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Sample records for human brain anatomy

  1. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  2. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ... form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ...

  3. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  4. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ashish; Chen, Yu-hsien

    2011-01-01

    Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization.

  5. The wiring economy principle: connectivity determines anatomy in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Raj

    Full Text Available Minimization of the wiring cost of white matter fibers in the human brain appears to be an organizational principle. We investigate this aspect in the human brain using whole brain connectivity networks extracted from high resolution diffusion MRI data of 14 normal volunteers. We specifically address the question of whether brain anatomy determines its connectivity or vice versa. Unlike previous studies we use weighted networks, where connections between cortical nodes are real-valued rather than binary off-on connections. In one set of analyses we found that the connectivity structure of the brain has near optimal wiring cost compared to random networks with the same number of edges, degree distribution and edge weight distribution. A specifically designed minimization routine could not find cheaper wiring without significantly degrading network performance. In another set of analyses we kept the observed brain network topology and connectivity but allowed nodes to freely move on a 3D manifold topologically identical to the brain. An efficient minimization routine was written to find the lowest wiring cost configuration. We found that beginning from any random configuration, the nodes invariably arrange themselves in a configuration with a striking resemblance to the brain. This confirms the widely held but poorly tested claim that wiring economy is a driving principle of the brain. Intriguingly, our results also suggest that the brain mainly optimizes for the most desirable network connectivity, and the observed brain anatomy is merely a result of this optimization.

  6. The hubs of the human connectome are generally implicated in the anatomy of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Nicolas A; Mechelli, Andrea; Scott, Jessica; Carletti, Francesco; Fox, Peter T; McGuire, Philip; Bullmore, Edward T

    2014-08-01

    Brain networks or 'connectomes' include a minority of highly connected hub nodes that are functionally valuable, because their topological centrality supports integrative processing and adaptive behaviours. Recent studies also suggest that hubs have higher metabolic demands and longer-distance connections than other brain regions, and therefore could be considered biologically costly. Assuming that hubs thus normally combine both high topological value and high biological cost, we predicted that pathological brain lesions would be concentrated in hub regions. To test this general hypothesis, we first identified the hubs of brain anatomical networks estimated from diffusion tensor imaging data on healthy volunteers (n = 56), and showed that computational attacks targeted on hubs disproportionally degraded the efficiency of brain networks compared to random attacks. We then prepared grey matter lesion maps, based on meta-analyses of published magnetic resonance imaging data on more than 20 000 subjects and 26 different brain disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging lesions that were common across all brain disorders were more likely to be located in hubs of the normal brain connectome (P brain disorders had lesions that were significantly more likely to be located in hubs (P human brain networks are more likely to be anatomically abnormal than non-hubs in many (if not all) brain disorders. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  7. Cortex-sparing fiber dissection: an improved method for the study of white matter anatomy in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; De Witt Hamer, Philip C; Vergani, Francesco; Brogna, Christian; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso; García-Porrero, Juan A; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-01-01

    Classical fiber dissection of post mortem human brains enables us to isolate a fiber tract by removing the cortex and overlying white matter. In the current work, a modification of the dissection methodology is presented that preserves the cortex and the relationships within the brain during all stages of dissection, i.e. ‘cortex-sparing fiber dissection’. Thirty post mortem human hemispheres (15 right side and 15 left side) were dissected using cortex-sparing fiber dissection. Magnetic resonance imaging study of a healthy brain was analyzed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based tractography software. DTI fiber tract reconstructions were compared with cortex-sparing fiber dissection results. The fibers of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) were isolated so as to enable identification of their cortical terminations. Two segments of the SLF were identified: first, an indirect and superficial component composed of a horizontal and vertical segment; and second, a direct and deep component or arcuate fasciculus. The IFOF runs within the insula, temporal stem and sagittal stratum, and connects the frontal operculum with the occipital, parietal and temporo-basal cortex. The UF crosses the limen insulae and connects the orbito-frontal gyri with the anterior temporal lobe. Finally, a portion of the ILF was isolated connecting the fusiform gyrus with the occipital gyri. These results indicate that cortex-sparing fiber dissection facilitates study of the 3D anatomy of human brain tracts, enabling the tracing of fibers to their terminations in the cortex. Consequently, it is an important tool for neurosurgical training and neuroanatomical research. PMID:21767263

  8. High-resolution anatomy of the human brain stem using 7-T MRI: improved detection of inner structures and nerves?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, Elke R. [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Maderwald, Stefan [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Linn, Jennifer; Bochmann, Katja [LMU Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Dassinger, Benjamin [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Neuroradiology, Giessen (Germany); Forsting, Michael [University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Departments of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of 7 Tesla (7 T) MRI for the depiction of brain stem and cranial nerve (CN) anatomy. Six volunteers were examined at 7 T using high-resolution SWI, MPRAGE, MP2RAGE, 3D SPACE T2, T2, and PD images to establish scanning parameters targeted at optimizing spatial resolution. Direct comparisons between 3 and 7 T were performed in two additional subjects using the finalized sequences (3 T: T2, PD, MPRAGE, SWAN; 7 T: 3D T2, MPRAGE, SWI, MP2RAGE). Artifacts and the depiction of structures were evaluated by two neuroradiologists using a standardized score sheet. Sequences could be established for high-resolution 7 T imaging even in caudal cranial areas. High in-plane resolution T2, PD, and SWI images provided depiction of inner brain stem structures such as pons fibers, raphe, reticular formation, nerve roots, and periaqueductal gray. MPRAGE and MP2RAGE provided clear depiction of the CNs. 3D T2 images improved depiction of inner brain structure in comparison to T2 images at 3 T. Although the 7-T SWI sequence provided improved contrast to some inner structures, extended areas were influenced by artifacts due to image disturbances from susceptibility differences. Seven-tesla imaging of basal brain areas is feasible and might have significant impact on detection and diagnosis in patients with specific diseases, e.g., trigeminal pain related to affection of the nerve root. Some inner brain stem structures can be depicted at 3 T, but certain sequences at 7 T, in particular 3D SPACE T2, are superior in producing anatomical in vivo images of deep brain stem structures. (orig.)

  9. Georg N. Koskinas (1885-1975) and his scientific contributions to the normal and pathological anatomy of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2005-12-30

    Georg N. Koskinas is invariably recognised by neuroanatomists as Constantin von Economo's co-author on the celebrated Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des erwachsenen Menschen, published 80 years ago in Vienna and Berlin. That text and Atlas are generally accepted as a monumental landmark in the evolution of morphological brain research. A number of neuroanatomists and neurophysiologists continue to use to this day the parcellation scheme of the cerebral cortex into 107 areas, proposed by von Economo and Koskinas (and logically denoted by alphabetical characters from the initials of the respective lobes), despite the commoner adoption of Brodmann's scheme of 52, randomly numbered, areas. Several works have been written about the life and work of von Economo; on the other hand, virtually nothing can be found in the biomedical literature about Koskinas. This study aims at posthumously restoring part of the fame due this illustrious man of 20th century science -- and giant figure of brain anatomy -- whom history has not treated in the fairest of ways. We present newly gathered biographical data, as well as lesser known aspects of his scientific productivity. Koskinas' neuropathological studies, in collaboration with Ernst Sträussler -- of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease fame -- include findings from patients inoculated with malaria as a form of therapy for progressive general paresis (research related to psychiatrist Wagner von Jauregg's 1927 Nobel Prize), colloid degeneration, and the laminar distribution of status spongiosus lesions. Koskinas' neuropsychiatric activities in Greece upon his return from Vienna in 1927, and until his parting in 1975, are further related, including his successful -- and "Hippocratic" -- practice in the suburbs of Athens, his association with the Vogt Institute for Brain Research at Neustadt, and lesser known neuroanatomical works.

  10. Computational anatomy for studying use-dependant brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan eDraganski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a comprehensive literature review on the in vivo assessment of use-dependant brain structure changes in humans using magnetic resonance imaging and computational anatomy. We highlight the recent findings in this field that allow the uncovering of the basic principles behind brain plasticity in light of the existing theoretical models at various scales of observation. Given the current lack of in-depth understanding of the neurobiological basis of brain structure changes we emphasize the necessity of a paradigm shift in the investigation and interpretation of use-dependent brain plasticity. Novel quantitative MRI acquisition techniques provide access to brain tissue microstructural properties (e.g. myelin, iron and water content in-vivo, thereby allowing unprecedented specific insights into the mechanisms underlying brain plasticity. These quantitative MRI techniques require novel methods for image processing and analysis of longitudinal data allowing for straightforward interpretation and causality inferences.

  11. Cerebral Anatomy of the Spider Monkey Ateles Geoffroyi Studied Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. First Report: a Comparative Study with the Human Brain Homo Sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chico-Ponce de León

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present qualitative studywas to analyze the morphological aspects of theinner cerebral anatomy of two species of primates,using magnetic resonance images (MRI:spider monkey (A. geoffroyi and human (H.sapiens, on the basis of a comparative study ofthe cerebral structures of the two species, focusingupon the brain of the spider monkey and,primarily, its limbic system. In spite of beingan endemic Western hemisphere species, a factwhich is by its own right interesting for researchdue to this animal’s social organization and motorfunctions, the spider monkey (A. geoffroyihas hardly been studied in regard to its neuroanatomy.MRI was carried out, in one spidermonkey, employing a General Electric Signa1.5 T scanner. This investigation was carried inaccordance to international regulations for theprotection of animals in captivity, taking intoaccount all protective means utilized in experimentalhandling, and not leaving behind any residualeffects, either physiological or behavioral.From a qualitative point of view, the brains ofthe spider monkey and the human were found to have similar structures. In reference to shape,the most similar structures were found in thelimbic system; proportionally, however, cervical curvature, amygdala, hippocampus, anteriorcommissure and the colliculi, were larger in thespider monkey than in the human.

  12. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  13. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  14. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  15. Functional anatomy of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentágothai, J

    1993-01-01

    The outlines of an investigation into side differences between the Planum temporale (The Geschwind-Levitzky areas) of ten human brains are given. Volume of this area and cell numbers are clearly asymmetric, the left side being consequently larger by 38-34% over the same area at right. Cell density (cell No/volume) is virtually the same on both sides. Some comments upon the data are being made.

  16. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  17. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  18. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

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    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  19. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  20. Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlonan, Grainne M; Daly, Eileen; Kumari, Veena; Critchley, Hugo D; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Suckling, John; Simmons, Andrew; Sigmundsson, Thordur; Greenwood, Kathyrn; Russell, Ailsa; Schmitz, Nicole; Happe, Francesca; Howlin, Patricia; Murphy, Declan G M

    2002-07-01

    Asperger's syndrome (an autistic disorder) is characterized by stereotyped and obsessional behaviours, and pervasive abnormalities in socio-emotional and communicative behaviour. These symptoms lead to social exclusion and a significant healthcare burden; however, their neurobiological basis is poorly understood. There are few studies on brain anatomy of Asperger's syndrome, and no focal anatomical abnormality has been reliably reported from brain imaging studies of autism, although there is increasing evidence for differences in limbic circuits. These brain regions are important in sensorimotor gating, and impaired 'gating' may partly explain the failure of people with autistic disorders to inhibit repetitive thoughts and actions. Thus, we compared brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in healthy people with Asperger's syndrome and controls. We included 21 adults with Asperger's syndrome and 24 controls. All had normal IQ and were aged 18-49 years. We studied brain anatomy using quantitative MRI, and sensorimotor gating using prepulse inhibition of startle in a subset of 12 individuals with Asperger's syndrome and 14 controls. We found significant age-related differences in volume of cerebral hemispheres and caudate nuclei (controls, but not people with Asperger's syndrome, had age-related reductions in volume). Also, people with Asperger's syndrome had significantly less grey matter in fronto-striatal and cerebellar regions than controls, and widespread differences in white matter. Moreover, sensorimotor gating was significantly impaired in Asperger's syndrome. People with Asperger's syndrome most likely have generalized alterations in brain development, but this is associated with significant differences from controls in the anatomy and function of specific brain regions implicated in behaviours characterizing the disorder. We hypothesize that Asperger's syndrome is associated with abnormalities in fronto-striatal pathways resulting in defective sensorimotor

  1. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Structure and Anatomy of the Human Pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E Rene; Tan, Carmela D

    The normal gross anatomy and light microscopy of the human pericardium are presented in detail that allows easy correlation with current cardiac imaging modalities. The anatomical structures of the parietal pericardium are shown from its mediastinal surface, including its ligaments to the sternum, diaphragm and vertebral column. The attachments of the parietal pericardium to the great vessels showing the intrapericardial location of the root of the aorta and pulmonary artery are documented. Also the attachments of the parietal pericardium to the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins are illustrated in detail. The internal anatomy of the parietal pericardium emphasizing the oblique and transverse sinuses is explained. The microscopic differences between the structures of the parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium (epicardium) are shown as the basis that allows understanding the spectrum of adaptation of the pericardium to diverse pathologic processes. However, the pathology of the pericardium is not discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of Photogrammetry to Brain Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Sarubbo, S.; De Benedictis, A.; Chioffi, F.; Petralia, V.; Barbareschi, M.; Olivetti, E.; Avesani, P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an on-going interdisciplinary collaboration to advance brain connectivity studies. Despite the evolution of noninvasive methods to investigate the brain connectivity structure using the diffusion magnetic resonance, in the neuroscientific community there is an open debate how to collect quantitative information of the main neuroanatomical tracts. Information on the structure and main pathways of brain's white matter are generally derived by manual dissection of the brain ex-vivo. This paper wants to present a photogrammetric method developed to support the collection of metric information of the main pathways, or set of fibres, of the white matter of brain. For this purpose, multi-temporal photogrammetric acquisitions, with a resolution better than 100 microns, are performed at different stages of the brain's dissection, and the derived dense point clouds are used to annotate the stem, i.e., the region where there is a greater density of fibres of a given pathway, and termination points of several neuroanatomical tracts, i.e. fibres.

  4. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  5. Lecture Classes in Human Anatomy: The Students’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of...

  6. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  7. Brain anatomy of the marine tardigrade Actinarctus doryphorus (Arthrotardigrada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Dennis K; Halberg, Kenneth A; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge of tardigrade brain structure is important for resolving the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Here, we present new insight into the morphology of the brain in a marine arthrotardigrade, Actinarctus doryphorus, based on transmission electron microscopy, supported by scanning electron microscopy, conventional light microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy. Arthrotardigrades contain a large number of plesiomorphic characters and likely represent ancestral tardigrades. They often have segmented body outlines and each trunk segment, with its paired set of legs, may have up to five sensory appendages. Noticeably, the head carries numerous cephalic appendages that are structurally equivalent to the sensory appendages of the trunk segments. Our data reveal that the brain of A. doryphorus is partitioned into three paired lobes, and that these lobes exhibit a more pronounced separation as compared to that of eutardigrades. The first brain lobe in A. doryphorus is located anteriodorsally, with the second lobe just below it in an anterioventral position. Both of these two paired lobes are located anterior to the buccal tube. The third pair of brain lobes are situated posterioventrally to the first two lobes, and flank the buccal tube. In addition, A. doryphorus possesses a subpharyngeal ganglion, which is connected with the first of the four ventral trunk ganglia. The first and second brain lobes in A. doryphorus innervate the clavae and cirri of the head. The innervations of these structures indicate a homology between, respectively, the clavae and cirri of A. doryphorus and the temporalia and papilla cephalica of eutardigrades. The third brain lobes innervate the buccal lamella and the stylets as described for eutardigrades. Collectively, these findings suggest that the head region of extant tardigrades is the result of cephalization of multiple segments. Our results on the brain anatomy of Actinarctus doryphorus support the monophyly of

  8. Brain anatomy alterations associated with Social Networking Site (SNS) addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    This study relies on knowledge regarding the neuroplasticity of dual-system components that govern addiction and excessive behavior and suggests that alterations in the grey matter volumes, i.e., brain morphology, of specific regions of interest are associated with technology-related addictions. Using voxel based morphometry (VBM) applied to structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of twenty social network site (SNS) users with varying degrees of SNS addiction, we show that SNS addiction is associated with a presumably more efficient impulsive brain system, manifested through reduced grey matter volumes in the amygdala bilaterally (but not with structural differences in the Nucleus Accumbens). In this regard, SNS addiction is similar in terms of brain anatomy alterations to other (substance, gambling etc.) addictions. We also show that in contrast to other addictions in which the anterior-/ mid- cingulate cortex is impaired and fails to support the needed inhibition, which manifests through reduced grey matter volumes, this region is presumed to be healthy in our sample and its grey matter volume is positively correlated with one’s level of SNS addiction. These findings portray an anatomical morphology model of SNS addiction and point to brain morphology similarities and differences between technology addictions and substance and gambling addictions. PMID:28332625

  9. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  10. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  11. Revisiting human nose anatomy: phylogenic and ontogenic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Roger

    2011-11-01

    This review suggests revisiting nose anatomy by considering the ethmoidal labyrinths as part of the olfactory nose and not as paranasal sinuses. Phylogenetically, the olfactory and respiratory organs of the most primitive vertebrates are separated. Exaptation, a mechanism of evolution, may explain the fusion of the olfactory and respiratory organs in dipnoi. The respiratory and olfactory noses remain anatomically separated by the transverse lamina in most mammals, whose olfactory labyrinth is a blind recess housing the ethmoturbinates. In humans, the partitioning between the olfactory cleft and the ethmoid labyrinth seems to be a consequence of ethmoid bone remodeling induced by the acquisition of an upright posture. The ethmoid bone is derived from the cartilaginous nasal capsule of primitive vertebrates and considered to be a highly conserved region among the bony elements of the skull base. It appears to be involved only in housing and protecting the olfactory function. During the early stages of human fetal development, rupture of the oronasal membrane leads to the integration of the primary olfactory sac in the future respiratory organ. The cartilaginous nasal capsule appears in the tissue under the brain and around the olfactory channels. Its early fetal development is classically regarded as the beginning of paranasal sinus formation. From phylogenic and ontogenic perspectives, it may be regarded as the development of the olfactory labyrinth as modified by the remodeling process of the human face and skull base. The endochondral bony origin of the ethmoid labyrinths makes them substantially different from the other paranasal sinuses.

  12. Anatomy, technology, art, and culture: toward a realistic perspective of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Feindel, William; Goodrich, James T; Dagi, T Forcht; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Preul, Mark C

    2009-09-01

    In the 15th century, brain illustration began to change from a schematic system that involved scant objective rendering of the brain, to accurate depictions based on anatomical dissections that demanded significant artistic talent. Notable examples of this innovation are the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci (1498-1504), Andreas Vesalius' association with the bottega of Titian to produce the drawings of Vesalius' De humani corporis fabrica (1543), and Christopher Wren's illustrations for Thomas Willis' Cerebri Anatome (1664). These works appeared during the Renaissance and Age of Enlightenment, when advances in brain imaging, or really brain rendering, reflected not only the abilities and dedications of the artists, but also the influences of important cultural and scientific factors. Anatomy and human dissection became popular social phenomena as well as scholarly pursuits, linked with the world of the fine arts. The working philosophy of these artists involved active participation in both anatomical study and illustration, and the belief that their discoveries of the natural world could best be communicated by rendering them in objective form (that is, with realistic perspective). From their studies emerged the beginning of contemporary brain imaging. In this article, the authors examine how the brain began to be imaged in realism within a cultural and scientific milieu that witnessed the emergence of anatomical dissection, the geometry of linear perspective, and the closer confluence of art and science.

  13. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  14. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  15. The Ventricular System of the Brain: Anatomy and Normal Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratchko, Lindsay; Filatova, Irina; Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam

    2016-04-01

    The cerebral ventricular system is intimately associated with the forebrain and brainstem. The ventricular system functions to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid, which plays an important role in mechanical protection and regulation of homeostasis in the central nervous system. This article discusses anatomy and neuroimaging of the ventricular system and highlights normal anatomical variations that may be mistaken for pathology. Applied surgical anatomy is reviewed with emphasis on operative approach and potential risk to adjacent central nervous system structures.

  16. Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

  17. Human brain mapping: Experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.C.; George, J.S.; Schmidt, D.M.; Aine, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Sanders, J. [Albuquerque VA Medical Center, NM (US); Belliveau, J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This program developed project combined Los Alamos' and collaborators' strengths in noninvasive brain imaging and high performance computing to develop potential contributions to the multi-agency Human Brain Project led by the National Institute of Mental Health. The experimental component of the project emphasized the optimization of spatial and temporal resolution of functional brain imaging by combining: (a) structural MRI measurements of brain anatomy; (b) functional MRI measurements of blood flow and oxygenation; and (c) MEG measurements of time-resolved neuronal population currents. The computational component of the project emphasized development of a high-resolution 3-D volumetric model of the brain based on anatomical MRI, in which structural and functional information from multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a single computational framework for modeling, visualization, and database representation.

  18. Lecture classes in human anatomy: the students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of the course, to provide the students with an effective knowledge of the gross anatomy, histology, embryology and the clinical anatomy. On the other hand, the students' feedback regarding the lecture methods and the teaching environment is crucial in judging the efficacy of the present curriculum. To obtain the students' feedback about the environment of the lecture classes, as regards the venue, the teaching and learning aids which are used, the lecture class schedule of the university (the number of classes per week, the durations of the lecture classes, etc.) and the existing departmental practices (display of the class routine in advance, synchronization between the lecture and the practical classes), so that their suggestions could help the faculty in planning the most effective teaching procedures. A semi structured questionnaire was supplied to the students to get their feedback. Most of the students found the air conditioned seminar room's environment to be more comfortable and they supported the existing durations of the lecture hours with the combined use of chalk and a board and overhead projectors (OHPs). The perceptions of the learners helped in modifying the departmental practice in the desired way.

  19. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L

    2002-01-01

    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  20. Design and implementation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Rogers, Kem A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Human Anatomy is a full credit, upper year undergraduate course with a (prosection) laboratory component at Western University Canada. To meet enrollment demands beyond the physical space of the laboratory facility, a fully online section was developed to run concurrently with the traditional face to face (F2F) course. Lectures given to F2F students are simultaneously broadcasted to online students using collaborative software (Blackboard Collaborate). The same collaborative software is used by a teaching assistant to deliver laboratory demonstrations in which three-dimensional (3D) virtual anatomical models are manipulated. Ten commercial software programs were reviewed to determine their suitability for demonstrating the virtual models, resulting in the selection of Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy. Supplementary online materials for the central nervous system were developed by creating 360° images of plastinated prosected brain specimens and a website through which they could be accessed. This is the first description of a fully online undergraduate anatomy course with a live, interactive laboratory component. Preliminary data comparing the online and F2F student grades suggest that previous student academic performance, and not course delivery format, predicts performance in anatomy. Future qualitative studies will reveal student perceptions about their learning experiences in both of the course delivery formats.

  1. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans , and physician competencies , because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be...

  2. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  3. The human hair: from anatomy to physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabio; Labanca, Mauro; Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Trink, Anna; Guanziroli, Elena; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi F

    2014-03-01

    Hair is a unique character of mammals and has several functions, from protection of the skin to sexual and social communication. In literature, there are various studies about hair that take into consideration different aspects within many fields of science, including biology, dermatology, cosmetics, forensic sciences, and medicine. We carried out a search of studies published in PubMed up to 2013. In this review, we summarized the principal anatomical and physiological aspects of the different types of human hair, and we considered the clinical significance of the different structures and the distribution of the hair in the human body. This review could be the basis for improvement and progression in the field of hair research. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Functional Anatomy of the Human Microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Jo, Myung Hyun; Choi, Yeon-Gil; Park, Joha; Kwon, S Chul; Hohng, Sungchul; Kim, V Narry; Woo, Jae-Sung

    2015-06-04

    MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is initiated by Microprocessor composed of RNase III DROSHA and its cofactor DGCR8, whose fidelity is critical for generation of functional miRNAs. To understand how Microprocessor recognizes pri-miRNAs, we here reconstitute human Microprocessor with purified recombinant proteins. We find that Microprocessor is an ∼364 kDa heterotrimeric complex of one DROSHA and two DGCR8 molecules. Together with a 23-amino acid peptide from DGCR8, DROSHA constitutes a minimal functional core. DROSHA serves as a "ruler" by measuring 11 bp from the basal ssRNA-dsRNA junction. DGCR8 interacts with the stem and apical elements through its dsRNA-binding domains and RNA-binding heme domain, respectively, allowing efficient and accurate processing. DROSHA and DGCR8, respectively, recognize the basal UG and apical UGU motifs, which ensure proper orientation of the complex. These findings clarify controversies over the action mechanism of DROSHA and allow us to build a general model for pri-miRNA processing.

  5. maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy: university of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Wangwe Ongeti

    2013-01-02

    Jan 2, 2013 ... Anatomy graduates. Excellence in teaching ... In response, there is resurgence in the value and emphasis .... in relations to the three main divisions of anatomy ..... Importance of dissection in learning anatomy: personal dissection versus peer teaching. ... The prospect of anatomy as a career choice among.

  6. PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE INTEGRATED HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY COURSE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE PHARMACY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Bryant*1, Manjunatha Goud BK2, Anand Srinivasan3 and Vijayalakshmi SB3

    2016-01-01

    Human Anatomy and Physiology is an important core component for all allied healthcare professional education. At our university, we offer an integrated Human Anatomy and Physiology course (HAP) to the first year Pharmacy students. The main objective of this study was to ascertain and compare Pharmacy undergraduate students’ opinions and attitudes towards the integrated course of human anatomy and physiology. A pre-validated questionnaire was given to students of first year pharma...

  7. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  8. Anatomy of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Gonzales, M

    1981-12-01

    Light microscopy of specimens of human eyes cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa showed variation in structural anatomy, as demonstrated previously in certain primate eyes. Connective tissue and glial cell structural elements were greater in nasal-temporal as compared with inferior and superior quadrants of the disc. This regional variation suggests a hypothesis for the specificity of early patterns of optic nerve dysfunction characteristic of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In glaucomatous eyes, nerve head regions with relatively less structural tissue elements may yield early to detrimental effects of persistent pressure elevation.

  9. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehkämper, Gerd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  10. maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy: university of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Wangwe Ongeti

    2013-01-02

    Jan 2, 2013 ... at the UON with a view of elucidating the learning points from which other ... Key words: Anatomy teaching, University of Nairobi ... Bachelor of science Nursing. 90 ..... sessions in clinical anatomy: A strategy for educational ...

  11. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  12. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wang, Yong-Li; Zhu, Qing-An; Mao, Fang-Min; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported. To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans. Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs). Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD). The atlantoaxial (C1-2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute. Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  13. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  14. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  15. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-21

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

  16. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  17. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  18. Quantification of human upper extremity nerves and fascicular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Natalie A; Tyler, Dustin J

    2017-09-01

    In this study we provide detailed quantification of upper extremity nerve and fascicular anatomy. The purpose is to provide values and trends in neural features useful for clinical applications and neural interface device design. Nerve cross-sections were taken from 4 ulnar, 4 median, and 3 radial nerves from 5 arms of 3 human cadavers. Quantified nerve features included cross-sectional area, minor diameter, and major diameter. Fascicular features analyzed included count, perimeter, area, and position. Mean fascicular diameters were 0.57 ± 0.39, 0.6 ± 0.3, 0.5 ± 0.26 mm in the upper arm and 0.38 ± 0.18, 0.47 ± 0.18, 0.4 ± 0.27 mm in the forearm of ulnar, median, and radial nerves, respectively. Mean fascicular diameters were inversely proportional to fascicle count. Detailed quantitative anatomy of upper extremity nerves is a resource for design of neural electrodes, guidance in extraneural procedures, and improved neurosurgical planning. Muscle Nerve 56: 463-471, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Meeting the family: promoting humanism in gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Sheila M; O'Donoghue, Dan; Vannatta, Jerry B; Thompson, Britta M

    2012-01-01

    Human dissection commonly occurs early in the undergraduate medical school curriculum, thus presenting an immediate opportunity for educators to teach and encourage humanistic qualities of respect, empathy, and compassion. The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of the Donor Luncheon, a unique program in which medical students meet the families of the anatomical donor prior to dissection in the anatomy course at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine. Students were randomized into groups of 8 to attend the luncheon and either met with family of the donor or attended the luncheon with no donor family present. A questionnaire measured students' attitudes at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and at the conclusion of the anatomy course. Factor analysis revealed 5 scales. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences across time for Donor as Person, Dissection Process, and Donor as Patient and statistically significant differences between groups for Donor as Person and Donor as Patient. These results suggest that this program can provide students with the opportunity to maintain more humanistic attitudes at the beginning of their medical education career.

  20. The white matter query language: a novel approach for describing human white matter anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.

  1. Sinus Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  2. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  3. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy:

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Materials and methods Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 ...

  4. Brain without anatomy: construction and comparison of fully network-driven structural MRI connectomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tymofiyeva

    Full Text Available MRI connectomics methods treat the brain as a network and provide new information about its organization, efficiency, and mechanisms of disruption. The most commonly used method of defining network nodes is to register the brain to a standardized anatomical atlas based on the Brodmann areas. This approach is limited by inter-subject variability and can be especially problematic in the context of brain maturation or neuroplasticity (cerebral reorganization after brain damage. In this study, we combined different image processing and network theory methods and created a novel approach that enables atlas-free construction and connection-wise comparison of diffusion MRI-based brain networks. We illustrated the proposed approach in three age groups: neonates, 6-month-old infants, and adults. First, we explored a data-driven method of determining the optimal number of equal-area nodes based on the assumption that all cortical areas of the brain are connected and, thus, no part of the brain is structurally isolated. Second, to enable a connection-wise comparison, alignment to a "reference brain" was performed in the network domain within each group using a matrix alignment algorithm with simulated annealing. The correlation coefficients after pair-wise network alignment ranged from 0.6102 to 0.6673. To test the method's reproducibility, one subject from the 6-month-old group and one from the adult group were scanned twice, resulting in correlation coefficients of 0.7443 and 0.7037, respectively. While being less than 1 due to parcellation and noise, statistically, these values were significantly higher than inter-subject values. Rotation of the parcellation largely explained the variability. Through the abstraction from anatomy, the developed framework allows for a fully network-driven analysis of structural MRI connectomes and can be applied to subjects at any stage of development and with substantial differences in cortical anatomy.

  5. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  6. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  7. Human temporomandibular joint disc: anatomy and measurements in prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambartolomei, Luis A; Brunotto, Mabel N; de Ferraris, María E Gómez

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine morphological characteristics and measurements of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc in human fetuses between 16 and 20 weeks of intrauterine life, and correlate it with oral-facial neuro-muscular maturing. Scanner images were used to record the length of the disc (D) and the thickness of its anterior middle and posterior bands in TMJ anteroposterior vertical sections from human fetuses of 16, 18 and 20 weeks of intrauterine life (WIL). Mean disc length was 1.98 mm, 2.69 mm and 2.90 mm at 16, 18 and 20 WIL respectively, and measurements differed significantly between those ages. The thicknesses of the anterior, middle and posterior bands also differed significantly. The results give normal morphological data for D between 16 and 20 WIL. TMJ anatomy and measurements appear to be related and agree with the neuro-muscular maturation time at which sucking and swallowing reflexes begin before birth. It is known that these functions, as well as the neuro-muscular capacity to perform prenatal mandibular movements (opening and closing), begin at 14 to 15 weeks of prenatal development and are fully attained at about 20 weeks of development. Knowledge of this reference pattern may be of major importance to future research, for assessing jaw biomechanics and detecting alterations of TMJ and prenatal development of a vital human function - suckling in preterm infants.

  8. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  9. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  10. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  11. Human functional neuroimaging of brain changes associated with practice

    OpenAIRE

    GARAVAN, HUGH PATRICK

    2005-01-01

    PUBLISHED The discovery that experience-driven changes in the human brain can occur from a neural to a cortical level throughout the lifespan has stimulated a proliferation of research into how neural function changes in response to experience, enabled by neuroimaging methods such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Studies attempt to characterize these changes by examining how practice on a task affects the functional anatomy underlying performance. ...

  12. Alternative uses of didactics scripts and anatomy models in the teaching-learning in practical human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidially Nayara Bezerra Moraes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The teaching and learning process is complex and difficult presented with respect to the human anatomy. Thus, the improvement of teaching resources applied to the teaching of this discipline, shows up as a satisfactory trend and encourages student participation as an active subject in the search for new informations, giving essential support teaching-learning process. The aim of the study was to verify the existence and utilization of teaching scripts and anatomical models in practicals classes of Human Anatomy. The study was a descriptive systematic review, developed with scientific production indexed in electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE, GOOGLE ACADEMICO and SciELO; as well as Brazilian proceedings. Among the 17 articles found, 9 showed the use of anatomical models, 7 showed other methods used, and only 1 on the use of didactic manual on classroom practice of this discipline. From the study, it can be observed that the use of teaching scripts for teaching in practical classes of Human Anatomy is an innovative method and the use of anatomical models alternative has shown positive results in the teaching-learning process. However, these methods, ever can replace the use of the corpse in the teaching of this discipline.

  13. Anatomy online: presentation of a detailed WWW atlas of human gross anatomy--reference for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrow, Holger; Vollrath, Lutz

    2002-11-01

    We present an online anatomy atlas based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the US National Library of Medicine. The objective is to provide original unlabeled as well as labeled sections of the human body of high quality and resolution on the Internet, for use in basic and continuing medical education. For a representative overview of the body, 370 axial sections were selected from the male and female data base of the VHP with special regard to regions of clinical interest. Each section is accompanied by its corresponding computer tomography (CT) image and, if available, magnetic resonance images (MRI) for quick and easy comparison of morphologic and radiologic structures. The sections can be studied unlabeled or labeled according to the current Terminologia Anatomica. A linked vocabulary with more than 850 terms explains the labeling. Animations of the sections as well as of CT and MR images allow for further visualization of the topographic relationships of anatomical structures. The responses to the project indicate that students and physicians regard the Internet Atlas of Human Gross Anatomy as a most useful aid for learning and reviewing anatomical details. The atlas is accessible on: http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Medizin/Anatomie/workshop/vishuman/Eready.html.

  14. Exercises in Anatomy, Connectivity, and Morphology using Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Philip; Peck, Joshua; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory instruction of neuroscience is often limited by the lack of physical resources and supplies (e.g., brains specimens, dissection kits, physiological equipment). Online databases can serve as supplements to material labs by providing professionally collected images of brain specimens and their underlying cellular populations with resolution and quality that is extremely difficult to access for strictly pedagogical purposes. We describe a method using two online databases, the Neuromorpho.org and the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA), that freely provide access to data from working brain scientists that can be modified for laboratory instruction/exercises. Neuromorpho.org is the first neuronal morphology database that provides qualitative and quantitative data from reconstructed cells analyzed in published scientific reports. The Neuromorpho.org database contains cross species and multiple neuronal phenotype datasets which allows for comparative examinations. The ABA provides modules that allow students to study the anatomy of the rodent brain, as well as observe the different cellular phenotypes that exist using histochemical labeling. Using these tools in conjunction, advanced students can ask questions about qualitative and quantitative neuronal morphology, then examine the distribution of the same cell types across the entire brain to gain a full appreciation of the magnitude of the brain's complexity.

  15. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  16. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  17. The subventricular zone in the immature piglet brain: anatomy and exodus of neuroblasts into white matter after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Missios, Symeon; Taylor, Sabrina R; McGuone, Declan; Smith, Colin M; Dodge, Carter P; Harris, Brent T; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of postnatal neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and robust migration of neuroblasts to the lesion site in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well established in rodent species; however, it is not yet known whether postnatal neurogenesis plays a role in repair after TBI in gyrencephalic species. Here we describe the anatomy of the SVZ in the piglet for the first time and initiate an investigation into the effect of TBI on the SVZ architecture and the number of neuroblasts in the white matter. Among all ages of immaturity examined the SVZ contained a dense mesh network of neurogenic precursor cells (doublecortin+) positioned directly adjacent to the ependymal cells (ventricular SVZ, Vsvz) and neuroblasts organized into chains that were distinct from the Vsvz (abventricular SVZ, Asvz). Though the architecture of the SVZ was similar among ages, the areas of Vsvz and Asvz neuroblast chains declined with age. At postnatal day (PND) 14 the white matter tracts have a tremendous number of individual neuroblasts. In our scaled cortical impact model, lesion size increased with age. Similarly, the response of the SVZ to injury was also age dependent. The younger age groups that sustained the proportionately smallest lesions had the largest SVZ areas, which further increased in response to injury. In piglets that were injured at 4 months of age and had the largest lesions, the SVZ did not increase in response to injury. Similar to humans, swine have abundant gyri and gyral white matter, providing a unique platform to study neuroblasts potentially migrating from the SVZ to the lesioned cortex along these white matter tracts. In piglets injured at PND 7, TBI did not increase the total number of neuroblasts in the white matter compared to uninjured piglets, but redistribution occurred with a greater number of neuroblasts in the white matter of the hemisphere ipsilateral to the injury compared to the contralateral hemisphere. At 7 days after injury

  18. [The human body and the computer as pedagogic tools for anatomy: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captier, G; Canovas, F; Bonnel, F

    2005-09-01

    Since the first dissections, the human body has been the main tool for the teaching of anatomy in medical courses. For the last 30 years, university anatomy laboratory dissection has been brought into question and the total hours of anatomy teaching have decreased. In parallel, new technologies have progressed and become more competitive and more attractive than dissection. The aim of this review of the literature was to evaluate the use of the human body as a pedagogic tool compared to today's computer tools. Twenty comparative studies were reviewed. Their analysis showed that the human body remains the main tool in anatomy teaching even if anatomic demonstration (prosection) can replace dissection, and that the computer tools were complementary but not a substitute to dissection.

  19. In vivo brain anatomy of adult males with Fragile X syndrome: an MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of a single trinucleotide gene sequence (CGG) on the X chromosome, and is a leading cause of learning disability (mental retardation) worldwide. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with FraX. Of those that are available many included mixed gender populations, combined FraX children and adults into one sample, and employed manual tracing techniques which measures bulk volume of particular regions. Hence, there is relatively little information on differences in grey and white matter content across whole brain. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain anatomy in 17 adult males with FraX and 18 healthy controls that did not differ significantly in age. Data were analysed using stereology and VBM to compare (respectively) regional brain bulk volume, and localised grey\\/white matter content. Using stereology we found that FraX males had a significant increase in bulk volume bilaterally of the caudate nucleus and parietal lobes and of the right brainstem, but a significant decrease in volume of the left frontal lobe. Our complimentary VBM analysis revealed an increased volume of grey matter in fronto-striatal regions (including bilaterally in the caudate nucleus), and increased white matter in regions extending from the brainstem to the parahippocampal gyrus, and from the left cingulate cortex extending into the corpus callosum. People with FraX have regionally specific differences in brain anatomy from healthy controls with enlargement of the caudate nuclei that persists into adulthood.

  20. The Cerefy Atlas of brain anatomy. An interactive reference tool for students, teachers and researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowinski, W.L.; Thirunavuukarasuu, A.; Bryan, R.N.

    2002-07-01

    The Cerefy {sup registered} Atlas of Brain Anatomy is a remarkable accomplishment combining the best of current neuroanatomical methodology with the amazing capability of the modern personal computer. This CD-ROM not only demonstrates the power of digital technology, but also provides a view of the future of medical education. Through the use of magnetic resonance images (MRI) combined with interactive image labeling it is possible to use this CD-ROM to rapidly name any structure within the brain in three planes of section presented simultaneously. With the simple click of a mouse of most intricate of brain structures can be identified in sagittal, axial, and coronal planes. By selecting the ''label'' function, whatever brain structure the cursor is placed upon is named in real time. It is possible to literally browse across the brain and watch every structure that is touched be named on the screen as fast as you can move the cursor. This incredible functionality is further enhanced by the ability to select the test mode and provide a self-guided quiz of neuroanatomy. This atlas is perfect for preparing teaching materials as it also contains a ''save'' function to preserve labeled images. This low-cost CD-ROM will no doubt be used by those who study and/or teach neuroanatomy, neurology, neurosurgery, neuroradiology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, and psychiatry. This unique contribution to the field of neuroanatomy is a most impressive accomplishment. (orig.)

