. This Po-210 is the radioactive daughter of Pb-210 which is produced from a long chain of radioactive decay starting from uranium in the fertilizer-enriched soil. It is found that the peak deposition flux is higher than the average deposition flux by a factor ranging between 5 and 30, depending on the generation number. The importance of this peak to average deposition flux ratio on consideration of environmental safety studies is discussed

  4. Cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by membrane palmitate accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Payet

    Full Text Available The F508del-CFTR mutation, responsible for Cystic Fibrosis (CF, leads to the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The mistrafficking of this mutant form can be corrected by pharmacological chaperones, but these molecules showed limitations in clinical trials. We therefore hypothesized that important factors in CF patients may have not been considered in the in vitro assays. CF has also been associated with an altered lipid homeostasis, i. e. a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma and tissues. However, the precise fatty acyl content of membrane phospholipids from human CF bronchial epithelial cells had not been studied to date. Since the saturation level of phospholipids can modulate crucial membrane properties, with potential impacts on membrane protein folding/trafficking, we analyzed this parameter for freshly isolated bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. Interestingly, we could show that Palmitate, a saturated fatty acid, accumulates within Phosphatidylcholine (PC in CF freshly isolated cells, in a process that could result from hypoxia. The observed PC pattern can be recapitulated in the CFBE41o(- cell line by incubation with 100 µM Palmitate. At this concentration, Palmitate induces an ER stress, impacts calcium homeostasis and leads to a decrease in the activity of the corrected F508del-CFTR. Overall, these data suggest that bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by hypoxia-related Palmitate accumulation in CF patients. We propose that this phenomenon could be an important bottleneck for F508del-CFTR trafficking correction by pharmacological agents in clinical trials.

  5. Non-bronchial collateral supply from the left gastric artery in massive haemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellars, N.; Belli, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Two patients presented with recurrent, massive haemoptysis. Arteriography, including thoracoabdominal aortograms, revealed in both cases large non-bronchial collaterals arising from the left gastric artery. In the first case the non-bronchial collateral supplied the upper left lobe and in the second case it supplied the middle right lobe. Percutaneous embolisation of bronchial and non-bronchial collateral branches has become an accepted procedure in controlling massive or recurrent haemoptysis. Accurate identification of the non-bronchial collateral arterial feeders is essential for successful embolotherapy. (orig.)

  6. Regional lung function (133Xe-radiospirometry) in bronchial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arborelius, M.; Kristersson, S.; Lindell, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a prospective study of all patients with bronchial cancer in the city of Malmoe, all patients considered for surgery were examined with regard to overall function (conventional spirometry) and regional lung function (133-Xe-radiospirometry). Out of 116 consecutive cases examined with 133-Xe-radiospirometry before surgery,

  7. Challenges in the Management of Bronchial Asthma Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World‑wide, it is estimated that 300 million people are affected with bronchial asthma. .... years of study, design, the focus of the challenge (diagnosis, treatment .... nebulizer for delivering large bronchodilator doses in patients with severe acute ..... Limitations UK Findings, poster presented at the British. Thoracic Society.

  8. Assessment of Serum Vitamin D in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham E. Abd El Aaty

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in asthmatic patients, there was a strong correlation between asthma severity and 25(OH vitamin D concentrations and there was a direct and a positive significant correlation between vitamin D levels and pulmonary function tests in asthmatic patients, so the measurement of serum vitamin D levels in patients with bronchial asthma is very useful.

  9. Bronchial asthma among workers in Alexandria and its association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha S. Elshaer

    2011-06-23

    Jun 23, 2011 ... chest tightness and coughing particularly at night or in the early morning; (e) ... workers with bronchial asthma, bronchodilator treatment was withdrawn prior to ...... pared to subjects who had both active genes62; this finding ..... S-transferase genotypes GSTM1 and GSTT1 in cancer suscepti- bility. Cancer ...

  10. Features of Acute Treatment of Bronchial Obstruction Syndrome in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.N. Okhotnikova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a problem of bronchial obstruction in infants. There have been considered the pathogenesis of this pathology, its clinical manifestation and complications, features of treatment focusing on combined therapy use (medication Berodual containing β2-agonist of fenoterol hydrobromide and anticholinergic drug ipratropium bromide.

  11. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. When aspergillus fumigatus spores are inhaled they grow in bronchial mucous as hyphae. It occurs in non immunocompromised patients and belongs to the hypersensitivity disorders induced by Aspergillus.

  12. Advice concerning the early diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoma is in the Netherlands for men the most frequent type of cancer; the incidence in women is rising. In the Netherlands nowadays, per year about 7100 persons die of this disease which therefore constitutes an important public health problem. The request of advice asks - among other things - whether in the future the periodical X-ray examination of the thorax for the detection of tuberculosis of persons over 40 years can be continued for presymptomatic cases of bronchial carcinoma. The available relevant literature does not yet give indications that periodical mass radiography has any influence on the morbidity and mortality of the disease. On the other hand, literature describing clinical experience shows that the prognosis of patients with bronchial carcinoma, detected in an early presymptomatic stage, is essentially better than in the case of patients with symptomatic disease. A critical analysis of the literature does not furnish epidemiological arguments to recommend periodical mass radiography for bronchial carcinoma. However, because lungcancer forms an extremely important public health problem and because the scarcity of randomized; controlled studies in this field, the committee advises - from a scientific point of view - to perform such a study in one or preferably two regions in the Netherlands. A number of conditions are mentioned which such a study at least should meet. (Auth.)

  13. Management of gastro-bronchial fistula complicating a subtotal esophagectomy: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of a fistula between the tracheobronchial tree and the gastric conduit post esophagectomy is a rare and often fatal complication. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68 year old man underwent radical esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. On postoperative day 14 the nasogastric drainage bag dramatically filled with air, without deterioration in respiratory function or progressive sepsis. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed which demonstrated a gastro-bronchial fistula in the posterior aspect of the left main bronchus. He was managed conservatively with antibiotics, enteral nutrition via jejunostomy, and non-invasive respiratory support. A follow- up bronchoscopy 60 days after the diagnostic bronchoscopy, confirmed spontaneous closure of the fistula CONCLUSIONS: This is the first such case where a conservative approach with no surgery or endoprosthesis resulted in a successful outcome, with fistula closure confirmed at subsequent bronchoscopy. Our experience would suggest that in very carefully selected cases where bronchopulmonary contamination from the fistula is minimal or absent, there is no associated inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree and the patient is stable from a respiratory point of view without evidence of sepsis, there may be a role for a trial of conservative management.

  14. Management of gastro-bronchial fistula complicating a subtotal esophagectomy: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2009-12-24

    Abstract Background The development of a fistula between the tracheobronchial tree and the gastric conduit post esophagectomy is a rare and often fatal complication. Case presentation A 68 year old man underwent radical esophagectomy for esophageal adenocarcinoma. On postoperative day 14 the nasogastric drainage bag dramatically filled with air, without deterioration in respiratory function or progressive sepsis. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed which demonstrated a gastro-bronchial fistula in the posterior aspect of the left main bronchus. He was managed conservatively with antibiotics, enteral nutrition via jejunostomy, and non-invasive respiratory support. A follow- up bronchoscopy 60 days after the diagnostic bronchoscopy, confirmed spontaneous closure of the fistula Conclusions This is the first such case where a conservative approach with no surgery or endoprosthesis resulted in a successful outcome, with fistula closure confirmed at subsequent bronchoscopy. Our experience would suggest that in very carefully selected cases where bronchopulmonary contamination from the fistula is minimal or absent, there is no associated inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree and the patient is stable from a respiratory point of view without evidence of sepsis, there may be a role for a trial of conservative management.

  15. Increased wheeze but not bronchial hyperreactivity near power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, J A; Henry, R L; Hankin, R G; Hensley, M J

    1993-08-01

    In a previous study a higher than expected prevalence of asthma was found in Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, compared with another coastal control town. This study aimed to compare atopy, bronchial hyperreactivity, and reported symptoms of asthma in the power station town and a second control area with greater socioeconomic similarity. A cross sectional survey was undertaken. Lake Munmorah, a coastal town near two power stations, and Dungog, a country town in the Hunter Valley, NSW, Australia. All children attending kindergarten to year 6 at all schools in the two towns were invited to participate in 1990. The response rates for the questionnaire for reported symptoms and associated demographic data were 92% in Lake Munmorah and 93% in Dungog, with 84% and 90% of children respectively being measured for lung function, atopy, and bronchial reactivity. There were 419 boys and 432 girls aged 5 to 12 years. Main outcome measures were current wheeze and bronchial hyper-reactivity, defined as a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or peak expiratory flow (PEF) of 20% or more. Current wheeze was reported in 24.8% of the Lake Munmorah children compared with 14.6% of the Dungog children. Bronchial hyper-reactivity was similar for both groups--25.2% in Lake Munmorah and 22.3% in Dungog. The mean baseline FEV1 was lower in Lake Munmorah than in Dungog (p power station town, but bronchial hyper-reactivity and skin test defined atopy were similar in the two communities. These results are consistent with the previous study and confirm the increased presence of reported symptomatic illness in the town near power stations.

  16. Clinical Application of Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stents in the Treatment of Bronchial Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ming; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tian Xiao; Jiang, Min Zhong; Zang, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Background The study was designed to access the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of fully covered self-expandable metal stents in the treatment of bronchial fistula. Methods Clinical data of nine patients (seven males and two females) who were treated with placement of tracheobronchial or bronchial fully covered self-expandable metal stents from August 2005 to November 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Among these patients, seven were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula, one with tracheopleural fistula, and one with left main bronchoesophageal fistula. Eight had accompanying thoracic empyema. The fistula orifices ranged from 3.5 mm to 25 mm in diameter. All patients received topical anesthesia. L-shaped stents were placed in six patients and I-shaped stents in three under fluoroscopic guidance. After stent placement, patients with empyema were treated with pleural lavage. Results Stent placement in the tracheobronchial tree was successful in all patients, without procedure-related complications. The operating time was 5 to 16 minutes. A small amount of bubble overflowed from the intrathoracic drainage tube of only one patient. In the other patients, the bubble in the intrathoracic drainage tube disappeared immediately or angiography showed no overflow of contrast agent from the fistula orifice. The effective rate of fistula orifice closure after stent placement was 100%, with 88.9% rated as excellent. One patient coughed the stent out 5 days after placement and hence a new stent was placed. Among the patients with empyema, one died of septicemia arising from empyema on day 8 and another died of brain metastases of lung cancer 6 months after stent insertion with persistent empyema. In the other six patients, empyema resolved after 2 to 5 months (cure rate 75%). Seven patients were followed up for 3 to 36 months. During follow-up, one stent was removed 8 months after implantation due to difficult expectoration, without recurrent empyema. The remaining

  17. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  18. IL-13 induces a bronchial epithelial phenotype that is profibrotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Bao T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-13 and mechanical perturbations (e.g. scrape injury to the epithelium release profibrotic factors such as TGF-β2, which may, in turn, stimulate subepithelial fibrosis in asthma. We hypothesized that prolonged IL-13 exposure creates a plastic epithelial phenotype that is profibrotic through continuous secretion of soluble mediators at levels that stimulate subepithelial fibrosis. Methods Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE were treated with IL-13 (0, 0.1, 1, or 10 ng/ml for 14 days (day 7 to day 21 following seeding at an air-liquid interface during differentiation, and then withdrawn for 1 or 7 days. Pre-treated and untreated NHBE were co-cultured for 3 days with normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF embedded in rat-tail collagen gels during days 22–25 or days 28–31. Results IL-13 induced increasing levels of MUC5AC protein, and TGF-β2, while decreasing β-Tubulin IV at day 22 and 28 in the NHBE. TGF-β2, soluble collagen in the media, salt soluble collagen in the matrix, and second harmonic generation (SHG signal from fibrillar collagen in the matrix were elevated in the IL-13 pre-treated NHBE co-cultures at day 25, but not at day 31. A TGF-β2 neutralizing antibody reversed the increase in collagen content and SHG signal. Conclusion Prolonged IL-13 exposure followed by withdrawal creates an epithelial phenotype, which continuously secretes TGF-β2 at levels that increase collagen secretion and alters the bulk optical properties of an underlying fibroblast-embedded collagen matrix. Extended withdrawal of IL-13 from the epithelium followed by co-culture does not stimulate fibrosis, indicating plasticity of the cultured airway epithelium and an ability to return to a baseline. Hence, IL-13 may contribute to subepithelial fibrosis in asthma by stimulating biologically significant TGF-β2 secretion from the airway epithelium.

  19. Algorithms for Regular Tree Grammar Network Search and Their Application to Mining Human-viral Infection Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoly, Ilan; Carmel, Amir; Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2016-03-01

    Network querying is a powerful approach to mine molecular interaction networks. Most state-of-the-art network querying tools either confine the search to a prespecified topology in the form of some template subnetwork, or do not specify any topological constraints at all. Another approach is grammar-based queries, which are more flexible and expressive as they allow for expressing the topology of the sought pattern according to some grammar-based logic. Previous grammar-based network querying tools were confined to the identification of paths. In this article, we extend the patterns identified by grammar-based query approaches from paths to trees. For this, we adopt a higher order query descriptor in the form of a regular tree grammar (RTG). We introduce a novel problem and propose an algorithm to search a given graph for the k highest scoring subgraphs matching a tree accepted by an RTG. Our algorithm is based on the combination of dynamic programming with color coding, and includes an extension of previous k-best parsing optimization approaches to avoid isomorphic trees in the output. We implement the new algorithm and exemplify its application to mining viral infection patterns within molecular interaction networks. Our code is available online.

  20. Bovine aortic arch and idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with bronchial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Sezai Yıldız

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The left common carotid artery originating from the brachiocephalic trunk is termed the bovine aortic arch. Although it is the third most-common normal variant found in 9% humans, the origin of this term remains unclear. Until now, It has not been reported in the literature bovine aortic arch togetherness with pulmonary aneurysm and bronchial compression. Herein, we present a case with bovine aorta arch and pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with bronchial compression, which is incidentally detected by X-ray film. A 56-year-old Caucasian female admitted to the cardiology clinic with complaint of chest pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Blood biochemistry values and cardiac markers were in normal range. Chest radiography revealed a widened mediastinum and prominent pulmonary conus with no active pulmonary disease. A subsequent transthoracic echocardiography revealed left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial enlargement (diameter: 41 mm, mild mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency, dilatation of main pulmonary artery (parasternal short-axis view diameter: 33 mm, normal pulmonary artery pressure and normal left ventricular systolic function. Computed tomography revealed bovine aortic arch associated with pulmonary artery aneurysm (diameter: 53 mm. And left main bronch of trachea was critically squeezed by aortic arch. Aortic and pulmonary vascular anomalies should be considered in patients with chest pain. And, identification with imaging modalities is important for prevention of chronic and irreversible complications.

  1. Critical role of constitutive type I interferon response in bronchial epithelial cell to influenza infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C-Y Hsu

    Full Text Available Innate antiviral responses in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs provide the first line of defense against respiratory viral infection and the effectiveness of this response is critically dependent on the type I interferons (IFNs. However the importance of the antiviral responses in BECs during influenza infection is not well understood. We profiled the innate immune response to infection with H3N2 and H5N1 virus using Calu-3 cells and primary BECs to model proximal airway cells. The susceptibility of BECs to influenza infection was not solely dependent on the sialic acid-bearing glycoprotein, and antiviral responses that occurred after viral endocytosis was more important in limiting viral replication. The early antiviral response and apoptosis correlated with the ability to limit viral replication. Both viruses reduced RIG-I associated antiviral responses and subsequent induction of IFN-β. However it was found that there was constitutive release of IFN-β by BECs and this was critical in inducing late antiviral signaling via type I IFN receptors, and was crucial in limiting viral infection. This study characterizes anti-influenza virus responses in airway epithelial cells and shows that constitutive IFN-β release plays a more important role in initiating protective late IFN-stimulated responses during human influenza infection in bronchial epithelial cells.

  2. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in bronchial epithelial cells and its inhibition by cellular oxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairou, Julien; Petit, Emile; Ragunathan, Nilusha; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Marano, Francelyne; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells express xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that are involved in the biotransformation of inhaled toxic compounds. The activities of these XMEs in the lung may modulate respiratory toxicity and have been linked to several diseases of the airways. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are conjugating XMEs that play a key role in the biotransformation of aromatic amine pollutants such as the tobacco-smoke carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and β-naphthylamine (β-NA). We show here that functional human NAT1 or its murine counterpart Nat2 are present in different lung epithelial cells i.e. Clara cells, type II alveolar cells and bronchial epithelial cells, thus indicating that inhaled aromatic amines may undergo NAT-dependent biotransformation in lung epithelium. Exposure of these cells to pathophysiologically relevant amounts of oxidants known to contribute to lung dysfunction, such as H 2 O 2 or peroxynitrite, was found to impair the NAT1/Nat2-dependent cellular biotransformation of aromatic amines. Genetic and non genetic impairment of intracellular NAT enzyme activities has been suggested to compromise the important detoxification pathway of aromatic amine N-acetylation and subsequently to contribute to an exacerbation of untoward effects of these pollutants on health. Our study suggests that oxidative/nitroxidative stress in lung epithelial cells, due to air pollution and/or inflammation, could contribute to local and/or systemic dysfunctions through the alteration of the functions of pulmonary NAT enzymes.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  8. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  9. Drawing Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  11. In vitro safety assessment of the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) water leaf extract and arbutin in human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, K; Brčić Karačonji, I; Mikolić, A; Milojković-Opsenica, D; Benković, V; Kopjar, N

    2018-04-25

    Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) leaves have long been used in the traditional medicine of the Mediterranean region. One of their most bioactive constituents is the glycoside arbutin, whose presence makes A. unedo suitable as a potential substitute for bearberry [Arctostaphylos uva ursi (L.) Spreng] leaves, an herbal preparation widely used for treating urinary tract infections. The safety and biocompatibility of strawberry tree water leaf extract have not yet been documented well. This study estimated arbutin content in strawberry tree water leaf extract (STE) using high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, we performed an in vitro safety assessment of the 24 h exposure to three presumably non-toxic concentrations of standardized STE and arbutin in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the apoptosis/necrosis assay, the alkaline comet assay, and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. The STE was also tested for total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation. At a concentration corresponding to the maximum allowable daily intake of arbutin, the tested extract was not cytotoxic, had a negligible potential for causing primary DNA damage and even hindered micronuclei formation in lymphocytes. It also showed a valuable antioxidant capacity, and did not exert marked lipid peroxidation. These promising results represent a solid frame for further development of STE-based herbal preparations. Although arbutin generally had a low DNA damaging potential, the slowing down of lymphocyte proliferation observed after 24 h of exposure points to a cytostatic effect, which merits further research.

