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Sample records for human bone strain

  1. A Passive and Wireless Sensor for Bone Plate Strain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yisong; Hu, Jiale; Ren, Limin; Zhu, Jianhua; Yang, Jiaqi; Liu, Di

    2017-11-16

    This paper reports on a sensor for monitoring bone plate strain in real time. The detected bone plate strain could be used for judging the healing state of fractures in patients. The sensor consists of a magnetoelastic material, which can be wirelessly connected and passively embedded. In order to verify the effectiveness of the sensor, a tibia-bone plate-screw (TBS) model was established using the finite element analysis method. A variation of the bone plate strain was obtained via this model. A goat hindquarter tibia was selected as the bone fracture model in the experiment. The tibia was fixed on a high precision load platform and an external force was applied. Bone plate strain variation during the bone fracture healing process was acquired with sensing coils. Simulation results indicated that bone plate strain decreases as the bone gradually heals, which is consistent with the finite element analysis results. This validated the soundness of the sensor reported here. This sensor has wireless connections, no in vivo battery requirement, and long-term embedding. These results can be used not only for clinical practices of bone fracture healing, but also for bone fracture treatment and rehabilitation equipment design.

  2. Genetic Dissection of Trabecular Bone Structure with Mouse Intersubspecific Consomic Strains

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    Taro Kataoka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Trabecular bone structure has an important influence on bone strength, but little is known about its genetic regulation. To elucidate the genetic factor(s regulating trabecular bone structure, we compared the trabecular bone structures of two genetically remote mouse strains, C57BL/6J and Japanese wild mouse-derived MSM/Ms. Phenotyping by X-ray micro-CT revealed that MSM/Ms has structurally more fragile trabecular bone than C57BL/6J. Toward identification of genetic determinants for the difference in fragility of trabecular bone between the two mouse strains, we employed phenotype screening of consomic mouse strains in which each C57BL/6J chromosome is substituted by its counterpart from MSM/Ms. The results showed that many chromosomes affect trabecular bone structure, and that the consomic strain B6-Chr15MSM, carrying MSM/Ms-derived chromosome 15 (Chr15, has the lowest values for the parameters BV/TV, Tb.N, and Conn.D, and the highest values for the parameters Tb.Sp and SMI. Subsequent phenotyping of subconsomic strains for Chr15 mapped four novel trabecular bone structure-related QTL (Tbsq1-4 on mouse Chr15. These results collectively indicate that genetic regulation of trabecular bone structure is highly complex, and that even in the single Chr15, the combined action of the four Tbsqs controls the fragility of trabecular bone. Given that Tbsq4 is syntenic to human Chr 12q12-13.3, where several bone-related SNPs are assigned, further study of Tbsq4 should facilitate our understanding of the genetic regulation of bone formation in humans.

  3. Variations in habitual bone strains in vivo: long bone versus mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W.C.; Korfage, J.A.M.; Langenbach, G.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the similarities and dissimilarities between daily in vivo strain histories of different bones, other than the generally accepted view that most bones need daily loading to maintain their mass. Similarities in daily strain histories might uncover a common basic mechanical

  4. Variations in habitual bone strains in vivo: Long bone versus mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W. C.; Korfage, J. A. M.; Langenbach, G. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the similarities and dissimilarities between daily in vivo strain histories of different bones, other than the generally accepted view that most bones need daily loading to maintain their mass. Similarities in daily strain histories might uncover a common basic mechanical

  5. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 μg of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans

  6. Atomic scale chemical tomography of human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Brian; Wang, Xiaoyue; Grandfield, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Human bone is a complex hierarchical material. Understanding bone structure and its corresponding composition at the nanometer scale is critical for elucidating mechanisms of biomineralization under healthy and pathological states. However, the three-dimensional structure and chemical nature of bone remains largely unexplored at the nanometer scale due to the challenges associated with characterizing both the structural and chemical integrity of bone simultaneously. Here, we use correlative transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for the first time, to our knowledge, to reveal structures in human bone at the atomic level. This approach provides an overlaying chemical map of the organic and inorganic constituents of bone on its structure. This first use of atom probe tomography on human bone reveals local gradients, trace element detection of Mg, and the co-localization of Na with the inorganic-organic interface of bone mineral and collagen fibrils, suggesting the important role of Na-rich organics in the structural connection between mineral and collagen. Our findings provide the first insights into the hierarchical organization and chemical heterogeneity in human bone in three-dimensions at its smallest length scale - the atomic level. We demonstrate that atom probe tomography shows potential for new insights in biomineralization research on bone.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substances in human bone: concentrations in bones and effects on bone cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, A; Koponen, J; Lehenkari, P; Viluksela, M; Korkalainen, M; Tuukkanen, J

    2017-07-28

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  8. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  9. Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation

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    Yueying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n=16 and DBA/2J (n=15 and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1. Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P<0.05 in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone. It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD. While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property.

  10. Biomechanics and strain mapping in bone as related to immediately-loaded dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Lee, Jihyun; Jang, Andrew; Gu, Allen; Hossaini-Zadeh, Mehran; Prevost, Richard; Curtis, Don; Ho, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    The effects of alveolar bone socket geometry and bone-implant contact on implant biomechanics, and resulting strain distributions in bone were investigated. Following extraction of lateral incisors on a cadaver mandible, immediate implants were placed and bone-implant contact area, stability and bone strain were measured. In situ biomechanical testing coupled with micro X-ray microscope (μ-XRM) illustrated less stiff bone-implant complexes (701-822 N/mm) compared with bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth complexes (791-913 N/mm). X-ray tomograms illustrated that the cause of reduced stiffness was due to reduced and limited bone-implant contact. Heterogeneous elemental composition of bone was identified by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The novel aspect of this study was the application of a new experimental mechanics method, that is, digital volume correlation, which allowed mapping of strains in volumes of alveolar bone in contact with a loaded implant. The identified surface and subsurface strain concentrations were a manifestation of load transferred to bone through bone-implant contact based on bone-implant geometry, quality of bone, implant placement, and implant design. 3D strain mapping indicated that strain concentrations are not exclusive to the bone-implant contact regions, but also extend into bone not directly in contact with the implant. The implications of the observed strain concentrations are discussed in the context of mechanobiology. Although a plausible explanation of surgical complications for immediate implant treatment is provided, extrapolation of results is only warranted by future systematic studies on more cadaver specimens and/or in vivo small scale animal models. PMID:26162549

  11. Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia.

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    Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Zin, Carolyn; Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter; D'Lima, Darryl; Sah, Robert L; McKittrick, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured...... in femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... exercise, and during intra-femoral infusion of high-dose adenosine. Bone glucose uptake was measured at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise in five men. The results indicate that isometric exercise increased femoral bone blood flow from rest (1.8 ± 0.6 ml/100g/min) to low intensity exercise (4.1 ± 1...

  13. Uranium concentrations in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium concentration in bone from an individual injected with 239 Pu has been determined, using the fission-track method. The data are consistent with those reported about 10 years ago by Welford and Baird for New York City area residents and by Hamilton in England. They are at variance with the more recent data of Welford et al

  14. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Danielsen, CC

    1997-01-01

    We tested in compression specimens of human proximal tibial trabecular bone from 31 normal donors aged from 16 to 83 years and determined the mechanical properties, density and mineral and collagen content. Young's modulus and ultimate stress were highest between 40 and 50 years, whereas ultimate...... strain and failure energy showed maxima at younger ages. These age-related variations (except for failure energy) were non-linear. Tissue density and mineral concentration were constant throughout life, whereas apparent density (the amount of bone) varied with ultimate stress. Collagen density (the...... amount of collagen) varied with failure energy. Collagen concentration was maximal at younger ages but varied little with age. Our results suggest that the decrease in mechanical properties of trabecular bone such as Young's modulus and ultimate stress is mainly a consequence of the loss of trabecular...

  15. Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitskaya, Ekaterina, E-mail: eevdokim@ucsd.edu [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Zin, Carolyn [Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter [Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); D’Lima, Darryl [Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education, Scripps Health, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sah, Robert L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McKittrick, Joanna [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2 h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. - Highlights: • Compressive creep tests of human trabecular bone across the tibia were performed. • The creep rate was found to be inversely proportional to the density of the samples. • μ-computed tomography before and after testing identified regions of deformation. • Bending of the trabeculae was found to be the main deformation mode.

  16. Age changes in human bone: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, W.D.

    1977-12-03

    The human skeleton steadily changes structure and mass during life because of a variety of internal and external factors. Extracellular substance and bone cells get old, characteristic structural remodeling occurs with age and these age-related changes are important in the discrimination between pathological and physiological changes. Perhaps 20 percent of the bone mass is lost between the fourth and the ninth decades, osteoblasts function less efficiently and gradual loss of bone substance is enhanced by delayed mineralization of an increased surface area of thin and relatively less active osteoid seams. After the fifth decade, osteoclasia and the number of Howship's lacunae increase, and with age, the number of large osteolytic osteocytes increases as the number of small osteocytes declines and empty osteocyte lacunae become more common. The result is greater liability to fracture and diminished healing or replacement of injured bone.

  17. Effect of bone-soft tissue friction on ultrasound axial shear strain elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Songyuan; Chaudhry, Anuj; Kim, Namhee; Reddy, J N; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-07-12

    Bone-soft tissue friction is an important factor affecting several musculoskeletal disorders, frictional syndromes and the ability of a bone fracture to heal. However, this parameter is difficult to determine using non-invasive imaging modalities, especially in clinical settings. Ultrasound axial shear strain elastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been used in the recent past to estimate the bonding between different tissue layers. As most elastography methods, axial shear strain elastography is primarily used in soft tissues. More recently, this technique has been proposed to assess the bone-soft tissue interface. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a variation in bone-soft tissue friction coefficient in the resulting axial shear strain elastograms. Finite element poroelastic models of bone specimens exhibiting different bone-soft tissue friction coefficients were created and mechanically analyzed. These models were then imported to an ultrasound elastography simulation module to assess the presence of axial shear strain patterns. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate selected simulation results. The results of this study show that the normalized axial shear strain estimated at the bone-soft tissue interface is statistically correlated to the bone-soft tissue coefficient of friction. This information may prove useful to better interpret ultrasound elastography results obtained in bone-related applications and, possibly, monitor bone healing.

  18. In the trail of a new bio-sensor for measuring strain in bone: osteoblastic biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lídia; Alberto, Nélia J; Gomes, Pedro S; Nogueira, Rogério N; Pinto, João L; Fernandes, Maria H

    2011-06-15

    Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) is an optical sensor recorded within the core of a standard optical fibre, which responds faithfully to strain and temperature. FBG sensors are a promising alternative to other sensing methodologies to assess bone mechanics in vivo. However, response of bone cells/bone tissue to FBGs and its sensing capability in this environment have not been recorded yet. The present study addressed these issues in long-term human osteoblastic cell cultures. Results showed that osteoblastic cells were able to adhere and proliferate over the fibre and, also, the protective polymer coating. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of Col I, ALP, BMP-2, M-CSF, RANKL and OPG. In addition, cultures presented high ALP activity and the formation of a calcium phosphate mineralized extracellular matrix. Cell behavior over the fibre without and with the coating polymer was similar to that found in cultures grown in standard tissue culture plates (control). In addition to the excellent osteoblastic cytocompatibility, FBGs maintained the physical integrity and functionality, as its sensing capability was not affected through the culture period. Results suggest the possibility of in vivo osseointegration of the optical fibre/FBGs anticipating a variety of applications in bone mechanical dynamics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  20. Exercise-induced bone formation is poorly linked to local strain magnitude in the sheep tibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J Wallace

    Full Text Available Functional interpretations of limb bone structure frequently assume that diaphyses adjust their shape by adding bone primarily across the plane in which they are habitually loaded in order to minimize loading-induced strains. Here, to test this hypothesis, we characterize the in vivo strain environment of the sheep tibial midshaft during treadmill exercise and examine whether this activity promotes bone formation disproportionately in the direction of loading in diaphyseal regions that experience the highest strains. It is shown that during treadmill exercise, sheep tibiae were bent in an anteroposterior direction, generating maximal tensile and compressive strains on the anterior and posterior shaft surfaces, respectively. Exercise led to significantly increased periosteal bone formation; however, rather than being biased toward areas of maximal strains across the anteroposterior axis, exercise-related osteogenesis occurred primarily around the medial half of the shaft circumference, in both high and low strain regions. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that loading-induced bone growth is not closely linked to local strain magnitude in every instance. Therefore, caution is necessary when bone shaft shape is used to infer functional loading history in the absence of in vivo data on how bones are loaded and how they actually respond to loading.

  1. Exercise Countermeasures for Bone Loss During Space Flight: A Method for the Study of Ground Reaction Forces and their Implications for Bone Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, M.; McCrory, J. L.; Sharkey, N. A.; Piazza, S.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    Effective countermeasures to prevent loss of bone mineral during long duration space flight remain elusive. Despite an exercise program on MIR flights, the data from LeBlanc et al. (1996) indicated that there was still a mean rate of loss of bone mineral density in the proximal femur of 1.58% per month (n=18, flight duration 4 - 14.4 months). The specific mechanisms regulating bone mass are not known, but most investigators agree that bone maintenance is largely dependent upon mechanical demand and the resultant local bone strains. A plausible hypothesis is that bone loss during space flight, such as that reported by LeBlanc et al. (1996), may result from failure to effectively load the skeleton in order to generate localized bone strains of sufficient magnitude to prevent disuse osteoporosis. A variety of methods have been proposed to simulate locomotor exercise in reduced gravity. In such simulations, and in an actual microgravity environment, a gravity replacement load (GRL) must always be added to return the exercising subject to the support surface and the resulting skeletal load is critically dependent upon the magnitude of the GRL. To our knowledge, GRLs during orbital flight have only been measured once (on STS 81) and it is likely that most or all prior treadmill exercise in space has used GRLs that were less than one body weight. McCrory (1997) has shown that subjects walking and running in simulated zero-G can tolerate GRLs of 1 if an appropriate harness is used. Several investigators have attempted to measure in vivo strains and forces in the bones of humans, but have faced ethical and technical limitations. The anteromedial aspect of the tibial midshaft has been a common site for the placement of strain gauges; one reason to measure strains in the anterior tibia is that this region is surgically accessible. Aamodt et al. (1997) were able to measure strains on the lateral surface of the proximal femur only because their experimental subjects were

  2. Osteoblast recruitment routes in human cancellous bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene Bjørg; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Marcussen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly proposed that bone forming osteoblasts recruited during bone remodeling originate from bone marrow perivascular cells, bone remodeling compartment canopy cells, or bone lining cells. However, an assessment of osteoblast recruitment during adult human cancellous bone remodeling...... is lacking. We addressed this question by quantifying cell densities, cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation markers, and capillaries in human iliac crest biopsy specimens. We found that recruitment occurs on both reversal and bone-forming surfaces, as shown by the cell density and osterix levels...

  3. A fully implantable telemetry system for the long-term measurement of habitual bone strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W. C.; Koolstra, J. H.; van Ruijven, L. J.; Korfage, J. A. M.; Langenbach, G. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term in-vivo recordings of habitual bone strain in freely moving animals are needed to better understand the everyday mechanical loading environment responsible for bone-tissue maintenance. However, wireless methods to make such recordings are scarce. We report on the successful customisation

  4. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different types of bone strength are required for various ... To statically analyse various methods to find BMD and related material ... bone study for research purpose. ..... and Dagoberto Vela Arvizo 2007 A qualitative stress analysis of a cross ...

  5. In vitro induction of alkaline phosphatase levels predicts in vivo bone forming capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

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    Henk-Jan Prins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs that are produced by ex vivo expansion is for use in in vivo bone tissue engineering. Cultured stromal cells are a mixture of cells at different stages of commitment and expansion capability, leading to a heterogeneous cell population that each time can differ in the potential to form in vivo bone. A parameter that predicts for in vivo bone forming capacity is thus far lacking. We employed single colony-derived BMSC cultures to identify such predictive parameters. Using limiting dilution, we have produced sixteen single CFU-F derived BMSC cultures from human bone marrow and found that only five of these formed bone in vivo. The single colony-derived BMSC strains were tested for proliferation, osteogenic-, adipogenic- and chondrogenic differentiation capacity and the expression of a variety of associated markers. The only robust predictors of in vivo bone forming capacity were the induction of alkaline phosphatase, (ALP mRNA levels and ALP activity during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The predictive value of in vitro ALP induction was confirmed by analyzing “bulk-cultured” BMSCs from various bone marrow biopsies. Our findings show that in BMSCs, the additional increase in ALP levels over basal levels during in vitro osteogenic differentiation is predictive of in vivo performance.

  6. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  7. Normal human bone marrow and its variations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Schmidt, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology and age dependant changes of human bone marrow are described. The resulting normal distribution patterns of active and inactive bone marrow including the various contrasts on different MR-sequences are discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Hoof position during limb loading affects dorsoproximal bone strains on the equine proximal phalanx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Ellen; Garcia, Tanya; Stover, Susan

    2015-07-16

    Sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx (P1) in the racehorse appear to be associated with turf racing surfaces, which are known to restrict forward slide of the foot at impact. We hypothesized that restriction of forward foot slip would result in higher P1 bone strains during metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) hyperextension. Unilateral limbs from six equine cadavers were instrumented with strain gauges and bone reference markers to measure dorsoproximal P1 bone strains and MCPJ extension, collateromotion and axial rotation during in vitro limb loading to 10,500 N. By limiting movement of the distal actuator platform, three different foot conditions (forward, free, and restricted) were applied in a randomised block design. Bone reference markers, recorded by video, were analyzed to determine motion of P1 relative to MC3. Rosette strain data were reduced to principal and shear magnitudes and directions. A mixed model ANOVA determined the effect of foot position on P1 bone strains and MCPJ angles. At 10,000 N load, the restricted condition resulted in higher P1 axial compressive (p=0.015), maximum shear (p=0.043) and engineering shear (p=0.046) strains compared to the forward condition. The restricted condition had higher compressive (p=0.025) and lower tensile (p=0.043) principal strains compared to the free condition. For the same magnitude of principal or shear strains, axial rotation and collateromotion angles were greatest for the restricted condition. Therefore, the increase in P1 principal compressive and shear bone strains associated with restricted foot slip indicate that alterations in foot:ground interaction may play a role in fracture occurrence in horses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  10. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The bone density (BMD) is a medical term normally referring to the amount of mineral matter per square centimetre of bones. Twenty-five patients (18 female and 7 male patients with a mean age of 71.3 years) undergoing both lumbar spine DXA scans and computed tomography imaging were evaluated to determine if HU ...

  11. Fixed and mobile-bearing total ankle prostheses: Effect on tibial bone strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Alexandre; Fernandes, Caroline Sieger; Guillemin, Maïka; Crevoisier, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Total ankle replacement is associated to a high revision rate. To improve implant survival, the potential advantage of prostheses with fixed bearing compared to mobile bearing is unclear. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that fixed and mobile bearing prostheses are associated with different biomechanical quantities typically associated to implant failure. With a validated finite element model, we compared three cases: a prosthesis with a fixed bearing, a prosthesis with a mobile bearing in a centered position, and a prosthesis with mobile bearing in an eccentric position. Both prostheses were obtained from the same manufacturer. They were tested on seven tibias with maximum axial compression force during walking. We tested the hypothesis that there was a difference of bone strain, bone-implant interfacial stress, and bone support between the three cases. We also evaluated, for the three cases, the correlations between bone support, bone strain and bone-implant interfacial stress. There were no statistically significant differences between the three cases. Overall, bone support was mainly trabecular, and less effective in the posterior side. Bone strain and bone-implant interfacial stress were strongly correlated to bone support. Even if slight differences are observed between fixed and mobile bearing, it is not enough to put forward the superiority of one of these implants regarding their reaction to axial compression. When associated to the published clinical results, our study provides no argument to warn surgeons against the use of two-components fixed bearing implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A murine model of human myeloma bone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, I.R.; Dallas, S.; Radl, J.; Mundy, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Myeloma causes a devastating and unique form of osteolytic bone disease. Although osteoclast activation is responsible for bone destruction, the precise mechanisms by which myeloma cells increase osteoclast activity have not been defined. An animal model of human myeloma bone disease mould help in

  13. The effect of distal ulnar implant stem material and length on bone strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austman, Rebecca L; Beaton, Brendon J B; Quenneville, Cheryl E; King, Graham J W; Gordon, Karen D; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2007-01-01

    Implant design parameters can greatly affect load transfer from the implant stem to the bone. We have investigated the effect of length or material of distal ulnar implant stems on the surrounding bone strains. Eight cadaveric ulnas were instrumented with 12 strain gauges and secured in a customized jig. Strain data were collected while loads (5-30 N) were applied to the medial surface of the native ulnar head. The native ulnar head was removed, and a stainless steel implant with an 8-cm-long finely threaded stem was cemented into the canal. After the cement had cured, the 8-cm stem was removed, leaving a threaded cement mantle in the canal that could accept shorter threaded stems of interest. The loading protocol was then repeated for stainless steel stems that were 7, 5, and 3 cm in length, as well as for a 5-cm-long titanium alloy (TiAl(6)V(4)) stem. Other stainless steel stem lengths between 3 and 7 cm were tested at intervals of 0.5 cm, with only a 20 N load applied. No stem length tested matched the native strains at all gauge locations. No significant differences were found between any stem length and the native bone at the 5th and 6th strain gauge positions. Strains were consistently closer to the native bone strains with the titanium stem than the stainless steel stem for each gauge pair that was positioned on the bone overlying the stem. The 3-cm stem results were closer to the native strains than the 7-cm stem for all loads at gauges locations that were on top of the stem. The results from this study suggest that the optimal stem characteristics for distal ulnar implants from a load transfer point of view are possessed by shorter (approximately 3 to 4 cm) titanium stems.

  14. Engineering bone tissue from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marolt, Darja; Campos, Iván Marcos; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Koren, Ana; Petridis, Petros; Zhang, Geping; Spitalnik, Patrice F.; Grayson, Warren L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In extensive bone defects, tissue damage and hypoxia lead to cell death, resulting in slow and incomplete healing. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can give rise to all specialized lineages found in healthy bone and are therefore uniquely suited to aid regeneration of damaged bone. We show that the cultivation of hESC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on 3D osteoconductive scaffolds in bioreactors with medium perfusion leads to the formation of large and compact bone constructs. Notably, the i...

  15. Validation of a physical activity questionnaire to measure the effect of mechanical strain on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Han C G; Bakker, I; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2002-05-01

    Most of the questionnaires available to estimate the daily physical activity levels of humans are based on measuring the intensity of these activities as multiples of resting metabolic rate (METs). Metabolic intensity of physical activities is the most important component for evaluating effects on cardiopulmonary fitness. However, animal studies have indicated that for effects on bone mass the intensity in terms of energy expenditure (metabolic component) of physical activities is less important than the intensity of mechanical strain in terms of the forces by the skeletal muscles and/or the ground reaction forces. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) used in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) was applied to investigate the long-term effects of habitual physical activity patterns during youth on health and fitness in later adulthood. The PAQ estimates both the metabolic components of physical activities (METPA) and the mechanical components of physical activities (MECHPA). Longitudinal measurements of METPA and MECHPA were made in a young population of males and females ranging in age from 13 to 32 years. This enabled evaluation of the differential effects of physical activities during adolescence (13-16 years), young adulthood (21-28 years), and the total period of 15 years (age 13-28 years) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in males (n = 139) and females (n = 163) at a mean age of 32 years. The PAQ used in the AGAHLS during adolescence (13-16 years) and young adulthood (21-28 years) has the ability to measure the physical activity patterns of both genders, which are important for the development of bone mass at the adult age. MECHPA is more important than METPA. The highest coefficient of 0.33 (p PAQ was established by comparing PAQ scores during four annual measurements in 200 boys and girls with two other objective measures of physical activity: movement

  16. Three-axial strain controlled testing applied to bone specimens from the proximal tibial epiphysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, F.; Pongsoipetch, B.; Frich, Lars Henrik

    1990-01-01

    Reproducibility of the determination of Young's modulus and energy absorption along the three axes of trabecular bone cubes was analysed by non-destructive compression to 0.5% strain using different testing protocols. These protocols included testing with and without pre-conditioning to a viscoel......Reproducibility of the determination of Young's modulus and energy absorption along the three axes of trabecular bone cubes was analysed by non-destructive compression to 0.5% strain using different testing protocols. These protocols included testing with and without pre...

  17. Regulation of bone blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Boushel, Robert; Hellsten, Ylva

    2018-01-01

    of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, thus prostaglandin (PG) synthesis on femoral bone marrow blood flow by positron emission tomography in healthy young men at rest and during one leg dynamic exercise. In an additional group of healthy men, the role of adenosine (ADO) in the regulation of BBF during exercise......The mechanisms that regulate bone blood flow (BBF) in humans are largely unknown. Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) could be involved and in the present study we investigated the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) alone and in combination with inhibition.......036), but did not affect BBF significantly during exercise (5.5±1.4 ml/100g/min, p=0.25). On the other hand, while combined NOS and COX inhibition did not cause any further reduction of blood flow at rest (0.6±0.2 ml/100g/min), the combined blockade reduced BBF during exercise by ~21%, to 5.0±1.8 ml/100g/min (p...

  18. Pathogenesis of age-related bone loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-10-01

    Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author's knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD.

  19. Colonic complications following human bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Martínez Hernández-Magro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human bone marrow transplantation (BMT becomes an accepted treatment of leukemia, aplastic anemia, immunodeficiency syndromes, and hematologic malignancies. Colorectal surgeons must know how to determine and manage the main colonic complications. Objective: To review the clinical features, clinical and pathological staging of graft vs host disease (GVHD, and treatment of patients suffering with colonic complications of human bone marrow transplantation. Patients and methods: We have reviewed the records of all patients that received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant and were evaluated at our Colon and Rectal Surgery department due to gastrointestinal symptoms, between January 2007 and January 2012. The study was carried out in patients who developed colonic complications, all of them with clinical, histopathological or laboratory diagnosis. Results: The study group was constituted by 77 patients, 43 male and 34 female patients. We identified colonic complications in 30 patients (38.9%; five patients developed intestinal toxicity due to pretransplant chemotherapy (6.4%; graft vs. host disease was present in 16 patients (20%; 13 patients (16.8% developed acute colonic GVHD, and 3 (3.8% chronic GVHD. Infection was identified in 9 patients (11.6%. Conclusions: The three principal colonic complications are the chemotherapy toxicity, GVHD, and superinfection; the onset of symptoms could help to suspect the type of complication (0–20 day chemotherapy toxicity, 20 and more GVHD, and infection could appear in any time of transplantation. Resumo: Experiência: O transplante de medula óssea humana (MOH passou a ser um tratamento adotado para leucemia, anemia aplástica, síndromes de imunodeficiência e neoplasias hematológicas. Cirurgiões colorretais devem saber como determinar e tratar as principais complicações do cólon. Objetivo: Revisar as características clínicas, estadiamentos clínico e patológico da doença do enxerto

  20. Validating in vivo Raman spectroscopy of bone in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy can non-destructively measure properties of bone related to mineral density, mineral composition, and collagen composition. Bone properties can be measured through the skin in animal and human subjects, but correlations between the transcutaneous and exposed bone measurements have only been reported for human cadavers. In this study, we examine human subjects to collect measurements transcutaneously, on surgically exposed bone, and on recovered bone fragments. This data will be used to demonstrate in vivo feasibility and to compare transcutaneous and exposed Raman spectroscopy of bone. A commercially available Raman spectrograph and optical probe operating at 785 nm excitation are used for the in vivo measurements. Requirements for applying Raman spectroscopy during a surgery are also discussed.

  1. Human bone ingrowth into a porous tantalum acetabular cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Haidemenopoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Porous Tantalum is increasingly used as a structural scaffold in orthopaedic applications. Information on the mechanisms of human bone ingrowth into trabecular metal implants is rather limited. In this work we have studied, qualitatively, human bone ingrowth into a retrieved porous tantalum monoblock acetabular cup using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. According to the results and taking into account the short operational life (4 years of the implant, bone ingrowth on the acetabular cup took place in the first two-rows of porous tantalum cells to an estimated depth of 1.5 to 2 mm. The bone material, grown inside the first raw of cells, had almost identical composition with the attached bone on the cup surface, as verified by the same Ca:P ratio. Bone ingrowth has been a gradual process starting with Ca deposition on the tantalum struts, followed by bone formation into the tantalum cells, with gradual densification of the bone tissue into hydroxyapatite. A critical step in this process has been the attachment of bone material to the tantalum struts following the topology of the porous tantalum scaffold. These results provide insight to the human bone ingrowth process into porous tantalum implants.

  2. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco (POLI). Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Vanildo J. de M., E-mail: vjr@ufpe.br [Departamento de Anatomia. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Lindeval F., E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.br [Departamento de Matematica (DMAT). Universidade Federal de Roraima (UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  3. Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D

    2014-07-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via μCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (pnecrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bone dosimetry using synthetic images to represent trabecular bones of five regions of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, Jose de M.; Vieira, Jose W.; Lima, Vanildo J. de M.; Lima, Lindeval F.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Vasconcelos, Wagner E. de

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in numerical dosimetry of ionizing radiation is to estimate the absorbed dose by bone tissue in the human body. The bone tissues of greater radiosensitivity are the red bone marrow (RBM), that consist of the hematopoietic cells, located within the trabecular bones, and the bone surface cells (BSC), called osteogenic cells. The report 70 of the ICRP lists five spongiosa regions with their respective volume percent of trabecular bone: ribs (also contemplating the clavicles and sternum), spine, long bones, pelvis and skull (also contemplating mandible). The Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numerica (GDN/CNPq) has been built exposure computational models (ECMs) based on voxel phantoms and EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. To estimate the energy deposited in the RBM and in the BSC of a phantom, the GDN/CNPq has used a method based on micro-CT images of the five trabecular regions mentioned above. These images were provided by other research institutes and were obtained from scan of bone samples of adult. Here is the greatest difficulty in reproducing this method: besides the need for bone images of real people with micrometer resolution, the distribution of bone marrow in the human body, according to ICRP 70, varies with age. This article presents some proposals of the GDN/CNPQ for replacing in the ECMs the micro-CT images by images synthesized by the computer, based on Monte Carlo sampling. (author)

  5. Effects of bone damage on creep behaviours of human vertebral trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Szarko, Matthew; Wang, Yue; Luo, Jin

    2018-01-01

    A subgroup of patients suffering with vertebral fractures can develop progressive spinal deformities over time. The mechanism underlying such clinical observation, however, remains unknown. Previous studies suggested that creep deformation of the vertebral trabeculae may play a role. Using the acoustic emission (AE) technique, this study investigated effects of bone damage (modulus reduction) on creep behaviours of vertebral trabecular bone. Thirty-seven human vertebral trabeculae samples were randomly assigned into five groups (A to E). Bones underwent mechanical tests using similar experimental protocols but varied degree of bone damage was induced. Samples first underwent creep test (static compressive stress of 0.4MPa) for 30min, and then were loaded in compression to a specified strain level (0.4%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 4% for group A to E, respectively) to induce different degrees of bone damage (0.4%, no damage control; 1.0%, yield strain; 1.5%, beyond yield strain, 2.5% and 4%, post-ultimate strains). Samples were creep loaded (0.4MPa) again for 30min. AE techniques were used to monitor bone damage. Bone damage increased significantly from group A to E (P30% of modulus reduction in group D and E. Before compressive loading, creep deformation was not different among the five groups and AE hits in creep test were rare. After compressive loading, creep deformation was significantly greater in group D and E than those in other groups (Pcreep test were significantly greater in group D and E than in group A, B, and C (Pcreep deformation may occur even when the vertebra was under physiological loads. The boosted creep deformation observed may be attributed to newly created trabecular microfractures. Findings provide a possible explanation as to why some vertebral fracture patients develop progressive spinal deformity over time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Experimental validation of finite element analysis of human vertebral collapse under large compressive strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hadi S; Clouthier, Allison L; Zysset, Philippe K

    2014-04-01

    Osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures represent a major health problem in elderly populations. Such fractures can often only be diagnosed after a substantial deformation history of the vertebral body. Therefore, it remains a challenge for clinicians to distinguish between stable and progressive potentially harmful fractures. Accordingly, novel criteria for selection of the appropriate conservative or surgical treatment are urgently needed. Computer tomography-based finite element analysis is an increasingly accepted method to predict the quasi-static vertebral strength and to follow up this small strain property longitudinally in time. A recent development in constitutive modeling allows us to simulate strain localization and densification in trabecular bone under large compressive strains without mesh dependence. The aim of this work was to validate this recently developed constitutive model of trabecular bone for the prediction of strain localization and densification in the human vertebral body subjected to large compressive deformation. A custom-made stepwise loading device mounted in a high resolution peripheral computer tomography system was used to describe the progressive collapse of 13 human vertebrae under axial compression. Continuum finite element analyses of the 13 compression tests were realized and the zones of high volumetric strain were compared with the experiments. A fair qualitative correspondence of the strain localization zone between the experiment and finite element analysis was achieved in 9 out of 13 tests and significant correlations of the volumetric strains were obtained throughout the range of applied axial compression. Interestingly, the stepwise propagating localization zones in trabecular bone converged to the buckling locations in the cortical shell. While the adopted continuum finite element approach still suffers from several limitations, these encouraging preliminary results towards the prediction of extended vertebral

  7. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Atul Kumar; Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Chandan; Barbhuyan, Tarun; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sinha, Neeraj; Kumar, Ashutosh; Bellare, Jayesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  8. Cross-correlative 3D micro-structural investigation of human bone processed into bone allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Atul Kumar [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo [Tissue Bank, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012 (India); Rai, Ratan Kumar [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Khan, Mohd Parvez [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Singh, Chandan [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Barbhuyan, Tarun [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya [Division of Endocrinology, Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI) CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Sinha, Neeraj, E-mail: neerajcbmr@gmail.com [Centre of Biomedical Research, SGPGIMS Campus, Lucknow 226014 (India); Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bone allografts (BA) are a cost-effective and sustainable alternative in orthopedic practice as they provide a permanent solution for preserving skeletal architecture and function. Such BA however, must be processed to be disease free and immunologically safe as well as biologically and clinically useful. Here, we have demonstrated a processing protocol for bone allografts and investigated the micro-structural properties of bone collected from osteoporotic and normal human donor samples. In order to characterize BA at different microscopic levels, a combination of techniques such as Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used for delineating the ultra-structural property of bone. ssNMR revealed the extent of water, collagen fine structure and crystalline order in the bone. These were greatly perturbed in the bone taken from osteoporotic bone donor. Among the processing methods analyzed, pasteurization at 60 °C and radiation treatment appeared to substantially alter the bone integrity. SEM study showed a reduction in Ca/P ratio and non-uniform distribution of elements in osteoporotic bones. μ-CT and MIMICS® (Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System) demonstrated that pasteurization and radiation treatment affects the BA morphology and cause a shift in the HU unit. However, the combination of all these processes restored all-important parameters that are critical for BA integrity and sustainability. Cross-correlation between the various probes we used quantitatively demonstrated differences in morphological and micro-structural properties between BA taken from normal and osteoporotic human donor. Such details could also be instrumental in designing an appropriate bone scaffold. For the best restoration of bone microstructure and to be used as a biomaterial allograft, a step-wise processing method is recommended that preserves all

  9. The effect of radiation sterilization on human transplantable bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafyllou, N.; Karatzas, P.

    1974-11-01

    In order to study the effect of radiation sterilization on human transplantable bones, work was carried out on human and bovine bone tissue samples. Factors causing possible alterations in the mechanical structures of the preserved bone allografts were considered to be deep freezing (-35degC), lyophylization, irradiation, or a combination of lyophylization and irradiation. The latter could be shown to lower the mechanical strength of the bone. Crystal lattice of the bone did not show any alterations in x-ray diffraction pattern, following freeze drying and/or irradiation with doses up to 10 Mrad of gamma radiation. Deterioration in mechanical properties is probably due to damage to the organic phase of the bone matrix

  10. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohan, Subburaman

    2007-01-01

    .... Two hypotheses have been proposed: I) Quantitative trait loci analysis using the four point bending technique in two strains of mice exhibiting extreme differences in loading response will lead to identification of chromosomal locations...

  11. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohan, Subburaman

    2005-01-01

    .... Two hypotheses have been proposed:1) Ouantitative trait loci analysis using the four point bending technique in two strains of mice exhibiting extreme differences in loading response will lead to identification of chromosomal locations...

  12. Comparative cortical bone thickness between the long bones of humans and five common non-human mammal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Sarah L; Reed, Warren; Donlon, Denise

    2016-03-01

    The task of identifying fragments of long bone shafts as human or non-human is difficult but necessary, for both forensic and archaeological cases, and a fast simple method is particularly useful. Previous literature suggests there may be differences in the thickness of the cortical bone between these two groups, but this has not been tested thoroughly. The aim of this study was not only to test this suggestion, but also to provide data that could be of practical assistance for future comparisons. The major limb bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) of 50 Caucasoid adult skeletons of known age and sex were radiographed, along with corresponding skeletal elements from sheep, pigs, cattle, large dogs and kangaroos. Measurements were taken from the radiographs at five points along the bone shaft, of shaft diameter, cortical bone thickness, and a cortical thickness index (sum of cortices divided by shaft diameter) in both anteroposterior and mediolateral orientations. Each variable for actual cortical bone thickness as well as cortical thickness indices were compared between the human group (split by sex) and each of the non-human groups in turn, using Student's t-tests. Results showed that while significant differences did exist between the human groups and many of the non-human groups, these were not all in the same direction. That is, some variables in the human groups were significantly greater than, and others were significantly less than, the corresponding variable in the non-human groups, depending on the particular non-human group, sex of the human group, or variable under comparison. This was the case for measurements of both actual cortical bone thickness and cortical thickness index. Therefore, for bone shaft fragments for which the skeletal element is unknown, the overlap in cortical bone thickness between different areas of different bones is too great to allow identification using this method alone. However, by providing extensive cortical bone

  13. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r=0.65–0.94. Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters.

  14. Bioenergetics during calvarial osteoblast differentiation reflect strain differences in bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Anyonya R; Le, Phuong T; Farber, Charles R; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-05-01

    Osteoblastogenesis is the process by which mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts that synthesize collagen and mineralize matrix. The pace and magnitude of this process are determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Two inbred strains of mice, C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J, exhibit differences in peak bone mass and bone formation. Although all the heritable factors that differ between these strains have not been elucidated, a recent F1 hybrid expression panel (C3H × B6) revealed major genotypic differences in osteoblastic genes related to cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, we hypothesized that the metabolic rate of energy utilization by osteoblasts differed by strain and would ultimately contribute to differences in bone formation. In order to study the bioenergetic profile of osteoblasts, we measured oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) first in a preosteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1C4 and subsequently in primary calvarial osteoblasts from C3H and B6 mice at days 7, 14, and 21 of differentiation. During osteoblast differentiation in media containing ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate, all 3 cell types increased their oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates compared with the same cells grown in regular media. These increases are sustained throughout differentiation. Importantly, C3H calvarial osteoblasts had greater oxygen consumption rates than B6 consistent with their in vivo phenotype of higher bone formation. Interestingly, osteoblasts utilized both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis during the differentiation process although mature osteoblasts were more dependent on glycolysis at the 21-day time point than oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, determinants of oxygen consumption reflect strain differences in bone mass and provide the first evidence that during collagen synthesis osteoblasts use both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to synthesize and

  15. Registration-based Bone Morphometry for Shape Analysis of the Bones of the Human Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand A.; Leahy, Richard M.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method that quantifies point-wise changes in surface morphology of the bones of the human wrist. The proposed method, referred to as Registration-based Bone Morphometry (RBM), consists of two steps: an atlas selection step and an atlas warping step. The atlas for individual wrist bones was selected based on the shortest l2 distance to the ensemble of wrist bones from a database of a healthy population of subjects. The selected atlas was then warped to the corresponding bones of individuals in the population using a non-linear registration method based on regularized l2 distance minimization. The displacement field thus calculated showed local differences in bone shape that then were used for the analysis of group differences. Our results indicate that RBM has potential to provide a standardized approach to shape analysis of bones of the human wrist. We demonstrate the performance of RBM for examining group differences in wrist bone shapes based on sex and between those of the right and left wrists in healthy individuals. We also present data to show the application of RBM for tracking bone erosion status in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26353369

  16. Variability of tissue mineral density can determine physiological creep of human vertebral cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Shertok, Daniel; Ching Tee, Boon; Yeni, Yener N

    2011-06-03

    Creep is a time-dependent viscoelastic deformation observed under a constant prolonged load. It has been indicated that progressive vertebral deformation due to creep may increase the risk of vertebral fracture in the long-term. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of creep with trabecular architecture and tissue mineral density (TMD) parameters in human vertebral cancellous bone at a physiological static strain level. Architecture and TMD parameters of cancellous bone were analyzed using microcomputerized tomography (micro-CT) in specimens cored out of human vertebrae. Then, creep and residual strains of the specimens were measured after a two-hour physiological compressive constant static loading and unloading cycle. Creep developed (3877 ± 2158 με) resulting in substantial levels of non-recoverable post-creep residual strain (1797 ± 1391 με). A strong positive linear correlation was found between creep and residual strain (r = 0.94, p creep rate. The TMD variability (GL(COV)) was the strongest correlate of creep rate (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). This result suggests that TMD variability may be a useful parameter for estimating the long-term deformation of a whole vertebral body. The results further suggest that the changes in TMD variability resulting from bone remodeling are of importance and may provide an insight into the understanding of the mechanisms underlying progressive failure of vertebral bodies and development of a clinical fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    induced expression of both type-I collagen and bone sialoprotein by 2-fold and down regulated MMP-9, TRAP, Sodium- potassium pump, and Cathespin K by 3-, 5...assayed with the bicinchoninic acid method. Ten g of extract protein from each extract was loaded onto 10% SDS- polyacryl - amide gels and transblotted...caused down regulation of BR genes MMP-9, TRAP and Sodium- potassium pump by 3, 5, and 2-fold respectively (pɘ.0001). In contrast, the expression of

  18. Strain analysis of trabecular bone using time-resolved X-ray microtomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Zlámal, Petr; Kytýř, Daniel; Kroupa, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, Suppl. 1 (2011), s. 148-151 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /11./. Praha, 28.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP103/07/P483 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : trabecular bone * X-ray microtomography * strain analysis * intrinsic material properties Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  19. The asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 outcompetes uropathogenic E. coli strains in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ulett, G.C.; Schembri, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the human urinary tract....... The prototype ABU E. coli strain 83972 was originally isolated from a girl who had carried it asymptomatically for 3 years. Deliberate colonization of UTI-susceptible individuals with E. coli 83972 has been used successfully as an alternative approach for the treatment of patients who are refractory...... to conventional therapy. Colonization with strain 83972 appears to prevent infection with UPEC strains in such patients despite the fact that this strain is unable to express the primary adhesins involved in UTI, viz. P and type 1 fimbriae. Here we investigated the growth characteristics of E. coli 83972 in human...

  20. Penetration of flomoxef into human maxillary and mandibular bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, H H; Sugihara, T; Yoshida, T; Kawashima, K; Ohura, T

    1995-09-01

    Penetration of flomoxef into the maxillary and mandibular bones was assayed clinically to provide data about its usefulness for the prevention of postoperative infection after maxillofacial surgery. Twenty-one patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery at our department were given flomoxef 2 g dissolved in 20 ml of physiological saline intravenously over 3 minutes during operation, and the serum, maxillary and mandibular concentrations were measured 1, 3, and 6 hours after injection by the band culture method using Escherichia coli 7437 as the indicator strain. The mean concentrations were 53.4, 16.1, and 2.6 micrograms/ml, respectively, in the serum, 17.6, 7.8, and 1.0 micrograms/g in maxillary bone, and 16.4, 4.2, and 0.9 micrograms/g in mandibular bone. The mean bone:serum ratios at 1, 3, and 6 hours were 33.0%, 48.2%, and 36.8%, respectively, for maxillary bone, and 30.7%, 26.2%, and 35.7% for mandibular bone. When compared with previously reported data on the bone:serum ratios in jaw of various other intravenous antibiotics, our results show that penetration of flomoxef into maxillary and mandibular bone is extremely high. As all the intramaxillary and intramandibular concentrations exceed its MIC80 values against clinical isolates of bacteria frequently isolated in cases of infection in the oral and maxillofacial region, it is apparent that one intravenous shot of flomoxef 2 g allows penetration of the drug into the maxillary and mandibular bones at effective concentrations. Flomoxef is therefore potentially useful for the prevention and treatment of infections in the oral and maxillofacial region, as it has excellent penetration into the maxillary and mandibular bones.