  1. Human Brain and Its Size

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2006-01-01

    @@ Two studies suggest that the human brain continues to change through the process of evolution.The findings conflict with a common belief that the brain has evolved about as much as it ever will.Scientists say modern humans developed about two hundred thousand years ago.Bruce Lahn of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the University of Chicago led the studies.The findings appeared in Science magazine.

  2. Elephant brain. Part I: gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Jeheskel; Kupsky, William J; Marchant, Gary H

    2006-06-30

    We report morphological data on brains of four African, Loxodonta africana, and three Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, and compare findings to literature. Brains exhibit a gyral pattern more complex and with more numerous gyri than in primates, humans included, and in carnivores, but less complex than in cetaceans. Cerebral frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic, and insular lobes are well developed, whereas the occipital lobe is relatively small. The insula is not as opercularized as in man. The temporal lobe is disproportionately large and expands laterally. Humans and elephants have three parallel temporal gyri: superior, middle, and inferior. Hippocampal sizes in elephants and humans are comparable, but proportionally smaller in elephant. A possible carotid rete was observed at the base of the brain. Brain size appears to be related to body size, ecology, sociality, and longevity. Elephant adult brain averages 4783 g, the largest among living and extinct terrestrial mammals; elephant neonate brain averages 50% of its adult brain weight (25% in humans). Cerebellar weight averages 18.6% of brain (1.8 times larger than in humans). During evolution, encephalization quotient has increased by 10-fold (0.2 for extinct Moeritherium, approximately 2.0 for extant elephants). We present 20 figures of the elephant brain, 16 of which contain new material. Similarities between human and elephant brains could be due to convergent evolution; both display mosaic characters and are highly derived mammals. Humans and elephants use and make tools and show a range of complex learning skills and behaviors. In elephants, the large amount of cerebral cortex, especially in the temporal lobe, and the well-developed olfactory system, structures associated with complex learning and behavioral functions in humans, may provide the substrate for such complex skills and behavior.

  3. Global and regional differences in brain anatomy of young children born small for gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrica M A De Bie

    Full Text Available In children who are born small for gestational age (SGA, an adverse intrauterine environment has led to underdevelopment of both the body and the brain. The delay in body growth is (partially restored during the first two years in a majority of these children. In addition to a negative influence on these physical parameters, decreased levels of intelligence and cognitive impairments have been described in children born SGA. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain anatomy in 4- to 7-year-old SGA children with and without complete bodily catch-up growth and compared them to healthy children born appropriate for gestational age. Our findings demonstrate that these children strongly differ on brain organisation when compared with healthy controls relating to both global and regional anatomical differences. Children born SGA displayed reduced cerebral and cerebellar grey and white matter volumes, smaller volumes of subcortical structures and reduced cortical surface area. Regional differences in prefrontal cortical thickness suggest a different development of the cerebral cortex. SGA children with bodily catch-up growth constitute an intermediate between those children without catch-up growth and healthy controls. Therefore, bodily catch-up growth in children born SGA does not implicate full catch-up growth of the brain.

  4. Plastination and its importance in teaching anatomy. Critical points for long-term preservation of human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Beat M

    2014-03-01

    Most medical curricula rely on human bodies for teaching macroscopic anatomy. Over the past 20 years, plastination has become an important means of preservation of organs, for well dissected specimens or for body slices. Here, several critical points regarding body donation with legal and ethical considerations for long-term preservation, the use of cadavers in teaching and the preparation of plastinates as an additional teaching tool will be discussed. Silicone S10 is the gold standard in the preparation of plastinates. An important point to respect is the preparation of specimens, since only very well dissected body parts or excellent tissue sections should be plastinated to show the extraordinary aspects of the human anatomy. The preparation of thin and transparent sections and preservation with P40 polyester provides an additional technique to prepare resistant body slices. A selection of samples prepared by S10 and P40 are shown and compared. In addition, Prussian or Berlin blue staining of brain slices is shown to discriminate better between gray and white matter and demonstrate neuroanatomical structures. These plastinates have been used for many years in teaching first- and second-year medical students and have not lost their appeal. Students and staff appreciate the use of such plastinates. One of the advantages is that their use is not restricted to the dissection hall; slices and body parts can be used in any lecture room or in small group teaching. Therefore, ethical and legal questions need to be addressed regarding their specific use. Plastinates do not replace the traditional dissection courses, since students learn best the anatomical features of a given region by hands-on dissection and by exploratory anatomy. Furthermore, plastinates are more rigid and do not allow demonstration of hidden structures; they also become more cumbersome for endoscopy or are too rigid for demonstrating mechanical features of joints. However, although not a replacement

  5. Cat dissection vs. sculpting human structures in clay: an analysis of two approaches to undergraduate human anatomy laboratory education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R; Van Meter, Peggy; Perrotti, William; Drogo, Salvatore; Cyr, Richard J

    2005-03-01

    Many human anatomy courses are taught using cat dissection. Alternatives are available, but information regarding learning outcomes is incomplete. In 2003, approximately 120 undergraduates enrolled in a human anatomy course were assigned to one of two treatment groups. In the control group, students performed cat dissections (emphasizing isolation and identification) of the muscular, digestive, and cardiovascular systems. In the experimental treatment group, students built clay sculptures of each human body system. Student learning was evaluated by using both low- and high-difficulty questions. On pre- and postexperiment control exams, there were no significant differences in student performance. On exams after a cat dissection vs. a human-clay sculpting experience, the students in the human-clay sculpting treatment group scored significantly higher than their classmates in the cat dissection group on both the low- and high-difficulty questions. Student attitudes toward dissection and taking future human anatomy courses were also measured. There were no differences in student attitudes at the beginning of the experiment; afterward, students exposed to a cat dissection experience viewed dissection more favorably than students in the human-clay sculpting treatment group. There were no treatment effects on student willingness to take future human anatomy courses. The experimental design makes it difficult to conclude precisely why students assigned to the human-clay sculpting experience performed better on exams, but as each method was performed in this particular human anatomy course, our data indicate that human-clay sculpting may be a viable alternative to cat dissection in an anatomy course in which the students focus on human anatomy.

  6. Pedunculopontine Nucleus Region Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: Surgical Anatomy and Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamani, Clement; Aziz, Tipu; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Brown, Peter; Chabardes, Stephan; Coyne, Terry; Foote, Kelly; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Hirsch, Etienne C.; Lozano, Andres M.; Mazzone, Paolo A.M.; Okun, Michael S.; Hutchison, William; Silburn, Peter; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Alam, Mesbah; Goetz, Laurent; Pereira, Erlick; Rughani, Anand; Thevathasan, Wesley; Moro, Elena; Krauss, Joachim K.

    2017-01-01

    Several lines of evidence over the last few years have been important in ascertaining that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region could be considered as a potential target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat freezing and other problems as part of a spectrum of gait disorders in Parkinson disease and other akinetic movement disorders. Since the introduction of PPN DBS, a variety of clinical studies have been published. Most indicate improvements in freezing and falls in patients who are severely affected by these problems. The results across patients, however, have been variable, perhaps reflecting patient selection, heterogeneity in target selection and differences in surgical methodology and stimulation settings. Here we outline both the accumulated knowledge and the domains of uncertainty in surgical anatomy and terminology. Specific topics were assigned to groups of experts, and this work was accumulated and reviewed by the executive committee of the working group. Areas of disagreement were discussed and modified accordingly until a consensus could be reached. We demonstrate that both the anatomy and the functional role of the PPN region need further study. The borders of the PPN and of adjacent nuclei differ when different brainstem atlases and atlas slices are compared. It is difficult to delineate precisely the PPN pars dissipata from the nucleus cuneiformis, as these structures partially overlap. This lack of clarity contributes to the difficulty in targeting and determining the exact localization of the electrodes implanted in patients with akinetic gait disorders. Future clinical studies need to consider these issues. PMID:27723662

  7. Idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into human anatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Guojian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the author′s many years of experience and practice in teaching human anatomy,it is summed up that an idea of integrating fitness concepts and methods into teaching of human anatomy is envisaged.It is beneficial to the cultivation of undergraduates majoring in sports about thoughts of lifelong physical education,enable students to master the basic structure based on human body and learn and master physical fitness related basic theory and practical operation skills in order to be social competitive sports workers with practical skills.

  8. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  9. On describing human white matter anatomy: the white matter query language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This enables automated coherent labeling of white matter anatomy across subjects. We use our method to encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter describing 10 association and 8 projection tracts per hemisphere and 7 commissural tracts. The technique is shown to be comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. We present results applying this framework to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a proof-of-concept study to detect tract changes specific to schizophrenia.

  10. Improvement of Motivation and Learning Level in Neuroanatomy Among Hamadan Medical Students Using Human Brain Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Roushandeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Using new methods in teaching anatomy could have a significant impact on students’ learning. Objectives Neuroanatomy is one of the most complicated courses in anatomy. Absence of educational assistance equipment is one the most important problems in this field. Using human brain sections could solve some of the problems and enhance students’ learning. Materials and Methods The brains of cadavers in dissection room of medicine faculty of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences were used in the present study. After fixation, the brains cut in three coronal, transverse and sagittal sections. Then, the sections were presented to one group of students in practical classes. Another group continued as control with routine educational method. The students filled out a questionnaire and declared their ideas about the new methods in Neuroanatomy education. Finally, two groups were compared for marks gained in the final exam. Results Using present method had remarkable effect on learning progress and prevention of exhaustion of students in the classroom. Moreover, it increased marvelously their ability in three-dimensional imagination in anatomy. Quantitative analysis of the final examination showed significant increase in the marks of experimental group (P < 0.05. Conclusions According to the subjective and objective results, the new method used in anatomy education had a good effect on learning of anatomy and interested students in anatomy. Besides, it decreased students’ stress at exam time. It can be a complementary method for conventional methods. It is very useful for those who need retraining courses.

  11. The visible human and digital anatomy learning initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Parvati; Senger, Steven

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative initiative is starting within the Internet2 Health Science community to explore the development of a framework for providing access to digital anatomical teaching resources over Internet2. This is a cross-cutting initiative with broad applicability and will require the involvement of a diverse collection of communities. It will seize an opportunity created by a convergence of needs and technical capabilities to identify the technologies and standards needed to support a sophisticated collection of tools for teaching anatomy.

  12. The benefits of the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website for the design of cardiac devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne H; Quill, Jason L; Bateman, Michael G; Eggen, Michael D; Howard, Stephen A; Goff, Ryan P; Howard, Brian T; Quallich, Stephen G; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes how the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website can be used to improve cardiac device design throughout the process of development. The Atlas is a free-access website featuring novel images of both functional and fixed human cardiac anatomy from over 250 human heart specimens. This website provides numerous educational tutorials on anatomy, physiology and various imaging modalities. For instance, the 'device tutorial' provides examples of devices that were either present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of the vasculature, blood volumes and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of various heart specimens. The website shares library images, video clips and computed tomography and MRI DICOM files in honor of the generous gifts received from donors and their families.

  13. Effectiveness of using blended learning strategies for teaching and learning human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José A; Pleguezuelos, Eulogio; Merí, Alex; Molina-Ros, Antoni; Molina-Tomás, M Carmen; Masdeu, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed to implement innovative teaching methods--blended learning strategies--that include the use of new information technologies in the teaching of human anatomy and to analyse both the impact of these strategies on academic performance, and the degree of user satisfaction. The study was carried out among students in Year 1 of the biology degree curriculum (human biology profile) at Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona. Two groups of students were tested on knowledge of the anatomy of the locomotor system and results compared between groups. Blended learning strategies were employed in 1 group (BL group, n = 69); the other (TT group; n = 65) received traditional teaching aided by complementary material that could be accessed on the Internet. Both groups were evaluated using the same types of examination. The average marks presented statistically significant differences (BL 6.3 versus TT 5.0; P teaching received. Blended learning was more effective than traditional teaching for teaching human anatomy.

  14. Endocasts-the direct evidence and recent advances in the study of human brain evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Brain evolution is one of the most important aspects of human evolution, usually studied through endocasts. Analysis of fossil hominid endocasts allows inferences on functional anatomy, physiology, and phylogeny. In this paper, we describe the general features of endocast studies and review some of the major topics in paleoneurology. These are: absolute and relative brain size evolution; brain shape variation; brain asymmetry and lateralization; middle meningeal vessels and venous sinuses; application of computed tomography and virtual imaging; the history of Chinese brain endocast studies. In particular, this review emphasizes endocast studies on Chinese hominin fossils.

  15. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  16. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  17. Genetic basis of human brain evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vallender, Eric J.; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Lahn, Bruce T

    2008-01-01

    Human evolution is characterized by a rapid increase in brain size and complexity. Decades of research have made important strides in identifying anatomical and physiological substrates underlying the unique features of the human brain. By contrast, it has become possible only very recently to examine the genetic basis of human brain evolution. Through comparative genomics, tantalizing insights regarding human brain evolution have emerged. The genetic changes that potentially underlie human b...

  18. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Paul Kirkpatrick; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-02-24

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings.

  19. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  20. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  1. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício SCAINI; Fabio Leal BRAGA; Irdival Cristino FIGUEIREDO JÚNIOR; Rafael Brandão FERREIRA; Baratto Filho,Flares; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A cas...

  2. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology in hemoglobinless Antarctic icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2004-04-01

    of deeper-living bathydraconids. We conclude that, with respect to the anatomy and histology of the neural structures, the brain and sensory systems show little that is remarkable compared to other fishes, and exhibit little diversification within the family. Thus, the unusual habitat and a potentially deleterious mutation resulting in a hemoglobinless phenotype are reflected primarily in expansion of the vasculature in the brain and eye partially compensating for the absence of respiratory pigments. Neural morphology gives the impression that channichthyids are a homogeneous and little diversified group.

  3. Why size matters: differences in brain volume account for apparent sex differences in callosal anatomy: the sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum. However, the question remains if sex differences in brain size, which typically is larger in men than in women, or biological sex per se account for the apparent sex differences in callosal morphology. Comparing callosal dimensions between men and women matched for overall brain size may clarify the true contribution of biological sex, as any observed group difference should indicate pure sex effects. We thus examined callosal morphology in 24 male and 24 female brains carefully matched for overall size. In addition, we selected 24 extremely large male brains and 24 extremely small female brains to explore if observed sex effects might vary depending on the degree to which male and female groups differed in brain size. Using the individual T1-weighted brain images (n=96), we delineated the corpus callosum at midline and applied a well-validated surface-based mesh-modeling approach to compare callosal thickness at 100 equidistant points between groups determined by brain size and sex. The corpus callosum was always thicker in men than in women. However, this callosal sex difference was strongly determined by the cerebral sex difference overall. That is, the larger the discrepancy in brain size between men and women, the more pronounced the sex difference in callosal thickness, with hardly any callosal differences remaining between brain-size matched men and women. Altogether, these findings suggest that individual differences in brain size account for apparent sex differences in the anatomy of the corpus callosum.

  4. Cat dissection and human cadaver prosection versus sculpting human structures from clay: A comparison of alternate approaches to human anatomy laboratory education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John R.

    Dissection and vivisection are traditional approaches to biology laboratory education. In the case of human anatomy teaching laboratories, there is a long tradition of using human and animal cadaver specimens in the classroom. In a review of the literature comparing traditional dissection and vivisection lessons to alternative lessons designed to reduce the time spent dissecting or the numbers of animals used, we conclude that it is difficult to come to any conclusion regarding the efficacy of different approaches. An analysis of the literature is confounded because many studies have very low statistical power or other methodological weaknesses, and investigators rely on a wide variety of testing instruments to measure an equally varied number of course objectives. Additional well designed studies are necessary before educators can reach any informed conclusions about the efficacy of traditional versus alternative approaches to laboratory education. In our experiments, we compared a traditional cat dissection based undergraduate human anatomy lesson to an alternative where students sculpted human muscles onto plastic human skeletons. Students in the alternative treatment performed significantly better than their peers in the traditional treatment when answering both lower and higher order human anatomy questions. In a subsequent experiment with a similar design, we concluded that the superior performance of the students in the alternative treatment on anatomy exams was likely due to the similarity between the human anatomy representation studied in lab, and the human anatomy questions asked on the exams. When the anatomy questions were presented in the context of a cat specimen, students in the traditional cat dissection treatment outperformed their peers in the alternative treatment. In a final experiment where student performance on a human anatomy exam was compared between a traditional prosected human cadaver treatment and the alternative clay sculpting

  5. Audio-Tutorial Project: An Audio-Tutorial Approach to Human Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Joseph N.; And Others

    A two course sequence on human anatomy and physiology using the audiotutorial method of instruction was developed for use by nursing students and other students in the health or medical fields at the Kingsborough Community College in New York. The project was motivated by the problems of often underprepared students coming to learn a new field and…

  6. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  7. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  8. Tracheobronchial Cast Production and Use in an Undergraduate Human Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Silastic E RTV silicone was used to produce tracheobronchial cast for use in an undergraduate human anatomy course. Following air-drying, the trachea and lungs were injected with E RTV silicone and allowed to cure for 24 hr. The parenchyma was then removed from the tracheobronchial cast by maceration and boiling and then whitened in a 10% solution…

  9. Mixed Methods Student Evaluation of an Online Systemic Human Anatomy Course with Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardi, Stefanie M.; Choi, Suwhan; Barnett, John; Rogers, Kem A.

    2016-01-01

    A fully online section of an existing face-to-face (F2F) systemic human anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered for the first time in 2012-2013. Lectures for F2F students (N = 365) were broadcast in both live and archived format to online students (N = 40) using virtual classroom software. Laboratories were delivered online by a…

  10. Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

  11. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  12. The Visible Heart® project and free-access website 'Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzo, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    Pre- and post-evaluations of implantable cardiac devices require innovative and critical testing in all phases of the design process. The Visible Heart(®) Project was successfully launched in 1997 and 3 years later the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website was online. The Visible Heart(®) methodologies and Atlas website can be used to better understand human cardiac anatomy, disease states and/or to improve cardiac device design throughout the development process. To date, Visible(®) Heart methodologies have been used to reanimate 75 human hearts, all considered non-viable for transplantation. The Atlas is a unique free-access website featuring novel images of functional and fixed human cardiac anatomies from >400 human heart specimens. Furthermore, this website includes education tutorials on anatomy, physiology, congenital heart disease and various imaging modalities. For instance, the Device Tutorial provides examples of commonly deployed devices that were present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including: leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings, leadless pacemakers and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of vasculature, blood volumes, and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of various heart specimens. A new section allows the user to interact with various heart models. Visible Heart(®) methodologies have enabled our laboratory to reanimate 75 human hearts and visualize functional cardiac anatomies and device/tissue interfaces. The website freely shares all images, video clips and CT/MRI DICOM files in honour of the generous gifts received from donors and their families. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material.

  14. Funeral and human anatomy%殡葬与人体解剖学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路; 康小燕; 李志军

    2015-01-01

    从遗体的捐献,清洁,保存等方面,说明殡葬和人体解剖学对遗体(尸体)的处理的异同,联系、沟通、促进殡葬与人体解剖学的共同发展。%the paper describes the similarities and differences between funeral and anatomy in the body donation, cleaning, storage and other aspects. to contact, communicate and achieve common development of funeral and interment of human anatomy.

  15. The use of brainstorming for teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, S; Giacobini-Robecchi, M G

    2002-10-15

    Interactive teaching techniques have been used mainly in clinical teaching, with little attention given to their use in basic science teaching. With the aim of partially filling this gap, this study outlines an interactive approach to teaching anatomy based on the use of "brainstorming." The results of the students' critique of the teaching techniques are also included. Seventy-five students from the first-year nursing curriculum were tested by a structured questionnaire after three brainstorming sessions. The overall response to these sessions was very positive, indicating that students perceived this interactive technique as both interesting and useful. Furthermore, this approach may provide a useful strategy when learning the clinical courses of the upcoming academic years.

  16. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício SCAINI

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A case of an endodontic treatment of a mandibular premolar with 4 root canals was reported and some cases of endodontic treatment in mandibular premolars with 1, 2 and 3 root canals were shown.

  17. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  18. Current issues with standards in the measurement and documentation of human skeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Justin; McClelland, Brian; Winder, John

    2012-09-01

    Digital modeling of human anatomy has become increasingly important and relies on well-documented quantitative anatomy literature. This type of documentation is common for the spine and pelvis; however, significant issues exist due to the lack of standardization in measurement and technique. Existing literature on quantitative anatomy for the spine and pelvis of white adults (aged 18-65 years, separated into decadal categories) was reviewed from the disciplines of anatomy, manipulative therapy, anthropometrics, occupational ergonomics, biomechanics and forensic science. The data were unified into a single normative model of the sub-axial spine. Two-dimensional orthographic drawings were produced from the 590 individual measurements identified, which informed the development of a 3D digital model. A similar review of full range of motion data was conducted as a meta-analysis and the results were applied to the existing model, providing an inter-connected, articulated digital spine. During these data analysis processes several inconsistencies were observed accompanied by an evidential lack of standardization with measurement and recording of data. These have been categorized as: anatomical terminology; scaling of measurements; measurement methodology, dimension and anatomical reference positions; global coordinate systems. There is inconsistency in anatomical terminology where independent researchers use the same terms to describe different aspects of anatomy or different terms for the same anatomy. Published standards exist for measurement methods of the human body regarding spatial interaction, anthropometric databases, automotive applications, clothing industries and for computer manikins, but none exists for skeletal anatomy. Presentation of measurements often lacks formal structure in clinical publications, seldom providing geometric reference points, therefore making digital reconstruction difficult. Published quantitative data does not follow existing

  19. Development of a high angular resolution diffusion imaging human brain template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varentsova, Anna; Zhang, Shengwei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Brain diffusion templates contain rich information about the microstructure of the brain, and are used as references in spatial normalization or in the development of brain atlases. The accuracy of diffusion templates constructed based on the diffusion tensor (DT) model is limited in regions with complex neuronal micro-architecture. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) overcomes limitations of the DT model and is capable of resolving intravoxel heterogeneity. However, when HARDI is combined with multiple-shot sequences to minimize image artifacts, the scan time becomes inappropriate for human brain imaging. In this work, an artifact-free HARDI template of the human brain was developed from low angular resolution multiple-shot diffusion data. The resulting HARDI template was produced in ICBM-152 space based on Turboprop diffusion data, was shown to resolve complex neuronal micro-architecture in regions with intravoxel heterogeneity, and contained fiber orientation information consistent with known human brain anatomy.

  20. The Utility of Cadaver-Based Approaches for the Teaching of Human Anatomy: A Survey of British and Irish Anatomy Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y.; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F.; O'Mahony, Siobhain M.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire…

  1. Sexual differences of human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades there has been an increasing interest in studying the differences between males and females. These differences extend from behavioral to cognitive to micro- and macro- neuro-anatomical aspects of human biology. There have been many methods to evaluate these differences and explain their determinants. The most studied cause of this dimorphism is the prenatal sex hormones and their organizational effect on brain and behavior. However, there have been new and recent attentions to hormone's activational influences in puberty and also the effects of genomic imprinting. In this paper, we reviewed the sex differences of brain, the evidences for possible determinants of these differences and also the methods that have been used to discover them. We reviewed the most conspicuous findings with specific attention to macro-anatomical differences based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI data. We finally reviewed the findings and the many opportunities for future studies.

  2. Delineating Neural Structures of Developmental Human Brains with Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain anatomy is characterized by dramatic structural changes during fetal development. It is extraordinarily complex and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Revealing detailed anatomy at different stages of brain development not only aids in understanding this highly ordered process, but also provides clues to detect abnormalities caused by genetic or environmental factors. However, anatomical studies of human brain development during the fetal period are surprisingly scarce and histology-based atlases have become available only recently. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures water diffusion to delineate the underlying neural structures. The high contrasts derived from DTI can be used to establish the brain atlas. With DTI tractography, coherent neural structures, such as white matter tracts, can be three-dimensionally reconstructed. The primary eigenvector of the diffusion tensor can be further explored to characterize microstructures in the cerebral wall of the developmental brains. In this mini-review, the application of DTI in order to reveal the structures of developmental fetal brains has been reviewed in the above-mentioned aspects. The fetal brain DTI provides a unique insight for delineating the neural structures in both macroscopic and microscopic levels. The resultant DTI database will provide structural guidance for the developmental study of human fetal brains in basic neuroscience, and reference standards for diagnostic radiology of premature newborns.

  3. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender) and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver) relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus). The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  4. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs L Noordzij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”. However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  5. [Anatomy of the skull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Emil

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the human body based on a special teleological system is one of the greatest miracles of the world. The skull's primary function is the defence of the brain, so every alteration or disease of the brain results in some alteration of the skull. This analogy is to be identified even in the human embryo. Proportions of the 22 bones constituting the skull and of sizes of sutures are not only the result of the phylogeny, but those of the ontogeny as well. E.g. the age of the skeletons in archaeological findings could be identified according to these facts. Present paper outlines the ontogeny and development of the tissues of the skull, of the structure of the bone-tissue, of the changes of the size of the skull and of its parts during the different periods of human life, reflecting to the aesthetics of the skull as well. "Only the human scull can give me an impression of beauty. In spite of all genetical colseness, a skull of a chimpanzee cannot impress me aesthetically"--author confesses. In the second part of the treatise those authors are listed, who contributed to the perfection of our knowledge regarding the skull. First of all the great founder of modern anatomy, Andreas Vesalius, then Pierre Paul Broca, Jacob Benignus Winslow are mentioned here. The most important Hungarian contributors were as follow: Sámuel Rácz, Pál Bugát or--the former assistant of Broca--Aurél Török. A widely used tool for measurement of the size of the skull, the craniometer was invented by the latter. The members of the family Lenhossék have had also important results in this field of research, while descriptive anatomy of the skull was completed by microsopical anatomy thanks the activity of Géza Mihálkovits.

  6. Genetic basis of human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallender, Eric J; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Lahn, Bruce T

    2008-12-01

    Human evolution is characterized by a rapid increase in brain size and complexity. Decades of research have made important strides in identifying anatomical and physiological substrates underlying the unique features of the human brain. By contrast, it has become possible only very recently to examine the genetic basis of human brain evolution. Through comparative genomics, tantalizing insights regarding human brain evolution have emerged. The genetic changes that potentially underlie human brain evolution span a wide range from single-nucleotide substitutions to large-scale structural alterations of the genome. Similarly, the functional consequences of these genetic changes vary greatly, including protein-sequence alterations, cis-regulatory changes and even the emergence of new genes and the extinction of existing ones. Here, we provide a general review of recent findings into the genetic basis of human brain evolution, highlight the most notable trends that have emerged and caution against over-interpretation of current data.

  7. How legitimate is the use of human cadavers in modern-day anatomy?

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  8. The Anatomy of Human Trafficking: Learning About the Blues: A Healthcare Provider's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Meriam; Berishaj, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health concern. It is a grave crime that violates human rights. Contrary to healthcare providers' perceptions, victims of human trafficking come in contact with the healthcare system while being trafficked, with the emergency department being the most frequented setting for medical treatment. In this article, we explore the anatomy of human trafficking, including the scope of the problem, definitions, and types and elements of human trafficking. The roles of clinicians, particularly emergency department nurses and advanced practice nurses, in screening and identifying those at risk are examined. Clinical practice tools and guidelines that may be used by clinicians to guide the treatment of human trafficking victims are reviewed. Finally, current strategies and resources that address human trafficking are presented. For the purpose of this article, the terms "human trafficking" or "trafficking" will be used throughout.

  9. Human Brain Reacts to Transcranial Extraocular Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihua; Peräkylä, Jari; Kovalainen, Anselmi; Ogawa, Keith H; Karhunen, Pekka J; Hartikainen, Kaisa M

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial extraocular light affects the brains of birds and modulates their seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. However, whether the human brain is sensitive to extraocular light is unknown. To test whether extraocular light has any effect on human brain functioning, we measured brain electrophysiology of 18 young healthy subjects using event-related potentials while they performed a visual attention task embedded with emotional distractors. Extraocular light delivered via ear canals abolished normal emotional modulation of attention related brain responses. With no extraocular light delivered, emotional distractors reduced centro-parietal P300 amplitude compared to neutral distractors. This phenomenon disappeared with extraocular light delivery. Extraocular light delivered through the ear canals was shown to penetrate at the base of the scull of a cadaver. Thus, we have shown that extraocular light impacts human brain functioning calling for further research on the mechanisms of action of light on the human brain.

  10. Brain evolution and human neuropsychology: the inferential brain hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. (JINS, 2012, 18, 394-401).

  11. Human thoracic anatomy relevant to implantable artificial hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.B.; Kiraly, R.J.; Nose, Y.

    1976-10-01

    The objective of the study is to define the human thorax in a quantitative statistical manner such that the information will be useful to the designers of cardiac prostheses, both total replacement and assist devices. This report pertains specifically to anatomical parameters relevant to the total cardiac prosthesis. This information will also be clinically useful in that the proposed recipient of a cardiac prosthesis can by simple radiography be assured of an adequate fit with the prosthesis prior to the implantation.

  12. Human knee joint anatomy revisited: morphometry in the light of sex-specific total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargel, Jens; Michael, Joern W P; Feiser, Janna; Ivo, Roland; Koebke, Juergen

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates differences in the anatomy of male and female knee joints to contribute to the current debate on sex-specific total knee implants. Morphometric data were obtained from 60 human cadaver knees, and sex differences were calculated. All data were corrected for height, and male and female specimens presenting with an identical length of the femur were analyzed as matched pairs. Male linear knee joint dimensions were significantly larger when compared with females. When corrected for differences in height, medial-lateral dimensions of male knees were significantly larger than female; however, matched paired analysis did not prove these differences to be consistent. Although implant design should focus interindividual variations in knee joint anatomy, our data do not support the concept of a female-specific implant design.

  13. The availability of teaching-pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, José Aderval; Fonseca-Barreto, Ana Terra; Brito, Ciro José; Guerra, Danilo Ribeiro; Nunes-Mota, José Carlos; Reis, Francisco Prado

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy.

  14. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Szpinda; Waldemar Siedlaczek; Anna Szpinda; Alina Woźniak; Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska; Mateusz Badura

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagit...

  15. The molecular anatomy of spontaneous germline mutations in human testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Calabrese, Peter; Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Shinde, Deepali Narendra; Yoon, Song-Ro; Gelfand, David; Bauer, Keith; Arnheim, Norman

    2007-09-01

    The frequency of the most common sporadic Apert syndrome mutation (C755G) in the human fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2) is 100-1,000 times higher than expected from average nucleotide substitution rates based on evolutionary studies and the incidence of human genetic diseases. To determine if this increased frequency was due to the nucleotide site having the properties of a mutation hot spot, or some other explanation, we developed a new experimental approach. We examined the spatial distribution of the frequency of the C755G mutation in the germline by dividing four testes from two normal individuals each into several hundred pieces, and, using a highly sensitive PCR assay, we measured the mutation frequency of each piece. We discovered that each testis was characterized by rare foci with mutation frequencies 10(3) to >10(4) times higher than the rest of the testis regions. Using a model based on what is known about human germline development forced us to reject (p < 10(-6)) the idea that the C755G mutation arises more frequently because this nucleotide simply has a higher than average mutation rate (hot spot model). This is true regardless of whether mutation is dependent or independent of cell division. An alternate model was examined where positive selection acts on adult self-renewing Ap spermatogonial cells (SrAp) carrying this mutation such that, instead of only replacing themselves, they occasionally produce two SrAp cells. This model could not be rejected given our observed data. Unlike the disease site, similar analysis of C-to-G mutations at a control nucleotide site in one testis pair failed to find any foci with high mutation frequencies. The rejection of the hot spot model and lack of rejection of a selection model for the C755G mutation, along with other data, provides strong support for the proposal that positive selection in the testis can act to increase the frequency of premeiotic germ cells carrying a mutation deleterious to an

  16. The molecular anatomy of spontaneous germline mutations in human testes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the most common sporadic Apert syndrome mutation (C755G in the human fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2 is 100-1,000 times higher than expected from average nucleotide substitution rates based on evolutionary studies and the incidence of human genetic diseases. To determine if this increased frequency was due to the nucleotide site having the properties of a mutation hot spot, or some other explanation, we developed a new experimental approach. We examined the spatial distribution of the frequency of the C755G mutation in the germline by dividing four testes from two normal individuals each into several hundred pieces, and, using a highly sensitive PCR assay, we measured the mutation frequency of each piece. We discovered that each testis was characterized by rare foci with mutation frequencies 10(3 to >10(4 times higher than the rest of the testis regions. Using a model based on what is known about human germline development forced us to reject (p < 10(-6 the idea that the C755G mutation arises more frequently because this nucleotide simply has a higher than average mutation rate (hot spot model. This is true regardless of whether mutation is dependent or independent of cell division. An alternate model was examined where positive selection acts on adult self-renewing Ap spermatogonial cells (SrAp carrying this mutation such that, instead of only replacing themselves, they occasionally produce two SrAp cells. This model could not be rejected given our observed data. Unlike the disease site, similar analysis of C-to-G mutations at a control nucleotide site in one testis pair failed to find any foci with high mutation frequencies. The rejection of the hot spot model and lack of rejection of a selection model for the C755G mutation, along with other data, provides strong support for the proposal that positive selection in the testis can act to increase the frequency of premeiotic germ cells carrying a mutation

  17. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the the...

  18. MuscleBuilder:A Modeling Tool for Human Anatomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amaury Aubel; Daniel Thalmann

    2004-01-01

    A traditional multi-layered approach is adopted to human body modeling and deformation. The model is split into three general anatomical structures: the skeleton, musculature and skin. It is shown that each of these layers is modeled and deformed by using fast, procedural, ad-hoc methods that can painlessly be reimplemented. The modeling approach is generic enough to handle muscles of varying shape, size and characteristics and does not break in extreme skeleton poses. It is also described that the integrated MuscleBuilder system whose main features are: i) easy and quick creation of muscle deformation models; ii) automatic deformation of an overlying skin. It is shown that visually realistic results can be obtained at interactive frame rates with very little input from the designer.

  19. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  20. Computational Intelligence in a Human Brain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Gaftea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the current trends in brain research domain and the current stage of development of research for software and hardware solutions, communication capabilities between: human beings and machines, new technologies, nano-science and Internet of Things (IoT devices. The proposed model for Human Brain assumes main similitude between human intelligence and the chess game thinking process. Tactical & strategic reasoning and the need to follow the rules of the chess game, all are very similar with the activities of the human brain. The main objective for a living being and the chess game player are the same: securing a position, surviving and eliminating the adversaries. The brain resolves these goals, and more, the being movement, actions and speech are sustained by the vital five senses and equilibrium. The chess game strategy helps us understand the human brain better and easier replicate in the proposed ‘Software and Hardware’ SAH Model.

  1. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szpinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56±0.08 and 0.52±0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74±0.09 to 0.92±0.08 and from 0.56±0.07 to 0.79±0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41±0.23 to 1.66±0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27±0.17 to 1.48±0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  2. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Siedlaczek, Waldemar; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16-25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74 ± 0.09 to 0.92 ± 0.08 and from 0.56 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41 ± 0.23 to 1.66 ± 0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27 ± 0.17 to 1.48 ± 0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.

  3. The availability of teaching–pedagogical resources used for promotion of learning in teaching human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragão JA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available José Aderval Aragão,1,5 Ana Terra Fonseca-Barreto,2 Ciro José Brito,1,3 Danilo Ribeiro Guerra,1 José Carlos Nunes-Mota,4 Francisco Prado Reis5 1Master's Degree Program in Physical Education, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 2School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 3Department of Physical Education, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 4Department of Morphology, (UFS, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil; 5School of Medicine, Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil Abstract: Five hundred students attending higher education institutions in northeastern Brazil responded to questionnaires about their anatomy classes; students represented a variety of different health sciences disciplines. Analysis of the responses revealed the participation of teaching assistants in a large percentage of classes and the use of teaching resources, particularly images, from conventional radiographs to magnetic resonance images. The number of classes for cadaver dissection and the number of students with access to that type of class were small. In most cases, dissection was performed according to anatomic regions or systems. Medicine and nursing students had the highest number of practical dissection classes. Most students were assessed using practical and theoretical tests. Findings revealed conditions similar to those found elsewhere. Resources should be renewed and used to improve teaching for students whose courses demand the study of human anatomy. Keywords: educational assessments, gross anatomy, dissection, education medical undergraduate, anatomic models

  4. The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhuo, Junjie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jiaojian; Chen, Liangfu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chu, Congying; Xie, Sangma; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-08-01

    The human brain atlases that allow correlating brain anatomy with psychological and cognitive functions are in transition from ex vivo histology-based printed atlases to digital brain maps providing multimodal in vivo information. Many current human brain atlases cover only specific structures, lack fine-grained parcellations, and fail to provide functionally important connectivity information. Using noninvasive multimodal neuroimaging techniques, we designed a connectivity-based parcellation framework that identifies the subdivisions of the entire human brain, revealing the in vivo connectivity architecture. The resulting human Brainnetome Atlas, with 210 cortical and 36 subcortical subregions, provides a fine-grained, cross-validated atlas and contains information on both anatomical and functional connections. Additionally, we further mapped the delineated structures to mental processes by reference to the BrainMap database. It thus provides an objective and stable starting point from which to explore the complex relationships between structure, connectivity, and function, and eventually improves understanding of how the human brain works. The human Brainnetome Atlas will be made freely available for download at http://atlas.brainnetome.org, so that whole brain parcellations, connections, and functional data will be readily available for researchers to use in their investigations into healthy and pathological states.

  5. The Human Brainnetome Atlas: A New Brain Atlas Based on Connectional Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Hai; Zhuo, Junjie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jiaojian; Chen, Liangfu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chu, Congying; Xie, Sangma; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The human brain atlases that allow correlating brain anatomy with psychological and cognitive functions are in transition from ex vivo histology-based printed atlases to digital brain maps providing multimodal in vivo information. Many current human brain atlases cover only specific structures, lack fine-grained parcellations, and fail to provide functionally important connectivity information. Using noninvasive multimodal neuroimaging techniques, we designed a connectivity-based parcellation framework that identifies the subdivisions of the entire human brain, revealing the in vivo connectivity architecture. The resulting human Brainnetome Atlas, with 210 cortical and 36 subcortical subregions, provides a fine-grained, cross-validated atlas and contains information on both anatomical and functional connections. Additionally, we further mapped the delineated structures to mental processes by reference to the BrainMap database. It thus provides an objective and stable starting point from which to explore the complex relationships between structure, connectivity, and function, and eventually improves understanding of how the human brain works. The human Brainnetome Atlas will be made freely available for download at http://atlas.brainnetome.org, so that whole brain parcellations, connections, and functional data will be readily available for researchers to use in their investigations into healthy and pathological states. PMID:27230218

  6. "The Purple Island" of Phineas Fletcher: allusions to the anatomy of the human body in English poetry up to the end of the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Riddington

    2005-06-01

    The Bible declared that God created man in His own image. The concept that this divine pattern occurred not only in Man (the Microcosm), but was eternally repeated throughout Creation in the Macrocosm (Universe) and the Geocosm (Earth), was the basis of the important Doctrine of Correspondences, in which similarities were sought between man and nature, (e.g. the comparable morphology of a human brain and a walnut). This article outlines the relevance of this concept in early herbal medicine. Contemporary poems describing correspondences to the anatomy of the human body are the examined, in particular The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher. The Reverend Phineas Fletcher (1582 - 1650) was an English metaphysical poet and The Purple Island (1633), his most famous work, was an epic poem describing the anatomy of the human body in allegorical terms. It is compared to an island, with veins and arteries as purple rivers flowing through the chief cities of Liver, Heart and Braine. This has been acknowledged as one of the best and also one of the last great examples of the tradition of poetic correspondence in English literature.