  12. Structural Analysis Of CD59 Of Chinese Tree Shrew: A New Reference Molecule For Human Immune System Specific CD59 Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Subhamay; Kumari, Leena; Panda, Santamay

    2017-11-17

    Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) bear several characteristics that are considered to be very crucial for utilizing in animal experimental models in biomedical research. Subsequent to the identification of key aspects and signaling pathways in nervous and immune systems, it is revealed that tree shrews acquires shared common as well as unique characteristics, and hence offers a genetic basis for employing this animal as a prospective model for biomedical research. CD59 glycoprotein, commonly referred to as MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP), membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL), or protectin, is encoded by the CD59 gene in human beings. It is the member of the LY6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein family. With this initial point the objective of this study was to determine a comparative composite based structure of CD59 of Chinese tree shrew. The additional objective of this study was to examine the distribution of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis and electrostatic potential analysis with the assistance of several bioinformatical analytical tools. CD59 Amino acid sequence of Chinese tree shrew collected from the online database system of National Centre for Biotechnology Information. SignalP 4.0 online server was employed for detection of signal peptide instance within the protein sequence of CD59. Molecular model structure of CD59 protein was generated by the Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement (I-TASSER) suite. The confirmation for three-dimensional structural model was evaluated by structure validation tools. Location of negatively and positively charged amino acid over molecular modeled structure, distribution of secondary structural elements, and hydrophobicity molecular surface analysis was performed with the help of Chimera tool. Electrostatic potential analysis was carried out with the adaptive Poisson

  13. The design of trachea-main bronchial covered embranchment stent and the primary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Wu Gang; Gao Xuemei; Li Yongdong; Wang Yanli; Ma Nan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To design the trachea-main bronchus covered embranchment stent and study the primary treatment for thoracostomach main bronchial fistula and main bronchial stenosis. Methods: The stent was designed on the bases of the peculiar anatomic structure and the pathological changes of thoracostomach-main bronchial fistula and main bronchial stenosis. Under the fluoroscopic guidance, implantations were carried out in thoracostomach-carina fistula 1 case thoracostomach-left main bronchial fistula 1, thoracostomach-right main bronchial fistula and left main bronchial stenosis 1 case, altogether with 5 stents. Results: Stents were placed successfully, not only improving the breathing and living quality but also completing the closure of the ora of the thoracostomach-airway fistula with further vanishing of the choke after drinking and eating together with the inhalation pneumonia. The bronchus became normal in a main bronchial stenosis after the stent was taken out. Conclusions: Trachea-main bronchial covered embranchment stent could be used to close thoracostomach-airway fistula and to treat main bronchial benign/malignant stenosis. The procedure is simple and safe. (authors)

  14. Oral tartrazine challenge in childhood asthma: effect on bronchial reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariparsad, D; Wilson, N; Dixon, C; Silverman, M

    1984-01-01

    Ten asthmatic children who gave a history of cough or wheeze after orange drinks, were tested for tartrazine sensitivity. On separate days, either oral tartrazine (1 mg) or a placebo capsule were administered double blind. Bronchial reactivity was measured before, 30 and 60 min after ingestion by means of a histamine-inhalation challenge test. There was no change in baseline lung function after tartrazine, but histamine sensitivity (PC20) increased significantly in four of the children. No response was obtained to a larger dose of tartrazine (10 mg) in four of the non-responders. Alteration in the bronchial reactivity after an oral challenge, appears to be a sensitive means of detecting tartrazine sensitivity.

  15. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Seiji; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Katsushi.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scan using Xe-133 gas and Tc-99m MAA were performed in 18 patients with bronchial asthma to evaluate the regional pulmonary function. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the results of the auscultation and the conventional pulmonary functioning examination (%FVC, %FEV 1.0 ). Ventilation image showed abnormality in 12 (70.6%) out of the asymptomatic 17 patients and perfusion image showed abnormality in 7 (41.2%) out of 17 patients. These 7 patients with abnormality on perfusion image all showed abnormality on ventilation image. The grade of abnormality in scintigraphic findings was compatible with the values of %FVC and %FEV 1.0 . In conclusion Xe-133 ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scan were useful procedures to estimate the pulmonary function of patients with bronchial asthma. (author)

  16. Bilateral renal dysplasia, nephroblastomatosis, and bronchial stenosis. A new syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB.

  17. Obscure pulmonary masses: bronchial impaction revealed by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, R.D.; Gale, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Dilated bronchi impacted with mucus or tumor are recognized on standard chest radiographs because they are surrounded by aerated pulmonary parenchyma. When imaged in different projections, these lesions produce a variety of appearances that are generally familiar. This report characterizes less familiar computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathologic bronchial distension of congenital, neoplastic, or infectious etiologies and correlates them with chest films. In seven patients, CT readily revealed dilated bronchi and/or regional lung hypodensity. In four of these cases, CT led to the initial suspicion of dilated bronchi. CT should be used early in the evaluation of atypical pulmonary mass lesions or to confirm suspected bronchial impaction because of the high probability it will reveal diagnostic features

  18. CT findings of the patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Shiro; Ohshima, Kazuki; Ohsawa, Takehiko.

    1996-01-01

    CT scans were obtained in 45 patients with bronchial asthma including 23 patients during asthmatic attack. CT findings were as follows. 1) In all cases, thickening of bronchial wall throughout from central to peripheral bronchi and without tapering and/or slight swelling of bronchovascular bundles were observed. 2) Characteristics findings in 23 patients with asthmatic attack, lobular and multilobular high attenuation area were observed in 17 patients (74%) and nonhomogeneous attenuation in lung fields were noticed in 13 patients (57%). 3) Multiple centrilobular sized high attenuation area were observed in 23 patients, but it was difficult to differenciation whether these findings were due to tiny nodules or to small vessels. In conclusion, further studies are needed to know which pathomorphological and/or pathophysiological conditions are underlying these CT findings. (author)

  19. Asthma control during the year after bronchial thermoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Gerard; Thomson, Neil C.; Rubin, Adalberto S.

    2007-01-01

    scheduled 2-week periods of abstinence from LABA at 3, 6, and 12 months. Airflow, airway responsiveness, asthma symptoms, the number of symptom-free days, use of rescue medication, and scores on the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were also assessed....... RESULTS: The mean rate of mild exacerbations, as compared with baseline, was reduced in the bronchial-thermoplasty group but was unchanged in the control group (change in frequency per subject per week, -0.16+/-0.37 vs. 0.04+/-0.29; P=0.005). At 12 months, there were significantly greater improvements......-thermoplasty group than in the control group but were similar during the period from 6 weeks to 12 months after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchial thermoplasty in subjects with moderate or severe asthma results in an improvement in asthma control. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00214526 [ClinicalTrials.gov].)....

  20. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  1. Sleeve resection for delayed presentation of traumatic bronchial transection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, H Y

    2010-02-01

    Tracheobronchial disruption is uncommon in blunt chest trauma. Many of these patients die before reaching the hospital. In the majority of survivors diagnosis is occasionally delayed resulting in complications like airway stenosis and lung collapse. Thus it is important to have radiological follow up after severe thoracic trauma. Sleeve resection can be an excellent option to conserve lung tissue in delayed presentation of bronchial transection.

  2. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcun, Emel; Ekici, Mehmet; Ekici, Aydanur; Tireli, Gökhan; Karakoç, Tülay; Şentürk, Erol; Altınkaya, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is not well known. In this study, we investigated the association between BHR and disease severity in patients with OSAS. Fourty seven (37 male/10 female) OSAS patients admitted with polysomnography enrolled to the study. Histamine bronchial challenge test was performed and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Presence of BHR was diagnosed as positivity of bronchial provocative test (BPT) (PD values ≤ 16 mg/mL). Patients were questioned with Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Histamine bronchial challenge test was positive in 21 of 47 patients. There were significant negative correlations between PD 20 value and AHI (r= -0.47, p= 0.03), BMI (r= -0.45, p= 0.03), and ESS score (r= -0.45, p= 0.03) in the patients with BHR. In addition, AHI (p= 0.03), BMI (p= 0.02), ESS scores (p= 0.03) were higher in patients with BHR (21 patients) than in patients not having BHR (26 patients). Significant negative relation was found between PD 20 value and AHI (b=-0.45, p= 0.03) and significant positive relation was found between presence of BHR and AHI (p= 0.04), BMI (p= 0.03) independently of age and sex in multiple regression analysis. BHR is common in patients with OSAS. As severity of OSAS increased, severity of BHR increased. In addition, obesity may trigger presence of BHR in patients with OSAS.

  3. Analysis of the patterns of bronchial obstruction at bronchography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Suk; Kim, Yong Chul; Han, Sang Don; Lee, Yong Chul

    1981-01-01

    Of the bronchographic findings of 408 patients, performed in our hospital for recent 5 years, 108 cases showed definite bronchial obstruction, and 61 cases of those were selected and obstructive findings were evaluated. All that not confirmed were abandoned. For evaluation of the reliability of 9 braonchographic obstruction signs on applying to diagnose malignant or benign pulmonary diseases, each sign was identified and applied to each of the 61 confirmed cases. In addition, obstructed bronchi, distance of obstruction from the bifurcation site, and the direction of meniscus, if present, were evaluated. The results were follows: 1. The most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction was lung cancer (59.0%), and that of the benign obstruction was pulmonary tuberculosis (13.1%). 2. Amputation, asymmetric narrowing, thumbprint indentation, rat-tail narrowing and encasement signs were the most accurate signs of malignancy and were practically diagnostic ones. 3. The most frequent sign in lung cancer was sharp cutoff one, but it could be seen in lung abscess and in unresolved pneumonia, too. 4. Circumferential symmetric narrowing and regular concavity with a small central projection signs were specific ones to benignancy. 5. The most frequent obstruction sign in benign lung disease was gradual tapering sign, but it also could be seen in bronchogenic epidermoid and alveolar cell carcinoma. 6. Of all bronchial obstructions, 55.4% occurred at lobar bronchus and 77.4% of those were caused by lung cancer. 7. 77.2% of those obstruction which located within 3 times distance of the bronchial diameter at the nearest proximal bifurcation site, were lung cancer, but 75.0% of those located at over 3 times distance were benign pulmonary diseases. 8. There were no correlation of the direction of the meniscus at the obstructing end in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant pulmonary diseases

  4. Analysis of the patterns of bronchial obstruction at bronchography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Suk; Kim, Yong Chul; Han, Sang Don; Lee, Yong Chul [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    Of the bronchographic findings of 408 patients, performed in our hospital for recent 5 years, 108 cases showed definite bronchial obstruction, and 61 cases of those were selected and obstructive findings were evaluated. All that not confirmed were abandoned. For evaluation of the reliability of 9 braonchographic obstruction signs on applying to diagnose malignant or benign pulmonary diseases, each sign was identified and applied to each of the 61 confirmed cases. In addition, obstructed bronchi, distance of obstruction from the bifurcation site, and the direction of meniscus, if present, were evaluated. The results were follows: 1. The most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction was lung cancer (59.0%), and that of the benign obstruction was pulmonary tuberculosis (13.1%). 2. Amputation, asymmetric narrowing, thumbprint indentation, rat-tail narrowing and encasement signs were the most accurate signs of malignancy and were practically diagnostic ones. 3. The most frequent sign in lung cancer was sharp cutoff one, but it could be seen in lung abscess and in unresolved pneumonia, too. 4. Circumferential symmetric narrowing and regular concavity with a small central projection signs were specific ones to benignancy. 5. The most frequent obstruction sign in benign lung disease was gradual tapering sign, but it also could be seen in bronchogenic epidermoid and alveolar cell carcinoma. 6. Of all bronchial obstructions, 55.4% occurred at lobar bronchus and 77.4% of those were caused by lung cancer. 7. 77.2% of those obstruction which located within 3 times distance of the bronchial diameter at the nearest proximal bifurcation site, were lung cancer, but 75.0% of those located at over 3 times distance were benign pulmonary diseases. 8. There were no correlation of the direction of the meniscus at the obstructing end in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant pulmonary diseases.

  5. Use motion games in exercise with children with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Polkovnyk-Markova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the possibility of using moving games in the rehabilitation of children with bronchial asthma. Material & Methods: the modern scientific literature on integrated prevention and treatment of children with asthma. Results: A high frequency of morphological and functional deviations at children with asthma. Classification and examples of mobile games, which can be used for this group of children. Conclusions: the results of modern research that show the effectiveness the use of physical rehabilitation, including moving games.

  6. Results of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in microcellular bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topuz, E.; Aldemir, O.; Toere, G.; Bilge, N.; Kural, N.

    1986-01-01

    At the Radiotherapeutic Department of the Faculty of Medicine in Istanbul, 35 masculine patients with microcellular bronchial carcinoma, limited disease, were treated for two years, i.e. between 1980 and 1981, with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Nine out of these patients are tumor-free after at least 46 months, i.e. about four years. This corresponds to a tumor-free survival rate of 25.7%. (orig.) [de

  7. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy in children with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yoshikuni; Nakayama, Chikashi; Nakata, Hajime; Takahashi, Satomi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Koori, Tateo

    1988-01-01

    Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies performed on 37 children with bronchial asthma during asymptomatic periods were evaluated. The findings of their aerosol lung inhalation scintigrams were classified into 4 patterns, as type I: homogeneous distribution without hot spot formation, type II: peripheral homogeneity with central hot spot formation, type IIID (-): inhomogeneous distribution with hot spot formation, but without defect, and type IIID (+): with defect. These aerosol patterns were compared with those of previously reported adult cases and with the severity of bronchial asthma. Normal pattern of type I was found in 5 cases (12%) of our infantile asthmatics in contrast to previously reported adult cases, in which none of normal pattern was found. There were differences between type II and type III in both distribution and disappearance time of hot spot, which indicated that the two types differed from each other in radioaerosol deposition mechanism. There was no significant correlation between type I and type II in the severity of asthma and the frequency of asthmatic attack. Type II may be clinically considered to be the same type as type I. There is the statistically significant difference between type I, II and type III in the frequency of asthmatic attack, but not in the severity of asthma, although most of serious cases showed type III. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy is a useful examination for children with bronchial asthma in which lung function tests may be difficult to perform. (author)

  8. Kompleksowa fizjoterapia w astmie oskrzelowej - przegląd literatury = Comprehensive physical therapy in bronchial asthma - a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Radzimińska

    2016-10-01

    The bronchial asthma is a chronic respiratory disease of an inflammation. Isolated in it’s the period between the attacks and the period in which you are experiencing severe symptoms, such as shortness of breath, persistent cough, wheezing, chest pain and difficult to breath. To the basic diagnostic methods include examination of symptoms and physical examination, where we try to get as much information as possible from the patient. In order to confirm the diagnosis in addition performs a skin test, blood test, radiograph and you try to stress. The basic method in the pulmonary rehabilitation is physiotherapy. Belonging to the exercise to improve general, breathing exercises and exercises to strengthen the overall strength of the respiratory muscles. A very important element is the science of effective cough, favoring the evacuation of secretions from the bronchial tree. At the time of the attack of breathlessness, in addition to immediate use drugs intervention, the patient requires the adoption of appropriate position. Complemented by comprehensive treatment is physiotherapy massage (classical, segmental, drainage, treatment with physiotherapy, spa treatment and patient education-reaching. The systematic and targeted rehabilitation brings satisfactory therapeutic effects, contributing to a better quality of life.

  9. Congenital bronchial atresia (CBA). A critical review of CBA as a disease entity and presentation of a case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedicelli, Giovacchino; Ciarpaglini, Luisa Laura; De Santis, Marcello; Leonetti, Clara

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To analyse the state of the art of diagnostic imaging in the rare disease entity known as congenital bronchial atresia (CBA) and to suggest new guidelines for diagnosis. Materials and methods. From January 2002 to December 2003 we examined 6 patients, 4 males and 2 females. Four of them complained of relapsing bronchitis; one patient was admitted with a diagnosis of pulmonary abscess. All patients underwent chest X-ray and MDCT. Results. Five patients presented at chest x-ray the typical association of hilar mass and distal parenchymal hyperinfIation that raised the suspicion of CBA; the remaining patient presented an area of parenchymal translucency that prompted us to perform MDCT, which showed severe stenosis of the segmental bronchus. CBA involved the left upper lobe (LUL) in 4 patients and the right upper lobe (RUL) in the remaining 2. In 50% of cases there were associated anomalies: distal bronchiectasis, bronchogenic cyst, anomaly of branching of bronchial tree and vascular structure. Conclusions. CBA is a relatively rare, generally oligo symptomatic malformation. Knowledge of the signs present at chest X-ray can prompt the radiologist to perform a CT scan. MDCT with multiplanar reconstruction is fundamental for the characterisation, localisation and study of the distribution of the lesion, helping to make a precise diagnosis. Surgery is seldom required and at any rate only performed in case of complications [it

  10. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  12. [METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION ON THE FORMATION OF THE LEVELS OF OVERALL MORBIDITY RATE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veremchuk, L V; Cherpack, N A; Gvozdenko, T A; Volkova, M V

    2015-01-01

    In large cities with strong air pollution the formation of the levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma has a complex causation that requires the search for informative methods for identification of causes and consequences of this dependence. Method for the assessment of the dependence of overall levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma on the degree of air pollution allows you to select a "useful information" of the direct impact of air pollution on a background of random processes and latent relationship between human and environment. The use of the method of the information entropy analysis allowed us to estimate the total and the individual contribution of the separate components of air pollution on the formation of levels of total morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in the population of the city of Vladivostok. Levels of total incidence of this pathology were established to differ in various age groups. The adult population is more adapted to air pollution, but retains a high sensitivity to the impact of nitrogen dioxide. Levels of overall l morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in children and adolescents depend on the total air pollution with some dominance of the influence of suspended matter and carbon monoxide.

  13. The diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT virtual bronchoscopy in tracheal and bronchial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ying; Ma Daqing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT virtual bronchoscopy (CTVB) in tracheal and bronchial disease. Methods: Forty-two patients including central lung cancer (n=35), endobronchial tuberculosis (n=3), intrabronchial benign tumor (n=3), and intrabronchial foreign body (n=1) were examined by using multi-slice spiral CT examinations. All the final diagnosis were proved by pathology except 1 patient with endoluminal foreign body was proved by clinic. All patients were scanned on GE Lightspeed 99 scanner, using 10 mm collimation, pitch of 1.35, and reconstructed at 1 mm intervals and 1.25 mm thickness. The chest images of transverse CT and virtual bronchoscopy were viewed by two separate radiologists who were familiar with the tracheal and bronchial anatomy. Results: Among the 42 patients, the tumor of trachea and bronchial lumen appeared as masses in 22 of 35 patients with central lung cancer and bronchial stenosis was found in 13 of 35 patients with central lung cancer, and bronchial wall thickening was revealed on transverse CT in all 35 cases. 3 patients of endobronchial tuberculosis showed bronchial lumen narrowing on CTVB, the bronchial wall thickening was revealed on transverse CT, and the length of the wall thickening was long. 3 patients with intrabronchial benign tumor showed nodules in trachea and bronchial lumen on CTVB, and without wall thickening on transverse CT. CTVB could detect the occlusion of bronchial lumen in 1 patient with intrabronchial foreign body and CTVB was able to visualize the areas beyond stenosis, and the bronchial wall was without thickening on transverse CT. Conclusion: Multi- slice spiral CTVB could reflect the morphology of tracheal and bronchial disease. Combined with transverse CT, it could provide diagnostic reference value for bronchial disease. (authors)

  14. Diagnosis of bronchial artery aneurysm by computed tomography: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyeon Bak, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial artery aneurysm is a rare vascular abnormality, with an incidence of <1% based on diagnosis by selective bronchial angiography. It is manifested in various forms, ranging from an incidental finding on radiologic examination to life-threatening hemorrhage resulting from aneurysm rupture. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm which was incidentally detected on chest computed tomography.