  1. In vivo bone strain and finite-element modeling of the craniofacial haft in catarrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Callum F; Berthaume, Michael A; Dechow, Paul C; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Porro, Laura B; Richmond, Brian G; Spencer, Mark; Strait, David

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding patterns of stress, strain and deformation in the craniofacial skeleton are central to adaptive explanations for the evolution of primate craniofacial form. The complexity of craniofacial skeletal morphology makes it difficult to evaluate these hypotheses with in vivo bone strain data. In this paper, new in vivo bone strain data from the intraorbital surfaces of the supraorbital torus, postorbital bar and postorbital septum, the anterior surface of the postorbital bar, and the anterior root of the zygoma are combined with published data from the supraorbital region and zygomatic arch to evaluate the validity of a finite-element model (FEM) of a macaque cranium during mastication. The behavior of this model is then used to test hypotheses regarding the overall deformation regime in the craniofacial haft of macaques. This FEM constitutes a hypothesis regarding deformation of the facial skeleton during mastication. A simplified verbal description of the deformation regime in the macaque FEM is as follows. Inferior bending and twisting of the zygomatic arches about a rostrocaudal axis exerts inferolaterally directed tensile forces on the lateral orbital wall, bending the wall and the supraorbital torus in frontal planes and bending and shearing the infraorbital region and anterior zygoma root in frontal planes. Similar deformation regimes also characterize the crania of Homo and Gorilla under in vitro loading conditions and may be shared among extant catarrhines. Relatively high strain magnitudes in the anterior root of the zygoma suggest that the morphology of this region may be important for resisting forces generated during feeding. PMID:21105871

  2. Human decellularized bone scaffolds from aged donors show improved osteoinductive capacity compared to young donor bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Smith

    Full Text Available To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC. BM-MSCs from young and old donors were seeded on acellular bone cubes from young and old donors undergoing osteoarthritis related hip surgery. All combinations resulted in increased osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzyme activity, however BM-MSCs cultured on old donor bone displayed the largest increases. BM-MSCs cultured in old donor bone conditioned media also displayed higher osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity than those exposed to young donor bone conditioned media. ELISA and Luminex analysis of conditioned media demonstrated similar levels of bioactive factors between age groups; however, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1 concentration was significantly higher in young donor samples. Additionally, structural analysis of old donor bone indicated an increased porosity compared to young donor bone. These results demonstrate the ability of a decellularized scaffold produced from young and old donors to support osteogenic differentiation of cells from young and old donors. Significantly, the older donor bone produced greater osteogenic differentiation which may be related to reduced IGFBP1 bioavailability and increased porosity, potentially explaining the excellent clinical results seen with the use of allograft from aged donors.

  3. Is fatty acid composition of human bone marrow significant to bone health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ana María; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2017-12-16

    The bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is a conserved component of the marrow microenvironment, providing storage and release of energy and stabilizing the marrow extent. Also, it is recognized both the amount and quality of BMAT are relevant to preserve the functional relationships between BMAT, bone, and blood cell production. In this article we ponder the information supporting the tenet that the quality of BMAT is relevant to bone health. In the human adult the distribution of BMAT is heterogeneous over the entire skeleton, and both BMAT accumulation and bone loss come about with aging in healthy populations. But some pathological conditions which increase BMAT formation lead to bone impairment and fragility. Analysis in vivo of the relative content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in BMAT indicates site-related bone marrow fat composition and an association between increased unsaturation index (UI) and bone health. With aging some impairment ensues in the regulation of bone marrow cells and systemic signals leading to local chronic inflammation. Most of the bone loss diseases which evolve altered BMAT composition have as common factors aging and/or chronic inflammation. Both saturated and unsaturated FAs originate lipid species which are active mediators in the inflammation process. Increased free saturated FAs may lead to lipotoxicity of bone marrow cells. The pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or resolving actions of compounds derived from long chain poly unsaturated FAs (PUFA) on bone cells is varied, and depending on the metabolism of the parent n:3 or n:6 PUFAs series. Taking together the evidence substantiate that marrow adipocyte function is fundamental for an efficient link between systemic and marrow fatty acids to accomplish specific energy or regulatory needs of skeletal and marrow cells. Further, they reveal marrow requirements of PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A case for bone canaliculi as the anatomical site of strain generated potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, S. C.; Weinbaum, S.; Zeng, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We address the question of determining the anatomical site that is the source of the experimentally observed strain generated potentials (SGPs) in bone tissue. There are two candidates for the anatomical site that is the SGP source, the collagen-hydroxyapatite porosity and the larger size lacunar-canalicular porosity. In the past it has been argued, on the basis of experimental data and a reasonable model, that the site of the SGPs in bone is the collagen-hydroxyapatite porosity. The theoretically predicted pore radius necessary for the SGPs to reside in this porosity is 16 nm, which is somewhat larger than the pore radii estimated from gas adsorption data where the preponderance of the pores were estimated to be in the range 5-12.5 nm. However, this pore size is significantly larger than the 2 nm size of the small tracer, microperoxidase, which appears to be excluded from the mineralized matrix. In this work a similar model, but one in which the effects of fluid dynamic drag of the cell surface matrix in the bone canaliculi are included, is used to show that it is possible for the generation of SGPs to be associated with the larger size lacunar-canalicular porosity when the hydraulic drag and electrokinetic contribution of the bone fluid passage through the cell coat (glycocalyx) is considered. The consistency of the SGP data with this model is demonstrated. A general boundary condition is introduced to allow for current leakage at the bone surface. The results suggest that the current leakage is small for the in vitro studies in which the strain generated potentials have been measured.

  5. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter...... of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts....... Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone...

  6. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F.

    2007-01-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 OH 2 ], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 μm (±5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm -3 and 1.92 g.cm -3 respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content in the samples was then

  7. MicroCT evaluation of bone mineral density loss in human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: lnogueira@con.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2007-07-01

    Bone is a connective tissue largely composed of an organic protein, collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}], which combine to provide a mechanical and supportive role in the body. Depending on the orientation of collagen fibers, two types of bone can be distinguished: trabecular and cortical bone. Degree of mineralization is considered an important feature of bone quality. Changes in the degree of mineralization is generally due to osteoporosis, but many recent studies have already shown that alterations in degree of mineralization can occur due to a large variety of factors. The transmission X-ray microtomography is one of the most popular methods, which provides the spatial distribution of the total absorption coefficient inside the sample. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using microCT as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of the health status of human bones. Eleven samples were constructed simulating the physiological range of bone mineral density (BMD) found in cortical human bone. The samples represent healthy mixtures of swine compact bone dried at room temperature, powdered and mixed with fat (0 - 100 % by mass). The samples were imaged by a microfocus tube (Fein-Focus) with focal size of about 60 {mu}m ({+-}5%), and a CCD camera (0.143 mm pixel size) coupled with an intensifier tube with fluoroscope screen at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil. The images were reconstructed and treated with suitable software developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory. The mineral content in cortical bone is defined by the volume of dry, fat-free bone per unit bulk volume of the bone. The volumes were calculated from the bone density using the relationship between volume and density. The densities of fat and bone were taken to be 0.95 g.cm{sup -3} and 1.92 g.cm{sup -3} respectively. The correlation of the measured absorption coefficient with the mineral content

  8. Strain rate dependency of bovine trabecular bone under impact loading at sideways fall velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns-Bray, William S; Ferguson, Stephen J; Helgason, Benedikt

    2018-05-03

    There is currently a knowledge gap in scientific literature concerning the strain rate dependent properties of trabecular bone at intermediate strain rates. Meanwhile, strain rates between 10 and 200/s have been observed in previous dynamic finite element models of the proximal femur loaded at realistic sideways fall speeds. This study aimed to quantify the effect of strain rate (ε̇) on modulus of elasticity (E), ultimate stress (σ u ), failure energy (U f ), and minimum stress (σ m ) of trabecular bone in order to improve the biofidelity of material properties used in dynamic simulations of sideways fall loading on the hip. Cylindrical cores of trabecular bone (D = 8 mm, L gauge  = 16 mm, n = 34) from bovine proximal tibiae and distal femurs were scanned in µCT (10 µm), quantifying apparent density (ρ app ) and degree of anisotropy (DA), and subsequently impacted within a miniature drop tower. Force of impact was measured using a piezoelectric load cell (400 kHz), while displacement during compression was measured from high speed video (50,000 frames/s). Four groups, with similar density distributions, were loaded at different impact velocities (0.84, 1.33, 1.75, and 2.16 m/s) with constant kinetic energy (0.4 J) by adjusting the impact mass. The mean strain rates of each group were significantly different (p < 0.05) except for the two fastest impact speeds (p = 0.09). Non-linear regression models correlated strain rate, DA, and ρ app with ultimate stress (R 2  = 0.76), elastic modulus (R 2  = 0.63), failure energy (R 2  = 0.38), and minimum stress (R 2  = 0.57). These results indicate that previous estimates of σ u could be under predicting the mechanical properties at strain rates above 10/s. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation dosimetry in human bone using electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate measurements of dose in bone are required in order to improve the dosimetry of systemic radiotherapy for osseous metastases. Bone is an integrating dosimeter which records the radiation history of the skeleton. During irradiation, electrons become trapped in the crystalline component of bone mineral (hydroxyapatite). The traps are very stable; at room temperature, emptying of the traps occurs with a half-life of many years. The population of trapped unpaired electrons is proportional to the radiation dose administered to the bone and can be measured in excised bone samples using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). EPR spectra of synthetic hydroxyapatite, irradiated with Co-60, were obtained at room temperature and at 77 K. At room temperature, the radiation-induced signal, with a g-value of 2.001 ± 0.001 increased linearly with absorbed dose above a lower threshold of 3 Gy, up to doses of 200 Gy. In contrast with pure hydroxyapatite, EPR spectra of excised human bone showed a broad 'native' signal, due to the organic component of bone, which masks the dosimetrically important signal. This native signal is highly variable from sample to sample and precludes the use of EPR as an absolute dosimetry technique. However, after subtraction of the background signal, irradiated human bone showed a linear response with a lower limit of measurement similar to that of synthetic hydroxyapatite. Bone is an in vivo linear dosimeter which can be exploited to develop accurate estimates of the radiation dose delivered during systemic radiotherapy and teletherapy. However, improved sensitivity of the EPR dosimetry technique is necessary before it can be applied reliably in clinical situations. (author)

  11. A theoretical framework for strain-related trabecular bone maintenance and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruimerman, R; Hilbers, P; van Rietbergen, B; Huiskes, R

    2005-04-01

    It is assumed that density and morphology of trabecular bone is partially controlled by mechanical forces. How these effects are expressed in the local metabolic functions of osteoclast resorption and osteoblast formation is not known. In order to investigate possible mechano-biological pathways for these mechanisms we have proposed a mathematical theory (Nature 405 (2000) 704). This theory is based on hypothetical osteocyte stimulation of osteoblast bone formation, as an effect of elevated strain in the bone matrix, and a role for microcracks and disuse in promoting osteoclast resorption. Applied in a 2-D Finite Element Analysis model, the theory explained the formation of trabecular patterns. In this article we present a 3-D FEA model based on the same theory and investigated its potential morphological predictability of metabolic reactions to mechanical loads. The computations simulated the development of trabecular morphological details during growth, relative to measurements in growing pigs, reasonably realistic. They confirmed that the proposed mechanisms also inherently lead to optimal stress transfer. Alternative loading directions produced new trabecular orientations. Reduction of load reduced trabecular thickness, connectivity and mass in the simulation, as is seen in disuse osteoporosis. Simulating the effects of estrogen deficiency through increased osteoclast resorption frequencies produced osteoporotic morphologies as well, as seen in post-menopausal osteoporosis. We conclude that the theory provides a suitable computational framework to investigate hypothetical relationships between bone loading and metabolic expressions.

  12. Quantum dots as mineral- and matrix-specific strain gages for bone biomechanical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peizhi; Xu, Jiadi; Morris, Michael; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Sahar, Nadder; Kohn, David

    2009-02-01

    We report the use of quantum dots (Qdots) as strain gages in the study of bone biomechanics using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have developed solid state NMR sample cells for investigation of deformations of bone tissue components at loads up to several Mega Pascal. The size constraints of the NMR instrumentation limit the bone specimen diameter and length to be no greater than 2-3 mm and 30 mm respectively. Further, magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR experiments require the use of non-metallic apparatus that can be rotated at kilohertz rates. These experimental constraints preclude the use of standard biomechanical measurement systems. In this paper we explore the use of quantum dot center of gravity measurement as a strain gage technology consistent with the constraints of solid state NMR. We use Qdots that bind calcium (625 nm emission) and collagen (705 nm emission) for measurement of strain in these components. Compressive loads are applied to a specimen in a cell through a fine pitch screw turned with a mini-torque wrench. Displacement is measured as changes in the positions of arrays of quantum dots on the surface of a specimen. Arrays are created by spotting the specimen with dilute suspensions of Qdots. Mineral labeling is achieved with 705 nm carboxylated dots and matrix labeling with 565 nm quantum dots conjugated to collagen I antibodies. After each load increment the new positions of the quantum dots are measured by fluorescence microscopy. Changes in Qdot center of gravity as a function of applied load can be measured with submicron accuracy.

  13. Biochemical studies of the macromolecular matrix of long bones in the Op/Orl mutant rat strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moczar, E; Berenholc, S; Phan-Dinh-Tuy, B; Robert, A M

    1978-01-01

    The long bones of normal and Op/Orl mutant rats were incubated with /sup 14/C-glucose and fractionated by EDTA and urea extraction. The analytical results of the various extracts suggested an increase in structural glycoprotein content and a decrease in collagen solubility in the long bones of mutants. Significant differences were found in the organic matrix composition of male and female bones of the two strains. /sup 14/C-glucose incorporation was stronger in males than in females. The presence of a glycosaminoglycan different from the chondroitinesulfate was shown in males. Basic amino acid content (lysine, arginine, histidine) was clearly higher in the insoluble residue of male bones .

  14. Biochemical studies of the macromolecular matrix of long bones in the Op/Orl mutant rat strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moczar, E.; Berenholc, S.; Phan-Dinh-Tuy, B.; Robert, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The long bones of normal and Op/Orl mutant rats were incubated with 14 C-glucose and fractionated by EDTA and urea extraction. The analytical results of the various extracts suggested an increase in structural glycoprotein content and a decrease in collagen solubility in the long bones of mutants. Significant differences were found in the organic matrix composition of male and female bones of the two strains. 14 C-glucose incorporation was stronger in males than in females. The presence of a glycosaminoglycan different from the chondroitinesulfate was shown in males. Basic amino acid content (lysine, arginine, histidine) was clearly higher in the insoluble residue of male bones

  15. In vivo bone strain and finite element modeling of a rhesus macaque mandible during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Iriarte-Diaz, José; Wilshin, Simon; Dechow, Paul C; Taylor, Andrea B; Mehari Abraha, Hyab; Aljunid, Sharifah F; Ross, Callum F

    2017-10-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool in musculoskeletal biomechanics and vertebrate paleontology. The accuracy and precision of finite element models (FEMs) are reliant on accurate data on bone geometry, muscle forces, boundary conditions and tissue material properties. Simplified modeling assumptions, due to lack of in vivo experimental data on material properties and muscle activation patterns, may introduce analytical errors in analyses where quantitative accuracy is critical for obtaining rigorous results. A subject-specific FEM of a rhesus macaque mandible was constructed, loaded and validated using in vivo data from the same animal. In developing the model, we assessed the impact on model behavior of variation in (i) material properties of the mandibular trabecular bone tissue and teeth; (ii) constraints at the temporomandibular joint and bite point; and (iii) the timing of the muscle activity used to estimate the external forces acting on the model. The best match between the FEA simulation and the in vivo experimental data resulted from modeling the trabecular tissue with an isotropic and homogeneous Young's modulus and Poisson's value of 10GPa and 0.3, respectively; constraining translations along X,Y, Z axes in the chewing (left) side temporomandibular joint, the premolars and the m 1 ; constraining the balancing (right) side temporomandibular joint in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior axes, and using the muscle force estimated at time of maximum strain magnitude in the lower lateral gauge. The relative strain magnitudes in this model were similar to those recorded in vivo for all strain locations. More detailed analyses of mandibular strain patterns during the power stroke at different times in the chewing cycle are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. [Comparation on Haversian system between human and animal bones by imaging analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Ling; Zheng, Jing; Yao, Ya-Nan; Chen, Sen; Wang, Hui-Pin; Chen, Li-Xian; Guo, Jing-Yuan

    2006-04-01

    To explore the differences in Haversian system between human and animal bones through imaging analysis and morphology description. Thirty-five slices grinding from human being as well as dog, pig, cow and sheep bones were observed to compare their structure, then were analysed with the researchful microscope. Plexiform bone or oeston band was not found in human bones; There were significant differences in the shape, size, location, density of Haversian system, between human and animal bones. The amount of Haversian lamella and diameter of central canal in human were the biggest; Significant differences in the central canal diameter and total area percentage between human and animal bones were shown by imaging analysis. (1) Plexiform bone and osteon band could be the exclusive index in human bone; (2) There were significant differences in the structure of Haversian system between human and animal bones; (3) The percentage of central canals total area was valuable in species identification through imaging analysis.

  17. Differentiating human versus non-human bone by exploring the nutrient foramen: implications for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vail; Beckett, Sophie; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    One of the roles of a forensic anthropologist is to assist medico-legal investigations in the identification of human skeletal remains. In some instances, only small fragments of bone may be present. In this study, a non-destructive novel technique is presented to distinguish between human and non-human long bones. This technique is based on the macroscopic and computed tomography (CT) analysis of nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramen of long bone diaphyses transmits the nutrient artery which provides much of the oxygen and nutrients to the bone. The nutrient foramen and its canal were analysed in six femora and humeri of human, sheep (Ovies aries) and pig (Sus scrofa) species. The location, position and direction of the nutrient foramina were measured macroscopically. The length of the canal, angle of the canal, circumference and area of the entrance of the foramen were measured from CT images. Macroscopic analysis revealed the femora nutrient foramina are more proximal, whereas humeri foramina are more distal. The human bones and sheep humerus conform to the perceived directionality, but the pig bones and sheep femur do not. Amongst the parameters measured in the CT analysis, the angle of the canal had a discriminatory power. This study shows the potential of this technique to be used independently or complementary to other methods in distinguishing between human and non-human bone in forensic anthropology.

  18. Survey of radiosensitivity in a variety of human cell strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlett, C.F.; Harcourt, S.A.

    1980-03-01

    Gamma-ray sensitivity for cell killing was assayed in 54 human cell strains, including some derived from individuals suffering from certain hereditary diseases. The overall range of Do values in this study was 38 to 180 rads, indicating a considerable range of variability in humans. The normal sensitivity was described by a range of Do values of 97 to 180 rads. All ten ataxia telangiectasia cell strains tested proved radiosensitive and gave a mean Do value of 57 +- 15 (S.E.) rads, and these represent the most radiosensitive human skin fibroblasts currently available. Representative cell strains from familial retinoblastoma, Fanconi's anemia, and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria occupied positions of intermediate sensitivity, as did one of two ataxia telangiectasia heterozygotes. Six xeroderma pigmentosum cell strains together with two Cockayne's syndrome cell strains (all known to be sensitive to ultraviolet light) fell into the normal range, indicating an absence of cross-sensitivity between ultraviolet light and gamma-irradiation.

  19. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This review covers studies of the microdistribution of radium and plutonium in human bone, conducted at Argonne with emphasis on the alpha-spectrometric method of measurement. Alpha spectrometry offers high spatial resolution and is well suited to the measurement of radionuclide concentrations near bone surfaces. With these techniques surface deposit thicknesses have been measured to be about 1 μm thick for isotopes of lead, radium and the actinides, and volume deposits of 226 Ra have been found to be quite nonuniform near bone surfaces, leading to endosteal tissue dose rates that are higher than expected under the assumption of uniform volume concentration normally used in radiation protection calculations. With autoradiography, the bony septa of the mastoid air cell system have been found to be depleted in radium relative to the bone tissue surrounding them; this is expected to have a significant influence on the dosimetry of the mastoid epithelia. A combination of autoradiographic and morphometric measurements indicates that specific activities in the axial skeleton are higher than in the appendicular skeleton, primarily because the former has higher bone surface-to-volume ratios and higher bone surface concentrations of plutonium. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables

  20. Strontium-90 content of human bone collected in 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.

    1969-01-01

    This report follows report CEA-R-3381 and presents the strontium 90 content of human bones collected in 1967 in the Paris area. The main trend is much the same as during 1966; contamination levels are falling down in infants up to 5 year old. Beyond this age, the values are the same or experience a slight increase. (authors) [fr

  1. Ancient pathogen DNA in human teeth and petrous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Hansen, Henrik B.; Rasmussen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Recent ancient DNA (aDNA) studies of human pathogens have provided invaluable insights into their evolutionary history and prevalence in space and time. Most of these studies were based on DNA extracted from teeth or postcranial bones. In contrast, no pathogen DNA has been reported from the petro...

  2. Specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Møller, J; Plesner, T

    1989-01-01

    An effective method for specific depletion of mature T lymphocytes from human bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) with preservation of prethymic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells is presented. The BMMC were incubated with F101.01, a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the T...

  3. Rapid Prototyping Human Interfaces Using Stretchable Strain Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiya Yamaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern society with a variety of information electronic devices, human interfaces increase their importance in a boundary of a human and a device. In general, the human is required to get used to the device. Even if the device is designed as a universal device or a high-usability device, the device is not suitable for all users. The usability of the device depends on the individual user. Therefore, personalized and customized human interfaces are effective for the user. To create customized interfaces, we propose rapid prototyping human interfaces using stretchable strain sensors. The human interfaces comprise parts formed by a three-dimensional printer and the four strain sensors. The three-dimensional printer easily makes customized human interfaces. The outputs of the interface are calculated based on the sensor’s lengths. Experiments evaluate three human interfaces: a sheet-shaped interface, a sliding lever interface, and a tilting lever interface. We confirm that the three human interfaces obtain input operations with a high accuracy.

  4. Diagnostic dry bone histology in human paleopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, H. H. Hans; van der Merwe, A. E. Lida

    2016-01-01

    Paleopathology is the study of trauma and disease as may be observed in ancient (human) remains. In contrast to its central role in current medical practice, microscopy plays a rather modest role in paleopathology. This is at least partially due to the differences between fresh and decomposed (i.e.,

  5. Peri-implant bone strains and micro-motion following in vivo service: a postmortem retrieval study of 22 tibial components from total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kenneth A; Miller, Mark A; Goodheart, Jacklyn R; Izant, Timothy H; Cleary, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    Biological adaptation following placement of a total knee replacements (TKRs) affects peri-implant bone mineral density (BMD) and implant fixation. We quantified the proximal tibial bone strain and implant-bone micro-motion for functioning postmortem retrieved TKRs and assessed the strain/micro-motion relationships with chronological (donor age and time in service) and patient (body weight and BMD) factors. Twenty-two tibial constructs were functionally loaded to one body weight (60% medial/40% lateral), and the bone strains and tray/bone micro-motions were measured using a digital image correlation system. Donors with more time in service had higher bone strains (p = 0.044), but there was not a significant (p = 0.333) contribution from donor age. Donors with lower peri-implant BMD (p = 0.0039) and higher body weight (p = 0.0286) had higher bone strains. Long term implants (>11 years) had proximal bone strains 900 µϵ that were almost twice as high as short term (implants 570 µϵ. Micro-motion was greater for younger donors (p = 0.0161) and longer time in service (p = 0.0008). Increased bone strain with long term in vivo service could contribute to loosening of TKRs by failure of the tibial peri-implant bone. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    Best Poster 5Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of titanium implants AuthorsBabiker , H.; Ding M.; Overgaard S.InstitutionOrthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital, Clinical Institute, University of Southern...... from human tissue were included (IsoTis OrthoBiologics, Inc. USA). Both materials are commercially available. Titanium alloy implants (Biomet Inc.) of 10 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep. Thus four implants...... with a concentric gap of 2 mm were implanted in each sheep. The gap was filled with: DBM; DBM/CB with ratio of 1/3; DBM/allograft with ratio of 1/3; or allograft (Gold standard), respectively. Standardised surgical procedure was used1. At sacrifice, 6 weeks after surgery, both distal femurs were harvested...

  7. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26), seals (n = 6), a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST) 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of S

  8. Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Vertical Bone Augmentation in a Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2017-09-01

    Vertical bone augmentation (VBA) remains unpredictable and challenging for most clinicians. This study aims to compare hard tissue outcomes of VBA, with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2, under space-making titanium mesh in a canine model. Eleven male beagle dogs were used in the study. Experimental ridge defects were created to form atrophic ridges. VBA was performed via guided bone regeneration using titanium mesh and allografts. In experimental hemimandibles, rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge was well mixed with allografts prior to procedures, whereas a control buffer was applied within controls. Dogs were euthanized after a 4-month healing period. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to assess ridge dimensional changes. In addition, specimens were used for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment and histologic analysis. Membrane exposure was found on five of 11 (45.5%) rhBMP-2-treated sites, whereas it was found on nine of 11 (81.8%) non-rhBMP-2-treated sites. Within 4 months of healing, rhBMP-2-treated sites showed better radiographic bone density, greater defect fill, and significantly more bone gain in ridge height (P 0.05). Under light microscope, predominant lamellar patterns were found in the specimen obtained from rhBMP-2 sites. With inherent limitations of the canine model and the concern of such a demanding surgical technique, current findings suggest that the presence of rhBMP-2 in a composite graft allows an increase of vertical gain, with formation of ectopic bone over the titanium mesh in comparison with non-rhBMP-2 sites.

  9. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  10. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Jack C.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Carneal, Catherine M.; Voo, Liming M.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O. Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  11. Mandibular corpus bone strains during mastication in goats (Capra hircus): a comparison of ingestive and rumination chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan H; Stover, Kristin K; Davis, Jillian S; Montuelle, Stephane J

    2011-10-01

    To compare the mechanical loading environment of the jaw in goats during ingestive and rumination chewing. Rosette strain gauges were attached to the external surface of the mandibular corpus in five goats to record bone strains during the mastication of hay and rumination. Strain magnitudes and maximum physiological strain rates during the mastication of hay are significantly higher than during rumination chewing on the working and balancing sides. Principal strain ratios and orientations are similar between the two chewing behaviours. Loading and chewing cycle duration are all longer during rumination chewing, whereas chew duty factor and variances in load and chewing cycle durations are higher during ingestive chewing. For most of the variables, differences in strain magnitudes or durations are similar at all three gauge sites, suggesting that rumination and ingestive chewing do not differentially influence bone at the three gauge sites. Despite lower strain magnitudes, the repetitive nature of rumination chewing makes it an important component of the mechanical loading environment of the selenodont artiodactyl jaw. However, similarities in principal strain orientations and ratios indicate that rumination chewing need not be considered as a unique loading behaviour influencing the biomechanics of the selenodont artiodactyl jaw. Differences in loading and chewing cycle durations during rumination and ingestion demonstrate flexibility in adult chewing frequencies. Finally, although the low within-sequence variability in chewing cycle durations supports the hypothesis that mammalian mastication is energetically efficient, chewing during rumination may not be more efficient than during ingestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Plastic Nature of the Human Bone-Periodontal Ligament-Tooth Fibrous Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sunita P.; Kurylo, Michael P.; Grandfield, Kathryn; Hurng, Jonathan; Herber, Ralf-Peter; Ryder, Mark I.; Altoe, Virginia; Aloni, Shaul; Feng, Jian Q. (Jerry); Webb, Samuel; Marshall, Grayson W.; Curtis, Donald; Andrews, Joy C.; Pianetta, Piero

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates bony protrusions within a narrowed periodontal ligament space (PDL-space) of a human bone-PDL-tooth fibrous joint by mapping structural, biochemical, and mechanical heterogeneity. Higher resolution structural characterization was achieved via complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano transmission X-ray microscopy (nano-TXM), and micro tomography (Micro XCT™). Structural heterogeneity was correlated to biochemical and elemental composition, illustrated via histochemistry and microprobe X-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF), and mechanical heterogeneity evaluated by AFM-based nanoindentation. Results demonstrated that the narrowed PDL-space was due to invasion of bundle bone (BB) into PDL-space. Protruded BB had a wider range with higher elastic modulus values (2-8 GPa) compared to lamellar bone (0.8-6 GPa), and increased quantities of Ca, P and Zn as revealed by μ-XRF. Interestingly, the hygroscopic 10-30 μm interface between protruded BB and lamellar bone exhibited higher X-ray attenuation similar to cement lines and lamellae within bone. Localization of the small leucine rich proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) responsible for mineralization was observed at the PDL-bone interface and around the osteocyte lacunae. Based on these results, it can be argued that the LB-BB interface was the original site of PDL attachment, and that the genesis of protruded BB identified as protrusions occurred as a result of shift in strain. We emphasize the importance of bony protrusions within the context of organ function and that additional study is warranted. PMID:24063947

  13. Human bone marrow stem cell-encapsulating calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Due to its injectability and excellent osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is highly promising for orthopedic applications. However, a literature search revealed no report on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) encapsulation in CPC for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to encapsulate hBMSCs in alginate hydrogel beads and then incorporate them into CPC, CPC–chitosan and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds. Chitosan and degradable fibers were used to mechanically reinforce the scaffolds. After 21 days, that the percentage of live cells and the cell density of hBMSCs inside CPC-based constructs matched those in alginate without CPC, indicating that the CPC setting reaction did not harm the hBMSCs. Alkaline phosphate activity increased by 8-fold after 14 days. Mineral staining, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed that apatitic mineral was deposited by the cells. The amount of hBMSC-synthesized mineral in CPC–chitosan–fiber matched that in CPC without chitosan and fibers. Hence, adding chitosan and fibers, which reinforced the CPC, did not compromise hBMSC osteodifferentiation and mineral synthesis. In conclusion, hBMSCs were encapsulated in CPC and CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffolds for the first time. The encapsulated cells remained viable, osteodifferentiated and synthesized bone minerals. These self-setting, hBMSC-encapsulating CPC-based constructs may be promising for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:20451676

  14. Radiographic Comparison of Bovine Bone Substitute Alone versus Bovine Bone Substitute and Simvastatin for Human Maxillary Sinus Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of bovine bone substitute (Compact Bone B. ® alone versus bovine bone substitute and simvastatin for human maxillary sinus augmentation.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 16 sinuses in eight patients. Radiographic assessments were done preoperatively (T0, immediately (T1 and at nine months after sinus grafting (T2. Alveolar bone height and density were assessed on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scans using Planmeca Romexis™ Imaging Software 2.2.Results: The change in alveolar bone height and density between T0, T1 and T2 was significant in both groups. Alveolar bone height (h0, h1, h2 and vertical height of the grafted bone (g1, g2 in three lines (anterior, middle and posterior were not significantly different between groups. The grafted bone height shrinkage (% in the anterior, middle and posterior limits of the augmented area were not significantly different between groups. The existing alveolar and grafted bone density increased significantly in both groups between T1 and T2, except for the existing alveolar bone density in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the alveolar bone density values obtained in TI and T2 between groups, except for the existing alveolar bone density at T1.Conclusions: This study did not show any significant positive effect for simvastatin in maxillary sinus augmentation based on radiographic examination.

  15. Subchondral bone density distribution in the human femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, David A.; Meguid, Michael; Lubovsky, Omri; Whyne, Cari M. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    This study aims to quantitatively characterize the distribution of subchondral bone density across the human femoral head using a computed tomography derived measurement of bone density and a common reference coordinate system. Femoral head surfaces were created bilaterally for 30 patients (14 males, 16 females, mean age 67.2 years) through semi-automatic segmentation of reconstructed CT data and used to map bone density, by shrinking them into the subchondral bone and averaging the greyscale values (linearly related to bone density) within 5 mm of the articular surface. Density maps were then oriented with the center of the head at the origin, the femoral mechanical axis (FMA) aligned with the vertical, and the posterior condylar axis (PCA) aligned with the horizontal. Twelve regions were created by dividing the density maps into three concentric rings at increments of 30 from the horizontal, then splitting into four quadrants along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. Mean values for each region were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and a Bonferroni post hoc test, and side-to-side correlations were analyzed using a Pearson's correlation. The regions representing the medial side of the femoral head's superior portion were found to have significantly higher densities compared to other regions (p < 0.05). Significant side-to-side correlations were found for all regions (r {sup 2} = 0.81 to r {sup 2} = 0.16), with strong correlations for the highest density regions. Side-to-side differences in measured bone density were seen for two regions in the anterio-lateral portion of the femoral head (p < 0.05). The high correlation found between the left and right sides indicates that this tool may be useful for understanding 'normal' density patterns in hips affected by unilateral pathologies such as avascular necrosis, fracture, developmental dysplasia of the hip, Perthes disease, and slipped capital femoral head epiphysis. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of healthy muscle tissue by strain and shear wave elastography – Dependency on depth and ROI position in relation to underlying bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Carlsen, Jonathan Frederik; Christiansen, Iben Riishede

    2016-01-01

    and methods: Ten healthy volunteers (five males and five females) had their biceps brachii, gastrocnemius, and quadriceps muscle examined with strain- and shear wave elastography at three different depths and in regions located above bone and beside bone. Strain ratios were averaged from cine-loops of 10 s...

  17. Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, Joel; Koester, Kurt J.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-05-07

    Mineralized tissues, such as bone and tooth dentin, serve as structural materials in the human body and, as such, have evolved to resist fracture. In assessing their quantitative fracture resistance or toughness, it is important to distinguish between intrinsic toughening mechanisms which function ahead of the crack tip, such as plasticity in metals, and extrinsic mechanisms which function primarily behind the tip, such as crack bridging in ceramics. Bone and dentin derive their resistance to fracture principally from extrinsic toughening mechanisms which have their origins in the hierarchical microstructure of these mineralized tissues. Experimentally, quantification of these toughening mechanisms requires a crack-growth resistance approach, which can be achieved by measuring the crack-driving force, e.g., the stress intensity, as a function of crack extension ("R-curve approach"). Here this methodology is used to study of the effect of aging on the fracture properties of human cortical bone and human dentin in order to discern the microstructural origins of toughness in these materials.

  18. Constant strain rate and peri-implant bone modeling: an in vivo longitudinal micro-CT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Els; Jaecques, Siegfried V N; Wevers, Martine; Sloten, Jos Vander; Naert, Ignace E

    2013-06-01

    Strain, frequency, loading time, and strain rate, among others, determine mechanical parameters in osteogenic loading. We showed a significant osteogenic effect on bone mass (BM) by daily peri-implant loading at 1.600µε.s(-1) after 4 weeks. To study the peri-implant osteogenic effect of frequency and strain in the guinea pig tibia by in vivo longitudinal micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis. One week after implant installation in both hind limb tibiae, one implant was loaded daily for 10' during 4 weeks, while the other served as control. Frequencies (3, 10, and 30Hz) and strains varied alike in the three series to keep the strain rate constant at 1.600µε.s(-1) . In vivo micro-CT scans were taken of both tibiae: 1 week after implantation but before loading (v1) and after 2 (v2) and 4 weeks (v3) of loading as well as postmortem (pm). BM (BM (%) bone-occupied area fraction) was calculated as well as the difference between test and control sides (delta BM) RESULTS: All implants (n=78) were clinically stable at 4 weeks. Significant increase in BM was measured between v1 and v2 (pimplant marrow 500 Region of Interest already 2 weeks after loading (p=.01) and was significantly larger (11%) in series 1 compared with series 2 (p=.006) and 3 (p=.016). Within the constraints of constant loading time and strain rate, the effect of early implant loading on the peri-implant bone is strongly dependent on strain and frequency. This cortical bone model has shown to be most sensitive for high force loading at low frequency. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of Strain Distribution in Bone around Implant in Treatment Design of Overdentures Using Computer and Modeling of Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Khoshhal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Introduction: Few studies have investigated the distribution of stress around implants. In this study the distribution of stress in bones around implants was investigated in five overdenture (OD treatment designs including OD-1, OD-2, OD-3, OD-4 and OD-5. Materials and methods: The Catia modeling software was used in order to simulate the tooth/implant model and bone. First, the borders of cancellous and cortical bone in each section of the CT images were attained by Photoshop software. Then, modeling softwares SolidWorks and NUMBER were applied to make the final three-dimensional model of jaw. Finally, the amount of stress on the surface of bone/implant was studied by means of stress analysis software (Ansys v11.0. Results: Protrusive movements of implants B and D in OD-1 showed the highest amount of strain, 2435 εµ. Also, high amounts of strain, 1668 and 1557 εµwere observed in OD-1 and OD-2 designs in lateral movements respectively. Conclusion: The bottom line is that no forces to the extent of destruction based on the Ferost model were found for these designs. The highest amount of strain occurred in OD-1 design, which is held in mild overload window. Moreover, the amounts of strain in the rest of designs investigated were in adaptive window.

  20. Evaluation of Strain Distribution in Bone around Implant in Treatment Design of Overdentures Using Computer and Modeling of Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Khoshhal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Introduction: Few studies have investigated the distribution of stress around implants. In this study the distribution of stress in bones around implants was investigated in five overdenture (OD treatment designs including OD-1, OD-2, OD-3, OD-4 and OD-5. Materials and methods: The Catia modeling software was used in order to simulate the tooth/implant model and bone. First, the borders of cancellous and cortical bone in each section of the CT images were attained by Photoshop software. Then, modeling softwares SolidWorks and NUMBER were applied to make the final three-dimensional model of jaw. Finally, the amount of stress on the surface of bone/implant was studied by means of stress analysis software (Ansys v11.0. Results: Protrusive movements of implants B and D in OD-1 showed the highest amount of strain, 2435 εµ. Also, high amounts of strain, 1668 and 1557 εµwere observed in OD-1 and OD-2 designs in lateral movements respectively. Conclusion: The bottom line is that no forces to the extent of destruction based on the Ferost model were found for these designs. The highest amount of strain occurred in OD-1 design, which is held in mild overload window. Moreover, the amounts of strain in the rest of designs investigated were in adaptive window.

  1. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the treatment of bone fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Ghodadra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neil Ghodadra, Kern SinghDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: Over one million fractures occur per year in the US and are associated with impaired healing increasing patient morbidity, stress, and economic costs. Despite improvements in surgical technique, internal fixation, and understanding of biologics, fracture healing is delayed or impaired in up to 4% of all fractures. Complications due to impaired fracture healing present therapeutic challenges to the orthopedic surgeon and often lead to chronic functional and psychological disability for the patient. As a result, it has become clinically desirable to augment mechanical fixation with biologic strategies in order to accelerate osteogenesis and promote successful arthrodesis. The discovery of bone morphogenic protein (BMP has been pivotal in understanding the biology of fracture healing and has been a source of intense clinical research as an adjunct to fracture treatment. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies in animals have elucidated the complex biologic interactions between BMPs and cellular receptors and have convincingly demonstrated rhBMP-2 to be a safe, effective treatment option to enhance bone healing. Multiple clinical trials in trauma surgery have provided level 1 evidence for the use of rhBMP-2 as a safe and effective treatment of fractures. Human clinical trials have provided further insight into BMP-2 dosage, time course, carriers, and efficacy in fracture healing of tibial defects. These promising results have provided hope that a new biologic field of technology has emerged as a useful adjunct in the treatment of skeletal injuries and conditions.Keywords: bone morphogenic protein-2, bone fracture, bone healing

  3. About the inevitable compromise between spatial resolution and accuracy of strain measurement for bone tissue: a 3D zero-strain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Ara, E; Barber, D; Viceconti, M

    2014-09-22

    The accurate measurement of local strain is necessary to study bone mechanics and to validate micro computed tomography (µCT) based finite element (FE) models at the tissue scale. Digital volume correlation (DVC) has been used to provide a volumetric estimation of local strain in trabecular bone sample with a reasonable accuracy. However, nothing has been reported so far for µCT based analysis of cortical bone. The goal of this study was to evaluate accuracy and precision of a deformable registration method for prediction of local zero-strains in bovine cortical and trabecular bone samples. The accuracy and precision were analyzed by comparing scans virtually displaced, repeated scans without any repositioning of the sample in the scanner and repeated scans with repositioning of the samples. The analysis showed that both precision and accuracy errors decrease with increasing the size of the region analyzed, by following power laws. The main source of error was found to be the intrinsic noise of the images compared to the others investigated. The results, once extrapolated for larger regions of interest that are typically used in the literature, were in most cases better than the ones previously reported. For a nodal spacing equal to 50 voxels (498 µm), the accuracy and precision ranges were 425-692 µε and 202-394 µε, respectively. In conclusion, it was shown that the proposed method can be used to study the local deformation of cortical and trabecular bone loaded beyond yield, if a sufficiently high nodal spacing is used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Trabecular Bone on Peri-Implant Stress and Strain Based on Micro-CT Finite Element Modeling of Beagle Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Hao; Xie, Jing; Sohodeb, Vikesh Kumar; Ding, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to analyze the influence of trabecular microstructure modeling on the biomechanical distribution of the implant-bone interface. Two three-dimensional finite element mandible models, one with trabecular microstructure (a refined model) and one with macrostructure (a simplified model), were built. The values of equivalent stress at the implant-bone interface in the refined model increased compared with those of the simplified model and strain on the contrary. The distributions of stress and strain were more uniform in the refined model of trabecular microstructure, in which stress and strain were mainly concentrated in trabecular bone. It was concluded that simulation of trabecular bone microstructure had a significant effect on the distribution of stress and strain at the implant-bone interface. These results suggest that trabecular structures could disperse stress and strain and serve as load buffers.

  5. Bone Marrow Blood Vessel Ossification and “Microvascular Dead Space” in Rat and Human Long Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D.

    2014-01-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4–6 mon; n=8) and old (22–24 mon; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner’s Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via µCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and “normal” vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p necrosis. The progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. PMID:24680721

  6. Determination of Sr90 activity in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Anamelia Habib

    1970-01-01

    Several studies have been published in the literature on the extent and levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by fallout from nuclear weapon tests. According to UNSCEAR, these studies cover a great number of:-areas of the developed world, though large, areas of Asia, Africa and South-America are left aside with only, unsatisfactory information about the levels, of radioactive contamination. In 1968, UNSCEAR recommended that a survey on the contamination of biological materials such as human - bone by fission products and particularly Sr 90 should be encouraged on those areas where only fragmentary information was available. UNSCEAR recommendations call upon the fact that many individuals on such areas of the world have been exposed to Sr 90 contamination from birth to their adult area. Therefore, that group have an Sr 90 skeletal burden very much different from people exposed only at adult age. Based on these considerations, UNSCEAR recommendations called for Sr 90 analysis on human bones from different age groups. In Brazil, studies on the of Sr 90 in human bone are practically non-existent, except for the year of 1959. Following UNSCEAR recommendations, we decided to perform such a survey on Sr 90 levels in human bones. Samples were collected from individuals that died in Rio de Janeiro from accidents. These samples were firstly classified according to social level in very poor and poor groups. Samples were then classified in three age groups ranging 0-18, 18-30 and 30-40 years of age. Results show that levels found in the Brazilian age groups are close to the ones observed in Chile (1969), Argentina and Australia (1966-1968) and slightly, higher than -those observed in Venezuela, Senegal and Jamaica (1969). If one compares the results obtained for the North and South hemispheres respectively, one sees that there was a more pronounced decrease in the levels of Sr 90 content of the of some regions of South America. Our results show no

  7. Neovascular niche for human myeloma cells in immunodeficient mouse bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirono Iriuchishima

    Full Text Available The interaction with bone marrow (BM plays a crucial role in pathophysiological features of multiple myeloma (MM, including cell proliferation, chemoresistance, and bone lesion progression. To characterize the MM-BM interactions, we utilized an in vivo experimental model for human MM in which a GFP-expressing human MM cell line is transplanted into NOG mice (the NOG-hMM model. Transplanted MM cells preferentially engrafted at the metaphyseal region of the BM endosteum and formed a complex with osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A subpopulation of MM cells expressed VE-cadherin after transplantation and formed endothelial-like structures in the BM. CD138(+ myeloma cells in the BM were reduced by p53-dependent apoptosis following administration of the nitrogen mustard derivative bendamustine to mice in the NOG-hMM model. Bendamustine maintained the osteoblast lining on the bone surface and protected extracellular matrix structures. Furthermore, bendamustine suppressed the growth of osteoclasts and mesenchymal cells in the NOG-hMM model. Since VE-cadherin(+ MM cells were chemoresistant, hypoxic, and HIF-2α-positive compared to the VE-cadherin(- population, VE-cadherin induction might depend on the oxygenation status. The NOG-hMM model described here is a useful system to analyze the dynamics of MM pathophysiology, interactions of MM cells with other cellular compartments, and the utility of novel anti-MM therapies.