  7. The use of computers to teach human anatomy and physiology to allied health and nursing students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Valerie J.

    Educational institutions are under tremendous pressure to adopt the newest technologies in order to prepare their students to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. For the last twenty years huge amounts of money have been spent on computers, printers, software, multimedia projection equipment, and so forth. A reasonable question is, "Has it worked?" Has this infusion of resources, financial as well as human, resulted in improved learning? Are the students meeting the intended learning goals? Any attempt to develop answers to these questions should include examining the intended goals and exploring the effects of the changes on students and faculty. This project investigated the impact of a specific application of a computer program in a community college setting on students' attitudes and understanding of human anatomy and physiology. In this investigation two sites of the same community college with seemingly similar students populations, seven miles apart, used different laboratory activities to teach human anatomy and physiology. At one site nursing students were taught using traditional dissections and laboratory activities; at the other site two of the dissections, specifically cat and sheep pluck, were replaced with the A.D.A.M.RTM (Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine) computer program. Analysis of the attitude data indicated that students at both sites were extremely positive about their laboratory experiences. Analysis of the content data indicated a statistically significant difference in performance between the two sites in two of the eight content areas that were studied. For both topics the students using the computer program scored higher. A detailed analysis of the surveys, interviews with faculty and students, examination of laboratory materials, and observations of laboratory facilities in both sites, and cost-benefit analysis led to the development of seven recommendations. The recommendations call for action at the level of the

  8. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  9. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  10. Lymphoreticular cells in human brain tumours and in normal brain.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation, using various rosetting assays of cell suspensions prepared by mechanical disaggregation or collagenase digestion, demonstrated lymphoreticular cells in human normal brain (cerebral cortex and cerebellum) and in malignant brain tumours. The study revealed T and B lymphocytes and their subsets (bearing receptors for Fc(IgG) and C3) in 5/14 glioma suspensions, comprising less than 15% of the cell population. Between 20-60% of cells in tumour suspensions morphologicall...

  11. Hypothesis of human penile anatomy, erection hemodynamics and their clinical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng-Long Hsu

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To summarize recent advances in human penile anatomy, hemodynamics and their clinical applications. Methods:Using dissecting, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy the fibroskeleton structure, penile venous vasculature,the relationship of the architecture between the skeletal and smooth muscles, and erection hemodynamics were studied on human cadaveric penises and clinical patients over a period of 10 years. Results: The tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa is a bi-layered structure with inner circular and outer longitudinal collagen bundles. Although there is no bone in the human glans, a strong equivalent distal ligament acts as a trunk of the glans penis. A guaranteed method of local anesthesia for penile surgeries and a tunical surgery was developed accordingly. On the venous vasculature it is elucidated that a deep dorsal vein, a couple of cavernosal veins and two pairs of para-arterial veins are located between the Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. Furthermore, a hemodynamic study suggests that a fully rigid erection may depend upon the drainage veins as well, rather than just the intracavernosal smooth muscle. It is believed that penile venous surgery deserves another look, and that it may be meaningful if thoroughly and carefully performed. Accordingly, a penile venous surgery was developed. Conclusion: Using this new insight into penile anatomy and physiology, exact penile curvature correction, refined penile implants and promising penile venous surgery, as well as a venous patch, for treating Peyronie's deformity might be performed under pure local anesthesia on an outpatient basis.

  12. The utility of cadaver-based approaches for the teaching of human anatomy: A survey of British and Irish anatomy teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y; Cronin, Michael; Cryan, John F; O'Mahony, Siobhain M

    2017-03-01

    Utilizing reality anatomy such as dissection and demonstrating using cadavers has been described as a superior way to create meaning. The chemicals used to embalm cadavers differentially alter the tissue of the human body, which has led to the usage of different processes along the hard to soft-fixed spectrum of preserved cadavers. A questionnaire based approach was used to gain a better insight into the opinion of anatomists on the use of preserved cadavers for the teaching of human anatomy. This study focused on anatomy teachers in the United Kingdom and Ireland. From the 125 participating anatomists, 34.4% were medically qualified, 30.4% had a PhD in a non-anatomical science and 22.4% had a PhD in an anatomical science, these figures include ten anatomists who had combinations of MD with the two other PhD qualifications. The main findings from the questionnaire were that 61.6% of participants agreed that hard-fixed formalin cadavers accurately resemble features of a human body whereas 21.6% disagreed. Moreover, anatomists rated the teaching aids on how accurately they resemble features of the human body as follows: plastic models the least accurate followed by plastinated specimens, hard fixed cadavers; soft preserved cadavers were considered to be the most accurate when it comes to resembling features of the human body. Though anatomists considered soft preserved cadavers as the most accurate tool, further research is required in order to investigate which techniques or methods provide better teaching tool for a range of anatomical teaching levels and for surgical training. Anat Sci Educ 10: 137-143. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2000-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

  14. Interoperable atlases of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amunts, K; Hawrylycz, M J; Van Essen, D C; Van Horn, J D; Harel, N; Poline, J-B; De Martino, F; Bjaalie, J G; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Dehaene, S; Valdes-Sosa, P; Thirion, B; Zilles, K; Hill, S L; Abrams, M B; Tass, P A; Vanduffel, W; Evans, A C; Eickhoff, S B

    2014-10-01

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of human brain mapping approaches at various spatial and temporal scales. Together, these have provided a large fundus of information on many different aspects of the human brain including micro- and macrostructural segregation, regional specialization of function, connectivity, and temporal dynamics. Atlases are central in order to integrate such diverse information in a topographically meaningful way. It is noteworthy, that the brain mapping field has been developed along several major lines such as structure vs. function, postmortem vs. in vivo, individual features of the brain vs. population-based aspects, or slow vs. fast dynamics. In order to understand human brain organization, however, it seems inevitable that these different lines are integrated and combined into a multimodal human brain model. To this aim, we held a workshop to determine the constraints of a multi-modal human brain model that are needed to enable (i) an integration of different spatial and temporal scales and data modalities into a common reference system, and (ii) efficient data exchange and analysis. As detailed in this report, to arrive at fully interoperable atlases of the human brain will still require much work at the frontiers of data acquisition, analysis, and representation. Among them, the latter may provide the most challenging task, in particular when it comes to representing features of vastly different scales of space, time and abstraction. The potential benefits of such endeavor, however, clearly outweigh the problems, as only such kind of multi-modal human brain atlas may provide a starting point from which the complex relationships between structure, function, and connectivity may be explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A functional and clinical reinterpretation of human perineal neuromuscular anatomy: Application to sexual function and continence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Adrian, Brent; Ruiz, Saul A; Hall, Margaret I

    2016-11-01

    Modern anatomical and surgical references illustrate perineal muscles all innervated by branches of the pudendal nerve but still organized into anatomically distinct urogenital and anal triangles with muscles inserting onto a central perineal body. However, these conflict with the anatomy commonly encountered during dissection. We used dissections of 43 human cadavers to characterize the anatomical organization of the human perineum and compare our findings to standard references. We found bulbospongiosus and the superficial portion of the external anal sphincter (EAS) were continuous anatomically with a common innervation in 92.3% of specimens. The superficial transverse perineal muscle inserted anterior and lateral to the midline, interdigitating with bulbospongiosus. The three EAS subdivisions were anatomically discontinuous. Additionally, in 89.2% of our sample the inferior rectal nerve emerged as a branch of S3 and S4 distinct from the pudendal nerve and innervated only the subcutaneous EAS. Branches of the perineal nerve innervated bulbospongiosus and the superficial EAS and nerve to levator ani innervated the deep EAS. In conclusion, we empirically demonstrate important and clinically relevant differences with perineal anatomy commonly described in standard texts. First, independent innervation to the three portions of EAS suggests the potential for functional independence. Second, neuromuscular continuity between bulbospongiosus and superficial EAS suggests the possibility of shared or overlapping function of the urogenital and anal triangles. Clin. Anat. 29:1053-1058, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Biomechanical Constraints Underlying Motor Primitives Derived from the Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Human Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Hardesty, Russell L; Boots, Mathew T; Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles. Musculoskeletal coupling was quantified using hierarchical clustering analysis. Muscle lengths between multiple pairs of muscles across multiple postures were highly correlated. These correlations broadly formed two proximal and distal groups, where proximal muscles of the arm were correlated with each other and distal muscles of the arm and hand were correlated with each other, but not between groups. Using hierarchical clustering, between 11 and 14 reliable muscle groups were identified. This shows that musculoskeletal anatomy does indeed shape the mechanical interactions by grouping muscles into functional clusters that generally match the functional repertoire of the human arm. Together, these results support the idea that the structure of the musculoskeletal system is tuned to solve movement complexity problem by reducing the dimensionality of available solutions.

  17. Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. A Unified Approach to Diffusion Direction Sensitive Slice Registration and 3-D DTI Reconstruction From Moving Fetal Brain Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Kroenke, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to 3-D diffusion tensor image (DTI) reconstruction from multi-slice diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of the moving fetal brain. Motion scatters the slice measurements in the spatial and spherical diffusion domain with respect...... to the underlying anatomy. Previous image registration techniques have been described to estimate the between slice fetal head motion, allowing the reconstruction of 3D a diffusion estimate on a regular grid using interpolation. We propose Approach to Unified Diffusion Sensitive Slice Alignment and Reconstruction...... (AUDiSSAR) that explicitly formulates a process for diffusion direction sensitive DW-slice-to-DTI-volume alignment. This also incorporates image resolution modeling to iteratively deconvolve the effects of the imaging point spread function using the multiple views provided by thick slices acquired...

  19. Analysis of a human brain transcriptome map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan R

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide transcriptome maps can provide tools to identify candidate genes that are over-expressed or silenced in certain disease tissue and increase our understanding of the structure and organization of the genome. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from the public dbEST and proprietary Incyte LifeSeq databases were used to derive a transcript map in conjunction with the working draft assembly of the human genome sequence. Results Examination of ESTs derived from brain tissues (excluding brain tumor tissues suggests that these genes are distributed on chromosomes in a non-random fashion. Some regions on the genome are dense with brain-enriched genes while some regions lack brain-enriched genes, suggesting a significant correlation between distribution of genes along the chromosome and tissue type. ESTs from brain tumor tissues have also been mapped to the human genome working draft. We reveal that some regions enriched in brain genes show a significant decrease in gene expression in brain tumors, and, conversely that some regions lacking in brain genes show an increased level of gene expression in brain tumors. Conclusions This report demonstrates a novel approach for tissue specific transcriptome mapping using EST-based quantitative assessment.

  20. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up...... suggests that lactate may partially replace glucose as a substrate for oxidation. Thus, the notion of the human brain as an obligatory glucose consumer is not without exceptions....... blockade but not with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade alone. Also, CMR decreases in response to epinephrine, suggesting that a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mechanism enhances glucose and perhaps lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The pattern of CMR decrease under various forms of brain activation...

  1. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where information is provided from the abstract wholeness of the biophysical system of an organism (often called the true self, or the “soul””. We present a number of arguments in favor of this model that provide self-conscious control over the thought process or cognition. Our arguments arise from analyzing experimental data from different research fields: histology, anatomy, electroencephalography (EEG, cerebral blood flow, neuropsychology, evolutionary studies, and mathematics. We criticize the popular network theories as the consequence of a simplistic, mechanical interpretation of reality (philosophical materialism applied to the brain. We demonstrate how viewing brain functions as information-guided self-organization of neural patterns can explain the structure of conscious mentation; we seem to have a dual hierarchical representation in the cerebral cortex: one for sensation-perception and one for will-action. The model explains many of our unique mental abilities to think, memorize, associate, discriminate, and make abstractions. The presented model of the conscious brain also seems to be able to explain the function of the simpler brains, such as those of insects and hydra.

  2. [Draft of Guidelines for Human Body Dissection for Clinical Anatomy Education and Research and commentary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kondo, Satoshi; Ide, Chizuka; Higuchi, Norio; Aiso, Sadakazu; Sakai, Tatsuo; Matsumura, George; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Eiji; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki; Hishikawa, Shuji; Sugimoto, Maki; Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Imanishi, Nobuaki

    2011-07-01

    This article analyses the Draft of Guidelines for Human Body Dissection for Clinical Anatomy Education and Research drawn by the Study Group for Future Training Systems of Surgical Skills and Procedures established by the Fiscal Year 2010 research program of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The purpose of the Draft of Guidelines is: First, to lay out the required basic guidelines for human cadaver usage to allow medical and dental faculty to conduct clinical education and research in accordance with existing regulations. Second, the guidelines are expected to give physicians a regulatory framework to carry out cadaver training in accordance with the current legal framework. This article explains the Draft of Guidelines in detail, outlines the future of cadaver training, and describes issues which must still be solved.

  3. [Draft of guidelines for human body dissection for clinical anatomy education and research and commentary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Kondo, Satoshi; Ide, Chizuka; Higuchi, Norio; Aiso, Sadakazu; Sakai, Tatsuo; Matsumura, George; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Eiji; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Yaginuma, Hiroyuki; Hishikawa, Shuji; Sugimoto, Maki; Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Imanishi, Nobuaki

    2011-06-01

    This article analyses the Draft of Guidelines for Human Body Dissection for Clinical Anatomy Education and Research drawn by the Study Group for Future Training Systems of Surgical Skills and Procedures established by the Fiscal Year 2010 research program of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. The purpose of the Draft of Guidelines is: First, to lay out the required basic guidelines for human cadaver usage to allow medical and dental faculty to conduct clinical education and research in accordance with existing regulations. Second, the guidelines are expected to give physicians a regulatory framework to carry out cadaver training in accordance with the current legal framework. This article explains the Draft of Guidelines in detail, outlines the future of cadaver training, and describes issues which must still be solved.

  4. The human brain: rewired and running hot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Todd M

    2011-05-01

    The past two decades have witnessed tremendous advances in noninvasive and postmortem neuroscientific techniques, advances that have made it possible, for the first time, to compare in detail the organization of the human brain to that of other primates. Studies comparing humans to chimpanzees and other great apes reveal that human brain evolution was not merely a matter of enlargement, but involved changes at all levels of organization that have been examined. These include the cellular and laminar organization of cortical areas; the higher order organization of the cortex, as reflected in the expansion of association cortex (in absolute terms, as well as relative to primary areas); the distribution of long-distance cortical connections; and hemispheric asymmetry. Additionally, genetic differences between humans and other primates have proven to be more extensive than previously thought, raising the possibility that human brain evolution involved significant modifications of neurophysiology and cerebral energy metabolism.

  5. Human brain evolution: insights from microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Todd M; Cáceres, Mario; Oldham, Michael C; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2004-11-01

    Several recent microarray studies have compared gene-expression patterns n humans, chimpanzees and other non-human primates to identify evolutionary changes that contribute to the distinctive cognitive and behavioural characteristics of humans. These studies support the surprising conclusion that the evolution of the human brain involved an upregulation of gene expression relative to non-human primates, a finding that could be relevant to understanding human cerebral physiology and function. These results show how genetic and genomic methods can shed light on the basis of human neural and cognitive specializations, and have important implications for neuroscience, anthropology and medicine.

  6. The impact of Body Worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results.

  7. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students’ Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7% and medical students (68.1% were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37% and religious (20% barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors.

  8. Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. P.; Zhang, M.; Hwang, T. S.; Bailey, S. T.; Wilson, D. J.; Jia, Y.; Huang, D.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive method of 3D imaging of the retinal and choroidal circulations. However, vascular depth discrimination is limited by superficial vessels projecting flow signal artifact onto deeper layers. The projection-resolved (PR) OCTA algorithm improves depth resolution by removing projection artifact while retaining in-situ flow signal from real blood vessels in deeper layers. This novel technology allowed us to study the normal retinal vasculature in vivo with better depth resolution than previously possible. Our investigation in normal human volunteers revealed the presence of 2 to 4 distinct vascular plexuses in the retina, depending on location relative to the optic disc and fovea. The vascular pattern in these retinal plexuses and interconnecting layers are consistent with previous histologic studies. Based on these data, we propose an improved system of nomenclature and segmentation boundaries for detailed 3-dimensional retinal vascular anatomy by OCTA. This could serve as a basis for future investigation of both normal retinal anatomy, as well as vascular malformations, nonperfusion, and neovascularization.

  9. Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. P.; Zhang, M.; Hwang, T. S.; Bailey, S. T.; Wilson, D. J.; Jia, Y.; Huang, D.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive method of 3D imaging of the retinal and choroidal circulations. However, vascular depth discrimination is limited by superficial vessels projecting flow signal artifact onto deeper layers. The projection-resolved (PR) OCTA algorithm improves depth resolution by removing projection artifact while retaining in-situ flow signal from real blood vessels in deeper layers. This novel technology allowed us to study the normal retinal vasculature in vivo with better depth resolution than previously possible. Our investigation in normal human volunteers revealed the presence of 2 to 4 distinct vascular plexuses in the retina, depending on location relative to the optic disc and fovea. The vascular pattern in these retinal plexuses and interconnecting layers are consistent with previous histologic studies. Based on these data, we propose an improved system of nomenclature and segmentation boundaries for detailed 3-dimensional retinal vascular anatomy by OCTA. This could serve as a basis for future investigation of both normal retinal anatomy, as well as vascular malformations, nonperfusion, and neovascularization. PMID:28186181

  10. Use of Eye Tracking as an Innovative Instructional Method in Surgical Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ferrer, María Luísa; Grima-Murcia, María Dolores; Sánchez-Ferrer, Francisco; Hernández-Peñalver, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Jover, Eduardo; Sánchez Del Campo, Francisco

    Tobii glasses can record corneal infrared light reflection to track pupil position and to map gaze focusing in the video recording. Eye tracking has been proposed for use in training and coaching as a visually guided control interface. The aim of our study was to test the potential use of these glasses in various situations: explanations of anatomical structures on tablet-type electronic devices, explanations of anatomical models and dissected cadavers, and during the prosection thereof. An additional aim of the study was to test the use of the glasses during laparoscopies performed on Thiel-embalmed cadavers (that allows pneumoinsufflation and exact reproduction of the laparoscopic surgical technique). The device was also tried out in actual surgery (both laparoscopy and open surgery). We performed a pilot study using the Tobii glasses. Dissection room at our School of Medicine and in the operating room at our Hospital. To evaluate usefulness, a survey was designed for use among students, instructors, and practicing physicians. The results were satisfactory, with the usefulness of this tool supported by more than 80% positive responses to most questions. There was no inconvenience for surgeons and that patient safety was ensured in the real laparoscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first publication to demonstrate the usefulness of eye tracking in practical instruction of human anatomy, as well as in teaching clinical anatomy and surgical techniques in the dissection and operating rooms. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this "highly informed" group of potential donors.

  12. The Molecular Basis of Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, Wolfgang

    2016-10-24

    Humans are a remarkable species, especially because of the remarkable properties of their brain. Since the split from the chimpanzee lineage, the human brain has increased three-fold in size and has acquired abilities for vocal learning, language and intense cooperation. To better understand the molecular basis of these changes is of great biological and biomedical interest. However, all the about 16 million fixed genetic changes that occurred during human evolution are fully correlated with all molecular, cellular, anatomical and behavioral changes that occurred during this time. Hence, as humans and chimpanzees cannot be crossed or genetically manipulated, no direct evidence for linking particular genetic and molecular changes to human brain evolution can be obtained. Here, I sketch a framework how indirect evidence can be obtained and review findings related to the molecular basis of human cognition, vocal learning and brain size. In particular, I discuss how a comprehensive comparative approach, leveraging cellular systems and genomic technologies, could inform the evolution of our brain in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The caecocolonic junction in humans has a sphincteric anatomy and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussone Pellegrini, M S; Manneschi, L I; Manneschi, L

    1995-01-01

    Sphincteric anatomy and function are present at the caecocolonic junction in several mammals. In humans, radiologists and endoscopists have respectively reported a circumferential contraction and a prominent ileocaecal fold at the border area between the caecum and the ascending colon. Anatomical findings on necropsy material failed to confirm its presence. Microscopic studies on surgical specimens showed the existence of muscular and innervational patterns different from those of adjacent areas. The aim of this work was to confirm the existence of a specialised fold at the caecocolonic junction in humans and to ascertain its role by carrying out a study of functional anatomy. Pancolonoscopies were performed on 100 patients and ileocaecal fold behaviour was observed before and after mechanical stimulation. Isolated ileocaecocolonic regions, surgically obtained, were filled with a fixative solution to study their macro and microscopic morphology after stimulation. Endoscopically, the ileocaecal fold was semilunar or circular in shape and spontaneous or evoked spasms occurred in 52 patients. A prominent circular fold could be seen in surgical specimens after stimulation. The entire muscle coat deeply penetrated this fold, showing the features characteristic of the ileocaecal junction. In particular, the inner portion of the circular muscle showed a peculiar arrangement and was thicker than elsewhere. These results show that in humans the caecocolonic junction is provided with a sphincter morphology and function. Little is known about its physiological relevance in ileal flow accommodation and caecal filling and emptying but it should not be underestimated with regard to some colonic motility disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7489934

  14. Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L; Royall, Joshua J; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James M; Bennet, Crissa; Bertagnolli, Darren; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cuhaciyan, Christine; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A; Facer, Benjamin A C; Feng, David; Fliss, Tim P; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W; Gu, Guangyu; Howard, Robert E; Jochim, Jayson M; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Lemon, Tracy A; Lesnar, Phil; McMurray, Bergen; Mastan, Naveed; Mosqueda, Nerick; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Ngo, Nhan-Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana E; Stevens, Allison; Pletikos, Mihovil; Reding, Melissa; Roll, Kate; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapouri, Sheila; Shapovalova, Nadiya V; Shen, Elaine H; Sjoquist, Nathan; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Smith, Michael; Sodt, Andy J; Williams, Derric; Zöllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Gerstein, Mark B; Geschwind, Daniel H; Glass, Ian A; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Huang, Hao; Jones, Allan R; Knowles, James A; Levitt, Pat; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Dang, Chinh; Bernard, Amy; Hohmann, John G; Lein, Ed S

    2014-04-10

    The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser-microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and post-mitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and outer subventricular zones even though the outer zone is expanded in humans. Both germinal and post-mitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in the frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human-evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development.

  15. How Anatomy Shapes Dynamics: A Semi-Analytical Study of the Brain at Rest by a Simple Spin Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo eDeco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resting state networks show a surprisingly coherent and robust spatiotemporal organization. Previous theoretical studies demonstrated that these patterns can be understood as emergent on the basis of the underlying neuroanatomical connectivity skeleton. Integrating the biologically realistic DTI/DSI based neuroanatomical connectivity into a brain model of Ising spin dynamics, we found the presence of latent ghost multi-stable attractors, which can be studied analytically. The multistable attractor landscape defines a functionally meaningful dynamic repertoire of the brain network that is inherently present in the neuroanatomical connectivity. We demonstrate that the more entropy of attractors exists, the richer is the dynamical repertoire and consequently the brain network displays more capabilities of computation. We hypothesize therefore that human brain connectivity developed a scale free type of architecture in order to be able to store a large number of different and flexibly accessible brain functions

  16. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy in an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Braun, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares overall laboratory averages and individual test scores along with a student survey to determine the effects of using virtual microscopy in place of optical microscopes in a large undergraduate human anatomy course. T-tests revealed that the first two laboratory examinations (of four) and the overall laboratory averages were…

  17. Near-Peer Teaching Strategy in a Large Human Anatomy Course: Perceptions of Near-Peer Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia Guadalupe; Carmona Pulido, Juan Manuel; De la Garza Chapa, Roberto Isaac; Serna Vázquez, Ruth Patricia; Alcalá Briones, Ricardo Daniel; Plasencia Banda, Perla Marina; Villarreal Silva, Eliud Enrique; Jacobo Baca, Guillermo; de la Garza Castro, Oscar; Elizondo Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Guzmán López, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Near-peer teaching (NPT) is a strategy in which senior students assume the instructor role with junior peers (mentees). Senior students develop unique skills and knowledge through NPT, an experience which extends their learning beyond content mastery. Different teaching modules featuring NPT were utilized in the human anatomy course at the School…

  18. Active Learning and Flipped Classroom, Hand in Hand Approach to Improve Students Learning in Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, Maria; Javdan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Because Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P), a gateway course for allied health majors, has high dropout rates nationally, it is challenging to find a successful pedagogical intervention. Reports on the effect of integration of flipped classrooms and whether it improves learning are contradictory for different disciplines. Thus many educators…

  19. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Teaching Histology by Means of Virtual Microscopy in an Introductory Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R.; O'Loughlin, Valerie Dean; Braun, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares overall laboratory averages and individual test scores along with a student survey to determine the effects of using virtual microscopy in place of optical microscopes in a large undergraduate human anatomy course. T-tests revealed that the first two laboratory examinations (of four) and the overall laboratory averages were…

  1. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  2. Immunofluorescence analysis of the internal brain anatomy of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C M; Loesel, R

    2008-03-01

    Comparative analyses of neuroanatomical characters can make valuable contributions to the inference of phylogenetic relationships. Whereas investigations in this field are numerous for arthropods, in-depth studies on other protostomes are sparse. Here, we provide a survey of the internal neuroarchitecture of the brain of the aciculate ragworm Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Annelida). Descriptions are based on confocal laser scanning microscope analyses of brain sections labeled with the nuclear marker DAPI and antibodies raised against FMRF-amide, serotonin, and histamine. Autofluorescence of the nervous tissue has been utilized to further elucidate the anatomical structures of the brain. The architecture of two major brain compartments, i.e., the paired mushroom bodies and the central optic neuropil, is described in detail. The findings are compared with existent literature on polychaete neuroanatomy and on arthropod neuroanatomy, and possible phylogenetic implications are outlined.

  3. A study of the comparative anatomy of the brain of domestic ruminants using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M J; Langen, N; Klumpp, S; Nasirimanesh, F; Shirvanchi, P; Ondreka, N; Kramer, M

    2012-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging has been used to examine the brain of domestic ruminants, detailed information relating the precise anatomical features in these species is lacking. In this study the brain structures of calves (Bos taurus domesticus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus) and a mesaticephalic dog (Canis lupis familiaris) were examined using T2-weighed Turbo Spin Echo sequences; three-dimensional models based on high-resolution gradient echo scans were used to identify brain sulci and gyri in two-dimensional images. The ruminant brains examined were similar in structure and organisation to those of other mammals but particular features included the deep depression of the insula and the pronounced gyri of the cortices, the dominant position of the visual (optic nerve, optic chiasm and rostral colliculus) and olfactory (olfactory bulb, olfactory tracts and piriform lobe) systems, and the relatively large size of the diencephalon.

  4. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  5. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  6. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  7. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M.L.; Newman-Norlund, S.E.; Ruiter, J.P.A. de; Hagoort, P.; Levinson, S.C.; Toni, I.

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  8. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E.; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C.; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we

  9. Human brain evolution writ large and small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Bauernfeind, Amy L; Bianchi, Serena; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Hof, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    Human evolution was marked by an extraordinary increase in total brain size relative to body size. While it is certain that increased encephalization is an important factor contributing to the origin of our species-specific cognitive abilities, it is difficult to disentangle which aspects of human neural structure and function are correlated by-products of brain size expansion from those that are specifically related to particular psychological specializations, such as language and enhanced "mentalizing" abilities. In this chapter, we review evidence from allometric scaling studies demonstrating that much of human neocortical organization can be understood as a product of brain enlargement. Defining extra-allometric specializations in humans is often hampered by a severe lack of comparative data from the same neuroanatomical variables across a broad range of primates. When possible, we highlight evidence for features of human neocortical architecture and function that cannot be easily explained as correlates of brain size and, hence, might be more directly associated with the evolution of uniquely human cognitive capacities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 基于虚拟现实技术的颅脑虚拟解剖的应用%Application of virtual anatomy based on virtual reality technology in brain structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳汉斌; 黄文华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨基于医学图像数据集的颅脑三维重建模型在虚拟解剖中的应用.方法:通过收集虚拟人颅脑图像数据集,采用Photoshop CS 8.0对图像进行分割、兴趣区域选择,然后利用Mimics软件重建颅脑解剖结构,将建立的三维模型单元导入Cult3D软件平台,应用虚拟现实建模语言(VRML)实现颅脑虚拟解剖.结果:三维重建与VR相结合的颅脑虚拟解剖有别于传统解剖,在教学演示方面具有高仿真度以及较强的可推广性的优势.结论:利用Mimics软件对颅脑解剖结构进行三维重建,再通过VR技术而建立的颅脑结构的虚拟解剖平台,在解剖教学及手术设计等领域具有广阔的应用前景.%Objective: To investigate the application of three-dimensional reconstruction based on brain structures image dataset in virtual anatomy. Methods: The virtual human brain structures images were collected first And regions of interest among all images were segmented and isolated. Then Mimics were used to reconstruct brain structures and 3D-models were imported into Cult3D platform, then achieved the virtual anatomy via virtual reality modeling language. Results: Reconstructed models combined with virtual reality technology differed from traditional anatomy structures with their higher simulation in educational demonstration and extension in wider fields. Conclusion: The virtual anatomy platform based on virtual reality and three-dimensional reconstruction has wide application perspective in anatomy education, surgery design and other fields.

  11. Relaxed genetic control of cortical organization in human brains compared with chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D; Schapiro, Steven J; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-12-01

    The study of hominin brain evolution has focused largely on the neocortical expansion and reorganization undergone by humans as inferred from the endocranial fossil record. Comparisons of modern human brains with those of chimpanzees provide an additional line of evidence to define key neural traits that have emerged in human evolution and that underlie our unique behavioral specializations. In an attempt to identify fundamental developmental differences, we have estimated the genetic bases of brain size and cortical organization in chimpanzees and humans by studying phenotypic similarities between individuals with known kinship relationships. We show that, although heritability for brain size and cortical organization is high in chimpanzees, cerebral cortical anatomy is substantially less genetically heritable than brain size in humans, indicating greater plasticity and increased environmental influence on neurodevelopment in our species. This relaxed genetic control on cortical organization is especially marked in association areas and likely is related to underlying microstructural changes in neural circuitry. A major result of increased plasticity is that the development of neural circuits that underlie behavior is shaped by the environmental, social, and cultural context more intensively in humans than in other primate species, thus providing an anatomical basis for behavioral and cognitive evolution.

  12. Consumption of seaweeds and the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornish, M. Lynn; Critchley, Alan T.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2017-01-01

    Much of the content of the human head is brain matter. This functions as the epicenter of human physical existence, including a sense of well-being and the manifestation of human consciousness. The human brain is a precious and complex organ which increases from 350 to 400 g in infants to 1......, and the impacts of anti-oxidant activities in neuroprotection. These elements have the capacity to help in the defense of human cognitive disorders, such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, bipolar diseases, and adverse conditions characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Psychological benefits...... associated with the moderate consumption of a diet fortified with macroalgae are also discussed in terms of reduction of depressive symptoms and furthermore highlighting possible improvements in sexual function....

  13. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  14. Molecular insights into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert Sean; Walsh, Christopher A

    2005-09-01

    Rapidly advancing knowledge of genome structure and sequence enables new means for the analysis of specific DNA changes associated with the differences between the human brain and that of other mammals. Recent studies implicate evolutionary changes in messenger RNA and protein expression levels, as well as DNA changes that alter amino acid sequences. We can anticipate having a systematic catalogue of DNA changes in the lineage leading to humans, but an ongoing challenge will be relating these changes to the anatomical and functional differences between our brain and that of our ancient and more recent ancestors.

  15. Brain neuroimaging of domestic cats: correlation between computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepomuceno, A.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Zanatta, R. [Universidade de Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Chung, D.G.; Costa, P.F.; Feliciano, M.A.R.; Avante, M.L.; Canola, J.C., E-mail: marcusfeliciano@yahoo.com.br [Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Lopes, L.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Computed tomography of the brain is necessary as part of the diagnosis of lesions of the central nervous system. In this study we used six domestic cats, male or female, aged between one and five years, evaluated by Computed Tomography (CT) examination without clinical signs of central nervous system disorders. Two euthanized animals stating a condition unrelated to the nervous system were incorporated into this study. The proposal consisted in establishing detailed anatomical description of tomographic images of normal brain of cats, using as reference anatomical images of cross sections of the stained brain and cranial part, with thicknesses similar to the planes of the CT images. CT examinations were performed with and without intravenous iodinated contrast media for live animals. With one euthanized animal, the brain was removed and immediately preserved in 10% formalin for later achievement in cross-sectional thickness of approximately 4mm and staining technique of Barnard, and Robert Brown. The head of another animal was disarticulated in the Atlanto-occipital region and frozen at -20 deg C then sliced to a thickness of about 5mm. The description of visualized anatomical structures using tomography is useful as a guide and allows transcribing with relative accuracy the brain region affected by an injury, and thus correlating it with the clinical symptoms of the patient, providing additional information and consequent improvement to veterinarians during the course of surgical clinic in this species. (author)

  16. Brain neuroimaging of domestic cats: correlation between computed tomography and cross- sectional anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Nepomuceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Computed tomography of the brain is necessary as part of the diagnosis of lesions of the central nervous system. In this study we used six domestic cats, male or female, aged between one and five years, evaluated by Computed Tomography (CT examination without clinical signs of central nervous system disorders. Two euthanized animals stating a condition unrelated to the nervous system were incorporated into this study. The proposal consisted in establishing detailed anatomical description of tomographic images of normal brain of cats, using as reference anatomical images of cross sections of the stained brain and cranial part, with thicknesses similar to the planes of the CT images. CT examinations were performed with and without intravenous iodinated contrast media for live animals. With one euthanized animal, the brain was removed and immediately preserved in 10% formalin for later achievement in cross-sectional thickness of approximately 4mm and staining technique of Barnard, and Robert Brown. The head of another animal was disarticulated in the Atlanto-occipital region and frozen at -20ºC then sliced to a thickness of about 5mm. The description of visualized anatomical structures using tomography is useful as a guide and allows transcribing with relative accuracy the brain region affected by an injury, and thus correlating it with the clinical symptoms of the patient, providing additional information and consequent improvement to veterinarians during the course of surgical clinic in this species.

  17. Human intelligence and brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Karama, Sherif; Jung, Rex E; Haier, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Intelligence can be defined as a general mental ability for reasoning, problem solving, and learning. Because of its general nature, intelligence integrates cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, or planning. On the basis of this definition, intelligence can be reliably measured by standardized tests with obtained scores predicting several broad social outcomes such as educational achievement, job performance, health, and longevity. A detailed understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying this general mental ability could provide significant individual and societal benefits. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have generally supported a frontoparietal network relevant for intelligence. This same network has also been found to underlie cognitive functions related to perception, short-term memory storage, and language. The distributed nature of this network and its involvement in a wide range of cognitive functions fits well with the integrative nature of intelligence. A new key phase of research is beginning to investigate how functional networks relate to structural networks, with emphasis on how distributed brain areas communicate with each other.

  18. REVISITING GLYCOGEN CONTENT IN THE HUMAN BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, Gülin; DiNuzzo, Mauro; Kumar, Anjali; Moheet, Amir; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen provides an important glucose reservoir in the brain since the concentration of glucosyl units stored in glycogen is several fold higher than free glucose available in brain tissue. We have previously reported 3–4 µmol/g brain glycogen content using in vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in conjunction with [1-13C]glucose administration in healthy humans, while higher levels were reported in the rodent brain. Due to the slow turnover of bulk brain glycogen in humans, complete turnover of the glycogen pool, estimated to take 3–5 days, was not observed in these prior studies. In an attempt to reach complete turnover and thereby steady state 13C labeling in glycogen, here we administered [1-13C]glucose to healthy volunteers for 80 hours. To eliminate any net glycogen synthesis during this period and thereby achieve an accurate estimate of glycogen concentration, volunteers were maintained at euglycemic blood glucose levels during [1-13C]glucose administration and 13C-glycogen levels in the occipital lobe were measured by 13C MRS approximately every 12 hours. Finally, we fitted the data with a biophysical model that was recently developed to take into account the tiered structure of the glycogen molecule and additionally incorporated blood glucose levels and isotopic enrichments as input function in the model. We obtained excellent fits of the model to the 13C-glycogen data, and glycogen content in the healthy human brain tissue was found to be 7.8 ± 0.3 µmol/g, a value substantially higher than previous estimates of glycogen content in the human brain. PMID:26202425

  19. Reasonable classical concepts in human lower limb anatomy from the viewpoint of the primitive persistent sciatic artery and twisting human lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The main aim of this review is (1) to introduce the two previous studies we published human lower limb anatomy based on the conventional macroscopic anatomical [corrected] criteria with hazardous recognition of this description, (2) to activate the discussion whether the limb homology exists, and (3) to contribute to future study filling the gap between the gross anatomy and embryology. One of the topics we discussed was the human persistent sciatic artery. To date, numerous human cases of persistent sciatic artery have been reported in which the anomalous artery was present in the posterior compartment of the thigh alongside the sciatic nerve. As one of the important criteria for assessing the human primitive sciatic artery, its ventral arterial position with respect to the sciatic nerve is reasonable based on the initial positional relationship between ventral arterial and dorsal nervous systems and comparative anatomical findings. We also discuss ways of considering the topography of muscles of the lower limb and their innervations compared to those of the upper limb. We propose a schema of the complex anatomical characteristics of the lower limb based on the vertebrate body plan. According to this reasonable schema, the twisted anatomy of the lower limb can be understood more easily. These two main ideas discussed in this paper will be useful for further understanding of the anatomy of the lower limb and as a first step for future. We hope that the future study in lower limb will be further developed by both viewpoints of the classical gross anatomy and recent embryology.

  20. Essential fatty acids and human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Ke, Der-Shin; Chen, Jen-Yin

    2009-12-01

    The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Clinical observation studies has related imbalance dietary intake of fatty acids to impaired brain performance and diseases. Most of the brain growth is completed by 5-6 years of age. The EFAs, particularly the omega-3 fatty acids, are important for brain development during both the fetal and postnatal period. Dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is needed for the optimum functional maturation of the retina and visual cortex, with visual acuity and mental development seemingly improved by extra DHA. Beyond their important role in building the brain structure, EFAs, as messengers, are involved in the synthesis and functions of brain neurotransmitters, and in the molecules of the immune system. Neuronal membranes contain phospholipid pools that are the reservoirs for the synthesis of specific lipid messengers on neuronal stimulation or injury. These messengers in turn participate in signaling cascades that can either promote neuronal injury or neuroprotection. The goal of this review is to give a new understanding of how EFAs determine our brain's integrity and performance, and to recall the neuropsychiatric disorders that may be influenced by them. As we further unlock the mystery of how fatty acids affect the brain and better understand the brain's critical dependence on specific EFAs, correct intake of the appropriate diet or supplements becomes one of the tasks we undertake in pursuit of optimal wellness.