  15. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECT OF OMALIZUMAB APPLICATION AMONG THE PATIENTS, SUFFERING FROM THE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kolbin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the authors discuss the most difficult issue of the pediatrics, which is the treatment of the severe bronchial asthma. Our columnist is professor A.S. Kolbin introduces omalizumab, a new medication from the monoclonal antibodies group, to our readers. It allows practitioners to control the severe persistent bronchial asthma. The article accentuates the clinical effectiveness and pharmacoeconomic aspects of the medication application.Key words: bronchial asthma, severe run, treatment, monoclonal antibodies, children.

  16. The clinical significance of the substance P in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bangping; Jiang Changbin

    2003-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay to measure the substance P (SP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in thirty patients with bronchial asthma and thirty healthy persons. Compered with healthy group (33.4±24.5 pmol/L), the SP in bronchial asthma group (240.2±18.7 pmol/L) increased significantly (p < 0.01). SP may play a role in the development of bronchial asthma

  17. Three-dimensional anatomical evaluation of bronchial artery with CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Li Huimin; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Tao Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of CT angiography in identifying and demonstrating the origins and courses of bronchial arteries by using the three-dimensional reformation technique. Methods Four hundred and forty-three eases were examined with thin-section enhanced MSCT. Three-dimensional images of bronchial arteries were processed at the workstation. Spatial anatomical characters of the bronchial arteries using volume rendering(VR), muhiplanar reconstruction (MPR), and maxium intensity projection (MIP) were observed. Results: At least one bronchial artery was clearly displayed in VR in 359 eases. The right bronchial arteries mainly appeared to originate from the right intercostal artery (213/436, 48.85% ) and descending aorta (207/436, 47.48%), while the left bronchial arteries mainly from the descending aorta (363/371, 97.84%). The right bronchial arteries of the descending aorta were mainly arised from fight wall (95/207, 45.89%), and then the anterior wall (88/207, 42.51%), while the left bronchial arteries of the descending aorta mainly arised from anterior wall of the aorta (272/363, 74.93%). The common trunk originated from the descending aorta mainly positioned in the anterior wall (57/77, 74.03%). 49.31% (215/436) of the fight bronchial arteries were coursing across the posterior edge of the right main bronchi, 35.55% (155/436) coursing the inferior edge, while 60.11% (223/371) of left bronchial arteries coursing forward across the superior edger of the left main bronchi, the others coursing the inferior or the posterior edge. There were eleven bronchial artery distribution patterns, with the right and left ones predominating (192/359, 53.48%), and then two right and one left (63/359, 17.55%). Conclusion: The bronchial artery anatomy was complicated, and CT angiography could clearly visualize the features. (authors)

  18. The normal anatomy and variations of the bronchial arteries: evaluation with multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Özlem; Türkvatan, Aysel; Yüce, Gökhan; Yener, Ali Ümit

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to reveal the normal anatomy and variations of the bronchial arterial system and to determine the sex distribution of these variations by retrospectively reviewing the images of patients who underwent thoracal multidetector computed tomographic angiography for various reasons. Multidetector computed tomographic images of a total of 208 patients (151 men; mean age, 59 years) were retrospectively reviewed to assess the normal anatomy and variations of the bronchial arterial system. A total of 531 bronchial arteries (median, 3; minimum, 1; maximum, 5; mean, 2.5) were detected. The number (mean diameter) of the right bronchial arteries were higher than the left bronchial arteries (290 [1.43 mm] and 241 [1.26 mm], respectively; P arteries were higher with men than with women (2.58 [1.45 mm] and 2.47 [1.32 mm], respectively; P artery, and, secondarily (13.46%), the combination of 2 right (1 intercostal-bronchial trunk and 1 bronchial artery) and 1 left bronchial arteries. Seventy-eight ectopic bronchial arteries were detected in 59 cases (28.3%). They most commonly originated from the aortic arch (37.2%), the descending aorta below the level of T6 (35.9%), or the aortic branches (16.7%). The number of right ectopic bronchial arteries was significantly higher than the left ectopic bronchial arteries (50 [64%] vs 28 [36%]; P arteries was statistically higher with men versus women (45 [29.8%] vs 14 [24.6%]; P arteries can vary substantially among individuals. Multidetector computed tomographic angiography enables a detailed road map of the bronchial arterial system to interventional radiologists and thoracic surgeons. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immediate and long-term outcomes of bronchial and non-bronchial systemic artery embolisation for the management of haemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Joo-Young; Belli, Anna-Maria [St. George' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the immediate and long-term results of arterial embolisation in the management of haemoptysis and to identify factors influencing outcome. A retrospective analysis was carried out of the medical records and angiograms of 50 patients who underwent transarterial embolisation for haemoptysis. The most frequent causes of haemoptysis included bronchiectasis (16%), active tuberculosis (12%) and aspergilloma (12%). A total of 126 bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries were embolised in 62 procedures. Immediate cessation of haemoptysis was achieved in 43 patients (86%). Haemoptysis was controlled in 36 patients (72%), recurred in 14 (28%) and 11 (22%) required repeat embolisation. The worst outcomes were observed in patients with aspergilloma: all six suffered recurrent bleeding and three (50%) died from massive haemoptysis. Aspergilloma was also associated with an increased risk of haemoptysis recurrence (p<0.05). A good clinical outcome was achieved in those with active tuberculosis and malignancy. Complication rates were low and included transient chest pain, false aneurysm and one case of lower limb weakness. Bronchial artery embolisation (BAE) is an effective and safe procedure for haemoptysis control in most cases. However, high recurrence and mortality rates are associated with aspergilloma. Early intervention with repeat embolisation is recommended in these patients and elective surgery should be considered. (orig.)

  20. High probability of comorbidities in bronchial asthma in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, S; Al-Shobash, S; Rapp, D; Le, D D; Omlor, A; Bekhit, A; Flaig, M; Al-Kadah, B; Herian, W; Bals, R; Wagenpfeil, S; Dinh, Q T

    2017-04-21

    Clinical experience has shown that allergic and non-allergic respiratory, metabolic, mental, and cardiovascular disorders sometimes coexist with bronchial asthma. However, no study has been carried out that calculates the chance of manifestation of these disorders with bronchial asthma in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Using ICD10 diagnoses from health care institutions, the present study systematically analyzed the co-prevalence and odds ratios of comorbidities in the asthma population in Germany. The odds ratios were adjusted for age and sex for all comorbidities for patients with asthma vs. without asthma. Bronchial asthma was strongly associated with allergic and with a lesser extent to non-allergic comorbidities: OR 7.02 (95%CI:6.83-7.22) for allergic rhinitis; OR 4.98 (95%CI:4.67-5.32) allergic conjunctivitis; OR 2.41 (95%CI:2.33-2.52) atopic dermatitis; OR 2.47 (95%CI:2.16-2.82) food allergy, and OR 1.69 (95%CI:1.61-1.78) drug allergy. Interestingly, increased ORs were found for respiratory diseases: 2.06 (95%CI:1.64-2.58) vocal dysfunction; 1.83 (95%CI:1.74-1.92) pneumonia; 1.78 (95%CI:1.73-1.84) sinusitis; 1.71 (95%CI:1.65-1.78) rhinopharyngitis; 2.55 (95%CI:2.03-3.19) obstructive sleep apnea; 1.42 (95%CI:1.25-1.61) pulmonary embolism, and 3.75 (95%CI:1.64-8.53) bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Asthmatics also suffer from psychiatric, metabolic, cardiac or other comorbidities. Myocardial infarction (OR 0.86, 95%CI:0.79-0.94) did not coexist with asthma. Based on the calculated chances of manifestation for these comorbidities, especially allergic and respiratory, to a lesser extent also metabolic, cardiovascular, and mental disorders should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic and treatment strategy of bronchial asthma. PREVALENCE OF CO-EXISTING DISEASES IN GERMANY: Patients in Germany with bronchial asthma are highly likely to suffer from co-existing diseases and their treatments should reflect this. Quoc Thai Dinh at Saarland

  1. Bronchial mucosal tolerance following high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy: clinical and laboratory correlates in late complication assessment of fatal hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Y.; McDonald, S.; Nakamura, C.; Philips, A.; Ojomo, Karanita; Hernady, E.; Williams, J. P.; Smudzin, T.; Johnstone, D.; Feins, R.; Speiser, B.L.; Rubin, P.

    1996-01-01

    comparing those patients with late complications to those without (p=0.001). In contrast, neither the HDR-EB dose alone (without accounting for the volume effect) or the DVH from combined HDR-EB and EBRT reached a significant value between the two groups. When separating the fatal hemoptysis complication from fibrinous deposit/bronchial stenosis, DVH difference of HDR-EB treatment showed an increased significance level to p=0.0007 comparing those with and without fatal hemoptysis. DVH difference of HDR-EB treatment for fibrinous deposit/bronchial stenosis alone failed to reached the significant p value (p=0.18). In those with a DVH less than 100 Gy-cm 3 , only one developed fibrinous deposits/bronchial stenosis out of 25 (4%). For DVH between 100 Gy-cm 3 and 300 Gy-cm 3 , there were two fibrinous deposit/bronchial stenosis and three fatal hemoptysis out of 16 (31%). Two DVHs that were above 300 Gy-cm 3 had fatal hemoptysis (100%). Other clinical parameters stated in the Methods failed to demonstrate a predictive value for late complications. (2) Animal study data showed loss of cilia, loss of organization of cilia, and squamous metaplasia starting at 10 Gy HDR-EB. There is progressive squamous metaplasia and increasing focal areas of thinning mucosa to only one to two cell layers above 30 Gy. Areas of thinning mucosa is at risk for hemorrhage because of the proximity to the rich submucosal vasculature and the pulmonary arteries and veins. Conclusions: 1.) Combining information from the clinical DVH data and the animal study, bronchial mucosal tolerance is likely between 20 Gy to 30 Gy. Data also support the fact that the risk of fatal complications from HDR-EB is a function of both the total HDR dose and the treatment length of tracheobronchial tree, but not the dose alone or the dose contribution from EBRT. 2.) Although the patient numbers are small, our data support a safe delivery of less than 100 Gy-cm 3 with a 4% risk of severe complications. A risk of complications at

  2. Papain-induced asthma: diagnosis by skin test, RAST and bronchial provocation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, X.; Fruhmann, G.

    1979-01-01

    Seven out of eleven workers occupationally exposed to airborne papain developed immediate hypersensitive reactions, predominantly asthma and rhinitis. Skin tests and RAST with papain were positive in all symptomatic workers, but not in the four asymptomatic workers. Furthermore, out of forty non-exposed asthmatics, thirty-eight had negative RAST results and all had negative skin test results. Bronchial provocation tests with 0.15-0.5 mg papain performed in five patients with a positive case history showed in each case an immediate asthmatic reaction; in addition to that, one patient developed signs of a dual asthmatic reaction. These results suggest that airborne papain is a highly immunogenic agent in humans, which induces type I allergic reactions in a large percentage of the exposed subjects. (author)

  3. Transient Dynamics Simulation of Airflow in a CT-Scanned Human Airway Tree: More or Fewer Terminal Bronchi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouliang Qi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD method, the feasibility of simulating transient airflow in a CT-based airway tree with more than 100 outlets for a whole respiratory period is studied, and the influence of truncations of terminal bronchi on CFD characteristics is investigated. After an airway model with 122 outlets is extracted from CT images, the transient airflow is simulated. Spatial and temporal variations of flow velocity, wall pressure, and wall shear stress are presented; the flow pattern and lobar distribution of air are gotten as well. All results are compared with those of a truncated model with 22 outlets. It is found that the flow pattern shows lobar heterogeneity that the near-wall air in the trachea is inhaled into the upper lobe while the center flow enters the other lobes, and the lobar distribution of air is significantly correlated with the outlet area ratio. The truncation decreases airflow to right and left upper lobes and increases the deviation of airflow distributions between inspiration and expiration. Simulating the transient airflow in an airway tree model with 122 bronchi using CFD is feasible. The model with more terminal bronchi decreases the difference between the lobar distributions at inspiration and at expiration.

  4. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcner, J.; Jedelsky, J.; Lizal, F.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  5. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  6. The Effect of Polyhexanide, Octenidine Dihydrochloride, and Tea Tree Oil as Topical Antiseptic Agents on In Vivo Microcirculation of the Human Skin: A Noninvasive Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Tschumi, Christian; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Held, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Antiseptics are indispensable for wound management and should focus not only on the efficacy in reducing the bacterial burden but also on how much they interfere in wound healing. In this study, the authors analyzed the direct effect of topical antiseptic agents on the microcirculation of intact human skin. The perfusion dynamics were assessed before, and 10 minutes after, the volunteers' fingers of the right hand (n = 20) were immersed in the following solutions - octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanide, tea tree oil, and saline solution. The authors used the Oxygen to See (LEA Medizintechnik GmbH, Giessen, Germany) diagnostic device for noninvasive determination of oxygen supply in microcirculation of blood perfused tissues, which combines a laser light to determine blood flow, as well as white light to determine hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin. Tea tree oil (÷19.0%) (B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) and polyhexanide (÷12.4%) (Lavanid, Serag Wiessner GmbH, Naila, Germany) caused a significant increase in blood flow compared to the negative control (-25.6%). Octenidine (Octenisept, Schülke & Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt, Germany) showed a nonsignificant trend towards an increase in blood flow (÷7.2%). There were alterations in the values of hemoglobin oxygenation and the relative amount of hemoglobin, but these were not significant. Perfusion is an important factor for wound healing. Therefore, it might be advantageous if antiseptic agents would increase blood flow. Tea tree oil and polyhexanide have a positive effect on skin blood flow and can therefore be used especially in critically perfused wounds, provided the adverse reactions and the antimicrobial efficacy are comparable.

  7. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Volume III. User's guide for the computerized event-tree analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, S.M.; Deretsky, Z.

    1980-08-01

    This document provides detailed instructions for using the Computerized Event-Tree Analysis Technique (CETAT), a program designed to assist a human factors analyst in predicting event probabilities in complex man-machine configurations found in waste retrieval systems. The instructions contained herein describe how to (a) identify the scope of a CETAT analysis, (b) develop operator performance data, (c) enter an event-tree structure, (d) modify a data base, and (e) analyze event paths and man-machine system configurations. Designed to serve as a tool for developing, organizing, and analyzing operator-initiated event probabilities, CETAT simplifies the tasks of the experienced systems analyst by organizing large amounts of data and performing cumbersome and time consuming arithmetic calculations. The principal uses of CETAT in the waste retrieval development project will be to develop models of system reliability and evaluate alternative equipment designs and operator tasks. As with any automated technique, however, the value of the output will be a function of the knowledge and skill of the analyst using the program

  8. Ectopic origin of bronchial arteries: assessment with multidetector helical CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Ieneke J.C.; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Menchini, Laura; Teisseire, Antoine; Khalil, Chadi; Remy, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine non-invasively the frequency of ectopic bronchial arteries (BA) (i.e., bronchial arteries originating at a level of the descending aorta other than T5-T6 or from any aortic collateral vessel) on multidetector-row CT angiograms (CTA) obtained in patients with hemoptysis. Over a 5-year period (2000-2005), 251 consecutive patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector-row CT angiography of the thorax. From this population, 37 patients were excluded because of a suboptimal CTA examination (n = 19), the presence of extensive mediastinal disease (n = 15) or severe chest deformation (n = 3) precluding any precise analysis of the bronchial arteries at CTA. Our final study group included 214 patients who underwent a thin-collimated CT angiogram (contrast agent: 300 to 350 mg/ml) on a 4- (n = 56), 16- (n = 119) and 64- (n = 39) detector-row scanner. The site of origin and distribution of bronchial arteries were analyzed on transverse CT scans, maximum intensity projections and volume-rendered images. The site of the ostium of a bronchial artery was coded as orthotopic when the artery originated from the descending aorta between the levels of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae; all other bronchial arteries were considered ectopic. From the studied population, 137 (64%) patients had only orthotopic bronchial arteries, whereas 77 patients (36%) had at least one bronchial artery of ectopic origin. A total of 147 ectopic arteries were depicted, originating as common bronchial trunks (n = 23; 19%) or isolated right or left bronchial arteries (n = 101; 81%). The most frequent sites of origin of the 124 ostiums were the concavity of the aortic arch (92/124; 74%), the subclavian artery (13/124; 10.5%) and the descending aorta (10/124; 8.5%). The isolated ectopic bronchial arteries supplied the ipsilateral lung in all but three cases. Bronchial artery embolization was indicated in 26 patients. On the basis of CTA information, (1

  9. Computed Tomographic Window Setting for Bronchial Measurement to Guide Double-Lumen Tube Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Hwa; Bae, Jinyoung; Paik, Hyesun; Koo, Chang-Hoon; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2018-04-01

    The bronchial diameter measured on computed tomography (CT) can be used to guide double-lumen tube (DLT) sizes objectively. The bronchus is known to be measured most accurately in the so-called bronchial CT window. The authors investigated whether using the bronchial window results in the selection of more appropriately sized DLTs than using the other windows. CT image analysis and prospective randomized study. Tertiary hospital. Adults receiving left-sided DLTs. The authors simulated selection of DLT sizes based on the left bronchial diameters measured in the lung (width 1,500 Hounsfield unit [HU] and level -700 HU), bronchial (1,000 HU and -450 HU), and mediastinal (400 HU and 25 HU) CT windows. Furthermore, patients were randomly assigned to undergo imaging with either the bronchial or mediastinal window to guide DLT sizes. Using the underwater seal technique, the authors assessed whether the DLT was appropriately sized, undersized, or oversized for the patient. On 130 CT images, the bronchial diameter (9.9 ± 1.2 mm v 10.5 ± 1.3 mm v 11.7 ± 1.3 mm) and the selected DLT size were different in the lung, bronchial, and mediastinal windows, respectively (p study, oversized tubes were chosen less frequently in the bronchial window than in the mediastinal window (6/110 v 23/111; risk ratio 0.38; 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p = 0.003). No tubes were undersized after measurements in these two windows. The bronchial measurement in the bronchial window guided more appropriately sized DLTs compared with the lung or mediastinal windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Veterinary practice and occupational health. An epidemiological study of several professional groups of Dutch veterinarians. I. General physical examination and prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R; Blaauw, P J; de Vries, M; van Gulick, P J; Smithuis, O L; Gerrits, R P; Tielen, M J

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied in 102 Dutch veterinarians, subdivided into five professional groups (predominantly working with either swine, cattle, poultry, companion animals, or as a non-practitioner). The mean age of the participants was 43 years; 6 participants were females. Twenty-two per cent of the participants were overweight, and relatively more non-practitioners than practitioners were overweight. Approximately 23% of the vets reported complaints of prolonged fatigue. The data suggest a relationship between complaints of prolonged fatigue and a more than average number of daily working hours. Only a small proportion of vets were sensitized against several allergens. There were no significant differences in prevalence of distinct lung function disorders or bronchial hyperreactivity between professional groups. It is hypothesized that the respiratory complaints (chronic coughing, chronic phlegm production, stuffed nose, sneezing) reported by the vets predominantly working in swine and/or poultry practice could be caused by irritation and/or inflammation of the first part of the trachea-bronchial tree that has no measurable and permanent consequences for changes in lung function or increased bronchial hyperreactivity. The results of a skin test against allergens and determination of allergen-specific IgE in blood indicated that the respiratory complaints were probably not related to allergy against the panel of allergens tested.