  8. Quantification of manganese in human hand bones: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R; McNeill, F E

    2008-01-01

    Manganese is both an essential element to human health and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels, particularly by means of inhalation. Biological monitoring of manganese exposure is problematic. It is subject to homeostasis; levels in blood (or serum/plasma) reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive technique for measurement of manganese stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following preliminary feasibility studies, the technique has been enhanced by two significant infrastructure advances. A specially designed irradiation facility serves to maximize the activation of manganese with respect to the dose of ionizing radiation. Secondly, an array of eight NaI(Tl) crystals provides a detection system with very close to 4π geometry. This feasibility study, using neutron activation analysis to measure manganese in the bones of the hand, takes two features into account. Firstly, there is considerable magnesium present in the bone and this produces a spectral interference with the manganese. The 26 Mg(n,γ) 27 Mg reaction produces γ-rays of 0.843 MeV from the decay of 27 Mg, which interfere with the 0.847 MeV γ-rays from the decay of 56 Mn, produced by the 55 Mn(n,γ) 56 Mn reaction. Secondly, this work provides estimates of the levels of manganese to be expected in referent subjects. A revised estimate has been made from the most recent literature to explore the potential of the technique as a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. This report presents the enhancements to the neutron activation system, by which manganese can be measured, which resulted in a detection limit in the hand of human subjects of 1.6

  9. Quantification of manganese in human hand bones: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R; McNeill, F E [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: aslamib@mcmaster.ca

    2008-08-07

    Manganese is both an essential element to human health and also toxic when humans are exposed to excessive levels, particularly by means of inhalation. Biological monitoring of manganese exposure is problematic. It is subject to homeostasis; levels in blood (or serum/plasma) reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive technique for measurement of manganese stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following preliminary feasibility studies, the technique has been enhanced by two significant infrastructure advances. A specially designed irradiation facility serves to maximize the activation of manganese with respect to the dose of ionizing radiation. Secondly, an array of eight NaI(Tl) crystals provides a detection system with very close to 4{pi} geometry. This feasibility study, using neutron activation analysis to measure manganese in the bones of the hand, takes two features into account. Firstly, there is considerable magnesium present in the bone and this produces a spectral interference with the manganese. The {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction produces {gamma}-rays of 0.843 MeV from the decay of {sup 27}Mg, which interfere with the 0.847 MeV {gamma}-rays from the decay of {sup 56}Mn, produced by the {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}){sup 56}Mn reaction. Secondly, this work provides estimates of the levels of manganese to be expected in referent subjects. A revised estimate has been made from the most recent literature to explore the potential of the technique as a suitable means of screening patients and people exposed to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. This report presents the enhancements to the neutron activation system, by which manganese can be measured, which resulted in a detection

  10. Bone sarcoma in humans induced by radium: A threshold response?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The radium 226 and radium 228 have induced malignancies in the skeleton (primarily bone sarcomas) of humans. They have also induced carcinomas in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. There is no evidence that any leukemias or any other solid cancers have been induced by internally deposited radium. This paper discuses a study conducted on the dial painter population. This study made a concerted effort to verify, for each of the measured radium cases, the published values of the skeletal dose and the initial intake of radium. These were derived from body content measurements made some 40 years after the radium intake. Corrections to the assumed radium retention function resulted in a considerable number of dose changes. These changes have changed the shape of the dose response function. It now appears that the induction of bone sarcomas is a threshold process

  11. An in vitro 3D bone metastasis model by using a human bone tissue culture and human sex-related cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanna, Francesca; Borsari, Veronica; Brogini, Silvia; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Parrilli, Annapaola; Cepollaro, Simona; Cadossi, Matteo; Martini, Lucia; Mazzotti, Antonio; Fini, Milena

    2016-11-22

    One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively. Bone tissue discarded from total hip replacement surgery was cultured in a rolling apparatus system in a normoxic or hypoxic environment. Gene expression profile, protein levels, histological, immunohistochemical and four-dimensional (4D) micro-CT analyses showed a noticeable specificity of breast and prostate cancer cells for bone colonization and ingrowth, thus highlighting the species-specific and sex-specific osteotropism and the need to widen the current knowledge on cancer-bone metastasis spread in human bone tissues. The results of this study support the application of this model in preclinical studies on bone metastases and also follow the 3R principles, the guiding principles, aimed at replacing/reducing/refining (3R) animal use and their suffering for scientific purposes.

  12. Large diameter femoral heads impose significant alterations on the strains developed on femoral component and bone: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, E G; Provatidis, C G; Babis, G C; Georgiou, C S; Megas, P D

    2011-01-01

    Total Hip Arthroplasty aims at fully recreating a functional hip joint. Over the past years modular implant systems have become common practice and are widely used, due to the surgical options they provide. In addition Big Femoral Heads have also been implemented in the process, providing more flexibility for the surgeon. The current study aims at investigating the effects that femoral heads of bigger diameter may impose on the mechanical behavior of the bone-implant assembly. Using data acquired by Computed Tomographies and a Coordinate Measurement Machine, a cadaveric femur and a Profemur-E modular stem were fully digitized, leading to a three dimensional finite element model in ANSYS Workbench. Strains and stresses were then calculated, focusing on areas of clinical interest, based on Gruen zones: the calcar and the corresponding below the greater trochanter area in the proximal femur, the stem tip region and a profile line along linea aspera. The performed finite elements analysis revealed that the use of large diameter heads produces significant changes in strain development within the bone volume, especially in the lateral side. The application of Frost's law in bone remodeling, validated the hypothesis that for all diameters normal bone growth occurs. However, in the calcar area lower strain values were recorded, when comparing with the reference model featuring a 28mm femoral head. Along line aspera and for the stem tip area, higher values were recorded. Finally, stresses calculated on the modular neck revealed increased values, but without reaching the yield strength of the titanium alloy used.

  13. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group......, the tibial defect was filled manually with Osteoset pellets, in the control group the defect was left empty. CTs of the defect were taken on the first day after the operation, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. We found about the same amount of bone in the defect in the Osteoset and control groups...... after 6 weeks, 3, and 6 months. In the control group, but not in the Osteoset group, the bone volume increased from 6 weeks to 3 months. The Osteoset pellets were almost resorbed after 6 weeks....

  14. Age variations in the properties of human tibial trabecular bone and cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2000-01-01

    , such as apparent, apparent ash and collagen densities of human tibial trabecular bone have significant relationships with age. Tissue density and mineral concentration remain constant throughout life. Trabecular bone is tougher in the younger age, i.e. fracture requires more energy. Collagen density was the single......Initiated and motivated by clinical and scientific problems such as age-related bone fracture, prosthetic loosening, bone remodeling, and degenerative bone diseases, much significant research on the properties of trabecular bone has been carried out over the last two decades. This work has mainly...... focused on the central vertebral trabecular bone, while little is known about age-related changes in the properties of human peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone. Knowledge of the properties of peripheral (tibial) trabecular bone is of major importance for the understanding of degenerative diseases...

  15. Nanoscale Bonding between Human Bone and Titanium Surfaces: Osseohybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sik Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the chemical bonding between titanium and bone has been examined only through a few mechanical detachment tests. Therefore, in this study, a sandblasted and acid-etched titanium mini-implant was removed from a human patient after 2 months of placement in order to identify the chemical integration mechanism for nanoscale osseointegration of titanium implants. To prepare a transmission electron microscopy (TEM specimen, the natural state was preserved as much as possible by cryofixation and scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam (SEM-FIB milling without any chemical treatment. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and scanning TEM (STEM/electron energy loss spectroscopic analysis (EELS were used to investigate the chemical composition and structure at the interface between the titanium and bone tissue. HRTEM and EDS data showed evidence of crystalline hydroxyapatite and intermixing of bone with the oxide layer of the implant. The STEM/EELS experiment provided particularly interesting results: carbon existed in polysaccharides, calcium and phosphorus existed as tricalcium phosphate (TCP, and titanium existed as oxidized titanium. In addition, the oxygen energy loss near edge structures (ELNESs showed a possibility of the presence of CaTiO3. These STEM/EELS results can be explained by structures either with or without a chemical reaction layer. The possible existence of the osseohybridization area and the form of the carbon suggest that reconsideration of the standard definition of osseointegration is necessary.

  16. Synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe study of human bone tumor slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuying; Zhao Limin; Wang Zhouguang; Shao Hanru; Li Guangcheng; Wu Yingrong; He Wei; Lu Jianxin; He Rongguo

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described. Using the bovine liver as the standard reference, the minimum detection limit (MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe. The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated. The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed. (author)

  17. Low sensitivity of three-phase bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of repetitive strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of repetitive strain injury (RSI is subjective and solely based on clinical signs and physical examination. The aim of this paper was to assess the usefulness of three-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS in diagnosing RSI. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at the Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp. METHODS: Seventy-three patients (mean age 31.2 years; 47 males with clinical suspicion of RSI in the upper limbs were studied. A total of 127 joints with suspicion of RSI were studied. The shoulders, elbows and wrists were analyzed semi-quantitatively, using the shafts of the humeri and ulnae as references. The results were compared with a control group of 40 normal individuals. The patients’ signs and symptoms were used as the "gold standard" for calculating the probabilities. RESULTS: From visual analysis, abnormalities were observed in the flow phase for four joints, in the blood pool phase for 11 joints and in the delayed images for 26 joints. Visual analysis of the joints of the control group did not show any abnormalities. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that most of the patients’ joint ratios were normal. The exceptions were the wrists of patients with left-sided RSI (p = 0.0216. However, the sensitivity (9% and accuracy (41% were very low. CONCLUSION: TPBS with semi-quantitative analysis has very low sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of RSI abnormalities in the upper limbs.

  18. Mechanical properties of human bone-tendon-bone grafts preserved by different methods and radiation sterilised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, A.; Gut, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Patellar tendon auto and allografts are commonly used in orthopaedic surgery for reconstruction of the anterior crucial ligaments (ACL). Autografts are mainly used for primary reconstruction, while allografts are useful for revision surgery. To avoid the risk of infection diseases transmission allografts should be radiation-sterilised. As radiation-sterilisation is supposed to decrease the mechanical strength of tendon tissue, it is important to establish methods of allografts preservation and sterilisation resulting in their best quality and safety. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to compare the tensile strength of the central one third of human patellar tendon (as used for ACL reconstruction), preserved by different methods (deep fresh freezing, lyophilisation) and subsequently radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. Bone-tendon-bone grafts were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendon with both patellar and tibial attachments. BTB grafts were preserved by deep freezing, glicerolisation or lyophilisation and radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. To estimate mechanical properties all samples were subjected to tensile tests to failure using Instron system. Before these tests all lyophilised grafts were rehydrated. We found decrease of tensile strength of irradiated grafts compared to non-irradiated controls. Obtained results of the mechanical testing of studied grafts indicate their potential usefulness for clinical applications.(Author)

  19. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Gibson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.

  20. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-03-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT.

  1. Methods and theory in bone modeling drift: comparing spatial analyses of primary bone distributions in the human humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiano, Corey M; Maggiano, Isabel S; Tiesler, Vera G; Chi-Keb, Julio R; Stout, Sam D

    2016-01-01

    This study compares two novel methods quantifying bone shaft tissue distributions, and relates observations on human humeral growth patterns for applications in anthropological and anatomical research. Microstructural variation in compact bone occurs due to developmental and mechanically adaptive circumstances that are 'recorded' by forming bone and are important for interpretations of growth, health, physical activity, adaptation, and identity in the past and present. Those interpretations hinge on a detailed understanding of the modeling process by which bones achieve their diametric shape, diaphyseal curvature, and general position relative to other elements. Bone modeling is a complex aspect of growth, potentially causing the shaft to drift transversely through formation and resorption on opposing cortices. Unfortunately, the specifics of modeling drift are largely unknown for most skeletal elements. Moreover, bone modeling has seen little quantitative methodological development compared with secondary bone processes, such as intracortical remodeling. The techniques proposed here, starburst point-count and 45° cross-polarization hand-drawn histomorphometry, permit the statistical and populational analysis of human primary tissue distributions and provide similar results despite being suitable for different applications. This analysis of a pooled archaeological and modern skeletal sample confirms the importance of extreme asymmetry in bone modeling as a major determinant of microstructural variation in diaphyses. Specifically, humeral drift is posteromedial in the human humerus, accompanied by a significant rotational trend. In general, results encourage the usage of endocortical primary bone distributions as an indicator and summary of bone modeling drift, enabling quantitative analysis by direction and proportion in other elements and populations. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  2. Edentulation alters material properties of cortical bone in the human craniofacial skeleton: functional implications for craniofacial structure in primate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Peterson, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal adaptations to reduced function are an important source of skeletal variation and may be indicative of environmental pressures that lead to evolutionary changes. Humans serve as a model animal to investigate the effects of loss of craniofacial function through edentulation. In the human maxilla, it is known that edentulation leads to significant changes in skeletal structure such as residual ridge resorption and loss of cortical thickness. However, little is known about changes in bone tissue structure and material properties, which are also important for understanding skeletal mechanics but are often ignored. The aims of this study were to determine cortical material properties in edentulous crania and to evaluate differences with dentate crania and thus examine the effects of loss of function on craniofacial structure. Cortical bone samples from fifteen edentulous human skulls were measured for thickness and density. Elastic properties and directions of maximum stiffness were determined by using ultrasonic techniques. These data were compared to those from dentate crania reported in a previous investigation. Cortical bone from all regions of the facial skeleton of edentulous individuals is thinner than in dentate skulls. Elastic and shear moduli, and density are similar or greater in the zygoma and cranial vault of edentulous individuals, while these properties are less in the maxilla. Most cortical bone, especially in edentulous maxillae, has reduced directional orientation. The loss of significant occlusal loads following edentulation may contribute to the change in material properties and the loss of orientation over time during the normal process of bone remodeling. These results suggest that area-specific cortical microstructural changes accompany bone resorption following edentulation. They also suggest that functional forces are important for maintaining bone mass throughout the craniofacial skeleton, even in areas such as the browridges, which

  3. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio

    2007-01-01

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation

  4. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saparin, Peter I.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Prohaska, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    3D data sets of human tibia bone biopsies acquired by a micro-CT scanner. In order to justify the newly proposed approach, the measures of complexity of the bone architecture were compared with the results of traditional 2D bone histomorphometry. The proposed technique is able to quantify...

  5. Immune responses of mature chicken bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells infected with Newcastle disease virus strains with differing pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Zhu, Wenxian; Li, Yaling; Gao, Pei; Liang, Jianpeng; Liu, Di; Ding, Chan; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2018-06-01

    Infection of chickens with virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is associated with severe pathology and increased morbidity and mortality. The innate immune response contributes to the pathogenicity of NDV. As professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) play a unique role in innate immunity. However, the contribution of DCs to NDV infection has not been investigated in chickens. In this study, we selected two representative NDV strains, i.e., the velogenic NDV strain Chicken/Guangdong/GM/2014 (GM) and the lentogenic NDV strain La Sota, to investigate whether NDVs could infect LPS-activated chicken bone-derived marrow DCs (mature chicken BM-DCs). We compared the viral titres and innate immune responses in mature chicken BM-DCs following infection with those strains. Both NDV strains could infect mature chicken BM-DC, but the GM strain showed stronger replication capacity than the La Sota strain in mature chicken BM-DCs. Gene expression profiling showed that MDA5, LGP2, TLR3, TLR7, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-8, CCL5, IL-10, IL-12, MHC-I, and MHC-II levels were altered in mature DCs after infection with NDVs at all evaluated times postinfection. Notably, the GM strain triggered stronger innate immune responses than the La Sota strain in chicken BM-DCs. However, both strains were able to suppress the expression of some cytokines, such as IL-6 and IFN-α, in mature chicken DCs at 24 hpi. These data provide a foundation for further investigation of the role of chicken DCs in NDV infection.

  6. Association between in vivo bone formation and ex vivo migratory capacity of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K.; Zaher, Walid; Larsen, Kenneth Hauberg

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a clinical need for developing systemic transplantation protocols for use of human skeletal stem cells (also known bone marrow stromal stem cells) (hBMSC) in tissue regeneration. In systemic transplantation studies, only a limited number of hBMSC home to injured tissues...... populations derived from telomerized hBMSC (hBMSC-TERT) with variable ability to form heterotopic bone when implanted subcutaneously in immune deficient mice. In vitro transwell migration assay was used and the in vivo homing ability of transplanted hBMSC to bone fractures in mice was visualized...... suggesting that only a subpopulation of hBMSC possesses "homing" capacity. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a subpopulation of hBMSC defined by ability to form heterotopic bone in vivo, is capable of homing to injured bone. METHODS: We tested ex vivo and in vivo homing capacity of a number of clonal cell...

  7. Can experimental data in humans verify the finite element-based bone remodeling algorithm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, C.; Gehrchen, P.M.; Kiaer, T.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A finite element analysis-based bone remodeling study in human was conducted in the lumbar spine operated on with pedicle screws. Bone remodeling results were compared to prospective experimental bone mineral content data of patients operated on with pedicle screws. OBJECTIVE......: The validity of 2 bone remodeling algorithms was evaluated by comparing against prospective bone mineral content measurements. Also, the potential stress shielding effect was examined using the 2 bone remodeling algorithms and the experimental bone mineral data. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In previous studies...... operated on with pedicle screws between L4 and L5. The stress shielding effect was also examined. The bone remodeling results were compared with prospective bone mineral content measurements of 4 patients. They were measured after surgery, 3-, 6- and 12-months postoperatively. RESULTS: After 1 year...

  8. Comparative genomics of human and non-human Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 121 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rychli

    Full Text Available The food-borne pathogen Listeria (L. monocytogenes is able to survive for months and even years in food production environments. Strains belonging to sequence type (ST121 are particularly found to be abundant and to persist in food and food production environments. To elucidate genetic determinants characteristic for L. monocytogenes ST121, we sequenced the genomes of 14 ST121 strains and compared them with currently available L. monocytogenes ST121 genomes. In total, we analyzed 70 ST121 genomes deriving from 16 different countries, different years of isolation, and different origins-including food, animal and human ST121 isolates. All ST121 genomes show a high degree of conservation sharing at least 99.7% average nucleotide identity. The main differences between the strains were found in prophage content and prophage conservation. We also detected distinct highly conserved subtypes of prophages inserted at the same genomic locus. While some of the prophages showed more than 99.9% similarity between strains from different sources and years, other prophages showed a higher level of diversity. 81.4% of the strains harbored virtually identical plasmids. 97.1% of the ST121 strains contain a truncated internalin A (inlA gene. Only one of the seven human ST121 isolates encodes a full-length inlA gene, illustrating the need of better understanding their survival and virulence mechanisms.

  9. Quantitative comparison of ligament formulation and pre-strain in finite element analysis of the human lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortin, Mitchell S; Bowden, Anton E

    2016-11-01

    Data has been published that quantifies the nonlinear, anisotropic material behaviour and pre-strain behaviour of the anterior longitudinal, supraspinous (SSL), and interspinous ligaments of the human lumbar spine. Additionally, data has been published on localized material properties of the SSL. These results have been incrementally incorporated into a previously validated finite element model of the human lumbar spine. Results suggest that the effects of increased ligament model fidelity on bone strain energy were moderate and the effects on disc pressure were slight, and do not justify a change in modelling strategy for most clinical applications. There were significant effects on the ligament stresses of the ligaments that were directly modified, suggesting that these phenomena should be included in FE models where ligament stresses are the desired metric.

  10. Characterization of the effects of x-ray irradiation on the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of human cortical bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Holly; Zimmermann, Elizabeth; Schaible, Eric; Tang, Simon; Alliston, Tamara; Ritchie, Robert

    2011-08-19

    Bone comprises a complex structure of primarily collagen, hydroxyapatite and water, where each hierarchical structural level contributes to its strength, ductility and toughness. These properties, however, are degraded by irradiation, arising from medical therapy or bone-allograft sterilization. We provide here a mechanistic framework for how irradiation affects the nature and properties of human cortical bone over a range of characteristic (nano to macro) length-scales, following x-­ray exposures up to 630 kGy. Macroscopically, bone strength, ductility and fracture resistance are seen to be progressively degraded with increasing irradiation levels. At the micron-­scale, fracture properties, evaluated using in-situ scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron x-ray computed micro-tomography, provide mechanistic information on how cracks interact with the bone-matrix structure. At sub-micron scales, strength properties are evaluated with in-situ tensile tests in the synchrotron using small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction, where strains are simultaneously measured in the macroscopic tissue, collagen fibrils and mineral. Compared to healthy bone, results show that the fibrillar strain is decreased by ~40% following 70 kGy exposures, consistent with significant stiffening and degradation of the collagen. We attribute the irradiation-­induced deterioration in mechanical properties to mechanisms at multiple length-scales, including changes in crack paths at micron-­scales, loss of plasticity from suppressed fibrillar sliding at sub-­micron scales, and the loss and damage of collagen at the nano-­scales, the latter being assessed using Raman and Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectroscopy and a fluorometric assay.

  11. Human DPSCs fabricate vascularized woven bone tissue: A new tool in bone tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paino, F.; Noce, M.L.; Giuliani, A.; de Rosa, A.; Mazzoni, F.; Laino, L.; Amler, Evžen; Papaccio, G.; Desiderio, V.; Tirino, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 8 (2017), s. 699-713 ISSN 0143-5221 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : bone differentiation * bone regeneration * bone tissue engineering Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Orthopaedics Impact factor: 4.936, year: 2016

  12. 3D Reconstruction of human bones based on dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binkai; Wang, Xiang; Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Jinjin

    2017-11-01

    An effective method for reconstructing a 3D model of human bones from computed tomography (CT) image data based on dictionary learning is proposed. In this study, the dictionary comprises the vertices of triangular meshes, and the sparse coefficient matrix indicates the connectivity information. For better reconstruction performance, we proposed a balance coefficient between the approximation and regularisation terms and a method for optimisation. Moreover, we applied a local updating strategy and a mesh-optimisation method to update the dictionary and the sparse matrix, respectively. The two updating steps are iterated alternately until the objective function converges. Thus, a reconstructed mesh could be obtained with high accuracy and regularisation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has the potential to obtain high precision and high-quality triangular meshes for rapid prototyping, medical diagnosis, and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of colony-based bacterial strain typing for tracking the fate of Lactobacillus strains during human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drevinek Pavel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB are important components of the healthy gut flora and have been used extensively as probiotics. Understanding the cultivable diversity of LAB before and after probiotic administration, and being able to track the fate of administered probiotic isolates during feeding are important parameters to consider in the design of clinical trials to assess probiotic efficacy. Several methods may be used to identify bacteria at the strain level, however, PCR-based methods such as Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD are particularly suited to rapid analysis. We examined the cultivable diversity of LAB in the human gut before and after feeding with two Lactobacillus strains, and also tracked the fate of these two administered strains using a RAPD technique. Results A RAPD typing scheme was developed to genetically type LAB isolates from a wide range of species, and optimised for direct application to bacterial colony growth. A high-throughput strategy for fingerprinting the cultivable diversity of human faeces was developed and used to determine: (i the initial cultivable LAB strain diversity in the human gut, and (ii the fate of two Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus salivarius NCIMB 30211 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30156 contained within a capsule that was administered in a small-scale human feeding study. The L. salivarius strain was not cultivated from the faeces of any of the 12 volunteers prior to capsule administration, but appeared post-feeding in four. Strains matching the L. acidophilus NCIMB 30156 feeding strain were found in the faeces of three volunteers prior to consumption; after taking the Lactobacillus capsule, 10 of the 12 volunteers were culture positive for this strain. The appearance of both Lactobacillus strains during capsule consumption was statistically significant (p Conclusion We have shown that genetic strain typing of the cultivable human gut microbiota can be

  14. Patients With High Bone Mass Phenotype Exhibit Enhanced Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibition of Adipogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Andersen, Tom; Bollerslev, Jens

    2007-01-01

    in iliac crest bone biopsies from patients with the HBM phenotype and controls. We also used retrovirus-mediated gene transduction to establish three different human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) strains stably expressing wildtype LRP5 (hMSC-LRP5WT), LRP5T244 (hMSC-LRP5T244, inactivation mutation leading...... to osteoporosis), or LRP5T253 (hMSC-LRP5T253, activation mutation leading to high bone mass). We characterized Wnt signaling activation using a dual luciferase assay, cell proliferation, lineage biomarkers using real-time PCR, and in vivo bone formation. Results: In bone biopsies, we found increased trabecular...... mineralized bone when implanted subcutaneously with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate in SCID/NOD mice. Conclusions: LRP5 mutations and the level of Wnt signaling determine differentiation fate of hMSCs into osteoblasts or adipocytes. Activation of Wnt signaling can thus provide a novel approach to increase...

  15. Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of postoperative temporal bone defect: an animal model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Školoudík, L.; Chrobok, V.; Kalfert, D.; Kočí, Zuzana; Syková, Eva; Chumak, Tetyana; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef; Laco, J.; Dědková, J.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Filip, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 7 (2016), s. 1405-1414 ISSN 0963-6897 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Human bone marrow * Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) * Middle ear surgery * Temporal bone Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.006, year: 2016

  16. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  17. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B; Roschger, A; Wastl, A; Hofstaetter, J G; Wobrauschek, P; Simon, R; Thaler, H W; Roschger, P; Klaushofer, K; Streli, C

    2013-11-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H.W.; Roschger, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. PMID:23932972

  19. R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from rapid progressors lacking X4 strains do not possess X4-type pathogenicity in human thymus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkowitz, R. D.; van't Wout, A. B.; Kootstra, N. A.; Moreno, M. E.; Linquist-Stepps, V. D.; Bare, C.; Stoddart, C. A.; Schuitemaker, H.; McCune, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Some individuals infected with only R5 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 progress to AIDS as quickly as individuals harboring X4 strains. We determined that three R5 viruses were much less pathogenic than an X4 virus in SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice, suggesting that R5 virus-mediated rapid

  20. Genome characterization of Turkey Rotavirus G strains from the United States identifies potential recombination events with human Rotavirus B strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangzhou; Knutson, Todd P; Porter, Robert E; Ciarlet, Max; Mor, Sunil Kumar; Marthaler, Douglas G

    2017-12-01

    Rotavirus G (RVG) strains have been detected in a variety of avian species, but RVG genomes have been published from only a single pigeon and two chicken strains. Two turkey RVG strains were identified and characterized, one in a hatchery with no reported health issues and the other in a hatchery with high embryo/poult mortality. The two turkey RVG strains shared only an 85.3 % nucleotide sequence identity in the VP7 gene while the other genes possessed high nucleotide identity among them (96.3-99.9 %). Low nucleotide percentage identities (31.6-87.3 %) occurred among the pigeon and chicken RVG strains. Interestingly, potential recombination events were detected between our RVG strains and a human RVB strain, in the VP6 and NSP3 segments. The epidemiology of RVG in avian flocks and the pathogenicity of the two different RVG strains should be further investigated to understand the ecology and impact of RVG in commercial poultry flocks.

  1. Age-related variations in the microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, M.; Odgaard, A.; Linde, F.

    2002-01-01

    -related changes in the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of human tibial cancellous bone. One hundred and sixty cylindrical cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal proximal tibiae from 40 donors, aged 16-85 years. These specimens were micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanned......, and microstructural properties were determined. The specimens were then tested in compression to obtain Young's modulus. The degree of anisotropy, mean marrow space volume, and bone surface-to-volume ratio increased significantly with age. Bone volume fraction, mean trabecular volume, and bone surface density...

  2. Enhancement of bone formation in rabbits by recombinant human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrnberg, A.; Brosjoe, O.; Laaftman, P.; Nilsson, O.; Stroemberg, L.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of human recombinant growth hormone on diaphyseal bone in 40 adult rabbits. The diaphyseal periosteum of one femur in each animal was mechanically stimulated by a nylon cerclage band. The bands induced an increase in bone formation, bone mineral content, and maximum torque capacity of the diaphyseal bone at 1 and 2 months. Growth hormone enhanced the anabolic effect of the cerclage bands on bone metabolism, evidenced by a further increase in torsional strength of the femurs. (au) (32 refs.)

  3. Human bone hardness seems to depend on tissue type but not on anatomical site in the long bones of an old subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Caroline; Zwierzak, Iwona; Baleani, Massimiliano; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that among different human subjects, the bone tissue quality varies as a function of the bone segment morphology. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality, evaluated in terms of hardness of packages of lamellae, of cortical and trabecular bones, at different anatomical sites within the human skeleton. The contralateral six long bones of an old human subject were indented at different levels along the diaphysis and at both epiphyses of each bone. Hardness value, which is correlated to the degree of mineralisation, of both cortical and trabecular bone tissues was calculated for each indentation location. It was found that the cortical bone tissue was harder (+18%) than the trabecular one. In general, the bone hardness was found to be locally highly heterogeneous. In fact, considering one single slice obtained for a bone segment, the coefficient of variation of the hardness values was up to 12% for cortical bone and up to 17% for trabecular bone. However, the tissue hardness was on average quite homogeneous within and among the long bones of the studied donor, although differences up to 9% among levels and up to 7% among bone segments were found. These findings seem not to support the mentioned hypothesis, at least not for the long bones of an old subject.

  4. Correlation between pre-operative periprosthetic bone density and post-operative bone loss in THA can be explained by strain-adaptive remodelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerner, J.; Huiskes, H.W.J.; Lenthe, van G.H.; Weinans, H.; Rietbergen, van B.; Engh, C.A.; Amis, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Periprosthetic adaptive bone remodelling after total hip arthroplasty can be simulated in computer models, combining bone remodelling theory with finite element analysis. Patient specific three-dimensional finite element models of retrieved bone specimens from an earlier bone densitometry (DEXA)

  5. Probiotic attributes of autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithva, Sheetal; Shekh, Satyamitra; Dave, Jayantilal; Vyas, Bharatkumar Rajiv Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the probiotic potential of indigenous autochthonous Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from infant feces and vaginal mucosa of healthy female. The survival of the selected strains and the two reference strains (L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei Actimel) was 67-81 % at pH 2 and 70-80 % after passage through the simulated gastrointestinal fluid. These strains are able to grow in the presence of 4 % bile salt, 10 % NaCl, and 0.6 % phenol. The cell surface of L. rhamnosus strains is hydrophilic in nature as revealed by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) assay. Despite this, L. rhamnosus strains showed mucin adherence, autoaggregation and coaggregation properties that are strain-specific. In addition, they produce bile salt hydrolase (BSH) and β-galactosidase activities. L. rhamnosus strains exhibit antimicrobial activity against food spoilage organisms and gastrointestinal pathogens, as well as Candida and Aspergillus spp. L. rhamnosus strains have similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern, and resistance to certain antibiotics is intrinsic or innate. The strains are neither haemolytic nor producer of biogenic amines such as histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine. Lyophilized cells of L. rhamnosus Fb exhibited probiotic properties demonstrating potential of the strain for technological suitability and in the preparation of diverse probiotic food formulations.

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica strains associated with human infections in Switzerland 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Cernela, N; Hächler, H; Stephan, R

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica infections are common in humans. However, very scarce data are available on the different biotypes and virulence factors of human strains, which has proved to be problematic to assess the clinical significance of the isolated strains. In this study, the presence of the ail gene and distribution of different bio- and serotypes among human Y. enterocolitica strains and their possible relation to the genotype and antimicrobial resistance were studied. In total, 128 Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from human clinical samples in Switzerland during 2001-2010 were characterised. Most (75 out of 128) of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotypes 2, 3 or 4 and carried the ail gene. One of the 51 strains that belonged to biotype 1A was also ail positive. Most of the ail-positive strains belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3 (47 out of 76) followed by 2/O:9 (22 out of 76). Strains of bioserotype 4/O:3 were dominant among patients between 20 and 40 years old and strains of biotype 1A dominate in patients over 40 years. Strains belonging to biotypes 2, 3 and 4, which all carried the ail gene, exhibited a high homogeneity with PFGE typing. Y. enterocolitica 2/O:5,27 and 2/O:9 strains showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefoxitin, but Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains did not.

  7. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  8. Anatomical variation of human thoracic rib in dry bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nalini Konkani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Ribs are essential structure of osseous thorax and provide information that aids in the interpretation of radiologic images. The purpose of this study to investigate variations in thoracic rib and its morphological & clinical importance. So, In present study attempted to find out additional intercostal spaces due to bifurcation of ribs, less intercostal space due to fusion of ribs, variation of the normal ribs like, gap in the rib, fusion of one rib to another at a shaft of rib. Congenital abnormalities of the ribs are usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.Material & Method: The study was carried out in Bone Store of Department of Anatomy, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Study was carried out on 500 human dried ribs. And the variations in the ribs are studied. We got variation in the human ribs and studied. Result : Variations were seen like out of 500 ribs, Bifid rib having two ends 9(1.8%, rib having bifid space 2(0.4%, fusion rib at the level of shaft 1(0.2%, fusion of first rib and second rib 1(0.2%,first rib having two ends 1(0.2%. Conclusion: Bifid rib is an anatomical variant where the sternal end of the rib is cleaved into two. So we can rule out mesodermal abnormalities, parenchymal lung disease, chest wall tumor or costal fracture.

  9. Autologous Pancreatic Islet Transplantation in Human Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffi, Paola; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Nano, Rita; Sordi, Valeria; Melzi, Raffaella; Mercalli, Alessia; Scavini, Marina; Esposito, Antonio; Peccatori, Jacopo; Cantarelli, Elisa; Messina, Carlo; Bernardi, Massimo; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Staudacher, Carlo; Doglioni, Claudio; Ciceri, Fabio; Secchi, Antonio; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The liver is the current site of choice for pancreatic islet transplantation, even though it is far from being ideal. We recently have shown in mice that the bone marrow (BM) may be a valid alternative to the liver, and here we report a pilot study to test feasibility and safety of BM as a site for islet transplantation in humans. Four patients who developed diabetes after total pancreatectomy were candidates for the autologous transplantation of pancreatic islet. Because the patients had contraindications for intraportal infusion, islets were infused in the BM. In all recipients, islets engrafted successfully as shown by measurable posttransplantation C-peptide levels and histopathological evidence of insulin-producing cells or molecular markers of endocrine tissue in BM biopsy samples analyzed during follow-up. Thus far, we have recorded no adverse events related to the infusion procedure or the presence of islets in the BM. Islet function was sustained for the maximum follow-up of 944 days. The encouraging results of this pilot study provide new perspectives in identifying alternative sites for islet infusion in patients with type 1 diabetes. Moreover, this is the first unequivocal example of successful engraftment of endocrine tissue in the BM in humans. PMID:23733196

  10. Bone Healing in Transverse Maxillary Defects with Different Surgical Procedures Using Anorganic Bovine Bone in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Victor; Matthijs, Andries; Borie, Eduardo; Fuentes, Ramón; Valdivia-Gandur, Iván; Engelke, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The centripetal resorption of maxilla is a continuous process after tooth loss. For treatment of deficient bone sites, autologous bone grafts may be used, as an alternative, biomaterials can be applied which do not require intra- or extraoral donor sites. The present report we describe the use of anorganic bovine bone (ABB) based on three case reports under different modes: Membrane, rigid barrier and connective tissue graft. Clinical results show that under all conditions, sufficient hard ti...

  11. Comparison of bioengineered human bone construct from four sources of osteogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Angela Min-Hwei; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Tan, Kok-Keong; Tan, G H; Mokhtar, Sabarul Afian; Rose, Isa Mohamed; Othman, Fauziah; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji

    2005-01-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells have been reported to be present in periosteum, cancellous and cortical bone, and bone marrow; but no attempt to identify the best cell source for bone tissue engineering has yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the growth and differentiation pattern of cells derived from these four sources in terms of cell doubling time and expression of osteoblast-specific markers in both monolayer cells and three-dimensional cell constructs in vitro. In parallel, human plasma derived-fibrin was evaluated for use as biomaterial when forming three-dimensional bone constructs. Our findings showed osteoprogenitor cells derived from periosteum to be most proliferative followed by cortical bone, cancellous bone, and then bone marrow aspirate. Bone-forming activity was observed in constructs formed with cells derived from periosteum, whereas calcium deposition was seen throughout the constructs formed with cells derived from cancellous and cortical bones. Although no mineralization activity was seen in constructs formed with osteoprogenitor cells derived from bone marrow, well-organized lacunae as would appear in the early phase of bone reconstruction were noted. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation showed cell proliferation throughout the fibrin matrix, suggesting the possible application of human fibrin as the bioengineered tissue scaffold at non-load-bearing sites.

  12. Inhibition of radio cobalt uptake by human bone powder using Mg and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Fattah, A.T.A.; Mohamed, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Human bone powder samples of 30 - 40 Μ in diameter were prepared from human bone femurs as fat free (FFB), protein free (PEB) or left untreated as a raw bone powder (RB). The uptake of 60 Co by these types of bone powder took the sequence : PFB > FFB> RB. Stable ions of magnesium and nickel exhibit an inhibition or competing effect on the uptake process of 60 Co. The competing effect did not disturb the uptake sequence. The competing effect of nickel was higher than magnesium

  13. Biomimetic fetal rotation bioreactor for engineering bone tissues-Effect of cyclic strains on upregulation of osteogenic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Akhilandeshwari; Wen, Feng; Lim, Jing; Chong, Mark Seow Khoon; Chan, Jerry K Y; Teoh, Swee-Hin

    2018-04-01

    Cells respond to physiological mechanical stresses especially during early fetal development. Adopting a biomimetic approach, it is necessary to develop bioreactor systems to explore the effects of physiologically relevant mechanical strains and shear stresses for functional tissue growth and development. This study introduces a multimodal bioreactor system that allows application of cyclic compressive strains on premature bone grafts that are cultured under biaxial rotation (chamber rotation about 2 axes) conditions for bone tissue engineering. The bioreactor is integrated with sensors for dissolved oxygen levels and pH that allow real-time, non-invasive monitoring of the culture parameters. Mesenchymal stem cells-seeded polycaprolactone-β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were cultured in this bioreactor over 2 weeks in 4 different modes-static, cyclic compression, biaxial rotation, and multimodal (combination of cyclic compression and biaxial rotation). The multimodal culture resulted in 1.8-fold higher cellular proliferation in comparison with the static controls within the first week. Two weeks of culture in the multimodal bioreactor utilizing the combined effects of optimal fluid flow conditions and cyclic compression led to the upregulation of osteogenic genes alkaline phosphatase (3.2-fold), osteonectin (2.4-fold), osteocalcin (10-fold), and collagen type 1 α1 (2-fold) in comparison with static cultures. We report for the first time, the independent and combined effects of mechanical stimulation and biaxial rotation for bone tissue engineering using a bioreactor platform with non-invasive sensing modalities. The demonstrated results show leaning towards the futuristic vision of using a physiologically relevant bioreactor system for generation of autologous bone grafts for clinical implantation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. In vivo locomotor strain in the hindlimb bones of alligator mississippiensis and iguana iguana: implications for the evolution of limb bone safety factor and non-sprawling limb posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blob; Biewener

    1999-05-01

    Limb postures of terrestrial tetrapods span a continuum from sprawling to fully upright; however, most experimental investigations of locomotor mechanics have focused on mammals and ground-dwelling birds that employ parasagittal limb kinematics, leaving much of the diversity of tetrapod locomotor mechanics unexplored. This study reports measurements of in vivo locomotor strain from the limb bones of lizard (Iguana iguana) and crocodilian (Alligator mississippiensis) species, animals from previously unsampled phylogenetic lineages with non-parasagittal limb posture and kinematics. Principal strain orientations and shear strain magnitudes indicate that the limb bones of these species experience considerable torsion during locomotion. This contrasts with patterns commonly observed in mammals, but matches predictions from kinematic observations of axial rotation in lizard and crocodilian limbs. Comparisons of locomotor load magnitudes with the mechanical properties of limb bones in Alligator and Iguana indicate that limb bone safety factors in bending for these species range from 5.5 to 10.8, as much as twice as high as safety factors previously calculated for mammals and birds. Limb bone safety factors in shear (3.9-5.4) for Alligator and Iguana are also moderately higher than safety factors to yield in bending for birds and mammals. Finally, correlations between limb posture and strain magnitudes in Alligator show that at some recording locations limb bone strains can increase during upright locomotion, in contrast to expectations based on size-correlated changes in posture among mammals that limb bone strains should decrease with the use of an upright posture. These data suggest that, in some lineages, strain magnitudes may not have been maintained at constant levels through the evolution of a non-sprawling posture unless the postural change was accompanied by a shift to parasagittal kinematics or by an evolutionary decrease in body size.

  15. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of porous-coated titanium implants in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    matrix (DBM), alone or in combination with allograft or commercially available human cancellous bone (CB), may replace allografts, as they have the capability of inducing new bone and improving implant fixation through enhancing bone ongrowth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect...... of DBM alone, DBM with CB, or allograft on the fixation of porous-coated titanium implants. DBM100 and CB produced from human tissue were included. Both materials are commercially available. DBM granules are placed in pure DBM and do not contain any other carrier. Titanium alloy implants, 10 mm long × 10...... mm diameter, were inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of eight skeletally mature sheep. Thus, four implants with a concentric gap of 2 mm were implanted in each sheep. The gap was filled with: (a) DBM; (b) DBM:CB at a ratio of 1:3; (c) DBM:allograft at a ratio of 1:3; or (d) allograft...

  16. Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Kawas, Neal P.; Lutz, Andre; Kardas, Dieter; Nackenhorst, Udo; Keyak, Joyce H.

    2013-01-01

    We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual’s (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method’s development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications – varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient’s femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model’s micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing

  17. Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia, E-mail: mgascenzi@mednet.ucla.edu [UCLA/Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rehabilitation Bldg, Room 22-69, 1000 Veteran Avenue, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kawas, Neal P., E-mail: nealkawas@ucla.edu [UCLA/Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rehabilitation Bldg, Room 22-69, 1000 Veteran Avenue, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lutz, Andre, E-mail: andre.lutz@hotmail.de [Institute of Biomechanics and Numerical Mechanics, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Kardas, Dieter, E-mail: kardas@ibnm.uni-hannover.de [ContiTech Vibration Control, Jaedekamp 30 None, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Nackenhorst, Udo, E-mail: nackenhorst@ibnm.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Biomechanics and Numerical Mechanics, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Keyak, Joyce H., E-mail: jhkeyak@uci.edu [Department of Radiological Sciences, Medical Sciences I, Bldg 811, Room B140, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-5000 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual’s (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method’s development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications – varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient’s femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model’s micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing.

  18. Is the corticomedullary index valid to distinguish human from nonhuman bones: a multislice computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rérolle, Camille; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Dedouit, Fabrice; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert

    2013-09-10

    The first step in the identification process of bone remains is to determine whether they are of human or nonhuman origin. This issue may arise when only a fragment of bone is available, as the species of origin is usually easily determined on a complete bone. The present study aims to assess the validity of a morphometric method used by French forensic anthropologists to determine the species of origin: the corticomedullary index (CMI), defined by the ratio of the diameter of the medullary cavity to the total diameter of the bone. We studied the constancy of the CMI from measurements made on computed tomography images (CT scans) of different human bones, and compared our measurements with reference values selected in the literature. The measurements obtained on CT scans at three different sites of 30 human femurs, 24 tibias, and 24 fibulas were compared between themselves and with the CMI reference values for humans, pigs, dogs and sheep. Our results differed significantly from these reference values, with three exceptions: the proximal quarter of the femur and mid-fibular measurements for the human CMI, and the proximal quarter of the tibia for the sheep CMI. Mid-tibial, mid-femoral, and mid-fibular measurements also differed significantly between themselves. Only 22.6% of CT scans of human bones were correctly identified as human. We concluded that the CMI is not an effective method for determining the human origin of bone remains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Legumain Regulates Differentiation Fate of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Is Altered in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Secreted factors are a key component of stem cell niche and their dysregulation compromises stem cell function. Legumain is a secreted cysteine protease involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that legumain regulates lineage commitment of human bone marrow stromal cells and that its expression level and cellular localization are altered in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. As shown by genetic and pharmacological manipulation, legumain inhibited osteoblast (OB differentiation and in vivo bone formation through degradation of the bone matrix protein fibronectin. In addition, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of legumain activity led to precocious OB differentiation and increased vertebral mineralization in zebrafish. Finally, we show that localized increased expression of legumain in bone marrow adipocytes was inversely correlated with adjacent trabecular bone mass in a cohort of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our data suggest that altered proteolytic activity of legumain in the bone microenvironment contributes to decreased bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  20. Lining cells on normal human vertebral bone surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Thoracic vertebrae from two individuals with no bone disease were studied with the electron microscope to determine cell morphology in relation to bone mineral. The work was undertaken to determine if cell morphology or spatial relationships between the bone lining cells and bone mineral could account for the relative infrequency of bone tumors which arise at this site following radium intake, when compared with other sites, such as the head of the femur. Cells lining the vertebral mineral were found to be generally rounded in appearance with varied numbers of cytoplasmic granules, and they appeared to have a high density per unit of surface area. These features contrasted with the single layer of flattened cells characteristic of the bone lining cells of the femur. A tentative discussion of the reasons for the relative infrequency of tumors in the vertebrae following radium acquisition is presented

  1. Biomechanics Analysis of Pressure Ulcer Using Damaged Interface Model between Bone and Muscle in the Human Buttock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Samuel Susanto; Takano, Naoki; Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hatano, Asako; Nagasao, Tomohisa

    This paper aims at building up a computational procedure to study the bio-mechanism of pressure ulcer using the finite element method. Pressure ulcer is a disease that occurs in the human body after 2 hours of continuous external force. In the very early stage of pressure ulcer, it is found that the tissues inside the body are damaged, even though skin surface looks normal. This study assumes that tension and/or shear strain will cause damage to loose fibril tissue between the bone and muscle and that propagation of damaged area will lead to fatal stage. Analysis was performed using the finite element method by modeling the damaged fibril tissue as a cutout. By varying the loading directions and watching both tensile and shear strains, the risk of fibril tissue damage and propagation of the damaged area is discussed, which may give new insight for the careful nursing for patients, particularly after surgical treatment. It was found that the pressure ulcer could reoccur for a surgical flap treatment. The bone cut and surgical flap surgery is not perfect to prevent the bone-muscle interfacial damage.

  2. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  3. Mechanical properties of the normal human cartilage-bone complex in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M; Linde, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the age-related variations in the mechanical properties of the normal human tibial cartilage-bone complex and the relationships between cartilage and bone. DESIGN: A novel technique was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the cartilage and bone by mea...... that are of importance for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as arthrosis....