  1. Divergence of brain and retinal anatomy and histology in pelagic antarctic notothenioid fishes of the sister taxa Dissostichus and Pleuragramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    The neutrally buoyant Antarctic fishes of the sister taxa Dissostichus (D. eleginoides and D. mawsoni) and Pleuragramma antarcticum diverged early in the notothenioid radiation and filled different niches in the pelagic realm of the developing Southern Ocean. To assess the influence of phylogenetic and ecological factors in shaping neural morphology in these taxa, we studied the anatomy and histology of the brains and retinae, and determined the proportional weights of brain regions. With the brain of the non-Antarctic sister taxon Eleginops maclovinus as plesiomorphic, statistically significant departures in the brains of the two Antarctic taxa include reduction of the corpus cerebelli and expansion of the mesencephalon and medulla. Compared to Eleginops, both species also have a relatively smaller telencephalon, although this is significant only in Dissostichus. There are a number of apomorphic features in the brain of Pleuragramma including reduced olfactory nerves and bulbs, an extremely small corpus cerebelli and an expanded mesencephalon. Although there is not a significant difference in the relative weights of the medulla in the two taxa, the prominence of the eminentia granularis and bulging cap-like appearance of the crista cerebellaris are distinctive in Pleuragramma. Brain histology of Dissostichus and Pleuragramma reflects typical perciform patterns and the two species of Dissostichus are histologically identical. Lateral compression in Pleuragramma and notable lobation in Dissostichus also contribute to differences between the taxa. Compression in Pleuragramma is attributable to convergence on an anchovy/herring body shape and to the relatively large brain in this small fish. The less prominent pattern of lobation of the telencephalon, inferior lobes and corpus cerebelli in Pleuragramma probably reflects underlying histology, specifically a reduction in cellularity of the neuropil in the nuclei and lobes. The retinal histology of Dissostichus and

  2. Simple models of human brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-04-10

    Human brain functional networks are embedded in anatomical space and have topological properties--small-worldness, modularity, fat-tailed degree distributions--that are comparable to many other complex networks. Although a sophisticated set of measures is available to describe the topology of brain networks, the selection pressures that drive their formation remain largely unknown. Here we consider generative models for the probability of a functional connection (an edge) between two cortical regions (nodes) separated by some Euclidean distance in anatomical space. In particular, we propose a model in which the embedded topology of brain networks emerges from two competing factors: a distance penalty based on the cost of maintaining long-range connections; and a topological term that favors links between regions sharing similar input. We show that, together, these two biologically plausible factors are sufficient to capture an impressive range of topological properties of functional brain networks. Model parameters estimated in one set of functional MRI (fMRI) data on normal volunteers provided a good fit to networks estimated in a second independent sample of fMRI data. Furthermore, slightly detuned model parameters also generated a reasonable simulation of the abnormal properties of brain functional networks in people with schizophrenia. We therefore anticipate that many aspects of brain network organization, in health and disease, may be parsimoniously explained by an economical clustering rule for the probability of functional connectivity between different brain areas.

  3. Femoral morphology and femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy of humans and great apes: a comparative virtopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Nishimura, Takeshi; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral morphology of fossil hominins is routinely interpreted in terms of muscular topography and associated locomotor modes. However, the detailed correspondence between hard and soft tissue structures in the proximal femoral region of extant great apes is relatively unknown, because dissection protocols typically do not comprise in-depth osteological descriptions. Here, we use computed tomography and virtopsy (virtual dissection) for non-invasive examination of the femoropelvic musculoskeletal anatomy in Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. Specifically, we analyze the topographic relationship between muscle attachment sites and surface structures of the proximal femoral shaft such as the lateral spiral pilaster. Our results show that the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle is anterior to the insertion of gluteus maximus in all examined great ape specimens and humans. In gorillas and orangutans, the insertion of gluteus maximus is on the inferior (anterolateral) side of the lateral spiral pilaster. In chimpanzees, however, the maximus insertion is on its superior (posteromedial) side, similar to the situation in modern humans. These findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans exhibit a shared-derived musculoskeletal topography of the proximal femoral region, irrespective of their different locomotor modes, whereas gorillas and orangutans represent the primitive condition. Caution is thus warranted when inferring locomotor behavior from the surface topography of the proximal femur of fossil hominins, as the morphology of this region may contain a strong phyletic signal that tends to blur locomotor adaptation.

  4. «Fantastic Voyage» (1966: an attractive approach to the study of anatomy through a tour inside the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. JUANES MÉNDEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fantastic Voyage is a science-fiction film that develops its action inside the human body, standing halfway between scientific documentary and fantasy. In its plot, a scientific possessing a valuable information for the State security suffers from a terrorist attack which leaves him in comma at death’s door. To save his life, it is necessary to carry out an operation in a part of his brain to which there is no access through conventional surgery. Thanks to scientific advances achieved, a nuclear submarine is miniaturized with a crew of neurosurgeons inside, who will be incorporated into the patient’s bloodstream intravenously. Its mission will be that of reaching the brain, through the circulatory system, and try to cure the lesion. A real amazing journey. Destination: the brain.The originality of its plot makes this film be an outstanding title among those of its genre. This film also constitutes a very useful resource for critical value and analysis of concepts on human anatomy.

  5. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  6. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: An immersive Approach to Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Janet K.; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be…

  7. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: An immersive Approach to Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Janet K.; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be…

  8. The pars interna/media anatomy and histology in the human larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpied, George L

    2007-01-01

    The pars interna/media (PIM) is a small muscle found in the human larynx that has not been successfully described in contemporary literature on laryngeal structure. The objective of this study was to describe the PIM's anatomy in detail. Thirteen human larynges obtained from postmortem examination were cleaned and preserved. Exposure of the PIM was through a lateral disarticulation of the cricothyroid joint and reflection of the cricothyroid muscle and the thyroid lamina. In the human, the PIM was found to be strap-like in form and to have two bellies with attachments to the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage at the root of the inferior horn and anteriosuperior cricoid arch. It appears to be innervated by a middle division, vestibular branch, of the internal superior laryngeal nerve. The average fiber diameter is 40 mum. Its type 1-to-type 2 fiber ratio places it within the range of other intrinsic laryngeal muscles. A muscle spindle was identified in medial bundle at the PIM's thyroid attachment. Thyroid medial surface attachment is within few millimeters of the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. These data show that the PIM is a robust muscle and deserves attention anatomically. Its orientation within the thyroid and nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve innervations of the human PIM may place it in the vocal fold tensor group rather than the laryngeal sphincter group. It is possible the PIM reports on cricothyroid distance and right versus left cricothyroid joint stresses. Electromyographic examination of the PIM in the Rhesus larynx may help elucidate its physiology to elaborate its human physiology.

  9. Interactive effects of BDNF Val66Met genotype and trauma on limbic brain anatomy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusak, Hilary A; Kuruvadi, Nisha; Vila, Angela M; Shattuck, David W; Joshi, Shantanu H; Joshi, Anand A; Jella, Pavan K; Thomason, Moriah E

    2016-05-01

    Childhood trauma is a major precipitating factor in psychiatric disease. Emerging data suggest that stress susceptibility is genetically determined, and that risk is mediated by changes in limbic brain circuitry. There is a need to identify markers of disease vulnerability, and it is critical that these markers be investigated in childhood and adolescence, a time when neural networks are particularly malleable and when psychiatric disorders frequently emerge. In this preliminary study, we evaluated whether a common variant in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met; rs6265) interacts with childhood trauma to predict limbic gray matter volume in a sample of 55 youth high in sociodemographic risk. We found trauma-by-BDNF interactions in the right subcallosal area and right hippocampus, wherein BDNF-related gray matter changes were evident in youth without histories of trauma. In youth without trauma exposure, lower hippocampal volume was related to higher symptoms of anxiety. These data provide preliminary evidence for a contribution of a common BDNF gene variant to the neural correlates of childhood trauma among high-risk urban youth. Altered limbic structure in early life may lay the foundation for longer term patterns of neural dysfunction, and hold implications for understanding the psychiatric and psychobiological consequences of traumatic stress on the developing brain.

  10. Evolution and genomics of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Reynoso, M A; Juárez-Vázquez, C I; Barros-Núñez, P

    2015-08-21

    Most living beings are able to perform actions that can be considered intelligent or, at the very least, the result of an appropriate reaction to changing circumstances in their environment. However, the intelligence or intellectual processes of humans are vastly superior to those achieved by all other species. The adult human brain is a highly complex organ weighing approximately 1500g, which accounts for only 2% of the total body weight but consumes an amount of energy equal to that required by all skeletal muscle at rest. Although the human brain displays a typical primate structure, it can be identified by its specific distinguishing features. The process of evolution and humanisation of the Homo sapiens brain resulted in a unique and distinct organ with the largest relative volume of any animal species. It also permitted structural reorganization of tissues and circuits in specific segments and regions. These steps explain the remarkable cognitive abilities of modern humans compared not only with other species in our genus, but also with older members of our own species. Brain evolution required the coexistence of two adaptation mechanisms. The first involves genetic changes that occur at the species level, and the second occurs at the individual level and involves changes in chromatin organisation or epigenetic changes. The genetic mechanisms include: a) genetic changes in coding regions that lead to changes in the sequence and activity of existing proteins; b) duplication and deletion of previously existing genes; c) changes in gene expression through changes in the regulatory sequences of different genes; and d) synthesis of non-coding RNAs. Lastly, this review describes some of the main documented chromosomal differences between humans and great apes. These differences have also contributed to the evolution and humanisation process of the H. sapiens brain. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  11. "No interest in human anatomy as such": Frederic Wood Jones dissects anatomical investigation in the United States in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross L

    2014-03-01

    In 1926, Frederic Wood Jones, professor of Anatomy at the University of Adelaide and a leading figure in the British anatomical world, took a Rockefeller Foundation funded trip to the United States in order to inspect anatomy programmes and medical museums and to meet leading figures in the anatomical and anthropological world. His later reflections paint a picture of a discipline in transition. Physical anthropology and gross anatomy were coming to a crisis point in the United States, increasingly displaced by research in histology, embryology and radiological anatomy. Meanwhile, in Britain and its colonial outposts, anatomists such as Wood Jones were attempting to re-invigorate the discipline in the field, studying biological specimens as functional and active agents in their particular milieus, but with human dissection at the core. Thus, an examination of this trip allows us to see how the interaction between two traditions in anatomy informed the process of the development of human biology in this critical period.

  12. Magnetite pollution nanoparticles in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Barbara A.; Ahmed, Imad A. M.; Karloukovski, Vassil; MacLaren, Donald A.; Foulds, Penelope G.; Allsop, David; Mann, David M. A.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian

    2016-09-01

    Biologically formed nanoparticles of the strongly magnetic mineral, magnetite, were first detected in the human brain over 20 y ago [Kirschvink JL, Kobayashi-Kirschvink A, Woodford BJ (1992) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89(16):7683-7687]. Magnetite can have potentially large impacts on the brain due to its unique combination of redox activity, surface charge, and strongly magnetic behavior. We used magnetic analyses and electron microscopy to identify the abundant presence in the brain of magnetite nanoparticles that are consistent with high-temperature formation, suggesting, therefore, an external, not internal, source. Comprising a separate nanoparticle population from the euhedral particles ascribed to endogenous sources, these brain magnetites are often found with other transition metal nanoparticles, and they display rounded crystal morphologies and fused surface textures, reflecting crystallization upon cooling from an initially heated, iron-bearing source material. Such high-temperature magnetite nanospheres are ubiquitous and abundant in airborne particulate matter pollution. They arise as combustion-derived, iron-rich particles, often associated with other transition metal particles, which condense and/or oxidize upon airborne release. Those magnetite pollutant particles which are sourced iron-bearing nanoparticles, rather than their soluble compounds, can be transported directly into the brain, where they may pose hazard to human health.

  13. Anatomy of large animal spines and its comparison to the human spine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Yi-Fei

    2010-01-01

    Animal models have been commonly used for in vivo and in vitro spinal research. However, the extent to which animal models resemble the human spine has not been well known. We conducted a systematic review to compare the morphometric features of vertebrae between human and animal species, so as to give some suggestions on how to choose an appropriate animal model in spine research. A literature search of all English language peer-reviewed publications was conducted using PubMed, OVID, Springer and Elsevier (Science Direct) for the years 1980-2008. Two reviewers extracted data on the anatomy of large animal spines from the identified articles. Each anatomical study of animals had to include at least three vertebral levels. The anatomical data from all animal studies were compared with the existing data of the human spine in the literature. Of the papers retrieved, seven were included in the review. The animals in the studies involved baboon, sheep, porcine, calf and deer. Distinct anatomical differences of vertebrae were found between the human and each large animal spine. In cervical region, spines of the baboon and human are more similar as compared to other animals. In thoracic and lumbar regions, the mean pedicle height of all animals was greater than the human pedicles. There was similar mean pedicle width between animal and the human specimens, except in thoracic segments of sheep. The human spinal canal was wider and deeper in the anteroposterior plane than any of the animals. The mean human vertebral body width and depth were greater than that of the animals except in upper thoracic segments of the deer. However, the mean vertebral body height was lower than that of all animals. This paper provides a comprehensive review to compare vertebrae geometries of experimental animal models to the human vertebrae, and will help for choosing animal model in vivo and in vitro spine research. When the animal selected for spine research, the structural similarities and

  14. [Evolution of human brain and intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, László; Janka, Zoltán

    2008-07-30

    The biological evolution, including human evolution is mainly driven by environmental changes. Accidental genetic modifications and their innovative results make the successful adaptation possible. As we know the human evolution started 7-8 million years ago in the African savannah, where upright position and bipedalism were significantly advantageous. The main drive of improving manual actions and tool making could be to obtain more food. Our ancestor got more meat due to more successful hunting, resulting in more caloric intake, more protein and essential fatty acid in the meal. The nervous system uses disproportionally high level of energy, so better quality of food was a basic condition for the evolution of huge human brain. The size of human brain was tripled during 3.5 million years, it increased from the average of 450 cm3 of Australopithecinae to the average of 1350 cm3 of Homo sapiens. A genetic change in the system controlling gene expression could happen about 200 000 years ago, which influenced the development of nervous system, the sensorimotor function and learning ability for motor processes. The appearance and stabilisation of FOXP2 gene structure as feature of modern man coincided with the first presence and quick spread of Homo sapiens on the whole Earth. This genetic modification made opportunity for human language, as the basis of abrupt evolution of human intelligence. The brain region being responsible for human language is the left planum temporale, which is much larger in left hemisphere. This shows the most typical human brain asymmetry. In this case the anatomical asymmetry means a clearly defined functional asymmetry as well, where the brain hemispheres act differently. The preference in using hands, the lateralised using of tools resulted in the brain asymmetry, which is the precondition of human language and intelligence. However, it cannot be held anymore, that only humans make tools, because our closest relatives, the chimpanzees are

  15. Zika virus impairs growth in human neurospheres and brain organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Patricia P; Loiola, Erick Correia; Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M; Trindade, Pablo; Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Nascimento, Juliana Minardi; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Rehen, Stevens K

    2016-05-13

    Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), reports of microcephaly have increased considerably in Brazil; however, causality between the viral epidemic and malformations in fetal brains needs further confirmation. We examined the effects of ZIKV infection in human neural stem cells growing as neurospheres and brain organoids. Using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we showed that ZIKV targets human brain cells, reducing their viability and growth as neurospheres and brain organoids. These results suggest that ZIKV abrogates neurogenesis during human brain development.

  16. A Computer Simulation Study of Anatomy Induced Drift of Spiral Waves in the Human Atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R. Kharche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of spiral waves of excitation with atrial anatomy remains unclear. This simulation study isolates the role of atrial anatomical structures on spiral wave spontaneous drift in the human atrium. We implemented realistic and idealised 3D human atria models to investigate the functional impact of anatomical structures on the long-term (∼40 s behaviour of spiral waves. The drift of a spiral wave was quantified by tracing its tip trajectory, which was correlated to atrial anatomical features. The interaction of spiral waves with the following idealised geometries was investigated: (a a wedge-like structure with a continuously varying atrial wall thickness; (b a ridge-like structure with a sudden change in atrial wall thickness; (c multiple bridge-like structures consisting of a bridge connected to the atrial wall. Spiral waves drifted from thicker to thinner regions and along ridge-like structures. Breakthrough patterns caused by pectinate muscles (PM bridges were also observed, albeit infrequently. Apparent anchoring close to PM-atrial wall junctions was observed. These observations were similar in both the realistic and the idealised models. We conclude that spatially altering atrial wall thickness is a significant cause of drift of spiral waves. PM bridges cause breakthrough patterns and induce transient anchoring of spiral waves.

  17. Epilepsy: Extreme Events in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnertz, Klaus

    The analysis of Xevents arising in dynamical systems with many degrees of freedom represents a challenge for many scientific fields. This is especially true for the open, dissipative, and adaptive system known as the human brain. Due to its complex structure, its immense functionality, and — as in the case of epilepsy — due to the coexistence of normal and abnormal functions, the brain can be regarded as one of the most complex and fascinating systems in nature. Data gathered so far show that the epileptic process exhibits a high spatial and temporal variability. Small, specific, regions of the brain are responsible for the generation of focal epileptic seizures, and the amount of time a patient spends actually having seizures is only a small fraction of his/her lifetime. In between these Xevents large parts of the brain exhibit normal functioning. Since the occurrence of seizures usually can not be explained by exogenous factors, and since the brain recovers its normal state after a seizure in the majority of cases, this might indicate that endogenous nonlinear (deterministic and/or stochastic) properties are involved in the control of these Xevents. In fact, converging evidence now indicates that (particularly) nonlinear approaches to the analysis of brain activity allow us to define precursors which, provided sufficient sensitivity and specificity can be obtained, might lead to the development of patient-specific seizure anticipation and seizure prevention strategies.

  18. Native Mutant Huntingtin in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Ellen; Valencia, Antonio; Li, Xueyi; Aronin, Neil; Kegel, Kimberly B.; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul; Young, Anne B.; Wexler, Nancy; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in the N terminus of huntingtin (htt). Analysis of human postmortem brain lysates by SDS-PAGE and Western blot reveals htt as full-length and fragmented. Here we used Blue Native PAGE (BNP) and Western blots to study native htt in human postmortem brain. Antisera against htt detected a single band broadly migrating at 575–850 kDa in control brain and at 650–885 kDa in heterozygous and Venezuelan homozygous HD brains. Anti-polyglutamine antisera detected full-length mutant htt in HD brain. There was little htt cleavage even if lysates were pretreated with trypsin, indicating a property of native htt to resist protease cleavage. A soluble mutant htt fragment of about 180 kDa was detected with anti-htt antibody Ab1 (htt-(1–17)) and increased when lysates were treated with denaturants (SDS, 8 m urea, DTT, or trypsin) before BNP. Wild-type htt was more resistant to denaturants. Based on migration of in vitro translated htt fragments, the 180-kDa segment terminated ≈htt 670–880 amino acids. If second dimension SDS-PAGE followed BNP, the 180-kDa mutant htt was absent, and 43–50 kDa htt fragments appeared. Brain lysates from two HD mouse models expressed native full-length htt; a mutant fragment formed if lysates were pretreated with 8 m urea + DTT. Native full-length mutant htt in embryonic HD140Q/140Q mouse primary neurons was intact during cell death and when cell lysates were exposed to denaturants before BNP. Thus, native mutant htt occurs in brain and primary neurons as a soluble full-length monomer. PMID:22375012

  19. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaHu; Wei-PingZhang; LeiZhang; ZhongChen; Er-QingWei

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the aquaporins (AQPs), a water channel family. In the brain, AQP4 is expressed in astroeyte foot processes, and plays an important role in water homeostasis and in the formation of brain edema. In our study, AQP4 expression in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or different brain tumors was detected

  20. A receptor-based analysis of local ecosystems in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janušonis, Skirmantas

    2017-03-20

    As a complex system, the brain is a self-organizing entity that depends on local interactions among cells. Its regions (anatomically defined nuclei and areas) can be conceptualized as cellular ecosystems, but the similarity of their functional profiles is poorly understood. The study used the Allen Human Brain Atlas to classify 169 brain regions into hierarchically-organized environments based on their expression of 100 G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors, with no a priori reference to the regions' positions in the brain's anatomy or function. The analysis was based on hierarchical clustering, and multiscale bootstrap resampling was used to estimate the reliability of detected clusters. The study presents the first unbiased, hierarchical tree of functional environments in the human brain. The similarity of brain regions was strongly influenced by their anatomical proximity, even when they belonged to different functional systems. Generally, spatial vicinity trumped long-range projections or network connectivity. The main cluster of brain regions excluded the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The nuclei of the amygdala formed a cluster irrespective of their striatal or pallial origin. In its receptor profile, the hypothalamus was more closely associated with the midbrain than with the thalamus. The cerebellar cortical areas formed a tight and exclusive cluster. Most of the neocortical areas (with the exception of some occipital areas) clustered in a large, statistically well supported group that included no other brain regions. This study adds a new dimension to the established classifications of brain divisions. In a single framework, they are reconsidered at multiple scales-from individual nuclei and areas to their groups to the entire brain. The analysis provides support for predictive models of brain self-organization and adaptation.

  1. Distribution of N-Acetylgalactosamine-Positive Perineuronal Nets in the Macaque Brain: Anatomy and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Mueller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PNNs are extracellular molecules that form around neurons near the end of critical periods during development. They surround neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites. PNNs inhibit the formation of new connections and may concentrate around rapidly firing inhibitory interneurons. Previous work characterized the important role of perineuronal nets in plasticity in the visual system, amygdala, and spinal cord of rats. In this study, we use immunohistochemistry to survey the distribution of perineuronal nets in representative areas of the primate brain. We also document changes in PNN prevalence in these areas in animals of different ages. We found that PNNs are most prevalent in the cerebellar nuclei, surrounding >90% of the neurons there. They are much less prevalent in cerebral cortex, surrounding less than 10% of neurons in every area that we examined. The incidence of perineuronal nets around parvalbumin-positive neurons (putative fast-spiking interneurons varies considerably between different areas in the brain. Our survey indicates that the presence of PNNs may not have a simple relationship with neural plasticity and may serve multiple functions in the central nervous system.

  2. Partitioning heritability analysis reveals a shared genetic basis of brain anatomy and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phil H.; Baker, Justin T.; Holmes, Avram J.; Jahanshad, Neda; Ge, Tian; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Cruz, Yanela; Manoach, Dara S.; Hibar, Derrek P.; Faskowitz, Joshua; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicolas H.; Wright, Margaret J.; Öngür, Dost; Buckner, Randy; Roffman, Joshua; Thompson, Paul M.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic etiology. Widespread cortical gray matter loss has been observed in patients and prodromal samples. However, it remains unresolved whether schizophrenia-associated cortical structure variations arise due to disease etiology or secondary to the illness. Here we address this question using a partitioning-based heritability analysis of genome-wide SNP and neuroimaging data from 1,750 healthy individuals. We find that schizophrenia-associated genetic variants explain a significantly enriched proportion of trait heritability in eight brain phenotypes (FDR=10%). In particular, intracranial volume (ICV) and left superior frontal gyrus thickness exhibit significant and robust associations with schizophrenia genetic risk under varying SNP selection conditions. Cross disorder comparison suggests that the neurogenetic architecture of schizophrenia-associated brain regions is, at least in part, shared with other psychiatric disorders. Our study highlights key neuroanatomical correlates of schizophrenia genetic risk in the general population. These may provide fundamental insights into the complex pathophysiology of the illness, and a potential link to neurocognitive deficits shaping the disorder. PMID:27725656

  3. Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary; McGlothlin, James

    2002-05-01

    Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up effects in the brain gives incentive to study the relationship between parameters of waves and reactions obtained of biorhythms (EEG) and heart action (EKG). New results show the impact of LFN on the electrical potentials of the brain are dependent on the pressure waves on the human body. Electrical activity of circulatory system was also affected. Signals recorded in industrial workplaces were duplicated by loudspeakers and used to record data from a typical LFN spectra with 5 and 7 Hz in a laboratory chamber. External noise, electromagnetic fields, temperature, dust, and other elements were controlled. Results show not only a follow-up effect in the brain but also a result similar to arrhythmia in the heart. Relaxations effects were observed of people impacted by waves generated from natural sources such as streams and waterfalls.

  4. Unraveling the multiscale structural organization and connectivity of the human brain: the role of diffusion MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eBastiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain show different organizational principles at distinct spatial scales. Histological staining and light microscopy techniques have been widely used in classical neuroanatomical studies to unravel brain organization. Using such techniques is a laborious task performed on 2-dimensional histological sections by skilled anatomists possibly aided by semi-automated algorithms. With the recent advent of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast mechanisms, cortical layers and columns can now be reliably identified and their structural properties quantified post mortem. These developments are allowing the investigation of neuroanatomical features of the brain at a spatial resolution that could be interfaced with that of histology. Diffusion MRI and tractography techniques, in particular, have been used to probe the architecture of both white and gray matter in three dimensions. Combined with mathematical network analysis, these techniques are increasingly influential in the investigation of the macro-, meso- and microscopic organization of brain connectivity and anatomy, both in vivo and ex vivo. Diffusion MRI-based techniques in combination with histology approaches can therefore support the endeavor of creating multimodal atlases that take into account the different spatial scales or levels on which the brain is organized. The aim of this review is to illustrate and discuss the structural architecture and the anatomical connectivity of the human brain at different spatial scales and how recently developed diffusion MRI techniques can help investigate these.

  5. Transfontanelle Sonography of Brain in Neonates: Focused on Anatomy, Doppler and Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "M. Rahmani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Sonography of the brain is now very important in the care of neonates, especially among high risk premature infants. Screening of premature infants with transfontanelle ultrasonography is highly sensitive and specific for intracranial hemorrhage. It is also valuable in follow-up of hydrocephalus and periventricular leukomalacia. Patients & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 high risk premature newborns admitted to neonate ICU of Vali-e-Asr hospital were evaluated by a sonograghy through fontanels. The time of sonograghy for ICH was in the first day of life If it was negative for ICH, evaluation was repeated in the 3rd day and again if negative, the last examination was performed in the 7th day. Result: Overall, 200 neonates were evaluated. The most common pathologic finding in our high risk premature neonates was germinal matrix hemorrhage, mostly grade 1and 2. A few cases of congenital anomalies were also found.

  6. Broadband criticality of human brain network synchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred G Kitzbichler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-organized criticality is an attractive model for human brain dynamics, but there has been little direct evidence for its existence in large-scale systems measured by neuroimaging. In general, critical systems are associated with fractal or power law scaling, long-range correlations in space and time, and rapid reconfiguration in response to external inputs. Here, we consider two measures of phase synchronization: the phase-lock interval, or duration of coupling between a pair of (neurophysiological processes, and the lability of global synchronization of a (brain functional network. Using computational simulations of two mechanistically distinct systems displaying complex dynamics, the Ising model and the Kuramoto model, we show that both synchronization metrics have power law probability distributions specifically when these systems are in a critical state. We then demonstrate power law scaling of both pairwise and global synchronization metrics in functional MRI and magnetoencephalographic data recorded from normal volunteers under resting conditions. These results strongly suggest that human brain functional systems exist in an endogenous state of dynamical criticality, characterized by a greater than random probability of both prolonged periods of phase-locking and occurrence of large rapid changes in the state of global synchronization, analogous to the neuronal "avalanches" previously described in cellular systems. Moreover, evidence for critical dynamics was identified consistently in neurophysiological systems operating at frequency intervals ranging from 0.05-0.11 to 62.5-125 Hz, confirming that criticality is a property of human brain functional network organization at all frequency intervals in the brain's physiological bandwidth.

  7. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  8. Human brain disease recreated in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, J.

    1990-12-14

    In the early 1980s, neurologist Stanley Prusiner suggested that scrapie, an apparently infectious degenerative brain disease of sheep, could be transmitted by prions, infectious particles made just of protein - and containing no nucleic acids. But prion research has come a long way since then. In 1985, the cloning of the gene encoding the prion protein proved that it does in fact exist. And the gene turned out to be widely expressed in the brains of higher organisms, a result suggesting that the prion protein has a normal brain function that can somehow be subverted, leading to brain degeneration. Then studies done during the past 2 years suggested that specific mutations in the prion gene might cause two similar human brain diseases, Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Creutzfelt-Jakob disease. Now, Prusiner's group at the University of California, San Francisco, has used genetic engineering techniques to recreate GSS by transplanting the mutated prion gene into mice. Not only will the animal model help neurobiologists answer the many remaining questions about prions and how they work, but it may also shed some light on other neurodegenerative diseases as well.

  9. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meunier, D; Fornito, A; Ersche, K D; Bullmore, E T; 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009

    2010-01-01

    The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or "modules-within-modules") decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at ...

  10. Increased expression of aquaporin-4 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hua; YAO Hong-tian; ZHANG Wei-ping; ZHANG LEI; DING Wei; ZHANG Shi-hong; CHEN Zhong; WEI Er-qing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), one of the aquaporins (AQPs), in human brain specimens from patients with traumatic brain injury or brain tumors. Methods: Nineteen human brain specimens were obtained from the patients with traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, benign meningioma or early stage hemorrhagic stroke. MRI or CT imaging was used to assess brain edema. Hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to evaluate cell damage. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the AQP4 expression. Results: AQP4 expression was increased from 15h to at least 8 d after injury. AQP4immunoreactivity was strong around astrocytomas, ganglioglioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma. However, AQP4 immunoreactivity was only found in the centers of astrocytomas and ganglioglioma, but not in metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from lung.Conclusion: AQP4 expression increases in human brains after traumatic brain injury, within brain-derived tumors, and around brain tumors.

  11. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  12. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  13. Evolutionary trends and functional anatomy of the human expanded autophagy network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Andreas; Saito, Rintaro; Merkurjev, Daria; Liu, Jing-Jing; Syed, Gulam Hussain; Kolnik, Martin; Siddiqui, Aleem; Glas, Martin; Scheffler, Björn; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells utilize autophagy for protein and organelle turnover, thus assuring subcellular quality control, homeostasis, and survival. In order to address recent advances in identification of human autophagy associated genes, and to describe autophagy on a system-wide level, we established an autophagy-centered gene interaction network by merging various primary data sets and by retrieving respective interaction data. The resulting network ('AXAN') was analyzed with respect to subnetworks, e.g. the prime gene subnetwork (including the core machinery, signaling pathways and autophagy receptors) and the transcription subnetwork. To describe aspects of evolution within this network, we assessed the presence of protein orthologs across 99 eukaryotic model organisms. We visualized evolutionary trends for prime gene categories and evolutionary tracks for selected AXAN genes. This analysis confirms the eukaryotic origin of autophagy core genes while it points to a diverse evolutionary history of autophagy receptors. Next, we used module identification to describe the functional anatomy of the network at the level of pathway modules. In addition to obvious pathways (e.g., lysosomal degradation, insulin signaling) our data unveil the existence of context-related modules such as Rho GTPase signaling. Last, we used a tripartite, image-based RNAi - screen to test candidate genes predicted to play a role in regulation of autophagy. We verified the Rho GTPase, CDC42, as a novel regulator of autophagy-related signaling. This study emphasizes the applicability of system-wide approaches to gain novel insights into a complex biological process and to describe the human autophagy pathway at a hitherto unprecedented level of detail.

  14. MRI and MRS of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bob L; Hu, Jiani

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of human brain tumors, including the primary applications and basic terminology involved. Readers who wish to know more about this broad subject should seek out the referenced books (1. Tofts (2003) Quantitative MRI of the brain. Measuring changes caused by disease. Wiley; Bradley and Stark (1999) 2. Magnetic resonance imaging, 3rd Edition. Mosby Inc; Brown and Semelka (2003) 3. MRI basic principles and applications, 3rd Edition. Wiley-Liss) or reviews (4. Top Magn Reson Imaging 17:127-36, 2006; 5. JMRI 24:709-724, 2006; 6. Am J Neuroradiol 27:1404-1411, 2006).MRI is the most popular means of diagnosing human brain tumors. The inherent difference in the magnetic resonance (MR) properties of water between normal tissues and tumors results in contrast differences on the image that provide the basis for distinguishing tumors from normal tissues. In contrast to MRI, which provides spatial maps or images using water signals of the tissues, proton MRS detects signals of tissue metabolites. MRS can complement MRI because the observed MRS peaks can be linked to inherent differences in biochemical profiles between normal tissues and tumors.The goal of MRI and MRS is to characterize brain tumors, including tumor core, edge, edema, volume, types, and grade. The commonly used brain tumor MRI protocol includes T2-weighted images and T1-weighted images taken both before and after the injection of a contrast agent (typically gadolinium: Gd). The commonly used MRS technique is either point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) or stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM).

  15. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D Digitization and Prototyping of the Skull for Practical Use in the Teaching of Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Maria Teresa Ugidos; Haro, Fernando Blaya; Diaz, Carlos Molino; Manzoor, Sadia; Ugidos, Gonzalo Ferrer; Mendez, Juan Antonio Juanes

    2017-05-01

    The creation of new rapid prototyping techniques, low cost 3D printers as well as the creation of new software for these techniques have allowed the creation of 3D models of bones making their application possible in the field of teaching anatomy in the faculties of Health Sciences. The 3D model of cranium created in the present work, at full scale, present accurate reliefs and anatomical details that are easily identifiable by undergraduate students in their use for the study of human anatomy. In this article, the process of scanning the skull and the subsequent treatment of these images with specific software until the generation of 3D model using 3D printer has been reported.

  17. Reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth: comparison of three different materials using injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, A; Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Shrestha, P

    2010-04-01

    This in vitro study compared the reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth taken by silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin using an injection technique to determine which material produced fewer voids. Twenty impressions/patterns using this technique were made for each material and compared with each other on the basis of number, location and size of voids. Length of each dowel impression/ pattern was also compared. The percentage of void free surfaces using silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin were 90%, 100% and 85% respectively. Most of the voids were less than 1mm in size and situated in the middle third of the impression/pattern. There was no significant difference in the length of the impression/ pattern taken by the three materials. Using the injection technique to reproduce the intra-radicular anatomy of the dowel space, all three materials will show predictably good results.

  18. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  19. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  20. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  1. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  2. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  3. A Hedonism Hub in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharopoulos, G.; Lancaster, T. M.; Bracht, T.; Ihssen, N.; Maio, G. R.; Linden, D. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Human values are abstract ideals that motivate behavior. The motivational nature of human values raises the possibility that they might be underpinned by brain structures that are particularly involved in motivated behavior and reward processing. We hypothesized that variation in subcortical hubs of the reward system and their main connecting pathway, the superolateral medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) is associated with individual value orientation. We conducted Pearson's correlation between the scores of 10 human values and the volumes of 14 subcortical structures and microstructural properties of the medial forebrain bundle in a sample of 87 participants, correcting for multiple comparisons (i.e.,190). We found a positive association between the value that people attach to hedonism and the volume of the left globus pallidus (GP).We then tested whether microstructural parameters (i.e., fractional anisotropy and myelin volume fraction) of the slMFB, which connects with the GP, are also associated to hedonism and found a significant, albeit in an uncorrected level, positive association between the myelin volume fraction within the left slMFB and hedonism scores. This is the first study to elucidate the relationship between the importance people attach to the human value of hedonism and structural variation in reward-related subcortical brain regions. PMID:27473322

  4. [Contrastive analysis of Latin terms for denoting human organs and structural body parts and parts of organs in anatomy literature in English and Serbian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukčević-Lacković, Biljana

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis of the use of Latin terms in the field of human anatomy through the contrastive analysis of examples from anatomy atlases and textbooks, and research papers in the area of human anatomy in English and Serbian. The contrastive analysis of examples has highlighted a certain tendency towards the use of original Latin terms in anatomy literature in the Serbian language, while the tendency of anatomy literature in English is towards the use of English terms which most often have a Latin root. It has also been noted that Serbian literature, in addition to original Latin terms, uses a significant number of terms with a Latin root. The noted tendencies differ depending on the type of literature (anatomy atlas, textbook or research paper). A significantly greater uniformity in the use of terminology has been noted in editions in English as compared to the Serbian anatomy literature where a lack of such a uniform system is evident. Bearing in mind the ever increasing significance of the English language in the world of science, one of the conclusions of this paper is that these differences may be of practical significance for authors from Serbia looking to publish their work in English as well as for translators of medical literature.

  5. Perfusion harmonic imaging of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Seidel, Guenter; Wiesmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Aach, Til

    2003-05-01

    The fast visualisation of cerebral microcirculation supports diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular diseases. However, the commonly used CT/MRI-based methods are time consuming and, moreover, costly. Therefore we propose an alternative approach to brain perfusion imaging by means of ultrasonography. In spite of the low signal/noise-ratio of transcranial ultrasound and the high impedance of the skull, flow images of cerebral blood flow can be derived by capturing the kinetics of appropriate contrast agents by harmonic ultrasound image sequences. In this paper we propose three different methods for human brain perfusion imaging, each of which yielding flow images indicating the status of the patient's cerebral microcirculation by visualising local flow parameters. Bolus harmonic imaging (BHI) displays the flow kinetics of bolus injections, while replenishment (RHI) and diminution harmonic imaging (DHI) compute flow characteristics from contrast agent continuous infusions. RHI measures the contrast agents kinetics in the influx phase and DHI displays the diminution kinetics of the contrast agent acquired from the decay phase. In clinical studies, BHI- and RHI-parameter images were found to represent comprehensive and reproducible distributions of physiological cerebral blood flow. For DHI it is shown, that bubble destruction and hence perfusion phenomena principally can be displayed. Generally, perfusion harmonic imaging enables reliable and fast bedside imaging of human brain perfusion. Due to its cost efficiency it complements cerebrovascular diagnostics by established CT/MRI-based methods.

  6. Human microglial cells synthesize albumin in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Ahn

    Full Text Available Albumin, an abundant plasma protein with multifunctional properties, is mainly synthesized in the liver. Albumin has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD since it can bind to and transport amyloid beta (Abeta, the causative agent of AD; albumin is also a potent inhibitor of Abeta polymerization. Despite evidence of non-hepatic transcription of albumin in many tissues including kidney and pancreas, non-hepatic synthesis of albumin at the protein level has been rarely confirmed. In a pilot phase study of Human Brain Proteome Project, we found evidence that microglial cells in brain may synthesize albumin. Here we report, for the first time, the de novo synthesis of albumin in human microglial cells in brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the synthesis and secretion of albumin from microglial cells is enhanced upon microglial activation by Abeta(1-42- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treatment. These data indicate that microglial cells may play a beneficial role in AD by secreting albumin that not only inhibits Abeta polymerization but also increases its clearance.

  7. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications.

  8. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  9. Inferring human intentions from the brain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Konrad

    The human brain is a massively complex organ composed of approximately a hundred billion densely interconnected, interacting neural cells. The neurons are not wired randomly - instead, they are organized in local functional assemblies. It is believed that the complex patterns of dynamic electric...... discharges across the neural tissue are responsible for emergence of high cognitive function, conscious perception and voluntary action. The brain’s capacity to exercise free will, or internally generated free choice, has long been investigated by philosophers, psychologists and neuroscientists. Rather than...... assuming a causal power of conscious will, the neuroscience of volition is based on the premise that "mental states rest on brain processes”, and hence by measuring spatial and temporal correlates of volition in carefully controlled experiments we can infer about their underlying mind processes, including...

  10. Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland M Friedrich

    Full Text Available As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.

  11. Mathematical logic in the human brain: semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Roland M; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    As a higher cognitive function in humans, mathematics is supported by parietal and prefrontal brain regions. Here, we give an integrative account of the role of the different brain systems in processing the semantics of mathematical logic from the perspective of macroscopic polysynaptic networks. By comparing algebraic and arithmetic expressions of identical underlying structure, we show how the different subparts of a fronto-parietal network are modulated by the semantic domain, over which the mathematical formulae are interpreted. Within this network, the prefrontal cortex represents a system that hosts three major components, namely, control, arithmetic-logic, and short-term memory. This prefrontal system operates on data fed to it by two other systems: a premotor-parietal top-down system that updates and transforms (external) data into an internal format, and a hippocampal bottom-up system that either detects novel information or serves as an access device to memory for previously acquired knowledge.