  11. [Treatment of bronchial obstruction in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, E I; Kuklina, G M; Kalinina, E E

    2004-01-01

    Whether the main points of treatment for bronchial obstructive syndrome (BOS) in chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) can be adapted for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) was studied. For this purpose, 435 patients with PT with signs of BOS (forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) 70% of the normal values; 2) 229 patients with FEV1 69-50%; 3) 102 patients with FEV1 bronchial obstructive syndrome in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was highly effective, promotes the amelioration of the degree of respiratory symptoms in patients with IPT by 2 to 8 times, in those with FCPT by more than 2-3 times, and in those with PS by 1.45-10 times. The differences in the efficiency of bronchodilator therapy depend on the baseline level of bronchial obstruction. In patients with pulmonary tuberculosis concurrent with BO, the use of current inhalation bronchodilator therapy results in a substantial increase in FEV1, which differentiates BOS in PT from COLD. The use of the proposed therapy in the multimodality treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis showed no statistically significant differences in the changes in the degree of X-ray symptoms while this therapy permits acceleration of abacillation in patients with IPT by 16.8% and in those with FCPT by 14.8%. Effective bronchodilator therapy considerably enhances life quality in patients. Thus, early systematic and long-term performance of the bronchodilator therapy, based on the principles of bronchodilator therapy for COLD, in patients with PT concurrent with BOS may substantially enhance the efficiency of treatment in this category of patients.

  12. The Role of Eosinophilic Cationic Proteins, Total IgE and Eosinophilia in Children with Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungureanu Adina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial hyperreactivity (HRB, is defined as an excessive bronchial constriction that acts as an exaggerated bronchoconstrictor of the airways. This occurs as a secondary action of a nonspecific stimuli.

  13. [Activity and safety of fenspiride in bronchial hyperexudation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Labarthe, B; Gosset, X; Dourmap, C; Delaval, P; Le Rest, R

    This clinical trial of fenspiride (injectable and sustained-release 80 mg tablet) was carried out on patients selected because their bronchopathy was of a hypersecretory type. Interesting results were observed in 20 out of 37 cases, but they were often delayed. This group of patients included a high proportion of patients with major hypersecretion; the efficacy of fenspiride is often evident, (in 8 out of 11 cases) but it is unpredictable individually. It can be concluded from this trial that a long term treatment with fenspiride, well tolerated, can usefully be tried in patients with predominant signs of bronchial hyperexudation.

  14. Central bronchial carcinoid: Management of a case and anesthetic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructing lesions of the central airways present with a variety of symptoms and are often associated with pneumonia or asthma-like states. Anesthesia to these patients often presents challenges right from the preoperative stabilization of underlying lung condition, mask ventilation in the supine position to maintaining oxygenation and ventilation in the intraoperative and postoperative period. We present here a case of a young woman with a central bronchial tumor with significant airway obstruction with potential for major bleeding and subsequent anesthetic management without lung sacrificing measures and cardiopulmonary bypass assistance.

  15. Right main bronchial fracture resolution by digital thoracic drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Julián, Gildardo; Mier, José M; Iñiguez, Marco A; Guzmán de Alba, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    Tracheobronchial stenosis is common in the thoracic surgery service, and iatrogenic injury of the airway after manipulation is not infrequent. When a digital thoracic drainage system came onto the market, many advantages were evident. A 24-year-old woman with critical right main bronchial stenosis underwent airway dilation that was complicated by a tear with a massive air leak, resulting in a total right pneumothorax. We employed a pleural drain connected to a digital thoracic drainage system. The drain was removed 2 days after successful resolution of the air leak. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Bronchial carcinoid tumor: helical CT and virtual bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Eduardo; Carrascosa, Patricia; Capunay, Carlos; Spinozzi, German; Abramson, Horacio; Berna, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    The authors reported a case of a 61 years old man with recurrent neumonia of the inferior right lobe diagnosed by a chest radiography. A complementary helical CT showed an endobronquial mass on the right intermediate bronchus. Virtual bronchoscopy contributed to a better definition of this lesion, confirmed by a real bronchoscopy. The lesion was diagnosed as a carcinoid tumor by a bronchial biopsy. After surgery (sleeve resection of the tumor) the patient did not show any recurrence of his broncho-neumonic clinical features. (author)

  17. Multifactorial dyspahgia complicated by esophago-bronchial fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Julie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia in an elderly patient necessitates urgent clinical evaluation to exclude the possibility of an underlying esophageal malignancy. Atherosclerotic aortic aneurysms are common in old age, but dysphagia aortica resulting from compression of the esophagus by an aortic aneurysm is a rare cause for dysphagia. Development of a malignant esophago-airway fistula can occur from a variety of tumors, the most common of which is esophageal cancer. A case of longstanding dysphagia resulting from dysphagia aortica later developing an esophageal malignancy complicated by esophago-bronchial fistula is outlined in this unique case report.

  18. Alveolar epithelial permeability in bronchial asthma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Takuji

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate alveolar epithelial permeability (k ep ) in children with bronchial asthma, 99m Tc-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetate) aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphies were performed. There was no correlation between the k ep value and the severity of asthma. On the other hand, out of 10 cases which had no aerosol deposition defect in the lung field, 4 showed high k ep values on the whole lung field and 7 had high k ep value areas, particularly apparent in the upper lung field. These results suggest that even when the central airway lesions are mild, severe damage exists in the alveolar region of the peripheral airway. (author)

  19. Typhoid fever as a triggering factor in acute and intractable bronchial asthma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana; Surachmanto, Eko E; Datau, E A

    2013-10-01

    Typhoid fever is an enteric infection caused by Salmonella typhi. In Indonesia, typhoid fever is endemic with high incidence of the disease. In daily practice we frequently have patients with bronchial asthma, and it is becoming worse when these patients get typhoid fever. After oral ingestion, Salmonella typhi invades the the intestine mucosa after conducted by microbial binding to epithelial cells, destroying the microfold cells (M cell) then passed through the lamina propria and detected by dendritic cells (DC) which express a variety of pathogen recognition receptors on the surfaces, including Toll-Like Receptor (TLR). expressed on macrophages and on intestinal epithelial cells inducing degradation of IB, and translocation of NF-B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta). This process initiates the induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression profile adhesion molecules, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and other proteins that induce and perpetuate the inflammation in host cells then will induce acute ant intractable attack of bronchial asthma. The role of typhoid fever in bronchial asthma, especially in persons with acute attack of bronchial asthma, is not well understood. In this article, we will discuss the role of typhoid fever in the bronchial asthma patients which may cause bronchial asthma significantly become more severe even triggering the acute and intractable attack of bronchial asthma. This fact makes an important point, to treat completely the typhoid fever in patients with bronchial asthma.

  20. Clinical and Diagnostic Features of Bronchial Asthma in Children on the Background of Latent Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Levytskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on clinical and paraclinical examination of 112 children with bronchial asthma, there were studied the features of its course against the background of food allergy. It was found that only a set of clinical and paraclinical signs is the most important for the diagnosis of bronchial asthma in children on the background of latent food allergy.

  1. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Birgitte Kjær; Jensen, Jørgen S; Nielsen, Kim G

    2008-01-01

    by whole-body plethysmography and bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by cold, dry air hyperventilation. Neither baseline lung function nor bronchial response to cold dry air hyperventilation differed between M. pneumoniae-positive and -negative children: mean baseline lung function were 1.17 versus...

  2. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, A. B.; Grol, M. H.; Lourens, M. S.; Gerritsen, J.; Heymans, H. S.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). A study was

  3. Use of tracheal auscultation for the assessment of bronchial responsiveness in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprikkelman, AB; Grol, MH; Lourens, MS; Gerritsen, J; Heymans, HSA; vanAalderen, WMC

    Background - It can be difficult to assess bronchial responsiveness in children because of their inability to perform spirometric tests reliably. In bronchial challenges lung sounds could be used to detect the required 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)). A study was

  4. An increase in bronchial responsiveness is associated with continuing or restarting smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Luczynska, CM; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, N; Neukirch, FO; Schouten, JP; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Wjst, M; Burney, PG

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Bronchial responsiveness (BHR) has been found to be associated with smoking, atopy, and lower lung function in cross-sectional studies, but there is little information on determinants of change in adults. Objectives: To analyze change in bronchial responsiveness in an international

  5. Mediastinoscopic Bilateral Bronchial Release for Long Segmental Resection and Anastomosis of the Trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Park, In Kyu; Bae, Mi-Kyung; Hwang, Yoohwa

    2011-01-01

    The extent of resection and release of the trachea is important for successful anastomosis. Bilateral bronchial dissection is one of the release techniques for resection of the lower trachea. We present the experience of cervical video-assisted mediastinoscopic bilateral bronchial release for long segmental resection and anastomosis of the lower trachea.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  9. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  17. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening.

  18. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  20. Left Circumflex Coronary Artery Fistula Connected to the Right Bronchial Artery Associated with Bronchiectasis: Multidetector CT and Coronary Angiography Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Jin; Choo, Ki Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Coronary to bronchial artery fistula is a rare vascular anomaly secondary to enlargement of pre-existing vascular anastomosis between the coronary and bronchial arteries. This occurs when there is a constant disturbance of the pressure equilibrium involving either coronary or broncho-pulmonary disorder. Localized bronchiectasis is the most common related condition in patients with a coronary to bronchial artery fistula. Herein, we report on a case of a large left circumflex coronary artery to right bronchial artery fistula associated with bronchiectasis.

  1. Effect of COPD treatments on MRP1-mediated transport in bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha van der Deen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Margaretha van der Deen1, Sandra Homan1, Hetty Timmer-Bosscha1, Rik J Scheper2, Wim Timens3, Dirkje S Postma4, Elisabeth G de Vries1Departments of 1Medical Oncology, 3Pathology, 4Pulmonary Diseases, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, The Netherlands; 2Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: Smoking is the principle risk factor for development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1 is known to protect against toxic compounds and oxidative stress, and might play a role in protection against smoke-induced disease progression. We questioned whether MRP1-mediated transport is influenced by pulmonary drugs that are commonly prescribed in COPD.Methods: The immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o- was used to analyze direct in vitro effects of budesonide, formoterol, ipratropium bromide and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on MRP1-mediated transport. Carboxyfluorescein (CF was used as a model MRP1 substrate and was measured with functional flow cytometry.Results: Formoterol had a minor effect, whereas budesonide concentration-dependently decreased CF transport by MRP1. Remarkably, addition of formoterol to the highest concentration of budesonide increased CF transport. Ipratropium bromide inhibited CF transport at low concentrations and tended to increase CF transport at higher levels. NAC increased CF transport by MRP1 in a concentration-dependent manner.Conclusions: Our data suggest that, besides their positive effects on respiratory symptoms, budesonide, formoterol, ipratropium bromide, and NAC modulate MRP1 activity in bronchial epithelial cells. Further studies are required to assess whether stimulation of MRP1 activity is beneficial for long-term treatment of COPD.Keywords: bronchus epithelium, COPD, drugs, MRP1, multidrug resistance, oxidative stress

  2. Digital video subtraction fluorography (DVSF) in the diagnosis of bronchial abnormality associated with congenital heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Tetsuya; Arisawa, Jun; Nakajima, Toru

    1990-01-01

    To assess bronchial morphology and abnormality, 14 children with congenital heart diseases including 2 postoperative patients (age, 2 m.-4 yr) were studied by digital video subtraction fluorography (DVSF) using digital subtraction and image processing system (Philips, DVI-2). This newly developed technique clearly defined bronchial anatomy in all 14 patients. Bronchial situs could be determined in all 8 patients with complex heart anomalies. Out of 8 patients with respiratory distress in this study, obvious bronchial stenosis or obstruction was found by DVSF in 5 patients. Thus, DVSF image defined anatomies of main and lobar bronchi more clearly than previous noninvasive methods. Moreover, DVSF is noninvasive and easily performed even for small infants and critically ill patients. In conclusion, DVSF may be a useful technique to assess bronchial morphology and abnormality in patients with congenital heart diseases. (author)

  3. Multiscale CT-Based Computational Modeling of Alveolar Gas Exchange during Artificial Lung Ventilation, Cluster (Biot and Periodic (Cheyne-Stokes Breathings and Bronchial Asthma Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Golov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An airflow in the first four generations of the tracheobronchial tree was simulated by the 1D model of incompressible fluid flow through the network of the elastic tubes coupled with 0D models of lumped alveolar components, which aggregates parts of the alveolar volume and smaller airways, extended with convective transport model throughout the lung and alveolar components which were combined with the model of oxygen and carbon dioxide transport between the alveolar volume and the averaged blood compartment during pathological respiratory conditions. The novel features of this work are 1D reconstruction of the tracheobronchial tree structure on the basis of 3D segmentation of the computed tomography (CT data; 1D−0D coupling of the models of 1D bronchial tube and 0D alveolar components; and the alveolar gas exchange model. The results of our simulations include mechanical ventilation, breathing patterns of severely ill patients with the cluster (Biot and periodic (Cheyne-Stokes respirations and bronchial asthma attack. The suitability of the proposed mathematical model was validated. Carbon dioxide elimination efficiency was analyzed in all these cases. In the future, these results might be integrated into research and practical studies aimed to design cyberbiological systems for remote real-time monitoring, classification, prediction of breathing patterns and alveolar gas exchange for patients with breathing problems.

  4. Expression of CD152 and CD137 on T regulatory cells in rhinitis and bronchial asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rojas-Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Subjects with bronchial asthma and bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis disorders have a deficiency of CD4+, CD25hight and FoxP3+ Treg in peripheral blood; however, subjects with bronchial asthma had a higher frequency of CD152+ and CD137+ Treg cells.

  5. Diagnosis of respiratory epithelial clearance abnormality in patients suffering from chemo-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis with comorbidity of bronchial mucosa O. M. Raznatovska, V. M. Khlystun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Raznatovska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory epithelial clearance timely and early disorder diagnosis in patients suffering from chemo-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (CRPTB concomitant pathology of the bronchial mucosa is an actual problem of modern phthisiology, the solution of which will allow the timely application of rational correction, which will increase the effectiveness of this category treatment among patients. Objective is to investigate the nature and features of respiratory epithelial clearance disorders among patients suffering from CRPTB with comorbidity of the bronchi mucous membrane by using the developed method of these disorders diagnosis. Materials and methods. The respiratory epithelial clearance state diagnosis was carried out among 133 patients with CRPTB at the beginning of the intensive phase of antimycobacterial therapy during fibrobronchoscopy, provided there is a concomitant specific pathology of the mucous membrane (including its combination with non-specific endobronchitis. Average age of patients was 36.5 ± 1.1 years old. There were 89 (66.9 % men and 44 (33.1 % women. The tracheobronchial tree diagnostic fibrobronchoscopy with further study of the respiratory epithelial clearance condition among patients suffering from CRPTB was carried out by V. M. Khlystun at Phthisiology and Pulmonology Department of Zaporizhzhia State Medical University in CI “Zaporizhzhia Regional Antituberculous Clinical Dispensary”. Criteria of patients including into the research: existence of resistance of tuberculosis mycobacteria to anti-mycobacterial drugs in patients with new and repeated cases of tuberculosis, existence of pathology of the mucosa of bronchi confirmed during fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Serious associated diseases (HIV infection/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, etc. were criteria of exception. The condition of bronchial mucosa was studied under narcotic anaesthesia by fiberoptic bronchoscopes of Olympus (Japan. Pathology of a bronchial tree was described

  6. Radiologic management of haemoptysis. Diagnostic and interventional bronchial arterial embolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittrich, H.; Adam, G. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Dept. and Clinic; Klose, H. [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Section Pneumology

    2015-04-15

    Hemoptysis can be a life-threatening pulmonary emergency with high mortality, is symptomatic of an underlying severe pulmonary disease and requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostically, bronchoscopy, conventional chest x-ray and contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) with CT angiography (CTA) provide information regarding the underlying pulmonary disease, bleeding site, the vascular anatomy of the bronchial arteries (BA) and extrabronchial branches, as well a basis for planning of endovascular intervention. Therapeutically, bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is a safe and effective technique in the hands of an experienced interventionist with profound knowledge of the BA anatomy and possible pitfalls as well as experience with first-line therapy of recurrent and massive hemoptysis or as an intervention prior to elective surgery. Recurrent episodes of hemoptysis are not uncommon and require a prompt repeat BAE after exclusion of extrabronchial systemic and pulmonary artery bleeding sources. This review article should give an overview of the history, anatomical and pathophysiological basics and the clinical context of hemoptysis and diagnosis, as well as a survey of management, treatment and results of BAE.

  7. Effect of lidocaine 2% on bacterial culture of bronchial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, M.; Meybodi, F.A.A.; Mokarianpour, T.; Fallah, T.; Mongabadi, F.D.; Ayatollahi, J.; Shahcherghi, S.H.; Yazdi, M.H.A

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the action of 2% lidocaine on the culture results of bronchial fluid in patients suspected of having lower respiratory tract infections. Study Design:Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study:Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran, from November 2014 to November 2015. Methodology:Patients suspected of lower respiratory tract infections referred to bronchoscopy unit of the Hospital were included. Those with incomplete questionnaire and bronchoscopy contraindication were excluded. Bronchial fluid was aspirated before and after local application of 2% lidocaine and cultured, according to the suspected clinical diagnosis. Finally, statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 17.0. For statistical comparisons, McNemar's test was used. Level of significance was kept at p <0.05. Results:The mean age of the study population was 51.83 +-15.93 with a range of 25 - 80 years. Out of 130 patients, 60 patients had positive culture results. Nineteen (31.7%) cases had positive culture for tuberculosis and 41 (63.3%) cases had positive results for other bacteria before intervention that did not change after using 2% lidocaine (p=1). In 70 (53.84%) cases, results were negative before and after use of 2% lidocaine. Conclusion:No significant difference was found between culture results before and after the use of lidocaine. Therefore, lidocaine can be used during bronchoscopy to increase patient tolerance. (author)

  8. Lung abscess as a complication of bronchial thermoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Anandh; Ryan, Dorothy; Niven, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is an emerging treatment modality for patients with difficult to treat asthma. It has been shown to be beneficial for symptom control and improves quality of life and reduces frequency of hospitalization. Safety data from the two major trials of BT indicate that patients who undergo these procedures are most likely to experience adverse respiratory events in the first six weeks post treatment. Lung abscess has never been reported as a direct complication of BT. In this case; we report a lung abscess as an immediate complication of BT, which we believe may be the first case. We describe a forty three year old Caucasian female presented three days post-bronchial thermoplasty with left sided chest pain radiating to the back associated with shortness of breath, wheeze and dry cough. She had also started to feel hot and cold and generally unwell. It remains unclear why this patient developed a lung abscess so acutely post BT treatment. It is important that safety data continues to be collated and published as the procedure becomes more widely available with further long term follow-up in particular.