  4. Response of induced bone defects in horses to collagen matrix containing the human parathyroid hormone gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrom, Kristin C; Bertone, Alicia L; Wisner, Erik R; Weisbrode, Stephen E

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) gene in collagen matrix could safely promote bone formation in diaphyseal or subchondral bones of horses. 8 clinically normal adult horses. Amount, rate, and quality of bone healing for 13 weeks were determined by use of radiography, quantitative computed tomography, and histomorphometric analysis. Diaphyseal cortex and subchondral bone defects of metacarpi were filled with hPTH(1-34) gene-activated matrix (GAM) or remained untreated. Joints were assessed on the basis of circumference, synovial fluid analysis, pain on flexion, lameness, and gross and histologic examination. Bone volume index was greater for cortical defects treated with hPTH(1-34) GAM, compared with untreated defects. Bone production in cortical defects treated with hPTH(1-34) GAM positively correlated with native bone formation in untreated defects. In contrast, less bone was detected in hPTH(1-34) GAM-treated subchondral bone defects, compared with untreated defects, and histology confirmed poorer healing and residual collagen sponge. Use of hPTH(1-34) GAM induced greater total bone, specifically periosteal bone, after 13 weeks of healing in cortical defects of horses. The hPTH(1-34) GAM impeded healing of subchondral bone but was biocompatible with joint tissues. Promotion of periosteal bone formation may be beneficial for healing of cortical fractures in horses, but the delay in onset of bone formation may negate benefits. The hPTH(1-34) GAM used in this study should not be placed in articular subchondral bone defects, but contact with articular surfaces is unlikely to cause short-term adverse effects.

  5. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work (McPherson…

  6. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Rr; Yogesh, As; Pandit, Sv; Joshi, M; Trivedi, Gn

    2010-01-01

    Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%). The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  7. Inca - interparietal bones in neurocranium of human skulls in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inca bones are accessory bones found in neurocranium of human skulls. Occurrence of Inca bones is rare as compared to other inter sutural bones such as wormian bones. These Inca ossicles are regarded as variants of the normal. The reporting of such occurrences is inadequate from Central India. Objectives: To find the incidence of Inca variants in Central India. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 380 dried adult human skulls were examined. All specimen samples were procured from various Medical colleges of Central India. They were analyzed for gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones. Results: Gross incidence of Inca bones was found to be 1.315 %. Incidence rate was higher in male skulls than female skulls (male: 1.428%; female: 1.176%. The Inca bones frequently occurred signally. Out of the five observed Inca ossicles, two were fragmented. Conclusions: This data gives idea regarding gross incidence, sexual dimorphism and number of fragments of Inca bones in neurocranium of human skulls from Central India. The knowledge of this variable is useful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists and radiologists.

  8. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Norton, Andrew L; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Z; Martins, João R; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite) and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA). In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin) and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  9. The identification of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in archaeological human bones and teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Coulson-Thomas

    Full Text Available Bone tissue is mineralized dense connective tissue consisting mainly of a mineral component (hydroxyapatite and an organic matrix comprised of collagens, non-collagenous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs. Extracellular matrix proteins and PGs bind tightly to hydroxyapatite which would protect these molecules from the destructive effects of temperature and chemical agents after death. DNA and proteins have been successfully extracted from archaeological skeletons from which valuable information has been obtained; however, to date neither PGs nor glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains have been studied in archaeological skeletons. PGs and GAGs play a major role in bone morphogenesis, homeostasis and degenerative bone disease. The ability to isolate and characterize PG and GAG content from archaeological skeletons would unveil valuable paleontological information. We therefore optimized methods for the extraction of both PGs and GAGs from archaeological human skeletons. PGs and GAGs were successfully extracted from both archaeological human bones and teeth, and characterized by their electrophoretic mobility in agarose gel, degradation by specific enzymes and HPLC. The GAG populations isolated were chondroitin sulfate (CS and hyaluronic acid (HA. In addition, a CSPG was detected. The localization of CS, HA, three small leucine rich PGs (biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin and glypican was analyzed in archaeological human bone slices. Staining patterns were different for juvenile and adult bones, whilst adolescent bones had a similar staining pattern to adult bones. The finding that significant quantities of PGs and GAGs persist in archaeological bones and teeth opens novel venues for the field of Paleontology.

  10. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for retinal vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Da; An, Ying; Zhang, Jing-Shang; Wan, Xiu-Hua; Jonas, Jost B; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    To examine the potential of intravitreally implanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to affect vascular repair and the blood-retina barrier in mice and rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy or retinal ischaemia-reperfusion damage. Three study groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 18 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received BMSCs injected intravitreally. Control groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 12 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received an intravitreal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. We applied immunohistological techniques to measure retinal vascularization, spectroscopic measurements of intraretinally extravasated fluorescein-conjugated dextran to quantify the blood-retina barrier breakdown, and histomorphometry to assess retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell count. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy model, the study group with intravitreally injected BMSCs as compared with the control group showed a significantly (p = 0.001) smaller area of retinal neovascularization. In the diabetic retinopathy model, study group and control group did not differ significantly in the amount of intraretinally extravasated dextran. In the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model, on the 7th day after retina injury, the retina was significantly thicker in the study group than in the control group (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in the retinal ganglion cell count (p = 0.36). Intravitreally implanted human BMSCs were associated with a reduced retinal neovascularization in the oxygen-induced retinopathy model and with a potentially cell preserving effect in the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model. Intravitreal BMSCs may be of potential interest for the therapy of retinal vascular disorders. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley

  11. The mechanical heterogeneity of the hard callus influences local tissue strains during bone healing: a finite element study based on sheep experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, A; Liu, Y; Witt, F; Manjubala, I; Sander, O; Epari, D R; Fratzl, P; Duda, G N; Weinkamer, R

    2011-02-03

    During secondary fracture healing, various tissue types including new bone are formed. The local mechanical strains play an important role in tissue proliferation and differentiation. To further our mechanobiological understanding of fracture healing, a precise assessment of local strains is mandatory. Until now, static analyses using Finite Elements (FE) have assumed homogenous material properties. With the recent quantification of both the spatial tissue patterns (Vetter et al., 2010) and the development of elastic modulus of newly formed bone during healing (Manjubala et al., 2009), it is now possible to incorporate this heterogeneity. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of this heterogeneity on the strain patterns at six successive healing stages. The input data of the present work stemmed from a comprehensive cross-sectional study of sheep with a tibial osteotomy (Epari et al., 2006). In our FE model, each element containing bone was described by a bulk elastic modulus, which depended on both the local area fraction and the local elastic modulus of the bone material. The obtained strains were compared with the results of hypothetical FE models assuming homogeneous material properties. The differences in the spatial distributions of the strains between the heterogeneous and homogeneous FE models were interpreted using a current mechanobiological theory (Isakson et al., 2006). This interpretation showed that considering the heterogeneity of the hard callus is most important at the intermediate stages of healing, when cartilage transforms to bone via endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ancient pathogen DNA in human teeth and petrous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Hansen, Henrik B.; Rasmussen, Simon

    2018-01-01

    pestis. Based on shotgun sequencing data, four of these five plague victims showed clearly detectable levels of Y.pestis DNA in the teeth, whereas all the petrous bones failed to produce Y.pestis DNA above baseline levels. A broader comparative metagenomic analysis of teeth and petrous bones from 10...

  13. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide inhibits bone resorption in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    intestine. The hormone is known as an incretin hormone, but preclinical studies have suggested that it may also influence bone metabolism, showing both antiresorptive and anabolic effects as reflected by changes in biomechanical measures, microarchitecture, and activity of the bone cells in response to GIP...

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 with a Demineralized Bone Matrix versus Iliac Crest Bone Graft for Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafts in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate: Review of 501 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Jeffrey A; Fahradyan, Artur; Gould, Daniel J; Liang, Fan; Imahiyerobo, Thomas; Urbinelli, Leo; Nguyen, JoAnna T; Magee, William; Yen, Stephen; Urata, Mark M

    2017-08-01

    Alveolar cleft reconstruction using iliac crest bone graft is considered standard of care for children with complete cleft lip and palate at the time of mixed dentition. Harvesting bone may result in donor-site morbidity and additional operating time and length of hospitalization. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with a demineralized bone matrix is an alternative bone source for alveolar cleft reconstruction. The authors investigated the outcomes of rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix versus iliac crest bone graft for alveolar cleft reconstruction by reviewing postoperative surgical complications and cleft closure. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 258 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix procedures (mean follow-up, 2.9 years) and 243 iliac crest bone graft procedures (mean follow-up, 4.1 years) on 414 patients over a 12-year period. The authors compared complications, canine eruption, and alveolar cleft closure between the two groups. In the rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix group, one patient required prolonged intubation because of intraoperative airway swelling not thought to be caused by rhBMP-2, 36 reported facial swelling and one required outpatient steroids as treatment, and 12 had dehiscence; however, half of these complications resolved without intervention. Twenty-three of the 228 rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix patients and 28 of the 242 iliac crest bone graft patients required repeated surgery for alveolar cleft repair. Findings for canine tooth eruption into the cleft site through the graft were similar between the groups. The rhBMP-2/demineralized bone matrix appears to be an acceptable alternative for alveolar cleft repair. The authors found no increase in serious adverse events with the use of this material. Local complications, such as swelling and minor wound dehiscence, predominantly improved without intervention. Therapeutic, III.

  15. Glycation Contributes to Interaction Between Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Collagen Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling Linder, Cecilia; Enander, Karin; Magnusson, Per

    2016-03-01

    Bone is a biological composite material comprised primarily of collagen type I and mineral crystals of calcium and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite (HA), which together provide its mechanical properties. Bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), produced by osteoblasts, plays a pivotal role in the mineralization process. Affinity contacts between collagen, mainly type II, and the crown domain of various ALP isozymes were reported in a few in vitro studies in the 1980s and 1990s, but have not attracted much attention since, although such interactions may have important implications for the bone mineralization process. The objective of this study was to investigate the binding properties of human collagen type I to human bone ALP, including the two bone ALP isoforms B1 and B2. ALP from human liver, human placenta and E. coli were also studied. A surface plasmon resonance-based analysis, supported by electrophoresis and blotting, showed that bone ALP binds stronger to collagen type I in comparison with ALPs expressed in non-mineralizing tissues. Further, the B2 isoform binds significantly stronger to collagen type I in comparison with the B1 isoform. Human bone and liver ALP (with identical amino acid composition) displayed pronounced differences in binding, revealing that post-translational glycosylation properties govern these interactions to a large extent. In conclusion, this study presents the first evidence that glycosylation differences in human ALPs are of crucial importance for protein-protein interactions with collagen type I, although the presence of the ALP crown domain may also be necessary. Different binding affinities among the bone ALP isoforms may influence the mineral-collagen interface, mineralization kinetics, and degree of bone matrix mineralization, which are important factors determining the material properties of bone.

  16. MESOLITHIC HUMAN BONES FROM THE UPPER VOLGA BASIN : RADIOCARBON AND TRACE ELEMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrovskiy, A. L.; Alexandrovskaya, E. I.; Zhilin, M. I.; van der Plicht, J.

    2009-01-01

    Human bones from 3 Mesolithic sites in the Upper Volga basin were analyzed for trace elements, and dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The radiocarbon dates of the bones correspond to the Mesolithic era. However, some dates differ from those obtained for the enclosing deposits and for the

  17. Establishing quiescence in human bone marrow stem cells leads to enhanced osteoblast marker expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rumman, Mohammad; Kassem, Moustapha

    Human bone marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells (hBMSC) are cells that retain a multi-lineage differentiation potential and are thus increasingly being investigated for use in clinical applications. In vivo BMSC, which comprise approximately 0.1% of the bone marrow compartment, are thought to mai...

  18. Self-adapted and tunable graphene strain sensors for detecting both subtle and large human motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, He; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Liu, Ying; Pang, Yu; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-06-22

    Conventional strain sensors rarely have both a high gauge factor and a large strain range simultaneously, so they can only be used in specific situations where only a high sensitivity or a large strain range is required. However, for detecting human motions that include both subtle and large motions, these strain sensors can't meet the diverse demands simultaneously. Here, we come up with laser patterned graphene strain sensors with self-adapted and tunable performance for the first time. A series of strain sensors with either an ultrahigh gauge factor or a preferable strain range can be fabricated simultaneously via one-step laser patterning, and are suitable for detecting all human motions. The strain sensors have a GF of up to 457 with a strain range of 35%, or have a strain range of up to 100% with a GF of 268. Most importantly, the performance of the strain sensors can be easily tuned by adjusting the patterns of the graphene, so that the sensors can meet diverse demands in both subtle and large motion situations. The graphene strain sensors show significant potential in applications such as wearable electronics, health monitoring and intelligent robots. Furthermore, the facile, fast and low-cost fabrication method will make them possible and practical to be used for commercial applications in the future.

  19. Precision of DVC approaches for strain analysis in bone imaged with μCT at different dimensional levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Ara, Enrico; Peña-Fernández, Marta; Palanca, Marco; Giorgi, Mario; Cristofolini, Luca; Tozzi, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of local strain in heterogeneous and anisotropic bone tissue is fundamental to understand the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal diseases, to evaluate the effect of interventions from preclinical studies, and to optimize the design and delivery of biomaterials. Digital volume correlation (DVC) can be used to measure the three-dimensional displacement and strain fields from micro-Computed Tomography (µCT) images of loaded specimens. However, this approach is affected by the quality of the input images, by the morphology and density of the tissue under investigation, by the correlation scheme, and by the operational parameters used in the computation. Therefore, for each application the precision of the method should be evaluated. In this paper we present the results collected from datasets analyzed in previous studies as well as new data from a recent experimental campaign for characterizing the relationship between the precision of two different DVC approaches and the spatial resolution of the outputs. Different bone structures scanned with laboratory source µCT or Synchrotron light µCT (SRµCT) were processed in zero-strain tests to evaluate the precision of the DVC methods as a function of the subvolume size that ranged from 8 to 2500 micrometers. The results confirmed that for every microstructure the precision of DVC improves for larger subvolume size, following power laws. However, for the first time large differences in the precision of both local and global DVC approaches have been highlighted when SRµCT or in vivo µCT images were used instead of conventional ex vivo µCT. These findings suggest that in situ mechanical testing protocols applied in SRµCT facilities should be optimized in order to allow DVC analyses of localized strain measurements. Moreover, for in vivo µCT applications DVC analyses should be performed only with relatively course spatial resolution for achieving a reasonable precision of the method. In conclusion

  20. Evaluation of a pulsed phase-locked loop system for noninvasive tracking of bone deformation under loading with finite element and strain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra-Hsu, Frederick; Cheng, Jiqi; Qin, Yi-Xian; Lynch, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound has been widely used to nondestructively evaluate various materials, including biological tissues. Quantitative ultrasound has been used to assess bone quality and fracture risk. A pulsed phase-locked loop (PPLL) method has been proven for very sensitive tracking of ultrasound time-of-flight (TOF) changes. The objective of this work was to determine if the PPLL TOF tracking is sensitive to bone deformation changes during loading. The ability to noninvasively detect bone deformations has many implications, including assessment of bone strength and more accurate osteoporosis diagnostics and fracture risk prediction using a measure of bone mechanical quality. Fresh sheep femur cortical bone shell samples were instrumented with three 3-element rosette strain gauges and then tested under mechanical compression with eight loading levels using an MTS machine. Samples were divided into two groups based on internal marrow cavity content: with original marrow, or replaced with water. During compressive loading ultrasound waves were measured through acoustic transmission across the mid-diaphysis of bone. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to describe ultrasound propagation path length changes under loading based on µCT-determined bone geometry. The results indicated that PPLL output correlates well to measured axial strain, with R 2 values of 0.70 ± 0.27 and 0.62 ± 0.29 for the marrow and water groups, respectively. The PPLL output correlates better with the ultrasound path length changes extracted from FEA. For the two validated FEA tests, correlation was improved to R 2 = 0.993 and R 2 = 0.879 through cortical path, from 0.815 and 0.794 via marrow path, respectively. This study shows that PPLL readings are sensitive to displacement changes during external bone loading, which may have potential to noninvasively assess bone strain and tissue mechanical properties

  1. Trabecular bone strains around a dental implant and associated micromotions--a micro-CT-based three-dimensional finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbert, Georges; van Lierde, Carl; Muraru, O Luiza; Walboomers, X Frank; Frank, Milan; Hansson, Stig; Middleton, John; Jaecques, Siegfried

    2010-05-07

    The first objective of this computational study was to assess the strain magnitude and distribution within the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular bone structure around an osseointegrated dental implant loaded axially. The second objective was to investigate the relative micromotions between the implant and the surrounding bone. The work hypothesis adopted was that these virtual measurements would be a useful indicator of bone adaptation (resorption, homeostasis, formation). In order to reach these objectives, a microCT-based finite element model of an oral implant implanted into a Berkshire pig mandible was developed along with a robust software methodology. The finite element mesh of the 3D trabecular bone architecture was generated from the segmentation of microCT scans. The implant was meshed independently from its CAD file obtained from the manufacturer. The meshes of the implant and the bone sample were registered together in an integrated software environment. A series of non-linear contact finite element (FE) analyses considering an axial load applied to the top of the implant in combination with three sets of mechanical properties for the trabecular bone tissue was devised. Complex strain distribution patterns are reported and discussed. It was found that considering the Young's modulus of the trabecular bone tissue to be 5, 10 and 15GPa resulted in maximum peri-implant bone microstrains of about 3000, 2100 and 1400. These results indicate that, for the three sets of mechanical properties considered, the magnitude of maximum strain lies within an homeostatic range known to be sufficient to maintain/form bone. The corresponding micro-motions of the implant with respect to the bone microstructure were shown to be sufficiently low to prevent fibrous tissue formation and to favour long-term osseointegration. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of micro-CT-based finite element analysis to accurately quantify peri-implant bone strains: a validation in rat tibiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcasio, Antonia; Zhang, Xiaolei; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; Duyck, Joke; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2012-05-01

    Although research has been addressed at investigating the effect of specific loading regimes on bone response around the implant, a precise quantitative understanding of the local mechanical response close to the implant site is still lacking. This study was aimed at validating micro-CT-based finite element (μFE) models to assess tissue strains after implant placement in a rat tibia. Small implants were inserted at the medio-proximal site of 8 rat tibiae. The limbs were subjected to axial compression loading; strain close to the implant was measured by means of strain gauges. Specimen-specific μFE models were created and analyzed. For each specimen, 4 different models were created corresponding to different representations of the bone-implant interface: bone and implant were assumed fully osseointegrated (A); a low stiffness interface zone was assumed with thickness of 40 μm (B), 80 μm (C), and 160 μm (D). In all cases, measured and computational strains correlated highly (R (2) = 0.95, 0.92, 0.93, and 0.95 in A, B, C, and D, respectively). The averaged calculated strains were 1.69, 1.34, and 1.15 times higher than the measured strains for A, B, and C, respectively, and lower than the experimental strains for D (factor = 0.91). In conclusion, we demonstrated that specimen-specific FE analyses provide accurate estimates of peri-implant bone strains in the rat tibia loading model. Further investigations of the bone-implant interface are needed to quantify implant osseointegration.

  3. Computed tomography evaluation of human mandibles with regard to layer thickness and bone density of the cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwardt, Jutta; Meissner, H.; Weber, A.; Reitemeier, B.; Laniado, M.

    2013-01-01

    Application of function-restoring individual implants for the bridging of defects in mandibles with continuity separation requires a stable fixation with special use of the cortical bone stumps. Five section planes each of 100 computed tomographies of poly-traumatized patients' jaws were used for measuring the thickness of the cortical layer and the bone density of the mandible. The CT scans of 28 female and 72 male candidates aged between 12 and 86 years with different dentition of the mandible were available. The computed tomographic evaluations of human mandibles regarding the layer thickness of the cortical bone showed that the edge of the mandible in the area of the horizontal branch possesses the biggest layer thickness of the whole of the lower jaws. The highest medians of the cortical bone layer thickness were found in the area of the molars and premolars at the lower edge of the lower jaws in 6-o'clock position, in the area of the molars in the vestibular cranial 10-o'clock position and in the chin region lingual-caudal in the 4-o'clock position. The measurement of the bone density showed the highest values in the 8-o'clock position (vestibular-caudal) in the molar region in both males and females. The average values available of the bone density and the layer thickness of the cortical bone in the various regions of the lower jaw, taking into consideration age, gender and dentition, are an important aid in practice for determining a safe fixation point for implants in the area of the surface layer of the mandible by means of screws or similar fixation elements. (orig.)

  4. Tissue-engineered bone formation using human bone marrow stromal cells and novel β-tricalcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangpeng; Zhao Li; Cui Lei; Liu Wei; Cao Yilin

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated not only the cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the novel β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds in vitro but also bone formation by ectopic implantation in athymic mice in vivo. The interconnected porous β-TCP scaffolds with pores of 300-500 μm in size were prepared by the polymeric sponge method. β-TCP scaffolds with the dimension of 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm were combined with hBMSCs, and incubated with (+) or without (-) osteogenic medium in vitro. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) content measurement. SEM observation showed that hBMSCs attached well on the scaffolds and proliferated rapidly. No significant difference in the MTT assay could be detected between the two groups, but the ALP activity and OCN content of scaffolds (+) were much higher than those of the scaffolds (-) (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the novel porous β-TCP scaffolds can support the proliferation and subsequent osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. After being cultured in vitro for 14 days, the scaffolds (+) and (-) were implanted into subcutaneous sites of athymic mice. In β-TCP scaffolds (+), woven bone formed after 4 weeks of implantation and osteogenesis progressed with time. Furthermore, tissue-engineered bone could be found at 8 weeks, and remodeled lamellar bone was also observed at 12 weeks. However, no bone formation could be found in β-TCP scaffolds (-) at each time point checked. The above findings illustrate that the novel porous β-TCP scaffolds developed in this work have prominent osteoconductive activity and the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering

  5. Tissue-engineered bone formation using human bone marrow stromal cells and novel {beta}-tricalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guangpeng [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Zhao Li [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Cui Lei [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Liu Wei [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China); Cao Yilin [National Tissue Engineering Research and Development Center, Shanghai 200235 (China)

    2007-06-01

    In this study we investigated not only the cellular proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the novel {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) scaffolds in vitro but also bone formation by ectopic implantation in athymic mice in vivo. The interconnected porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds with pores of 300-500 {mu}m in size were prepared by the polymeric sponge method. {beta}-TCP scaffolds with the dimension of 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm were combined with hBMSCs, and incubated with (+) or without (-) osteogenic medium in vitro. Cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) content measurement. SEM observation showed that hBMSCs attached well on the scaffolds and proliferated rapidly. No significant difference in the MTT assay could be detected between the two groups, but the ALP activity and OCN content of scaffolds (+) were much higher than those of the scaffolds (-) (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the novel porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds can support the proliferation and subsequent osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro. After being cultured in vitro for 14 days, the scaffolds (+) and (-) were implanted into subcutaneous sites of athymic mice. In {beta}-TCP scaffolds (+), woven bone formed after 4 weeks of implantation and osteogenesis progressed with time. Furthermore, tissue-engineered bone could be found at 8 weeks, and remodeled lamellar bone was also observed at 12 weeks. However, no bone formation could be found in {beta}-TCP scaffolds (-) at each time point checked. The above findings illustrate that the novel porous {beta}-TCP scaffolds developed in this work have prominent osteoconductive activity and the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  6. A theoretical framework for strain-related trabecular bone maintenance and adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruimerman, R.; Hilbers, P.A.J.; Rietbergen, van B.; Huiskes, R.

    2005-01-01

    It is assumed that density and morphology of trabecular bone is partially controlled by mechanical forces. How these effects are expressed in the local metabolic functions of osteoclast resorption and osteoblast formation is not known. In order to investigate possible mechano-biological pathways for

  7. Differences in iron acquisition from human haemoglobin among strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashida, H.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    . actinomycetemcomitans strains examined harboured a single genomic sequence with homology to the hgpA gene encoding haemoglobin-binding protein A in Haemophilus influenzae. However, in all three strains belonging to the JP2 clone and in one serotype e strain hgpA was a pseudogene. Seven other strains possessed...... a functional hgpA gene which, according to insertion mutagenesis experiments, was responsible for the ability of these strains to utilize haemoglobin as a source of iron. Thus, the presence of an hgpA pseudogene and the inability to use human haemoglobin as an iron source discriminate the high-toxic JP2 clone...

  8. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, G V; Tandon, L

    1999-07-01

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  9. Minor and trace elements in human bones and teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Tandon, L.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical elements play a great role in the metabolism of bones and teeth. Some elements are beneficial (F at non toxic concentrations in bones and teeth, supplementation of Cu, Mn and Zn along with Ca to delay or prevent the onset of osteoporosis) and some others (chronic exposure to Pb even at moderate concentrations, and excessive exposures to F as in fluorosis situations) are detrimental for the normal functioning of the skeleton. Knowledge on the roles played by both groups of elements can be enhanced if reliable compositional picture is available for scrutiny. The present survey was undertaken to assess the literature status on chemical composition of bones and teeth, and revealed that much needs to be done in order to have tangible collection of meaningful data. In this context, there is a desperate need for harmonization (types of samples chosen, procedures adopted to process the specimens, and finally the determination of analytes) to generate comparable data. To begin with, it is necessary to develop a bioanalytical protocol that exemplifies the merits and demerits of analyzing bones and teeth. Identification of any particular type of bone as a representative sample for the whole skeleton appears to be a far cry. Even if such a representative segment of a particular bone is identified, the logistics related to medico-legal (autopsy) and anatomical (biopsy) parameters will prevail as decisive factors. For the sake of gaining a comprehensive insight into the distribution of various trace elements in different types of bones, it is necessary to carry out controlled investigations on different types of bones (and cortical and trabecular segments from the same sources) from the same cadaver under well defined sampling conditions. On the analytical side, development of hard tissue RMs for whole bone, as well as for cortical, trabecular and marrow segments separately, would be very helpful for future investigations. (author)

  10. Micro-CT characterization of human trabecular bone in osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, John; Albert, Carolyne; Smith, Peter; Molthen, Robert; Harris, Gerald

    2011-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic syndrome affecting collagen synthesis and assembly. Its symptoms vary widely but commonly include bone fragility, reduced stature, and bone deformity. Because of the small size and paucity of human specimens, there is a lack of biomechanical data for OI bone. Most literature has focused on histomorphometric analyses, which rely on assumptions to extrapolate 3-D properties. In this study, a micro-computed tomography (μCT) system was used to directly measure structural and mineral properties in pediatric OI bone collected during routine surgical procedures. Surface renderings suggested a poorly organized, plate-like orientation. Patients with a history of bone-augmenting drugs exhibited increased bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), and connectivity density (Eu.Conn.D). The latter two parameters appeared to be related to OI severity. Structural results were consistently higher than those reported in a previous histomorphometric study, but these differences can be attributed to factors such as specimen collection site, drug therapy, and assumptions associated with histomorphometry. Mineral testing revealed strong correlations with several structural parameters, highlighting the importance of a dual approach in trabecular bone testing. This study reports some of the first quantitative μCT data of human OI bone, and it suggests compelling possibilities for the future of OI bone assessment.

  11. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  12. Human prostatic cancer cells, PC3, elaborate mitogenic activity which selectively stimulates human bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkel, V.S.; Mohan, S.; Herring, S.J.; Baylink, D.J.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Prostatic cancer typically produces osteoblastic metastases which are not attended by marrow fibrosis. In the present study we sought to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer cells produce factor(s) which act selectively on human osteoblasts. Such a paracrine mechanism would explain the observed increase in osteoblasts, unaccompanied by an increase in marrow fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis we investigated the mitogenic activity released by the human prostatic tumor cell line, PC3. PC3 cells have been reported previously to produce mitogenic activity for cells that was relatively specific for rat osteoblasts compared to rat fibroblasts. However, the effects of this activity on human cells has not been examined previously. PC3-conditioned medium (CM) (5-50 micrograms CM protein/ml) stimulated human osteoblast proliferation by 200-950% yet did not stimulate human fibroblast proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation). PC3 CM also increased cell numbers in human osteoblast but not fibroblast cell cultures. To determine whether the osteoblast-specific mitogenic activity could be attributed to known bone growth factors, specific assays for these growth factors were performed. PC3 CM contained 10 pg insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, less than 2 pg IGF II, 54 pg basic fibroblast growth factor, and 16 pg transforming growth factor beta/microgram CM protein. None of these growth factors alone or in combination could account for the observed osteoblast-specific PC3 cell-derived mitogenic activity. Furthermore, when 5 micrograms/ml PC3 CM was tested in combination with maximally effective concentrations of either basic fibroblast growth factor, IGF I, IGF II, or transforming growth factor beta, it produced an additive effect suggesting that PC3 CM stimulates osteoblast proliferation by a mechanism independent of these bone mitogens

  13. Regional strain variations in the human patellar tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen J; Ritchings, Tim; Mohamed, Azlan S A

    2014-07-01

    Characteristics of localized tendon strain in vivo are largely unknown. The present study examines local tendon strain between the deep, middle, and surface structures at the proximal and distal aspects of the patellar tendon during ramped isometric contractions. Male subjects (age 28.0 ± 6.3 yr) were examined for patellar tendon excursion (anterior, midsection, and posterior) during ramped isometric voluntary contractions using real-time B-mode ultrasonography and dynamometry. Regional tendon excursion measurements were compared using an automated pixel tracking method. Strain was determined from the tendon delta length normalized to initial/resting segment length. Strain increased from 10% to 100% of force for all regions. Significantly greater mean strain was seen for the anterior proximal region compared to the posterior and mid layer of the tendon (7.5% ± 1.1% vs 3.7% ± 0.5% vs 5.5% ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Similarly, the distal posterior region showed greater mean strain compared to the mid and anterior regions (7.9% ± 0.6% vs 5.0% ± 0.6% vs 5.4% ± 0.6%; P < 0.05). Relative changes in strain differences from 50% to 100% of force for the proximal region were greatest for the anterior to midline regions (4.6% ± 0.6% and 5.6% ± 0.6%, respectively) and those for the distal region were also greatest for the anterior to midline regions (4.4% ± 0.2% and 5.3% ± 0.2%, respectively). The largest mean strain for the proximal region was at the anterior layer (7.5% ± 1.1%) and that for the distal tendon region was at the posterior layer (7.9% ± 0.9%). This study shows significant regional differences in strain during ramped isometric contractions for the patellar tendon. Lower proximal strains in the posterior tendon compared to the anterior region may be associated with the suggestion of "stress shielding" as an etiological factor in insertional tendinopathy.

  14. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains involved in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Susana; García, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Jiménez, Esther; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; del Campo, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2011-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main etiological agents of mastitis in different mammalian species. At present, it is unknown whether strains isolated from human mastitis cases share phenotypic properties and genetic background with those obtained from animal mastitis cases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize S. aureus strains isolated from women with lactational mastitis and to compare them with the strains responsible for bovine mastitis and noninfectious strains. All the strains were genotyped by both pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing and submitted to a characterization scheme that included diverse assays related to pathogenic potential and antibiotic resistance. Apart from siderophore production, no significant association was observed between the strains from bovine and human mastitis. Statistical differences between human- and bovine-mastitis-associated strains were detected for some traits and virulence determinants, such as the presence of prophages and cna and hlb genes, which were more frequently found within the bovine group. On the contrary, resistance to penicillin was significantly higher among strains isolated from human lactational mastitis, probably related to the common presence of the blaZ gene. A high genetic diversity was found among the strains involved in mastitis in breastfeeding women. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CD146/MCAM defines functionality of human bone marrow stromal stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Zaher, Walid; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of surface markers for prospective isolation of functionally homogenous populations of human skeletal (stromal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) is highly relevant for cell therapy protocols. Thus, we examined the possible use of CD146 to subtype a heterogeneous hMSC...... population. METHODS: Using flow cytometry and cell sorting, we isolated two distinct hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cell populations from the telomerized human bone marrow-derived stromal cell line (hMSC-TERT). Cells were examined for differences in their size, shape and texture by using high...... and adipocytes on the basis of gene expression and protein production of lineage-specific markers. In vivo, hMSC-CD146(+) and hMSC-CD146(-) cells formed bone and bone marrow organ when implanted subcutaneously in immune-deficient mice. Bone was enriched in hMSC-CD146(-) cells (12.6 % versus 8.1 %) and bone...

  16. Using modern human cortical bone distribution to test the systemic robusticity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baab, Karen L; Copes, Lynn E; Ward, Devin L; Wells, Nora; Grine, Frederick E

    2018-06-01

    The systemic robusticity hypothesis links the thickness of cortical bone in both the cranium and limb bones. This hypothesis posits that thick cortical bone is in part a systemic response to circulating hormones, such as growth hormone and thyroid hormone, possibly related to physical activity or cold climates. Although this hypothesis has gained popular traction, only rarely has robusticity of the cranium and postcranial skeleton been considered jointly. We acquired computed tomographic scans from associated crania, femora and humeri from single individuals representing 11 populations in Africa and North America (n = 228). Cortical thickness in the parietal, frontal and occipital bones and cortical bone area in limb bone diaphyses were analyzed using correlation, multiple regression and general linear models to test the hypothesis. Absolute thickness values from the crania were not correlated with cortical bone area of the femur or humerus, which is at odds with the systemic robusticity hypothesis. However, measures of cortical bone scaled by total vault thickness and limb cross-sectional area were positively correlated between the cranium and postcranium. When accounting for a range of potential confounding variables, including sex, age and body mass, variation in relative postcranial cortical bone area explained ∼20% of variation in the proportion of cortical cranial bone thickness. While these findings provide limited support for the systemic robusticity hypothesis, cranial cortical thickness did not track climate or physical activity across populations. Thus, some of the variation in cranial cortical bone thickness in modern humans is attributable to systemic effects, but the driving force behind this effect remains obscure. Moreover, neither absolute nor proportional measures of cranial cortical bone thickness are positively correlated with total cranial bone thickness, complicating the extrapolation of these findings to extinct species where only cranial

  17. Identification of Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein 3 as a Novel Gene Affecting Human Bone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brum, A M; Leije, M; J, Schreuders-Koedam

    2017-01-01

    is diminished and more adipocytes are seen in the bone marrow, suggesting a shift in MSC lineage commitment. Identification of specific factors that stimulate osteoblast differentiation from human MSCs may deliver therapeutic targets to treat osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes...... an in vivo human bone formation model in which hMSCs lentivirally transduced with the CLIC3 overexpression construct were loaded onto a scaffold (hydroxyapatite-tricalcium-phosphate), implanted under the skin of NOD-SCID mice, and analyzed for bone formation 8 weeks later. CLIC3 overexpression led to a 15...

  18. Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus strain 201, an avirulent strain to humans, provides protection against bubonic plague in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Qiong; Tian, Guang; Qi, Zhizhen; Zhang, Xuecan; Wu, Xiaohong; Qiu, Yefeng; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xin, Youquan; He, Jian; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zeng, Lin; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus is considered to be a virulent to larger mammals, including guinea pigs, rabbits and humans. It may be used as live attenuated plague vaccine candidates in terms of its low virulence. However, the Microtus strain's protection against plague has yet to be demonstrated in larger mammals. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the Microtus strain 201 as a live attenuated plague vaccine candidate. Our results show that this strain is highly attenuated by subcutaneous route, elicits an F1-specific antibody titer similar to the EV and provides a protective efficacy similar to the EV against bubonic plague in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The Microtus strain 201 could induce elevated secretion of both Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6), as well as chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8. However, the protected animals developed skin ulcer at challenge site with different severity in most of the immunized and some of the EV-immunized monkeys. Generally, the Microtus strain 201 represented a good plague vaccine candidate based on its ability to generate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as its good protection against high dose of subcutaneous virulent Y. pestis challenge.

  19. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  20. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, Peter S.; O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder; Pilling, James E.; Sanganee, Hitesh; Wada, Hiroki; Courtney, Paul F.; Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A.; Escott, K. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH 1–34 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and

  1. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O' Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  2. In vivo strains in the femur of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) during terrestrial locomotion: testing hypotheses of evolutionary shifts in mammalian bone loading and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Michael T; White, Bartholomew J; Hudzik, Nathan B; Gosnell, W Casey; Parrish, John H A; Blob, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    Terrestrial locomotion can impose substantial loads on vertebrate limbs. Previous studies have shown that limb bones from cursorial species of eutherian mammals experience high bending loads with minimal torsion, whereas the limb bones of non-avian reptiles (and amphibians) exhibit considerable torsion in addition to bending. It has been hypothesized that these differences in loading regime are related to the difference in limb posture between upright mammals and sprawling reptiles, and that the loading patterns observed in non-avian reptiles may be ancestral for tetrapod vertebrates. To evaluate whether non-cursorial mammals show loading patterns more similar to those of sprawling lineages, we measured in vivo strains in the femur during terrestrial locomotion of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), a marsupial that uses more crouched limb posture than most mammals from which bone strains have been recorded, and which belongs to a clade phylogenetically between reptiles and the eutherian mammals studied previously. The presence of substantial torsion in the femur of opossums, similar to non-avian reptiles, would suggest that this loading regime likely reflects an ancestral condition for tetrapod limb bone design. Strain recordings indicate the presence of both bending and appreciable torsion (shear strain: 419.1 ± 212.8 με) in the opossum femur, with planar strain analyses showing neutral axis orientations that placed the lateral aspect of the femur in tension at the time of peak strains. Such mediolateral bending was unexpected for a mammal running with near-parasagittal limb kinematics. Shear strains were similar in magnitude to peak compressive axial strains, with opossum femora experiencing similar bending loads but higher levels of torsion compared with most previously studied mammals. Analyses of peak femoral strains led to estimated safety factor ranges of 5.1-7.2 in bending and 5.5-7.3 in torsion, somewhat higher than typical mammalian values

  3. Draft genome sequences of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from human patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Olazar?n, Soraya; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jos? F.; Morf?n-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Trevi?o, Licet; Camacho-Ortiz, Adri?n; Rodr?guez-Noriega, Eduardo; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Maldonado-Garza, H?ctor J.; Dowd, Scot E.; Garza-Gonz?lez, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the draft-genome sequences and annotation of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from humans. One strain (SC-57) was isolated from blood from a male patient in May 2006 and the other (SC-532) from a catheter from a male patient in June 2006. Similar to other genomes of Staphylococcus species, most genes (42%) of both strains are involved in metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates and proteins. Eighty (4%) genes are involved...

  4. Strain-Specific Virolysis Patterns of Human Noroviruses in Response to Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun Woo; Collins, Nikail; Barclay, Leslie; Hu, Liya; Prasad, B V Venkataram; Lopman, Benjamin A; Vinjé, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are widely used to disinfect hands to prevent the spread of pathogens including noroviruses. Alcohols inactivate norovirus by destruction of the viral capsid, resulting in the leakage of viral RNA (virolysis). Since conflicting results have been reported on the susceptibility of human noroviruses against alcohols, we exposed a panel of 30 human norovirus strains (14 GI and 16 GII strains) to different concentrations (50%, 70%, 90%) of ethanol and isopropanol and tested the viral RNA titer by RT-qPCR. Viral RNA titers of 10 (71.4%), 14 (100%), 3 (21.4%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 GI strains were reduced by > 1 log10 RNA copies/ml after exposure to 70% and 90% ethanol, and 70% and 90% isopropanol, respectively. RNA titers of 6 of the 7 non-GII 4 strains remained unaffected after alcohol exposure. Compared to GII strains, GI strains were more susceptible to ethanol than to isopropanol. At 90%, both alcohols reduced RNA titers of 8 of the 9 GII.4 strains by ≥ 1 log10 RNA copies/ml. After exposure to 70% ethanol, RNA titers of GII.4 Den Haag and Sydney strains decreased by ≥ 1.9 log10, whereas RNA reductions for GII.4 New Orleans strains were alcohol susceptibility patterns between different norovirus genotypes vary widely and that virolysis data for a single strain or genotype are not representative for all noroviruses.

  5. The effect of magnesium ion implantation into alumina upon the adhesion of human bone derived cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, C.R.; Zreiqat, H.; O'Dell, R.; Noorman, J.; Evans, P.; Dalton, B.A.; McFarland, C.; Steele, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Our group is investigating the potential of modifying the surface atomic layers of biomaterials by ion beam implantation in order to stimulate adhesion of bone cells to these treated biomaterials. In this study alumina that had been implanted with magnesium ions (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ), was compared to unmodified alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) for the adhesion of cells cultured from explanted human bone. The attachment and spreading of cultured human bone derived cells onto (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ) was significantly enhanced as compared to Al 2 O 3 . The role of adsorption of serum adhesive glycoproteins firbronectin (Fn) and vitronectin (Vn) in the adhesion of human bone derived cells to (Mg)-(Al 2 O 3 ) was determined. (Author)

  6. The correlation between R2' and bone mineral measurements in human vertebrae: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brismar, T.B.; Karlsson, M.; Li, T.Q.; Ringertz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether MR imaging of trabecular bone structure using magnetic inhomogeneity measurements is related to the amount of bone mineral in human vertebrae. Weight, bone mineral content (BMC DXA ), bone mineral per area (BMA DXA ) and bone mineral density (BMD CT ) were determined in 12 defatted human lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) by weighing, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and CT. Inhomogeneity caused by susceptibility differences between trabecular bone and surrounding water was studied with MR imaging at 1.5 T using the GESFIDE sequence. The pulse sequence determines the transverse relaxation rate R2 * and its two components, the non-reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2) and the reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2'; i. e. relaxation rate due to magnetic susceptibility) in a single scan. Voxel size was 0.9 x 1.9 x 5.0 mm. Positive significant correlations between R2' and weight, BMC DXA , BMA DXA and BMD CT were observed (r > 0.61 and p DXA and BMD CT (r > 0.66 and p DXA . Thus, R2' measurements are related to the amount of bone mineral, but they also provide information which is not obtainable from bone mineral measurements. (orig.) (orig.)

  7. MICs of Oxazolidinones for Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Humans and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bowersock, Terry L.; Salmon, Sarah A.; Portis, Ellen S.; Prescott, John F.; Robison, Denise A.; Ford, Charles W.; Watts, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Eperezolid and linezolid are representatives of a new class of orally active, synthetic antimicrobial agents. The in vitro activity values (MICs) of linezolid, eperezolid, and comparator antibiotics against 102 strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from humans and animals were determined. Linezolid was more active than eperezolid against the strains tested; premafloxacin was the most active comparator antibiotic.

  8. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P < 0.05) in longitudinal bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the processes regulating new collagen accretion, bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  9. Clinical uses of radiosterilized freeze-dried human bone: its application in buccomaxillary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsohn, B.; Taramasso, F.; Godoy, J.; Wodowoz, O.; Saldias, M.; Silva, W.; Machin, D.; Sanchez, G.; Alvarez, I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the uses of different human bone tissue allografts in bucomaxillary surgery between 2005 and 2007. Presentation of our experience using single freeze dried bone allografts and associated to bovine collagen membranes (commercial registered). Twenty patients were treated with cortical struts, cancellous chips, morsellized and morsellized demineralized bone. All the grafts were processed at the INDT multi tissue bank from cardiac arrest and brain death cadaveric donors. All the tissues were radiosterilized by Gamma radiation. Bone allografts were used: 1) to optimize bone support increasing maxillar or mandible bone before implant surgery. 2) in dehiscences and fissures during the implant surgery. 3) to stimulate bone regeneration in alveolar cavity, post-apicectomies, and cystectomies as well as for bone defects. The patients were periodically evaluated using standardized protocols. All the cases were successful showing clinic and radiologically osseointegration after 6 and 12 months. Results were evaluated considering surgical technique and patients bucomaxillary rehabilitation. Clinical uses of bone allografts confirm in our experience, as scientific literature outcomes shows, are useful in patients that refuses autografts ablation. (Author)

  10. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  11. Expression profiling of microRNAs in human bone tissue from postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Ugarte, Laura; Serra-Vinardell, Jenny; Nonell, Lara; Balcells, Susana; Arnal, Magdalena; Nogues, Xavier; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Grinberg, Daniel; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia

    2018-01-01

    Bone tissue is composed of several cell types, which express their own microRNAs (miRNAs) that will play a role in cell function. The set of total miRNAs expressed in all cell types configures the specific signature of the bone tissue in one physiological condition. The aim of this study was to explore the miRNA expression profile of bone tissue from postmenopausal women. Tissue was obtained from trabecular bone and was analyzed in fresh conditions (n = 6). Primary osteoblasts were also obtained from trabecular bone (n = 4) and human osteoclasts were obtained from monocyte precursors after in vitro differentiation (n = 5). MicroRNA expression profiling was obtained for each sample by microarray and a global miRNA analysis was performed combining the data acquired in all the microarray experiments. From the 641 miRNAs detected in bone tissue samples, 346 (54%) were present in osteoblasts and/or osteoclasts. The other 46% were not identified in any of the bone cells analyzed. Intersection of osteoblast and osteoclast arrays identified 101 miRNAs shared by both cell types, which accounts for 30-40% of miRNAs detected in these cells. In osteoblasts, 266 miRNAs were detected, of which 243 (91%) were also present in the total bone array, representing 38% of all bone miRNAs. In osteoclasts, 340 miRNAs were detected, of which 196 (58%) were also present in the bone tissue array, representing 31% of all miRNAs detected in total bone. These analyses provide an overview of miRNAs expressed in bone tissue, broadening our knowledge in the microRNA field.