  12. Tracking White Matter Fiber in Human Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANGNing; ZHANGJun; EricSCarlson

    2004-01-01

    A new approach for noninvasively tracing brain white matter fiber tracts is presented using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) data. This technique is based on successive anisotropic diffusion simulations over the human brain, which are utilized to construct three dimensional diffusion fronts. The fiber pathways are determined by evaluating the distance and orientation from fronts to their corresponding diffusion seeds. Real DT-MRI data are used to demonstrate the tracking scheme. It is shown that several major white matter fiber pathways can be reproduced noninvasively, with the tract branching being allowed. Since the diffusion simulation,which is a truly physical phenomenon reflecting the underlying architecture of cerebral tissues, makes full use of the entire diffusion tensor data, the proposed approach is expected to enhance robustness and reliability of the DT-MRI based fiber tracking techniques in white matter fiber reconstruction.

  13. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akash; Dougherty, Max; Findlay, Gregory M; Geisheker, Madeleine; Klein, Jason; Lazar, John; Machkovech, Heather; Resnick, Jesse; Resnick, Rebecca; Salter, Alexander I; Talebi-Liasi, Faezeh; Arakawa, Christopher; Baudin, Jacob; Bogaard, Andrew; Salesky, Rebecca; Zhou, Qian; Smith, Kelly; Clark, John I; Shendure, Jay; Horwitz, Marshall S

    2014-01-01

    Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD) adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  14. Opportunities for learning in an introductory undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montplaisir, Lisa Marie

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the course conditions that support the development of meaningful student learning in an introductory undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course. The study was conducted during an 8-week summer-session at a small mid-western university. Classroom observations and taped recordings of class sessions were used to determine content episodes within the instructional unit, opportunities for learning created by the instructor, demonstrations of information processing by the students, and the ways in which the instructor used the Personal Response System (PRS). Student interviews were used to determine students' level of understanding of pre-test and post-test items. Student interviews and a questionnaire were used to determine students' perceptions of the PRS as a learning tool. Findings reveal that the instructor had different expectations of students when posing verbal questions in-class than he had when posing PRS questions. The use of verbal questions did not permit demonstrations of student understanding; however, the use of the PRS did result in demonstrations of student understanding. Questions posed via the use of the PRS were categorized according to cognitive level. The cognitive level of the questions increased with time over the instructional unit and within the content episodes. Students demonstrated deeper understanding of the topics after instruction than they did before instruction. Students reported more in-class thinking about the content, more discussion of the content with their neighbors, more regular class attendance, more opportunities for deeper learning, and a general preference for the PRS over traditional lectures. Findings of the study indicate that the instructional decisions about the use of questions influences the opportunities for students to process information and demonstrate their understanding of the content and that students valued these opportunities. A better understanding of the

  15. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar

    Full Text Available Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  16. Abnormal Changes of Brain Cortical Anatomy and the Association with Plasma MicroRNA107 Level in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA107 (Mir107 has been thought to relate to the brain structure phenotype of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we evaluated the cortical anatomy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and the relation between cortical anatomy and plasma levels of Mir107 and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1. 20 aMCI and 24 cognitively normal control (NC subjects were recruited, and T1-weighted MR images were acquired. Cortical anatomical measurements, including cortical thickness (CT, surface area (SA, and local gyrification index (LGI, were assessed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine plasma expression of Mir107, BACE1 mRNA. Thinner cortex was found in aMCI in areas associated with episodic memory and language, but with thicker cortex in other areas. SA decreased in aMCI in the areas associated with working memory and emotion. LGI showed a significant reduction in aMCI in the areas involved in language function. Changes in Mir107 and BACE1 messenger RNA plasma expression were correlated with changes in CT and SA. We found alterations in key left brain regions associated with memory, language, and emotion in aMCI that were significantly correlated with plasma expression of mir107 and BACE1 mRNA. This combination study of brain anatomical alterations and gene information may shed lights on our understanding of the pathology of AD.

  17. Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaitovich, Philipp; Tang, Kun; Franz, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the expression levels of genes transcribed in the brains of humans and chimpanzees have changed less than those of genes transcribed in other tissues [1] . However, when gene expression changes are mapped onto the evolutionary lineage in which they occurred, the brain...... shows more changes than other tissues in the human lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage [1] , [2] and [3] . There are two possible explanations for this: either positive selection drove more gene expression changes to fixation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain, or genes expressed...... in the brain experienced less purifying selection in humans than in chimpanzees, i.e. gene expression in the human brain is functionally less constrained. The first scenario would be supported if genes that changed their expression in the brain in the human lineage showed more selective sweeps than other genes...

  18. Effects of brain evolution on human nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William R; Snodgrass, J Josh; Robertson, Marcia L

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of large human brain size has had important implications for the nutritional biology of our species. Large brains are energetically expensive, and humans expend a larger proportion of their energy budget on brain metabolism than other primates. The high costs of large human brains are supported, in part, by our energy- and nutrient-rich diets. Among primates, relative brain size is positively correlated with dietary quality, and humans fall at the positive end of this relationship. Consistent with an adaptation to a high-quality diet, humans have relatively small gastrointestinal tracts. In addition, humans are relatively "undermuscled" and "over fat" compared with other primates, features that help to offset the high energy demands of our brains. Paleontological evidence indicates that rapid brain evolution occurred with the emergence of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago and was associated with important changes in diet, body size, and foraging behavior.

  19. Diffusion Based Modeling of Human Brain Response to External Stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Namazi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Human brain response is the overall ability of the brain in analyzing internal and external stimuli in the form of transferred energy to the mind/brain phase-space and thus, making the proper decisions. During the last decade scientists discovered about this phenomenon and proposed some models based on computational, biological, or neuropsychological methods. Despite some advances in studies related to this area of the brain research there was less effort which have been done on the mathematical modeling of the human brain response to external stimuli. This research is devoted to the modeling of human EEG signal, as an alert state of overall human brain activity monitoring, due to receiving external stimuli, based on fractional diffusion equation. The results of this modeling show very good agreement with the real human EEG signal and thus, this model can be used as a strong representative of the human brain activity.

  20. Physical biology of human brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBudday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view towards surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level towards form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  1. Physical biology of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Steinmann, Paul; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopment is a complex, dynamic process that involves a precisely orchestrated sequence of genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physical events. Developmental biology and genetics have shaped our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms during neurodevelopment. Recent studies suggest that physical forces play a central role in translating these cellular mechanisms into the complex surface morphology of the human brain. However, the precise impact of neuronal differentiation, migration, and connection on the physical forces during cortical folding remains unknown. Here we review the cellular mechanisms of neurodevelopment with a view toward surface morphogenesis, pattern selection, and evolution of shape. We revisit cortical folding as the instability problem of constrained differential growth in a multi-layered system. To identify the contributing factors of differential growth, we map out the timeline of neurodevelopment in humans and highlight the cellular events associated with extreme radial and tangential expansion. We demonstrate how computational modeling of differential growth can bridge the scales-from phenomena on the cellular level toward form and function on the organ level-to make quantitative, personalized predictions. Physics-based models can quantify cortical stresses, identify critical folding conditions, rationalize pattern selection, and predict gyral wavelengths and gyrification indices. We illustrate that physical forces can explain cortical malformations as emergent properties of developmental disorders. Combining biology and physics holds promise to advance our understanding of human brain development and enable early diagnostics of cortical malformations with the ultimate goal to improve treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia.

  2. Anatomy atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosse, C

    1999-01-01

    Anatomy atlases are unlike other knowledge sources in the health sciences in that they communicate knowledge through annotated images without the support of narrative text. An analysis of the knowledge component represented by images and the history of anatomy atlases suggest some distinctions that should be made between atlas and textbook illustrations. Textbook and atlas should synergistically promote the generation of a mental model of anatomy. The objective of such a model is to support anatomical reasoning and thereby replace memorization of anatomical facts. Criteria are suggested for selecting anatomy texts and atlases that complement one another, and the advantages and disadvantages of hard copy and computer-based anatomy atlases are considered.

  3. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images...

  4. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: clinical implications for physicians and surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery.

  5. Fast optical imaging of human brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gratton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Great advancements in brain imaging during the last few decades have opened a large number of new possibilities for neuroscientists. The most dominant methodologies (electrophysiological and magnetic resonance-based methods emphasize temporal and spatial information, respectively. However, theorizing about brain function has recently emphasized the importance of rapid (within 100 ms or so interactions between different elements of complex neuronal networks. Fast optical imaging, and in particular the event-related optical signal (EROS, a technology that has emerged over the last 15 years may provide descriptions of localized (to sub-cm level brain activity with a temporal resolution of less than 100 ms. The main limitations of EROS are its limited penetration, which allows us to image cortical structures not deeper than 3 cm from the surface of the head, and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Advantages include the fact that EROS is compatible with most other imaging methods, including electrophysiological, magnetic resonance, and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation techniques, with which can be recorded concurrently. In this paper we present a summary of the research that has been conducted so far on fast optical imaging, including evidence for the possibility of recording neuronal signals with this method, the properties of the signals, and various examples of applications to the study of human cognitive neuroscience. Extant issues, controversies, and possible future developments are also discussed.

  6. Human brain : biochemical lateralization in normal subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasundar R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical asymmetries in normal human brain were studied using the non-invasive technique of volume localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. The technique of STEAM was used to acquire water-suppressed proton spectra from 8 ml voxels placed in bilaterally symmetrical positions in the two hemispheres of the brain. One hundred and sixty eight right-handed male volunteers were studied for six different regions in the brain (n=28, for each region. Parietal, occipital, temporal, frontal, thalamus and cerebellum regions were studied. The focus was on metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr and choline (Cho containing compounds. Ratios of the peak areas were calculated for them. Quantitation of the metabolites were carried for data on 18 volunteers. Significant interhemispheric differences in the distribution of metabolites were observed for all the regions studied. There were statistically significant differences on right and left side for the metabolite ratios in all the regions studied. The study has shown the existence of significant lateralization in the distribution of proton MR visible metabolites for all the regions studied.

  7. BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Lianglin, Hu; Yufang, Hou; Jianhui, Li; Ling, Yin; Wenwen, Shi

    2007-01-01

    Many databases and platforms for human brain data have been established in China over the years, and metadata plays an important role in understanding and using them. The BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics provides a structure for describing the context and content information of BrainBank databases and services. It includes six parts: identification, method, data schema, distribution of the database, metadata extension, and metadata reference Th...

  8. Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Based Research on Human White Matter Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-guo Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the white matter by the diffusion tensor imaging and the Chinese visible human dataset and to provide the 3D anatomical data of the corticospinal tract for the neurosurgical planning by studying the probabilistic maps and the reproducibility of the corticospinal tract. Diffusion tensor images and high-resolution T1-weighted images of 15 healthy volunteers were acquired; the DTI data were processed using DtiStudio and FSL software. The FA and color FA maps were compared with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset. The probability maps of the corticospinal tract were generated as a quantitative measure of reproducibility for each voxel of the stereotaxic space. The fibers displayed by the diffusion tensor imaging were well consistent with the sectional images of the Chinese visible human dataset and the existing anatomical knowledge. The three-dimensional architecture of the white matter fibers could be clearly visualized on the diffusion tensor tractography. The diffusion tensor tractography can establish the 3D probability maps of the corticospinal tract, in which the degree of intersubject reproducibility of the corticospinal tract is consistent with the previous architectonic report. DTI is a reliable method of studying the fiber connectivity in human brain, but it is difficult to identify the tiny fibers. The probability maps are useful for evaluating and identifying the corticospinal tract in the DTI, providing anatomical information for the preoperative planning and improving the accuracy of surgical risk assessments preoperatively.

  9. BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Lianglin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Many databases and platforms for human brain data have been established in China over the years, and metadata plays an important role in understanding and using them. The BrainBank Metadata Specification for the Human Brain Project and Neuroinformatics provides a structure for describing the context and content information of BrainBank databases and services. It includes six parts: identification, method, data schema, distribution of the database, metadata extension, and metadata reference The application of the BrainBank Metadata Specification will promote conservation and management of BrainBank databases and platforms. it will also greatly facilitate the retrieval, evaluation, acquisition, and application of the data.

  10. Model human heart or brain signals

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2008-01-01

    A new model is suggested and used to mimic various spatial or temporal designs in biological or non biological formations where the focus is on the normal or irregular electrical signals coming from human heart (ECG) or brain (EEG). The electrical activities in several muscles (EMG) or neurons or other organs of human or various animals, such as lobster pyloric neuron, guinea pig inferior olivary neuron, sepia giant axon and mouse neocortical pyramidal neuron and some spatial formations are also considered (in Appendix). In the biological applications, several elements (cells or tissues) in an organ are taken as various entries in a representative lattice (mesh) where the entries are connected to each other in terms of some molecular diffusions or electrical potential differences. The biological elements evolve in time (with the given tissue or organ) in terms of the mentioned connections (interactions) besides some individual feedings. The anatomical diversity of the species (or organs) is handled in terms o...

  11. Elementary Anatomy: Activities Designed to Teach Preschool Children about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…

  12. Distribution of melatonin receptor in human fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-quan; SHAO Fu-yuan; ZHAO Ying; LIU Zhi-min

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of 2 kinds of melatonin receptor subtypes (mtl and MT2) in human fetal brain. Methods: The fetal brain tissues were sliced and the distribution ofmelatonin receptors in human fetal brain were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Melatonin receptor mtl existed in the cerebellun and hypothalamus, melatonin receptor MT2 exists in hypothalamus, occipital and medulla. Conclusion: Two kinds of melatonin receptors, mtl and MT2 exist in the membrane and cytosol of brain cells, indicating that human fetal brain is a target organ of melatonin.

  13. Evolution of the human brain: changing brain size and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min S; Nguyen, Andrew D; Aryan, Henry E; U, Hoi Sang; Levy, Michael L; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2007-03-01

    Although the study of the human brain is a rapidly developing and expanding science, we must take pause to examine the historical and evolutionary events that helped shape the brain of Homo sapiens. From an examination of the human lineage to a discussion of evolutionary principles, we describe the basic principles and theories behind the evolution of the human brain. Specifically, we examine several theories concerning changes in overall brain size during hominid evolution and relate them to the fossil record. This overview is intended to provide a broad understanding of some of the controversial issues that are currently being debated in the multidisciplinary field of brain evolution research.

  14. Resolving anatomical and functional structure in human brain organization: identifying mesoscale organization in weighted network representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lohse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease.

  15. 人体解剖学课程教学改革浅析%A brief analysis of human anatomy teaching reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世富

    2014-01-01

    人体解剖学是学习基础医学和临床医学各学科不可动摇的基石,是学习其他医学课程坚实的形态学基础。为提高学生的学习兴趣,启发学生的立体思维能力和动手能力,在教学过程中,可通过“眼”、“脑”、“手”三者结合,使学生快速地熟悉和掌握解剖学知识,挖掘学生形态思维能力,并将临床常见病例与理论知识紧密结合引发学生的学习热情,以灵活的教学方式,提高解剖学知识的趣味性和实用性。%Objective:Human anatomy is the study basic medicine and clinical medicine of disciplinary unshakeable cornerstone, is to learn other medical solid morphological foundation course. In order to improve the students' interest in learning, inspire the student to the stereoscopic thinking ability and practical ability, in the process of teaching, through the"eye","brain"and"hand"combination, to make the students familiar with and master the anatomy knowledge quickly and excavate students thinking ability, and wil be closely integrated clinical common cases and theoretical knowledge cause student's study enthusiasm, in a flexible way of teaching, improve the anatomical knowledge of interesting and practical.

  16. 101 labeled brain images and a consistent human cortical labeling protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eKlein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://www.mindboggle.info/data/ website.

  17. Comparative primate neuroimaging: insights into human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-01-01

    Comparative neuroimaging can identify unique features of the human brain and teach us about human brain evolution. Comparisons with chimpanzees, our closest living primate relative, are critical in this endeavor. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to compare brain size development, brain structure proportions and brain aging. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to compare resting brain glucose metabolism. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been used to compare auditory and visual system pathways, as well as resting-state networks of connectivity. Finally, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been used to compare structural connectivity. Collectively, these methods have revealed human brain specializations with respect to development, cortical organization, connectivity, and aging. These findings inform our knowledge of the evolutionary changes responsible for the special features of the modern human mind.

  18. [Neuroethics: Ethical Endowments of Human Brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of Neuroethics. Neurosciences demonstrate which cerebral areas are active and inactive whilst people decide how to act when facing a moral dilemma; in this way we know the correlation between determined cerebral areas and our human acts. We can explain how the ″ethical endowments″ of each person, common to all human beings, is ″embedded″ in the dynamic of cerebral flows. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. The outcome of man's natural inclinations is on one hand linked to instinctive systems of animal survival and to basic emotions, and on the other, to the life of each individual human uninhibited by automatism of the biological laws, because he is governed by the laws of freedom. The capacity to formulate an ethical judgement is an innate asset of the human mind.

  19. Connecting art and science: An interdisciplinary strategy and its impact on the affective domain of community college human anatomy students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Kevin

    Educational objectives are often described within the framework of a three-domain taxonomy: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. While most of the research on educational objectives has focused on the cognitive domain, the research that has been conducted on the affective domain, which speaks to emotions, attitudes, and values, has identified a number of positive outcomes. One approach to enhancing the affective domain is that of interdisciplinary education. Science education research in the realm of interdisciplinary education and affective outcomes is limited; especially research conducted on community college students of human anatomy. This project investigated the relationship between an interdisciplinary teaching strategy and the affective domain in science education by utilizing an interdisciplinary lecture in a human anatomy class. Subjects were anatomy students in a California community college who listened to a one-hour lecture describing the cultural, historical and scientific significance of selected pieces of art depicting human dissection in European medieval and Renaissance universities. The focus was on how these renderings represent the state of anatomy education during their respective eras. After listening to the lecture, subjects were administered a 35-question survey that was composed of 14 demographic questions and 21 Likert-style statements that asked respondents to rate the extent to which the intervention influenced their affective domain. Descriptive statistics were then used to determine which component of the affective domain was most influenced, and multiple regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which individual differences along the affective continuum were explained by select demographic measures such as gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and previous exposure to science courses. Results indicate that the interdisciplinary intervention had a positive impact on every component of the affective domain hierarchy

  20. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Nijholt, Anton; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that correspo

  1. Brain-Computer Interfaces and Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Desney; Tan, Desney S.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2010-01-01

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging technologies have started to provide us with the ability to interface directly with the human brain. This ability is made possible through the use of sensors that can monitor some of the physical processes that occur within the brain that

  2. Dynamic analysis of the human brain with complex cerebral sulci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jung-Ge; Huang, Bo-Wun; Ou, Yi-Wen; Yen, Ke-Tien; Wu, Yi-Te

    2016-07-03

    The brain is one of the most vulnerable organs inside the human body. Head accidents often appear in daily life and are easy to cause different level of brain damage inside the skull. Once the brain suffered intense locomotive impact, external injuries, falls, or other accidents, it will result in different degrees of concussion. This study employs finite element analysis to compare the dynamic characteristics between the geometric models of an assumed simple brain tissue and a brain tissue with complex cerebral sulci. It is aimed to understand the free vibration of the internal brain tissue and then to protect the brain from injury caused by external influences. Reverse engineering method is used for a Classic 5-Part Brain (C18) model produced by 3B Scientific Corporation. 3D optical scanner is employed to scan the human brain structure model with complex cerebral sulci and imported into 3D graphics software to construct a solid brain model to simulate the real complex brain tissue. Obtaining the normal mode analysis by inputting the material properties of the true human brain into finite element analysis software, and then to compare the simplified and the complex of brain models.

  3. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  4. Liver anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thresholding magnetic resonance images of human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-mao HU; Wieslaw L NOWINSKI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, methods are proposed and validated to determine low and high thresholds to segment out gray matter and white matter for MR images of different pulse sequences of human brain. First, a two-dimensional reference image is determined to represent the intensity characteristics of the original three-dimensional data. Then a region of interest of the reference image is determined where brain tissues are present. The non-supervised fuzzy c-means clustering is employed to determine: the threshold for obtaining head mask, the low threshold for T2-weighted and PD-weighted images, and the high threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Supervised range-constrained thresholding is employed to determine the low threshold for T1-weighted, SPGR and FLAIR images. Thresholding based on pairs of boundary pixels is proposed to determine the high threshold for T2- and PD-weighted images. Quantification against public data sets with various noise and inhomogeneity levels shows that the proposed methods can yield segmentation robust to noise and intensity inhomogeneity. Qualitatively the proposed methods work well with real clinical data.

  6. Formative evaluation of a frame-based model of locative relationships in human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, C A

    1997-01-01

    The verb structure of narrative text in a gross anatomy textbook was analyzed to identify locative relationships. The 169 locative indicators were organized semantically to construct a frame-based model. The validity and coverage of the model was assessed and compared with the UMLS Semantic Net Relations using a novel test set of 71 indicators. All mapped directly to the frame model, while 60% mapped directly to UMLS.

  7. Cristobalite and Hematite Particles in Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopani, Martin; Kopaniova, A; Trnka, M; Caplovicova, M; Rychly, B; Jakubovsky, J

    2016-11-01

    Foreign substances get into the internal environment of living bodies and accumulate in various organs. Cristobalite and hematite particles in the glial cells of pons cerebri of human brain with diagnosis of Behhet disease with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with diffraction were identified. SEM with EDX revealed the matter of irregular micrometer-sized particles sometimes forming polyhedrons with fibrilar or stratified structure. It was found in some particles Ti, Fe, and Zn. Some particles contained Cu. TEM and electron diffraction showed particles of cristobalite and hematite. The presence of the particles can be a result of environmental effect, disruption of normal metabolism, and transformation of physiologically iron-ferrihydrite into more stable form-hematite. From the size of particles can be drawn the long-term accumulation of elements in glial cells.

  8. Cerebral Organoids Recapitulate Epigenomic Signatures of the Human Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongyuan Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells recapitulate the early three-dimensional organization of the human brain, but whether they establish the epigenomic and transcriptional programs essential for brain development is unknown. We compared epigenomic and regulatory features in cerebral organoids and human fetal brain, using genome-wide, base resolution DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptomic dynamics in organoids faithfully modeled gene expression trajectories in early-to-mid human fetal brains. We found that early non-CG methylation accumulation at super-enhancers in both fetal brain and organoids marks forthcoming transcriptional repression in the fully developed brain. Demethylated regions (74% of 35,627 identified during organoid differentiation overlapped with fetal brain regulatory elements. Interestingly, pericentromeric repeats showed widespread demethylation in multiple types of in vitro human neural differentiation models but not in fetal brain. Our study reveals that organoids recapitulate many epigenomic features of mid-fetal human brain and also identified novel non-CG methylation signatures of brain development.

  9. Stereological estimation of total brain numbers in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig eWalloe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the relationship between brain structure and cognitive function is still limited. Human brains and individual cortical areas vary considerably in size and shape. Studies of brain cell numbers have historically been based on biased methods, which did not always result in correct estimates and were often very time-consuming. Within the last 20–30 years, it has become possible to rely on more advanced and unbiased methods. These methods have provided us with information about fetal brain development, differences in cell numbers between men and women, the effect of age on selected brain cell populations, and disease-related changes associated with a loss of function. In that this article concerns normal brain rather than brain disorders, it focuses on normal brain development in humans and age related changes in terms of cell numbers. For comparative purposes a few examples of neocortical neuron number in other mammals are also presented.

  10. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  11. [Human brain resource--experience at the Brain Research Institute,University of Niigata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2010-10-01

    Through 40 years of neuropathological practice,the Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata (BRI-Niigata), Japan has accumulated extensive human brain resource,including fresh-frozen brain slices,for scientific research. Over 30,000 slices obtained from consecutive autopsies have been systematically stored in 25 deep freezers. Establishment of effective networks between brain banks and institutional collections in Japan is essential for promoting scientific activities that require human brain resource. We at the BRI-Niigata are eager to contribute to the establishment of such networks.

  12. "Messing with the Mind: Evolutionary Challenges to Human Brain Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR eSANIOTIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties.

  13. [Anatomy as theatre. From the library of the Society of the Dutch Journal of Medicine. Govard Bidloo: Ontleding des Menschelijken Lichaams (Dissection of the Human Body); 1689; and William Cowper: The Anatomy of Humane Bodies; 1698].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, J C

    2004-12-25

    Opinions differ regarding the scientific quality of the atlas by Govard Bidloo, Ontleding des Menschelijken Lichaams (Dissection of the Human Body) (1689) and the plagiarism made thereof by William Cowper, The Anatomy of Humane Bodies (1698). Both books were also published in Latin; the Society of the Dutch Journal of Medicine has acquired a copy of all 4 atlases. The anatomical plates were made by the artist Gerard de Lairesse (Liège 1640-Amsterdam 1711) and their great artistic value is beyond all doubt. De Lairesse settled in Amsterdam in 1665, a few months after the reopening of the city theatre, and subsequently achieved fame as an innovative creator of theatre sets. He also became one of the favourite artists of prince William III and many other well-to-do citizens of Amsterdam. The great artistic value of his anatomical plates justifies more attention for his importance as a medical illustrator in medical history.

  14. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  15. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  16. Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: implications for brain expansion during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Crawford, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    The human brain confronts two major challenges during its development: (i) meeting a very high energy requirement, and (ii) reliably accessing an adequate dietary source of specific brain selective nutrients needed for its structure and function. Implicitly, these energetic and nutritional constraints to normal brain development today would also have been constraints on human brain evolution. The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel, this fat layer supports the brain's high energy needs well into childhood. This fat layer also contains an important reserve of the brain selective omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not available in other primates. Foremost amongst the brain selective minerals are iodine and iron, with zinc, copper and selenium also being important. A shore-based diet, i.e., fish, molluscs, crustaceans, frogs, bird's eggs and aquatic plants, provides the richest known dietary sources of brain selective nutrients. Regular access to these foods by the early hominin lineage that evolved into humans would therefore have helped free the nutritional constraint on primate brain development and function. Inadequate dietary supply of brain selective nutrients still has a deleterious impact on human brain development on a global scale today, demonstrating the brain's ongoing vulnerability. The core of the shore-based paradigm of human brain evolution proposes that sustained access by certain groups of early Homo to freshwater and marine food resources would have helped surmount both the nutritional as well as the energetic constraints on mammalian brain development.

  17. Sex differences in brain organization: implications for human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanske-Petitpierre, V; Chen, A C

    1985-12-01

    This article reviews current knowledge in two major research domains: sex differences in neuropsychophysiology, and in human communication. An attempt was made to integrate knowledge from several areas of brain research with human communication and to clarify how such a cooperative effort may be beneficial to both fields of study. By combining findings from the area of brain research, a communication paradigm was developed which contends that brain-related sex differences may reside largely in the area of communication of emotion.

  18. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspects of the anatomy of the digestive systems and of the brain of selected species of the Branchiura (Crustacea)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ph.D. The Branchiura is a group of ectoparasitic crustaceans which infect mostly fishes. The subclass contains four genera including Argulus, Chonopeltis, Dolops and Dipteropeltis. Despite their reputation as pests our understanding of their biology is meager. In the first part of the study the anatomy and physiology is described. The species studied include Argulus japonicus, Dolops ranarum and Chonopeltis australis. Live specimens of A. japonicus, D. ranarum and Chonopeltis australis wer...

  20. Evolutionary origins of human brain and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Maciej; Saniotis, Arthur

    2009-12-01

    Evolving brains produce minds. Minds operate on imaginary entities. Thus they can create what does not exist in the physical world. Spirits can be deified. Perception of spiritual entities is emotional--organic. Spirituality is a part of culture while culture is an adaptive mechanism of human groups as it allows for technology and social organization to support survival and reproduction. Humans are not rational, they are emotional. Most of explanations of the world, offered by various cultures, involve an element of "fiat", a will of a higher spiritual being, or a reference to some ideal. From this the rules of behaviour are deduced. These rules are necessary to maintain social peace and allow a complex unit consisting of individuals of both sexes and all ages to function in a way ensuring their reproductive success and thus survival. There is thus a direct biological benefit of complex ideological superstructure of culture. This complex superstructure most often takes a form of religion in which logic is mixed with appeals to emotions based on images of spiritual beings. God is a consequence of natural evolution. Whether a deity is a cause of this evolution is difficult to discover, but existence of a deity cannot be questioned.

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ...

  2. The anatomy and fibre type composition of the human adductor pollicis in relation to its contractile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J M; Jones, D A; Chapman, S J; Edwards, R H; Ward, P S; Fodden, D L

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the anatomy and fibre type composition of the human adductor pollicis in muscles taken post mortem. Histochemical staining of muscle fibres showed that type I fibres predominated in all cases with a mean occurrence of 80%. This composition is similar to that of the soleus muscle and unlike that of the quadriceps which has approximately equal proportions of the two fibre types. Comparing the contractile characteristics, however, the adductor pollicis has similar properties to the quadriceps and both are quite distinct from those of the slowly contracting soleus muscle. The lack of correlation between fibre composition, as revealed by histochemical staining, and contractile properties in these muscles must mean that fibres of the same type from different muscles do not necessarily have the same contractile speed. The results also suggest that the type I fibres of the human adductor pollicis are faster than those of both the soleus and quadriceps muscles.

  3. Measurements and models of electric fields in the in vivo human brain during transcranial electric stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Liu, Anli A; Lafon, Belen; Friedman, Daniel; Dayan, Michael; Wang, Xiuyuan; Bikson, Marom; Doyle, Werner K; Devinsky, Orrin; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial electric stimulation aims to stimulate the brain by applying weak electrical currents at the scalp. However, the magnitude and spatial distribution of electric fields in the human brain are unknown. We measured electric potentials intracranially in ten epilepsy patients and estimated electric fields across the entire brain by leveraging calibrated current-flow models. When stimulating at 2 mA, cortical electric fields reach 0.4 V/m, the lower limit of effectiveness in animal studies. When individual whole-head anatomy is considered, the predicted electric field magnitudes correlate with the recorded values in cortical (r = 0.89) and depth (r = 0.84) electrodes. Accurate models require adjustment of tissue conductivity values reported in the literature, but accuracy is not improved when incorporating white matter anisotropy or different skull compartments. This is the first study to validate and calibrate current-flow models with in vivo intracranial recordings in humans, providing a solid foundation to target stimulation and interpret clinical trials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18834.001 PMID:28169833

  4. Measurements and models of electric fields in the in vivo human brain during transcranial electric stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Liu, Anli A; Lafon, Belen; Friedman, Daniel; Dayan, Michael; Wang, Xiuyuan; Bikson, Marom; Doyle, Werner K; Devinsky, Orrin; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-02-07

    Transcranial electric stimulation aims to stimulate the brain by applying weak electrical currents at the scalp. However, the magnitude and spatial distribution of electric fields in the human brain are unknown. We measured electric potentials intracranially in ten epilepsy patients and estimated electric fields across the entire brain by leveraging calibrated current-flow models. When stimulating at 2 mA, cortical electric fields reach 0.4 V/m, the lower limit of effectiveness in animal studies. When individual whole-head anatomy is considered, the predicted electric field magnitudes correlate with the recorded values in cortical (r = 0.89) and depth (r = 0.84) electrodes. Accurate models require adjustment of tissue conductivity values reported in the literature, but accuracy is not improved when incorporating white matter anisotropy or different skull compartments. This is the first study to validate and calibrate current-flow models with in vivo intracranial recordings in humans, providing a solid foundation to target stimulation and interpret clinical trials.

  5. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities; Orbita - Anatomie, Entwicklung und Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Golinski, M. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Schroeder, A.C. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Augenheilkunde, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung der Strukturen der menschlichen Orbita ist sehr komplex. Ihre Kenntnis erleichtert jedoch das Verstaendnis von Anatomie und Fehlbildungen. In dieser Uebersicht wird zunaechst auf die embryonale Entwicklung eingegangen, bevor die ''normale'' radiologische Anatomie bei verschiedenen Untersuchungstechniken und die haeufigsten Fehlbildungen thematisiert werden. (orig.)

  6. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model.

  7. Dose- and time-dependent benefits of iPad technology in an undergraduate human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Marcella A

    2016-07-08

    This study examined the impact of iPad integration on performance in an undergraduate gross anatomy course. Two out of six course sections were assigned to one of the following conditions: control (no iPad, n = 61); limited access (laboratory iPads, n = 58); and unlimited access (personal iPads, n = 47). Student knowledge was assessed over time during the semester with two practical examinations in laboratory and four multiple choice/essay examinations in lecture. The same PowerPoint presentations and examinations were utilized for all conditions. Mixed ANOVA analysis identified an interaction effect between time and condition for both laboratory (F2,153  = 16.12; P higher by 3.0% in control and unlimited access conditions, respectively. Unlimited access students scored higher than control and limited access (82.8 ± 2.2 vs 71.5 ± 2.6 and 74.3 ± 1.7%; P higher than control students (78.7 ± 2.1 vs 70.6 ± 2.0%; P tablet devices and relevant applications can be useful tools in human anatomy courses. Anat Sci Educ 9: 367-377. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. An Empirical Study of Neural Network-Based Audience Response Technology in a Human Anatomy Course for Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; López-González, Laura; González-Sequeros, Ofelia; Jayne, Chrisina; López-Jiménez, Juan José; Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of a formative neural network-based assessment approach by using mobile technology to provide pharmacy students with intelligent diagnostic feedback. An unsupervised learning algorithm was integrated with an audience response system called SIDRA in order to generate states that collect some commonality in responses to questions and add diagnostic feedback for guided learning. A total of 89 pharmacy students enrolled on a Human Anatomy course were taught using two different teaching methods. Forty-four students employed intelligent SIDRA (i-SIDRA), whereas 45 students received the same training but without using i-SIDRA. A statistically significant difference was found between the experimental group (i-SIDRA) and the control group (traditional learning methodology), with T (87) = 6.598, p SIDRA and the methodology used during the process of learning anatomy (M = 4.59). The new empirical contribution presented in this paper allows instructors to perform post hoc analyses of each particular student's progress to ensure appropriate training.

  9. Hominins and the emergence of the modern human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Alexandra; Cunha, Eugénia

    2012-01-01

    Evidence used to reconstruct the morphology and function of the brain (and the rest of the central nervous system) in fossil hominin species comes from the fossil and archeological records. Although the details provided about human brain evolution are scarce, they benefit from interpretations informed by interspecific comparative studies and, in particular, human pathology studies. In recent years, new information has come to light about fossil DNA and ontogenetic trajectories, for which pathology research has significant implications. We briefly describe and summarize data from the paleoarcheological and paleoneurological records about the evolution of fossil hominin brains, including behavioral data most relevant to brain research. These findings are brought together to characterize fossil hominin taxa in terms of brain structure and function and to summarize brain evolution in the human lineage.

  10. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy.

  11. Metabolic costs and evolutionary implications of human brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; Chugani, Harry T; Grossman, Lawrence I; Lipovich, Leonard; Muzik, Otto; Hof, Patrick R; Wildman, Derek E; Sherwood, Chet C; Leonard, William R; Lange, Nicholas

    2014-09-09

    The high energetic costs of human brain development have been hypothesized to explain distinctive human traits, including exceptionally slow and protracted preadult growth. Although widely assumed to constrain life-history evolution, the metabolic requirements of the growing human brain are unknown. We combined previously collected PET and MRI data to calculate the human brain's glucose use from birth to adulthood, which we compare with body growth rate. We evaluate the strength of brain-body metabolic trade-offs using the ratios of brain glucose uptake to the body's resting metabolic rate (RMR) and daily energy requirements (DER) expressed in glucose-gram equivalents (glucosermr% and glucoseder%). We find that glucosermr% and glucoseder% do not peak at birth (52.5% and 59.8% of RMR, or 35.4% and 38.7% of DER, for males and females, respectively), when relative brain size is largest, but rather in childhood (66.3% and 65.0% of RMR and 43.3% and 43.8% of DER). Body-weight growth (dw/dt) and both glucosermr% and glucoseder% are strongly, inversely related: soon after birth, increases in brain glucose demand are accompanied by proportionate decreases in dw/dt. Ages of peak brain glucose demand and lowest dw/dt co-occur and subsequent developmental declines in brain metabolism are matched by proportionate increases in dw/dt until puberty. The finding that human brain glucose demands peak during childhood, and evidence that brain metabolism and body growth rate covary inversely across development, support the hypothesis that the high costs of human brain development require compensatory slowing of body growth rate.

  12. Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Kottoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mandibular premolars have been reported with complex anatomical aberrations, making them one of the most difficult teeth to manage endodontically. Methodology. An exhaustive search was undertaken to identify associated anatomic studies of mandibular premolars through MEDLINE/PubMed database using keywords, and a systematic review of the relevant articles was performed. Chi-square test with Yates correction was performed to assess the statistical significance of any anatomic variations between ethnicities and within populations of the same ethnicity. Documented case reports of variations in mandibular premolar anatomy were also identified and reviewed. Results. Thirty-six anatomic studies were analyzed which included 12,752 first premolars and nineteen studies assessing 6646 second premolars. A significant variation in the number of roots, root canals, and apical foramen was observed between Caucasian, Indian, Mongoloid, and Middle Eastern ethnicities.The most common anatomic variation was C-shaped canals in mandibular first premolars with highest incidence in Mongoloid populations (upto 24% while dens invaginatus was the most common developmental anomaly. Conclusions. A systematic review of mandibular premolars based on ethnicity and geographic clusters offered enhanced analysis of the prevalence of number of roots and canals, their canal configuration, and other related anatomy.

  13. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  14. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the ever-evolving childhood brain. Share More Video and Audio about Brain Anatomy and Physiology Children and Adolescents Brain Anatomy and Physiology Institute Announcements ...

  15. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  16. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  17. The immune response of the human brain to abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Anton; Cervenka, Simon; Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgery launches a systemic inflammatory reaction that reaches the brain and associates with immune activation and cognitive decline. Although preclinical studies have in part described this systemic-to-brain signaling pathway, we lack information on how these changes appear in humans....... This study examines the short- and long-term impact of abdominal surgery on the human brain immune system by positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to blood immune reactivity, plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function. METHODS: Eight males undergoing prostatectomy under general...... to change in [(11) C]PBR28 binding (p = 0.027). INTERPRETATION: This study translates preclinical data on changes in the brain immune system after surgery to humans, and suggests an interplay between the human brain and the inflammatory response of the peripheral innate immune system. These findings may...

  18. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Kelsen, Jesper; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    expressed and up-regulated following stroke in the human brain. The present study aimed at confirming our previous observations in rodents using two post-mortem human brains. The anatomical localization of Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin in the human brain is much like what has been described for the rodent...... and Cytoglobin in the cerebral cortex, while no expression in the cerebellar cortex was detectable. We provide a neuroanatomical indication for a different role of Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin in the human brain.......Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin are new members of the heme-globin family. Both globins are primarily expressed in neurons of the brain and retina. Neuroglobin and Cytoglobin have been suggested as novel therapeutic targets in various neurodegenerative diseases based on their oxygen binding and cell...

  19. Mapping human whole-brain structural networks with diffusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Hagmann

    Full Text Available Understanding the large-scale structural network formed by neurons is a major challenge in system neuroscience. A detailed connectivity map covering the entire brain would therefore be of great value. Based on diffusion MRI, we propose an efficient methodology to generate large, comprehensive and individual white matter connectional datasets of the living or dead, human or animal brain. This non-invasive tool enables us to study the basic and potentially complex network properties of the entire brain. For two human subjects we find that their individual brain networks have an exponential node degree distribution and that their global organization is in the form of a small world.