  9. Imaging of the bronchial blood flow using RI-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro; Kanai, Hisakata; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1979-01-01

    RI-angiography with sup(99m)TcO 4 - was carried out using a scintillation camera with a digital minicomputer for the purpose of imaging of bronchial blood flow in various lung diseases, and as application of dual radioisotope techniques, other imagings such as tumor imaging with 197 HgCl 2 or 67 Ga-citrate and/or perfusion imaging with sup(99m)Tc-MAA, were performed simultaneously in patients remaining the same position, too. The image as a iso-count map extracted out of the image of 197 HgCl 2 , 67 Ga-citrate or sup(99m)Tc-MAA, was superimposed to the brightness image of RI-angiogram (aortic phase). By these procedures, the image of bronchial blood flow were obtained in some patients with lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung abscess, and chronic bronchitis. The dual radioisotope techniques using RI-angiography and the other imaging were useful to make isotope diagnosis of lung diseases more reliable, and the image superimposition methods using RI-angiogram and the image of tumor of perfusion, were useful to improve anatomic orientation of the former. (author)

  10. Successful Treatment of Bronchoesophageal Fistula With Esophageal and Bronchial Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bronchoesophageal fistula is reported in 5-10% of patients with esophageal cancer. In most of these cases, the insertion of a single stent, either a tracheobronchial or an esophageal stent, is sufficient to seal off the fistula. In this case we describe a 67-year-old man with esophageal cancer and complications of bronchoesophageal fistula, which resulted in repeated pneumonia and acute respiratory failure. Initially, two expandable metallic membranous esophageal stents were placed to cover the fistula. However, the esophageal stent failed to stop the air leak and dislodged into the stomach. Thereafter, a bronchial stent was placed at the right intermediate bronchus and successfully stopped the air leak. The patient was then weaned from the ventilator 1 week after the insertion of a bronchial stent. In conclusion, stenting in both the esophagus and airways should be considered when both are severely invaded by malignancy, when the airway is compressed, or when the fistula is insufficiently sealed by an esophageal stent.

  11. Sputum as a source of adipokines in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mineev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four patients with allergic (ABA and non-allergic (NABA variants of bronchial asthma (BA were examined to evaluate levels of key adipokines (leptin, resistin, adiponectin in sputum in different variants of BA. Adipokines in sputum and blood plasma were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The indices that reflect the percentage of adipokines in sputum regarding adipokines in plasma of the same patients were worked out to evaluate the ratio of levels of corresponding adipokines in plasma and sputum in patients with BA. Two regularities are clearly seen in the study: the first - levels of proinflammatory adipokines (leptin, resistin in sputum in ABA correlate directly with indicators of respiratory function but levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines (adiponectin in sputum correlate inversely with indicators of respiratory function; the second -correlation of levels of the studied adipokines with indicators of respiratory function are almost not revealed in NABA. The first regularity reflects the important fact that the content of adipokines in bronchial secretion is to a certain extent one of regulating local mechanisms in target organ controlled system levels of corresponding adipokines in exacerbation of BA.

  12. Nomenclature of the finer branches of the biliary tree : Canals, ductules, and ductular reactions in human livers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskams, TA; Theise, ND; Balabaud, C; Bhagat, G; Bhathal, PS; Bioulac-Sage, P; Brunt, EM; Crawford, JM; Crosby, HA; Desmet, [No Value; Finegold, MJ; Geller, SA; Gouw, ASH; Hytiroglou, P; Knisely, AS; Kojiro, M; Letkowitch, JH; Nakanuma, Y; Olynyk, JK; Park, YN; Portmann, B; Saxena, R; Scheuer, PJ; Strain, AJ; Thung, SN; Wanless, IR; West, AB

    The work of liver stem cell biologists, largely carried out in rodent models, has now started to manifest in human investigations and applications. We can now recognize complex regenerative processes in tissue specimens that had only been suspected for decades, but we also struggle to describe what

  13. Glucocorticoids can affect Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) internalization and intracellular calcium concentration in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rashida; Shahror, Rami; Karpati, Ferenc; Roomans, Godfried M

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are anti-inflammatory agents, but their use in cystic fibrosis (CF) is controversial. In CF, the early colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mainly due to nonmucoid strains that can internalize, and induce apoptosis in the epithelial cells. Uptake of P. aeruginosa by the epithelial cells and subsequent apoptosis may prevent colonization of P. aeruginosa in CF airways. In the airway epithelia, several other biological effects, including an anti-secretory role by decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration have been described for this anti-inflammatory drug. However, the effects of GCs on the nonmucoid P. aeruginosa internalization and intracellular Ca(2+) in CF bronchial epithelial cells have not been evaluated. We used cultured human CF bronchial airway epithelial cell (CFBE) monolayers to determine P. aeruginosa internalization, apoptosis, and intracellular Ca(2+)concentration in CF bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were treated with IL-6, IL-8, dexamethasone, betamethasone, or budesonide. GCs in co-treatments with IL-6 reversed the effect of IL-6 by decreasing the internalization of P. aeruginosa in the CFBE cells. GCs decreased the extent of apoptosis in CFBE cells infected with internalized P. aeruginosa, and increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. These findings suggest that if internalization of P. aeruginosa reduces infection, GC therapy would increase the risk of pulmonary infection by decreasing the internalization of P. aeruginosa in CF cells, but GCs may improve airway hydration by increasing the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Whether the benefits of GC treatment outweigh the negative effects is questionable, and further clinical studies need to be carried out.

  14. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  15. Bronchial morphometry in smokers: comparison with healthy subjects by using 3D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaudon, Michel; Berger, Patrick; Marthan, Roger; Lederlin, Mathieu; Tunon-de-Lara, Jose Manuel; Laurent, Francois

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of airway dimensions in patients with airway disease by using computed tomography (CT) has been limited by the obliquity of bronchi, the ability to identify the bronchial generation, and the limited number of bronchial measurements. The aims of the present study were (i) to analyze cross-sectional bronchial dimensions after automatic orthogonal reconstruction of all visible bronchi on CT images, and (ii) to compare bronchial morphometry between smokers and nonsmokers. CT and pulmonary function tests were performed in 18 males separated into two groups: 9 nonsmokers and 9 smokers. Bronchial wall area (WA) and lumen area (LA) were assessed using dedicated 3D software able to provide accurate cross-sectional measurements of all visible bronchi on CT. WA/LA and WA/(WA+LA) ratios were computed and all parameters were compared between both groups. Smokers demonstrated greater WA, smaller LA, and consequently greater LA/WA and LA/(WA+LA) ratios than nonsmokers. These differences occurred downward starting at the fourth bronchial generation. 3D quantitative CT method is able to demonstrate significant changes in bronchial morphometry related to tobacco consumption. (orig.)

  16. [Bronchial reactivity and mucosal bioamines as criteria for acute bronchitis becoming chronic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'eva, E G; Latfullin, I A

    2002-01-01

    To study bronchial reactivity and sensitivity with consideration of histamine, serotonin and catecholamines concentration in bronchial mucosa in patients with acute bronchitis (AB) as possible criteria of its becoming chronic. Before the treatment 116 patients with verified AB were examined using inhalation provocative tests (IPT) with histamine, serotonin and obsidian in increasing doses. Also, external respiration function was studied. IPT were repeated after the course of treatment. 87 of 116 AB patients exhibited high bronchial sensitivity and reactivity to inhalations of histamine, serotonin, obsidian. In parallel, there was a rise in the levels of histamine and serotonin and a fall in the level of catecholamines in bronchial mucosa (alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast and APUD-cells). Changes in monoamines concentration in bronchial mucosa were relevant to activity of bronchial inflammation and the presence of obstructive syndrome. Persistent bronchial hyperreactivity to inhalations of histamine and obsidian along with high histamine levels and low level of catecholamines in alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes and mucus is a criterion of bronchitis transformation to chronic one.

  17. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), dolichol (regulator of N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in patients with bronchial asthma. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. The pathway was upregulated with increase in digoxin synthesis in bronchial asthma. There was an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites in patients with bronchial asthma. The ubiquinone levels were low and lipid peroxidation increased in these patients. There was increase in dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and reduction in lysosomal stability in these patients. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was increased and glycoconjugate levels were reduced in the membranes of these patients. The patterns noticed in bronchial asthma were similar to those in patients with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Bronchial asthma occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with bronchial asthma were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. But their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test.

  18. The findings of bronchial artery change in lung cancer with 16-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingsi; Wu Xiaomei; Cen Renli; Zhang Chaoliang; Chen Yongfu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the difference of internal diameter of bronchial artery in big lung cancer, small lung cancer, and normal lung with multiple slice CT. Methods: MSCT angiographies of 44 patients with lung cancer confirmed by pathology were retrospectively analyzed, and 29 patients were with big lung cancer (≥3 cm) and 15 patients with small lung cancer (<3 cm). Contrast enhanced helical thin slice CT scan was performed in all patients. Three dimensional images of bronchial artery were processed on workstation. The internal diameter of bronchial artery was measured. Results: The diameter of bronchial artery was (1.9±0.4) mm in 15 small lung cancer and (2.5±0.5) mm in 29 big lung cancer, respectively. There was a significant difference in internal diameter of bronchial artery between big and small lung cancer (P<0.05). Conclusion: Bronchial artery in lung cancer is dilated, and the dilation of bronchial artery in big lung cancer is more prominent than in small lung cancer. (authors)

  19. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increases bronchial reactivity in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynski, Piotr; Gorska, Katarzyna; Przybylowski, Tadeusz; Bielicki, Piotr; Zielinski, Jan; Chazan, Ryszarda

    2009-01-01

    The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on the function of the lower airways are poorly understood. One of the methods used to determine the influence of positive pressure breathing on lower airways is the bronchial hyperreactivity test. Some authors report that CPAP increases bronchial hyperreactivity, while others report decreases. To assess the influence of CPAP treatment on bronchial reactivity and the effects of bronchial hyperreactivity on compliance to CPAP treatment. The study group consisted of 101 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (88 men and 13 women) with a mean age of 51 ± 11 years, mean apnea-hypopnea index of 53 ± 20 and mean body mass index of 32.6 ± 5.4. Patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group that received 3 weeks of CPAP therapy (group 1) or to a nontreatment control group (group 2). Pulmonary function tests and the methacholine bronchial provocation test were performed at baseline and 3 weeks later. There were no statistically significant differences between treated and control groups in anthropometry and polysomnography variables. At baseline, bronchial hyperreactivity was found in 6 patients from group 1 and 5 patients from group 2. A significant increase in bronchial reactivity was observed after CPAP treatment. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38 ± 0.30 at baseline to 1.26 ± 0.50 (p bronchial hyperreactivity during CPAP treatment were characterized by significantly lower FEV1, FVC and MEF50 values. CPAP produces statistically significant bronchial hyperreactivity. However, there were no clinical symptoms and it is not necessary to withdraw previous therapies. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. [Condition of neurohumoral regulation of bronchial tone and gallbladder in patients with chronic cholecystitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, T V; Khukhlina, O S; Dudka, I V

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The paper presents data from a study of the neuroendocrine regulation of nonstriated muscles, bronchial tree and the gallbladder tones by means of an assessment of the adrenergic and cholinergic systems state in patients, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic acalculous cholecystitis. Adrenergic and cholinergic activities as well as cortisol secretion have significantly changed. To study the features of adrenergic and cholinergic regulations of bronchial tone and that of the gallbladder in patients with combined course of chronic acalculous cholecystitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 92 patients were involved in the study: 30 patients with COPD (1st group), 30 patients with COPD of comorbid CAC in the acute phase (2nd group), 32 patients with CAC in the acute phase (3rd group) and a control group--30 practically healthy individuals (PHI) of the respective age. All the patients with COPD and COPD combined with CAC had a marked predominance of the parasympathetic nervous system, as evidenced by the established significant decrease of CDE (Table) in patients with isolated COPD is 1.4 times (p instance, the CDA in the individuals of groups 1 and 2 was lower by 1.6 and 2.4 times respectively (p instance, the first group patients' blood contained 2.7 times (p base of regulatory neuroendocrine and paracrine mecganisms imbalance, contributing to a development of COPD, is the cholinergic imbalance (reduction in blood acetylcholinesterase activity, hypertensive sphincter of Oddi dysfunction), adrenergic imbalance, reduction in catecholamine-depositing erythrocytes function, hypokinetic gallbladder dysfunction, adrenal dysfunction (decreased cortisol levels) that contribute to the development and progression of chronic cholecystitis against a background of hypokinetic gallbladder dysfunction.

  1. Analysis of genomic instability in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.; Gilliland, F.D.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that underground uranium miners have a radon progeny exposure-dependent increased risk for developing lung cancer. The odds ratio for lung cancer in uranium miners increase for all cumulative exposures above 99 Working Level Months. In addition, there is a strong multiplicative effect of cigarette smoking on the development of lung cancer in uranium miners. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether or not early genetic changes, as indicated by genomic instability, can be detected in bronchial cells from uranium miners. Investigations of this nature may serve as a means of discovering sub-clinical disease and could lead to earlier detection of lung cancer and a better prognosis for the patient

  2. Randomized controlled study of CBT in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Naveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.

  3. [Poor tolerance of exertion during sports and bronchial hyperreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiron-Josse, M; Boutet, S; Ginet, J

    1992-11-01

    135 sportsmen and women, 55 girls, 80 boys, aged from 7 to 30 years, from various sports, who complained of bad tolerance of exertion were examined with an exercise test and isocapnic spontaneous hyperventilation. 61, about 45%, during a hyperventilation test had a fall of V.E.M.S. greater than or equal to 20%, showing bronchial hyperreactivity. After three tests, this fall index was greater than or equal to 50%. 68% of the positive responses were seen in boys and 2/3 of the subjects with a positive response were atopics. No other argument could be maintained from the questioning or clinical history to predict the positive or negative character of the hyperventilation (age, sporting level, symptoms, previous asthma or asthmatic, allergy). H.S.V.I. of the chests of a sporting population that complains of exertion intolerance, therefore allows verification of an H.R.B. assessment of its severity and to follow evolution after treatment.

  4. APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NONMEDICAMENTOUS PREVENTION AND TREATMENT METHODS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bezrukova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors justify the necessity to apply non medicamentous treatment methods to the children with bronchial asthma. The scientists familiarize us with a new me dication, whose effect is based on the noninvasive impact of the electromagnetic radiation of the knowingly non thermal intensity. It is for normalization of the disturbed function of the respiratory system. The researchers showed the efficiency of the above said innovative medication, while treating bronchial asthma among children with no side effects whatsoever.Key words: bronchial asthma, nonmedicamentous treatment methods, children.

  5. TRACHEAL AND BRONCHIAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SIGNIFICANT OBSTRUCTIVE SYNDROME: ACCORDING TO BRONCHOSCOPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Shteiner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endobronchial pattern of significant bronchial obstructive syndrome of various etiologies was analyzed in 4,000 patients with this condition. At the same time, bronchial malformations were encountered as supplementary bronchi of the left and right basal pyramids, axillary left bronchi, supplementary and displaced tracheal bronchi, and a single case of distal transposition of the right proximal bronchus in 1.58% of cases. According to the bronchoscopic findings, supplementary bronchi and transpositions of the left bronchi are the most common anatomic bronchial abnormalities (1.08%.

  6. Risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vуsotska, Olena V.; Klymenko, Viktoriia A.; Trubitcin, Alexei A.; Pecherska, Anna I.; Savchuk, Tamara O.; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Wójcik, Waldemar; Szatkowska, Małgorzata; Burlibay, Aron

    2017-08-01

    This article offers a risk assessment of bronchial asthma development in children with atopic dermatitis by applying fuzzy-set theory to accumulated statistical data. It is shown that with a view to executing the said task one should exercise a complex approach involving factors such as "IgE level", "existence of obstructions" and "burdened bronchial asthma heredity of immediate relatives". The obtained results will assist in making adequate and well-informed medical decisions as well as facilitate the decrease of the risk of developing bronchial asthma in children with atopic dermatitis.

  7. Respiratory muscle strength in children with mild bronchial asthma disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Neumannová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory muscle strength can be decreased in patients with asthma; however, it is not well-documented whether a mild bronchial asthma disease can affect respiratory muscle strength in children and can be associated with higher presence of breathing difficulties. Objective: The main aim of the present study was to compare respiratory muscle strength between children with asthma and age-matched healthy children. The next aim of this study was to assess the incidence of decreased respiratory muscle strength in children with asthma and healthy children and assess the effect of decreased respiratory muscle strength on the incidence of breathing difficulties. Methods: Children with mild bronchial asthma (n = 167 and age-matched, healthy children (n = 100 were recruited into this study. Pulmonary function tests, maximal inspiratory (PImax and expiratory (PEmax mouth pressures and the incidence of breathing difficulty were evaluated in children with asthma and healthy controls. Results: The inspiratory muscle strength was similar between children with asthma and healthy children. Conversely, the expiratory muscle strength was lower in asthmatic children. There was a statistically significant difference between girls with asthma and healthy girls (PEmax = 81.7 ± 29.8% vs. 100.1 ± 23.7% of predicted, p < .001. PEmax was significantly higher in boys with asthma than in girls with asthma (PEmax = 92.9 ± 26.4 % vs. 81.7 ± 29.8% of predicted, p = .03. A higher incidence of breathing difficulties during physical activity (uphill walking, running, swimming was confirmed in children with asthma with lower respiratory muscle strength. Conclusions: There was a higher prevalence of decreased expiratory muscle strength in children with asthma; therefore, respiratory muscle strength should be tested in these children, especially in those who are symptomatic.

  8. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  9. MixtureTree annotator: a program for automatic colorization and visual annotation of MixtureTree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available The MixtureTree Annotator, written in JAVA, allows the user to automatically color any phylogenetic tree in Newick format generated from any phylogeny reconstruction program and output the Nexus file. By providing the ability to automatically color the tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator provides a unique advantage over any other programs which perform a similar function. In addition, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only package that can efficiently annotate the output produced by MixtureTree with mutation information and coalescent time information. In order to visualize the resulting output file, a modified version of FigTree is used. Certain popular methods, which lack good built-in visualization tools, for example, MEGA, Mesquite, PHY-FI, TreeView, treeGraph and Geneious, may give results with human errors due to either manually adding colors to each node or with other limitations, for example only using color based on a number, such as branch length, or by taxonomy. In addition to allowing the user to automatically color any given Newick tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only method that allows the user to automatically annotate the resulting tree created by the MixtureTree program. The MixtureTree Annotator is fast and easy-to-use, while still allowing the user full control over the coloring and annotating process.

  10. Application of confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy for label-free monitoring of oxidative stress in living bronchial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmacki, Jakub M.; Quirós Gonzalez, Isabel; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2018-02-01

    Oxidative stress in cancer is implicated in tumor progression, being associated with increased therapy resistance and metastasis. Conventional approaches for monitoring oxidative stress in tissue such as high-performance liquid chromatography and immunohistochemistry are bulk measurements and destroy the sample, meaning that longitudinal monitoring of cancer cell heterogeneity remains elusive. Raman spectroscopy has the potential to overcome this challenge, providing a chemically specific, label free readout from single living cells. Here, we applied a standardized protocol for label-free confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy in living cells to monitor oxidative stress in bronchial cells. We used a quartz substrate in a commercial cell chamber contained within a microscope incubator providing culture media for cell maintenance. We studied the effect of a potent reactive oxygen species inducer, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), and antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on living cells from a human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). We found that the Raman bands corresponding to nucleic acids, proteins and lipids were significantly different (pmicro-spectroscopy may be able to monitor the biological impact of oxidative and reductive processes in cells, hence enabling longitudinal studies of oxidative stress in therapy resistance and metastasis at the single cell level.