  12. Evaluation of antipathogenic activity and adherence properties of human Lactobacillus strains for vaginal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenelli, M C; Coman, M M; Cecchini, C; Silvi, S; Orpianesi, C; Cresci, A

    2014-05-01

    To test different Lactobacillus strains for their antipathogenic activity towards Candida strains and their adhesion properties for the preparation of vaginal ovules and douches to be used in vaginal candidiasis prevention. Five strains of lactobacilli were tested for their antimicrobial potential against different clinically isolated Candida strains. They were also screened for their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide and to coaggregate with pathogens. Adhesion properties of the five different Lactobacillus strains to HeLa cells and the presence of arcA gene were also assessed. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that all the five Lactobacillus strains tested possessed inhibitory action against the Candida strains using the radial streak method, but the effect is strain dependent. The same situation arises with regard to the ability of coaggregation that is present in all the strains into different degrees. Only Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®) were able to produce H2O2 and none of the strains possess arcA gene. The most adherent strains to HeLa cells were Lact. rhamnosus IMC 501(®), Lact. paracasei IMC 502(®) and also their combination SYNBIO(®). This latter was selected for the preparation of ovules and douches using different matrix. Witepsol(®) ovules have proved the best formulation in terms of probiotic viability. Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®), Lact. paracasei IMC 502(®) and SYNBIO(®) were able to produce H2O2, to coaggregate and to exert antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida strains and to strongly adhere to HeLa cells. All these properties together with those technological make these strains good candidates for the realization of formulations suitable for vaginal health. To develop new vaginal formulations taking into account the impact of probiotic strains on pathogens as well as the technological properties of the strains to validate their effectiveness in human health. © 2014 The

  13. Measurement of stress-strain behaviour of human hair fibres using optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kwon, H J

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have presented stress-strain relationship of human hair, but most of them have been based on an engineering stress-strain curve, which is not a true representation of stress-strain behaviour. In this study, a more accurate 'true' stress-strain curve of human hair was determined by applying optical techniques to the images of the hair deformed under tension. This was achieved by applying digital image cross-correlation (DIC) to 10× magnified images of hair fibres taken under increasing tension to estimate the strain increments. True strain was calculated by summation of the strain increments according to the theoretical definition of 'true' strain. The variation in diameter with the increase in longitudinal elongation was also measured from the 40× magnified images to estimate the Poisson's ratio and true stress. By combining the true strain and the true stress, a true stress-strain curve could be determined, which demonstrated much higher stress values than the conventional engineering stress-strain curve at the same degree of deformation. Four regions were identified in the true stress-strain relationship and empirical constitutive equations were proposed for each region. Theoretical analysis on the necking condition using the constitutive equations provided the insight into the failure mechanism of human hair. This analysis indicated that local thinning caused by necking does not occur in the hair fibres, but, rather, relatively uniform deformation takes place until final failure (fracture) eventually occurs. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Clinical assessment of bone quality of human extraction sockets after conversion with growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntounis, Athanasios; Geurs, Nico; Vassilopoulos, Philip; Reddy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA), alone or in combination with growth factors in extraction sockets, on subjective assessment of bone quality during implant placement. Forty-one patients whose treatment plan involved extraction of anterior or premolar teeth were randomized into four groups: Group 1, collagen plug (control); Group 2, FDBA/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen plug; Group 3, FDBA/β-TCP/platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/collagen plug; Group 4, FDBA/β-TCP/recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB)/collagen plug. After 8 weeks of healing, implants were placed. The clinicians assessed bone quality according to the Misch classification. A benchtop calibration exercise test was conducted to evaluate agreement and accuracy of operators in recognizing different bone qualities. Differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-square tests for continuous and categorical data. Pairwise comparisons were tested using least squares means (LS means). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship of bone growth with potential confounders. P .05). Inclusion of bone grafting is associated with a shift from D4 quality to D3 quality bone. Inclusion of PRP in bone grafting eliminates the incidence of D4 bone, establishing D3 and D2 quality bone as prevalent (56% vs. 42%, respectively). Inclusion of rhPDGF-BB and β-TCP in combination with the bone grafting has the same effect, although D2 quality is less prevalent. When compared to sockets grafted with FDBA/β-TCP/collagen plug alone, the sockets with growth factors demonstrated fewer residual bone graft particles. (1) Inclusion of bone grafting enhanced bone quality as assessed during implant placement. (2) Overall inclusion of PRP and rhPDGF-BB enhanced subjective bone quality, eliminating incidence of D4 quality in human extraction sockets. (3) The use of PRP or rhPDGF-BB may

  15. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 in augmentation procedures: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Jaques; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Claudino, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    To successfully rehabilitate edentulous patients using endosseous implants, there must be enough available bone. Several techniques have been proposed for augmentation of sites with insufficient bone volume. Although autogenous bone has long been considered the gold standard for such procedures, the limited availability of graft material and a high morbidity rate are potential disadvantages of this type of graft. An alternative is to use recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2), which is able to support bone regeneration in the oral environment. These cases demonstrate the applicability of rhBMP-2 in maxillary sinus elevation and augmentation procedures in the maxilla to enable dental implant placement. The use of rhBMP-2 in alveolar augmentation procedures had several clinical benefits for these patients.

  16. Metabolic Modeling of Common Escherichia coli Strains in Human Gut Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Dong Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent high-throughput sequencing has enabled the composition of Escherichia coli strains in the human microbial community to be profiled en masse. However, there are two challenges to address: (1 exploring the genetic differences between E. coli strains in human gut and (2 dynamic responses of E. coli to diverse stress conditions. As a result, we investigated the E. coli strains in human gut microbiome using deep sequencing data and reconstructed genome-wide metabolic networks for the three most common E. coli strains, including E. coli HS, UTI89, and CFT073. The metabolic models show obvious strain-specific characteristics, both in network contents and in behaviors. We predicted optimal biomass production for three models on four different carbon sources (acetate, ethanol, glucose, and succinate and found that these stress-associated genes were involved in host-microbial interactions and increased in human obesity. Besides, it shows that the growth rates are similar among the models, but the flux distributions are different, even in E. coli core reactions. The correlations between human diabetes-associated metabolic reactions in the E. coli models were also predicted. The study provides a systems perspective on E. coli strains in human gut microbiome and will be helpful in integrating diverse data sources in the following study.

  17. Beyond the functional matrix hypothesis: a network null model of human skull growth for the formation of bone articulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial sutures and synchondroses form the boundaries among bones in the human skull, providing functional, developmental and evolutionary information. Bone articulations in the skull arise due to interactions between genetic regulatory mechanisms and epigenetic factors such as functional matrices (soft tissues and cranial cavities), which mediate bone growth. These matrices are largely acknowledged for their influence on shaping the bones of the skull; however, it is not fully understood to what extent functional matrices mediate the formation of bone articulations. Aiming to identify whether or not functional matrices are key developmental factors guiding the formation of bone articulations, we have built a network null model of the skull that simulates unconstrained bone growth. This null model predicts bone articulations that arise due to a process of bone growth that is uniform in rate, direction and timing. By comparing predicted articulations with the actual bone articulations of the human skull, we have identified which boundaries specifically need the presence of functional matrices for their formation. We show that functional matrices are necessary to connect facial bones, whereas an unconstrained bone growth is sufficient to connect non-facial bones. This finding challenges the role of the brain in the formation of boundaries between bones in the braincase without neglecting its effect on skull shape. Ultimately, our null model suggests where to look for modified developmental mechanisms promoting changes in bone growth patterns that could affect the development and evolution of the head skeleton. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  18. Trabecular bone histomorphometry in humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Akhter, Mohammed P; Drincic, Andjela; Recker, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have markedly increased risk of fracture, but little is known about abnormalities in bone microarchitecture or remodeling properties that might give insight into the pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients. We report here a case-control study comparing bone histomorphometric and micro-CT results from iliac biopsies in 18 otherwise healthy subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with those from healthy age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. Five of the diabetics had histories of low-trauma fracture. Transilial bone biopsies were obtained after tetracycline labeling. The biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded, and scanned using a desktop μCT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed as previously described by Recker et al. [1]. Two sections, >250 μm apart, were read from the central part of each biopsy. Overall there were no significant differences between diabetics and controls in histomorphometric or micro-CT measurements. However, fracturing diabetics had structural and dynamic trends different from nonfracturing diabetics by both methods of analysis. In conclusion, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus does not result in abnormalities in bone histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in the absence of manifest complications from the diabetes. However, diabetics suffering fractures may have defects in their skeletal microarchitecture that may underlie the presence of excess skeletal fragility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of purinergic receptor polymorphisms in human bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselius, Anke; Bours, Martijn J L; Agrawal, Ankita

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Variations in a number of genes have been shown to associate with bone turnover and risk of osteoporosis. P2 purinergic receptors are proteins that have ATP or other nucleotides as their natural ligands. Various P2Y and P2X...

  20. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...

  1. Trabecular bone strains around a dental implant and associated micromotions--a micro-CT-based three-dimensional finite element study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limbert, G.; Lierde, C. van; Muraru, O.L.; Walboomers, X.F.; Frank, M.; Hansson, S.; Middleton, J.; Jaecques, S.

    2010-01-01

    The first objective of this computational study was to assess the strain magnitude and distribution within the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular bone structure around an osseointegrated dental implant loaded axially. The second objective was to investigate the relative micromotions between the

  2. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  3. Heavy metals in human bones in different historical epochs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, M J; Moreno, J M; Moreno-Clavel, J; Vergara, N; García-Sánchez, A; Guillamón, A; Portí, M; Moreno-Grau, S

    2005-09-15

    The concentration of the metals lead, copper, zinc, cadmium and iron was determined in bone remains belonging to 30 individuals buried in the Region of Cartagena dating from different historical periods and in eight persons who had died in recent times. The metals content with respect to lead, cadmium and copper was determined either by anodic stripping voltammetry or by atomic absorption spectroscopy on the basis of the concentrations present in the bone remains. In all cases, zinc and iron were quantified by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The lead concentrations found in the bone remains in our city are greater than those reported in the literature for other locations. This led to the consideration of the sources of these metals in our area, both the contribution from atmospheric aerosols as well as that from the soil in the area. Correlation analysis leads us to consider the presence of the studied metals in the analysed bone samples to be the consequence of analogous inputs, namely the inhalation of atmospheric aerosols and diverse contributions in the diet. The lowest values found in the studied bone remains correspond to the Neolithic period, with similar contents to present-day samples with respect to lead, copper, cadmium and iron. As regards the evolution over time of the concentrations of the metals under study, a clear increase in these is observed between the Neolithic period and the grouping made up of the Bronze Age, Roman domination and the Byzantine period. The trend lines used to classify the samples into 7 periods show that the maximum values of lead correspond to the Roman and Byzantine periods. For copper, this peak is found in the Byzantine Period and for iron, in the Islamic Period. Zinc shows an increasing tendency over the periods under study and cadmium is the only metal whose trend lines shows a decreasing slope.

  4. Mechanisms Inducing Low Bone Density in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo, Anna; Del Fattore, Andrea; Capulli, Mattia; Carvello, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Ferrari, Serge; Pierroz, Dominique; Morandi, Lucia; De Simone, Michele; Rucci, Nadia; Bertini, Enrico; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Teti, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic MDX mice were investigated in this study for their bone phenotype and systemic regulators of bone turnover. Micro–computed tomographic (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed reduced bone mass and higher osteoclast and bone resorption parameters in MDX mice compared with wild-type mice, whereas osteoblast parameters and mineral apposition rate were lower. In a panel of circulating pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines evaluated in the MDX sera, interleukin 6 (IL-6) was increased compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, DMD patients showed low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores and high bone-resorption marker and serum IL-6. Human primary osteoblasts from healthy donors incubated with 10% sera from DMD patients showed decreased nodule mineralization. Many osteogenic genes were downregulated in these cultures, including osterix and osteocalcin, by a mechanism blunted by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, the mRNAs of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL6, IL11, inhibin-βA, and TGFβ2 were increased, although only IL-6 was found to be high in the circulation. Consistently, enhancement of osteoclastogenesis was noted in cultures of circulating mononuclear precursors from DMD patients or from healthy donors cultured in the presence of DMD sera or IL-6. Circulating IL-6 also played a dominant role in osteoclast formation because ex vivo wild-type calvarial bones cultured with 10% sera of MDX mice showed increase osteoclast and bone-resorption parameters that were dampen by treatment with an IL-6 antibody. These results point to IL-6 as an important mediator of bone loss in DMD and suggest that targeted anti-IL-6 therapy may have a positive impact on the bone phenotype in these patients. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:21509823

  5. Mutual associations among microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of human cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Danielsen, CC

    2002-01-01

    structure and mechanical properties. In this study, 160 cancellous bone specimens were produced from 40 normal human tibiae aged from 16 to 85 years at post-mortem. The specimens underwent micro-CT and the microstructural properties were calculated using unbiased three-dimensional methods. The specimens...... were tested to determine the mechanical properties and the physical/compositional properties were evaluated. The type of structure together with anisotropy correlated well with Young's modulus of human tibial cancellous bone. The plate-like structure reflected high mechanical stress and the rod......-like structure low mechanical stress. There was a strong correlation between the type of trabecular structure and the bone-volume fraction. The most effective microstructural properties for predicting the mechanical properties of cancellous bone seem to differ with age....

  6. Locating the scala media in the fixed human temporal bone for therapeutic access: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, H; Fagan, P; Oleskevich, S

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the location of the scala media in relation to the round window niche in human temporal bones. Ten human temporal bones were investigated by radical mastoidectomy and promontory drill-out. Temporal bone laboratory. The distance from the scala media to the anterior edge of the round window niche, measured by Fisch's stapedectomy measuring cylinders. The scala media was identified at the transection point of a vertical line 1.6 to 2.2 mm (mean=1.8 mm; standard deviation=0.2) anterior to the anterior edge of the round window niche and a horizontal line 0.2 mm inferior to the lower border of the oval window. This report demonstrates the point of entry into the scala media via the promontory in fixed temporal bone models, which may provide a site of entry for stem cells and gene therapy insertion.

  7. Gene Expression Changes in Femoral Head Necrosis of Human Bone Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Balla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is the result of an interruption of the local circulation and the injury of vascular supply of bone. Multiple factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. However the mechanism of ischemia and necrosis in non-traumatic ONFH is not clear. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in ONFH vs. non-ONFH human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Six bone tissue samples from ONFH male patients and 8 bone tissue samples from non-ONFH men were examined. The expression differences of selected 117 genes were analyzed by TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR system. The significance test indicated marked differences in the expression of nine genes between ONFH and non-ONFH individuals. These altered genes code for collagen molecules, an extracellular matrix digesting metalloproteinase, a transcription factor, an adhesion molecule, and a growth factor. Canonical variates analysis demonstrated that ONFH and non-ONFH bone tissues can be distinguished by the multiple expression profile analysis of numerous genes controlled via canonical TGFB pathway as well as genes coding for extracellular matrix composing collagen type molecules. The markedly altered gene expression profile observed in the ONFH of human bone tissue may provide further insight into the pathogenetic process of osteonecrotic degeneration of bone.

  8. Comparative pathogenesis of radium-induced intracortical bone lesions in humans and beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.R.; Morgan, J.P.; Parks, N.J.; Farnham, J.E.; Littman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An interlaboratory research team from our Laboratory and the Center for Human Radiobiology at Argonne National Laboratory has performed an initial comparison of intracortical lesions in the long bones of dog and man following chronic radium deposition in the skeleton. The sequential radiographic appearance and morphology of radiation osteodystrophy is discussed. The role of osteodystrohy in the evaluation of bone tumors in the dog is examined

  9. Total lymphatic irradiation and bone marrow in human heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, D.R.; Hong, R.; Greenberg, A.J.; Gilbert, E.F.; Dacumos, G.C.; Dufek, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Six patients, aged 36 to 59 years, had heart transplants for terminal myocardial disease using total lymphatic irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow in addition to conventional therapy. All patients were poor candidates for transplantation because of marked pulmonary hypertension, unacceptable tissue matching, or age. Two patients are living and well more than four years after the transplants. Two patients died of infection at six and seven weeks with normal hearts. One patient, whose preoperative pulmonary hypertension was too great for an orthotopic heart transplant, died at 10 days after such a procedure. The other patient died of chronic rejection seven months postoperatively. Donor-specific tolerance developed in 2 patients. TLI and donor bone marrow can produce specific tolerance to donor antigens and allow easy control of rejection, but infection is still a major problem. We describe a new technique of administering TLI with early reduction of prednisone that may help this problem

  10. Human Bone Matrix Changes During Deep Saturation Dives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-08

    urine concentrations of Ntx have been demonstrated in bone diseases such as osteoporosis, primary hyperthyroidism , and Paget’s disease. Also... loss in divers, and that the differentials likely came from the gas- induced osmosis model.30 4 The same facility was used for both dives and...Other demographic data such as age, height, weight , and diving experience were also collected for later correlational analyses. The dive took place

  11. SERPINB2 is a novel TGFβ-responsive lineage fate determinant of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsafadi, Mona; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Atteya, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    TGF-β1, a multifunctional regulator of cell growth and differentiation, is the most abundant bone matrix growth factor. During differentiation of human bone stromal cells (hBMSCs), which constitute bone marrow osteoblast (OS) and adipocyte (AD) progenitor cells, continuous TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) treat...

  12. Bone Mass and Strength are Significantly Improved in Mice Overexpressing Human WNT16 in Osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Reilly, Austin M; Alkhouli, Mohammed; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita L; Kasipathi, Charishma; Oakes, Dana K; Wright, Weston B; Acton, Dena; McQueen, Amie K; Patel, Bhavmik; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Robling, Alexander G; Econs, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice exhibited significantly higher whole-body, spine and femoral aBMD, BMC and trabecular (BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th) and cortical (bone area and thickness) parameters in both male and female at 12 weeks of age. Femur stiffness and ultimate force were also significantly improved in the Dmp1-hWNT16 TG female mice, compared to sex-matched WT littermates. In addition, female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice displayed significantly higher MS/BS, MAR and BFR/BS compared to the WT mice. Gene expression analysis demonstrated significantly higher mRNA level of Alp in both male and female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice and significantly higher levels of Osteocalcin, Opg and Rankl in the male Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice in bone tissue compared to sex-matched WT mice. These results indicate that WNT16 plays a critical role for acquisition of both cortical and trabecular bone mass and strength. Strategies designed to use WNT16 as a target for therapeutic interventions will be valuable to treat osteoporosis and other low bone mass conditions.

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G

    2017-03-01

    Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R 2 =0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):90-94.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  15. Patient-specific in silico models can quantify primary implant stability in elderly human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Juri A; Hofmann, Urs A T; Christen, Patrik; Favre, Jean M; Ferguson, Stephen J; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2018-03-01

    Secure implant fixation is challenging in osteoporotic bone. Due to the high variability in inter- and intra-patient bone quality, ex vivo mechanical testing of implants in bone is very material- and time-consuming. Alternatively, in silico models could substantially reduce costs and speed up the design of novel implants if they had the capability to capture the intricate bone microstructure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate a micro-finite element model of a multi-screw fracture fixation system. Eight human cadaveric humerii were scanned using micro-CT and mechanically tested to quantify bone stiffness. Osteotomy and fracture fixation were performed, followed by mechanical testing to quantify displacements at 12 different locations on the instrumented bone. For each experimental case, a micro-finite element model was created. From the micro-finite element analyses of the intact model, the patient-specific bone tissue modulus was determined such that the simulated apparent stiffness matched the measured stiffness of the intact bone. Similarly, the tissue modulus of a small damage region around each screw was determined for the instrumented bone. For validation, all in silico models were rerun using averaged material properties, resulting in an average coefficient of determination of 0.89 ± 0.04 with a slope of 0.93 ± 0.19 and a mean absolute error of 43 ± 10 μm when correlating in silico marker displacements with the ex vivo test. In conclusion, we validated a patient-specific computer model of an entire organ bone-implant system at the tissue-level at high resolution with excellent overall accuracy. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:954-962, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Characterization of a Composite Material to Mimic Human Cranial Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    first of applying a continuous layer of white acrylic spray paint, followed by a mist of larger droplets of black paint to create a pattern, as shown in...Figure 4. A digital camera (Grasshopper model, Point Grey Inc.) was used to acquire images every 0.12 seconds during testing, and strain was

  17. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Zach S; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V; Tamaresis, John S; Bachmann, Michael H; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J; Contag, Christopher H; King, Bonnie L

    2015-12-01

    Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. T3 Regulates a Human Macrophage-Derived TSH-β Splice Variant: Implications for Human Bone Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliram, R; Latif, R; Morshed, S A; Zaidi, M; Davies, T F

    2016-09-01

    TSH and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are intimately involved in bone biology. We have previously reported the presence of a murine TSH-β splice variant (TSH-βv) expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived macrophages and that exerted an osteoprotective effect by inducing osteoblastogenesis. To extend this observation and its relevance to human bone biology, we set out to identify and characterize a TSH-β variant in human macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses using human TSH-β-specific primers identified a 364-bp product in macrophages, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells that was sequence verified and was homologous to a human TSH-βv previously reported. We then examined TSH-βv regulation using the THP-1 human monocyte cell line matured into macrophages. After 4 days, 46.1% of the THP-1 cells expressed the macrophage markers CD-14 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibited typical morphological characteristics of macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses of these cells treated in a dose-dependent manner with T3 showed a 14-fold induction of human TSH-βv mRNA and variant protein. Furthermore, these human TSH-βv-positive cells, induced by T3 exposure, had categorized into both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor for M1 and CCL-22 for M2. These data indicate that in hyperthyroidism, bone marrow resident macrophages have the potential to exert enhanced osteoprotective effects by oversecreting human TSH-βv, which may exert its local osteoprotective role via osteoblast and osteoclast TSH receptors.

  19. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs’ identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects.

  20. Restoration of a Critical Mandibular Bone Defect Using Human Alveolar Bone-Derived Stem Cells and Porous Nano-HA/Collagen/PLA Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xing, Helin; Zhang, Guilan; Wu, Xia; Zou, Xuan; Feng, Lin; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Meng; Zhao, Jing; Du, Jianwei; Lv, Yan; E, Lingling; Liu, Hongchen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal bone defects occur in a wide variety of clinical situations. Adult stem cell- and biomaterial-based bone tissue regeneration are a promising alternative to natural bone grafts. Recent evidence has demonstrated that two populations of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) can be distinguished based on their embryonic origins. These BMSCs are not interchangeable, as bones preferentially heal using cells that share the same embryonic origin. However, the feasibility of tissue engineering using human craniofacial BMSCs was unclear. The goal of this study was to explore human craniofacial BMSC-based therapy for the treatment of localized mandibular defects using a standardized, minimally invasive procedure. The BMSCs' identity was confirmed. Scanning electron microscopy, a cell proliferation assay, and supernatant detection indicated that the nHAC/PLA provided a suitable environment for aBMSCs. Real-time PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassays demonstrated that osteogenic markers were upregulated by osteogenic preinduction. Moreover, in a rabbit critical-size mandibular bone defect model, total bone formation in the nHAC/PLA + aBMSCs group was significantly higher than in the nHAC/PLA group but significantly lower than in the nHAC/PLA + preinduced aBMSCs. These findings demonstrate that this engineered bone is a valid alternative for the correction of mandibular bone defects. PMID:27118977

  1. Monitoring of Bone Loss Biomarkers in Human Sweat: A Non-Invasive, Time Efficient Means of Monitoring Bone Resorption Markers under Micro and Partial Gravity Loading Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project was to validate the concept that the rate and extent of unloading-induced bone loss in humans can be assessed by monitoring the...

  2. The osteogenic response of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to mechanical strain is inversely related to body mass index of the donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Gerald; Windhager, Reinhard; Schmidt, Helena; Aigner, Reingard

    2009-08-01

    While the importance of physical factors in the maintenance and regeneration of bone tissue has been recognized for many years and the mechano-sensitivity of bone cells is well established, there is increasing evidence that body fat constitutes an independent risk factor for complications in bone fracture healing and aseptic loosening of implants. Although mechanical causes have been widely suggested, we hypothesized that the osteogenic mechano-response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) may be altered in obese patients. We determined the phenotypic and genotypic response of undifferentiated hMSCs of 10 donors to cyclic tensile strain (CTS) under controlled in vitro conditions and analyzed the potential relationship relevant to the donor's anthropomorphometric and biochemical parameters related to donor's fat and bone metabolism. The osteogenic marker genes were all statistically significantly upregulated by CTS, which was accompanied by a significant increase in cell-based ALP activity. Linear correlation analysis revealed that there was a significant correlation between phenotypic CTS response and the body mass index of the donor (r = -0.91, p < 0.001) and phenotypic CTS response was also significantly related to leptin levels (r = -0.68) and estradiol levels (r = 0.67) within the bone marrow microenvironment of the donor. Such an upstream imprinting process mediated by factors tightly related to the donor's fat metabolism, which hampers the mechanosensitivity of hMSCs in obese patients, may be of pathogenetic relevance for the complications associated with obesity that are seen in orthopedic surgery.

  3. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute leads to sufficient bone tissue formation already after 3 months: histological and histomorphometrical analysis 3 and 6 months following human sinus cavity augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanaati, Shahram; Barbeck, Mike; Willershausen, Ines; Thimm, Benjamin; Stuebinger, Stefan; Korzinskas, Tadas; Obreja, Karina; Landes, Constantin; Kirkpatrick, Charles J; Sader, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    In this study the de novo bone formation capacity of a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite bone substitute was assessed 3 and 6 months after its insertion into the human sinus cavity. Sinus cavity augmentation was performed in a total of 14 patients (n = 7 implantation after 3 months; n = 7 implantation after 6 months) with severely atrophic maxillary bone. The specimens obtained after 3 and 6 months were analyzed histologically and histomorphometrically with special focus on bone metabolism within the residual bone and the augmented region. This study revealed that bone tissue formation started from the bone-biomaterial-interface and was directed into the most cranial parts of the augmented region. There was no statistically significant difference in new bone formation after 3 and 6 months (24.89 ± 10.22% vs 31.29 ± 2.29%), respectively. Within the limits of the present study and according to previously published data, implant insertion in regions augmented with this bone substitute material could be considered already after 3 months. Further clinical studies with bone substitute materials are necessary to validate these findings. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Zika Virus Strains Potentially Display Different Infectious Profiles in Human Neural Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Simonin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent Zika virus (ZIKV epidemic has highlighted the poor knowledge on its physiopathology. Recent studies showed that ZIKV of the Asian lineage, responsible for this international outbreak, causes neuropathology in vitro and in vivo. However, two African lineages exist and the virus is currently found circulating in Africa. The original African strain was also suggested to be neurovirulent but its laboratory usage has been criticized due to its multiple passages. In this study, we compared the French Polynesian (Asian ZIKV strain to an African strain isolated in Central African Republic and show a difference in infectivity and cellular response between both strains in human neural stem cells and astrocytes. Consistently, this African strain led to a higher infection rate and viral production, as well as stronger cell death and anti-viral response. Our results highlight the need to better characterize the physiopathology and predict neurological impairment associated with African ZIKV.

  5. Relationships among ultrasonic and mechanical properties of cancellous bone in human calcaneus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Keith A; Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Dreher, Maureen L; Sadoughi, Saghi; Zhu, Shan; Keaveny, Tony M

    2017-10-01

    Clinical bone sonometers applied at the calcaneus measure broadband ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound. However, the relation of ultrasound measurements to bone strength is not well-characterized. Addressing this issue, we assessed the extent to which ultrasonic measurements convey in vitro mechanical properties in 25 human calcaneal cancellous bone specimens (approximately 2×4×2cm). Normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound, and broadband ultrasound backscatter were measured with 500kHz transducers. To assess mechanical properties, non-linear finite element analysis, based on micro-computed tomography images (34-micron cubic voxel), was used to estimate apparent elastic modulus, overall specimen stiffness, and apparent yield stress, with models typically having approximately 25-30 million elements. We found that ultrasound parameters were correlated with mechanical properties with R=0.70-0.82 (pmechanical properties beyond that provided by bone quantity alone (p≤0.05). Adding ultrasound variables to linear regression models based on bone quantity improved adjusted squared correlation coefficients from 0.65 to 0.77 (stiffness), 0.76 to 0.81 (apparent modulus), and 0.67 to 0.73 (yield stress). These results indicate that ultrasound can provide complementary (to bone quantity) information regarding mechanical behavior of cancellous bone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Localized ridge defect augmentation using human pericardium membrane and demineralized bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyadharan, Arun Kumar; Ravindran, Anjana

    2014-01-01

    Patient wanted to restore her lost teeth with implants in the lower left first molar and second premolar region. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) revealed inadequate bone width and height around future implant sites. The extraction socket of second premolar area revealed inadequate socket healing with sparse bone fill after 4 months of extraction. To evaluate the clinical feasibility of using a collagen physical resorbable barrier made of human pericardium (HP) to augment localized alveolar ridge defects for the subsequent placement of dental implants. Ridge augmentation was done in the compromised area using Puros® demineralized bone matrix (DBM) Putty with chips and an HP allograft membrane. Horizontal (width) and vertical hard tissue measurements with CBCT were recorded on the day of ridge augmentation surgery, 4 month and 7 months follow-up. Intra oral periapical taken 1 year after implant installation showed minimal crestal bone loss. Bone volume achieved through guided bone regeneration was a gain of 4.8 mm horizontally (width) and 6.8 mm vertically in the deficient ridge within a period of 7 months following the procedure. The results suggested that HP Allograft membrane may be a suitable component for augmentation of localized alveolar ridge defects in conjunction with DBM with bone chips.

  7. Survival of Free and Encapsulated Human and Rat Islet Xenografts Transplanted into the Mouse Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Raphael P. H.; Seebach, Jörg D.; Morel, Philippe; Mahou, Redouan; Borot, Sophie; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Parnaud, Geraldine; Montanari, Elisa; Bosco, Domenico; Wandrey, Christine; Berney, Thierry; Bühler, Leo H.; Muller, Yannick D.

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow) and 10 days (kidney capsule). Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation. PMID:24625569

  8. Survival of free and encapsulated human and rat islet xenografts transplanted into the mouse bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael P H Meier

    Full Text Available Bone marrow was recently proposed as an alternative and potentially immune-privileged site for pancreatic islet transplantation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival and rejection mechanisms of free and encapsulated xenogeneic islets transplanted into the medullary cavity of the femur, or under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The median survival of free rat islets transplanted into the bone marrow or under the kidney capsule was 9 and 14 days, respectively, whereas that of free human islets was shorter, 7 days (bone marrow and 10 days (kidney capsule. Infiltrating CD8+ T cells and redistributed CD4+ T cells, and macrophages were detected around the transplanted islets in bone sections. Recipient mouse splenocytes proliferated in response to donor rat stimulator cells. One month after transplantation under both kidney capsule or into bone marrow, encapsulated rat islets had induced a similar degree of fibrotic reaction and still contained insulin positive cells. In conclusion, we successfully established a small animal model for xenogeneic islet transplantation into the bone marrow. The rejection of xenogeneic islets was associated with local and systemic T cell responses and macrophage recruitment. Although there was no evidence for immune-privilege, the bone marrow may represent a feasible site for encapsulated xenogeneic islet transplantation.

  9. Histomorphometric quantification of human pathological bones from synchrotron radiation 3D computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson

    2011-01-01

    Conventional bone histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed microtomography is a noninvasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices in trabecular bones (BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp). In this technique, the output 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. In this work, histomorphometric quantification using synchrotron 3D X-ray computed microtomography was performed to quantify pathological samples of human bone. Samples of human bones were cut into small blocks (8 mm x 8 mm x 10 mm) with a precision saw and then imaged. The computed microtomographies were obtained at SYRMEP (Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline, at ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Italy). The obtained 3D images yielded excellent resolution and details of intra-trabecular bone structures, including marrow present inside trabeculae. Histomorphometric quantification was compared to literature as well. (author)

  10. Maxillary anterior ridge augmentation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Ryan K; Mealey, Brian L; Mills, Michael P; Thoma, Daniel S; Schoolfield, John; Cochran, David L; Mellonig, Jim

    2014-01-01

    No human studies exist on the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) as a sole graft material for lateral ridge augmentation in large ridge defect sites. This series evaluates the treatment outcome of maxillary anterior lateral ridge augmentation with rhBMP-2/ACS. Twenty patients were treated with rhBMP-2/ACS and fixation screws for space maintenance. Cone beam volumetric tomography measurements were used to determine gain in ridge width, and a bone core biopsy was obtained. The mean horizontal ridge gain was 1.2 mm across sites, and every site gained width.

  11. Multi-element determination in cancellous bone of human femoral head by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuanxun Zhang; Yongping Zhang; Yongpeng Tong; Shijing Qiu; Xiaotao Wu; Kerong Dai

    1996-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method is used for the determination of elemental concentrations in cancellous bone of human femoral head from five autopsies and seven patients with femoral neck broken. The specimen preparation and experimental procedure are described in detail. Using the t test, the results show that the concentrations of P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr in control group are higher than those in patient group, but the concentrations of S, K, Zn, Mn are not significantly different. The physiological functions of metallic elements in human bone are also discussed. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. In vivo measurement of mechanical properties of human long bone by using sonic sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M. Jayed, E-mail: zed.hossain06@gmail.com; Rahman, M. Moshiur, E-mail: razib-121@yahoo.com; Alam, Morshed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Vibration analysis has evaluated as non-invasive techniques for the in vivo assessment of bone mechanical properties. The relation between the resonant frequencies, long bone geometry and mechanical properties can be obtained by vibration analysis. In vivo measurements were performed on human ulna as a simple beam model with an experimental technique and associated apparatus. The resonant frequency of the ulna was obtained by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis of the vibration response of piezoelectric accelerometer. Both elastic modulus and speed of the sound were inferred from the resonant frequency. Measurement error in the improved experimental setup was comparable with the previous work. The in vivo determination of bone elastic response has potential value in screening programs for metabolic bone disease, early detection of osteoporosis and evaluation of skeletal effects of various therapeutic modalities.

  13. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic me...

  14. Occurance of Staphylococcus nepalensis strains in different sources including human clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Dana; Pantůcek, Roman; Petrás, Petr; Koukalová, Dagmar; Sedlácek, Ivo

    2006-10-01

    Five isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were obtained from human urine, the gastrointestinal tract of squirrel monkeys, pig skin and from the environment. All key biochemical characteristics of the tested strains corresponded with the description of Staphylococcus xylosus species. However, partial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from analysed strains corresponded with those of Staphylococcus nepalensis reference strains, except for two strains which differed in one residue. Ribotyping with EcoRI and HindIII restriction enzymes, whole cell protein profile analysis performed by SDS-PAGE and SmaI macrorestriction analysis were used for more precise characterization and identification of the analysed strains. Obtained results showed that EcoRI and HindIII ribotyping and whole cell protein fingerprinting are suitable and reliable methods for the differentiation of S. nepalensis strains from the other novobiocin resistant staphylococci, whereas macrorestriction analysis was found to be a good tool for strain typing. The isolation of S. nepalensis is sporadic, and according to our best knowledge this study is the first report of the occurrence of this species in human clinical material as well as in other sources.

  15. Osteogenic potential of the human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene activated nanobone putty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-bin; Sun, Li; Yang, Shu-hua; Zhang, Yu-kun; Hu, Ru-yin; Fu, De-hao

    2008-04-20

    Nanobone putty is an injectable and bioresorbable bone substitute. The neutral-pH putty resembles hard bone tissue, does not contain polymers or plasticizers, and is self-setting and nearly isothermic, properties which are helpful for the adhesion, proliferation, and function of bone cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic potential of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) gene activated nanobone putty in inducing ectopic bone formation, and the effects of the hBMP2 gene activated nanobone putty on repairing bone defects. Twenty four Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups. The nanobone putty + hBMP2 plasmid was injected into the right thigh muscle pouches of the mice (experiment side). The nanobone putty + blank plasmid or nanobone putty was injected into the left thigh muscle pouches of the group 1 (control side 1) or group 2 (control side 2), respectively. The effects of ectopic bone formation were evaluated by radiography, histology, and molecular biology analysis at 2 and 4 weeks after operation. Bilateral 15 mm radial defects were made in forty-eight rabbits. These rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, nanobone putty + hBMP2 plasmid; Group B, putty + blank plasmid; Group C, nanobone putty only. Six rabbits with left radial defects served as blank controls. The effect of bone repairing was evaluated by radiography, histology, molecular biology, and biomechanical analysis at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation. The tissue from the experimental side of the mice expressed hBMP2. Obvious cartilage and island-distributed immature bone formation in implants of the experiment side were observed at 2 weeks after operation, and massive mature bone observed at 4 weeks. No bone formation was observed in the control side of the mice. The ALP activity in the experiment side of the mice was higher than that in the control side. The tissue of Group A rabbits expressed hBMP2 protein and higher ALP level. The new bone

  16. Organotypic culture of human bone marrow adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Shigematsu, Masamori; Kamochi, Noriyuki; Sonoda, Emiko; Soejima, Hidenobu; Fukudome, Kenji; Sugihara, Hajime; Hotokebuchi, Takao; Toda, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    The precise role of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in the marrow remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was therefore to describe a novel method for studying BMAT using 3-D collagen gel culture of BMAT fragments, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mature adipocytes and CD45+ leukocytes were retained for >3 weeks. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) including a small number of lipid-laden preadipocytes and CD44+/CD105+ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells, developed from BMAT. Dexamethasone (10 micromol/L), but not insulin (20 mU/mL), significantly increased the number of preadipocytes. Dexamethasone and insulin also promoted leptin production and gene expression in BMAT. Adiponectin production by BMAT was BMAT, in which adiponectin protein secretion is normally very low, and that BMAT may exhibit a different phenotype from that of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. BMAT-osteoblast interactions were also examined, and it was found that osteoblasts inhibited the development of BMSC and reduced leptin production, while BMAT inhibited the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. The present novel method proved to be useful for the study of BMAT biology.

  17. A putative marker for human pathogenic strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum correlates with geography and host, but not human tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Stephenson, Nicole; Cubilla, Michelle Pires; Qurollo, Barbara; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2016-03-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an Ixodes species tick-transmitted bacterium that is capable of infecting a variety of host species, although there is a diversity of bacterial strains with differing host tropism. Recent analysis of A. phagocytophilum strains suggested that "drhm", a gene locus designated "distantly related to human marker" (drhm), which was predicted to be an integral membrane protein with possible transporter functions was not present in available canine and human isolates. By assessing 117 strains from 14 host species from across the US, we extended this analysis. Phylogenetic clades were associated with geography, but not host species. Additionally, a virulent clade that lacks drhm and infects dogs, horses, and humans in northeastern US was identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of commercial probiotic strains against human pathogen adhesion to intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M C; Meriluoto, J; Salminen, S

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study present were to assess and to evaluate in vitro the abilities of commercial probiotic strains derived from fermented milk products and related sources currently marketed in European countries, to inhibit, compete and displace the adhesion of selected potential pathogens to immobilized human mucus. The adhesion was assessed by measuring the radioactivity of bacteria adhered to the human mucus. We tested 12 probiotic strains against eight selected pathogens. All strains tested were able to adhere to mucus. All probiotic strains tested were able to inhibit and displace (P<0.05) the adhesion of Bacteroides, Clostridium, Staphylococcus and Enterobacter. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting that several complementary mechanisms are implied in the processes. Our results indicate the need for a case-by-case assessment in order to select strains with the ability to inhibit or displace a specific pathogen. Probiotics could be useful to correct deviations observed in intestinal microbiota associated with specific diseases and also, to prevent pathogen infections. The competitive exclusion properties of probiotics as well as their ability to displace and inhibit pathogens are the most importance for therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microbiota. The application of such strategies could contribute to expand the beneficial properties on human health against pathogen infection.

  19. Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains differentially reduce intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuying; Fatheree, Nicole Y; Mangalat, Nisha; Rhoads, Jon Marc

    2010-11-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is a probiotic that inhibits the severity of enteric infections and modulates the immune system. Human-derived L. reuteri strains DSM17938, ATCC PTA4659, ATCC PTA 5289, and ATCC PTA 6475 have demonstrated strain-specific immunomodulation in cultured monocytoid cells, but information about how these strains affect inflammation in intestinal epithelium is limited. We determined the effects of the four different L. reuteri strains on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in small intestinal epithelial cells and in the ileum of newborn rats. IPEC-J2 cells (derived from the jejunal epithelium of a neonatal piglet) and IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt) were treated with L. reuteri. Newborn rat pups were gavaged cow milk formula supplemented with L. reuteri strains in the presence or absence of LPS. Protein and mRNA levels of cytokines and histological changes were measured. We demonstrate that even though one L. reuteri strain (DSM 17938) did not inhibit LPS-induced IL-8 production in cultured intestinal cells, all strains significantly reduced intestinal mucosal levels of KC/GRO (∼IL-8) and IFN-γ when newborn rat pups were fed formula containing LPS ± L. reuteri. Intestinal histological damage produced by LPS plus cow milk formula was also significantly reduced by all four strains. Cow milk formula feeding (without LPS) produced mild gut inflammation, evidenced by elevated mucosal IFN-γ and IL-13 levels, a process that could be suppressed by strain 17938. Other cytokines and chemokines were variably affected by the different strains, and there was no toxic effect of L. reuteri on intestinal cells or mucosa. In conclusion, L. reuteri strains differentially modulate LPS-induced inflammation. Probiotic interactions with both epithelial and nonepithelial cells in vivo must be instrumental in modulating intrinsic anti-inflammatory effects in the intestine. We suggest that the terms anti- and proinflammatory be used only

  20. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Microfluidic Strain Sensors for Monitoring Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Geun; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Chang, Suk Tai

    2015-12-16

    We report a new class of simple microfluidic strain sensors with high stretchability, transparency, sensitivity, and long-term stability with no considerable hysteresis and a fast response to various deformations by combining the merits of microfluidic techniques and ionic liquids. The high optical transparency of the strain sensors was achieved by introducing refractive-index matched ionic liquids into microfluidic networks or channels embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The microfluidic strain sensors offer the outstanding sensor performance under a variety of deformations induced by stretching, bending, pressing, and twisting of the microfluidic strain sensors. The principle of our microfluidic strain sensor is explained by a theoretical model based on the elastic channel deformation. In order to demonstrate its capability of practical usage, the simple-structured microfluidic strain sensors were performed onto a finger, wrist, and arm. The highly stretchable and transparent microfluidic strain sensors were successfully applied as potential platforms for distinctively monitoring a wide range of human body motions in real time. Our novel microfluidic strain sensors show great promise for making future stretchable electronic devices.

  1. Assessment of adhesion properties of novel probiotic strains to human intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, A C; Tuomola, E M; Tölkkö, S; Salminen, S

    2001-02-28

    Potential new probiotic strains Lactobacillus brevis PELI, L. reuteri ING1, L. rhamnosus VTT E-800 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were assessed for their adhesion properties using the human intestinal mucus model. The effect on the adhesion of exposure to acid and pepsin and to milk were tested to simulate gastric and food processing conditions, and the effect of different growth media on adhesion was tested. The properties of the four strains were compared to the well-investigated probiotic L. rhamnosus strain GG. Three of the tested strains showed significant adhesion properties in the mucus model, while L. brevis PELI had intermediate adhesion and L. rhamnosus LC-705 adhered poorly. Pretreatment with different milks decreased the adhesion and low pH and pepsin treatment reduced the adhesion of all tested strains except L. rhamnosus LC-705. No competitive exclusion of pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium or Escherichia coli SfaII was observed. The results indicate that major differences exist between tested proposed probiotic strains. The growth media and the food matrix significantly affect the adhesive ability of the tested strains. This has previously not been taken into account when selecting novel probiotic strains.

  2. Sorption behavior of human bone powder towards 60 Co and 65 Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.T.; Essa, M.W.A.; Mohamed, S.A.; Molokhia, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Human bone powder 30-40 Μ in diameter was prepared from human bone femurs as fat-free (FFB), protein-free (PFB) or left untreated as raw bone powder (RB). The sorption behavior of human bone powder towards 60 Co and 65 Zn was studied. The uptake changed with the type of bone powder to be : PFB>FFB>RB. The increase in the concentration of cobalt(from 10 -6 to 10 -1 Mole/litre)and of zinc (from 10 -7 to 10 -4 M/1) increased the uptake of 60 Co and 65 Zn. Freunclich-type isotherm was successfully applied on the uptake data of both ions and the slopes of these isotherms were, nearly, directly proportional to their uptake values. The uptake was found to be less influenced by the PH. In case of cobalt the uptake increased till PH 4, followed by a plateau till PH 8 while in case of zinc the PH effect is much less pronounced

  3. Fe and Cu stable isotopes in archeological human bones and their relationship to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent; Herrscher, Estelle; Lamboux, Aline; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2012-07-01

    Accurate sex assignment of ancient human remains usually relies on the availability of coxal bones or well-preserved DNA. Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) stable isotope compositions ((56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu, respectively) were recently measured in modern human blood, and an unexpected result was the discovery of a (56)Fe-depletion and a (65)Cu-enrichment in men's blood compared to women's blood. Bones, being pervasively irrigated by blood, are expected to retain the (56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu signature of blood, which in turn is useful for determining the sex of ancient bones. Here, we report the (56)Fe/(54)Fe, (65)Cu/(63)Cu, and (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios from a suite of well-preserved phalanxes (n = 43) belonging to individuals buried in the 17th and 18th centuries at the necropolis of Saint-Laurent de Grenoble, France, and for which the sex was independently estimated from pelvic bone morphology. The metals were purified from the bone matrix by liquid chromatography on ion exchange resin and the isotope compositions were measured by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that, as expected from literature data on blood, male bone iron is depleted in (56)Fe and enriched in (65)Cu relative to female. No sex difference is found in the (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios of bone. The concentration and isotopic data show no evidence of soil contamination. Four samples of five (77%) can be assigned their correct sex, a result comparable to sex assignment using Fe and Cu isotopes in blood (81%). Isotopic analysis of metals may therefore represent a valid method of sex assignment applicable to incomplete human remains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Immune Humanization of Immunodeficient Mice Using Diagnostic Bone Marrow Aspirates from Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Klein, Melanie; Proske, Judith; Werno, Christian; Schneider, Katharina; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Ganzer, Roman; Blana, Andreas; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit; Nitsche, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) (NSG) and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD) comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses. PMID:24830425

  5. Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Werner-Klein

    Full Text Available Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null (NSG and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses.