  20. Links between Evolution, Development, Human Anatomy, Pathology, and Medicine, with A Proposition of A Re-defined Anatomical Position and Notes on Constraints and Morphological "Imperfections".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Surprisingly the oldest formal discipline in medicine (anatomy) has not yet felt the full impact of evolutionary developmental biology. In medical anatomy courses and textbooks, the human body is still too often described as though it is a "perfect machine." In fact, the study of human anatomy predates evolutionary theory; therefore, many of its conventions continue to be outdated, making it difficult to study, understand, and treat the human body, and to compare it with that of other, nonbipedal animals, including other primates. Moreover, such an erroneous view of our anatomy as "perfect" can be used to fuel nonevolutionary ideologies such as intelligent design. In the section An Evolutionary and Developmental Approach to Human Anatomical Position of this paper, we propose the redefinition of the "human standard anatomical position" used in textbooks to be consistent with human evolutionary and developmental history. This redefined position also simplifies, for students and practitioners of the health professions, the study and learning of embryonic muscle groups (each group including muscles derived from the same/ontogenetically closely related primordium/primordia) and joint movements and highlights the topological correspondence between the upper and lower limbs. Section Evolutionary and Developmental Constraints, "Imperfections" and Sports Pathologies continues the theme by describing examples of apparently "illogical" characteristics of the human body that only make sense when one understands the developmental and evolutionary constraints that have accumulated over millions of years. We focus, in particular, on musculoskeletal functional problems and sports pathologies to emphasize the links with pathology and medicine. These examples demonstrate how incorporating evolutionary theory into anatomy education can be helpful for medical students, teachers, researchers, and physicians, as well as for anatomists, functional morphologists, and evolutionary and

  1. Variation in the pattern of circle of willis in human brain - A morphological study and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variation of “Circulus Arteriosus” is frequent. Knowledge of the variations of vascular anatomy of Circle of Willis will guide the neurosurgeons during intracranial surgery. Objectives: This is an analytical study, where the aim of our study is to analyze the variations regarding shape, symmetry, length and diameters of the component arteries. The study also includes other variations like absence, duplication and abnormal origin of component arteries. Methods: In the present study 80 specimens of human brains of both sexes, aged between 20-60 years are obtained from voluntary body donation at the Department of Anatomy and fresh corpses undergoing autopsy at the Department of Forensic and State Medicine in a teaching hospital in Kolkata. Careful observation & measurement of the component arteries are done after proper preservation and necessary dissection. The findings are then recorded and analyzed. Results: 62 out of total 80 specimens (77.5% have been found to be complete, symmetrical and having normal length and caliber. 7 specimens (6.25% were incomplete and not heptagonal in shape. Conclusion: Out of 22.5% variations most of the variations are seen in posterior communicating artery (10%, followed by anterior cerebral artery (6.25% and anterior communicating artery (6.25%. Most common type of variation is hypoplasia.

  2. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  3. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangye Li

    Full Text Available An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS, which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP based brain-computer interface (BCI was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  4. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-12-15

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only "male" or only "female" features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the "maleness-femaleness" continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique "mosaics" of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain.

  5. Gender versus brain size effects on subcortical gray matter volumes in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tianyu; Jiao, Yun; Wang, Xunheng; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-11-27

    Previous studies had reported that volume differences of gray matter (GM) in subcortical regions of the human brain were mainly caused by gender. Meanwhile, other studies had found that the distribution of GM in the human brain varied based on individual brain sizes. Main effects of volume differences of GM in subcortical regions remain unclear. Therefore, the goals of this study are twofold, namely, to determine the main effects of volume differences of GM in subcortical regions of the human brain and to investigate the independent or joint contribution of gender and brain size to subcortical volume differences. In this study, 40 male and 40 female subjects with comparable brain sizes were selected from a population of 198 individuals. The sample was divided into the following four groups: male and female groups with comparably large brain sizes and male and female groups with comparably small brain sizes. The main effects of gender and of brain size and interactions between both factors in subcortical GM volumes were examined by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) using a 2×2 design matrix. Volumes of GM in subcortical regions were extracted and measured by an automatic segmentation method. Furthermore, we used two datasets to test the reliability of our methods. In both datasets, we found significant brain size effects in the right amygdala and the bilateral caudate nucleus and significant gender effects in the bilateral putamen. No interactions between brain size and gender were found. In conclusion, both gender and brain size independently contributed to volume distribution in different subcortical areas of the human brain.

  6. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  7. [Survival of the fattest: the key to human brain evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C

    2006-01-01

    The circumstances of human brain evolution are of central importance to accounting for human origins, yet are still poorly understood. Human evolution is usually portrayed as having occurred in a hot, dry climate in East Africa where the earliest human ancestors became bipedal and evolved tool-making skills and language while struggling to survive in a wooded or savannah environment. At least three points need to be recognised when constructing concepts of human brain evolution : (1) The human brain cannot develop normally without a reliable supply of several nutrients, notably docosahexaenoic acid, iodine and iron. (2) At term, the human fetus has about 13 % of body weight as fat, a key form of energy insurance supporting brain development that is not found in other primates. (3) The genome of humans and chimpanzees is human brain become so much larger, and how was its present-day nutritional vulnerability circumvented during 5-6 million years of hominid evolution ? The abundant presence of fish bones and shellfish remains in many African hominid fossil sites dating to 2 million years ago implies human ancestors commonly inhabited the shores, but this point is usually overlooked in conceptualizing how the human brain evolved. Shellfish, fish and shore-based animals and plants are the richest dietary sources of the key nutrients needed by the brain. Whether on the shores of lakes, marshes, rivers or the sea, the consumption of most shore-based foods requires no specialized skills or tools. The presence of key brain nutrients and a rich energy supply in shore-based foods would have provided the essential metabolic and nutritional support needed to gradually expand the hominid brain. Abundant availability of these foods also provided the time needed to develop and refine proto-human attributes that subsequently formed the basis of language, culture, tool making and hunting. The presence of body fat in human babies appears to be the product of a long period of

  8. Genomic connectivity networks based on the BrainSpan atlas of the developing human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ahmed; Ziats, Mark N.; Rennert, Owen M.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2014-03-01

    The human brain comprises systems of networks that span the molecular, cellular, anatomic and functional levels. Molecular studies of the developing brain have focused on elucidating networks among gene products that may drive cellular brain development by functioning together in biological pathways. On the other hand, studies of the brain connectome attempt to determine how anatomically distinct brain regions are connected to each other, either anatomically (diffusion tensor imaging) or functionally (functional MRI and EEG), and how they change over development. A global examination of the relationship between gene expression and connectivity in the developing human brain is necessary to understand how the genetic signature of different brain regions instructs connections to other regions. Furthermore, analyzing the development of connectivity networks based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of gene expression provides a new insight into the effect of neurodevelopmental disease genes on brain networks. In this work, we construct connectivity networks between brain regions based on the similarity of their gene expression signature, termed "Genomic Connectivity Networks" (GCNs). Genomic connectivity networks were constructed using data from the BrainSpan Transcriptional Atlas of the Developing Human Brain. Our goal was to understand how the genetic signatures of anatomically distinct brain regions relate to each other across development. We assessed the neurodevelopmental changes in connectivity patterns of brain regions when networks were constructed with genes implicated in the neurodevelopmental disorder autism (autism spectrum disorder; ASD). Using graph theory metrics to characterize the GCNs, we show that ASD-GCNs are relatively less connected later in development with the cerebellum showing a very distinct expression of ASD-associated genes compared to other brain regions.

  9. Brain Prostheses as a Dynamic System (Immortalizing the Human Brain?)

    CERN Document Server

    Astakhov, Vadim

    2007-01-01

    Interest in development of brain prostheses, which might be proposed to recover mental functions lost due to neuron-degenerative disease or trauma, requires new methods in molecular engineering and nanotechnology to build artificial brain tissues. We develop a Dynamic Core model to analyze complexity of damaged biological neural network as well as transition and recovery of the system functionality due to changes in the system environment. We provide a method to model complexity of physical systems which might be proposed as an artificial tissue or prosthesis. Delocalization of Dynamic Core model is developed to analyze migration of mental functions in dynamic bio-systems which undergo architecture transition induced by trauma. Term Dynamic Core is used to define a set of causally related functions and Delocalization is used to describe the process of migration. Information geometry and topological formalisms are proposed to analyze information processes. A holographic model is proposed to construct dynamic e...

  10. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  11. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  12. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  13. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  14. Evaluation method for in situ electric field in standardized human brain for different transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Masahiro; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2017-03-01

    This study proposes a method to evaluate the electric field induced in the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to realize focal stimulation in the target area considering the inter-subject difference of the brain anatomy. The TMS is a non-invasive technique used for treatment/diagnosis, and it works by inducing an electric field in a specific area of the brain via a coil-induced magnetic field. Recent studies that report on the electric field distribution in the brain induced by TMS coils have been limited to simplified human brain models or a small number of detailed human brain models. Until now, no method has been developed that appropriately evaluates the coil performance for a group of subjects. In this study, we first compare the magnetic field and the magnetic vector potential distributions to determine if they can be used as predictors of the TMS focality derived from the electric field distribution. Next, the hotspots of the electric field on the brain surface of ten subjects using six coils are compared. Further, decisive physical factors affecting the focality of the induced electric field by different coils are discussed by registering the computed electric field in a standard brain space for the first time, so as to evaluate coil characteristics for a large population of subjects. The computational results suggest that the induced electric field in the target area cannot be generalized without considering the morphological variability of the human brain. Moreover, there was no remarkable difference between the various coils, although focality could be improved to a certain extent by modifying the coil design (e.g., coil radius). Finally, the focality estimated by the electric field was more correlated with the magnetic vector potential than the magnetic field in a homogeneous sphere.

  15. Evaluation method for in situ electric field in standardized human brain for different transcranial magnetic stimulation coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Masahiro; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2017-03-21

    This study proposes a method to evaluate the electric field induced in the brain by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to realize focal stimulation in the target area considering the inter-subject difference of the brain anatomy. The TMS is a non-invasive technique used for treatment/diagnosis, and it works by inducing an electric field in a specific area of the brain via a coil-induced magnetic field. Recent studies that report on the electric field distribution in the brain induced by TMS coils have been limited to simplified human brain models or a small number of detailed human brain models. Until now, no method has been developed that appropriately evaluates the coil performance for a group of subjects. In this study, we first compare the magnetic field and the magnetic vector potential distributions to determine if they can be used as predictors of the TMS focality derived from the electric field distribution. Next, the hotspots of the electric field on the brain surface of ten subjects using six coils are compared. Further, decisive physical factors affecting the focality of the induced electric field by different coils are discussed by registering the computed electric field in a standard brain space for the first time, so as to evaluate coil characteristics for a large population of subjects. The computational results suggest that the induced electric field in the target area cannot be generalized without considering the morphological variability of the human brain. Moreover, there was no remarkable difference between the various coils, although focality could be improved to a certain extent by modifying the coil design (e.g., coil radius). Finally, the focality estimated by the electric field was more correlated with the magnetic vector potential than the magnetic field in a homogeneous sphere.

  16. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  17. New Heuristics for Interfacing Human Motor System using Brain Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El-Dosuky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many new forms of interfacing human users to machines. We persevere here electric-mechanical form of interaction between human and machine. The emergence of brain-computer interface allows mind-to-movement systems. The story of the Pied Piper inspired us to devise some new heuristics for interfacing human motor system using brain waves, by combining head helmet and LumbarMotionMonitor. For the simulation we use java GridGain. Brain responses of classified subjects during training indicates that Probe can be the best stimulus to rely on in distinguishing between knowledgeable and not knowledgeable

  18. Constancy and characteristics of the anterior cutaneous branch of the first intercostal nerve: correcting the descriptions in human anatomy texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Makoto

    2006-12-01

    Human anatomy texts state that the anterior cutaneous branch of the first intercostal nerve (Rca-Th1) does not exist or that, even if it does, it is poorly developed. However, an anterior cutaneous branch in the first intercostal space (Rca-1) was observed in 74.8% of cases examined (104/139 sides) and was not poorly developed at all. Some of the observed Rca-I were even larger than the anterior cutaneous branches in the second intercostal space (Rca-ll). The segment of origin of the Rca-I was analyzed in 37 sides and 66.2% (49/74 branches) were confirmed to be from Th1. As a result, in contrast with traditional beliefs, it was shown that Rca-Th1 exists. The Rca-I was classified into two types according to the course and distribution: (i) an anterior cutaneous branch that appeared at the anterior end of the first intercostal space (ICS), ran through the pectoralis major muscle and extended in the first ICS (Rca-1); and (ii) another branch that appeared at the same place but ran downward along the anterior surface of the second costal cartilage, deep to the pectoralis major muscle, to reach the inferior edge of the second costal cartilage or the second ICS, passed through the pectoralis major muscle and extended to the second rib or the second ICS (pseudo Rca-2). It was found that 77.8% (35/45 branches) of Rca-1 and 48.3% (14/29 branches) of pseudo Rca-2 were derived from Th1. Accordingly, the author suggests that the description in human anatomy texts should be revised to read, '... the Rca-Th1 exists quite constantly and some of appear at a position resembling Rca-Th2'.

  19. Environmental Waste Management in a School Hospital and in a Laboratory of Human Anatomy of a University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Lusa Manfredini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and professional activities developed in a Hospital School and a Laboratory of Human Anatomy of a university can generate parallel, chemical residues from various degrees of angerousness, which may require physical treatment and / or suitable chemical, before being sent to final destination. The General Hospital (GH generates monthly 10 L of xylenes and 50 L of glutaraldehyde to provide ass instance to their patients. Already the Laboratory of Human Anatomy of University de Caxias do Sul (AL-UCS uses more than 10,000 liters for preserving corpses in tanks. The present study aims to analyze the chemical waste management of the GH and the AL-UCS and propose techniques for recovery and reuse of chemicals formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and xylenes, minimizing the impacts generated by the use, often indispensable and sometimes questionable, of such waste. So far two sets of samples were collected (in March and April 2013 of xylene, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in the GH and also at the AL-UCS and it is intended to repeat the collections with monthly periodicity, in the next two semesters. Partial results show that, comparing the relationship of area and the medium areas of the chromatographic (in µV.s of patterns with compounds of interest, an increase in the percentage of formaldehyde relative to the samples in standard formalin (121.84% may be due to contamination with organic compounds with a retention time close to the compound of interest, the xylene was little degradation in the samples, indicating that this compound can be reused in the common procedures of healthcare institutions, with respect to glutaraldehyde significant degradation was observed for the compound in samples represents only 61.88% of the chromatographic peak area of the standard, therefore the reuse of these compounds may require the use of purification methods such as simple distillation and fractional distillation

  20. Modelling of the Human Inner Ear Anatomy and Variability for Cochlear Implant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin

    several challenges concerning data processing and analysis. Our approach is to describe the inner ear as a statistical shape model. The thesis covers our work with regards to data segmentation, shape characterization, development of image registration model suited for the inner ear and construction......This thesis takes the biomedical engineering approach to working with and understanding the anatomy and physiology of the inner ear. The purpose is to apply the acquired knowledge in the development of implantable hearing aids. The so-called Cochlear Implant (CI) is a fascinating technology...... of statistical deformation models. The thesis results in a series of applications relating to CIs. The shape model can be used by CI-manufacturers for virtual product development and testing. At the same time, it can be applied to estimate the detailed inner ear shape from a clinical patient CT scan. This opens...

  1. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  2. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  3. Online dissection audio-visual resources for human anatomy: Undergraduate medical students' usage and learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L; Cuellar, William A; Williams, Anne-Marie M

    2016-11-01

    In an attempt to improve undergraduate medical student preparation for and learning from dissection sessions, dissection audio-visual resources (DAVR) were developed. Data from e-learning management systems indicated DAVR were accessed by 28% ± 10 (mean ± SD for nine DAVR across three years) of students prior to the corresponding dissection sessions, representing at most 58% ± 20 of assigned dissectors. Approximately 50% of students accessed all available DAVR by the end of semester, while 10% accessed none. Ninety percent of survey respondents (response rate 58%) generally agreed that DAVR improved their preparation for and learning from dissection when used. Of several learning resources, only DAVR usage had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.002) with feeling prepared for dissection. Results on cadaveric anatomy practical examination questions in year 2 (Y2) and year 3 (Y3) cohorts were 3.9% (P < 0.001, effect size d = -0.32) and 0.3% lower, respectively, with DAVR available compared to previous years. However, there were positive correlations between students' cadaveric anatomy question scores with the number and total time of DAVR viewed (Y2, r = 0.171, 0.090, P = 0.002, n.s., respectively; and Y3, r = 0.257, 0.253, both P < 0.001). Students accessing all DAVR scored 7.2% and 11.8% higher than those accessing none (Y2, P = 0.015, d = 0.48; and Y3, P = 0.005, d = 0.77, respectively). Further development and promotion of DAVR are needed to improve engagement and learning outcomes of more students. Anat Sci Educ 9: 545-554. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Optimizing the teaching of human anatomy by applying non-verbal communicative approaches%运用非语言交际优化解剖教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新庆; 梁邦领; 王旭; 吴效普; 皮全民

    2011-01-01

    菏泽医学专科学校解剖学教研室在教学改革中,提出了一种新的解剖学教学手段——非语言交际教学.合理地运用副语言、表情语、目光语、手势语、姿势语等非语言交际手段,可以优化解剖学教学,取得良好的教学效果.%In the teaching reform of anatomy,department of human anatomy in Heze medical college put forward a new teaching means-Non-verbal communication teaching.The reasonable use of the paralanguage,gesture,posture,eye contact,facial expressions can optimize the teaching of anatomy and achieve good teaching effect.

  5. Selection for smaller brains in Holocene human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hawks, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human populations during the last 10,000 years have undergone rapid decreases in average brain size as measured by endocranial volume or as estimated from linear measurements of the cranium. A null hypothesis to explain the evolution of brain size is that reductions result from genetic correlation of brain size with body mass or stature. Results: The absolute change of endocranial volume in the study samples was significantly greater than would be predicted from observed changes i...

  6. Stereological estimation of total brain numbers in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Solveig eWalloe; Bente ePakkenberg; Katrine eFabricius

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the relationship between brain structure and cognitive function is still limited. Human brains and individual cortical areas vary considerably in size and shape. Studies of brain cell numbers have historically been based on biased methods, which did not always result in correct estimates and were often very time-consuming. Within the last 20–30 years, it has become possible to rely on more advanced and unbiased methods. These methods have provided us with information about fe...

  7. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro,; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume de...

  8. Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrato, Giorgia; Nguyen, Tuan; Macosko, Evan Z; Sherwood, John L; Min Yang, Sung; Berger, Daniel R; Maria, Natalie; Scholvin, Jorg; Goldman, Melissa; Kinney, Justin P; Boyden, Edward S; Lichtman, Jeff W; Williams, Ziv M; McCarroll, Steven A; Arlotta, Paola

    2017-05-04

    In vitro models of the developing brain such as three-dimensional brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease. However, the cells generated within organoids and the extent to which they recapitulate the regional complexity, cellular diversity and circuit functionality of the brain remain undefined. Here we analyse gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human brain organoids. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina. Organoids could be developed over extended periods (more than 9 months), allowing for the establishment of relatively mature features, including the formation of dendritic spines and spontaneously active neuronal networks. Finally, neuronal activity within organoids could be controlled using light stimulation of photosensitive cells, which may offer a way to probe the functionality of human neuronal circuits using physiological sensory stimuli.

  9. Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Genevieve; Friedrich, Tara; Davis-Turak, Jeremy; Winden, Kellen; Oldham, Michael C; Gao, Fuying; Chen, Leslie; Wang, Guang-Zhong; Luo, Rui; Preuss, Todd M; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2012-08-23

    Understanding human-specific patterns of brain gene expression and regulation can provide key insights into human brain evolution and speciation. Here, we use next-generation sequencing, and Illumina and Affymetrix microarray platforms, to compare the transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and macaque telencephalon. Our analysis reveals a predominance of genes differentially expressed within human frontal lobe and a striking increase in transcriptional complexity specific to the human lineage in the frontal lobe. In contrast, caudate nucleus gene expression is highly conserved. We also identify gene coexpression signatures related to either neuronal processes or neuropsychiatric diseases, including a human-specific module with CLOCK as its hub gene and another module enriched for neuronal morphological processes and genes coexpressed with FOXP2, a gene important for language evolution. These data demonstrate that transcriptional networks have undergone evolutionary remodeling even within a given brain region, providing a window through which to view the foundation of uniquely human cognitive capacities.

  10. The functional neuro-anatomy of the human response to fear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychology, NESMOS Department (Neurosciences,. Mental Health, and .... through moving the eyes laterally or vertically, is a measure of gaze and is also called ... in white eye area-related fear brain activation suggest that emotional face.

  11. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  12. Alcohol-related brain damage in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia M Erdozain

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol intoxications evoke cumulative damage to tissues and organs. We examined prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area (BA 9 from 20 human alcoholics and 20 age, gender, and postmortem delay matched control subjects. H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects. BA 9 tissue homogenisation and one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE proteomics of cytosolic proteins identified dramatic reductions in the protein levels of spectrin β II, and α- and β-tubulins in alcoholics, and these were validated and quantitated by Western blotting. We detected a significant increase in α-tubulin acetylation in alcoholics, a non-significant increase in isoaspartate protein damage, but a significant increase in protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase protein levels, the enzyme that triggers isoaspartate damage repair in vivo. There was also a significant reduction in proteasome activity in alcoholics. One dimensional PAGE of membrane-enriched fractions detected a reduction in β-spectrin protein levels, and a significant increase in transmembranous α3 (catalytic subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase in alcoholic subjects. However, control subjects retained stable oligomeric forms of α-subunit that were diminished in alcoholics. In alcoholics, significant loss of cytosolic α- and β-tubulins were also seen in caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but to different levels, indicative of brain regional susceptibility to alcohol-related damage. Collectively, these protein changes provide a molecular basis for some of the neuronal and behavioural abnormalities attributed to alcoholics.

  13. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  14. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigat

  15. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic (Lucija); M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate

  16. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, D.P.; Stein, J.L.; Renteria, M.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Desrivieres, S.; Jahanshad, N.; Toro, R.; Wittfeld, K.; Abramovic, L.; Andersson, M.; Aribisala, B.S.; Armstrong, N.J.; Bernard, M.; Bohlken, M.M.; Boks, M.P.; Bralten, J.; Brown, A.A.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Chen, Q.; Ching, C.R.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; Braber, A.; Giddaluru, S.; Goldman, A.L.; Grimm, O.; Guadalupe, T.; Hass, J.; Woldehawariat, G.; Holmes, A.J.; Hoogman, M.; Janowitz, D.; Jia, T.; Kim, S.; Klein, M.; Kraemer, B.; Lee, P.H.; Olde Loohuis, L.M.; Luciano, M.; Macare, C.; Mather, K.A.; Mattheisen, M.; Milaneschi, Y.; Nho, K.; Papmeyer, M.; Ramasamy, A.; Risacher, S.L.; Roiz-Santianez, R.; Rose, E.J.; Salami, A.; Samann, P.G.; Schmaal, L.; Schork, A.J.; Shin, J.; Strike, L.T.; Teumer, A.; Donkelaar, M.M.J. van; Eijk, K.R. van; Walters, R.K.; Westlye, L.T.; Whelan, C.D.; Winkler, A.M.; Zwiers, M.P.; Alhusaini, S.; Athanasiu, L.; Ehrlich, S.; Hakobjan, M.M.; Hartberg, C.B.; Haukvik, U.K.; Heister, A.J.; Hoehn, D.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Liewald, D.C.; Lopez, L.M.; Makkinje, R.R.; Matarin, M.; Naber, M.; McKay, D.R.; Needham, M.; Nugent, A.C.; Putz, B.; Royle, N.A.; Shen, L.; Sprooten, E.; Trabzuni, D.; Marel, S.S. van der; Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Walton, E.; Wolf, C.; Almasy, L.; Ames, D.; Arepalli, S.; Assareh, A.A.; Bastin, M.E.; Brodaty, H.; Bulayeva, K.B.; Carless, M.A.; Cichon, S.; Corvin, A.; Curran, J.E.; Czisch, M.; Fisher, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common

  17. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santianez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Saemann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Puetz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goering, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzah, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mahnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Noethen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdes Hernandez, Maria C.; van't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, Rene S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Voelzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernandez, Guillen; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Joensson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To

  18. An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawrylycz, M.J.; Beckmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising

  19. Neuronal substrates of sensory gating within the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunwald, T.; Boutros, N.N.; Pezer, N.; Oertzen, J. von; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the human brain, habituation to irrelevant sensory input is an important function whose failure is associated with behavioral disturbances. Sensory gating can be studied by recording the brain's electrical responses to repeated clicks: the P50 potential is normally reduced to the

  20. Neuronal substrates of sensory gating within the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunwald, T.; Boutros, N.N.; Pezer, N.; Oertzen, J. von; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the human brain, habituation to irrelevant sensory input is an important function whose failure is associated with behavioral disturbances. Sensory gating can be studied by recording the brain's electrical responses to repeated clicks: the P50 potential is normally reduced to the sec

  1. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); J.L. Stein; M.E. Rentería (Miguel); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); N. Jahanshad (Neda); R. Toro (Roberto); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); L. Abramovic; M. Andersson (Micael); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); M. Bernard (Manon); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.A. Brown (Andrew); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); A. den Braber (Anouk); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); O. Grimm (Oliver); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); J. Hass (Johanna); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil H.); L.M. Olde Loohuis (Loes M.); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); K. Nho (Kwangsik); M. Papmeyer (Martina); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); E.J. Rose (Emma); A. Salami (Alireza); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); J. Shin (Jean); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); R.K. Walters (Raymond); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); S. Alhusaini (Saud); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); M. Hakobjan (Marina); C.B. Hartberg (Cecilie B.); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); A.J.G.A.M. Heister (Angelien J. G. A. M.); D. Hoehn (David); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); R.R.R. Makkinje (Remco R. R.); M. Matarin (Mar); M.A.M. Naber (Marlies A. M.); D. Reese McKay; M. Needham (Margaret); A.C. Nugent (Allison); B. Pütz (Benno); N.A. Royle (Natalie); L. Shen (Li); R. Sprooten (Roy); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S.S.L. Van Der Marel (Saskia S. L.); K.J.E. Van Hulzen (Kimm J. E.); E. Walton (Esther); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L. Almasy (Laura); D. Ames (David); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; M.E. Bastin (Mark); H. Brodaty (Henry); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); M.A. Carless (Melanie); S. Cichon (Sven); A. Corvin (Aiden); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); A. Dillman (Allissa); A. Duggirala (Aparna); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); S. Erk; I. Fedko (Iryna); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); M. Fukunaga (Masaki); J. Raphael Gibbs; H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); F. Holsboer; G. Homuth (Georg); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Ikeda (Masashi); C.R. Jack Jr. (Clifford); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Kanai (Ryota); M. Keil (Maria); J.W. Kent (Jack W.); P. Kochunov (Peter); J.B. Kwok (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); K.L. Mcmahon (Katie); E. Meisenzahl (Eva); I. Melle (Ingrid); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J.C. Mostert (Jeanette C.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); M.A. Nalls (Michael); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); L.G. Nilsson; M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K. Ohi (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R. Perez-Iglesias (Rocio); G. Bruce Pike; S.G. Potkin (Steven); I. Reinvang (Ivar); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (M.); N. Seiferth (Nina); G.D. Rosen (Glenn D.); D. Rujescu (Dan); K. Schnell (Kerry); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); C. Smith (Colin); V.M. Steen (Vidar); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); J. Turner (Jessica); M.C. Valdés Hernández (Maria); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); D.J. Veltman (Dick); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); E. Westman (Eric); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); D.G. Ashbrook (David G.); R. Hager (Reinmar); L. Lu (Lu); F.J. Mcmahon (Francis J); D.W. Morris (Derek W); R.W. Williams (Robert W.); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan K.); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); T. Espeseth (Thomas); R.L. Gollub (Randy); B.C. Ho (Beng ); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); N. Hosten (Norbert); R. Kahn; S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); A. Meyer-Lindenberg; B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M. Nauck (Matthias); L. Nyberg (Lars); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); J.W. Smoller; H. van Bokhoven (Hans); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); M.W. Weiner (Michael); W. Wen (Wei); T.J.H. White (Tonya); I. Agartz (Ingrid); O.A. Andreassen (Ole A.); J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); D.M. Cannon (Dara); M.R. Cookson (Mark); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); G. Fernandez (Guillén); S.E. Fisher (Simon); C. Francks (Clyde); D.C. Glahn (David); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); O. Gruber (Oliver); J. Hardy (John); R. Hashimoto (Ryota); H.E. Hulshoff Pol (Hilleke); E.G. Jönsson (Erik); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); S. Lovestone (Simon); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); C. McDonald (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); M. Ryten (Mina); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); A. Simmons (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); H. Soininen (H.); J.M. Wardlaw (J.); M.E. Weale (Michael); D.R. Weinberger (Daniel); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S. Seiler (Stephan); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); J.T. Becker (James); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); S. van der Lee (Sven); M. Ebling (Maritza); B. Fischl (Bruce); W.T. Longstreth Jr; D. Greve (Douglas); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); P. Nyquist (Paul); L.N. Vinke (Louis N.); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Xue (Luting); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); J.C. Bis (Joshua); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Seshadri (Sudha); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G. Schumann (Gunter); B. Franke (Barbara); P.M. Thompson (Paul); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate h

  2. Forthergillian Lecture. Imaging human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackowiak, R S

    The non-invasive brain scanning techniques introduced a quarter of a century ago have become crucial for diagnosis in clinical neurology. They have also been used to investigate brain function and have provided information about normal activity and pathogenesis. They have been used to investigate functional specialization in the brain and how specialized areas communicate to generate complex integrated functions such as speech, memory, the emotions and so on. The phenomenon of brain plasticity is poorly understood and yet clinical neurologists are aware, from everyday observations, that spontaneous recovery from brain lesions is common. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of recovery may generate new therapeutic strategies and indicate ways of modulating mechanisms that promote plastic compensation for loss of function. The main methods used to investigate these issues are positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (M.R.I.). M.R.I. is also used to map brain structure. The techniques of functional brain mapping and computational morphometrics depend on high performance scanners and a validated set of analytic statistical procedures that generate reproducible data and meaningful inferences from brain scanning data. The motor system presents a good paradigm to illustrate advances made by scanning towards an understanding of plasticity at the level of brain areas. The normal motor system is organized in a nested hierarchy. Recovery from paralysis caused by internal capsule strokes involves functional reorganization manifesting itself as changed patterns of activity in the component brain areas of the normal motor system. The pattern of plastic modification depends in part on patterns of residual or disturbed connectivity after brain injury. Therapeutic manipulations in patients with Parkinson's disease using deep brain stimulation, dopaminergic agents or fetal mesencephalic transplantation provide a means to examine mechanisms underpinning

  3. Entrainment of perceptually relevant brain oscillations by non-invasive rhythmic stimulation of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor eThut

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of driving brain oscillations by directly stimulating neuronal elements with rhythmic stimulation protocols has become increasingly popular in research on brain rhythms. Induction of brain oscillations in a controlled and functionally meaningful way would likely prove highly beneficial for the study of brain oscillations, and their therapeutic control. We here review conventional and new non-invasive brain stimulation protocols as to their suitability for controlled intervention into human brain oscillations. We focus on one such type of intervention, the direct entrainment of brain oscillations by a periodic external drive. We review highlights of the literature on entraining brain rhythms linked to perception and attention, and point out controversies. Behaviourally, such entrainment seems to alter specific aspects of perception depending on the frequency of stimulation, informing models on the functional role of oscillatory activity. This indicates that human brain oscillations and function may be promoted in a controlled way by focal entrainment, with great potential for probing into brain oscillations and their causal role.

  4. Entrainment of perceptually relevant brain oscillations by non-invasive rhythmic stimulation of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thut, Gregor; Schyns, Philippe G; Gross, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The notion of driving brain oscillations by directly stimulating neuronal elements with rhythmic stimulation protocols has become increasingly popular in research on brain rhythms. Induction of brain oscillations in a controlled and functionally meaningful way would likely prove highly beneficial for the study of brain oscillations, and their therapeutic control. We here review conventional and new non-invasive brain stimulation protocols as to their suitability for controlled intervention into human brain oscillations. We focus on one such type of intervention, the direct entrainment of brain oscillations by a periodic external drive. We review highlights of the literature on entraining brain rhythms linked to perception and attention, and point out controversies. Behaviourally, such entrainment seems to alter specific aspects of perception depending on the frequency of stimulation, informing models on the functional role of oscillatory activity. This indicates that human brain oscillations and function may be promoted in a controlled way by focal entrainment, with great potential for probing into brain oscillations and their causal role.

  5. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2010-03-09

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/.

  6. Artificial Brain Based on Credible Neural Circuits in a Human Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, John Robert

    2010-01-01

    Neurons are individually translated into simple gates to plan a brain with human psychology and intelligence. State machines, assumed previously learned in subconscious associative memory are shown to enable equation solving and rudimentary thinking using nanoprocessing within short term memory.

  7. Astrocytes and the evolution of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, James M

    2014-02-01

    Cells within the astroglial lineage are proposed as the origin of human brain evolution. It is now widely accepted that they direct mammalian fetal neurogenesis, gliogenesis, laminar cytoarchitectonics, synaptic connectivity and neuronal network formation. Furthermore, genetic, anatomical and functional studies have recently identified multiple astrocyte exaptations that strongly suggest a direct relation to the increased size and complexity of the human brain. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...... amounts of GFA, up to 85 times the concentration in parietal grey substance of normal human brain. GFA was not found in neurinomas, meningiomas, adenomas of the hypophysis, or in a single case of metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Non-glial tumours of craniopharyngioma and haemangioblastoma were infiltrated...

  9. Optogenetic control of human neurons in organotypic brain cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, My; Avaliani, Natalia; Svensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is one of the most powerful tools in neuroscience, allowing for selective control of specific neuronal populations in the brain of experimental animals, including mammals. We report, for the first time, the application of optogenetic tools to human brain tissue providing a proof......-of-concept for the use of optogenetics in neuromodulation of human cortical and hippocampal neurons as a possible tool to explore network mechanisms and develop future therapeutic strategies....

  10. Understanding complexity in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Although the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its workings relate to the mind, the majority of current efforts are largely focused on small questions using increasingly detailed data. However, it might be possible to successfully address the larger question of mind-brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neuroscientific studies are coupled with complementary approaches from physics and philosophy. The brain, we argue, can be understood as a complex system or network, in which mental states emerge from the interaction between multiple physical and functional levels. Achieving further conceptual progress will crucially depend on broad-scale discussions regarding the properties of cognition and the tools that are currently available or must be developed in order to study mind-brain mechanisms.

  11. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in chronic tinnitus in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjamian, Peyman; Hall, Deborah A.; Palmer, Alan R.; Allan, Thomas W.; Langers, Dave R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review studies that have investigated brain morphology in chronic tinnitus in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. Current consensus is that tinnitus is a disorder involving a distributed network of peripheral and central pathways in the nervous system. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive and it is unclear which structures are involved. Given that brain structure and function are highly related, identification of anatomical differences may shed light upon the mechanism of tinnitus generation and maintenance. We discuss anatomical changes in the auditory cortex, the limbic system, and prefrontal cortex, among others. Specifically, we discuss the gating mechanism of tinnitus and evaluate the evidence in support of the model from studies of brain anatomy. Although individual studies claim significant effects related to tinnitus, outcomes are divergent and even contradictory across studies. Moreover, results are often confounded by the presence of hearing loss. We conclude that, at present, the overall evidence for structural abnormalities specifically related to tinnitus is poor. As this area of research is expanding, we identify some key considerations for research design and propose strategies for future research. PMID:24892904

  12. Increased morphological asymmetry, evolvability and plasticity in human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2013-06-22

    The study of hominin brain evolution relies mostly on evaluation of the endocranial morphology of fossil skulls. However, only some general features of external brain morphology are evident from endocasts, and many anatomical details can be difficult or impossible to examine. In this study, we use geometric morphometric techniques to evaluate inter- and intraspecific differences in cerebral morphology in a sample of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging scans of chimpanzees and humans, with special emphasis on the study of asymmetric variation. Our study reveals that chimpanzee-human differences in cerebral morphology are mainly symmetric; by contrast, there is continuity in asymmetric variation between species, with humans showing an increased range of variation. Moreover, asymmetric variation does not appear to be the result of allometric scaling at intraspecific levels, whereas symmetric changes exhibit very slight allometric effects within each species. Our results emphasize two key properties of brain evolution in the hominine clade: first, evolution of chimpanzee and human brains (and probably their last common ancestor and related species) is not strongly morphologically constrained, thus making their brains highly evolvable and responsive to selective pressures; second, chimpanzee and, especially, human brains show high levels of fluctuating asymmetry indicative of pronounced developmental plasticity. We infer that these two characteristics can have a role in human cognitive evolution.

  13. In vivo analysis of the human superficial cerebral venous anatomy by using 3D-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaga, Yasunari [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the reliability of three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI), and to classify the drainage patterns of the superficial cerebral veins. At first, toothpicks were stuck into fixed brain surface of a dog. To examine the best methods for making 3D-MRI, the 3D-MRI, including the diameter of the holes, of the dog`s brain were analyzed in four threshold values. The holes on the 3D-MRI appeared smaller than their actual size due to the partial volume effect. The low threshold showed more errors than the higher. This result showed it was necessary to display the good 3D-MRI to refer the original MR images. Next, the 3D-MRI of clinical patients who had brain tumors were correlated with operative findings especially in relation to the lesions and brain surface, vessels, ventricles. The relation between the lesions and brain surface, vessels were displayed well, but there were some problems with inadequate ventricular display. Finally, anatomical study using 3D-MRI was performed, because 3D-MRI could display the relation between the brain surface and the superficial cerebral veins in the basic studies. The third study demonstrated that the transverse frontal vein was found in 15%, vein of Trolard ran in front of the central sulcus in 91.5% and several anastomosing veins were frequently observed. These studies showed the progress of technology in bringing about a lot of new information by using 3D-MRI. (author)

  14. DUF1220 domains, cognitive disease, and human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L; Sikela, J M

    2009-01-01

    We have established that human genome sequences encoding a novel protein domain, DUF1220, show a dramatically elevated copy number in the human lineage (>200 copies in humans vs. 1 in mouse/rat) and may be important to human evolutionary adaptation. Copy-number variations (CNVs) in the 1q21.1 region, where most DUF1220 sequences map, have now been implicated in numerous diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction, including autism, autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation, schizophrenia, microcephaly, and macrocephaly. We report here that these disease-related 1q21.1 CNVs either encompass or are directly flanked by DUF1220 sequences and exhibit a dosage-related correlation with human brain size. Microcephaly-producing 1q21.1 CNVs are deletions, whereas macrocephaly-producing 1q21.1 CNVs are duplications. Similarly, 1q21.1 deletions and smaller brain size are linked with schizophrenia, whereas 1q21.1 duplications and larger brain size are associated with autism. Interestingly, these two diseases are thought to be phenotypic opposites. These data suggest a model which proposes that (1) DUF1220 domain copy number may be involved in influencing human brain size and (2) the evolutionary advantage of rapidly increasing DUF1220 copy number in the human lineage has resulted in favoring retention of the high genomic instability of the 1q21.1 region, which, in turn, has precipitated a spectrum of recurrent human brain and developmental disorders.