  11. VALVE BRONCHIAL BLOCK IN THE INTEGRATED TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL PLEURAL FISTULAS AFTER SURGICAL REDUCTION OF PULMONARY VOLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Tseymakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of bronchopleural fistulas after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume is one of the most frequent complications of surgical treatment of pulmonary emphysema. In order to control bronchopleural fistulas in the patients after surgical reduction of pulmonary volume the technique of valve bronchial block has been o}ered. This technique has been applied in 7 patients, and the favorable outcomes have been achieved in 6 (85.7% patients. The use of endobronchial valve for occlusion of fistulous bronchi allowed stopping air leaking through drainages, reducing time for pleural cavity drain and decreasing duration of patients' hospital stay.

  12. Strawberry-Tree Honey Induces Growth Inhibition of Human Colon Cancer Cells and Increases ROS Generation: A Comparison with Manuka Honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrin, Sadia; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Bompadre, Stefano; Quiles, José L; Sanna, Gavino; Spano, Nadia; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2017-03-11

    Honey is a natural product known to modulate several biological activities including cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the phytochemical content and the antioxidant activity of Strawberry tree ( Arbutus unedo ) honey (STH) and its cytotoxic properties against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-116) and metastatic (LoVo) cell lines in comparison with Manuka ( Leptospermum scoparium ) honey (MH). Several unifloral STH and MH were analyzed for their phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein contents, as well as their radical scavenging activities. STH from the Berchidda area showed the highest amount of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein content, and antioxidant capacity compared to MH. Both STH and MH induced cytotoxicity and cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCT-116 and LoVo cells, with less toxicity on non-cancer cells. Compared to MH, STH showed more effect at lower concentrations on HCT-116 and LoVo cells. In addition, both honeys increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In HCT-116 cells, STH and MH induced similar ROS production but in LoVo cells STH induced a higher percentage of ROS compared to MH. Our results indicate that STH and MH can induce cell growth inhibition and ROS generation in colon adenocarcinoma and metastatic cells, which could be due to the presence of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. These preliminary results are interesting and suggest a potential chemopreventive action which could be useful for further studies in order to develop chemopreventive agents for colon cancer.

  13. Assessment of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Safety Using the Self-Controlled Tree-Temporal Scan Statistic Signal-Detection Method in the Sentinel System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yih, W Katherine; Maro, Judith C; Nguyen, Michael; Baker, Meghan A; Balsbaugh, Carolyn; Cole, David V; Dashevsky, Inna; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Kulldorff, Martin

    2018-06-01

    The self-controlled tree-temporal scan statistic-a new signal-detection method-can evaluate whether any of a wide variety of health outcomes are temporally associated with receipt of a specific vaccine, while adjusting for multiple testing. Neither health outcomes nor postvaccination potential periods of increased risk need be prespecified. Using US medical claims data in the Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel system, we employed the method to evaluate adverse events occurring after receipt of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV). Incident outcomes recorded in emergency department or inpatient settings within 56 days after first doses of 4vHPV received by 9- through 26.9-year-olds in 2006-2014 were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis codes and analyzed by pairing the new method with a standard hierarchical classification of diagnoses. On scanning diagnoses of 1.9 million 4vHPV recipients, 2 statistically significant categories of adverse events were found: cellulitis on days 2-3 after vaccination and "other complications of surgical and medical procedures" on days 1-3 after vaccination. Cellulitis is a known adverse event. Clinically informed investigation of electronic claims records of the patients with "other complications" did not suggest any previously unknown vaccine safety problem. Considering that thousands of potential short-term adverse events and hundreds of potential risk intervals were evaluated, these findings add significantly to the growing safety record of 4vHPV.

  14. Bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries: value of multidetector CT angiography in diagnosis and angiographic embolisation feasibility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuning; Chen, Ziqian; Yang, Xizhang; Zhong, Qun; Zhang, Hongwen; Yang, Li; Xu, Shangwen; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT angiography (CTA) in depicting bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries in patients with haemoptysis and to assess whether this modality helps determine the feasibility of angiographic embolisation. Fifty-two patients with haemoptysis between January 2010 and July 2011 underwent both preoperative multidetector CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging. Diagnostic performance of CTA in depicting arteries causing haemoptysis was assessed on a per-patient and a per-artery basis. The feasibility of the endovascular treatment evaluated by CTA was analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for those analyses were determined. Fifty patients were included in the artery-presence-number analysis. In the per-patient analysis, neither CTA (P=0.25) nor DSA (P=1.00) showed statistical difference in the detection of arteries causing haemoptysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 94%, 100%, 100%, and 40%, respectively, for the presence of pathologic arteries evaluated by CTA, and 98%, 100%, 100%, and 67%, respectively, for DSA. On the per-artery basis, CTA correctly identified 97% (107/110). Fifty-two patients were included in the feasibility analysis. The performance of CTA in predicting the feasibility of angiographic embolisation was not statistically different from the treatment performed (P=1.00). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96%, 80%, 98% and 67%, respectively, for CTA. Multidetector CTA is an accurate imaging method in depicting the presence and number of arteries causing haemoptysis. This modality is also useful for determining the feasibility of angiographic embolisation for haemoptysis.

  15. Bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries: value of multidetector CT angiography in diagnosis and angiographic embolisation feasibility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuning; Chen, Ziqian; Yang, Xizhang; Zhong, Qun; Zhang, Hongwen; Yang, Li; Xu, Shangwen; Li, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT angiography (CTA) in depicting bronchial and non-bronchial systemic arteries in patients with haemoptysis and to assess whether this modality helps determine the feasibility of angiographic embolisation. Fifty-two patients with haemoptysis between January 2010 and July 2011 underwent both preoperative multidetector CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging. Diagnostic performance of CTA in depicting arteries causing haemoptysis was assessed on a per-patient and a per-artery basis. The feasibility of the endovascular treatment evaluated by CTA was analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for those analyses were determined. Fifty patients were included in the artery-presence-number analysis. In the per-patient analysis, neither CTA (P = 0.25) nor DSA (P = 1.00) showed statistical difference in the detection of arteries causing haemoptysis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 94%, 100%, 100%, and 40%, respectively, for the presence of pathologic arteries evaluated by CTA, and 98%, 100%, 100%, and 67%, respectively, for DSA. On the per-artery basis, CTA correctly identified 97% (107/110). Fifty-two patients were included in the feasibility analysis. The performance of CTA in predicting the feasibility of angiographic embolisation was not statistically different from the treatment performed (P = 1.00). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 96%, 80%, 98% and 67%, respectively, for CTA. Multidetector CTA is an accurate imaging method in depicting the presence and number of arteries causing haemoptysis. This modality is also useful for determining the feasibility of angiographic embolisation for haemoptysis. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  16. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  17. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  18. Human bronchus-mediated mutagenesis of mammalian cells by carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Ih Chang; Stoner, Gary D.; Autrup, Herman

    1978-01-01

    Cultured human bronchial explants activated benzo[alpha]pyrene (BzaP) into electrophilic metabolites that bind to DNA in bronchial epithelial cells. Promutagenic and mutagenic metabolites of BzaP were also released into the culture medium. An increase in mutation frequency for ouabain resistance ...

  19. Elevated Plasma Level of Leukotrienes in Bronchial Asthma Patients: A Possible Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma from bronchial asthma patients and healthy controls was investigated for the content of lipoxygenase products. After lipid extraction using SEP-PAK C18 Cartridges, the lipoxygenase products were measured by Enzyme-Immunoassay. Elevated chemotactic B4 was found in plasma from asthmatic patients with mean value (483±75 pmoUL, while the mean value in normal healthy donors was (140± 12.1 pmol/L (M±SE. The levels of spasmogenic cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were also very high in the bronchial asthma patients. Elevations of leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were detected during attacks of bronchial asthma. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 may be important in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and confirmed that peptidoleukotrienes playa role as chemical mediators during the asthmatic attack.

  20. Lung sound analysis can be an index of the control of bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terufumi Shimoda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The E/I LF measurement obtained by LSA is useful as an indicator of changes in airway obstruction and inflammation and can be used for monitoring the therapeutic course of bronchial asthma patients.

  1. [Surgical Treatment of Bronchial Stricture due to Endobronchial Tuberculosis: 
Results in 36 Consecutive Cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Junzhong; Zhang, Tianhui; Li, Fugen; Duan, Yong; Han, Ming; Wang, Zitong

    2018-04-20

    Bronchial tuberculosis is a common complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. The present report is to investigate and analyze the indication and efficacy of surgical treatment of bronchial stricture due to severe endobronchial tuberculosis, when the drug and endoscopic treatment were no effect. Reviewed the clinical-pathological records documenting the surgical outcomes in 36 bronchial stricture due to severe endobronchial tuberculosis who underwent lobectomy or pneumonectomy enrolled in our hospital between January 2000 and February 2016. Pneumonectomy in 8 cases, lobectomy in 23 cases, sleeve resection in 5 cases. No intraoperative or early postoperative death occurred. Six patients developed complications. All 6 cases recovered well after treatment. Surgical treatment is still the recommended treatment modatity for bronchial stricture caused by endobronchial tuberculosis due to its good results. It should be performed in time when the drug and intraluninal treatment were no effect for avoiding of being progeressed.

  2. The effect of gas cooking on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the role of immunoglobulin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; de Monchy, JGR; Rijken, B; Schouten, JP

    1999-01-01

    Some studies have shown an association between gas cooking and respiratory symptoms. This study investigated whether gas cooking affects bronchial responsiveness and whether particular subjects are more sensitive to this effect. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the

  3. The Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in the Surgical Repair of Bronchial Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully in critically ill patients with traumatic lung injury and offers an additional treatment modality. ECMO is mainly used as a bridge treatment to delayed surgical management; however, only a few case reports have presented the successful application of ECMO as intraoperative support during the surgical repair of traumatic bronchial injury. A 38-year-old man visited our hospital after a blunt chest trauma. His chest imaging showed hemopneumothorax in the left hemithorax and a finding suspicious for left main bronchus rupture. Bronchoscopy was performed and confirmed a tear in the left main bronchus and a congenital tracheal bronchus. We decided to provide venovenous ECMO support during surgery for bronchial repair. We successfully performed main bronchial repair in this traumatic patient with a congenital tracheal bronchus. We suggest that venovenous ECMO offers a good option for the treatment of bronchial rupture when adequate ventilation is not possible.

  4. [Survey of studies on time factor in acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-e; Guo, Jian-hong; Lin, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Based on the retrieval of literatures in recent fifteen years, the time factors in the acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma are analyzed and compared in terms of the stage classification of patients, timing selection of acupoint sticking therapy and medication application, and times of application. The acupoint sticking therapy is mostly practiced during remittent stage of bronchial asthma; the timing selection is mostly during the hottest period of summer, the timing selection in certain cases is the coldest period of winter or any day; the duration of medication application is not consistent; therefore, the effectiveness of these cases is different. It may be that the ef fectiveness is proportional to the times and courses of acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma. In the future, the scientific designs which involve time factor are needed to elucidate the importance of time factor in acupoint sticking therapy for the bronchial asthma.

  5. Peak expiratory flow variability, bronchial responsiveness, and susceptibility to ambient air pollution in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, M; Schouten, Jan; Rijcken, B; Vonk, J; Gerritsen, J; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B; Postma, D

    1998-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability are associated expressions of airway lability, yet probably reflect different underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. We investigated whether both measures can be used interchangeably to identify subjects who are

  6. Impact of Persistent Intracellular Infections on the Processes of Airway Remodeling in Children with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Chernyshova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents information about the impact of persistent intracellular infections on the processes of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma in children. The influence of matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, transforming growth factor, antibodies to type III collagen, endothelin-1 on the processes of morphological reconstruction of the airway by way of smooth muscle hypertrophy, enhanced neovascularization, epithelial cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, thickening of the basal membrane, observed in bronchial asthma in children, were described.

  7. TRACHEAL AND BRONCHIAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH SIGNIFICANT OBSTRUCTIVE SYNDROME: ACCORDING TO BRONCHOSCOPIC

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Shteiner

    2014-01-01

    The endobronchial pattern of significant bronchial obstructive syndrome of various etiologies was analyzed in 4,000 patients with this condition. At the same time, bronchial malformations were encountered as supplementary bronchi of the left and right basal pyramids, axillary left bronchi, supplementary and displaced tracheal bronchi, and a single case of distal transposition of the right proximal bronchus in 1.58% of cases. According to the bronchoscopic findings, supplementary bronchi and t...

  8. Effects of the Airway Obstruction on the Skin Microcirculation in Patients with Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, I V; Kosyakova, N I; Tankanag, A V; Chemeris, N K

    Pulmonary hemodynamic disorders depend on the inflammatory phases and severity of the obstructive syndrome. However, the effect of asthma bronchial obstruction on the state of peripheral hemodynamics remains insufficiently known. To study the effects of airway obstruction on skin blood flow parameters and its regulatory systems in patients with persistent atopic bronchial asthma in the remission state. A comparative study of the skin peripheral blood flow in patients with bronchial asthma with severe airway obstruction (1st group) and without obstruction (2nd group) was conducted. 20 patients with confirmed diagnosis of atopic asthma of 50–74 years old participated in the study. All patients received basic therapy in a constant dosing of high doses of inhaled glucocorticosteroids/long-acting beta-2-agonists. The control group included 20 healthy volunteers without evidence of bronchial obstruction. The study lasted for 3 months. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was used to evaluate the bronchial obstruction by spirometry technique. Skin blood perfusion changes were recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at rest and in response to short-term local ischemia. Registered peripheral blood flow signals were examined using the amplitude temporal filtering in five frequency intervals to identify the functional features of the peripheral blood flow regulation systems. Consistent two-fold decrease of the oscillation amplitudes was found in the neurogenic interval at rest (p=0.031), as well as in the myogenic (p=0.043; p=0.031) and endothelial intervals (p=0.037; p≤0.001) both at rest and during the postocclusive reactive hyperemia respectively in the 1st group of patients with bronchial obstruction (FEV1 obstruction, FEV1 >80%) in comparison to control subjects. The presence of bronchial obstruction has a significant impact on the changes of the amplitudes of skin blood flow oscillations in patients with bronchial asthma in the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial

  9. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gudbjörnsson, B; Hedenström, H; Stålenheim, G; Hällgren, R

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine inhalation in a consecutive series of 21 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome was studied prospectively. Slight to severe BHR was seen in 12/20 (60%) of the patients. Ten of 12 patients with BHR (83%) had a non-productive cough, wheezing, or intermittent breathlessness. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was more common in patients with extraglandular symptoms (10/14, 71%) than in those with only glandular symptoms (29%). Sp...

  10. Bronchoscopic management of benign bronchial stenosis by electrocautery and balloon dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Gogia, Pratibha; Manoria, P; Goyal, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign bronchial stenosis is managed by surgical or bronchoscopic methods. Although surgical approach is definitive, it is technically demanding and is costlier than bronchoscopic treatment. Here, we report the case of a 27-year-old female patient with symptomatic benign bronchial stenosis of the left main bronchus. The stenosis was dilated successfully through a fibreoptic bronchoscope by electrocautery followed by balloon bronchoplasty and application of mitomycin-C. On follow up, there was no evidence of re-stenosis.

  11. Comparative efficacy of inhaled ciclesonide, budesonide, and fluticasone in mild to moderately persistent bronchial asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Tamoghna Maiti; Syed Mohammed Naser; Amrita Panda; Sekhar Mandal; Sonai Mandal; Tanmoy Gangopadhyay; Parvin Banu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bronchodilators and glucocorticoids have been proven to be very effective and safe in asthma treatment, which recommend the use of steroids and beta2-agonist (long or short acting) as the first line of treatment in of asthma. This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of three different inhaled corticosteroids ciclesonide, budesonide, and fluticasone in bronchial asthma. Methods: A total of 30 patients with mild to moderately persistent bronchial asthma was selected as per th...

  12. “Peripheral Neuropathy Crippling Bronchial Asthma”: Two Rare Case Reports of Churg-Strauss Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kishore Pandita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a rare cause of vasculitic neuropathy. Although rare and potentially fatal, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is easily diagnosable and treatable. The presence of bronchial asthma with peripheral neuropathy in a patient alerts a physician to this diagnosis. This is vividly illustrated by the presented two cases who had neuropathy associated with bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, sinusitis, and positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA test, which improved with administration of steroids.

  13. Evaluation of serum l-carnitine level in children with acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ramadan

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: According to our study, it could be concluded that l-carnitine decrease is linked to the occurrence of attack of bronchial asthma. Accordingly, it is recommended to make further studies to find out if there is a beneficial role of carnitine intake in the prophylaxis & treatment of attacks of bronchial asthma. The recommended studies should search for the most suitable dose & side effects of carnitine as a potential pharmaceutical agent.

  14. Main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region: Their relation to airflow limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Naoya; Shiotani, Motoi; Sato, Suguru; Ohta, Atsushi; Maeda, Haruo; Nakajima, Haruhiko; Itoh, Kazuhiko; Tsukada, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background. To date, bronchial diverticula have generally been treated as a pathological condition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although only a limited amount of published information is available on the relationship between bronchial diverticula as depicted by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and airflow limitations. Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between airflow limitations and main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region using spirometry and thin-section MDCT. Material and Methods. A total of 189 consecutive adult patients were retrospectively evaluated based on spirometry and thin-section MDCT of the chest. All examinations were performed at our institution between June and October 2008. The study group included 70 women and 119 men with a mean age of 65 years (range 19-86 years). The relationship between the FEV1% and bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region was analyzed (Student's t-test). Results. The indications for conducting the examinations were pulmonary diseases (82 patients), cardiovascular diseases (22), extrapulmonary malignancies (74), and other conditions (11). A total of 84/189 (44.4%) patients showed bronchial diverticula, and the FEV 1 % of 70/84 (83.3%) patients was above 70. The FEV 1 % of patients with lesions ranged from 26.0 to 97.8 (mean 76.8), whereas the range was 28.1-94.4 (mean 73.7) in those without lesions. There was no significant association between the FEV 1 % and the presence of subcarinal bronchial diverticula (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that thin-section chest CT commonly demonstrates main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region in patients without airflow limitations. We propose that the presence of a small number of tiny bronchial diverticula under the carina may not be a criterion for the diagnosis of COPD

  15. Long-term (5 year) safety of bronchial thermoplasty: Asthma Intervention Research (AIR) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomson, Neil C; Rubin, Adalberto S; Niven, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle. Treated patients have been followed out to 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure.......Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle. Treated patients have been followed out to 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure....