  6. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunfang; Dong Qianggang; Yao Ming; Shi Meiping; Ye Jianding; Zhao Langxiang; Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong; Xie Wenhui; Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi; Li Yao; Huang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as an

  7. Relationships between in vivo microdamage and the remarkable regional material and strain heterogeneity of cortical bone of adult deer, elk, sheep and horse calcanei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Sybrowsky, Christian L; Anderson, Wm Erick; Chow, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Natural loading of the calcanei of deer, elk, sheep and horses produces marked regional differences in prevalent/predominant strain modes: compression in the dorsal cortex, shear in medial–lateral cortices, and tension/shear in the plantar cortex. This consistent non-uniform strain distribution is useful for investigating mechanisms that mediate the development of the remarkable regional material variations of these bones (e.g. collagen orientation, mineralization, remodeling rates and secondary osteon morphotypes, size and population density). Regional differences in strain-mode-specific microdamage prevalence and/or morphology might evoke and sustain the remodeling that produces this material heterogeneity in accordance with local strain characteristics. Adult calcanei from 11 animals of each species (deer, elk, sheep and horses) were transversely sectioned and examined using light and confocal microscopy. With light microscopy, 20 linear microcracks were identified (deer: 10; elk: six; horse: four; sheep: none), and with confocal microscopy substantially more microdamage with typically non-linear morphology was identified (deer: 45; elk: 24; horse: 15; sheep: none). No clear regional patterns of strain-mode-specific microdamage were found in the three species with microdamage. In these species, the highest overall concentrations occurred in the plantar cortex. This might reflect increased susceptibility of microdamage in habitual tension/shear. Absence of detectable microdamage in sheep calcanei may represent the (presumably) relatively greater physical activity of deer, elk and horses. Absence of differences in microdamage prevalence/morphology between dorsal, medial and lateral cortices of these bones, and the general absence of spatial patterns of strain-mode-specific microdamage, might reflect the prior emergence of non-uniform osteon-mediated adaptations that reduce deleterious concentrations of microdamage by the adult stage of bone development. PMID

  8. METHODS USED FOR THE VIRTUAL HUMAN BONES AND JOINTS RECONSTRUCTION. NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL HUMAN JOINTS VIRTUAL SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Laurentiu Dragos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To understand the problems, which appear in every human joint, it is very important to know the anatomy and morphology of the human bones and the way in which the components are working together to realize a normal functionality. For this purpose was used a CAD parametric software which permits to define models with a high degree of difficulty. First, it was used a CT or MRI device to obtain the parallel sections to study each component of the bone. A 3D scanner can be used only for the outer geometry. In the second step the images were transferred to a 2D CAD software, like AutoCAD, where the outer and inner contours of the bone were approximate to polygonal lines composed by many segments. After this, the contours were transferred to a 3D CAD software, like SolidWorks, where, step by step, and section by section, was defined the virtual bone component. Additionally to the main shape can be attached other Loft, Round or Dome shapes. For some components, as vertebrae, mandible or skull bones, can be used a preliminary model obtained by parallel sections. Starting from this, the model can be defined using the main 3D curves and we can get the final virtual solid model. In some simulations, the soft components, as muscles or ligaments, were included in simulations using non-linear virtual springs. Also, sometimes were used implants or prosthetic elements. In the final of the paper, were extracted important conclusions.

  9. Variation in consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated strains of Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Totten, Sarah M; Garrido, Daniel A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2013-10-01

    Human milk contains a high concentration of complex oligosaccharides that influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota in breast-fed infants. Previous studies have indicated that select species such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum can utilize human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) in vitro as the sole carbon source, while the relatively few B. longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium breve isolates tested appear less adapted to these substrates. Considering the high frequency at which B. breve is isolated from breast-fed infant feces, we postulated that some B. breve strains can more vigorously consume HMO and thus are enriched in the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract. To examine this, a number of B. breve isolates from breast-fed infant feces were characterized for the presence of different glycosyl hydrolases that participate in HMO utilization, as well as by their ability to grow on HMO or specific HMO species such as lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and fucosyllactose. All B. breve strains showed high levels of growth on LNT and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), and, in general, growth on total HMO was moderate for most of the strains, with several strain differences. Growth and consumption of fucosylated HMO were strain dependent, mostly in isolates possessing a glycosyl hydrolase family 29 α-fucosidase. Glycoprofiling of the spent supernatant after HMO fermentation by select strains revealed that all B. breve strains can utilize sialylated HMO to a certain extent, especially sialyl-lacto-N-tetraose. Interestingly, this specific oligosaccharide was depleted before neutral LNT by strain SC95. In aggregate, this work indicates that the HMO consumption phenotype in B. breve is variable; however, some strains display specific adaptations to these substrates, enabling more vigorous consumption of fucosylated and sialylated HMO. These results provide a rationale for the predominance of this species in breast-fed infant feces and

  10. New STLV-3 strains and a divergent SIVmus strain identified in non-human primate bushmeat in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liégeois Florian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human retroviral infections such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV or Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV are the result of simian zoonotic transmissions through handling and butchering of Non-Human Primates (NHP or by close contact with pet animals. Recent studies on retroviral infections in NHP bushmeat allowed for the identification of numerous Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses (SIV and Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Viruses (STLV to which humans are exposed. Nevertheless, today, data on simian retroviruses at the primate/hunter interface remain scarce. We conducted a pilot study on 63 blood and/or tissues samples derived from NHP bushmeat seized by the competent authorities in different locations across the country. Results SIV and STLV were detected by antibodies to HIV and HTLV antigens, and PCRs were performed on samples with an HIV or/and HTLV-like or indeterminate profile. Fourteen percent of the samples cross-reacted with HIV antigens and 44% with HTLV antigens. We reported STLV-1 infections in five of the seven species tested. STLV-3 infections, including a new STLV-3 subtype, STLV-1 and -3 co-infections, and triple SIV, STLV-1, STLV-3 infections were observed in red-capped mangabeys (C.torquatus. We confirmed SIV infections by PCR and sequence analyses in mandrills, red-capped mangabeys and showed that mustached monkeys in Gabon are infected with a new SIV strain basal to the SIVgsn/mus/mon lineage that did not fall into the previously described SIVmus lineages reported from the corresponding species in Cameroon. The same monkey (subspecies can thus be carrier of, at least, three distinct SIVs. Overall, the minimal prevalence observed for both STLV and SIV natural infections were 26.9% and 11.1% respectively. Conclusions Overall, these data, obtained from a restricted sampling, highlight the need for further studies on simian retroviruses in sub-Saharan Africa to better understand their evolutionary history and to

  11. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxallyl glycine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on repair of critical-sized bone defects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Liu, Yang; Ding, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Jia-Qing; Huang, Jing-Huan; Zhang, Jie-Yuan; Jia, Wei-Tao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lin

    2017-02-01

    In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold. The synergistic effects of DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the composite scaffolds on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted to observe bone regeneration and vascular formation of critical-sized bone defects in rats using micro-computed tomography, histological analyses, Microfil® perfusion, fluorescence labeling, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the MBG-PHBHHx scaffolds did exert synergistic effects on the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Moreover, DMOG and rhBMP-2 produced significant increases in newly-formed bone and neovascularization of calvarial bone defects in rats. It is concluded that the co-delivery strategy of both rhBMP-2 and DMOG can significantly improve the critical-sized bone regeneration.

  12. Characterisation of a rare, reassortant human G10P[14] rotavirus strain detected in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Osbourne; Roy, Sunando; Rungsrisuriyachai, Kunchala; Esona, Mathew D; Xu, Ziqian; Tam, Ka Ian; Banegas, Dina J Castro; Rey-Benito, Gloria; Bowen, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Although first detected in animals, the rare rotavirus strain G10P[14] has been sporadically detected in humans in Slovenia, Thailand, United Kingdom and Australia among other countries. Earlier studies suggest that the strains found in humans resulted from interspecies transmission and reassortment between human and bovine rotavirus strains. In this study, a G10P[14] rotavirus genotype detected in a human stool sample in Honduras during the 2010-2011 rotavirus season, from an unvaccinated 30-month old boy who reported at the hospital with severe diarrhea and vomiting, was characterised to determine the possible evolutionary origin of the rare strain. For the sample detected as G10P[14], 10% suspension was prepared and used for RNA extraction and sequence independent amplification. The amplicons were sequenced by next-generation sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq 150 paired end method. The sequence reads were analysed using CLC Genomics Workbench 6.0 and phylogenetic trees were constructed using PhyML version 3.0. The next generation sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 11-segmented genome of the G10P[14] strain allowed classification as G10-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T6-E2-H3. Six of the genes (VP1, VP2, VP3, VP6, NSP2 and NSP4) were DS-1-like. NSP1 and NSP5 were AU-1-like and NSP3 was T6, which suggests that multiple reassortment events occurred in the evolution of the strain. The phylogenetic analyses and genetic distance calculations showed that the VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP3, NSP1, NSP3 and NSP4 genes clustered predominantly with bovine strains. NSP2 and VP2 genes were most closely related to simian and human strains, respectively, and NSP5 was most closely related to a rhesus strain. The genetic characterisation of the G10P[14] strain from Honduras suggests that its genome resulted from multiple reassortment events which were possibly mediated through interspecies transmissions.

  13. A high frequency of induction of chromosome aberrations in the bone marrow cells of LEC strain rats by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okui, Toyo (Hokkaido Inst. of Public Health, Sapporo (Japan)); Hayashi, Masanobu; Watanabe, Tomomasa; Namioka, Shigeo (Dept. of Lab. Animal Science, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)); Endoh, Daiji; Sato, Fumiaki (Dept. of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)); Kasai, Noriyuki (Inst. for Animal Experimentation, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    LEC strain rats, which have been known to develop hereditarily spontaneous fulminant hepatitis 4 to 5 months after birth, are highly sensitive to whole-body X-irradiation when compared to WKAH strain rats. The present results showed that the frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations induced by X-irradiation in the bone marrow cells of LEC rats were approximately 2- to 3-fold higher than those of WKAH rats, though no significant difference was observed in the frequency of spontaneous chromosome aberrations between LEC and WKAH rats.

  14. The use of total human bone marrow fraction in a direct three-dimensional expansion approach for bone tissue engineering applications: focus on angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Julien; Oliveira, Hugo; Catros, Sylvain; Siadous, Robin; Derkaoui, Sidi-Mohammed; Bareille, Reine; Letourneur, Didier; Amédée, Joëlle

    2015-03-01

    Current approaches in bone tissue engineering have shown limited success, mostly owing to insufficient vascularization of the construct. A common approach consists of co-culture of endothelial cells and osteoblastic cells. This strategy uses cells from different sources and differentiation states, thus increasing the complexity upstream of a clinical application. The source of reparative cells is paramount for the success of bone tissue engineering applications. In this context, stem cells obtained from human bone marrow hold much promise. Here, we analyzed the potential of human whole bone marrow cells directly expanded in a three-dimensional (3D) polymer matrix and focused on the further characterization of this heterogeneous population and on their ability to promote angiogenesis and osteogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, in a subcutaneous model. Cellular aggregates were formed within 24 h and over the 12-day culture period expressed endothelial and bone-specific markers and a specific junctional protein. Ectopic implantation of the tissue-engineered constructs revealed osteoid tissue and vessel formation both at the periphery and within the implant. This work sheds light on the potential clinical use of human whole bone marrow for bone regeneration strategies, focusing on a simplified approach to develop a direct 3D culture without two-dimensional isolation or expansion.

  15. Complete-proteome mapping of human influenza A adaptive mutations: implications for human transmissibility of zoonotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Olivo; Heiny, A T; Albrecht, Randy; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Tan, Tin Wee; August, J Thomas; Brusic, Vladimir

    2010-02-03

    There is widespread concern that H5N1 avian influenza A viruses will emerge as a pandemic threat, if they become capable of human-to-human (H2H) transmission. Avian strains lack this capability, which suggests that it requires important adaptive mutations. We performed a large-scale comparative analysis of proteins from avian and human strains, to produce a catalogue of mutations associated with H2H transmissibility, and to detect their presence in avian isolates. We constructed a dataset of influenza A protein sequences from 92,343 public database records. Human and avian sequence subsets were compared, using a method based on mutual information, to identify characteristic sites where human isolates present conserved mutations. The resulting catalogue comprises 68 characteristic sites in eight internal proteins. Subtype variability prevented the identification of adaptive mutations in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins. The high number of sites in the ribonucleoprotein complex suggests interdependence between mutations in multiple proteins. Characteristic sites are often clustered within known functional regions, suggesting their functional roles in cellular processes. By isolating and concatenating characteristic site residues, we defined adaptation signatures, which summarize the adaptive potential of specific isolates. Most adaptive mutations emerged within three decades after the 1918 pandemic, and have remained remarkably stable thereafter. Two lineages with stable internal protein constellations have circulated among humans without reassorting. On the contrary, H5N1 avian and swine viruses reassort frequently, causing both gains and losses of adaptive mutations. Human host adaptation appears to be complex and systemic, involving nearly all influenza proteins. Adaptation signatures suggest that the ability of H5N1 strains to infect humans is related to the presence of an unusually high number of adaptive mutations. However, these mutations appear

  16. Pleiotrophin commits human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells towards hypertrophy during chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderlique, Thibault; Henault, Emilie; Lebouvier, Angelique; Frescaline, Guilhem; Bierling, Phillipe; Rouard, Helene; Courty, José; Albanese, Patricia; Chevallier, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a growth factor present in the extracellular matrix of the growth plate during bone development and in the callus during bone healing. Bone healing is a complicated process that recapitulates endochondral bone development and involves many cell types. Among those cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are able to differentiate toward chondrogenic and osteoblastic lineages. We aimed to determine PTN effects on differentiation properties of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) under chondrogenic induction using histological analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PTN dramatically potentiated chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by a strong increase of collagen 2 protein, and cartilage-related gene expression. Moreover, PTN increased transcription of hypertrophic chondrocyte markers such as MMP13, collagen 10 and alkaline phosphatase and enhanced calcification and the content of collagen 10 protein. These effects are dependent on PTN receptors signaling and PI3 K pathway activation. These data suggest a new role of PTN in bone regeneration as an inducer of hypertrophy during chondrogenic differentiation of hBMSC.

  17. Pleiotrophin commits human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells towards hypertrophy during chondrogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Bouderlique

    Full Text Available Pleiotrophin (PTN is a growth factor present in the extracellular matrix of the growth plate during bone development and in the callus during bone healing. Bone healing is a complicated process that recapitulates endochondral bone development and involves many cell types. Among those cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are able to differentiate toward chondrogenic and osteoblastic lineages. We aimed to determine PTN effects on differentiation properties of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC under chondrogenic induction using histological analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PTN dramatically potentiated chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by a strong increase of collagen 2 protein, and cartilage-related gene expression. Moreover, PTN increased transcription of hypertrophic chondrocyte markers such as MMP13, collagen 10 and alkaline phosphatase and enhanced calcification and the content of collagen 10 protein. These effects are dependent on PTN receptors signaling and PI3 K pathway activation. These data suggest a new role of PTN in bone regeneration as an inducer of hypertrophy during chondrogenic differentiation of hBMSC.

  18. Influence of Environmental Factors and Relationships between Vanadium, Chromium, and Calcium in Human Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Lanocha-Arendarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the concentrations of vanadium (V, chromium (Cr, and calcium (Ca and to examine the synergistic or antagonistic relationships between these metals, in cartilage (C, cortical bone (CB, and spongy bone (SB samples obtained following hip joint surgery on patients with osteoarthritis in NW Poland. We found significantly higher concentrations of V and Cr in spongy bone in patients who consumed game meat and also those with prosthetic implants. Chromium levels were significantly lower in patients with kidney diseases. The greatest positive correlations were found between spongy bone V and (i the amount of consumed beer and (ii seafood diet. Correlation analysis also showed a significant correlation between Cr levels and seafood diet. To a certain extent these results indicate that the concentrations of V, Cr, and Ca in the human hip joint tissues are connected with occupational exposure, kidney diseases, diet containing game meat, sea food, beer, and the presence of implants. Furthermore, we noted new types of interactions in specific parts of the femoral head. Vanadium may contribute to the lower bone Ca levels, especially in the external parts (cartilage and cortical bone.

  19. Ultrasound arthroscopy of human knee cartilage and subchondral bone in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liukkonen, Jukka; Lehenkari, Petri; Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Joukainen, Antti; Virén, Tuomas; Saarakkala, Simo; Nieminen, Miika T; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Töyräs, Juha

    2014-09-01

    Arthroscopic ultrasound imaging enables quantitative evaluation of articular cartilage. However, the potential of this technique for evaluation of subchondral bone has not been investigated in vivo. In this study, we address this issue in clinical arthroscopy of the human knee (n = 11) by determining quantitative ultrasound (9 MHz) reflection and backscattering parameters for cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, in each knee, seven anatomical sites were graded using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) system based on (i) conventional arthroscopy and (ii) ultrasound images acquired in arthroscopy with a miniature transducer. Ultrasound enabled visualization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. ICRS grades based on ultrasound images were higher (p ultrasound-based ICRS grades were expected as ultrasound reveals additional information on, for example, the relative depth of the lesion. In line with previous literature, ultrasound reflection and scattering in cartilage varied significantly (p ultrasound parameters and structure or density of subchondral bone could be demonstrated. To conclude, arthroscopic ultrasound imaging had a significant effect on clinical grading of cartilage, and it was found to provide quantitative information on cartilage. The lack of correlation between the ultrasound parameters and bone properties may be related to lesser bone change or excessive attenuation in overlying cartilage and insufficient power of the applied miniature transducer. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, Robert O; Koester, K. J.; Ager III, J. W.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2008-05-10

    Bone is more difficult to break than to split. Although this is well known, and many studies exist on the behavior of long cracks in bone, there is a need for data on the orientation-dependent crack-growth resistance behavior of human cortical bone which accurately assesses its toughness at appropriate size-scales. Here we use in-situ mechanical testing in the scanning electron microscope and x-ray computed tomography to examine how physiologically-pertinent short (<600 mu m) cracks propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations in cortical bone, using both crack-deflection/twist mechanics and nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics to determine crack-resistance curves. We find that after only 500 mu m of cracking, the driving force for crack propagation was more than five times higher in the transverse (breaking) direction than in the longitudinal (splitting) direction due to major crack deflections/twists principally at cement sheathes. Indeed, our results show that the true transverse toughness of cortical bone is far higher than previously reported. However, the toughness in the longitudinal orientation, where cracks tend to follow the cement lines, is quite low at these small crack sizes; it is only when cracks become several millimeters in length that bridging mechanisms can develop leading to the (larger-crack) toughnesses generally quoted for bone.

  1. Selective inhibition of B lymphocytes in TBTC-treated human bone marrow long-term culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carfi', M.; Bowe, G.; Pieters, R.; Gribaldo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBTC) is well known for its immunotoxic effect, in particular towards immature thymocytes. TBTC is also known to induce adipocyte differentiation in primary human bone marrow cultures, which is reflected in the decrease in a number of adipocyte-derived cytokines, chemokines and

  2. Direct radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis of the Darra-i-Kur (Afghanistan) human temporal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douka, Katerina; Slon, Viviane; Stringer, Chris; Potts, Richard; Hübner, Alexander; Meyer, Matthias; Spoor, Fred; Pääbo, Svante; Higham, Tom

    2017-06-01

    The temporal bone discovered in the 1960s from the Darra-i-Kur cave in Afghanistan is often cited as one of the very few Pleistocene human fossils from Central Asia. Here we report the first direct radiocarbon date for the specimen and the genetic analyses of DNA extracted and sequenced from two areas of the bone. The new radiocarbon determination places the find to ∼4500 cal BP (∼2500 BCE) contradicting an assumed Palaeolithic age of ∼30,000 years, as originally suggested. The DNA retrieved from the specimen originates from a male individual who carried mitochondrial DNA of the modern human type. The petrous part yielded more endogenous ancient DNA molecules than the squamous part of the same bone. Molecular dating of the Darra-i-Kur mitochondrial DNA sequence corroborates the radiocarbon date and suggests that the specimen is younger than previously thought. Taken together, the results consolidate the fact that the human bone is not associated with the Pleistocene-age deposits of Darra-i-Kur; instead it is intrusive, possibly re-deposited from upper levels dating to much later periods (Neolithic). Despite its Holocene age, the Darra-i-Kur specimen is, so far, the first and only ancient human from Afghanistan whose DNA has been sequenced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Progesterone Promotes Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Synthesize Fibronectin via ERK Pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yong; Chen, Jing-Li; Huang, Shu; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yan; Bi, Xiao-Yun; Guo, Zi-Kuan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether the progesterone can promote fibronection (FN) synthesis by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to explore the potential underlying mechanism. The human bone marrow MSCs were cultured in a serum-free medium with progesterone for 72 hours, the MTT test was performed to observe the proliferation status and adhension ability of the treated cells. Western blot was used to detect the content of FN in MSDs with GAPDH as the internal reference, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, as well as the FN content in MSC treated by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2. The progesterone at a range of certain doses not effect on the proliferation of human bone marrow MSCs. Progesterone (25 µg/L) treatment enhanced the FN expression and adherent ability of marrow MSCs. Progesterone could induce prompt phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and its promoting effects on FN synthesis was reversed by PD98059. The progesterone can promote FN synthesis by human bone marrow MSCs via ERK 1/2 pathway, and it might be used to culture MSCs in serum-free medium.

  4. Strontium-90 content of human bones collected from 1962 to 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.

    1967-01-01

    The aim of this report is essentially to present results of 90 Sr determination made on human bones collected in the Paris region from 1962 to 1966. The results are classified according to the year and the age-group in, two tables and one figure which show the general evolution of the contamination during this period. (author) [fr

  5. The Human Figure Drawing with Donor and Nondonor Siblings of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy L.; Beck, Vanessa L.; VanZutphen, Kelly H.; Long, Janet K.; Spengler, Gisele

    2003-01-01

    There is little research on the psychological impact of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on family members. This study uses the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) to measure siblings' emotional distress toward BMT. Among the siblings, feelings of isolation, anger, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem emerged as major themes. Findings indicate the…

  6. Spontaneous gene transfection of human bone cells using 3D mineralized alginate-chitosan macrocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of nonviral gene therapy remains uncertain because of low transfection efficiencies and high toxicities compared with viral-based strategies. We describe a simple system for transient transfection of continuous human cell lines, with low toxicity, using mineral-coated chitosan and alginate capsules. As proof-of-concept, we demonstrate transfection of Saos-2 and MG63 human osteosarcoma continuous cell lines with gfp, LacZ reporter genes, and a Sox-9 carrying plasmid, to illustrate expression of a functional gene with therapeutic relevance. We show that continuous cell lines transfect with significant efficiency of up to 65% possibly through the interplay between chitosan and DNA complexation and calcium/phosphate-induced translocation into cells entrapped within the 3D polysaccharide based environment, as evidenced by an absence of transfection in unmineralized and chitosan-free capsules. We demonstrated that our transfection system was equally effective at transfection of primary human bone marrow stromal cells. To illustrate, the Sox-9, DNA plasmid was spontaneously expressed in primary human bone marrow stromal cells at 7 days with up to 90% efficiency in two repeats. Mineralized polysaccharide macrocapsules are gene delivery vehicles with a number of biological and practical advantages. They are highly efficient at self-transfecting primary bone cells, with programmable spatial and temporal delivery prospects, premineralized bone-like environments, and have no cytotoxic effects, as compared with many other nonviral systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Comparison of fluoride concentrations in human, dog, fox and raccoon dog bones from northwestern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewska-Komsa, Mirona

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the XXth there has been a constant increase in fluoride (F-) emissions into the environment, mainly due to the development of industry, the fluoridation of drinking water, and the widespread use of toothpaste containing fluoride. All these factors have resulted in an intensive accumulation of F- in the bodies of vertebrates, mainly in their bones. It is therefore reasonable to estimate the F- concentration in humans and other long-lived mammals. Accordingly, ecotoxicologists worldwide have looked for mammalian species that may serve as good bioindicators of environmental fluoride pollution. In contrast to ungulates, long-lived domestic mammals and wild carnivores have rarely been used for this purpose (including the dog, fox and raccoon dog). The main aims of this study were to: 1) investigate F- concentrations in bones obtained from humans, dog, fox and raccoon dog from northwestern Poland, 2) perform intra- and inter-specific comparisons of F- concentrations in the studied mammalian bones against the background of environmental and living conditions, 3) examine the relationship between concentrations of F- in bones and the age or age category of the studied mammals. The study material comprised bones of the hip joint obtained from 36 patients who underwent hip replacement in Szczecin, 43 dogs from Szczecin veterinary clinics, 32 foxes and 18 raccoon dogs provided by hunters, with the whole test material consisting of 129 samples. The indications of F- (using potentiometry with Thermo Orion ion-selective electrodes) were performed in triplicate. The F- concentration was expressed on a dry weight basis. Interspecific analysis showed that the largest number of differences in the concentrations of F- were between the fox and raccoon, and then between the dog and fox, and then between the dog and the wild canids (foxes and raccoon dogs together). Close statistically significant differences were also found between the samples from humans and the

  8. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: osteogenesis in vivo as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yinze; Ma, Qingjun; Cui, Fuzhai; Zhong, Yanfeng

    2009-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, intrinsic deficiencies exist for the autologous transplantation strategy of constructing artificial bone with MSCs derived from bone marrow of patients. In this study, MSCs-like cells were isolated from human umbilical cords and were expanded in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that cells from the fourth passage were positive for CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, and CD105 whereas they were negative for CD14, CD34, CD45, and CD117. Furthermore, these cells expressed HLA-A, B, C (MHC-I), but not HLA-DP, DQ, DR (MHC-II), or costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86. Following incubation in specific inductive media for 3 weeks, cultured cells were shown to possess potential to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic or chondrogenic lineages in vitro. The umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) were loaded with a biomimetic artificial bone scaffold material before being implanted subcutaneously in the back of Balb/c nude mice for four to twelve weeks. Our results revealed that UC-MSCs loaded with the scaffold displayed capacity of osteogenic differentiation leading to osteogenesis with human origin in vivo. As a readily available source of seed cells for bone tissue engineering, UC-MSCs should have broad application prospects.

  9. Severely impaired bone material quality in Chihuahua zebrafish resembles classical dominant human osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Imke A K; Schmidt, Felix N; Wölfel, Eva M; Plumeyer, Christine; Milovanovic, Petar; Gioia, Roberta; Tonelli, Francesca; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Jähn, Katharina; Besio, Roberta; Forlino, Antonella; Busse, Björn

    2018-04-17

    Excessive skeletal deformations and brittle fractures in the vast majority of patients suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) are a result of substantially reduced bone quality. Since the mechanical competence of bone is dependent on the tissue characteristics at small length scales, it is of crucial importance to assess how osteogenesis imperfecta manifests at the micro- and nanoscale of bone. In this context, the Chihuahua (Chi/ +) zebrafish, carrying a heterozygous glycine substitution in the α1 chain of collagen type I, has recently been proposed as suitable animal model of classical dominant OI, showing skeletal deformities, altered mineralization patterns and a smaller body size. This study assessed the bone quality properties of Chi/+ at multiple length scales using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histomorphometry, quantitative back-scattered electron imaging, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoindentation and X-ray microscopy. At the skeletal level, Chi/+ display smaller body size, deformities and fracture calli in the ribs. Morphological changes at the whole bone level showed that the vertebrae in Chi/+ had a smaller size, smaller thickness and distorted shape. At the tissue level, Chi/+ displayed a higher degree of mineralization, lower collagen maturity, lower mineral maturity, altered osteoblast morphology, and lower osteocyte lacunar density compared to WT. The alterations in the cellular, compositional and structural properties of Chi/+ bones bear an explanation for the impaired local mechanical properties, which promote an increase in overall bone fragility in Chi/ +. The quantitative assessment of bone quality in Chi/+ thus further validates this mutant as an important model reflecting osseous characteristics associated with human classical dominant osteogenesis imperfecta. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: uri@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Rodrigo P., E-mail: clinicaguimaraes@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCM/SCSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2015-07-01

    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B.; Guimaraes, Rodrigo P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  12. Fermentation of mucin and plant polysaccharides by strains of Bacteroides from the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, A A; Vercellotti, J R; West, S E; Wilkins, T D

    1977-01-01

    Ten Bacteroides species found in the human colon were surveyed for their ability to ferment mucins and plant polysaccharides ("dietary fiber"). A number of strains fermented mucopolysaccharides (heparin, hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulfate) and ovomucoid. Only 3 of the 188 strains tested fermented beef submaxillary mucin, and none fermented porcine gastric mucin. Many of the Bacteroides strains tested were also able to ferment a variety of plant polysaccharides, including amylose, dextran, pectin, gum tragacanth, gum guar, larch arabinogalactan, alginate, and laminarin. Some plant polysaccharides such as gum arabic, gum karaya, gum ghatti and fucoidan, were not utilized by any of the strains tested. The ability to utilize mucins and plant polysaccharides varied considerably among the Bacteroides species tested. PMID:848954

  13. Stress markers in relation to job strain in human service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, C G; Söderfeldt, M; Söderfeldt, B; Jones, I; Theorell, T

    2001-01-01

    Workers in human service organizations are often confronted with conflicting demands in providing care or education. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to relate levels of endocrine stress markers to perceived job strain in two human service organizations. Employees in two local units of the social insurance organization and two local units of the individual and family care sections of the social welfare in Sweden were selected and 103 employees participated (56% participation rate). The perceived job strain was assessed with a standardized questionnaire containing questions of the demand-control model. Questions specially designed to measure emotional demands were also included. The stress markers cortisol, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and IgA and IgG were analysed in blood samples. The main finding was an association between high emotional strain and increased levels of prolactin. The levels of cortisol, but none of the other four stress markers, increased slightly with emotional strain. Emotional strain experienced in human service work may cause psychological stress. The increase in prolactin was modest but consistent with findings in other published studies on stress-related endocrine alterations. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Automated processing of human bone marrow grafts for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingsem, J; Zeiler, T; Zimmermanm, R; Weisbach, V; Mitschulat, H; Schmid, H; Beyer, J; Siegert, W; Eckstein, R

    1993-01-01

    Prior to purging or cryopreservation, we concentrated 21 bone marrow (BM) harvests using a modification of the 'grancollect-protocol' of the Fresenius AS 104 cell separator with the P1-Y set. Within 40-70 min, the initial marrow volume of 1,265 ml (+/- 537 ml) was processed two to three times. A mean of 47% (+/- 21%) of the initial mononuclear cells was recovered in a mean volume of 128 ml (+36 ml). The recovery of clonogenic cells, measured by CFU-GM assays, was 68% (+/- 47%). Red blood cells in the BM concentrates were reduced to 7% (+/- 4%) of the initial number. The procedure was efficient and yielded a BM cell fraction suitable for purging, cryopreservation and transplantation. At this time, 10 of the 21 patients whose BM was processed using this technique have been transplanted. Seven of these 10 patients have been grafted using the BM alone. Three of the 10 patients showed reduced cell viability and colony growth in the thawed BM samples, and therefore obtained BM and peripheral blood-derived stem cells. All transplanted patients showed an evaluable engraftment, achieving 1,000 granulocytes per microliter of peripheral blood in a mean of 18 days.

  15. Methodologies for Development of Patient Specific Bone Models from Human Body CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Vikas Narayan; Mulay, Arati Vinayak; Ahuja, Bharatkumar Bhagatraj

    2016-06-01

    This work deals with development of algorithm for physical replication of patient specific human bone and construction of corresponding implants/inserts RP models by using Reverse Engineering approach from non-invasive medical images for surgical purpose. In medical field, the volumetric data i.e. voxel and triangular facet based models are primarily used for bio-modelling and visualization, which requires huge memory space. On the other side, recent advances in Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology provides additional facilities/functions for design, prototyping and manufacturing of any object having freeform surfaces based on boundary representation techniques. This work presents a process to physical replication of 3D rapid prototyping (RP) physical models of human bone from various CAD modeling techniques developed by using 3D point cloud data which is obtained from non-invasive CT/MRI scans in DICOM 3.0 format. This point cloud data is used for construction of 3D CAD model by fitting B-spline curves through these points and then fitting surface between these curve networks by using swept blend techniques. This process also can be achieved by generating the triangular mesh directly from 3D point cloud data without developing any surface model using any commercial CAD software. The generated STL file from 3D point cloud data is used as a basic input for RP process. The Delaunay tetrahedralization approach is used to process the 3D point cloud data to obtain STL file. CT scan data of Metacarpus (human bone) is used as the case study for the generation of the 3D RP model. A 3D physical model of the human bone is generated on rapid prototyping machine and its virtual reality model is presented for visualization. The generated CAD model by different techniques is compared for the accuracy and reliability. The results of this research work are assessed for clinical reliability in replication of human bone in medical field.

  16. A new human male diploid cell strain, TIG-7: its age-related changes and comparison with a matched female TIG-1 cell strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Kaji, K; Kondo, H; Matsuo, M; Shibata, Y; Tasaki, Y; Utakoji, T; Ooka, H

    1991-01-01

    A new human diploid cell strain, TIG-7, which has the male karyotype, was established and characterized. Isozyme and histocompatibility typing of the cell strain was performed. The average in vitro life span of the cells is 73 population doublings. Changes in cell volume, doubling time, saturation density, the efficiency of cell attachment, plating efficiency, and relative DNA content were examined during in vitro cellular aging. Hydrocortisone slightly prolongs the life span of the cell strain when the hormone is administered to the cultures during middle passages. The age-related changes in the parameters of TIG-7 are not appreciably different from those of the previously established TIG-1 cell strain. These results show that this cell strain is useful for research on cellular aging; further profit is anticipated from research using a combination of these two sexually different cell strains.

  17. Commercial Biocides Induce Transfer of Prophage Φ13 from Human Strains of Staphylococcus aureus to Livestock CC398

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyue Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus commonly carry the bacteriophage ΦSa3 that encodes immune evasion factors. Recently, this prophage has been found in livestock-associated, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA CC398 strains where it may promote human colonization. Here, we have addressed if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration of ΦSa3 in LA-MRSA CC398 occurs at multiple positions and the integration site influences the stability of the prophage. We did not observe integration in hlb encoding β-hemolysin that contains the preferred ΦSa3 attachment site in human strains, and we demonstrate that this is due to allelic variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends on the integration site. Knowledge of ΦSa3 transfer and stability between human and livestock strains may lead to new intervention measures directed at reducing human infection by LA-MRSA strains.

  18. Commercial Biocides Induce Transfer of Prophage Φ13 from Human Strains of Staphylococcus aureus to Livestock CC398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene N; Hvitved, Annemette; Haaber, Jakob K; Wirtz, Christiane; Andersen, Paal S; Larsen, Jesper; Wolz, Christiane; Ingmer, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus commonly carry the bacteriophage ΦSa3 that encodes immune evasion factors. Recently, this prophage has been found in livestock-associated, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strains where it may promote human colonization. Here, we have addressed if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration of ΦSa3 in LA-MRSA CC398 occurs at multiple positions and the integration site influences the stability of the prophage. We did not observe integration in hlb encoding β-hemolysin that contains the preferred ΦSa3 attachment site in human strains, and we demonstrate that this is due to allelic variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends on the integration site. Knowledge of ΦSa3 transfer and stability between human and livestock strains may lead to new intervention measures directed at reducing human infection by LA-MRSA strains.

  19. Route of delivery influences biodistribution of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells following experimental bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang FJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have shown promise as treatment for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT. Mechanisms mediating in vivo effects of MSCs remain largely unknown, including their biodistribution following infusion. To this end, human bone-marrow derived MSCs (hMSCs were injected via carotid artery (IA or tail vein (TV into allogeneic and syngeneic BMT recipient mice. Following xenogeneic transplantation, MSC biodistribution was measured by bioluminescence imaging (BLI using hMSCs transduced with a reporter gene system containing luciferase and by scintigraphic imaging using hMSCs labeled with [99mTc]-HMPAO. Although hMSCs initially accumulated in the lungs in both transplant groups, more cells migrated to organs in alloBMT recipient as measured by in vivo BLI and scintigraphy and confirmed by ex vivo BLI imaging, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. IA injection resulted in persistent whole–body hMSC distribution in alloBMT recipients, while hMSCs were rapidly cleared in the syngeneic animals within one week. In contrast, TV-injected hMSCs were mainly seen in the lungs with fewer cells traveling to other organs. Summarily, these results demonstrate the potential use of IA injection to alter hMSC biodistribution in order to more effectively deliver hMSCs to targeted tissues and microenvironments.

  20. Sensitive and Flexible Polymeric Strain Sensor for Accurate Human Motion Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassan; Razmjou, Amir; Ebrahimi Warkiani, Majid; Kottapalli, Ajay; Asadnia, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    Flexible electronic devices offer the capability to integrate and adapt with human body. These devices are mountable on surfaces with various shapes, which allow us to attach them to clothes or directly onto the body. This paper suggests a facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning to develop a stretchable, and sensitive poly (vinylidene fluoride) nanofibrous strain sensor for human motion monitoring. A complete characterization on the single PVDF nano fiber has been performed. The charge generated by PVDF electrospun strain sensor changes was employed as a parameter to control the finger motion of the robotic arm. As a proof of concept, we developed a smart glove with five sensors integrated into it to detect the fingers motion and transfer it to a robotic hand. Our results shows that the proposed strain sensors are able to detect tiny motion of fingers and successfully run the robotic hand.

  1. Sensitive and Flexible Polymeric Strain Sensor for Accurate Human Motion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronic devices offer the capability to integrate and adapt with human body. These devices are mountable on surfaces with various shapes, which allow us to attach them to clothes or directly onto the body. This paper suggests a facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning to develop a stretchable, and sensitive poly (vinylidene fluoride nanofibrous strain sensor for human motion monitoring. A complete characterization on the single PVDF nano fiber has been performed. The charge generated by PVDF electrospun strain sensor changes was employed as a parameter to control the finger motion of the robotic arm. As a proof of concept, we developed a smart glove with five sensors integrated into it to detect the fingers motion and transfer it to a robotic hand. Our results shows that the proposed strain sensors are able to detect tiny motion of fingers and successfully run the robotic hand.

  2. Draft genome sequences of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Garcia-Mazcorro, José F; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor J; Dowd, Scot E; Garza-González, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the draft-genome sequences and annotation of two opportunistic pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from humans. One strain (SC-57) was isolated from blood from a male patient in May 2006 and the other (SC-532) from a catheter from a male patient in June 2006. Similar to other genomes of Staphylococcus species, most genes (42%) of both strains are involved in metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates and proteins. Eighty (4%) genes are involved in virulence, disease, and defense and both species show phenotypic low biofilm production and evidence of increased antibiotic resistance associated to biofilm production. From both isolates, a new Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec was detected: mec class A, ccr type 1. This is the first report of whole genome sequences of opportunistic S. cohnii isolated from human patients.

  3. [Synthetic human calcitonin in Paget's disease of bone and osteoporosis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Vattimo, A

    1981-01-30

    Synthetic human calcitonin was used in the treatment of 26 patients over a period of 1-14 months. 17 patients had Paget's disease of the bone, 6 postmenopausal osteoporosis and 3 Sudeck's syndrome. Subjective improvement (reduction of pain, improvement of mobility) was found in 15 patients with Paget's disease, in 4 females with postmenopausal osteoporosis and in all 3 patients with Sudeck's syndrome. Radiographic improvement of bone changes developed only very slowly. These results were confirmed by diminution of the exchangeable calcium pool indicating reduction of rates of osseous degradation. Calcitonin tolerance was acceptable. Transitory nausea and occasional vomiting occurred in 3 patients.

  4. Fluorine determination in human and animal bones by particle-induced gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastri, Chaturvedula S.; Hoffmann, Peter; Ortner, Hugo M.; Iyengar, Venkatesh; Blondiaux, Gilbert; Tessier, Yves; Petri, Hermann; Aras, Namik K.; Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine was determined in the iliac crest bones of patients and in ribs collected from postmortem investigations by particle-induced gamma-ray emission based on the 19 F(p,pγ) 19 F reaction, using 20/2.5 MeV protons. The results indicate that for 68% of the human samples the F concentration is in the range 500-1999 μg g -1 . For comparison purposes fluorine was also determined in some animal bones; in some animal tissues lateral profiles of fluorine were measured. (abstract)

  5. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  6. Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium breve CECT 7263, a strain isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Esther; Villar-Tajadura, M Antonia; Marín, María; Fontecha, Javier; Requena, Teresa; Arroyo, Rebeca; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2012-07-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is an actinobacterium frequently isolated from colonic microbiota of breastfeeding babies. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of a B. breve strain isolated from human milk, B. breve CECT 7263. The genome sequence will provide new insights into the biology of this potential probiotic organism and will allow the characterization of genes related to beneficial properties.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Animal and Human Pathogen Malassezia pachydermatis Strain CBS 1879

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Sergio; González, Andrés; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A. B.; de Cock, Hans; Restrepo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes infections in humans and animals. Here, we report the genome sequence of Malassezia pachydermatis strain CBS 1879, which will facilitate the study of mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of the only non-lipid-dependent Malasezzia species. PMID:26472839

  8. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of bone lead in the study of human lead metabolism: Serum lead, whole blood lead, bone lead, and cumulative exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cake, K.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Webber, C.E.; Gordon, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical studies of lead's effect on health have relied on blood lead levels to indicate lead exposure. However, this is unsatisfactory because blood lead levels have a half-life of approximately 5 weeks, and thus reflect recent exposure. Over 90% of the lead body burden is in bone, and it is thought to have a long residence time, thus implying that measurements of bone lead reflect cumulative exposure. So, measurements of bone lead are useful in understanding the long-term health effects of lead. Ahlgren reported the first noninvasive measurements of bone lead in humans, where γ-rays from 57 Co were used to excite the K series x-rays of lead. The lead detection system at McMaster University uses a 109 Cd source which is positioned at the center of the detector face (HPGe) and a near backscatter (∼160 degrees) geometry. This arrangement allows great flexibility, since one can sample lead in a range of different bone sites due to a robust normalization technique which eliminates the need to correct for bone geometry, thickness of overlying tissue, and other related factors. The effective radiation dose to an adult during an x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement is extremely low, being 35 nSv. This paper addresses the issue of how bone, whole blood, and serum lead concentrations can be related in order to understand a person's lead exposure history

  9. Relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water on human chromosomes of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Sawada, Shozo; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    One of the major toxic effluent from nuclear power industries is tritiated water (HTO), which is released into the environment in large quantities. Low dose radiation effects and dose rate effects of HTO on human lymphocytes and bone marrow cells are not well studied. The present study was performed to investigate dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies in the human lymphocytes and bone marrow cells, by HTO in-vitro exposure at low dose ranges of 0.1 to 1 Gy. Go lymphocytes and bone marrow cells were incubated for 10 - 150 minutes with HTO at 2 cGy/min. Also 60 Co γ and 137 Cs γ rays were used as controls. Dicentric chromosomes were scored in 1,000 to 2,000 cells of each experimental series. The RBE values of HTO at low dose range for the induction of dicentric chromosomes and chromatid type aberrations were 2.7 in lymphocytes and approximately 3.8 in bone marrow cells with respect to 60 Co γ ray, respectively. Also lymphocytes were chronically exposed to HTO for 24 to 72 hrs at lower dose rates (0.2 and 0.05 cGy/min). The yields of dicentrics and rings decreased with the reduction in the dose rate of HTO, presenting a clear dose rate effects of HTO. These results provide an useful information for the assessment for health risk in humans exposed to low concentration level to HTO. (author)

  10. Sequence analysis of the whole genomes of five African human G9 rotavirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaga, Martin M; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Peenze, Ina; Mlera, Luwanika; van Dijk, Alberdina A; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    The G9 rotaviruses are amongst the most common global rotavirus strains causing severe childhood diarrhoea. However, the whole genomes of only a few G9 rotaviruses have been fully sequenced and characterised of which only one G9P[6] and one G9P[8] are from Africa. We determined the consensus sequence of the whole genomes of five African human group A G9 rotavirus strains, four G9P[8] strains and one G9P[6] strain collected in Cameroon (central Africa), Kenya (eastern Africa), South Africa and Zimbabwe (southern Africa) in 1999, 2009 and 2010. Strain RVA/Human-wt/ZWE/MRC-DPRU1723/2009/G9P[8] from Zimbabwe, RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/MRC-DPRU4677/2010/G9P[8] from South Africa, RVA/Human-wt/CMR/1424/2009/G9P[8] from Cameroon and RVA/Human-wt/KEN/MRC-DPRU2427/2010/G9P[8] from Kenya were on a Wa-like genetic backbone and were genotyped as G9-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. Strain RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/MRC-DPRU9317/1999/G9P[6] from South Africa was genotyped as G9-P[6]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E2-H2. Rotavirus A strain MRC-DPRU9317 is the second G9 strain to be reported on a DS-1-like genetic backbone, the other being RVA/Human-wt/ZAF/GR10924/1999/G9P[6]. MRC-DPRU9317 was found to be a reassortant between DS-1-like (I2, R2, C2, M2, A2, T2, E2 and H2) and Wa-like (N1) genome segments. All the genome segments of the five strains grouped strictly according to their genotype Wa- or DS-1-like clusters. Within their respective genotypes, the genome segments of the three G9 study strains from southern Africa clustered most closely with rotaviruses from the same geographical origin and with those with the same G and P types. The highest nucleotide identity of genome segments of the study strains from eastern and central Africa regions on a Wa-like backbone was not limited to rotaviruses with G9P[8] genotypes only, they were also closely related to G12P[6], G8P[8], G1P[8] and G11P[25] rotaviruses, indicating a close inter-genotype relationship between the G9 and other rotavirus genotypes

  11. Commercial biocides induce transfer of prophage Φ13 from human strains of Staphylococcus aureus to livestock CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Hvitved, Annemette

    2017-01-01

    if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration...... variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends...