  15. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  16. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inter-subject alignment of human cortical anatomy using functional connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Bryan R.; Singer, Benjamin D.; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Ramadge, Peter J.; Haxby, James V.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-subject alignment of functional MRI (fMRI) data is necessary for group analyses. The standard approach to this problem matches anatomical features of the brain, such as major anatomical landmarks or cortical curvature. Precise alignment of functional cortical topographies, however, cannot be derived using only anatomical features.

  18. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  19. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Grau

    Full Text Available Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI. These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B communication between subjects (hyperinteraction. Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  20. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  1. Transcriptomic insights into human brain evolution: acceleration, neutrality, heterochrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somel, Mehmet; Rohlfs, Rori; Liu, Xiling

    2014-12-01

    Primate brain transcriptome comparisons within the last 12 years have yielded interesting but contradictory observations on how the transcriptome evolves, and its adaptive role in human cognitive evolution. Since the human-chimpanzee common ancestor, the human prefrontal cortex transcriptome seems to have evolved more than that of the chimpanzee. But at the same time, most expression differences among species, especially those observed in adults, appear as consequences of neutral evolution at cis-regulatory sites. Adaptive expression changes in the human brain may be rare events involving timing shifts, or heterochrony, in specific neurodevelopmental processes. Disentangling adaptive and neutral expression changes, and associating these with human-specific features of the brain require improved methods, comparisons across more species, and further work on comparative development.

  2. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  3. Anatomy and histology of the brain and sense organs of the antarctic plunderfish Dolloidraco longedorsalis (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Artedidraconidae), with comments on the brain morphology of other artedidraconids and closely related harpagiferids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2003-03-01

    In the high-latitude shelf waters of Antarctica, fishes in the perciform suborder Notothenioidei dominate the fish fauna and constitute an adaptive radiation and a species flock. The 25 species of notothenioid plunderfishes, comprising four genera of the family Artedidraconidae, contribute substantially to fish species diversity on the high Antarctic shelf. A mental barbel is an autapomorphy for the family. Dolloidraco longedorsalis is the most abundant artedidraconid at depths over 400 m in these waters. In this article we present the anatomy and histology of the brain and special sense organs of Dolloidraco and compare it to the brains of other artedidraconids, closely related harpagiferids, and more generally to other notothenioids. We provide a detailed drawing of the brain and cranial nerves. The brain of Dolloidraco is simple, without external hypertrophy of sensory or motor regions, but contains several unusual features associated with the ventricular system and CSF, including well-developed circumventricular organs, subependymal expansions, and subarachnoid cisterns; and a ventricle in the corpus cerebellum. The brain of Dolloidraco also contains a lobed chief sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve that is correlated across species with barbel length. The eyes are large and contain a small choroid rete, a structure previously thought to be absent from members of this family. We document the histology of the duplex retina, olfactory apparatus, cutaneous taste buds, and barbel musculature and innervation. We discuss the role of pedomorphy in producing simplified brain morphologies. We consider the possibility that Dolloidraco is a somatosensory specialist-an unusual feature among vertebrates-and decide that this is unlikely.

  4. Leveraging Human Brain Activity to Improve Object Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Ruth Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Today, most object detection algorithms differ drastically from how humans tackle visual problems. In this thesis, I present a new paradigm for improving machine vision algorithms by designing them to better mimic how humans approach these tasks. Specifically, I demonstrate how human brain activity from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be leveraged to improve object classification. Inspired by the graduated manner in which humans learn, I present a novel algorithm that sim...

  5. Functional network organization of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jonathan D; Cohen, Alexander L; Nelson, Steven M; Wig, Gagan S; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Church, Jessica A; Vogel, Alecia C; Laumann, Timothy O; Miezin, Fran M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2011-11-17

    Real-world complex systems may be mathematically modeled as graphs, revealing properties of the system. Here we study graphs of functional brain organization in healthy adults using resting state functional connectivity MRI. We propose two novel brain-wide graphs, one of 264 putative functional areas, the other a modification of voxelwise networks that eliminates potentially artificial short-distance relationships. These graphs contain many subgraphs in good agreement with known functional brain systems. Other subgraphs lack established functional identities; we suggest possible functional characteristics for these subgraphs. Further, graph measures of the areal network indicate that the default mode subgraph shares network properties with sensory and motor subgraphs: it is internally integrated but isolated from other subgraphs, much like a "processing" system. The modified voxelwise graph also reveals spatial motifs in the patterning of systems across the cortex.

  6. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  7. BrainScope: interactive visual exploration of the spatial and temporal human brain transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Sjoerd M H; van Lew, Baldur; Mahfouz, Ahmed; Pezzotti, Nicola; Höllt, Thomas; Michielsen, Lieke; Vilanova, Anna; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2017-06-02

    Spatial and temporal brain transcriptomics has recently emerged as an invaluable data source for molecular neuroscience. The complexity of such data poses considerable challenges for analysis and visualization. We present BrainScope: a web portal for fast, interactive visual exploration of the Allen Atlases of the adult and developing human brain transcriptome. Through a novel methodology to explore high-dimensional data (dual t-SNE), BrainScope enables the linked, all-in-one visualization of genes and samples across the whole brain and genome, and across developmental stages. We show that densities in t-SNE scatter plots of the spatial samples coincide with anatomical regions, and that densities in t-SNE scatter plots of the genes represent gene co-expression modules that are significantly enriched for biological functions. We also show that the topography of the gene t-SNE maps reflect brain region-specific gene functions, enabling hypothesis and data driven research. We demonstrate the discovery potential of BrainScope through three examples: (i) analysis of cell type specific gene sets, (ii) analysis of a set of stable gene co-expression modules across the adult human donors and (iii) analysis of the evolution of co-expression of oligodendrocyte specific genes over developmental stages. BrainScope is publicly accessible at www.brainscope.nl. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Progress on the paternal brain: theory, animal models, human brain research, and mental health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Dayton, C J; Kim, P; Tolman, R M; Volling, B L

    2014-01-01

    With a secure foundation in basic research across mammalian species in which fathers participate in the raising of young, novel brain-imaging approaches are outlining a set of consistent brain circuits that regulate paternal thoughts and behaviors in humans. The newest experimental paradigms include increasingly realistic baby-stimuli to provoke paternal cognitions and behaviors with coordinated hormone measures to outline brain networks that regulate motivation, reflexive caring, emotion regulation, and social brain networks with differences and similarities to those found in mothers. In this article, on the father brain, we review all brain-imaging studies on PubMed to date on the human father brain and introduce the topic with a selection of theoretical models and foundational neurohormonal research on animal models in support of the human work. We discuss potentially translatable models for the identification and treatment of paternal mood and father-child relational problems, which could improve infant mental health and developmental trajectories with potentially broad public health importance. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswal, B.B.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Zuo, X.N.; Gohel, S.; Kelly, C.; Smith, S.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Adelstein, J.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Colcombe, S.; Dogonowski, A.M.; Ernst, M.; Fair, D.; Hampson, M.; Hoptman, M.J.; Hyde, J.S.; Kiviniemi, V.J.; Kotter, R.; Li, S.J.; Lin, C.P.; Lowe, M.J.; Mackay, C.; Madden, D.J.; Madsen, K.H.; Margulies, D.S.; Mayberg, H.S.; McMahon, K.; Monk, C.S.; Mostofsky, S.H.; Nagel, B.J.; Pekar, J.J.; Peltier, S.J.; Petersen, S.E.; Riedl, V.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Rypma, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Schmidt, S.; Seidler, R.D.; Siegle, G.J.; Sorg, C.; Teng, G.J.; Veijola, J.; Villringer, A.; Walter, M.; Wang, L.; Weng, X.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Williamson, P.; Windischberger, C.; Zang, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Castellanos, F.X.; Milham, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a

  10. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswal, B.B.; Mennes, M.; Zuo, X.N.; Gohel, S.; Kelly, C.; Smith, S.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Adelstein, J.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Colcombe, S.; Dogonowski, A.M.; Ernst, M.; Fair, D.; Hampson, M.; Hoptman, M.J.; Hyde, J.S.; Kiviniemi, V.J.; Kotter, R.; Li, S.J.; Lin, C.P.; Lowe, M.J.; Mackay, C.; Madden, D.J.; Madsen, K.H.; Margulies, D.S.; Mayberg, H.S.; McMahon, K.; Monk, C.S.; Mostofsky, S.H.; Nagel, B.J.; Pekar, J.J.; Peltier, S.J.; Petersen, S.E.; Riedl, V.; Rombouts, S.A.; Rypma, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Schmidt, S.; Seidler, R.D.; Siegle, G.J.; Sorg, C.; Teng, G.J.; Veijola, J.; Villringer, A.; Walter, M.; Wang, L.; Weng, X.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Williamson, P.; Windischberger, C.; Zang, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Castellanos, F.X.; Milham, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a pr

  11. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a...

  12. Weight lifting in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, F.P. de

    2006-01-01

    The world, just like us, is constantly changing. Making predictions about what will happen to you when you do something (and correcting these predictions based on what is actually happening) is therefore of vital importance. An influential theory states that the brain solves this challenge by using

  13. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  14. Sibling rivalry among paralogs promotes evolution of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali

    2012-05-11

    Geneticists have long sought to identify the genetic changes that made us human, but pinpointing the functionally relevant changes has been challenging. Two papers in this issue suggest that partial duplication of SRGAP2, producing an incomplete protein that antagonizes the original, contributed to human brain evolution.

  15. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  16. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2015-05-01

    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Gene expression in the aging human brain: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Adith; Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Baune, Bernhard T; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-03-01

    The review aims to provide a summary of recent developments in the study of gene expression in the aging human brain. Profiling differentially expressed genes or 'transcripts' in the human brain over the course of normal aging has provided valuable insights into the biological pathways that appear activated or suppressed in late life. Genes mediating neuroinflammation and immune system activation in particular, show significant age-related upregulation creating a state of vulnerability to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease in the aging brain. Cellular ionic dyshomeostasis and age-related decline in a host of molecular influences on synaptic efficacy may underlie neurocognitive decline in later life. Critically, these investigations have also shed light on the mobilization of protective genetic responses within the aging human brain that help determine health and disease trajectories in older age. There is growing interest in the study of pre and posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, and the role of noncoding RNAs in particular, as mediators of the phenotypic diversity that characterizes human brain aging. Gene expression studies in healthy brain aging offer an opportunity to unravel the intricately regulated cellular underpinnings of neurocognitive aging as well as disease risk and resiliency in late life. In doing so, new avenues for early intervention in age-related neurodegenerative disease could be investigated with potentially significant implications for the development of disease-modifying therapies.

  18. Evolution of the human brain: when bigger is better.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel A. Hofman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies of the brain in mammals suggest that there are general architectural principles governing its growth and evolutionary development. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical and energy constraints that have governed the evolution and functional organization of the brain and its underlying neuronal network. The object of this review is to present current perspectives on primate brain evolution, especially in humans, and to examine some hypothetical organizing principles that underlie the brain’s complex organization. Some of the design principles and operational modes that underlie the information processing capacity of the cerebral cortex in primates will be explored. It is shown that the development of the cortex coordinates folding with connectivity in a way that produces smaller and faster brains, then otherwise would have been possible. In view of the central importance placed on brain evolution in explaining the success of our own species, one may wonder whether there are physical limits that constrain its processing power and evolutionary potential. It will be argued that at a brain size of about 3500 cm3, corresponding to a brain volume two to three times that of modern man, the brain seems to reach its maximum processing capacity. The larger the brain grows beyond this critical size, the less efficient it will become, thus limiting any improvement in cognitive power.

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... their final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  3. Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britton Robert S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective iron homeostasis may be involved in the development of some diseases within the central nervous system. Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain. We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP, HFE, neogenin (NEO1, transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2, and hemojuvelin (HFE2 in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines. The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines. Results Except for hemojuvelin, all genes studied had detectable levels of mRNA. In most tumor types, the pattern of gene expression was diverse. Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens. Conclusion These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.

  4. The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic…

  5. The Evolution of Human Intelligence and the Coefficient of Additive Genetic Variance in Human Brain Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F.; Penke, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Most theories of human mental evolution assume that selection favored higher intelligence and larger brains, which should have reduced genetic variance in both. However, adult human intelligence remains highly heritable, and is genetically correlated with brain size. This conflict might be resolved by estimating the coefficient of additive genetic…

  6. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  7. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  8. Three-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shiraishi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was visualized in 3D movies using images derived from human embryo specimens between Carnegie stage 13 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection. These images were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. Three-dimensional images using the same scale demonstrated brain development and growth effectively. The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue, which may indicate brain differentiation, was visualized with thickness-based surface color mapping. A closer view was obtained of the unique and complicated differentiation of the rhombencephalon, especially with regard to the internal view and thickening of the brain tissue. The present data contribute to a better understanding of brain and cerebral ventricle development.

  9. Electrical Guidance of Human Stem Cells in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited migration of neural stem cells in adult brain is a roadblock for the use of stem cell therapies to treat brain diseases and injuries. Here, we report a strategy that mobilizes and guides migration of stem cells in the brain in vivo. We developed a safe stimulation paradigm to deliver directional currents in the brain. Tracking cells expressing GFP demonstrated electrical mobilization and guidance of migration of human neural stem cells, even against co-existing intrinsic cues in the rostral migration stream. Transplanted cells were observed at 3 weeks and 4 months after stimulation in areas guided by the stimulation currents, and with indications of differentiation. Electrical stimulation thus may provide a potential approach to facilitate brain stem cell therapies.

  10. Design principles of the human brain: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Michel A

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the brain in mammals has been accompanied by a reorganization of the brain as a result of differential growth of certain brain regions. Consequently, the geometry of the brain, and especially the size and shape of the cerebral cortex, has changed notably during evolution. Comparative studies of the cerebral cortex suggest that there are general architectural principles governing its growth and evolutionary development and that the primate neocortex is uniformly organized and composed of neural processing units. We are beginning to understand the geometric, biophysical, and energy constraints that have governed the evolution of these neuronal networks. In this review, some of the design principles and operational modes will be explored that underlie the information processing capacity of the cerebral cortex in primates, and it will be argued that with the evolution of the human brain we have nearly reached the limits of biological intelligence.

  11. Genetic contributions to human brain morphology and intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Posthuma, D

    2006-01-01

    Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology...... of specific GM areas in the brain have been studied, the heritability of focal WM is unknown. Similarly, it is unresolved whether there is a common genetic origin of focal GM and WM structures with intelligence. We explored the genetic influence on focal GM and WM densities in magnetic resonance brain images.......55). Intelligence shared a common genetic origin with superior occipitofrontal, callosal, and left optical radiation WM and frontal, occipital, and parahippocampal GM (phenotypic correlations up to 0.35). These findings point to a neural network that shares a common genetic origin with human intelligence...

  12. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  13. Brain and Social Networks: Fundamental Building Blocks of Human Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-09-01

    How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains. Here, we use the example of how ideas and behaviors spread to illustrate the potential of multilayer network models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A family of hyperelastic models for human brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, L. Angela; Budday, Silvia; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Experiments on brain samples under multiaxial loading have shown that human brain tissue is both extremely soft when compared to other biological tissues and characterized by a peculiar elastic response under combined shear and compression/tension: there is a significant increase in shear stress with increasing axial compression compared to a moderate increase with increasing axial tension. Recent studies have revealed that many widely used constitutive models for soft biological tissues fail to capture this characteristic response. Here, guided by experiments of human brain tissue, we develop a family of modeling approaches that capture the elasticity of brain tissue under varying simple shear superposed on varying axial stretch by exploiting key observations about the behavior of the nonlinear shear modulus, which can be obtained directly from the experimental data.

  15. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... brain is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  16. Advanced morphometric techniques applied to the study of human brain anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Alemán Gómez, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    El desarrollo de las técnicas de imágenes por resonancia magnética han permitido el estudio y cuantificación, in vivo, de los cambios que ocurren en la morfología cerebral ligados a procesos tales como el neurodesarrollo, el envejecimiento, el aprendizaje o la enfermedad. Un gran número de métodos de morfometría han sido desarrollados con el fin de extraer la información contenida en estas imágenes y traducirla en indicadores de forma o tamaño, tales como el volumen o el grosor cortical; marc...

  17. Three-dimensional microtomographic imaging of human brain cortex

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutania, Ryuta; Uesugi, Kentaro; Ohyama, Masami; Takekoshi, Susumu; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an x-ray microtomographic technique for imaging the three-dimensional structure of the human cerebral cortex. Neurons in the brain constitute a neural circuit as a three-dimensional network. The brain tissue is composed of light elements that give little contrast in a hard x-ray transmission image. The contrast was enhanced by staining neural cells with metal compounds. The obtained structure revealed the microarchitecture of the gray and white matter regions of the frontal cortex, which is responsible for the higher brain functions.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of oxytocin receptors in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, M L; Petrusz, P; Suzuki, K; Marson, L; Pedersen, C A

    2013-12-03

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates rodent, primate and human social behaviors and stress responses. OT binding studies employing (125)I-d(CH2)5-[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2(9)] ornithine vasotocin ((125)I-OTA), has been used to locate and quantify OT receptors (OTRs) in numerous areas of the rat brain. This ligand has also been applied to locating OTRs in the human brain. The results of the latter studies, however, have been brought into question because of subsequent evidence that (125)I-OTA is much less selective for OTR vs. vasopressin receptors in the primate brain. Previously we used a monoclonal antibody directed toward a region of the human OTR to demonstrate selective immunostaining of cell bodies and fibers in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area and ventral septum of a cynomolgus monkey (Boccia et al., 2001). The present study employed the same monoclonal antibody to study the location of OTRs in tissue blocks containing cortical, limbic and brainstem areas dissected from fixed adult, human female brains. OTRs were visualized in discrete cell bodies and/or fibers in the central and basolateral regions of the amygdala, medial preoptic area (MPOA), anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, olfactory nucleus, vertical limb of the diagonal band, ventrolateral septum, anterior cingulate and hypoglossal and solitary nuclei. OTR staining was not observed in the hippocampus (including CA2 and CA3), parietal cortex, raphe nucleus, nucleus ambiguus or pons. These results suggest that there are some similarities, but also important differences, in the locations of OTRs in human and rodent brains. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) utilizing a monoclonal antibody provides specific localization of OTRs in the human brain and thereby provides opportunity to further study OTR in human development and psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes eKenning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggest that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum. The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli. Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans.

  20. Regional distribution of serotonin transporter protein in postmortem human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, Stephen J. [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail: Stephen_Kish@CAMH.net; Furukawa, Yoshiaki [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Chang Lijan [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Tong Junchao [Human Neurochemical Pathology Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Ginovart, Nathalie [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Meyer, Jeffrey H. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Introduction: The primary approach in assessing the status of brain serotonin neurons in human conditions such as major depression and exposure to the illicit drug ecstasy has been the use of neuroimaging procedures involving radiotracers that bind to the serotonin transporter (SERT). However, there has been no consistency in the selection of a 'SERT-free' reference region for the estimation of free and nonspecific binding, as occipital cortex, cerebellum and white matter have all been employed. Objective and Methods: To identify areas of human brain that might have very low SERT levels, we measured, by a semiquantitative Western blotting procedure, SERT protein immunoreactivity throughout the postmortem brain of seven normal adult subjects. Results: Serotonin transporter could be quantitated in all examined brain areas. However, the SERT concentration in cerebellar cortex and white matter were only at trace values, being approximately 20% of average cerebral cortex and 5% of average striatum values. Conclusion: Although none of the examined brain areas are completely free of SERT, human cerebellar cortex has low SERT binding as compared to other examined brain regions, with the exception of white matter. Since the cerebellar cortical SERT binding is not zero, this region will not be a suitable reference region for SERT radioligands with very low free and nonspecific binding. For SERT radioligands with reasonably high free and nonspecific binding, the cerebellar cortex should be a useful reference region, provided other necessary radioligand assumptions are met.

  1. Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew CN CHEN

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, pain perception in the human brain has been studied with EEG/MEG brain topography and PET/ fMRI neuroimaging techniques. A host of cortical and subeortical loci can be activated by various nociceptive conditions. The activation in pain perception can be induced by physical (electrical, thermal, mechanical), chemical (capsacin, ascoric acid), psychological (anxiety, stress, nocebo) means, and pathological (e.g. migraine, neuropathic) diseases. This article deals mainly on the activation, but not modulation, of human pain in the brain. The brain areas identified are named pain representation, matrix, neuraxis, or signature. The sites are not uniformly isolated across various studies, but largely include a set of cores sites: thalamus and primary somatic area (SI), second somatic area (SII), insular cortex (IC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), cingnlate, and parietal cortices. Other areas less reported and considered important in pain perception include brainstem, hippocampus, amygdala and supplementary motor area (SMA). The issues of pain perception basically encompass both the site and the mode of brain function. Although the site issue is delineared to a large degree, the mode issue has been much less explored. From the temporal dynamics, IC can be considered as the initial stage in genesis of pain perception as conscious suffering, the unique aversion in the human brain.

  2. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eVigneault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3 are responsible for uploading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are considered as specific markers of canonical glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 is found in neurons previously shown to use other neurotransmitters than glutamate. Although there exists a rich literature on the localization of these glutamatergic markers in the rodent brain, little is currently known about the distribution of VGLUT1-3 in the human brain. In the present study, using subtype specific probes and antisera, we examined the localization of the three vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain by in situ hybridization, immunoautoradiography and immunohistochemistry. We found that the VGLUT1 transcript was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA was mainly found in the thalamus and brainstem. VGLUT3 mRNA was localized in scarce neurons within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and raphe nuclei. Following immunoautoradiographic labeling, intense VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunoreactivities were observed in all regions investigated (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, cerebellum, thalamus, amygdala, substantia nigra, raphe while VGLUT3 was absent from the thalamus and cerebellum. This extensive mapping of VGLUT1-3 in human brain reveals distributions that correspond for the most part to those previously described in rodent brains.

  3. Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C N Chen, Andrew

    2008-10-25

    In the past two decades, pain perception in the human brain has been studied with EEG/MEG brain topography and PET/fMRI neuroimaging techniques. A host of cortical and subcortical loci can be activated by various nociceptive conditions. The activation in pain perception can be induced by physical (electrical, thermal, mechanical), chemical (capsacin, ascoric acid), psychological (anxiety, stress, nocebo) means, and pathological (e.g. migraine, neuropathic) diseases. This article deals mainly on the activation, but not modulation, of human pain in the brain. The brain areas identified are named pain representation, matrix, neuraxis, or signature. The sites are not uniformly isolated across various studies, but largely include a set of cores sites: thalamus and primary somatic area (SI), second somatic area (SII), insular cortex (IC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), cingulate, and parietal cortices. Other areas less reported and considered important in pain perception include brainstem, hippocampus, amygdala and supplementary motor area (SMA). The issues of pain perception basically encompass both the site and the mode of brain function. Although the site issue is delineared to a large degree, the mode issue has been much less explored. From the temporal dynamics, IC can be considered as the initial stage in genesis of pain perception as conscious suffering, the unique aversion in the human brain.

  4. Cell lineage analysis in human brain using endogenous retroelements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrony, Gilad D; Lee, Eunjung; Mehta, Bhaven K; Benjamini, Yuval; Johnson, Robert M; Cai, Xuyu; Yang, Lixing; Haseley, Psalm; Lehmann, Hillel S; Park, Peter J; Walsh, Christopher A

    2015-01-07

    Somatic mutations occur during brain development and are increasingly implicated as a cause of neurogenetic disease. However, the patterns in which somatic mutations distribute in the human brain are unknown. We used high-coverage whole-genome sequencing of single neurons from a normal individual to identify spontaneous somatic mutations as clonal marks to track cell lineages in human brain. Somatic mutation analyses in >30 locations throughout the nervous system identified multiple lineages and sublineages of cells marked by different LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition events and subsequent mutation of poly-A microsatellites within L1. One clone contained thousands of cells limited to the left middle frontal gyrus, whereas a second distinct clone contained millions of cells distributed over the entire left hemisphere. These patterns mirror known somatic mutation disorders of brain development and suggest that focally distributed mutations are also prevalent in normal brains. Single-cell analysis of somatic mutation enables tracing of cell lineage clones in human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades.

  6. Students as resurrectionists--A multimodal humanities project in anatomy putting ethics and professionalism in historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Rachel R; Jones, Trahern W; Hussain, Fareeda Taher Nazer; Bringe, Kariline; Harvey, Ronee E; Person-Rennell, Nicole H; Newman, James S

    2010-01-01

    Because medical students have many different learning styles, the authors, medical students at Mayo Clinic, College of Medicine researched the history of anatomical specimen procurement, reviewing topic-related film, academic literature, and novels, to write, direct, and perform a dramatization based on Robert Louis Stevenson's The Body-Snatcher. Into this performance, they incorporated dance, painting, instrumental and vocal performance, and creative writing. In preparation for the performance, each actor researched an aspect of the history of anatomy. These micro-research projects were presented in a lecture before the play. Not intended to be a research study, this descriptive article discusses how student research and ethics discussions became a theatrical production. This addition to classroom and laboratory learning addresses the deep emotional response experienced by some students and provides an avenue to understand and express these feelings. This enhanced multimodal approach to"holistic learning" could be applied to any topic in the medical school curriculum, thoroughly adding to the didactics with history, humanities, and team dynamics.

  7. A quantitative transcriptome reference map of the normal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracausi, Maria; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Piovesan, Allison; Bruno, Samantha; Strippoli, Pierluigi

    2014-10-01

    We performed an innovative systematic meta-analysis of 60 gene expression profiles of whole normal human brain, to provide a quantitative transcriptome reference map of it, i.e. a reference typical value of expression for each of the 39,250 known, mapped and 26,026 uncharacterized (unmapped) transcripts. To this aim, we used the software named Transcriptome Mapper (TRAM), which is able to generate transcriptome maps based on gene expression data from multiple sources. We also analyzed differential expression by comparing the brain transcriptome with those derived from human foetal brain gene expression, from a pool of human tissues (except the brain) and from the two normal human brain regions cerebellum and cerebral cortex, which are two of the main regions severely affected when cognitive impairment occurs, as happens in the case of trisomy 21. Data were downloaded from microarray databases, processed and analyzed using TRAM software and validated in vitro by assaying gene expression through several magnitude orders by 'real-time' reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The excellent agreement between in silico and experimental data suggested that our transcriptome maps may be a useful quantitative reference benchmark for gene expression studies related to the human brain. Furthermore, our analysis yielded biological insights about those genes which have an intrinsic over-/under-expression in the brain, in addition offering a basis for the regional analysis of gene expression. This could be useful for the study of chromosomal alterations associated to cognitive impairment, such as trisomy 21, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability.

  8. Anatomy and histology of the brain and sense organs of the Antarctic eel cod Muraenolepis microps (Gadiformes; Muraenolepididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, J T; Lannoo, M J

    2001-10-01

    Brain regions, cranial nerves, and sense organs in Muraenolepis microps, an Antarctic gadiform fish, were examined to determine which features could be attributed to a gadiform ancestry and which to habitation of Antarctic waters. We found that the central nervous system and sense organs are well developed, showing neither substantial regression nor hypertrophy. A detailed drawing of the brain and cranial nerves is provided. The rostral position of the olfactory bulbs and telencephalic size and lobation are common for the order. The optic tectum and corpus cerebelli are smaller than in most other gadiforms. The shape of the corpus cerebelli is not distinctive among gadiforms. The lateral line region is moderately well-developed, but not hypertrophied to the extent seen in deep-sea gadiforms. As is the case in gadids possessing barbels and elongated pelvic rays, Muraenolepis has well-developed facial lobes, although these are smaller and more laterally positioned. The vagal lobes are deeply placed in the rhombencephalon and project into the fourth ventricle. The brain of Muraenolepis resembles that of a phyletically derived gadoid, especially a phycid, more than it resembles the brain of a phyletically basal macrourid. Two histological features of the diencephalon of Muraenolepis appear to be unique among gadiforms: a well-organized thalamic central medial nucleus and subependymal expansions. Muraenolepis has a pure rod retina like many deep-sea species but lacks the superimposed layers of rod outer segments. The histology of the nonvisual sense organs, especially the olfactory and external taste systems, are well-developed in Muraenolepis but not hypertrophied. We relate our findings to what is known about neural morphology in other gadiforms and in phyletically distant notothenioids and liparids that are sympatric with Muraenolepis on the Antarctic shelf. The only feature that reflects an Antarctic existence is the diencephalic subependymal expansions, which

  9. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Mental Health Services Research (4 items) Genetics (3 items) Brain Anatomy and Physiology (9 items) ... 3 items) Mental Health Services Research (4 items) Genetics (3 items) Brain Anatomy and Physiology (9 items) ...

  10. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  11. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  12. The heritability of chimpanzee and human brain asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D; Schapiro, Steven J; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-12-28

    Human brains are markedly asymmetric in structure and lateralized in function, which suggests a relationship between these two properties. The brains of other closely related primates, such as chimpanzees, show similar patterns of asymmetry, but to a lesser degree, indicating an increase in anatomical and functional asymmetry during hominin evolution. We analysed the heritability of cerebral asymmetry in chimpanzees and humans using classic morphometrics, geometric morphometrics, and quantitative genetic techniques. In our analyses, we separated directional asymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry (FA), which is indicative of environmental influences during development. We show that directional patterns of asymmetry, those that are consistently present in most individuals in a population, do not have significant heritability when measured through simple linear metrics, but they have marginally significant heritability in humans when assessed through three-dimensional configurations of landmarks that reflect variation in the size, position, and orientation of different cortical regions with respect to each other. Furthermore, genetic correlations between left and right hemispheres are substantially lower in humans than in chimpanzees, which points to a relatively stronger environmental influence on left-right differences in humans. We also show that the level of FA has significant heritability in both species in some regions of the cerebral cortex. This suggests that brain responsiveness to environmental influences, which may reflect neural plasticity, has genetic bases in both species. These results have implications for the evolvability of brain asymmetry and plasticity among humans and our close relatives.

  13. Notch receptor expression in human brain arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Felberg, Sandra; Wu, Hope Hueizhi; Toms, Steven A; Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-08-01

    The roles of the Notch pathway proteins in normal adult vascular physiology and the pathogenesis of brain arteriovenous malformations are not well-understood. Notch 1 and 4 have been detected in human and mutant mice vascular malformations respectively. Although mutations in the human Notch 3 gene caused a genetic form of vascular stroke and dementia, its role in arteriovenous malformations development has been unknown. In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry screening on tissue microarrays containing eight surgically resected human brain arteriovenous malformations and 10 control surgical epilepsy samples. The tissue microarrays were evaluated for Notch 1-4 expression. We have found that compared to normal brain vascular tissue Notch-3 was dramatically increased in brain arteriovenous malformations. Similarly, Notch 4 labelling was also increased in vascular malformations and was confirmed by western blot analysis. Notch 2 was not detectable in any of the human vessels analysed. Using both immunohistochemistry on microarrays and western blot analysis, we have found that Notch-1 expression was detectable in control vessels, and discovered a significant decrease of Notch 1 expression in vascular malformations. We have demonstrated that Notch 3 and 4, and not Notch 1, were highly increased in human arteriovenous malformations. Our findings suggested that Notch 4, and more importantly, Notch 3, may play a role in the development and pathobiology of human arteriovenous malformations.

  14. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennes, M.; Jenkinson, M.; Valabregue, R.; Buitelaar, J.; Beckmann, C.; Smith, S.

    2014-01-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI

  15. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennes, Maarten; Jenkinson, Mark; Valabregue, Romain; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian; Smith, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI sequences, non-wasteful FOV settings are important to achieve the best temporal and spatial resolution. In practice, however, imperfect FOV size estimation often results in partial brain coverage for a significant number of participants per study, or, alternatively, an unnecessarily large voxel-size or number of slices to guarantee full brain coverage. To provide normative FOV guidelines we estimated population distributions of brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction using data from 14,781 individuals. Our results indicated that 11mm in the z-direction differentiate between obtaining full brain coverage for 90% vs. 99.9% of participants. Importantly, we observed that rotating the FOV to optimally cover the brain, and thus minimize the number of slices needed, effectively reduces the required inferior-superior FOV size by ~5%. For a typical adult imaging study, 99.9% of the population can be imaged with full brain coverage when using an inferior-superior FOV of 142mm, assuming optimal slice orientation and minimal within-scan head motion. By providing population distributions for brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction we improve the potential for obtaining full brain coverage, especially in 2D-EPI sequences used in most functional and diffusion MRI studies. We further enable optimization of related imaging parameters including the number of slices, TR and total acquisition time.

  16. Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

  17. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of two species of phyletically basal non-Antarctic thornfishes of the Antarctic suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes: Bovichtidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    The predominantly non-Antarctic family Bovichtidae is phyletically basal within the perciform suborder Notothenioidei, the dominant component of the Antarctic fish fauna. In this article we focus on the South Atlantic bovichtids Bovichtus diacanthus, the klipfish from tide pools at Tristan da Cunha, and Cottoperca gobio, the frogmouth from the Patagonian shelf and Falkland Islands. We document the anatomy and histology of the brains, olfactory apparatus, retina, and cephalic lateral line system. We also use the microvascular casting agent Microfil to examine ocular vascular structures. We provide detailed drawings of the brains and cranial nerves of both species. Typical of perciforms, the brains of both species have a well-developed tectum and telencephalon and robust thalamic nuclei. The telencephalon of C. gobio is prominently lobed, with the dorsomedial nucleus more conspicuous than in any other notothenioid. The corpus cerebelli is relatively small and upright and, unlike other notothenioids, has prominent transverse sulci on the dorsal and caudal surfaces. Areas for lateral line mechanoreception (eminentia granularis and crista cerebellaris) are also conspicuous but olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory areas are less prominent. The anterior lateral line nerve complex is larger than the posterior lateral line nerve in B. diacanthus, and in their cephalic lateral line systems both species possess branched membranous tubules (which do not contain neuromasts) with small pores. These are especially complex in B. diacanthus where they become increasingly branched and more highly pored in progressively larger specimens. Superficial neuromasts are sparse. Both species have duplex (cone and rod) retinae that are 1.25-fold thicker and have nearly 5-fold more photoreceptors and than those of most Antarctic notothenioids. Convergence ratios are also high for bovichtids. Bovichtus diacanthus has a yellow intraocular filter in the dorsal aspect of the cornea. Both

  18. The immune response of the human brain to abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Anton; Cervenka, Simon; Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin; Rasmussen, Lars S; Zetterberg, Henrik; Erlandsson Harris, Helena; Stridh, Pernilla; Christensson, Eva; Granström, Anna; Schening, Anna; Dymmel, Karin; Knave, Nina; Terrando, Niccolò; Maze, Mervyn; Borg, Jacqueline; Varrone, Andrea; Halldin, Christer; Blennow, Kaj; Farde, Lars; Eriksson, Lars I

    2017-04-01

    Surgery launches a systemic inflammatory reaction that reaches the brain and associates with immune activation and cognitive decline. Although preclinical studies have in part described this systemic-to-brain signaling pathway, we lack information on how these changes appear in humans. This study examines the short- and long-term impact of abdominal surgery on the human brain immune system by positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to blood immune reactivity, plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function. Eight males undergoing prostatectomy under general anesthesia were included. Prior to surgery (baseline), at postoperative days 3 to 4, and after 3 months, patients were examined using [(11) C]PBR28 brain PET imaging to assess brain immune cell activation. Concurrently, systemic inflammatory biomarkers, ex vivo blood tests on immunoreactivity to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, and cognitive function were assessed. Patients showed a global downregulation of gray matter [(11) C]PBR28 binding of 26 ± 26% (mean ± standard deviation) at 3 to 4 days postoperatively compared to baseline (p = 0.023), recovering or even increasing after 3 months. LPS-induced release of the proinflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor-α in blood displayed a reduction (41 ± 39%) on the 3rd to 4th postoperative day, corresponding to changes in [(11) C]PBR28 distribution volume. Change in Stroop Color-Word Test performance between postoperative days 3 to 4 and 3 months correlated to change in [(11) C]PBR28 binding (p = 0.027). This study translates preclinical data on changes in the brain immune system after surgery to humans, and suggests an interplay between the human brain and the inflammatory response of the peripheral innate immune system. These findings may be related to postsurgical impairments of cognitive function. Ann Neurol 2017;81:572-582. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  19. Comparative anatomy of the prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, postsubiculum, and parasubiculum in human, monkey, and rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin

    2013-12-15

    The subicular complex, including the prosubiculum (ProS), subiculum (Sub), presubiculum, postsubiculum (PoS), and parasubiculum (PaS), plays important roles in the medial temporal memory system and is heavily involved in many neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. In the literature, the ProS (in primate) and PoS (in rodent) are inconstantly identified, making data comparison difficult across species. This review is an attempt to discuss equivalencies and extent of the five subicular components in human, monkey, and rodent based on available information on their cytoarchitecture, chemoarchitecture, molecular signature, and neural connectivity. All five subicular cortices exist in human, monkey, and rodent. In human and monkey, the ProS and Sub extend into the uncal region anteriorly, and the PoS and PaS reach the cingulate isthmus posteriorly. In rodent, most of the typical subicular cortices are located in the dorsal and caudal portions of the hippocampal formation, and the modified version of the ventral ProS and Sub corresponds to the modified description of the uncal ProS and Sub in monkey and human. An interesting triangular region in rodent located at the juncture of the PoS, PaS, retrosplenial cortex, and visual cortex appears to be the equivalent of the monkey area prostriata. Major connections of the five subicular cortices are also summarized based on unified criteria discussed in this review, with distinct connections revealed between the ProS and the Sub.

  20. Voice processing in monkey and human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sophie K

    2008-09-01

    Studies in humans have indicated that the anterior superior temporal sulcus has an important role in the processing of information about human voices, especially the identification of talkers from their voice. A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with macaques provides strong evidence that anterior auditory fields, part of the auditory 'what' pathway, preferentially respond to changes in the identity of conspecifics, rather than specific vocalizations from the same individual.

  1. Neurospin Seminar: From the Proton to the Human Brain

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From the Proton to the Human Brain Speaker: Prof Denis Le Bihan Abstract: The understanding of the human brain is one of the main scientific challenges of the 21st century. In the early 2000s the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched a program to conceive and build a “human brain explorer”, the first human MRI scanner operating at 11.7T. This scanner was envisioned to be part of the ambitious Iseult project, bridging together industrial and academic partners to push the limits of molecular neuroimaging, from mouse to man, using Ultra-High Field (UHF) MRI. In this seminar a summary of the main features of this magnet, and the neuroscience and medical targets of NeuroSpin where this outstanding instrument will be installed in 2017 will be surveyed. The unprecedented resolution and the new contrasts allowed by such UHF magnets, in combination with innovative concepts in physics and neurobiology, will allow to explore the human brain at a mesoscale at which everything remains to d...

  2. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Renteria, Miguel E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Olde Loohuis, Loes M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; van Eijk, Kristel R; Walters, Raymond K; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Winkler, Anderson M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M H; Hartberg, Cecilie B; Haukvik, Unn K; Heister, Angelien J G A M; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Makkinje, Remco R R; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A M; McKay, D Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S L; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Bastin, Mark E; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Carless, Melanie A; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy

    2015-04-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

  3. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Energetics and the evolution of human brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ana; van Schaik, Carel P; Isler, Karin

    2011-11-09

    The human brain stands out among mammals by being unusually large. The expensive-tissue hypothesis explains its evolution by proposing a trade-off between the size of the brain and that of the digestive tract, which is smaller than expected for a primate of our body size. Although this hypothesis is widely accepted, empirical support so far has been equivocal. Here we test it in a sample of 100 mammalian species, including 23 primates, by analysing brain size and organ mass data. We found that, controlling for fat-free body mass, brain size is not negatively correlated with the mass of the digestive tract or any other expensive organ, thus refuting the expensive-tissue hypothesis. Nonetheless, consistent with the existence of energy trade-offs with brain size, we find that the size of brains and adipose depots are negatively correlated in mammals, indicating that encephalization and fat storage are compensatory strategies to buffer against starvation. However, these two strategies can be combined if fat storage does not unduly hamper locomotor efficiency. We propose that human encephalization was made possible by a combination of stabilization of energy inputs and a redirection of energy from locomotion, growth and reproduction.