  16. Main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region: Their relation to airflow limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Naoya; Shiotani, Motoi; Sato, Suguru; Ohta, Atsushi; Maeda, Haruo; Nakajima, Haruhiko; Itoh, Kazuhiko; Tsukada, Hiroki (Department of Radiology, Respiratory Medicine, Niigata City General Hospital, Niigata-city, Niigata-ken (Japan)), Email: higuchi@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp

    2012-02-15

    Background. To date, bronchial diverticula have generally been treated as a pathological condition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although only a limited amount of published information is available on the relationship between bronchial diverticula as depicted by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and airflow limitations. Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between airflow limitations and main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region using spirometry and thin-section MDCT. Material and Methods. A total of 189 consecutive adult patients were retrospectively evaluated based on spirometry and thin-section MDCT of the chest. All examinations were performed at our institution between June and October 2008. The study group included 70 women and 119 men with a mean age of 65 years (range 19-86 years). The relationship between the FEV1% and bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region was analyzed (Student's t-test). Results. The indications for conducting the examinations were pulmonary diseases (82 patients), cardiovascular diseases (22), extrapulmonary malignancies (74), and other conditions (11). A total of 84/189 (44.4%) patients showed bronchial diverticula, and the FEV{sub 1}% of 70/84 (83.3%) patients was above 70. The FEV{sub 1}% of patients with lesions ranged from 26.0 to 97.8 (mean 76.8), whereas the range was 28.1-94.4 (mean 73.7) in those without lesions. There was no significant association between the FEV{sub 1}% and the presence of subcarinal bronchial diverticula (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that thin-section chest CT commonly demonstrates main bronchial diverticula in the subcarinal region in patients without airflow limitations. We propose that the presence of a small number of tiny bronchial diverticula under the carina may not be a criterion for the diagnosis of COPD

  17. Coexistence of bronchial atresia and bronchogenic cyst: diagnostic criteria and embryologic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, C.; Kuhn, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    We report a case in a neonate of concurrent bronchial atresia and bronchogenic cyst. An accurate, noninvasive, preoperative diagnosis of this unusual combination of anomalies was made by ultrafast computed tomography (UFCT). This case supports the hypothesis that bronchial atresia results from an event occurring in the 5th-6th week of embryological development, rather than after the 16th week as previously believed. (orig.)

  18. Influenza H5N1 and H1N1 virus replication and innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells are influenced by the state of differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee W Y Chan

    Full Text Available Influenza H5N1 virus continues to be enzootic in poultry and transmits zoonotically to humans. Although a swine-origin H1N1 virus has emerged to become pandemic, its virulence for humans remains modest in comparison to that seen in zoonotic H5N1 disease. As human respiratory epithelium is the primary target cells for influenza viruses, elucidating the viral tropism and host innate immune responses of influenza H5N1 virus in human bronchial epithelium may help to understand the pathogenesis. Here we established primary culture of undifferentiated and well differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells and infected with highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/3046/2004 and a seasonal influenza H1N1 virus (A/Hong Kong/54/1998, the viral replication kinetics and cytokine and chemokine responses were compared by qPCR and ELISA. We found that the in vitro culture of the well differentiated NHBE cells acquired the physiological properties of normal human bronchi tissue which express high level of alpha2-6-linked sialic acid receptors and human airway trypsin-like (HAT protease, in contrast to the low expression in the non-differentiated NHBE cells. When compared to H1N1 virus, the H5N1 virus replicated more efficiently and induced a stronger type I interferon response in the undifferentiated NHBE cells. In contrast, in well differentiated cultures, H5N1 virus replication was less efficient and elicited a lower interferon-beta response in comparison with H1N1 virus. Our data suggest that the differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells has a major influence in cells' permissiveness to human H1N1 and avian H5N1 viruses and the host innate immune responses. The reduced virus replication efficiency partially accounts for the lower interferon-beta responses in influenza H5N1 virus infected well differentiated NHBE cells. Since influenza infection in the bronchial epithelium will lead to tissue damage and associate with the

  19. Sleep apnea is associated with bronchial inflammation and continuous positive airway pressure-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devouassoux, Gilles; Lévy, Patrick; Rossini, Eliane; Pin, Isabelle; Fior-Gozlan, Michèle; Henry, Mireille; Seigneurin, Daniel; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is associated with systemic and upper airway inflammation. Pharyngeal inflammation has a potential role in upper airway collapse, whereas systemic inflammation relates to cardiovascular morbidity. However, the presence of an inflammatory involvement of lower airway has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to demonstrate an inflammatory process at the bronchial level in patients with OSA and to analyze effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) application and humidification on bronchial mucosa. The study was conducted by using sequential induced sputum for cell analysis and IL-8 production, nitric oxide exhalation measurement, and methacholine challenge before and after CPAP. Bronchial neutrophilia and a high IL-8 concentration were observed in untreated OSA compared with controls (75% +/- 20% vs 43% +/- 12%, P Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with bronchial inflammation. Our data demonstrate CPAP effect on the development of AHR, possibly facilitated by the pre-existing inflammation. Both issues should be evaluated during long-term CPAP use. Results showing a spontaneous bronchial inflammation in OSA and the development of a CPAP-related AHR require a long-term follow-up to evaluate consequences on chronic bronchial obstruction.

  20. Evaluation of Tracheal and Main Bronchial Diverticula Using Thin-Section MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jou, Sung Shick; Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Yung; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Han, Jong Kyu [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the characteristics of tracheal and main bronchial diverticula in relation with emphysema. A total of 967 CT images were reconstructed with 1.25 mm axial images over 2 months. The incidence, size, number, and location of the tracheal and main bronchial diverticula were analyzed using 3D medical software (Seoul, Korea). The incidence of emphysema and the relationship between emphysema and the size of the diverticula were analyzed. In total, 50 patients (5.1%) showed tracheal diverticula in the right posterolateral wall. In addition, 51 patients (5.2%) showed 89 (9.4%) main bronchial diverticula in the inferior wall, while 68 (72%) showed diverticula in the left posterolateral wall. Tracheal diverticula (6.4 {+-} 5.0 mm, 1.0 {+-} 0.2) were larger and fewer than the main bronchial diverticula (2.1 {+-} 2.0 mm, 1.8 {+-} 1.6) (p<0.05). Moreover, tracheal diverticula (10.3 {+-} 7.4 mm) with emphysema in 13 patients (26%), were larger than those without emphysema (5.1 {+-} 3.0 mm) (p<0.05). On thin-section MDCT, the rates of incidence for tracheal and main bronchial diverticula are about 5%, respectively. Tracheal diverticula in the right posterolateral wall are smaller and fewer than the main bronchial diverticula, which are located primarily in the inferior wall of the left bronchus. Tracheal diverticula with emphysema are larger than those without emphysema.

  1. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  2. Genealogy and gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

  3. Tree agency and urban forest governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    governance also involving businesses and civic society. However, governance theory usually does not consider the role of non-human agency, which can be considered problematic due to, for example, the important role of urban trees in place making. The purpose of this paper is to provide further insight...... into the importance of considering tree agency in governance. Design/methodology/approach – Taking an environmental governance and actor network theory perspective, the paper presents a critical view of current urban forest governance, extending the perspective to include not only a wide range of human actors......, but also trees as important non-human actors. Findings – Urban forest governance has become more complex and involves a greater range of actors and actor networks. However, the agency of trees in urban forest governance is seldom well developed. Trees, in close association with local residents, create...

  4. Strawberry-Tree Honey Induces Growth Inhibition of Human Colon Cancer Cells and Increases ROS Generation: A Comparison with Manuka Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Afrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural product known to modulate several biological activities including cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the phytochemical content and the antioxidant activity of Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo honey (STH and its cytotoxic properties against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-116 and metastatic (LoVo cell lines in comparison with Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium honey (MH. Several unifloral STH and MH were analyzed for their phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein contents, as well as their radical scavenging activities. STH from the Berchidda area showed the highest amount of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and protein content, and antioxidant capacity compared to MH. Both STH and MH induced cytotoxicity and cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCT-116 and LoVo cells, with less toxicity on non-cancer cells. Compared to MH, STH showed more effect at lower concentrations on HCT-116 and LoVo cells. In addition, both honeys increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. In HCT-116 cells, STH and MH induced similar ROS production but in LoVo cells STH induced a higher percentage of ROS compared to MH. Our results indicate that STH and MH can induce cell growth inhibition and ROS generation in colon adenocarcinoma and metastatic cells, which could be due to the presence of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. These preliminary results are interesting and suggest a potential chemopreventive action which could be useful for further studies in order to develop chemopreventive agents for colon cancer.

  5. Duodenal-bronchial fistula: an unusual cause of shortness of breath and a productive cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wong, BMBS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal-bronchial fistulas are very uncommon, even among the already rare subgroup of abdominal-bronchial fistulas. We describe a case of a woman with Crohn's disease who presented with shortness of breath and a productive cough who was found to have a duodeanl bronchial fistula on computed tomography scan. We demonstrate with this case how these rare cases can lead to chronic lung aspirations and require multidisciplinary involvement.

  6. Endoscopic bronchial valve treatment: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Eberhardt,1,2 Daniela Gompelmann,1,2 Felix JF Herth,1,2 Maren Schuhmann1 1Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, 2Translational Lung Research Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. Keywords: lung emphysema, valve treatment, collateral ventilation, patient selection, outcome

  7. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others

    1995-12-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine`s Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of {alpha}-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease.

  8. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine's Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of α-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease

  9. Physical exercise program for children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágothai, K; Gyene, I; Szócska, M; Osváth, P

    1987-01-01

    A long-term physical exercise program was established for a large number of children with bronchial asthma. Asthmatic children were first taught to swim on their backs to prevent breathing problems customary for beginners using other strokes. They concurrently participated in gymnasium exercises, and the program was later completed with outdoor running. Program effectiveness was evaluated by monitoring asthmatic symptoms, changes in medication, and changes in the activity and physical fitness of the children. Data collected from 121 children showed that during the first year in the program the number of days with asthmatic symptoms decreased in a large majority of the patients while medication was decreased. School absenteeism and hospitalization dropped markedly. Parental evaluation of the children indicated much improvement in 51.2%, improvement in 40.5%, unchanged condition in 7.4%, and deterioration of general health was only reported in one child (0.8%). The same extent of improvement continued during the second year. The Cooper test was applied for the first time to such an exercise program and indicated that the participating asthmatic children performed as well as a control group of nonasthmatic children, and the cardiovascular efficiency of the asthmatics was actually better.

  10. Prognostic factors in bronchial arterial embolization for hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Yoon, Yup; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Lim, Joo Won; Sung, Dong Wook

    1994-01-01

    To find the rebleeding factors in bronchial arterial embolization for treatment of hemoptysis, a retrospective study was performed. Medical records, angiographic findings and embolic materials of 35 patients who had undertaken arterial embolization for control of hemoptysis were reviewed. The period of follow-up for rebleeding was from 3 to 32 months after arterial embolization. We investigated the angiographic findings of extravasation, neovascularity, intervascular shunt, aneurysm and periarterial diffusion. Neovascularity was classified as mild(numerable neovascularity) and severe(innumerable). Rebleeding occurred in 15(43%) among 35 cases. Only two of 11 cases with no past episode of hemoptysis showed recurrence, while 9 of 15 cases who had more than three episodes did. Severe neovascularity were seen in 11 of 15 recurred cases, but seven of 20 non- recurred cases showed severe neovascularity. More than three angiographic findings representing hemoptysis were seen on 11(73%) among recurred 15 cases and seven(35%) among non- recurred 20 cases. The lesion was supplied by more than two different arteries on 8(54%) of the recurred cases, but only three(15%) of the non- recurred cases. Six of seven cases persistent neovascularity after arterial embolization were recurred. The history of repeated hemoptysis, severe neovascularity, variable angiographic findings, and post-embolization persistency of neovascularity were the factors related with the rebleeding after arterial embolization for hemoptysis. Careful and active arterial embolization are required on these conditions

  11. Prognostic factors in bronchial arterial embolization for hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Yoon, Yup; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Lim, Joo Won; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    To find the rebleeding factors in bronchial arterial embolization for treatment of hemoptysis, a retrospective study was performed. Medical records, angiographic findings and embolic materials of 35 patients who had undertaken arterial embolization for control of hemoptysis were reviewed. The period of follow-up for rebleeding was from 3 to 32 months after arterial embolization. We investigated the angiographic findings of extravasation, neovascularity, intervascular shunt, aneurysm and periarterial diffusion. Neovascularity was classified as mild(numerable neovascularity) and severe(innumerable). Rebleeding occurred in 15(43%) among 35 cases. Only two of 11 cases with no past episode of hemoptysis showed recurrence, while 9 of 15 cases who had more than three episodes did. Severe neovascularity were seen in 11 of 15 recurred cases, but seven of 20 non- recurred cases showed severe neovascularity. More than three angiographic findings representing hemoptysis were seen on 11(73%) among recurred 15 cases and seven(35%) among non- recurred 20 cases. The lesion was supplied by more than two different arteries on 8(54%) of the recurred cases, but only three(15%) of the non- recurred cases. Six of seven cases persistent neovascularity after arterial embolization were recurred. The history of repeated hemoptysis, severe neovascularity, variable angiographic findings, and post-embolization persistency of neovascularity were the factors related with the rebleeding after arterial embolization for hemoptysis. Careful and active arterial embolization are required on these conditions.

  12. Quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillet, P.Y.; Fetita, C.I.; Saragaglia, A.; Perchet, D.; Preteux, F.; Beigelman-Aubry, C.; Grenier, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of quantification of bronchial dimensions at MDCT using dedicated software (BronCare). We evaluated the reliability of the software to segment the airways and defined criteria ensuring accurate measurements. BronCare was applied on two successive examinations in 10 mild asthmatic patients. Acquisitions were performed at pneumotachographically controlled lung volume (65% TLC), with reconstructions focused on the right lung base. Five validation criteria were imposed: (1) bronchus type: segmental and subsegmental; (2) lumen area (LA)>4 mm 2 ; (3) bronchus length (Lg) > 7 mm; (4) confidence index - giving the percentage of the bronchus not abutted by a vessel - (CI) >55% for validation of wall area (WA) and (5) a minimum of 10 contiguous cross-sectional images fulfilling the criteria. A complete segmentation procedure on both acquisitions made possible an evaluation of LA and WA in 174/223 (78%) and 171/174 (98%) of bronchi, respectively. The validation criteria were met for 56/69 (81%) and for 16/69 (23%) of segmental bronchi and for 73/102 (72%) and 58/102 (57%) of subsegmental bronchi, for LA and WA, respectively. In conclusion, BronCare is reliable to segment the airways in clinical practice. The proposed criteria seem appropriate to select bronchi candidates for measurement. (orig.)

  13. Features of the bronchial bacterial microbiome associated with atopy, asthma, and responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, Juliana; Lynch, Susan V; Nariya, Snehal; Bhakta, Nirav R; Beigelman, Avraham; Castro, Mario; Dyer, Anne-Marie; Israel, Elliot; Kraft, Monica; Martin, Richard J; Mauger, David T; Rosenberg, Sharon R; Sharp-King, Tonya; White, Steven R; Woodruff, Prescott G; Avila, Pedro C; Denlinger, Loren C; Holguin, Fernando; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lugogo, Njira; Moore, Wendy C; Peters, Stephen P; Que, Loretta; Smith, Lewis J; Sorkness, Christine A; Wechsler, Michael E; Wenzel, Sally E; Boushey, Homer A; Huang, Yvonne J

    2017-07-01

    Compositional differences in the bronchial bacterial microbiota have been associated with asthma, but it remains unclear whether the findings are attributable to asthma, to aeroallergen sensitization, or to inhaled corticosteroid treatment. We sought to compare the bronchial bacterial microbiota in adults with steroid-naive atopic asthma, subjects with atopy but no asthma, and nonatopic healthy control subjects and to determine relationships of the bronchial microbiota to phenotypic features of asthma. Bacterial communities in protected bronchial brushings from 42 atopic asthmatic subjects, 21 subjects with atopy but no asthma, and 21 healthy control subjects were profiled by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial composition and community-level functions inferred from sequence profiles were analyzed for between-group differences. Associations with clinical and inflammatory variables were examined, including markers of type 2-related inflammation and change in airway hyperresponsiveness after 6 weeks of fluticasone treatment. The bronchial microbiome differed significantly among the 3 groups. Asthmatic subjects were uniquely enriched in members of the Haemophilus, Neisseria, Fusobacterium, and Porphyromonas species and the Sphingomonodaceae family and depleted in members of the Mogibacteriaceae family and Lactobacillales order. Asthma-associated differences in predicted bacterial functions included involvement of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid metabolism pathways. Subjects with type 2-high asthma harbored significantly lower bronchial bacterial burden. Distinct changes in specific microbiota members were seen after fluticasone treatment. Steroid responsiveness was linked to differences in baseline compositional and functional features of the bacterial microbiome. Even in subjects with mild steroid-naive asthma, differences in the bronchial microbiome are associated with immunologic and clinical features of the disease. The specific differences identified

  14. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  15. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  16. Keeping trees as assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  17. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  18. DSA findings and bronchial arterial embolization of bronchiectasis with massive hemoptysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guobin; Liu Junfang; Hu Jinxiang; Long Qingyun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore DSA findings curative measures and effects of bronchial arterial embolization (BAE)of bronchiectasis with massive hemoptysis. Methods: 35 patients with massive hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis were performed selective bronchial arterial DSA and BAE referring to image data of chest plain film and CT. Embolic materials were polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)and/or gelatinum sponge particles. Curative effects were followed-up for 3 months to 3 years. Results: (1)DSA revealed bronchial artery as being the only abnormal vessel accounted for 74.3%, bronchial artry combined with nonbronchial systemic artery as 22.9% and only non-bronchial artery involved 2.9%. Abnormal vessel number was 1-5 (mean 1.8) per case; Direct and indirect bleeding sign was displayed as 25.7% and 100% respectively. (2)Curative and embolization effects were shown as 61 target vessels of 34 patients being embolized and total effective rate reaching 85.3%; of which 16 cases were adopted super-selective technique, 1 case was failure of stopping bleeding for two times within 3 days, 4 cases recurred within 3 months and 2 cases recurred over 3 months; with recurrent rate of 20.6%, but no serious complications such as spinal cord injury. Conclusions: DSA examination and selective BAE of bronchiectasis with massive hemoptysis could provide high positive angiographic features and reliable curative effect. (authors)

  19. Timing of silicone stent removal in patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jung Seop; Kim, Hojoong; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-10-01

    In patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis (PTBS), the severity of bronchial stenosis affects the restenosis rate after the silicone stent is removed. In PTBS patients with incomplete bronchial obstruction, who had a favorable prognosis, the timing of stent removal to ensure airway patency is not clear. We evaluated the time for silicone stent removal in patients with incomplete PTBS. A retrospective study examined PTBS patients who underwent stenting and removal of a silicone stent. Incomplete bronchial stenosis was defined as PTBS other than total bronchial obstruction, which had a luminal opening at the stenotic segment on bronchoscopic intervention. The duration of stenting was defined as the interval from stent insertion to removal. The study included 44 PTBS patients and the patients were grouped at intervals of 6 months according to the duration of stenting. Patients stented for more than 12 months had a significantly lower restenosis rate than those stented for less than 12 months (4% vs. 35%, P = 0.009). Multiple logistic regression revealed an association between stenting for more than 12 months and a low restenosis rate (odds ratio 12.095; 95% confidence interval 1.097-133.377). Moreover, no restenosis was observed in PTBS patients when the stent was placed more than 14 months previously. In patients with incomplete PTBS, stent placement for longer than 12 months reduced restenosis after stent removal.