  12. Human dental pulp cells exhibit bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Bindslev, Dorth Arenholt; Melsen, Birte; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2011-02-01

    For engineering bone tissue to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodelling. Mechanical loading affects local bone mass and architecture in vivo by initiating a cellular response via loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid. After surgical removal of ectopically impacted third molars, human dental pulp tissue is an easily accessible and interesting source of cells for mineralized tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) are responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) upon stimulation of mineralization in vitro. Human DPC were incubated with or without mineralization medium containing differentiation factors for 3 weeks. Cells were subjected to 1-h PFF (0.7 ± 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) and the response was quantified by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. We found that DPC are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. PFF stimulated NO and PGE₂ production, and up-regulated COX-2 but not COX-1 gene expression. In DPC cultured under mineralizing conditions, the PFF-induced NO, but not PGE₂, production was significantly enhanced. These data suggest that human DPC, like osteogenic cells, acquire responsiveness to pulsating fluid shear stress in mineralizing conditions. Thus DPC might be able to perform bone-like functions during mineralized tissue remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for mineralized tissue engineering to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects.

  13. Quantifying temporal bone morphology of great apes and humans: an approach using geometric morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles A; Lynch, John M; Kimbel, William H

    2002-01-01

    The hominid temporal bone offers a complex array of morphology that is linked to several different functional systems. Its frequent preservation in the fossil record gives the temporal bone added significance in the study of human evolution, but its morphology has proven difficult to quantify. In this study we use techniques of 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify differences among humans and great apes and discuss the results in a phylogenetic context. Twenty-three landmarks on the ectocranial surface of the temporal bone provide a high level of anatomical detail. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to register (adjust for position, orientation and scale) landmark data from 405 adults representing Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo. Principal components analysis of residuals from the GPA shows that the major source of variation is between humans and apes. Human characteristics such as a coronally orientated petrous axis, a deep mandibular fossa, a projecting mastoid process, and reduced lateral extension of the tympanic element strongly impact the analysis. In phenetic cluster analyses, gorillas and orangutans group together with respect to chimpanzees, and all apes group together with respect to humans. Thus, the analysis contradicts depictions of African apes as a single morphotype. Gorillas and orangutans lack the extensive preglenoid surface of chimpanzees, and their mastoid processes are less medially inflected. These and other characters shared by gorillas and orangutans are probably primitive for the African hominid clade. PMID:12489757

  14. Physico chemical study of the uptake of some radionuclides by the human bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Human bone femurs were freed from flesh and marrow, crushed and ground to a grain size below 50 in diameter. Fat was extracted from one third of the powder (FFB). protein was extracted from the second third (PFB) and the third portion was without any treatment as raw bone powder (RB). Physical and chemical properties of bone powder such as density, chemical composition, calcium content, and nitrogen content were investigated. Experimental procedures followed two techniques: - Schweitzer and Nehls technique (164) where a large reaction vessel was used. - Harrison et al technique (90) where the batch system was used. Counting systems applied were : beta counting for 89 Sr and gamma counting for 60 Co and 6 5 Zn

  15. Multiple intracellular signaling pathways orchestrate adipocytic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh Hafez Ali, Dalia; Abuelreich, Sarah; Alkeraishan, Nora

    2018-01-01

    during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) and identified 2,589 up-regulated and 2,583 down-regulated mRNA transcripts. Pathway analysis on the up-regulated gene list untraveled enrichment in multiple signaling pathways including insulin receptor......Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profiling...... signaling, focal Adhesion, metapathway biotransformation, a number of metabolic pathways e.g. selenium metabolism, Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, fatty acid, triacylglycerol, ketone body metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and catalytic cycle of mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOs). On the other hand...

  16. Early human bone response to laser metal sintering surface topography: a histologic report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; d'Avila, Susana; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Francesco; Onuma, Tatiana; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2010-01-01

    This histologic report evaluated the early human bone response to a direct laser metal sintering implant surface retrieved after a short period of healing. A selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder with a particle size of 25-45 microm prepared this surface topography. One experimental microimplant was inserted into the anterior mandible of a patient during conventional implant surgery of the jaw. The microimplant and surrounding tissues were removed after 2 months of unloaded healing and were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Histologically, the peri-implant bone appeared in close contact with the implant surface, whereas marrow spaces could be detected in other areas along with prominently stained cement lines. The mean of bone-to-implant contact was 69.51%. The results of this histologic report suggest that the laser metal sintering surface could be a promising alternative to conventional implant surface topographies.

  17. Interleukin-1β modulates endochondral ossification by human adult bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mumme

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines present in the milieu of the fracture site are important modulators of bone healing. Here we investigated the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β on the main events of endochondral bone formation by human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC, namely cell proliferation, differentiation and maturation/remodelling of the resulting hypertrophic cartilage. Low doses of IL-1β (50 pg/mL enhanced colony-forming units-fibroblastic (CFU-f and -osteoblastic (CFU-o number (up to 1.5-fold and size (1.2-fold in the absence of further supplements and glycosaminoglycan accumulation (1.4-fold upon BM-MSC chondrogenic induction. In osteogenically cultured BM-MSC, IL-1β enhanced calcium deposition (62.2-fold and BMP-2 mRNA expression by differential activation of NF-κB and ERK signalling. IL-1β-treatment of BM-MSC generated cartilage resulted in higher production of MMP-13 (14.0-fold in vitro, mirrored by an increased accumulation of the cryptic cleaved fragment of aggrecan, and more efficient cartilage remodelling/resorption after 5 weeks in vivo (i.e., more TRAP positive cells and bone marrow, less cartilaginous areas, resulting in the formation of mature bone and bone marrow after 12 weeks. In conclusion, IL-1β finely modulates early and late events of the endochondral bone formation by BM-MSC. Controlling the inflammatory environment could enhance the success of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of fractures by resident MSC and as well as improve the engineering of implantable tissues.

  18. Identification of Rorβ targets in cultured osteoblasts and in human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roforth, Matthew M., E-mail: roforth.matthew@mayo.edu; Khosla, Sundeep, E-mail: khosla.sundeep@mayo.edu; Monroe, David G., E-mail: monroe.david@mayo.edu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We examine the gene expression patterns controlled by Rorβ in osteoblasts. •Genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation and proliferation are affected. •Rorβ mRNA levels increase in aged, human bone biopsies. •Rorβ may affect osteoblast activity by modulation of these pathways. -- Abstract: Control of osteoblastic bone formation involves the cumulative action of numerous transcription factors, including both activating and repressive functions that are important during specific stages of differentiation. The nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor β (Rorβ) has been recently shown to suppress the osteogenic phenotype in cultured osteoblasts, and is highly upregulated in bone marrow-derived osteogenic precursors isolated from aged osteoporotic mice, suggesting Rorβ is an important regulator of osteoblast function. However the specific gene expression patterns elicited by Rorβ are unknown. Using microarray analysis, we identified 281 genes regulated by Rorβ in an MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast cell model (MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP). Pathway analysis revealed alterations in genes involved in MAPK signaling, genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) regulation, and cytokine-receptor interactions. Whereas the identified Rorβ-regulated ECM genes normally decline during osteoblastic differentiation, they were highly upregulated in this non-mineralizing MC3T3-Rorβ-GFP model system, suggesting that Rorβ may exert its anti-osteogenic effects through ECM disruption. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the expression of both RORβ and a subset of RORβ-regulated genes were increased in bone biopsies from postmenopausal women (73 ± 7 years old) compared to premenopausal women (30 ± 5 years old), suggesting a role for RORβ in human age-related bone loss. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Rorβ regulates known osteogenic pathways, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for age-associated bone loss.

  19. Free Radicals Formation of Irradiated Lyophilized Can-Cellous Human and Bovine Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Basril; Sudiro, Sutjipto; Hilmy, Nazly

    2000-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of lyophilized human and bovine bone as allograft and xenograft have been produced and used in orthopaedic practice in Indonesia routinely. It is well known from radio biologic studies that one of the most pronounce effects of ionizing radiation on biologic species produced the free radicals that influence the physico-chemical as well as the mechanical properties of irradiated bone. The aim of our study is to investigate the free radicals formation of irradiated lyophilized cancellous triple A bone (Autolyzed Antigen-Extracted Allograft) produced by Batan Research Tissue Bank in Jakarta. The cancellous triple A were prepared according to AATB (American Association of Tissue Bank) method. Gamma Irradiations was done at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy with a dose rate of 7,5 kGy/h at room temperature (30 o C± 2 o C). Measurements of free radicals was done at 24 o C ±1 o C within 30 minutes after irradiational and measurement were continued up to 9 months of storage using a JES-REIX ESR Spectrophotometer (JEOL) with Mn exp. ++ standard. Parameters measured, were the effects of mechanical grinding, water immersion and irradiation dose on free radicals formation in the bone. Results show that the signal area of ESR spectra from irradiated bovine bone of 30 kGy was higher than those of human bone I.e. 1,4 x 10 exp. 7 dan 6,4 x 10 exp. 6 Au (arbitrary unit)/g samples respectively. The signal of ESR spectra increased linearly with increasing dose in the range of 10-30 kGy and it will reduce about 30% caused by water immersion. The ESR signal reduced sharply after 2 days and gradually decreased up to 14 days and then became constant up to 9 months of storage at room temperature. A certain method of crushing can produce free radicals. Key Words: free radical, irradiation, allograft, xenograft, mechanical-grinding

  20. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; Solís, C.; Canto, C. E.; de Lucio, O. G.; Chavez, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C. A.

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in "El Cóporo", an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: 14C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The 14C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone's black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment.

  1. Complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 91001, an isolate avirulent to humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yajun; Tong, Zongzhong; Wang, Jin

    2004-01-01

    pseudo-genes. Due to the rearrangements mediated by insertion elements, the structure of the 91001 chromosome shows dramatic differences compared with CO92 and KIM. Based on the analysis of plasmids and chromosome architectures, pseudogene distribution, nitrate reduction negative mechanism and gene...... comparison, we conclude that strain 91001 and other strains isolated from M. brandti might have evolved from ancestral Y. pestis in a different lineage. The large genome fragment deletions in the 91001 chromosome and some pseudogenes may contribute to its unique nonpathogenicity to humans and host...

  2. Low radiation dose impact on human bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.E.

    2002-01-01

    Immediately after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster it was assumed that osteoporosis would develop in a few young adult males (the so-called 'cleaners') who took part in the cleanup operations. The following factors were taken into consideration: Low external irradiation of whole body including skeleton; Non-uniform irradiation of thyroid and parathyroid glands by iodine radionuclides, as well as the different radiosensitivity of these organs (imbalance of parathormone and calcitonine); Intoxication from lead dropped from helicopters into the destroyed reactor as well as cadmium, a constituent of the nuclear reactor construction (a suppressive action of Pb and Cd on normal growth and the functioning of osteoblasts); Chronic stress arising in the cleaners following a huge amount of negative information from the mass media about the unhealthy consequences of exposure (imbalance of Ca-regulating hormones, including an excess of glucocorticoids). Despite substantiated assumption, all the efforts of national and international programs during the after-disaster period were mostly aimed at early diagnoses of thyroid and blood diseases. No attention was paid to osteoporosis problems of the cleaners. Only since 1997, the DXA method (Bone Densitometer LUNAR DPX-L) has been used to determine spinal and femoral BMD. To date, 162 men aged 30 to 50 have been examined, that is, those who were 18 to 35 years old during cleanup operations. In addition, the total body composition (tissue, fat, lean, BMD, BMC) as well as height and body mass was determined by DXA in every subject. A control group consisted of 188 randomly selected healthy men of the same age. Using the T score and the WHO recommendation changes in either spinal or femoral BMD that could be classified as osteopenia (77 cleaners, 47.5 %) and osteoporosis (9 cleaners, 5.6 %) were found in 86 of 162 cleaners. No great changes in height and body composition were found in cleaners. The incidence of osteopenia and

  3. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on muscle and bone research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas; Van Loon, Jack J W A; Bloomfield, Susan; Vico, Laurence; Chopard, Angele; Rittweger, Joern; Kyparos, Antonios; Blottner, Dieter; Vuori, Ilkka; Gerzer, Rupert; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2017-01-01

    Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit. Analog environments, such as bed rest and/or isolation environments, may be employed in conjunction with large sample sizes to understand sex differences in countermeasure effectiveness, as well as interaction of exercise with pharmacologic, nutritional, immune system, sleep and psychological countermeasures. Studies of musculoskeletal biomechanics, involving both human subject and computer simulation studies, are essential to developing strategies to avoid bone fractures or other injuries to connective tissue during exercise and extravehicular activities. Animal models may be employed to understand effects of the space environment that cannot be modeled using human analog studies. These include studies of radiation effects on bone and muscle, unraveling the effects of genetics on bone and muscle loss, and characterizing the process of fracture healing in the mechanically unloaded and immuno-compromised spaceflight environment. In addition to setting the stage for evidence-based management of musculoskeletal health in long-duration space missions, the body of knowledge acquired in the process of addressing this array of scientific problems will lend insight into the understanding of terrestrial health conditions such as age-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  4. Complexity in modeling of residual stresses and strains during polymerization of bone cement: effects of conversion, constraint, heat transfer, and viscoelastic property changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2006-12-15

    Aseptic loosening of cemented joint prostheses remains a significant concern in orthopedic biomaterials. One possible contributor to cement loosening is the development of porosity, residual stresses, and local fracture of the cement that may arise from the in-situ polymerization of the cement. In-situ polymerization of acrylic bone cement is a complex set of interacting processes that involve polymerization reactions, heat generation and transfer, full or partial mechanical constraint, evolution of conversion- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic material properties, and thermal and conversion-driven changes in the density of the cement. Interactions between heat transfer and polymerization can lead to polymerization fronts moving through the material. Density changes during polymerization can, in the presence of mechanical constraint, lead to the development of locally high residual strain energy and residual stresses. This study models the interactions during bone cement polymerization and determines how residual stresses develop in cement and incorporates temperature and conversion-dependent viscoelastic behavior. The results show that the presence of polymerization fronts in bone cement result in locally high residual strain energies. A novel heredity integral approach is presented to track residual stresses incorporating conversion and temperature dependent material property changes. Finally, the relative contribution of thermal- and conversion-dependent strains to residual stresses is evaluated and it is found that the conversion-based strains are the major contributor to the overall behavior. This framework provides the basis for understanding the complex development of residual stresses and can be used as the basis for developing more complex models of cement behavior.

  5. Insights into the effects of tensile and compressive loadings on human femur bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaldar, Raviraj; Pilli, S C; Putti, B B

    2014-01-01

    Fragile fractures are most likely manifestations of fatigue damage that develop under repetitive loading conditions. Numerous microcracks disperse throughout the bone with the tensile and compressive loads. In this study, tensile and compressive load tests are performed on specimens of both the genders within 19 to 83 years of age and the failure strength is estimated. Fifty five human femur cortical samples are tested. They are divided into various age groups ranging from 19-83 years. Mechanical tests are performed on an Instron 3366 universal testing machine, according to American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) standards. The results show that stress induced in the bone tissue depends on age and gender. It is observed that both tensile and compression strengths reduces as age advances. Compressive strength is more than tensile strength in both the genders. The compression and tensile strength of human femur cortical bone is estimated for both male and female subjecting in the age group of 19-83 years. The fracture toughness increases till 35 years in male and 30 years in female and reduces there after. Mechanical properties of bone are age and gender dependent.

  6. Acetabular reconstruction with human and bovine freeze-dried bone grafts and a reinforcement device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rosito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is a cohort trial (1997-2005 of 49 patients submitted to an acetabular component revision of a total hip arthroplasty, using impacted human and bovine freeze-dried cancellous bone grafts (H&FDBG and a reinforcement device. OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical/radiographic graft incorporation capability between cancellous bone grafts. PATIENTS/METHODS: There were two groups: I (n=26 receiving human grafts and II (n=25 receiving bovine grafts. The average follow-up times were 55 and 49 months, respectively. Clinical analysis was based on the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, and the radiographic analysis involved an established score based on Conn's et al. criteria for radiographic bone incorporation. RESULTS: No clinical/radiographic differences were found between the groups and both showed an overall rate of 88.5% and 76% of graft incorporation (p=0.424. CONCLUSION: The results presented here are comparable to those in the literature with the use of deep-FG. Therefore, cancellous bone grafts can be safely and adequately used in acetabular component revision in total hip arthroplasty.

  7. Commercial biocides induce transfer of prophage Φ13 from human strains of Staphylococcus aureus to livestock CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Hvitved, Annemette

    2017-01-01

    Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus commonly carry the bacteriophage ΦSa3 that encodes immune evasion factors. Recently, this prophage has been found in livestock-associated, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strains where it may promote human colonization. Here, we have addressed...

  8. Unexpected detection of porcine rotavirus C strains carrying human origin VP6 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattoor, Jobin Jose; Saurabh, Sharad; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Sircar, Shubhankar; Dhama, Kuldeep; Ghosh, Souvik; Bányai, Krisztián; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Rotavirus C (RVC), a known etiological agent of diarrheal outbreaks, mainly inflicts swine population globally with sporadic incidence in human, cattle, ferret, mink and dog. To demonstrate the presence of RVC in Indian swine population and characterization of its selected structural (VP6) and non-structural (NSP4 and NSP5) genes. A total of 108 diarrheic samples from different regions of India were used. Isolated RNA was loaded onto polyacrylamide gel to screen for the presence of RVs through the identification of specific electrophoretic genomic migration pattern. To characterize the RVC strains, VP6 gene and NSP4 and NSP5 genes were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Based on VP6 gene specific diagnostic RT-PCR, the presence of RVC was confirmed in 12.0% (13/108) piglet fecal specimens. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP6 gene, encoding inner capsid protein, from selected porcine RVC (PoRVC) strains revealed more than 93% homologies to human RVC strains (HuRVC) of Eurasian origin. These strains were distant from hitherto reported PoRVCs and clustered with HuRVCs, owning I2 genotype. However, the two non-structural genes, i.e. NSP4 and NSP5, of these strains were found to be of swine type, signifying a re-assortment event that has occurred in the Indian swine population. The findings indicate the presence of human-like RVC in Indian pigs and division of RVC clade with I2 genotype into further sub-clades. To the best of our knowledge, this appears to be the first report of RVC in Indian swine population. Incidence of human-like RVC VP6 gene in swine supports its subsequent zoonotic prospective.

  9. Regulation of thrombomodulin expression and release in human aortic endothelial cells by cyclic strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona A Martin

    Full Text Available Thrombomodulin (TM, an integral membrane glycoprotein expressed on the lumenal surface of vascular endothelial cells, promotes anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. Release of functional TM from the endothelium surface into plasma has also been reported. Much is still unknown however about how endothelial TM is regulated by physiologic hemodynamic forces (and particularly cyclic strain intrinsic to endothelial-mediated vascular homeostasis.This study employed human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs to investigate the effects of equibiaxial cyclic strain (7.5%, 60 cycles/min, 24 hrs, and to a lesser extent, laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2, 24 hrs, on TM expression and release. Time-, dose- and frequency-dependency studies were performed.Our initial studies demonstrated that cyclic strain strongly downregulated TM expression in a p38- and receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. This was in contrast to the upregulatory effect of shear stress. Moreover, both forces significantly upregulated TM release over a 48 hr period. With continuing focus on the cyclic strain-induced TM release, we noted both dose (0-7.5% and frequency (0.5-2.0 Hz dependency, with no attenuation of strain-induced TM release observed following inhibition of MAP kinases (p38, ERK-1/2, receptor tyrosine kinase, or eNOS. The concerted impact of cyclic strain and inflammatory mediators on TM release from HAECs was also investigated. In this respect, both TNFα (100 ng/ml and ox-LDL (10-50 µg/ml appeared to potentiate strain-induced TM release. Finally, inhibition of neither MMPs (GM6001 nor rhomboids (3,4-dichloroisocoumarin had any effect on strain-induced TM release. However, significantly elevated levels (2.1 fold of TM were observed in isolated microparticle fractions following 7.5% strain for 24 hrs.A preliminary in vitro investigation into the effects of cyclic strain on TM in HAECs is presented. Physiologic cyclic strain was observed to downregulate TM

  10. Pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers are of the same subtype as pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from humans and may be a source of human infection in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-05-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections.

  11. Human histologic evaluation of anorganic bovine bone mineral combined with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB in maxillary sinus augmentation: case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Myron; Garber, David; Hanratty, James J; McAllister, Bradley S; Nevins, Marc L; Salama, Maurice; Schupbach, Peter; Wallace, Steven; Bernstein, Simon M; Kim, David M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle study was to examine the potential for improved bone regenerative outcomes in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures when recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (0.3 mg/mL) is combined with particulate anorganic bovine bone mineral. The surgical outcomes in all treated sites were uneventful at 6 to 8 months, with sufficient regenerated bone present to allow successful placement of maxillary posterior implants. Large areas of dense, well-formed lamellar bone were seen throughout the intact core specimens in more than half of the grafted sites. Abundant numbers of osteoblasts were noted in concert with significant osteoid in all sites, indicating ongoing osteogenesis. A number of cores demonstrated efficient replacement of the normally slowly resorbing anorganic bovine bone mineral matrix particles with newly formed bone when the matrix was saturated with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB.

  12. Whole genome analysis of selected human and animal rotaviruses identified in Uganda from 2012 to 2014 reveals complex genome reassortment events between human, bovine, caprine and porcine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwogi, Josephine; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Karamagi, Charles; Byarugaba, Denis K; Namuwulya, Prossy; Baliraine, Frederick N; Desselberger, Ulrich; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2017-01-01

    Rotaviruses of species A (RVA) are a common cause of diarrhoea in children and the young of various other mammals and birds worldwide. To investigate possible interspecies transmission of RVAs, whole genomes of 18 human and 6 domestic animal RVA strains identified in Uganda between 2012 and 2014 were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The backbone of the human RVA strains had either a Wa- or a DS-1-like genetic constellation. One human strain was a Wa-like mono-reassortant containing a DS-1-like VP2 gene of possible animal origin. All eleven genes of one bovine RVA strain were closely related to those of human RVAs. One caprine strain had a mixed genotype backbone, suggesting that it emerged from multiple reassortment events involving different host species. The porcine RVA strains had mixed genotype backbones with possible multiple reassortant events with strains of human and bovine origin.Overall, whole genome characterisation of rotaviruses found in domestic animals in Uganda strongly suggested the presence of human-to animal RVA transmission, with concomitant circulation of multi-reassortant strains potentially derived from complex interspecies transmission events. However, whole genome data from the human RVA strains causing moderate and severe diarrhoea in under-fives in Uganda indicated that they were primarily transmitted from person-to-person.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Plasma Cells in Normal Human Bone Marrow by High-Resolution Flow Cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Johnsen, Steen; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Loken, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The low frequency of plasma cells and the lack of specific cell surface markers has been a major obstacle for a detailed characterization of plasma cells in normal human bone marrow. Multiparameter flow cytometry enabled the identification of plasma cells in normal bone marrow aspirates. The plasma

  14. Comparison of naturally occurring and ligature-induced peri-implantitis bone defects in humans and dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, F.; Herten, M. van; Sager, M.; Bieling, K.; Sculean, A.; Becker, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare naturally occuring and ligature-induced peri-implantitis bone defects in humans and dogs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four partially and fully edentulous patients undergoing peri-implant bone augmentation procedures due to

  15. Nanocrystalline diamond: In vitro biocompatibility assessment by MG63 and human bone marrow cells cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, M; Dias, A G; Gomes, P S; Lopes, M A; Silva, R F; Santos, J D; Fernandes, M H

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) has a great potential for prosthetic implants coating. Nevertheless, its biocompatibility still has to be better understood. To do so, we employed several materials characterization techniques (SEM, AFM, micro-Raman spectroscopy) and cell culture assays using MG63 osteoblast-like and human bone marrow cells. Biochemical routines (MTT assays, Lowry's method, ALP activity) supported by SEM and confocal microscopy characterization were carried out. We used silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates for NCD coatings based on a previous demonstration of the superior adhesion and tribological performance of these NCD coated ceramics. Results demonstrate an improved human osteoblast proliferation and the stimulation of differentiated markers, like ALP activity and matrix mineralization, compared with standard polystyrene tissue culture plates. The nanometric featuring of NCD, associated to its chemical affinity are key points for bone regeneration purposes.

  16. Differential reactivity of immune sera from human vaccinees with field strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizki, J M; Repik, P M

    1995-11-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that can produce a severe and often fatal acute encephalitis in humans, with significant neurologic sequelae in survivors. Due to the serious nature of the disease, an investigational inactivated EEE vaccine (PE-6) is available to individuals at risk for infection. Both serologic and recent molecular analyses of EEE viruses have demonstrated marked differences between the two antigenic varieties of EEE virus, designated North American (NA) and South American (SA). In view of these findings, we have examined the reactivity of sera from three individuals immunized with the EEE vaccine, derived from an NA isolate, with field strains of EEE virus. Anti-EEE serum antibodies from vaccinees reacted strongly in Western blot assays with both of the envelope (E1 and E2) glycoproteins of each NA strain examined, while reactivities with the glycoproteins of SA strains were substantially weaker and variable and dependent upon both the immune response of the vaccinee and the virus isolate assayed. Most striking was the modest to virtual lack of reactivity with the E2 protein of SA strains. Antigenic differences among the glycoproteins of EEE viruses were not as pronounced in immunoprecipitation analysis. Most significantly, although human immune sera displayed high neutralizing titers against each of the NA isolates examined, only negligible neutralizing titers were obtained against SA isolates. These data suggest that immunized individuals would mount an effective antibody response against infection with NA strains of EEE virus, but that further investigation is clearly warranted to fully assess the protective capability of the vaccine against infection with SA strains.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  18. Effect of polygonimitin C on bone formation and resorption in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of polygonimitin C (PC) on bone formation and resorption in human osteoblast-like MG63 cells. Methods: MG63 cells were treated with PC at doses of 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/mL for 48 h, with an untreated group as control. The effect of PC on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MG63 cells ...

  19. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Fibrin in Otitis Media: Analysis of Human and Chinchilla Temporal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachern, Patricia A; Kwon, Geeyoun; Briles, David E; Ferrieri, Patricia; Juhn, Steven; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Paparella, Michael M; Tsuprun, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Bacterial resistance in acute otitis can result in bacterial persistence and biofilm formation, triggering chronic and recurrent infections. To investigate the middle ear inflammatory response to bacterial infection in human and chinchilla temporal bones. Six chinchillas underwent intrabullar inoculations with 0.5 mL of 106 colony-forming units (CFUs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 2. Two days later, we counted bacteria in middle ear effusions postmortem. One ear from each chinchilla was processed in paraffin and sectioned at 5 µm. The opposite ear was embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned at a thickness of 1 µm, and stained with toluidine blue. In addition, we examined human temporal bones from 2 deceased donors with clinical histories of otitis media (1 with acute onset otitis media, 1 with recurrent infection). Temporal bones had been previously removed at autopsy, processed, embedded in celloidin, and cut at a thickness of 20 µm. Sections of temporal bones from both chinchillas and humans were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunolabeled with antifibrin and antihistone H4 antibodies. Histopatological and imminohistochemical changes owing to otitis media. Bacterial counts in chinchilla middle ear effusions 2 days after inoculation were approximately 2 logs above initial inoculum counts. Both human and chinchilla middle ear effusions contained bacteria embedded in a fibrous matrix. Some fibers in the matrix showed positive staining with antifibrin antibody, others with antihistone H4 antibody. In acute and recurrent otitis media, fibrin and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are part of the host inflammatory response to bacterial infection. In the early stages of otitis media the host defense system uses fibrin to entrap bacteria, and NETs function to eliminate bacteria. In chronic otitis media, fibrin and NETs appear to persist.

  20. Morphological studies at subchondral bone structures in human early arthrosis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative histomorphometric studies using an image analysis system were performed simultaneously on hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage and subchondral cancellous bone of human tibial heads for detailed information about the pathogenesis of arthrosis. Joint structures need to be fully detected in three dimensions since measurement values are more affected by topographical aspects than by either age, or sex, or arthrosin stage. Mechanical factors were found to affect essentially the initiation and progression of arthrosis. Results are demonstrated in detail. (orig.) [de

  1. Effect of low oxygen tension on the biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae Seong; Ko, Young Jong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Park, Hyun Jin; Park, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong-Ik; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under ambient conditions does not replicate the low oxygen environment of normal physiological or pathological states and can result in cellular impairment during culture. To overcome these limitations, we explored the effect of hypoxia (1 % O2) on the biological characteristics of MSCs over the course of different culture periods. The following biological characteristics were examined in human bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured under hypoxia for 8 week...

  2. Micro/Nano Structural Tantalum Coating for Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Ding; Youtao Xie; Kai Li; Liping Huang; Xuebin Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Recently, tantalum has been attracting much attention for its anticorrosion resistance and biocompatibility, and it has been widely used in surface modification for implant applications. To improve its osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs), a micro/nano structure has been fabricated on the tantalum coating surface through the combination of anodic oxidation and plasma spraying method. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the modified coating were co...

  3. Transparent and stretchable strain sensors based on metal nanowire microgrids for human motion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ji Hwan; Ha, Sung-Hun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2018-04-01

    Optical transparency is increasingly considered as one of the most important characteristics required in advanced stretchable strain sensors for application in body-attachable systems. In this paper, we present an entirely solution-processed fabrication route to highly transparent and stretchable resistive strain sensors based on silver nanowire microgrids (AgNW-MGs). The AgNW-MG strain sensors are readily prepared by patterning the AgNWs on a stretchable substrate into a MG geometry via a mesh-template-assisted contact-transfer printing. The MG has a unique architecture comprising the AgNWs and can be stretched to ɛ = 35%, with high gauge factors of ˜6.9 for ɛ = 0%-30% and ˜41.1 for ɛ = 30%-35%. The sensor also shows a high optical transmittance of 77.1% ± 1.5% (at 550 nm) and stably maintains the remarkable optical performance even at high strains. In addition, the sensor responses are found to be highly reversible with negligible hysteresis and are reliable even under repetitive stretching-releasing cycles (1000 cycles at ɛ = 10%). The practicality of the AgNW-MG strain sensor is confirmed by successfully monitoring a wide range of human motions in real time after firmly laminating the device onto various body parts.

  4. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  5. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2 isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  6. Defective recoveryfrom potentially lethal damage in some human fibroblast cell strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlett, C.F.; Priestley, A.

    1983-01-01

    The repair of potentially lethal damage following treatment by gamma radiation was investigated in human fibroblasts held in a non-cycling state by maintenance in a medium containing 0.5 per cent foetal calf serum. Variation in their capacity to repair PLD was noted between three normal cell strains. A failure to repair PLD in ataxia-telangiectasia cells (AT5BI) was confirmed. In three cell strains which were intermediate between normals and A-T cells in their sensitivity, XP3BR, 46BR and GB1142, a limited capacity for the repair of PLD was observed. Two other cell strains, 47BR and 67BR, which showed little if any hypersensitivity could be clearly distinguished from normals after a 24 hour period for the repair of PLD. Thus the technique might permit better discrimination between cell strains. One other cell strain, H15617, could be distinguished from normals by proving hypersensitive under all conditions. Here, however, the repair of PLD appeared to be normal. (author)

  7. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains inoculated in cheese matrix during simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Cross, Kathryn L; Parker, Mary L; Bisignano, Carlo; Wickham, Martin S J; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Caggia, Cinzia

    2012-08-01

    Survival of probiotic bacteria during transit through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is influenced by a number of environmental variables including stomach acidity, bile salts, digestive enzymes and food matrix. This study assessed survival of seven selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains delivered within a model cheese system to the human upper GI tract using a dynamic gastric model (DGM). Good survival rates for all tested strains were recorded during both simulated gastric and duodenal digestion. Strains H12, H25 and N24 demonstrated higher survival capacities during gastric digestion than L. rhamnosus GG strain used as control, with H12 and N24 continuing to grow during duodenal digestion. Strains L. rhamnosus F17, N24 and R61 showed adhesion properties to both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. The ability to attach to the cheese matrix during digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, also indicating production of extracellular polysaccharides as a response to acid stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic heterogeneity among human and nonhuman strains of hepatitis A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, S.M.; Chao, S.F.; Jansen, R.W.; Binn, L.N.; LeDuc, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cloned cDNA probes derived from the P1 and P2 regions of the genome of HM175 virus, a reference strain of human hepatitis A virus (HAV), failed to hybridize under standard stringency criteria with RNA from PA21 and PA33 viruses, two epizootiologically related HAV strains recovered from naturally infected New World owl monkeys. Hybridization of these probes to PA21 RNA was only evident under reduced stringency conditions. However, cDNA representing the 5' nontranslated region of the MH175 genome hybridized equally to HM175 and PA21 RNA under standard stringency conditions, while a probe derived from the 3', 1400 bases of the genome yielded a reduced hybridization signal with PA21 RNA. In contrast, no differences could be discerned between HM175 virus and three other HAV strains of human origin (GR8, LV374, and MS1) in any region of the genome, unless increased stringency conditions were used. These results suggest that PA21 and PA33 are unique among HAV isolates and may represent a virus native to the owl monkey. Despite extremely poor homology within the P1 region, which encodes capsid polypeptides, monoclonal antibody analysis confirmed that the immunodominant neutralization epitopes of HAV were highly conserved between HM175 and PA21 viruses. These data provide molecular evidence for the existence of HAV strains unique to nonhuman species and indicate that strict conservation of antigenic function may accompany substantial genetic divergence in HAV

  9. Internal strain estimation for quantification of human heel pad elastic modulus: A phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Karen; Liebgott, Hervé; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2013-01-01

    Shock absorption is the most important function of the human heel pad. However, changes in heel pad elasticity, as seen in e.g. long-distance runners, diabetes patients, and victims of Falanga torture are affecting this function, often in a painful manner. Assessment of heel pad elasticity...... is usually based on one or a few strain measurements obtained by an external load-deformation system. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for quantitative measurements of heel pad elastic modulus based on several internal strain measures from within the heel pad by use of ultrasound images. Nine...... heel phantoms were manufactured featuring a combination of three heel pad stiffnesses and three heel pad thicknesses to model the normal human variation. Each phantom was tested in an indentation system comprising a 7MHz linear array ultrasound transducer, working as the indentor, and a connected load...

  10. Wearable Wide-Range Strain Sensors Based on Ionic Liquids and Monitoring of Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hui Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wearable sensors for detection of human activities have encouraged the development of highly elastic sensors. In particular, to capture subtle and large-scale body motion, stretchable and wide-range strain sensors are highly desired, but still a challenge. Herein, a highly stretchable and transparent stain sensor based on ionic liquids and elastic polymer has been developed. The as-obtained sensor exhibits impressive stretchability with wide-range strain (from 0.1% to 400%, good bending properties and high sensitivity, whose gauge factor can reach 7.9. Importantly, the sensors show excellent biological compatibility and succeed in monitoring the diverse human activities ranging from the complex large-scale multidimensional motions to subtle signals, including wrist, finger and elbow joint bending, finger touch, breath, speech, swallow behavior and pulse wave.

  11. Novel Strain of Andes Virus Associated with Fatal Human Infection, Central Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristhopher D.; Vallejo, Efrain; Agudo, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge; Blazes, David L.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2012-01-01

    To better describe the genetic diversity of hantaviruses associated with human illness in South America, we screened blood samples from febrile patients in Chapare Province in central Bolivia during 2008–2009 for recent hantavirus infection. Hantavirus RNA was detected in 3 patients, including 1 who died. Partial RNA sequences of small and medium segments from the 3 patients were most closely related to Andes virus lineages but distinct (1 hantaviruses; the highest prevalence was among agricultural workers. Because of the high level of human exposure to hantavirus strains and the severity of resulting disease, additional studies are warranted to determine the reservoirs, ecologic range, and public health effect of this novel strain of hantavirus. PMID:22515983

  12. Recent progress of flexible and wearable strain sensors for human-motion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gang; Huang, Wei; Shao, Jinjun; Dong, Xiaochen

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of human artificial intelligence and the inevitably expanding markets, the past two decades have witnessed an urgent demand for the flexible and wearable devices, especially the flexible strain sensors. Flexible strain sensors, incorporated the merits of stretchability, high sensitivity and skin-mountable, are emerging as an extremely charming domain in virtue of their promising applications in artificial intelligent realms, human-machine systems and health-care devices. In this review, we concentrate on the transduction mechanisms, building blocks of flexible physical sensors, subsequently property optimization in terms of device structures and sensing materials in the direction of practical applications. Perspectives on the existing challenges are also highlighted in the end. Project supported by the NNSF of China (Nos. 61525402, 61604071), the Key University Science Research Project of Jiangsu Province (No. 15KJA430006), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20161012).

  13. In vivo bone strain in the mandibular corpus of Sapajus during a range of oral food processing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Callum F; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Reed, David A; Stewart, Thomas A; Taylor, Andrea B

    2016-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that mandibular corpus morphology of primates is related to the material properties of the foods that they chew. However, chewing foods with different material properties is accompanied by low levels of variation in mandibular strain patterns in macaques. We hypothesized that if variation in primate mandible form reflects adaptations to feeding on foods with different material and geometric properties, then this variation will be driven primarily by differences in oral food processing behavior rather than differences in chewing per se. To test this hypothesis, we recorded in vivo bone strain data from the lateral and medial surfaces of the mandibular corpus during complete feeding sequences in three adult male Sapajus as they fed on foods with a range of sizes and material properties. We assessed whether variation in mandibular corpus strain regimes is associated with variation in feeding behaviors and/or chewing on different foods, and we quantified the relative variation in mandibular corpus strain regimes associated with chewing on foods of different material properties versus a range of oral food processing behaviors (incisor, premolar, and molar biting; pulling on incisors; mastication). Feeding behavior had a significant effect on mandibular corpus strain regimes, as did chewing side and the cycle number in a feeding sequence. However, food type had weaker effects and usually only through interaction effects with chewing side and/or cycle type. Strain regimes varied most across different chew sides, then across different behaviors, and lastly between mastication cycles on different foods. Strain magnitudes associated with premolar, molar, and incisor biting were larger than those recorded during mastication. These data suggest that intra- and inter-specific variation in mandible morphology is a trade-off between performance requirements of different oral food processing behaviors and of variation in chewing side, with direct effects

  14. Isolation of a human intestinal anaerobe, Bifidobacterium sp. strain SEN, capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins.

    OpenAIRE

    Akao, T; Che, Q M; Kobashi, K; Yang, L; Hattori, M; Namba, T

    1994-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium capable of metabolizing sennosides was isolated from human feces and identified as Bifidobacterium sp., named strain SEN. The bacterium hydrolyzed sennosides A and B to sennidins A and B via sennidin A and B 8-monoglucosides, respectively. Among nine species of Bifidobacterium having beta-glucosidase activity, only Bifidobacterium dentium and B. adolescentis metabolized sennoside B to sennidin B, suggesting that the sennoside-metabolizing bacteria produce a nove...

  15. Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium breve CECT 7263, a strain isolated from human milk

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Esther; Villar-Tajadura, M. Antonia; Marín, María; Fontecha, F. Javier; Requena, Teresa; Arroyo, Rebeca; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is an actinobacterium frequently isolated from colonic microbiota of breastfeeding babies. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of a B. breve strain isolated from human milk, B. breve CECT 7263. The genome sequence will provide new insights into the biology of this potential probiotic organism and will allow the characterization of genes related to beneficial properties. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Toxin Gene Analysis of a Variant Strain of Clostridium difficile That Causes Human Clinical Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambol, Susan P.; Merrigan, Michelle M.; Lyerly, David; Gerding, Dale N.; Johnson, Stuart

    2000-01-01

    A toxin variant strain of Clostridium difficile was isolated from two patients with C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), one of whom died from extensive pseudomembranous colitis. This strain, identified by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) as type CF2, was not detected by an immunoassay for C. difficile toxin A. Culture supernatants of CF2 failed to elicit significant enterotoxic activity in the rabbit ileal loop assay but did produce atypical cytopathic effects in cell culture assay. Southern hybridization, PCR amplification, and DNA sequence analyses were performed on the toxin A (tcdA) and toxin B (tcdB) genes of type CF2 isolate 5340. Type CF2 5340 tcdA exhibited a 1,821-bp truncation, due to three deletions in the 3′ end of the gene, and a point mutation in the 5′ end of the gene, resulting in a premature stop codon at tcdA position 139. Type CF2 5340 tcdB exhibited multiple nucleotide base substitutions in the 5′ end of the gene compared to tcdB of the standard toxigenic strain VPI 10463. Type CF2 5340 toxin gene nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences showed a strong resemblance to those of the previously described variant C. difficile strain 1470, a strain reported to have reduced pathogenicity and no association with clinical illness in humans. REA of strain 1470 identified this strain as a distinct type (CF1) within the same REA group as the closely related type CF2. A review of our clinical-isolate collection identified five additional patients infected with type CF2, three of whom had documented CDAD. PCR amplification of the 3′ end of tcdA demonstrated identical 1.8-kb deletions in all seven type CF2 isolates. REA type CF2 is a toxin variant strain of C. difficile that retains the ability to cause disease in humans but is not detected in clinical immunoassays for toxin A. PMID:10992443

  17. Mechanical and mineral properties of osteogenesis imperfecta human bones at the tissue level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Laurianne; Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Pernelle, Kélig; Hoc, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by an increase in bone fragility on the macroscopic scale, but few data are available to describe the mechanisms involved on the tissue scale and the possible correlations between these scales. To better understand the effects of OI on the properties of human bone, we studied the mechanical and chemical properties of eight bone samples from children suffering from OI and compared them to the properties of three controls. High-resolution computed tomography, nanoindentation and Raman microspectroscopy were used to assess those properties. A higher tissue mineral density was found for OI bone (1.131 gHA/cm3 vs. 1.032 gHA/cm3, p=0.032), along with a lower Young's modulus (17.6 GPa vs. 20.5 GPa, p=0.024). Obviously, the mutation-induced collagen defects alter the collagen matrix, thereby affecting the mineralization. Raman spectroscopy showed that the mineral-to-matrix ratio was higher in the OI samples, while the crystallinity was lower, suggesting that the mineral crystals were smaller but more abundant in the case of OI. This change in crystal size, distribution and composition contributes to the observed decrease in mechanical strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Instrumental activation and X-ray fluorescent analysis of human bone in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.Y.