  5. Comprehensive cellular‐resolution atlas of the adult human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Joshua J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A.C.; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet‐Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A.; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Fischl, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole‐brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high‐resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large‐format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto‐ and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127–3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  6. Authenticity in Anatomy Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica

    2017-01-12

    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  7. Sensitivity field distributions for segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis based on real human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. A.; Kramarenko, V. K.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Salamatova, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. V.; Vassilevski, Yu V.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, an adaptive unstructured tetrahedral mesh generation technology is applied for simulation of segmental bioimpedance measurements using high-resolution whole-body model of the Visible Human Project man. Sensitivity field distributions for a conventional tetrapolar, as well as eight- and ten-electrode measurement configurations are obtained. Based on the ten-electrode configuration, we suggest an algorithm for monitoring changes in the upper lung area.

  8. A model of working memory: bridging the gap between electrophysiology and human brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagamets, M A; Horwitz, B

    2000-01-01

    Human neuroimaging methods such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have made possible the study of large-scale distributed networks in the behaving human brain. Although many imaging studies support and extend knowledge gained from other experimental modalities such as animal single-cell recordings, there have also been a substantial number of experiments that appear to contradict the animal studies. Part of the reason for this is that neuroimaging is an indirect measure of neuronal firing activity, and thus interpretation is difficult. Computational modeling can help to bridge the gap by providing a substrate for making explicit the assumptions and constraints provided from other sources such as anatomy, physiology and behavior. We describe a large-scale model of working memory that we have used to examine a number of issues relating to the interpretation of imaging data. The gating mechanism that regulates engagement and retention of short-term memory is revised to better reflect hypothesized underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms. It is shown that in addition to imparting better performance for the memory circuit, this mechanism also provides a better match to imaging data from working memory studies.

  9. Automatic segmentation of the caudate nucleus from human brain MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Bettinger, Keith; Shen, Lin; Reiss, Allan L

    2007-04-01

    We describe a knowledge-driven algorithm to automatically delineate the caudate nucleus (CN) region of the human brain from a magnetic resonance (MR) image. Since the lateral ventricles (LVs) are good landmarks for positioning the CN, the algorithm first extracts the LVs, and automatically localizes the CN from this information guided by anatomic knowledge of the structure. The face validity of the algorithm was tested with 55 high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets, and segmentation results were overlaid onto the original image data for visual inspection. We further evaluated the algorithm by comparing automated segmentation results to a "gold standard" established by human experts for these 55 MR datasets. Quantitative comparison showed a high intraclass correlation between the algorithm and expert as well as high spatial overlap between the regions-of-interest (ROIs) generated from the two methods. The mean spatial overlap +/- standard deviation (defined by the intersection of the 2 ROIs divided by the union of the 2 ROIs) was equal to 0.873 +/- 0.0234. The algorithm has been incorporated into a public domain software program written in Java and, thus, has the potential to be of broad benefit to neuroimaging investigators interested in basal ganglia anatomy and function.

  10. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  11. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  12. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Friedrich

    Full Text Available Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  13. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Roland; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-05-28

    Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically) structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  14. A hierarchical model of the evolution of human brain specializations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, H Clark

    2012-06-26

    The study of information-processing adaptations in the brain is controversial, in part because of disputes about the form such adaptations might take. Many psychologists assume that adaptations come in two kinds, specialized and general-purpose. Specialized mechanisms are typically thought of as innate, domain-specific, and isolated from other brain systems, whereas generalized mechanisms are developmentally plastic, domain-general, and interactive. However, if brain mechanisms evolve through processes of descent with modification, they are likely to be heterogeneous, rather than coming in just two kinds. They are likely to be hierarchically organized, with some design features widely shared across brain systems and others specific to particular processes. Also, they are likely to be largely developmentally plastic and interactive with other brain systems, rather than canalized and isolated. This article presents a hierarchical model of brain specialization, reviewing evidence for the model from evolutionary developmental biology, genetics, brain mapping, and comparative studies. Implications for the search for uniquely human traits are discussed, along with ways in which conventional views of modularity in psychology may need to be revised.

  15. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions.

  16. Kisspeptin modulates sexual and emotional brain processing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comninos, Alexander N.; Wall, Matthew B.; Demetriou, Lysia; Shah, Amar J.; Clarke, Sophie A.; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Nesbitt, Alexander; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Prague, Julia K.; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Salem, Victoria; Nijher, Gurjinder M.; Jayasena, Channa N.; Tanner, Mark; Bassett, Paul; Mehta, Amrish; Rabiner, Eugenii A.; Hönigsperger, Christoph; Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Wilson, Steven Ray; Brown, Rachel C.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Dhillo, Waljit S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Sex, emotion, and reproduction are fundamental and tightly entwined aspects of human behavior. At a population level in humans, both the desire for sexual stimulation and the desire to bond with a partner are important precursors to reproduction. However, the relationships between these processes are incompletely understood. The limbic brain system has key roles in sexual and emotional behaviors, and is a likely candidate system for the integration of behavior with the hormonal reproductive axis. We investigated the effects of kisspeptin, a recently identified key reproductive hormone, on limbic brain activity and behavior. METHODS. Using a combination of functional neuroimaging and hormonal and psychometric analyses, we compared the effects of kisspeptin versus vehicle administration in 29 healthy heterosexual young men. RESULTS. We demonstrated that kisspeptin administration enhanced limbic brain activity specifically in response to sexual and couple-bonding stimuli. Furthermore, kisspeptin’s enhancement of limbic brain structures correlated with psychometric measures of reward, drive, mood, and sexual aversion, providing functional significance. In addition, kisspeptin administration attenuated negative mood. CONCLUSIONS. Collectively, our data provide evidence of an undescribed role for kisspeptin in integrating sexual and emotional brain processing with reproduction in humans. These results have important implications for our understanding of reproductive biology and are highly relevant to the current pharmacological development of kisspeptin as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with common disorders of reproductive function. FUNDING. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Wellcome Trust (Ref 080268), and the Medical Research Council (MRC). PMID:28112678

  17. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  18. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libermann, T A; Razon, N; Bartal, A D; Yarden, Y; Schlessinger, J; Soreq, H

    1984-02-01

    The expression of receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF-R) was determined in 29 samples of brain tumors from 22 patients. Primary gliogenous tumors, of various degrees of cancer, five meningiomas, and two neuroblastomas were examined. Tissue samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after the operation and stored at -70 degrees until use. Cerebral tissue samples from 11 patients who died from diseases not related to the central nervous system served as controls. Immunoprecipitation of functional EGF-R-kinase complexes revealed high levels of EGF-R in all of the brain tumors of nonneuronal origin that were examined. The level of EGF-R varied between tumors from different patients and also between specimens prelevated from different areas of the same tumor. In contrast, the levels of EGF-R from control specimens were invariably low. The biochemical properties of EGF-R in brain tumor specimens were found to be indistinguishable from those of the well-characterized EGF-R from the A-431 cell line, derived from human epidermoid carcinomas. Human brain EGF-R displays a molecular weight of 170,000 by polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. It is phosphorylated mainly in tyrosine residues and shows a 2-dimensional phosphopeptide map similar to that obtained with the phosphorylated EGF-R from membranes of A-431 cells. Our observations suggest that induction of EGF-R expression may accompany the malignant transformation of human brain cells of nonneuronal origin.

  19. New perspectives on corpora amylacea in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Elisabet; Cabezón, Itsaso; Pelegrí, Carme; Vilaplana, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Corpora amylacea are structures of unknown origin and function that appear with age in human brains and are profuse in selected brain areas in several neurodegenerative conditions. They are constituted of glucose polymers and may contain waste elements derived from different cell types. As we previously found on particular polyglucosan bodies in mouse brain, we report here that corpora amylacea present some neo-epitopes that can be recognized by natural antibodies, a certain kind of antibodies that are involved in tissue homeostasis. We hypothesize that corpora amylacea, and probably some other polyglucosan bodies, are waste containers in which deleterious or residual products are isolated to be later eliminated through the action of the innate immune system. In any case, the presence of neo-epitopes on these structures and the existence of natural antibodies directed against them could become a new focal point for the study of both age-related and degenerative brain processes. PMID:28155917

  20. Comparison of Feline Brain Anatomy in 0.25 and 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowska, P; Adamiak, Z; Holak, P; Zhalniarovich, Y

    2017-04-01

    The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane. Based on a detailed catalogue of feline brain structures visible at 3 T in previously published studies, it was examined which structures were visible on low field images. Anatomic structures were identified and compared to assess the reliability of diagnoses made based on low-field magnetic resonance imaging. In low-field scans, 92 structures were identified. Elements of auditory, visual, motor pathways, hippocampus and cerebral ventricular system were distinguished. Low-field as well as high-field magnetic resonance imaging support the identification of local tissue lesions, metastasis, focal ischaemia and haemorrhage, disorders associated with ventricular system dilation and hydrocephalus. It also produced accurate images of the hippocampus, which contributes to reliable diagnoses of various forms of epilepsy in cats. Due to technical limitations, a low-field scanner is unlikely to visualize microtraumas, local inflammations, small haematomas or metastatic tumours. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Cunningham

    Full Text Available Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes, Apterygidae (kiwi, and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae, non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae. We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae. Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid

  2. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Susan J; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Castro, Isabel; Alley, Maurice R; Birkhead, Tim R; Parsons, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes), Apterygidae (kiwi), and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills) have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles) within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae) and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae), non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae). We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae). Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid bill

  3. A chain of suprasegmental neuroscillatory circuits: a human brain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, V D

    1988-01-01

    A novel electrophysiological model of human brain electrical activity and functions is proposed. It views the human central nervous system as a chain of three suprasegmental neuroscillatory circuits, namely prosencephalic, mesencephalic, and rhombencephalic. Each circuit consists of a network of periventricular paracrine core neurons, efferent motor plate neurons, and sensory-associative alar plate neurons mediating suprasegmental electroclinical phenomena. The model is based on the exponential analyses of well established human data from the fields of electroencephalography, evoked potentials, wake-sleep spectrum, stages of anesthesia, and a variety of human tremors. This neuroscillatory chain is functionally analogous to the chain of cardiac pacemaker neurons.

  4. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  5. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kandan; Scholte, H Steven; Groen, Iris I A; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Ghebreab, Sennay

    2014-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW) model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2, and V3. However, BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  6. Brain size at birth throughout human evolution: a new method for estimating neonatal brain size in hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, Jeremy M; Lesnik, Julie J

    2008-12-01

    An increase in brain size is a hallmark of human evolution. Questions regarding the evolution of brain development and obstetric constraints in the human lineage can be addressed with accurate estimates of the size of the brain at birth in hominins. Previous estimates of brain size at birth in fossil hominins have been calculated from regressions of neonatal body or brain mass to adult body mass, but this approach is problematic for two reasons: modern humans are outliers for these regressions, and hominin adult body masses are difficult to estimate. To accurately estimate the brain size at birth in extinct human ancestors, an equation is needed for which modern humans fit the anthropoid regression and one in which the hominin variable entered into the regression equation has limited error. Using phylogenetically sensitive statistics, a resampling approach, and brain-mass data from the literature and from National Primate Research Centers on 362 neonates and 2802 adults from eight different anthropoid species, we found that the size of the adult brain can strongly predict the size of the neonatal brain (r2=0.97). This regression predicts human brain size, indicating that humans have precisely the brain size expected as an adult given the size of the brain at birth. We estimated the size of the neonatal brain in fossil hominins from a reduced major axis regression equation using published cranial capacities of 89 adult fossil crania. We suggest that australopiths gave birth to infants with cranial capacities that were on average 180cc (95% CI: 158-205cc), slightly larger than the average neonatal brain size of chimpanzees. Neonatal brain size increased in early Homo to 225cc (95% CI: 198-257cc) and in Homo erectus to approximately 270cc (95% CI: 237-310cc). These results have implications for interpreting the evolution of the birth process and brain development in all hominins from the australopiths and early Homo, through H. erectus, to Homo sapiens.

  7. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain

    CERN Document Server

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. ...

  8. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... in the hippocampus (4.5 + or - 1.6 vs. 1.4 + or - 1.1 mRNA/ssDNA; P human brain following training suggest......The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...

  9. Chemical Probes for Visualizing Intact Animal and Human Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hei Ming; Ng, Wai-Lung; Gentleman, Steve M; Wu, Wutian

    2017-06-22

    Newly developed tissue clearing techniques can be used to render intact tissues transparent. When combined with fluorescent labeling technologies and optical sectioning microscopy, this allows visualization of fine structure in three dimensions. Gene-transfection techniques have proved very useful in visualizing cellular structures in animal models, but they are not applicable to human brain tissue. Here, we discuss the characteristics of an ideal chemical fluorescent probe for use in brain and other cleared tissues, and offer a comprehensive overview of currently available chemical probes. We describe their working principles and compare their performance with the goal of simplifying probe selection for neuropathologists and stimulating probe development by chemists. We propose several approaches for the development of innovative chemical labeling methods which, when combined with tissue clearing, have the potential to revolutionize how we study the structure and function of the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic control of human brain transcript expression in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennifer A; Gibbs, J Raphael; Clarke, Jennifer; Ray, Monika; Zhang, Weixiong; Holmans, Peter; Rohrer, Kristen; Zhao, Alice; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; McCorquodale, Donald S; Cuello, Cindy; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Nath, Priti; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta; Huentelman, Matthew J; Hu-Lince, Diane; Coon, Keith D; Craig, David W; Pearson, John V; Heward, Christopher B; Reiman, Eric M; Stephan, Dietrich; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda J

    2009-04-01

    We recently surveyed the relationship between the human brain transcriptome and genome in a series of neuropathologically normal postmortem samples. We have now analyzed additional samples with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD; final n = 188 controls, 176 cases). Nine percent of the cortical transcripts that we analyzed had expression profiles correlated with their genotypes in the combined cohort, and approximately 5% of transcripts had SNP-transcript relationships that could distinguish LOAD samples. Two of these transcripts have been previously implicated in LOAD candidate-gene SNP-expression screens. This study shows how the relationship between common inherited genetic variants and brain transcript expression can be used in the study of human brain disorders. We suggest that studying the transcriptome as a quantitative endo-phenotype has greater power for discovering risk SNPs influencing expression than the use of discrete diagnostic categories such as presence or absence of disease.

  11. Ubiquity and specificity of reinforcement signals throughout the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Timothy J; Chun, Marvin M; Lee, Daeyeol

    2011-10-06

    Reinforcements and punishments facilitate adaptive behavior in diverse domains ranging from perception to social interactions. A conventional approach to understanding the corresponding neural substrates focuses on the basal ganglia and its dopaminergic projections. Here, we show that reinforcement and punishment signals are surprisingly ubiquitous in the gray matter of nearly every subdivision of the human brain. Humans played either matching-pennies or rock-paper-scissors games against computerized opponents while being scanned using fMRI. Multivoxel pattern analysis was used to decode previous choices and their outcomes, and to predict upcoming choices. Whereas choices were decodable from a confined set of brain structures, their outcomes were decodable from nearly all cortical and subcortical structures. In addition, signals related to both reinforcements and punishments were recovered reliably in many areas and displayed patterns not consistent with salience-based explanations. Thus, reinforcement and punishment might play global modulatory roles in the entire brain.

  12. The trade in human organs in Tamil Nadu: the anatomy of regulatory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, Vangal R; Jan, Stephen; Ram Prasad, S

    2006-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the trade in human organs in India. This paper examines both the extent to which regulatory controls through the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (1994) are effective in curbing commercialization and the nature of the constraints on the effective implementation of this Act. The study, a politico-economic analysis of health sector regulation, is based on a stakeholder analysis drawing on the views of key decision makers, service providers, organ donors and recipients. The findings indicate widespread acknowledgement of an organs trade and highlight four major constraints on the effective implementation of the Act: the commercial interests of middlemen and service providers, the ambiguities and loopholes in the Act; the low monitoring capacity of the regulatory authorities, and the pressures and responsibilities exerted upon the Authorizing Committees. A feature of the Act is that its implementation is subject to a major incentive compatibility constraint - it is seemingly not in the interests of any of the key players, including the regulatory authorities, to restrict the organ trade. To some extent, this institutional problem is created by the specific nature of the regulatory intervention, and, as a consequence, measures involving straightforward redrafting of the regulation might go some way to addressing this incentive problem. Another solution may entail a 'harm-reduction' strategy involving a controlled trade where procurement and organ matching is carried out by a government agency (this would require, however, the prior resolution of the broader ethical question concerning the legitimacy of such trade).

  13. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Scholte, H.S.; Groen, I.I.A.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Ghebreab, S.

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible

  14. Stem Cells Expand Insights into Human Brain Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Michael A

    2016-04-07

    Substantial expansion in the number of cerebral cortex neurons is thought to underlie cognitive differences between humans and other primates, although the mechanisms underlying this expansion are unclear. Otani et al. (2016) utilize PSC-derived brain organoids to study how species-specific differences in cortical progenitor proliferation may underlie cortical evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mapping Human Brain Function with MRI at 7 Tesla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the past decade, the most significant development in MRI is the introduction of fMRI, which permits the mapping of human brain function with exquisite details noninvasively. Functional mapping can be achieved by measuring changes in the blood oxygenation level (I.e. The BOLD contrast) or cerebral blood flow.

  16. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...

  17. Exploring human brain lateralization with molecular genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francks, Clyde

    2015-11-01

    Lateralizations of brain structure and motor behavior have been observed in humans as early as the first trimester of gestation, and are likely to arise from asymmetrical genetic-developmental programs, as in other animals. Studies of gene expression levels in postmortem tissue samples, comparing the left and right sides of the human cerebral cortex, have generally not revealed striking transcriptional differences between the hemispheres. This is likely due to lateralization of gene expression being subtle and quantitative. However, a recent re-analysis and meta-analysis of gene expression data from the adult superior temporal and auditory cortex found lateralization of transcription of genes involved in synaptic transmission and neuronal electrophysiology. Meanwhile, human subcortical mid- and hindbrain structures have not been well studied in relation to lateralization of gene activity, despite being potentially important developmental origins of asymmetry. Genetic polymorphisms with small effects on adult brain and behavioral asymmetries are beginning to be identified through studies of large datasets, but the core genetic mechanisms of lateralized human brain development remain unknown. Identifying subtly lateralized genetic networks in the brain will lead to a new understanding of how neuronal circuits on the left and right are differently fine-tuned to preferentially support particular cognitive and behavioral functions. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Endogenous control of waking brain rhythms induces neuroplasticity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, T.; Munneke, M.; Ruge, D.; Gruzelier, J.H.; Rothwell, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of noninvasively inducing long-term changes in human corticomotor excitability by means of a brain-computer interface, which enables users to exert internal control over the cortical rhythms recorded from the scalp. We demonstrate that self-regulation of electroen

  19. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ramakrishnan; H.S. Scholte; I.I.A. Groen; A.W.M. Smeulders; S. Ghebreab

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HM

  20. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  1. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  2. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  3. ["Acute human glanders". Contribution for the scientific history of the Museum of pathological anatomy established in Trieste Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulin, F

    2005-12-01

    The Museum of Pathological Anatomy of the Regina Elena City Hospital of Trieste houses various pathological preparations of infective and contagious diseases, dating back to the early 1900's (ileo-typhus, dysentery, tuberculosis, syphillis, pulmonary plague, etc.) together with their relative diagnostic certificates. These bear witness to the key role of the Hospital's Anatomical Institute (in operation operating since 1872) during the height of the Pasteurian age. In fact, the Institute houses several anatomical-pathological preparations from a fatal clinical case of "acute human glanders". These preparations were correlated by laboratory animal experiments using Strauss' method and emblematically recall the eziological determinism of the new bacteriological science. The preparations served in their day not only as indisputable diagnostic evidence, but can now be considered a promotional metaphor of the scientific mission the Triestine Anatomical Institutés Director, Dr. Enrico Ferrarri (a disciple of Richard Paltauf), endeavored to assign to the Triestine Pathological and Anatomical Institute by strenghthening it with new laboratory methodologies. The establishment of a new "predominant and determining vision" in the international diagnostics of infectious disease was also emerging from the Haspurg city's hospital medicine. Indeed, it was here that in 1907, the brief scientific debate focussing on the cadaver of a coachman who had been infected by a glanders-infected horse was apparently taking place only locally. Yet, it can now be seen as referring to what was happening on the international scale, in a setting that after a century of empiricism and morphologism, was characterized by the progressive penetration of laboratory medicine into clinical-anatomical medicine.

  4. Students helping students: Evaluating a pilot program of peer teaching for an undergraduate course in human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Paul A; Love Green, Jennifer K; Illerbrun, Sara L; Holness, Duncan A; Illerbrun, Samantha J; Haus, Kara A; Poirier, Sylvianne M; Sveinson, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on the number of peer teaching sessions they attended: nonattendees (0 sessions), infrequently attended (1-3 sessions), and frequently attended (≥ 4 sessions). After controlling for academic preparedness [i.e., admission grade point average (AGPA)] using an analysis of covariance, the final grades of frequent attendees were significantly higher than those of nonattendees (P = 0.025) and infrequent attendees (P = 0.015). A multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative independent contribution of several variables in predicting the final grade. The results suggest that frequent attendance (β = 0.245, P = 0.007) and AGPA (β = 0.555, P < 0.001) were significant positive predictors, while being a first-year student (β = -0.217, P = 0.006) was a significant negative predictor. Collectively, these results suggest that attending a certain number of sessions may be required to gain a noticeable benefit from the program, and that first-year students (particularly those with a lower level of academic preparedness) would likely stand to benefit from maximally using the program. End-of-semester surveys and reports indicate that the program had several additional benefits, both to the students taking the course and to the students who served as program leaders. Published 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. The vascular anatomy of the human temporalis muscle: implications for surgical splitting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, L K

    1996-12-01

    Despite the wide application of the temporalis muscle flap and its modifications, understanding of the vascular pattern and territories within the muscle remains poor. This study aimed to evaluate the vascular architecture in the human temporalis muscle for surgical application. The material comprised 15 fresh cadavers (30 muscle specimens), which were divided into three groups for vascular infusion by either Indian ink solution, lead oxide solution, or methylmethacrylate resin. The vascular network in the temporalis muscle was analyzed by stereomicroscopy, radiography, and scanning electron microscopy. The human temporalis muscle was found to have vascular supply from three primary arteries: the anterior deep temporal artery (ADTA), the posterior deep temporal artery (PDTA), and the middle temporal artery (MTA). Each primary artery branched into the secondary arterioles and then the terminal arterioles. The venous network accompanied the arteries, and double veins pairing one artery was a common finding. The capillaries formed a dense, interlacing network with orientation along the muscle fibres. Arteriovenous anastomosis was absent. In the coronal plane, the vessels were located mainly on the lateral and medial aspects of the muscle with a significantly lower vascular density in the midline. Morphometric analysis of the arterial network showed that the PDTA was larger in size at primary and secondary branching levels than the ADTA and the MTA, whereas no differences were present at the terminal arteriolar levels. The distribution of the arterial territories was as follows: the ADTA occupied 21% anteriorly, the PDTA occupied 41% in the middle region, and the MTA occupied 38% in the posterior region. This improved understanding of the vascular architecture within the temporalis muscle complements the anatomic basis of the flap-splitting technique and increases the safety of its application.

  6. Microscopic computation in human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R

    1995-04-01

    When human psychological performance is viewed in terms of cognitive modules, our species displays remarkable differences in computational power. Algorithmically simple computations are generally difficult to perform, whereas optimal routing or "Traveling Salesman" Problems (TSP) of far greater complexity are solved on an everyday basis. It is argued that even "simple" instances of TSP are not purely Euclidian problems in human computations, but involve emotional, autonomic, and cognitive constraints. They therefore require a level of parallel processing not possible in a macroscopic system to complete the algorithm within a brief period of time. A microscopic neurobiological model emphasizing the computational power of excited atoms within the neuronal membrane is presented as an alternative to classical connectionist approaches. The evolution of the system is viewed in terms of specific natural selection pressures driving satisfying computations toward global optimization. The relationship of microscopic computation to the nature of consciousness is examined, and possible mathematical models as a basis for simulation studies are briefly discussed.

  7. The functional brain architecture of human morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chadd M; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Human morality provides the foundation for many of the pillars of society, informing political legislation and guiding legal decisions while also governing everyday social interactions. In the past decade, researchers in the field of cognitive neuroscience have made tremendous progress in the effort to understand the neural basis of human morality. The emerging insights from this research point toward a model in which automatic processing in parallel neural circuits, many of which are associated with social emotions, evaluate the actions and intentions of others. Through various mechanisms of competition, only a subset of these circuits ultimately causes a decision or an action. This activity is experienced consciously as a subjective moral sense of right or wrong, and an interpretive process offers post hoc explanations designed to link the social stimulus with the subjective moral response using whatever explicit information is available.

  8. Direct Electrical Stimulation in the Human Brain Disrupts Melody Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, Frank E; Chernoff, Benjamin L; Diamond, Bram; Lewis, Wesley; Sims, Maxwell H; Tomlinson, Samuel B; Teghipco, Alexander; Belkhir, Raouf; Gannon, Sarah B; Erickson, Steve; Smith, Susan O; Stone, Jonathan; Liu, Lynn; Tollefson, Trenton; Langfitt, John; Marvin, Elizabeth; Pilcher, Webster H; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-09-11

    Prior research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [1-4] and behavioral studies of patients with acquired or congenital amusia [5-8] suggest that the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the human brain is specialized for aspects of music processing (for review, see [9-12]). Intracranial electrical brain stimulation in awake neurosurgery patients is a powerful means to determine the computations supported by specific brain regions and networks [13-21] because it provides reversible causal evidence with high spatial resolution (for review, see [22, 23]). Prior intracranial stimulation or cortical cooling studies have investigated musical abilities related to reading music scores [13, 14] and singing familiar songs [24, 25]. However, individuals with amusia (congenitally, or from a brain injury) have difficulty humming melodies but can be spared for singing familiar songs with familiar lyrics [26]. Here we report a detailed study of a musician with a low-grade tumor in the right temporal lobe. Functional MRI was used pre-operatively to localize music processing to the right STG, and the patient subsequently underwent awake intraoperative mapping using direct electrical stimulation during a melody repetition task. Stimulation of the right STG induced "music arrest" and errors in pitch but did not affect language processing. These findings provide causal evidence for the functional segregation of music and language processing in the human brain and confirm a specific role of the right STG in melody processing. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Stein, Jason L.; Renteria, Miguel E.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jahanshad, Neda; Toro, Roberto; Wittfeld, Katharina; Abramovic, Lucija; Andersson, Micael; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Bernard, Manon; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brown, Andrew A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; den Braber, Anouk; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Grimm, Oliver; Guadalupe, Tulio; Hass, Johanna; Woldehawariat, Girma; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Olde Loohuis, Loes M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Milaneschi, Yuri; Nho, Kwangsik; Papmeyer, Martina; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J.; Salami, Alireza; Sämann, Philipp G.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shin, Jean; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Walters, Raymond K.; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Alhusaini, Saud; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Ehrlich, Stefan; Hakobjan, Marina M. H.; Hartberg, Cecilie B.; Haukvik, Unn K.; Heister, Angelien J. G. A. M.; Hoehn, David; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Makkinje, Remco R. R.; Matarin, Mar; Naber, Marlies A. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Needham, Margaret; Nugent, Allison C.; Pütz, Benno; Royle, Natalie A.; Shen, Li; Sprooten, Emma; Trabzuni, Daniah; van der Marel, Saskia S. L.; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Walton, Esther; Wolf, Christiane; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Bastin, Mark E.; Brodaty, Henry; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Carless, Melanie A.; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Kent, Jack W.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; McMahon, Katie L.; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nalls, Michael A.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nilsson, Lars G.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D.; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R.; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; van ’t Ent, Dennis; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ashbrook, David G.; Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J.; Morris, Derek W.; Williams, Robert W.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S.; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cookson, Mark R.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deary, Ian J.; Donohoe, Gary; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C.; Grabe, Hans J.; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Jönsson, Erik G.; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S.; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Launer, Lenore J.; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Becker, James T.; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J.; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Ikram, M. Arfan; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Schumann, Gunter; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Medland, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences1. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement2, learning, memory3 and motivation4, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease2. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume5 and intracranial volume6. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 × 10−33; 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability inhuman brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:25607358

  10. Human papillomavirus infection in the oromaxillofacial area: Clinical anatomy and histological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; MiclĂuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; BĂbţan, Anida Maria; CÂmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2015-11-01

    Clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck can range from benign lesions, which are the most frequent, to malignant lesions. The prevalence of head and neck cancer is increasing, despite currently decreasing trends in known risk factors such as smoking and alcohol use. A new patient profile has appeared in recent practice: most frequently a middle-aged male patient who does not smoke or drink alcohol, is sexually active (possibly having multiple partners), and presents with oral or cervicofacial lesions requiring diagnosis and treatment. Another risk factor that should be considered in these patients is HPV infection. The association of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with HPV is a challenge for the medical practitioner. The gold standard for diagnosis is histopathological examination, which can also yield evidence suggesting HPV infection. Determination of the viral genotype provides additional data for assessing the oncological risk of an HPV infection. Treatment of these patients is aimed at removing the lesions, in association or not with antiviral treatment and recurrence control. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Topological isomorphisms of human brain and financial market networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E Vértes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets - the timeseries of 90 stocks from the New York Stock Exchange over a three-year period, and the fMRI-derived timeseries acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10 min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular - more highly optimised for information processing - than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph theoretically-mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets.

  12. Topological isomorphisms of human brain and financial market networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Nicol, Ruth M; Chapman, Sandra C; Watkins, Nicholas W; Robertson, Duncan A; Bullmore, Edward T

    2011-01-01

    Although metaphorical and conceptual connections between the human brain and the financial markets have often been drawn, rigorous physical or mathematical underpinnings of this analogy remain largely unexplored. Here, we apply a statistical and graph theoretic approach to the study of two datasets - the time series of 90 stocks from the New York stock exchange over a 3-year period, and the fMRI-derived time series acquired from 90 brain regions over the course of a 10-min-long functional MRI scan of resting brain function in healthy volunteers. Despite the many obvious substantive differences between these two datasets, graphical analysis demonstrated striking commonalities in terms of global network topological properties. Both the human brain and the market networks were non-random, small-world, modular, hierarchical systems with fat-tailed degree distributions indicating the presence of highly connected hubs. These properties could not be trivially explained by the univariate time series statistics of stock price returns. This degree of topological isomorphism suggests that brains and markets can be regarded broadly as members of the same family of networks. The two systems, however, were not topologically identical. The financial market was more efficient and more modular - more highly optimized for information processing - than the brain networks; but also less robust to systemic disintegration as a result of hub deletion. We conclude that the conceptual connections between brains and markets are not merely metaphorical; rather these two information processing systems can be rigorously compared in the same mathematical language and turn out often to share important topological properties in common to some degree. There will be interesting scientific arbitrage opportunities in further work at the graph-theoretically mediated interface between systems neuroscience and the statistical physics of financial markets.

  13. Regional mechanical properties of human brain tissue for computational models of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, John D; Sundaresh, Sowmya N; Elkin, Benjamin S; McKhann, Guy M; Morrison, Barclay

    2017-06-01

    To determine viscoelastic shear moduli, stress relaxation indentation tests were performed on samples of human brain tissue resected in the course of epilepsy surgery. Through the use of a 500µm diameter indenter, regional mechanical properties were measured in cortical grey and white matter and subregions of the hippocampus. All regions were highly viscoelastic. Cortical grey matter was significantly more compliant than the white matter or hippocampus which were similar in modulus. Although shear modulus was not correlated with the age of the donor, cortex from male donors was significantly stiffer than from female donors. The presented material properties will help to populate finite element models of the brain as they become more anatomically detailed. We present the first mechanical characterization of fresh, post-operative human brain tissue using an indentation loading mode. Indentation generates highly localized data, allowing structure-specific mechanical properties to be determined from small tissue samples resected during surgery. It also avoids pitfalls of cadaveric tissue and allows data to be collected before degenerative processes alter mechanical properties. To correctly predict traumatic brain injury, finite element models must calculate intracranial deformation during head impact. The functional consequences of injury depend on the anatomical structures injured. Therefore, morbidity depends on the distribution of deformation across structures. Accurate prediction of structure-specific deformation requires structure-specific mechanical properties. This data will facilitate deeper understanding of the physical mechanisms that lead to traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Data-driven analysis of analogous brain networks in monkeys and humans during natural vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Corbetta, Maurizio; Romani, Gian Luca; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-11-15

    Inferences about functional correspondences between functional networks of human and non-human primates largely rely on proximity and anatomical expansion models. However, it has been demonstrated that topologically correspondent areas in two species can have different functional properties, suggesting that anatomy-based approaches should be complemented with alternative methods to perform functional comparisons. We have recently shown that comparative analyses based on temporal correlations of sensory-driven fMRI responses can reveal functional correspondent areas in monkeys and humans without relying on spatial assumptions. Inter-species activity correlation (ISAC) analyses require the definition of seed areas in one species to reveal functional correspondences across the cortex of the same and other species. Here we propose an extension of the ISAC method that does not rely on any seed definition, hence a method void of any spatial assumption. Specifically, we apply independent component analysis (ICA) separately to monkey and human data to define species-specific networks of areas with coherent stimulus-related activity. Then, we use a hierarchical cluster analysis to identify ICA-based ISAC clusters of monkey and human networks with similar timecourses. We implemented this approach on fMRI data collected in monkeys and humans during movie watching, a condition that evokes widespread sensory-driven activity throughout large portions of the cortex. Using ICA-based ISAC, we detected seven monkey-human clusters. The timecourses of several clusters showed significant correspondences either with the motion energy in the movie or with eye-movement parameters. Five of the clusters spanned putative homologous functional networks in either primary or extrastriate visual regions, whereas two clusters included higher-level visual areas at topological locations that are not predicted by cortical surface expansion models. Overall, our ICA-based ISAC analysis complemented

  15. Distribution of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 in human traumatic brain injury and brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua HU; Er-qing WEI; Gao CHEN; Jian-min ZHANG; Wei-ping ZHANG; Lei ZHANG; Qiu-fu GE; Hong-tian YAO; Wei DING; Zhong CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the distribution of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CysLT2),one of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptors, in human brains with traumatic injury and tumors. Methods: Brain specimens were obtained from patients who underwent brain surgery. CysLT2 in brain tissues was examined using immunohistochemical analysis. Results: CysLT2 was expressed in the smooth muscle cells (not in the endothelial cells) of arteries and veins. CysLT2 was also expressed in the granulocytes in both vessels and in the brain parenchyma. In addition, CysLT2 was detected in neuron- and glial-appearing cells in either the late stages of traumatic injury or in the area surrounding the tumors. Microvessels regenerated 8 d after trauma and CysLT2 expression was recorded in their endothelial cells.Conclusion: CysLT2 is distributed in vascular smooth muscle cells and granulocytes, and brain trauma and tumor can induce its expression in vascular endothelial cells and in a number of other cells.

  16. Automated regional behavioral analysis for human brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jack L; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B; Martinez, Michael J; Fox, P Mickle; Fox, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral categories of functional imaging experiments along with standardized brain coordinates of associated activations were used to develop a method to automate regional behavioral analysis of human brain images. Behavioral and coordinate data were taken from the BrainMap database (http://www.brainmap.org/), which documents over 20 years of published functional brain imaging studies. A brain region of interest (ROI) for behavioral analysis can be defined in functional images, anatomical images or brain atlases, if images are spatially normalized to MNI or Talairach standards. Results of behavioral analysis are presented for each of BrainMap's 51 behavioral sub-domains spanning five behavioral domains (Action, Cognition, Emotion, Interoception, and Perception). For each behavioral sub-domain the fraction of coordinates falling within the ROI was computed and compared with the fraction expected if coordinates for the behavior were not clustered, i.e., uniformly distributed. When the difference between these fractions is large behavioral association is indicated. A z-score ≥ 3.0 was used to designate statistically significant behavioral association. The left-right symmetry of ~100K activation foci was evaluated by hemisphere, lobe, and by behavioral sub-domain. Results highlighted the classic left-side dominance for language while asymmetry for most sub-domains (~75%) was not statistically significant. Use scenarios were presented for anatomical ROIs from the Harvard-Oxford cortical (HOC) brain atlas, functional ROIs from statistical parametric maps in a TMS-PET study, a task-based fMRI study, and ROIs from the ten "major representative" functional networks in a previously published resting state fMRI study. Statistically significant behavioral findings for these use scenarios were consistent with published behaviors for associated anatomical and functional regions.

  17. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwer, Ronald W H; Sluiter, Arja A; Balesar, Rawien A; Baaijen, Johannes C; de Witt Hamer, Philip C; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F

    2015-07-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by resection (interruption of the circulation) and aggravated by the preparation of slices (severed neuronal and glial processes and blood vessels) reflect the reaction of human brain tissue to severe injury. We investigated this process using immunocytochemical markers, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Essential features were rapid shrinkage of neurons, loss of neuronal marker expression and proliferation of reactive cells that expressed Nestin and Vimentin. Also, microglia generally responded strongly, whereas the response of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes appeared to be more variable. Importantly, some reactive cells also expressed both microglia and astrocytic markers, thus confounding their origin. Comparison with post-mortem human brain tissue obtained at rapid autopsies suggested that the reactive process is not a consequence of epilepsy. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  18. Extensive nuclear sphere generation in the human Alzheimer's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Katharina; Bukhari, Hassan; Loosse, Christina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Glotzbach, Annika; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hess, Katharina; Theiss, Carsten; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear spheres are protein aggregates consisting of FE65, TIP60, BLM, and other yet unknown proteins. Generation of these structures in the cellular nucleus is putatively modulated by the amyloid precursor protein (APP), either by its cleavage or its phosphorylation. Nuclear spheres were preferentially studied in cell culture models and their existence in the human brain had not been known. Existence of nuclear spheres in the human brain was studied using immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were used to study regulative mechanisms of nuclear sphere generation. The comparison of human frontal cortex brain samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients to age-matched controls revealed a dramatically and highly significant enrichment of nuclear spheres in the AD brain. Costaining demonstrated that neurons are distinctly affected by nuclear spheres, but astrocytes never are. Nuclear spheres were predominantly found in neurons that were negative for threonine 668 residue in APP phosphorylation. Cell culture experiments revealed that JNK3-mediated APP phosphorylation reduces the amount of sphere-positive cells. The study suggests that nuclear spheres are a new APP-derived central hallmark of AD, which might be of crucial relevance for the molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration.

  19. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  20. Luria: a unitary view of human brain and mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Luciano

    2005-12-01

    Special questions the eminent Russian psychologist and neuropsychologist Aleksandr R. Luria (1902-1977) dealt with in his research regarded the relationship between animal and human brain, child and adult mind, normal and pathological, theory and rehabilitation, clinical and experimental investigation. These issues were integrated in a unitary theory of cerebral and psychological processes, under the influence of both different perspectives active in the first half of the Nineteenth century (psychoanalysis and historical-cultural school, first of all) and the growing contribution of neuropsychological research on brain-injured patients.