  20. Timing of silicone stent removal in patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Seop Eom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In patients with post-tuberculosis bronchial stenosis (PTBS, the severity of bronchial stenosis affects the restenosis rate after the silicone stent is removed. In PTBS patients with incomplete bronchial obstruction, who had a favorable prognosis, the timing of stent removal to ensure airway patency is not clear. Aims: We evaluated the time for silicone stent removal in patients with incomplete PTBS. Settings and Design: A retrospective study examined PTBS patients who underwent stenting and removal of a silicone stent. Methods: Incomplete bronchial stenosis was defined as PTBS other than total bronchial obstruction, which had a luminal opening at the stenotic segment on bronchoscopic intervention. The duration of stenting was defined as the interval from stent insertion to removal. The study included 44 PTBS patients and the patients were grouped at intervals of 6 months according to the duration of stenting. Results: Patients stented for more than 12 months had a significantly lower restenosis rate than those stented for less than 12 months (4% vs. 35%, P = 0.009. Multiple logistic regression revealed an association between stenting for more than 12 months and a low restenosis rate (odds ratio 12.095; 95% confidence interval 1.097-133.377. Moreover, no restenosis was observed in PTBS patients when the stent was placed more than 14 months previously. Conclusions: In patients with incomplete PTBS, stent placement for longer than 12 months reduced restenosis after stent removal.

  1. Evaluation on the imaging of the bronchial blood flow using nuclear angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Hirayama, Jiro; Kanai, Hisakata; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear angiocardiography with sup(99m)TcO 4 - was performed for the purpose of the delineation of the systemic perfusion in various lung diseases, using a scintillation camera with a digital minicomputer system. The images of the bronchial blood flow were obtained in cases with primary lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung abscess, bronchiectasis and chronic bronchitis. The fair images of the bronchial blood flow were taken in cases of peripheral type, adenocarcinoma and primary foci of atelectatic type in primary lung cancer. The grade of delineation of the bronchial blood flow and vascularity of bronchial artery in foci of primary lung cancer were correlative to the grade of accumulation of 197 HgCl 2 , respectively. The joint use of nuclear angiocardiography and other imagings such as tumor or perfusion one was useful for evaluation of the pulmonary and systemic circulation, and that made isotope diagnosis of primary lung cancer more reliable too. The image as a isocount map extracted out of the image of 197 HgCl 2 or sup(99m)Tc-MAA, was superimposed to the brightness image of the nuclear angiocardiogram (aortic phase). This image superimposition methods were valuable to improve anatomic orientation of the nuclear angiocardiogram. The delineation of the bronchial blood flow on the subtraction image, which obtained from the two time-different images in aortic phase of the nuclear angiocardiogram, was better than that of the original images. (author)

  2. [Management of patients with bronchial asthma received general anesthesia and surgical intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Masako; Tajima, Makoto; Ogawa, Cyuhei; Otomo, Mamoru; Suzuki, Naohito; Sano, Yasuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Stimulation to bronchial mucosa is one of the major risk factor of asthma attack. When patients receive surgical intervention and general anesthesia, they are always exposed to stimulation to bronchial mucosa. Prevention method of bronchial asthma attack during surgical intervention is not established yet. We investigated that clinical course of patients with bronchial asthma who received general anesthesia and surgical intervention. Seventy-six patients with bronchial asthma were received general anesthesia and surgical intervention from 1993 to 1998. Twenty-four patients were mild asthmatic patients, 39 were moderate asthmatic patients and 13 were severe asthmatic patients. Preoperative treatment for preventing asthma attack was as follows; Eight patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline before operation. Fifty-two patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline and hydrocortisone before operation. Three patients were given intravenous infusion of hydrocortisone for consecutive 3 days before operation. Thirteen patients were given no treatment for preventing asthma attack. One patient was suffered from asthma attack during operation. She was given no preventing treatment for asthma attack before operation. Three patients were suffered from asthma attack after operation. No wound dehiscence was observed in all patients. To prevent asthma attack during operation, intravenous infusion of steroid before operation is recommended, when patients with asthma receive general anesthesia and surgical intervention.

  3. Omalizumab reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and improves lung function in non-atopic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Prathap; Chan, Yih-Chih; Wu, Shih-Ying; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Thomas, Clare; Durham, Stephen R; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Ying, Sun; Gould, Hannah J; Corrigan, Chris J

    2016-12-01

    Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and inflammation and preserves/improves lung function when disease is destabilised by staged withdrawal of therapy.18 symptomatic, non-atopic asthmatics were randomised (1:1) to receive omalizumab or identical placebo treatment in addition to existing therapy for 20 weeks. Bronchial biopsies were collected before and after 12-14 weeks of treatment, then the patients destabilised by substantial, supervised reduction of their regular therapy. Primary outcome measures were changes in bronchial mucosal IgE + cells at 12-14 weeks, prior to regular therapy reduction, and changes in lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) after destabilisation at 20 weeks. Quality of life was also monitored.Omalizumab but not placebo therapy significantly reduced median total bronchial mucosal IgE + cells (pomalizumab treated patients, with significant differences in absolute (p=0.04) and % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p=0.015).Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE + mast cells and improves lung function despite withdrawal of conventional therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  4. Distribution of radioactive aerosol in the airways of children and adolescents with bronchial hyper-responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, V.; Mortensen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the pulmonary distribution of inhaled radioaerosol, bronchial responsiveness, and lung function in children and adolescents. The participating subjects were divided into three groups: (1) 14 asthmatics with bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), (2) five non-asthmatic subjects with BHR, and (3) 20 controls without BHR. Pulmonary distribution of [ 99 Tc m ] albumin radioaerosol, maximal expiratory flow when 25% of forced vital capacity remain to be exhaled (MEF 25 ), and bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine were measured. Twenty subjects (52%) has irregular central distribution and 19 subjects (48%) had regular distribution of radioaerosol in their lungs. No difference in distribution of radioaerosol was found between the three groups of children. The median MEF 25 among non-asthmatic subjects (80% predicted) was lower than that found in controls (92% predicted) but higher than that found in asthmatic subjects (55% predicted). A relationship was found between reduced flow at the peripheral airways, as indicated by MEF 25 and the degree of central distribution of radioaerosol. Furthermore, subjects with irregular central distribution of radioaerosol had an increase degree of bronchial responsiveness. In conclusion, children and adolescents who have flow rates in the peripheral airways or increased degree of bronchial responsiveness tend to have abnormal distribution of radioaerosols. (author)

  5. Bronchial artery embolization for therapy of pulmonary bleeding in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V.; Balzer, J.; Straub, R.; Vogl, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Acute pulmonary emergencies in patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) can be found in cases of pneumothorax as well as hemoptysis. If the bleeding cannot be stopped by conservative methods, an embolization of the bronchial arteries should be done. Materials and Method: 11 patients were embolized using a combination of PVA particles and microcoils. Results: From January 1996 to June 2001 17 bronchial arteries in 11 patients were embolized. 7 patients suffered from chronical hemoptysis, 4 patients had an acute hemoptysis. In 4 patients both sides were embolized, in 3 patients only one side. The remaining 4 patients needed a second intervention, embolizing the other side. The primary embolizated bronchial artery was still closed in all 4 patients. In 1 patient the selective catheterization of a bronchial artery was not successful, thus the embolization could not be carried out. 1 patient died 5 days after the intervention due to a fulminant pneumonia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) without recurrent bleeding. In two patients atypical branches from intercostal arteries feeding the bronchial arteries were detected and successfully embolized. All patients profited from the therapy, as bleeding could be stopped or at least be reduced. 3 patients suffered from back pain during or after intervention. There were no severe complications like neurological deficiencies or necroses. (orig.) [de

  6. CYTOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC ESTIMATE OF THE INFLAMMATION AMONG THE CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM MODERATELY SEVERE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Dulina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for the new noninvasive and information methods to estimate the intensity of the inflammatory processes during the bronchial asthma is an important task for the modern medicine, pediatrics, in particular. We have examined 20 children, suffering from moderately severe bronchial asthma in remission. patients underwent the induction of the sputum by means of nail hypertonic solution, bronchoscopic examination along with the sampling of the lavage fluid and bronchial biopsy, cytometry of the induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, morphometric examination of the biopsy samples of bronchi walls, determination of the nitric oxide contents in the expired air. We revealed high self descriptiveness of the cytological characteristics of the induced sputum. High percentage of neutrophiles and eosinophiles in the induced sputum disclosed during remission of the bronchial asthma, as well as thickness increase of the basilemma, ratio distortion of the ciliated and cyathiform cells in the favor of the latter, especially along with the high nitric oxide contents in the expired air indicate the continuous persistence in the allergic respiratory inflammation.Key words: induced sputum, bronchial asthma, children.

  7. Growing quality of life: urban trees, birth weight, and crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kirkland; Geoffrey Donovan

    2011-01-01

    City dwellers can find many reasons to value neighborhood trees. The urban greenery provides relief from the built environment that many find appealing. In fact, a previous study found that a tree in front of a home increased that home's sales price by more than $7,000. Two new studies explore the measurable effects that urban trees and green spaces have a human...

  8. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial asthma in Japanese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yoshifumi; Koya, Toshiyuki; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Tsukioka, Keisuke; Toyama, Mio; Sakagami, Takuro; Hasegawa, Takashi; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2015-04-01

    Asthma has a higher prevalence in athlete populations such as Olympic athletes than in the general population. Correct diagnosis and management of asthma in athletes is important for symptom control and avoidance of doping accusations. However, few reports are available on asthma treatment in the athlete population in clinical practice. In this study, we focused on the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for asthma in a Japanese athlete population. The study subjects included athletes who visited the Niigata Institute for Health and Sports Medicine, Niigata, Japan for athletic tests and who were diagnosed with asthma on the basis of respiratory symptoms and positive results in a bronchodilator or bronchial provocation test such as exercise, hypertonic saline, or methacholine provocation. The athletes received ICS alone for at least 3 months, and the clinical background, sports type, and treatment efficacy were analyzed. The study population comprised 80 athletes (59 men and 21 women) with a median age of 16.0 years. Regarding sports type, 28 athletes engaged in winter sports (35%), 22 in endurance sports (27.5%), and 25 in indoor sports (31.3%). Although ICS is the primary treatment in athlete asthma, 16.3% of the athletes showed an unsatisfactory response to treatment according to the Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness (GETE). These subjects were characterized by a decreased response to methacholine and lower values for FEV1/FVC and type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-associated biomarkers relative to responsive athletes. In multivariate analysis, FEV1/FVC and the logarithm to the base 10 of the IgE level were independently associated with the ICS response. These data suggest that ICS is effective for asthma in most athletes. However, certain asthmatic athletes are less responsive to ICS than expected. The pathogenesis in these subjects may differ from that of conventional asthma characterized by chronic allergic airway inflammation. Copyright

  9. Evaluation of impulse oscillometry during bronchial challenge testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Carole; Crenesse, Dominique; Albertini, Marc

    2011-12-01

    The impulse oscillation system (IOS) allows easy measurement of respiratory system impedance (Zrs). The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of IOS parameters obtained during methacholine challenge by comparison with "the gold standard" forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1). Measurements of FEV1 and resistances at 5 and 20 Hz, reactance at 5 Hz, impedance at 5 Hz and resonant frequency were performed in 227 children with suspected asthma, before and during methacholine challenge. Data were analyzed in the overall population and in three subgroups according to the final diagnosis: asthma (n = 72), chronic cough and nonspecific respiratory symptoms (n = 122), allergic rhinitis (n = 33). All IOS parameters changed significantly during the tests but only changes in X5 were significantly different between responders and nonresponders. Moreover, changes in IOS parameters were not correlated with changes in FEV1 apart from a weak correlation for X5. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for changes in X5 (to predict a 20% decrease in FEV1 showed a best decision level for a 50% decrease in X5 with a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 85%. Results were not different in the asthma group. The accuracy of measurements by IOS during methacholine bronchial challenge in children was not suitable when compared with FEV1 . It could be assumed that spirometry and IOS, while both providing indirect indices of airway patency, are exploring different mechanisms, each with its own methodological potentials and limitations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Autocrine Acetylcholine, Induced by IL-17A via NFκB and ERK1/2 Pathway Activation, Promotes MUC5AC and IL-8 Synthesis in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marina Montalbano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-17A is overexpressed in the lung during acute neutrophilic inflammation. Acetylcholine (ACh increases IL-8 and Muc5AC production in airway epithelial cells. We aimed to characterize the involvement of nonneuronal components of cholinergic system on IL-8 and Muc5AC production in bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with IL-17A. Bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with recombinant human IL-17A (rhIL-17A to evaluate the ChAT expression, the ACh binding and production, the IL-8 release, and the Muc5AC production. Furthermore, the effectiveness of PD098,059 (inhibitor of MAPKK activation, Bay11-7082 (inhibitor of IkBα phosphorylation, Hemicholinium-3 (HCh-3 (choline uptake blocker, and Tiotropium bromide (Spiriva® (anticholinergic drug was tested in our in vitro model. We showed that rhIL-17A increased the expression of ChAT, the levels of ACh binding and production, and the IL-8 and Muc5AC production in stimulated bronchial epithelial cells compared with untreated cells. The pretreatment of the cells with PD098,059 and Bay11-7082 decreased the ChAT expression and the ACh production/binding, while HCh-3 and Tiotropium decreased the IL-8 and Muc5AC synthesis in bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with rhIL-17A. IL-17A is involved in the IL-8 and Muc5AC production promoting, via NFκB and ERK1/2 pathway activation, the synthesis of ChAT, and the related activity of autocrine ACh in bronchial epithelial cells.

  11. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  12. Grassland gross carbon dioxide uptake based on an improved model tree ensemble approach considering human interventions: global estimation and covariation with climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Lü, Yihe; Zhang, Weibin; Li, Shuai; Jin, Zhao; Ciais, Philippe; Fu, Bojie; Wang, Shuai; Yan, Jianwu; Li, Junyi; Su, Huimin

    2017-07-01

    Grassland ecosystems act as a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and provide vital ecosystem services for many species. However, these low-productivity and water-limited ecosystems are sensitive and vulnerable to climate perturbations and human intervention, the latter of which is often not considered due to lack of spatial information regarding the grassland management. Here by the application of a model tree ensemble (MTE-GRASS) trained on local eddy covariance data and using as predictors gridded climate and management intensity field (grazing and cutting), we first provide an estimate of global grassland gross primary production (GPP). GPP from our study compares well (modeling efficiency NSE = 0.85 spatial; NSE between 0.69 and 0.94 interannual) with that from flux measurement. Global grassland GPP was on average 11 ± 0.31 Pg C yr -1 and exhibited significantly increasing trend at both annual and seasonal scales, with an annual increase of 0.023 Pg C (0.2%) from 1982 to 2011. Meanwhile, we found that at both annual and seasonal scale, the trend (except for northern summer) and interannual variability of the GPP are primarily driven by arid/semiarid ecosystems, the latter of which is due to the larger variation in precipitation. Grasslands in arid/semiarid regions have a stronger (33 g C m -2  yr -1 /100 mm) and faster (0- to 1-month time lag) response to precipitation than those in other regions. Although globally spatial gradients (71%) and interannual changes (51%) in GPP were mainly driven by precipitation, where most regions with arid/semiarid climate zone, temperature and radiation together shared half of GPP variability, which is mainly distributed in the high-latitude or cold regions. Our findings and the results of other studies suggest the overwhelming importance of arid/semiarid regions as a control on grassland ecosystems carbon cycle. Similarly, under the projected future climate change, grassland ecosystems in these regions will

  13. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  14. Pharmacogenetic Aspects of Airways’ Obstruction Relief Therapy of Bronchial Asthma Attacks in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Mikaluk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available On the base of a complex examination of 215 schoolchildren who suffer bronchial asthma, there have been established that clinical manifestations of severity of bronchial obstructive syndrome during disease exacerbation do not depend on acetylating status. However, a homozygosity on both alleles of the glutathione transferase gene (GSTT1+M1+ has been connected to greater severity of asthma attacks, while a lack of the T-allele in children with slow acetylating phenotype has been associated with more frequent use of systemic corticosteroids and somewhat better results of airways obstruction relief therapy. Occurrence of GSTT1+M1+ genotype in patients with accelerated processes of acetylation significantly increased the risk of the inefficiency of bronchial obstruction relief therapy (odds ratio 12.4, relative risk — 6.4, the absolute risk — 50 %.

  15. Features of Immune Response to Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kalichevska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The course of bronchial asthma in children is often accompanied by gastrointestinal (GI diseases associated with H.pylori infection. The presence of H.pylori leads to the activation and maintenance of inflammatory process with release of cytokines and mediators of inflammation and subsequent systemic effects. Objective: to study the peculiarities of interferon gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-4, -5 and -13 production as markers of allergic inflammation severity in children with bronchial asthma infected with H.pylori. Materials and methods. There were examined 120 children with bronchial asthma aged 6 to 18 years. Identification of H.pylori was carried out with the help of brea­thing Helic-test (LLC AMA, Russia. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ and IL‑4, -5 and -13 were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay (Diaclone test-kits, France before and 7 days after the end of treatment for GI pathology. Statistical processing was performed using the methods of variation statistics implemented in the software package Statistica 6.1. Results. 78 children with bronchial asthma were diagnosed with GI disease, including 37 cases associated with H.pylori infection. To study the influence of H.pylori on the course of bronchial asthma, children were divided into 3 groups: I group — 37 children with bronchial asthma and GI pathology, infected with H.pylori, II — 41 H.pylori-negative children with bronchial asthma and GI pathology, III — 42 H.pylori-negative children with bronchial asthma without GI disorders. Duration of bronchial asthma in group I was 7.80 ± 0.17 years, in II — 5.90 ± 0.26 years, in group III — 3.90 ± 0.48 years (p < 0.05. The presence of H.pylori infection in children with bronchial asthma was accompanied by lower concentrations of IFN-γ compared to children of group II (8.47 ± 0.14 pg/ml and 9.69 ± 0.32 pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05. The level of IL‑13 in the blood serum was

  16. Dysfunction of Right Heart in Attack Period of Bronchial Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.А. Kondratiev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There were performed Doppler echocardiography investigations of functional state of the right heart in 42 children aged 5–17 years old in attack period of bronchial asthma of moderate to severe degree. Changes of intra-cardiac hemodynamics of the right heart in children in attack period of bronchial asthma were characterized by disturbance of systolic and diastolic function of the right ventricle and right atrium. Combined systolic-diastolic variant of the right ventricle dysfunction was typical for attack period of bronchial asthma in children and developed in 95.5 % of cases. Elevation of pressure in pulmonary artery was typical and significantly more often occurred in severe asthma attack, herewith pulmonary hypertension of the second degree predominated.

  17. Determination of blood ET-1 and related cytokines in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiangang; Ling Wanli; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of endothelin and related cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-8) in the development of bronchial asthma in pediatric patients. Methods: Plasma ET-1 (with RIA) and serum IL-5 (with ELISA), IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) levels were measured in 42