    1994-01-01

    A complex of methods for the in-vitro and in-vivo bone analysis was developed. Among the in-vitro methods are: INAA with reactor and 14 MeV neutrons, IGAA with 25 MeV linear accelerator; XRF with 55 Fe, 109 Cd, 241 Am radionuclide sources. Twenty-five elements could be analyzed by it: N, F, Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, Tb, Hg, and Pb. Among the in-vivo methods are: INAA of band, foot and spine Ca and limb bone tumour Ca, Na and Cl with 238 Pu-Be neutron sources; IGAA of N and P in limb bone tumours; XRF of tooth Ca, Zn, Sr and Pb with 109 Cs radionuclide sources. The methods developed were used both in clinical and experimental medicine for studying the healthy human and animal bone with different diseases and environmental influence. (author) 28 refs.; 7 tabs

  19. Comparative kinetic analysis of89 Sr,60 Co and65 Zn Uptake by human bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fatah, A.T.A.; Essa, M.W.A.; Mohamed, S.A.; Molokhia, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Human bone powder samples were prepared from recent femurs. The Bone particles range between 30 and 40 MU in diameter. One portion of this powder was prepared fat-free (FFB), the second portion as protein-free (PFB) and the last portion was left as raw bone powder-(RB). The sequence of uptake of 89 Sr by these types of bone powder is : FFB > RB > PFB, while that of 60 Co and 65 Zn is: PFB > FFB > RB. Kinetic analysis of the uptake curves of the 3 isotopes indicated that these processes proceed in 3 distinct steps; very fast initial, moderate intermediate and slow last step. The obtained rates of uptake indicated that : (1) the uptake by PEB is faster in its third step than the other types, (2) the most predominant step in case of 89 Sr and 60 Co is the third step (ion exchange step) while in case of 65 Zn it is the first step (physical adsorption), (3) defatenisation or deproteinisation, in general, inhances the uptake process

  20. Bone tissue engineering with human mesenchymal stem cell sheets constructed using magnetite nanoparticles and magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Ito, Akira; Yoshida, Tatsuro; Yamada, Yoichi; Ueda, Minoru; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2007-08-01

    An in vitro reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) tissues without the use of scaffolds may be an alternative strategy for tissue engineering. We have developed a novel tissue engineering strategy, termed magnetic force-based tissue engineering (Mag-TE), in which magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) with a positive charge at the liposomal surface, and magnetic force were used to construct 3D tissue without scaffolds. In this study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) magnetically labeled with MCLs were seeded onto an ultra-low attachment culture surface, and a magnet (4000 G) was placed on the reverse side. The MSCs formed multilayered sheet-like structures after a 24-h culture period. MSCs in the sheets constructed by Mag-TE maintained an in vitro ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, or chondrocytes after a 21-day culture period using each induction medium. Using an electromagnet, MSC sheets constructed by Mag-TE were harvested and transplanted into the bone defect in the crania of nude rats. Histological observation revealed that new bone surrounded by osteoblast-like cells was formed in the defect area 14 days after transplantation with MSC sheets, whereas no bone formation was observed in control rats without the transplant. These results indicated that Mag-TE could be used for the transplantation of MSC sheets using magnetite nanoparticles and magnetic force, providing novel methodology for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Solís, C.; Canto, C.E.; Lucio, O.G. de; Chavez, E.; Rocha, M.F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in “El Cóporo”, an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: 14 C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The 14 C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone’s black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment

  2. Radiocarbon dating and compositional analysis of pre-Columbian human bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, E., E-mail: andrade@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Solís, C.; Canto, C.E.; Lucio, O.G. de [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Chavez, E. [ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ALM Zacatenco, 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Rocha, M.F.; Villanueva, O.; Torreblanca, C.A. [Centro INAH Zacatecas, Miguel Auza No. 205, Col. Centro, Zacatecas/Zacatecas CP 98000 (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of ancient human bones found in “El Cóporo”, an archaeological site in Guanajuato, Mexico; were performed using a multi techniques scheme: {sup 14}C radiocarbon dating, IBA (Ion Beam Analysis), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy). We measured the elemental composition of the bones, especially some with a superficial black pigmentation. Soil samples collected from the burial place were also analyzed. The {sup 14}C dating was performed with a new High Voltage Europe 1 MV Tandentron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) recently installed in the IFUNAM (Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). The radiocarbon dating allowed us to determine the date of death of the individual in a period between the year 890 and 975 AD, which is consistent with the late period of the Cóporo civilization. The element sample analysis of bones with the surface black pigmentation show higher levels of Fe, Mn and Ba compared when bone’s black surface was mechanically removed. These three elements were found in soil samples from the skeleton burial place. These results indicate more likely that the bone black coloration is due to a postmortem alteration occurring in the burial environment.

  3. Changes of the proliferation kinetics of human bone marrow in vivo through hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, E.

    1982-01-01

    A 10-hour oral continuous infusion with hydroxyurea (HU) at a non-toxic concentration was performed in 20 malignoma patients with undisturbed bone marrow. Bone marrow taken before, during and after HU-administration was examined for 3H-TdR incorporation by means of autoradiography and liquid scintimetry, for cell phase distribution by means of flow cytophotometry, morphologically and by means of CFUc. 3H-TdR incorporation into bone marrow cells dropped to 16% of the initial value under HU and rose to 156% 10 h after HU-effect terminated. Cytophotometry did not furnish any proof of a decrease of S-phase cells or increase of cells in G 1 -to-S-transition during HU. S-cells rise to 129% of the initial value 10 h after having fallen below minimum inhibition concentration. Under HU, there is an equal number of cells in S which incorporate much less 3H-thymidine; after HU more S-cells incorporate more 3H-thymidine than before HU. During HU action, DNA synthesis activity is reduced to 17% and reaches the initial value with 105% afterwards. In human bone marrow, hydroxyurea in non-toxic concentration causes a temporary DNA synthesis inhibition in terms of activity reduction and partial arrest in S. A stop-and-go of the cell cycle effected by HU does not occur; the effect is rather a slow-down of DNA synthesis. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Antibody responses in humans infected with newly emerging strains of West Nile Virus in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Chabierski

    Full Text Available Infection with West Nile Virus (WNV affects an increasing number of countries worldwide. Although most human infections result in no or mild flu-like symptoms, the elderly and those with a weakened immune system are at higher risk for developing severe neurological disease. Since its introduction into North America in 1999, WNV has spread across the continental United States and caused annual outbreaks with a total of 36,000 documented clinical cases and ∼1,500 deaths. In recent years, outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease also have been reported in Europe. The WNV strains isolated during these outbreaks differ from those in North America, as sequencing has revealed that distinct phylogenetic lineages of WNV concurrently circulate in Europe, which has potential implications for the development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic tests. Here, we studied the human antibody response to European WNV strains responsible for outbreaks in Italy and Greece in 2010, caused by lineage 1 and 2 strains, respectively. The WNV structural proteins were expressed as a series of overlapping fragments fused to a carrier-protein, and binding of IgG in sera from infected persons was analyzed. The results demonstrate that, although the humoral immune response to WNV in humans is heterogeneous, several dominant peptides are recognized.

  5. Effect of boron on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaozhou; Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Chen, Qingyu; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dongquan; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Rompis, Ferdinand An; Peng, Lei; Zhu Lu, Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been well established as an ideal source of cell-based therapy for bone tissue engineering applications. Boron (B) is a notable trace element in humans; so far, the effects of boron on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs have not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (0, 1, 10,100, and 1,000 ng/ml) on osteogenic differentiation of human BMSCs. In this study, BMSCs proliferation was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, and cell osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. The results indicated that the proliferation of BMSCs was no different from the control group when added with B at the concentration of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml respectively (P > 0.05); in contrast, 1,000 ng/ml B inhibited the proliferation of BMSCs at days 4, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). By ALP staining, we discovered that BMSCs treated with 10 and 100 ng/ml B presented a higher ALP activity compared with control (P < 0.05). By real-time PCR, we detected the messenger RNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, collagen type I, and bone morphogenetic proteins 7 were also increased in 10 and 100 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). The calcium depositions were increased in 1 and 10 ng/ml B treatment groups (P < 0.05). Taken all together, it was the first time to report that B could increase osteogenic effect by stimulating osteogenic differentiation-related marker gene synthesis during the proliferation and differentiation phase in human BMSCs and could be a promising approach for enhancing osteogenic capacity of cell-based construction in bone tissue engineering.

  6. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nogami, Makiko; Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Noto, Zenko; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  7. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  8. Response of immunocompetent cells of bone marrow and spleen of mouse males of several strains to stress and to pyrazine containing chemosignals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene V Daev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of antibody producing cells and mitotic disturbances in dividing bone marrow cells of mice were studied after exposure of animals to a physical stressor or various pyrazinecontaining chemosignals. Several different strains of mice were used. We demonstrate that immune suppression and destabilization of the chromosome apparatus in dividing cells depend on: а mouse genotype and b side chains position  in the pyrazine ring. Importance of this effects in the light of wide usage of pyrazine containing substances in perfume industry, food production and pharmacology is discussed.

  9. Mapping the Pairwise Choices Leading from Pluripotency to Human Bone, Heart, and Other Mesoderm Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kyle M; Chen, Angela; Koh, Pang Wei; Deng, Tianda Z; Sinha, Rahul; Tsai, Jonathan M; Barkal, Amira A; Shen, Kimberle Y; Jain, Rajan; Morganti, Rachel M; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Fernhoff, Nathaniel B; George, Benson M; Wernig, Gerlinde; Salomon, Rachel E A; Chen, Zhenghao; Vogel, Hannes; Epstein, Jonathan A; Kundaje, Anshul; Talbot, William S; Beachy, Philip A; Ang, Lay Teng; Weissman, Irving L

    2016-07-14

    Stem-cell differentiation to desired lineages requires navigating alternating developmental paths that often lead to unwanted cell types. Hence, comprehensive developmental roadmaps are crucial to channel stem-cell differentiation toward desired fates. To this end, here, we map bifurcating lineage choices leading from pluripotency to 12 human mesodermal lineages, including bone, muscle, and heart. We defined the extrinsic signals controlling each binary lineage decision, enabling us to logically block differentiation toward unwanted fates and rapidly steer pluripotent stem cells toward 80%-99% pure human mesodermal lineages at most branchpoints. This strategy enabled the generation of human bone and heart progenitors that could engraft in respective in vivo models. Mapping stepwise chromatin and single-cell gene expression changes in mesoderm development uncovered somite segmentation, a previously unobservable human embryonic event transiently marked by HOPX expression. Collectively, this roadmap enables navigation of mesodermal development to produce transplantable human tissue progenitors and uncover developmental processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal strain estimation for quantification of human heel pad elastic modulus: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Karen; Liebgott, Hervé; Wilhjelm, Jens E; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Torp-Pedersen, Søren T; Delachartre, Philippe; Jensen, Jørgen A

    2013-02-01

    Shock absorption is the most important function of the human heel pad. However, changes in heel pad elasticity, as seen in e.g. long-distance runners, diabetes patients, and victims of Falanga torture are affecting this function, often in a painful manner. Assessment of heel pad elasticity is usually based on one or a few strain measurements obtained by an external load-deformation system. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for quantitative measurements of heel pad elastic modulus based on several internal strain measures from within the heel pad by use of ultrasound images. Nine heel phantoms were manufactured featuring a combination of three heel pad stiffnesses and three heel pad thicknesses to model the normal human variation. Each phantom was tested in an indentation system comprising a 7MHz linear array ultrasound transducer, working as the indentor, and a connected load cell. Load-compression data and ultrasound B-mode images were simultaneously acquired in 19 compression steps of 0.1mm each. The internal tissue displacement was for each step calculated by a phase-based cross-correlation technique and internal strain maps were derived from these displacement maps. Elastic moduli were found from the resulting stress-strain curves. The elastic moduli made it possible to distinguish eight of nine phantoms from each other according to the manufactured stiffness and showed very little dependence of the thickness. Mean elastic moduli for the three soft, the three medium, and the three hard phantoms were 89kPa, 153kPa, and 168kPa, respectively. The combination of ultrasound images and force measurements provided an effective way of assessing the elastic properties of the heel pad due to the internal strain estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica strains potentially virulent for humans and animals in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terech-Majewska, E; Pajdak, J; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Grabowska, K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify potentially pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica in water samples collected from the upstream section of the Drwęca River in Poland. Thirty-nine water samples were collected. Strains were isolated, identified with the use of the API(®) 20E test kit (Biomerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) at 37°C, serotyped and subjected to a molecular analysis. Multiplex PCR was carried out to amplify three virulence genes: ail, ystA and ystB. Fragments of ail and ystA genes were not identified in the genetic material of the analysed strains. The ystB gene was identified in four strains. Yersinia enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A, which contain the ystB gene, may cause gastrointestinal problems. In our study, Y. enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A/ystB with serotypes 0 : 3, 0 : 5 and 0 : 8 were identified in samples collected from the Drwęca River which flows through the areas protected by Natura 2000, one of the largest networks of nature conservation areas in the European Union. The presence of Y. enterocolitica in the Drwęca River indicates that the analysed bacteria colonize natural water bodies. Most research focuses on food or sewage as a source of Y. enterocolitica infections. Little is known about the occurrence of this pathogen in natural waters. Our results show that natural waters are also a potential threat to human and animal health. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Immunohistochemical characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel (NanoBone(r)) osteogenesis: a study on biopsies from human jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Werner; Gerber, Thomas; Michel, Barbara; Lossdörfer, Stefan; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2008-10-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials may be osteogenic, osteoconductive or osteoinductive. To test for these probable characteristics in a new nanoporous grafting material consisting of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in a porous silica gel matrix (NanoBone(s)), applied in humans, we studied biopsies from 12 patients before dental implantation following various orofacial augmentation techniques with healing times of between 3.5 and 12 months. Sections from decalcified specimens were investigated using histology, histochemistry [periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)] and immunohistochemistry, with markers for osteogenesis, bone remodelling, resorption and vessel walls (alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-2, collagen type I, ED1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, runx2 and Von-Willebrand factor). Histologically, four specific stages of graft transformation into lamellar bone could be characterized. During early stages of healing, bone matrix proteins were absorbed by NanoBone(s) granules, forming a proteinaceous matrix, which was invaded by small vessels and cells. We assume that the deposition of these molecules promotes early osteogenesis in and around NanoBone(s) and supports the concomitant degradation probably by osteoclast-like cells. TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells were localized directly on the granular surfaces. Runx2-immunoreactive pre-osteoblasts, which are probably involved in direct osteogenesis forming woven bone that is later transformed into lamellar bone, were attracted. Graft resorption and bone apposition around the graft granules appear concomitantly. We postulate that NanoBone(s) has osteoconductive and biomimetic properties and is integrated into the host's physiological bone turnover at a very early stage.

  13. Identification of transcriptional macromolecular associations in human bone using browser based in silico analysis in a giant correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppe, Sjur; Sachse, Daniel; Olstad, Ole K; Gautvik, Vigdis T; Sanderson, Paul; Datta, Harish K; Berg, Jens P; Gautvik, Kaare M

    2013-03-01

    Intracellular signaling is critically dependent on gene regulatory networks comprising physical molecular interactions. Presently, there is a lack of comprehensive databases for most human tissue types to verify such macromolecular interactions. We present a user friendly browser which helps to identify functional macromolecular interactions in human bone as significant correlations at the transcriptional level. The molecular skeletal phenotype has been characterized by transcriptome analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies from 84 postmenopausal women through quantifications of ~23,000 mRNA species. When the signal levels were inter-correlated, an array containing >260 million correlations was generated, thus recognizing the human bone interactome at the RNA level. The matrix correlation and p values were made easily accessible by a freely available online browser. We show that significant correlations within the giant matrix are reproduced in a replica set of 13 male vertebral biopsies. The identified correlations differ somewhat from transcriptional interactions identified in cell culture experiments and transgenic mice, thus demonstrating that care should be taken in extrapolating such results to the in vivo situation in human bone. The current giant matrix and web browser are a valuable tool for easy access to the human bone transcriptome and molecular interactions represented as significant correlations at the RNA-level. The browser and matrix should be a valuable hypothesis generating tool for identification of regulatory mechanisms and serve as a library of transcript relationships in human bone, a relatively inaccessible tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiographic and Histologic Evaluation of a Bone Void that Formed After Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Mediated Sinus Graft Augmentation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Choong-Man; Yun, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In the present case report, the authors describe radiographic and histologic observations of a bone void that formed after a sinus augmentation using a graft material that contained recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and discuss clinical and histologic implications of their findings. Sinus augmentation was performed using a graft material comprising 1 g of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate, which contained 1 mg of rhBMP-2. Radiographic evaluation was conducted with panoramic radiographs and computed tomography images of the augmented maxillary sinus, which were analyzed using a three-dimensional image-reconstruction program. Histologic evaluation was also performed on a biopsy specimen obtained 6 months after the sinus augmentation. The total augmented volume increased from 1,582.2 mm(3) immediately after the sinus augmentation to 3,344.9 mm3 at 6 months after the augmentation because of the formation of a bone void. Twenty-six months after the sinus augmentation, the bone void remained but had reduced in volume, with the total augmented volume reduced to 2,551.7 mm(3). Histologically, new bone was observed to be in contact with the grafted particles, and a fatty marrow-like tissue was present in the area of the bone void. This case report shows that the bone void that had formed after sinus augmentation resolved over time and seemed to be partially replaced with new bone. Furthermore, none of the implants failed, and clinical adverse events were not observed during the follow-up period.

  15. A high concentration of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces low-efficacy bone regeneration in sinus augmentation: a histomorphometric analysis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji-Youn; Kim, Min-Soo; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Jung-Seok; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the efficacy of bone regeneration at the early stage of healing in rabbit sinuses grafted with a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) carrier soaked in a high concentration of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Both maxillary sinuses of eight male rabbits were used. The sinus on one side (assigned randomly) was grafted with BCP loaded with rhBMP-2 (1.5 mg/ml; test group) using a soaking method, while the other was grafted with saline-soaked BCP (control group). After a 2-week healing period, the sinuses were analyzed by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. The total augmented area and soft tissue space were significantly larger in the test group than in the control group, whereas the opposite was true for the area of residual material and newly formed bone. Most of the new bone in the test group was localized to the Schneiderian membrane (SM), while very little bone formation was observed in the window and center regions of the sinus. New bone was distributed evenly in the control group sinuses. Within the limitations of this study, it appeared that application of a high concentration of rhBMP-2 soaked onto a BCP carrier inhibited bone regeneration from the pristine bone and increased soft tissue swelling and inflammatory response at the early healing stage of sinus augmentation, although osteoinductive potential was found along the SM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cell in a rat model of bone cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Li, Guoqi; Wu, Shaoling; Zhang, Baiyu; Wan, Qing; Yu, Ding; Zhou, Ruijun; Ma, Chao

    2014-07-08

    Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l) lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  17. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l lysine-alginate (APA microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  18. Telomerase reverse transcriptase mediated immortalization of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Teng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs were transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene with lipofection method. The hTERT transfected hMSCs of passage 100 underwent chondrogenesis induction with dexamethasone, transforming the growth factor β and vitamin C, osteogenesis induction with dexamethasone, β glycerophosphoric acid and vitamin C, and cardiomyocyte induction with 5-azacytidine. After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of induction, immunocytochemistry was performed to detect the expressions of type I and II collagen and osteocalcin, and alizarin red staining was performed to detect the bone nodule formation in osteogenesis induction. Immunocytochemistry was carried out to detect the striated muscle actin expression in cardiomyocytes. The hMSCs undergoing successful transfection were positive for the hTERT. The hTERT transfected cells were grown in vitro successfully and passaged for 136 generations. Results showed that these cells could be induced to differentiate into chondrocytes, bone and myocardial cells. Introduction of exogenous hTERT into hMSCs could achieve immortalized hMSCs with the potential of multi-directional differentiation. Thus, these cells could be applied as seed cells in tissue engineering.

  19. A newly isolated probiotic Enterococcus faecalis strain from vagina microbiota enhances apoptosis of human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Y; Abdullah, N; Haghshenas, B; Radiah, D; Rosli, R; Yari Khosroushahi, A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to describe probiotic properties and bio-therapeutic effects of newly isolated Enterococcus faecalis from the human vaginal tract. The Enterococcus faecalis strain was originally isolated from the vaginal microbiota of Iranian women and was molecularly identified using 16SrDNA gene sequencing. Some biochemical methodologies were preliminarily used to characterize the probiotic potential of Ent. faecalis, including antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, as well as acid and bile resistance. The bio-therapeutic effects of this strain's secreted metabolites on four human cancer cell lines (AGS, HeLa, MCF-7 and HT-29) and one normal cell line (HUVEC) were evaluated by cytotoxicity assay and apoptosis scrutiny. The characterization results demonstrated into the isolated bacteria strain revealed probiotic properties, such as antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity and resistance under conditions similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract. Results of bio-therapeutic efficacy assessments illustrated acceptable apoptotic effects on four human cancer cell lines and negligible side effects on assayed normal cell line. Our findings revealed that the apoptotic effect of secreted metabolites mainly depended on proteins secreted by Ent. faecalis on different cancer cells. These proteins can induce the apoptosis of cancer cells. The metabolites produced by this vaginal Ent. faecalis strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. Accordingly, the physicochemical, structural and functional properties of the secreted anticancer substances should be further investigated before using them as anticancer therapeutics. This study aim to screen total bacterial secreted metabolites as a wealthy source to find the new active compounds to introduce as anticancer therapeutics in the future. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Reduced thoracolumbar fascia shear strain in human chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konofagou Elisa E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role played by the thoracolumbar fascia in chronic low back pain (LBP is poorly understood. The thoracolumbar fascia is composed of dense connective tissue layers separated by layers of loose connective tissue that normally allow the dense layers to glide past one another during trunk motion. The goal of this study was to quantify shear plane motion within the thoracolumbar fascia using ultrasound elasticity imaging in human subjects with and without chronic low back pain (LBP. Methods We tested 121 human subjects, 50 without LBP and 71 with LBP of greater than 12 months duration. In each subject, an ultrasound cine-recording was acquired on the right and left sides of the back during passive trunk flexion using a motorized articulated table with the hinge point of the table at L4-5 and the ultrasound probe located longitudinally 2 cm lateral to the midline at the level of the L2-3 interspace. Tissue displacement within the thoracolumbar fascia was calculated using cross correlation techniques and shear strain was derived from this displacement data. Additional measures included standard range of motion and physical performance evaluations as well as ultrasound measurement of perimuscular connective tissue thickness and echogenicity. Results Thoracolumbar fascia shear strain was reduced in the LBP group compared with the No-LBP group (56.4% ± 3.1% vs. 70.2% ± 3.6% respectively, p Conclusion Thoracolumbar fascia shear strain was ~20% lower in human subjects with chronic low back pain. This reduction of shear plane motion may be due to abnormal trunk movement patterns and/or intrinsic connective tissue pathology. There appears to be some sex-related differences in thoracolumbar fascia shear strain that may also play a role in altered connective tissue function.

  1. Plutonium and uranium in human bones from areas surrounding the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sakaguchi, Aya; Shinohara, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Osamu; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Gusev, Boris I

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the present levels of 239,240Pu and U in residents living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, more than 70 bone samples were obtained at autopsy. The subjects ranged in age from 30 to 86 years (mean 59.3+/-12.9). Most of the samples consisted of victims who died of various diseases. Plutonium and U were radiochemically separated and determined by alpha-ray spectrometry. The mean concentrations of 239,240Pu and 238U observed were 0.050+/-0.041 mBq/g-ash (vertebrae 71, long-bones 18) and 0.28+/-0.13 mBq/g-ash (22.8+/-10.6 microg U/kg-ash) (vertebrae 58, long bones 16), respectively. The present 239,240Pu levels were within the range found for human bone samples from other countries due solely to global fallout in the early 1980s. The average U concentration was close to the estimate (mean 22.5 microg U/kg-ash) for the UK, and about 10 times higher than those estimated for residents in New York City and Japan. By assuming that the average concentration of 239,240Pu in bone samples is the value at 45 years after instantaneous inhalation in 1955, the initial total intake and the effective dose for 45 years were estimated as 10 Bq and 0.2 mSv, respectively. The annual intake of total U (234,235,238U) and its effective dose for 60 years were estimated as 30 Bq for adult and 0.1 mSv, respectively, for chronic ingestion.

  2. The evaluation of lyophilized polymer matrices for administering recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, S S; Rodgers, J B; DeLuca, P P

    1996-07-01

    Novel unitary devices, prepared by lyophilization of viscous solutions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC), were evaluated as sustained-release delivery systems for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). In vitro characterization of the unitary devices, which contained rhBMP-2-loaded poly (d,l lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) bioerodible particles (BEPs), was conducted over a 2-month period. Determinations included buffer uptake, mass and molecular weight loss and rhBMP-2 release from the unitary devices. CMC devices imbibed approximately 16 times their weight of buffer, while with MC, equilibrium uptake was approximately 6 times the dry weight of the devices. Overall mass loss percentages were approximately 55 and 35%, respectively, for CMC and MC devices. rhBMP-2 release from the devices was essentially a triphasic process: an initial phase during which "free" protein (rhBMP-2 present on the surface and within the pores of the PLGA BEPs) was released, a lag period during which no release was discerned, and then release of "bound" rhBMP-2 (protein adsorbed to the BEPs). The release of bound protein correlated with the mass loss of the polymer which began after 3 weeks. Release from the unitary devices was lower than that from the BEPs alone, due to a retardation effect of the gelled CMC/MC polymers. In rabbits in which full-thickness cranial bone defects were created, the implants were well tolerated and induced significant new bone growth during an 8-week evaluation period. The CMC devices appear to have induced bone earlier (at 2 weeks), but this did not affect eventual 8-week results. CMC devices without rhBMP-2 appeared to provide some bone conduction, in contrast to the blank MC devices.

  3. Bioactive Ti metal analogous to human cancellous bone: Fabrication by selective laser melting and chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Deepak K; Fukuda, A; Matsushita, T; Takemoto, M; Fujibayashi, S; Sasaki, K; Nishida, N; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T

    2011-03-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a useful technique for preparing three-dimensional porous bodies with complicated internal structures directly from titanium (Ti) powders without any intermediate processing steps, with the products being expected to be useful as a bone substitute. In this study the necessary SLM processing conditions to obtain a dense product, such as the laser power, scanning speed, and hatching pattern, were investigated using a Ti powder of less than 45 μm particle size. The results show that a fully dense plate thinner than 1.8 mm was obtained when the laser power to scanning speed ratio was greater than 0.5 and the hatch spacing was less than the laser diameter, with a 30 μm thick powder layer. Porous Ti metals with structures analogous to human cancellous bone were fabricated and the compressive strength measured. The compressive strength was in the range 35-120 MPa when the porosity was in the range 75-55%. Porous Ti metals fabricated by SLM were heat-treated at 1300 °C for 1h in an argon gas atmosphere to smooth the surface. Such prepared specimens were subjected to NaOH, HCl, and heat treatment to provide bioactivity. Field emission scanning electron micrographs showed that fine networks of titanium oxide were formed over the whole surface of the porous body. These treated porous bodies formed bone-like apatite on their surfaces in a simulated body fluid within 3 days. In vivo studies showed that new bone penetrated into the pores and directly bonded to the walls within 12 weeks after implantation into the femur of Japanese white rabbits. The percentage bone affinity indices of the chemical- and heat-treated porous bodies were significantly higher than that of untreated implants. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Global gene expression profiling of the asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 in the human urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important health problem worldwide, with many million cases each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTIs in humans. The asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli strain 83972 is an excellent colonizer of the human urinary tract, where it causes...... long-term bladder colonization. The strain has been used for prophylactic purposes in patients prone to more severe and recurrent UTIs. For this study, we used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile of strain 83972 in the human urinary tract. Significant differences in expression levels were...

  5. Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia Strains from Human, Animal, and Food Samples in San Luis, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Gabriela Isabel; Lucero Estrada, Cecilia; Cortiñas, Teresa Inés; Escudero, María Esther

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella spp., and Yersinia species was investigated in humans, animals, and foods in San Luis, Argentina. A total of 453 samples were analyzed by culture and PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all the strains was studied, the genomic relationships among isolates of the same species were determined by PFGE, and the potencial virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains was analyzed. Yersinia species showed higher prevalence (9/453, 2.0%, 95% CI, 0.7–3.3%) than STEC (4/453, 0.9%, 95% CI, 0–1.8%) and Salmonella spp. (3/453, 0.7%, 95% CI, 0–1.5%). Y. enterocolitica and Y. intermedia were isolated from chicken carcasses (6/80, 7.5%, 95% CI, 1.5–13.5%) and porcine skin and bones (3/10, 30%, 95% CI, 0–65%). One STEC strain was recovered from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) and STEC stx1/stx2 genes were detected in bovine stools (3/129, 2.3%, 95% CI, 0–5.0%). S. Typhimurium was isolated from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) while one S. Newport and two S. Gaminara strains were recovered from one wild boar (1/3, 33%, 95% CI, 0–99%). The knowledge of prevalence and characteristics of these enteropathogens in our region would allow public health services to take adequate preventive measures. PMID:25177351

  6. Development of a Probiotic Cheddar Cheese Containing Human-Derived Lactobacillus paracasei Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, G.; Ross, R. P.; Collins, J. K.; Fitzgerald, G.; Stanton, C.

    1998-01-01

    Cheddar cheese was manufactured with either Lactobacillus salivarius NFBC 310, NFBC 321, or NFBC 348 or L. paracasei NFBC 338 or NFBC 364 as the dairy starter adjunct. These five strains had previously been isolated from the human small intestine and have been characterized extensively with respect to their probiotic potential. Enumeration of these strains in mature Cheddar cheese, however, was complicated by the presence of high numbers (>107 CFU/g of cheese) of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria, principally composed of lactobacilli which proliferate as the cheese ripens. Attempts to differentiate the adjunct lactobacilli from the nonstarter lactobacilli based on bile tolerance and growth temperature were unsuccessful. In contrast, the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method allowed the generation of discrete DNA fingerprints for each strain which were clearly distinguishable from those generated from the natural flora of the cheeses. Using this approach, it was found that both L. paracasei strains grew and sustained high viability in cheese during ripening, while each of the L. salivarius species declined over the ripening period. These data demonstrate that Cheddar cheese can be an effective vehicle for delivery of some probiotic organisms to the consumer. PMID:9603834

  7. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of bone regeneration using nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and human freeze-dried bone graft : An experimental study in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Najafi, Mohammad; Semyari, Hassan; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    Bone regeneration is an important concern in periodontal treatment and implant dentistry. Different biomaterials and surgical techniques have been used for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and human freeze-dried bone graft (FDBG) in regeneration of rabbit calvarium bony defects by histologic and histomorphometric evaluation. In this experimental study, three similar defects, measuring 8 mm in diameter, were created in the calvaria of 16 white New Zealand rabbits. Two defects were filled with FDBG and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel, while the other one remained unfilled to be considered as control. All the defects were covered with collagen membranes. During the healing period, two animals perished; so 14 rabbits were divided into two groups: half of them were euthanized after 6 weeks of healing and the other half after 12 weeks. The specimens were subjected to histologic and histomorphometric examinations for assessment of the following variables: percentage of bone formation and residual graft material, inflammation scores, patterns of bone formation and type of newly formed bone. The percentages of new bone formation after 6 weeks were 14.22 ± 7.85, 21.57 ± 6.91, and 20.54 ± 10.07% in FDBG, NanoBone, and control defects. These values were 27.54 ± 20.19, 23.86 ± 6.27, and 26.48 ± 14.18% in 12-week specimens, respectively. No significant differences were found in the amount of bone formation between the groups. With regard to inflammation, the control and NanoBone groups showed significantly less inflammation compared to FDBG at the 6-week healing phase (P = 0.04); this difference was not significant in the 12-week specimens. Based on the results of this experimental study, both NanoBone and FDBG exhibited a similar effect on bone formation.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Current Human Coronavirus Strains in Primary Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Reveal Differences in Target Cell Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Deijs, Martin; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Molenkamp, Richard; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Thiel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry port of many human respiratory viruses, including human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Nowadays, four HCoVs, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63, are known to be circulating worldwide, causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in nonhospitalized and hospitalized children. Studies of the fundamental aspects of these HCoV infections at the primary entry port, such as cell tropism, are seriously hampered by the lack of a universal culture system or suitable animal models. To expand the knowledge on fundamental virus-host interactions for all four HCoVs at the site of primary infection, we used pseudostratified HAE cell cultures to isolate and characterize representative clinical HCoV strains directly from nasopharyngeal material. Ten contemporary isolates were obtained, representing HCoV-229E (n = 1), HCoV-NL63 (n = 1), HCoV-HKU1 (n = 4), and HCoV-OC43 (n = 4). For each strain, we analyzed the replication kinetics and progeny virus release on HAE cell cultures derived from different donors. Surprisingly, by visualizing HCoV infection by confocal microscopy, we observed that HCoV-229E employs a target cell tropism for nonciliated cells, whereas HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63 all infect ciliated cells. Collectively, the data demonstrate that HAE cell cultures, which morphologically and functionally resemble human airways in vivo, represent a robust universal culture system for isolating and comparing all contemporary HCoV strains. PMID:23427150

  9. Congruent strain specific intestinal persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an intestine-mimicking in vitro system and in human volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien van Bokhorst-van de Veen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species. However, data on the in situ persistence characteristics of individual or mixtures of strains of the same species in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy human volunteers have not been reported to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The GI-tract survival of individual L. plantarum strains was determined using an intestine mimicking model system, revealing substantial inter-strain differences. The obtained data were correlated to genomic diversity of the strains using comparative genome hybridization (CGH datasets, but this approach failed to discover specific genetic loci that explain the observed differences between the strains. Moreover, we developed a next-generation sequencing-based method that targets a variable intergenic region, and employed this method to assess the in vivo GI-tract persistence of different L. plantarum strains when administered in mixtures to healthy human volunteers. Remarkable consistency of the strain-specific persistence curves were observed between individual volunteers, which also correlated significantly with the GI-tract survival predicted on basis of the in vitro assay. CONCLUSION: The survival of individual L. plantarum strains in the GI-tract could not be correlated to the absence or presence of specific genes compared to the reference strain L. plantarum WCFS1. Nevertheless, in vivo persistence analysis in the human GI-tract confirmed the strain-specific persistence, which appeared to be remarkably similar in different healthy volunteers. Moreover, the relative strain-specific persistence in vivo appeared to be accurately and significantly predicted by their relative survival in the intestine-mimicking in vitro

  10. In utero transplantation of human bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shiu-Huey; Kuo, Tom K; Liu, Ming; Lee, Oscar K

    2006-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can be isolated from human bone marrow and possess the potential to differentiate into progenies of embryonic mesoderm. However, current evidence is based predominantly on in vitro experiments. We used a murine model of in utero transplantation (IUT) to study the engraftment capabilities of human MSCs. MSCs were obtained from bone marrow by negative immunoselection and limiting dilution, and were characterized by flow cytometry and by in vitro differentiation into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. MSCs were transplanted into fetal mice at a gestational age of 14 days. Engraftment of human MSCs was determined by flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MSCs engrafted into tissues originating from all three germ layers and persisted for up to 4 months or more after delivery, as evidenced by the expression of the human-specific beta-2 microglobulin gene and by FISH for donor-derived cells. Donor-derived CD45+ cells were detectable in the peripheral blood of recipients, suggesting the participation of MSCs in hematopoiesis at the fetal stage. This model can further serve to evaluate possible applications of MSCs. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Yeast-2-Hybrid data file showing progranulin interactions in human fetal brain and bone marrow libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Tegeder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progranulin deficiency in humans is associated with neurodegeneration. Its mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We performed a Yeast-2-Hybrid screen using human full-length progranulin as bait to assess the interactions of progranulin. Progranulin was screened against human fetal brain and human bone marrow libraries using the standard Matchmaker technology (Clontech. This article contains the full Y2H data table, including blast results and sequences, a sorted table according to selection criteria for likely positive, putatively positive, likely false and false preys, and tables showing the gene ontology terms associated with the likely and putative preys of the brain and bone marrow libraries. The interactions with autophagy proteins were confirmed and functionally analyzed in "Progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain in mice: Role of autophagy" (C. Altmann, S. Hardt, C. Fischer, J. Heidler, H.Y. Lim, A. Haussler, B. Albuquerque, B. Zimmer, C. Moser, C. Behrends, F. Koentgen, I. Wittig, M.H. Schmidt, A.M. Clement, T. Deller, I. Tegeder, 2016 [1].

  12. Yeast-2-Hybrid data file showing progranulin interactions in human fetal brain and bone marrow libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, Irmgard

    2016-12-01

    Progranulin deficiency in humans is associated with neurodegeneration. Its mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We performed a Yeast-2-Hybrid screen using human full-length progranulin as bait to assess the interactions of progranulin. Progranulin was screened against human fetal brain and human bone marrow libraries using the standard Matchmaker technology (Clontech). This article contains the full Y2H data table, including blast results and sequences, a sorted table according to selection criteria for likely positive, putatively positive, likely false and false preys, and tables showing the gene ontology terms associated with the likely and putative preys of the brain and bone marrow libraries. The interactions with autophagy proteins were confirmed and functionally analyzed in "Progranulin overexpression in sensory neurons attenuates neuropathic pain in mice: Role of autophagy" (C. Altmann, S. Hardt, C. Fischer, J. Heidler, H.Y. Lim, A. Haussler, B. Albuquerque, B. Zimmer, C. Moser, C. Behrends, F. Koentgen, I. Wittig, M.H. Schmidt, A.M. Clement, T. Deller, I. Tegeder, 2016) [1].

  13. Interleukin-3 Does Not Affect the Differentiation of Mast Cells Derived from Human Bone Marrow Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Kentaro, Sakai; Maeno, Toshitaka; Suga, Tatsuo; Miura, Toru; Takai, Shinji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hirohisa

    2008-01-01

    Although IL-3 is commonly used for culture of human progenitor-derived mast cells together with Stem cell factor (SCF) and IL-6, the effect of IL-3 on human mast cell differentiation has not been well elucidated. Human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors were cultured for up to 12 weeks in the presence of rhSCF and rhIL-6 either with rhIL-3 (IL-3 (+)) or without rhIL-3 (IL-3 (−)) for the initial 1-week of culture. Total cell number increased at 2 weeks in IL-3 (+), as compared to IL-3 (−), but changes in the appearance of mast cells were delayed. When IL-3 was present for the initial 1-week culture, granules looked more mature with IL-3 than without IL-3. However, tryptase and chymase contents, and surface antigen expression (CD18, CD51, CD54, and CD117) were not altered by IL-3. Surface expression and mRNA level of FcεRIα and histamine release by crosslinking of FcεRIα did not differ from one preparation to the next. GeneChip analysis revealed that no significant differences were observed between IL-3 (+) and IL-3 (−) cells either when inactivated or activated by aggregation of FcεRIα. These findings indicate that initial incubation of human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors with IL-3 does not affect the differentiation of mast cells. PMID:18214796

  14. Theobromine Upregulates Osteogenesis by Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro and Accelerates Bone Development in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Bret H; Ylostalo, Joni; Browder, Elizabeth; McNeill, Eoin P; Bartosh, Thomas J; Rawls, H Ralph; Nakamoto, Tetsuo; Gregory, Carl A

    2017-03-01

    Theobromine (THB) is one of the major xanthine-like alkaloids found in cacao plant and a variety of other foodstuffs such as tea leaves, guarana and cola nuts. Historically, THB and its derivatives have been utilized to treat cardiac and circulatory disorders, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, proteinuria and as an immune-modulator. Our previous work demonstrated that THB has the capacity to improve the formation of hydroxyl-apatite during tooth development, suggesting that it may also enhance skeletal development. With its excellent safety profile and resistance to pharmacokinetic elimination, we reasoned that it might be an excellent natural osteoanabolic supplement during pregnancy, lactation and early postnatal growth. To determine whether THB had an effect on human osteoprogenitors, we subjected primary human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to osteogenic assays after exposure to THB in vitro and observed that THB exposure increased the rate of osteogenesis and mineralization by hMSCs. Moreover, THB exposure resulted in a list of upregulated mRNA transcripts that best matched an osteogenic tissue expression signature as compared to other tissue expression signatures archived in several databases. To determine whether oral administration of THB resulted in improved skeletal growth, we provided pregnant rats with chow supplemented with THB during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, offspring received THB continuously until postnatal day 50 (approximately 10 mg kg -1 day -1 ). Administration of THB resulted in neonates with larger bones, and 50-day-old offspring accumulated greater body mass, longer and thicker femora and superior tibial trabecular parameters. The accelerated growth did not adversely affect the strength and resilience of the bones. These results indicate that THB increases the osteogenic potential of bone marrow osteoprogenitors, and dietary supplementation of a safe dose of THB to expectant mothers and during the postnatal period

  15. Quantitative characterization of changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties in two rat strains with different Ah-receptor structures after long-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlin, Maria; Kalantari, Fereshteh; Stern, Natalia; Sand, Salomon; Larsson, Sune; Viluksela, Matti; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Tuomisto, Jouko; Tuukkanen, Juha; Jaemsae, Timo; Lind, P. Monica; Hakansson, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Both industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants can interfere with bone modeling and remodeling. Recently, detailed toxicological bone studies have been performed following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which exerts most of its toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Objectives: The aims of the present study were to quantitatively evaluate changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties following long-term exposure to TCDD, and to further investigate the role of AhR in TCDD-induced bone alterations. To this end, tissue material used in the study was derived from TCDD-exposed Long-Evans (L-E) and Han/Wistar (H/W) rats, which differ markedly in sensitivity to TCDD-induced toxicity due to a strain difference in AhR structure. Methods: Ten weeks old female L-E and H/W rats were administered TCDD s.c. once per week for 20 weeks, at doses corresponding to calculated daily doses of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng TCDD/kg bw (H/W only). Femur, tibia and vertebra from the L-E and H/W rats were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and biomechanical testing at multiple sites. Dose-response modeling was performed to establish benchmark doses for the analyzed bone parameters, and to quantify strain sensitivity differences for those parameters, which were affected by TCDD exposure in both rat strains. Results: Bone geometry and bone biomechanical parameters were affected by TCDD exposure, while bone mineral density parameters were less affected. The trabecular area at proximal tibia and the endocortical circumference at tibial diaphysis were the parameters that showed the highest maximal responses. Significant strain differences in response to TCDD treatment were observed, with the L-E rat being the most sensitive strain. For the parameters that were affected in both strains, the differences in sensitivity were quantified, showing the most pronounced (about 49-fold) strain

  16. Monitoring Dynamic Interactions between Breast Cancer Cells and Human Bone Tissue in a Co-Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contag, Christopher H.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Bammer, Marie C.; Hardy, Jonathan W.; Schmidt, Tobi L.; Maloney, William J.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bone is a preferential site of breast cancer metastasis and models are needed to study this process at the level of the microenvironment. We have used bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and multiplex biomarker immunoassays to monitor dynamic breast cancer cell behaviors in co-culture with human bone tissue. Procedures Femur tissue fragments harvested from hip replacement surgeries were co-cultured with luciferase-positive MDA-MB-231-fLuc cells. BLI was performed to quantify breast cell division and track migration relative to bone tissue. Breast cell colonization of bone tissues was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Biomarkers in co-culture supernatants were profiled with MILLIPLEX® immunoassays. Results BLI demonstrated increased MDA-MB-231-fLuc proliferation (pbones, and revealed breast cell migration toward bone. Immunohistochemistry illustrated MDA-MB-231-fLuc colonization of bone, and MILLIPLEX® profiles of culture supernatants suggested breast/bone crosstalk. Conclusions Breast cell behaviors that facilitate metastasis occur reproducibly in human bone tissue co-cultures and can be monitored and quantified using BLI and multiplex immunoassays. PMID:24008275

  17. Integrin expression by human osteoblasts cultured on degradable polymeric materials applicable for tissue engineered bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Saadiq F; Attawia, Mohamed; Lu, Helen H; Shah, Asist K; Chang, Richard; Hickok, Noreen J; Tuan, Rocky S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2002-01-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers in the field of orthopaedic surgery has gained increased popularity, as surgical pins and screws, and as potential biological scaffolds for repairing cartilage and bone defects. One such group of polymers that has gained considerable attention are the polyesters, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) and polylactic acid (PLA), because of their minimal tissue inflammatory response, favorable biocompatibility and degradation characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate human osteoblastic cell adherence and growth on PLAGA and PLA scaffolds by examining integrin receptor (alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6 and beta1) expression. Primary human osteoblastic cells isolated from trabecular bone adhered efficiently to both PLAGA and PLA, with the rate of adherence on PLAGA comparable to that of control tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), and significantly higher than on PLA polymers at 3, 6 and 12 h. Human osteoblastic phenotypic expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was positive on both degradable matrices, whereas osteocalcin levels were significantly higher on cells grown on PLAGA than on PLA composites. Interestingly, the integrin subunits, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6 and beta1 were all expressed at higher levels by osteoblasts cultured on PLAGA than those on PLA as analyzed by westerns blots and by flow cytometry. Among the integrins, alpha2, beta5 and beta1 showed the greatest difference in levels between the two surfaces. Thus, both PLA and PLAGA support osteoblastic adhesion and its accompanying engagement of integrin receptor and expression of osteocalcin and ALP. However PLAGA consistently appeared to be a better substrate for osteoblastic cells based on these parameters. This study is one of the first to investigate the ability of primary human osteoblastic cells isolated from trabecular bone to adhere to the biodegradable polymers PLAGA and PLA, and to examine the expression of their key

  18. Human Studies of Vertical and Horizontal Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Comparing Different Types of Bone Graft Materials: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Suraj; Levin, Liran

    2018-02-01

    Alveolar ridge augmentation can be completed with various types of bone augmentation materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). Currently, autogenous bone is labeled as the "gold standard" because of faster healing times and integration between native and foreign bone. No systematic review has currently determined whether there is a difference in implant success between various bone augmentation materials. The purpose of this article was to systematically review comparative human studies of vertical and horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation comparing different types of bone graft materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). A MEDLINE search was conducted under the 3 search concepts of bone augmentation, dental implants, and alveolar ridge augmentation. Studies pertaining to socket grafts or sinus lifts were excluded. Case reports, small case series, and review papers were excluded. A bias assessment tool was applied to the final articles. Overall, 219 articles resulted from the initial search, and 9 articles were included for final analysis. There were no discernible differences in implant success between bone augmentation materials. Generally, patients preferred nonautogenous bone sources as there were fewer hospital days, less pain, and better recovery time. Two articles had industrial support; however, conclusions of whether that support influenced the outcomes could not be determined. Future comparative studies should compare nonautogenous bone sources and have longer follow-up times.

  19. Cyst-Like Osteolytic Formations in Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) Augmented Sheep Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsin Chuan; Lee, Soonchul; Ting, Kang; Shen, Jia; Wang, Chenchao; Nguyen, Alan; Berthiaume, Emily A; Zara, Janette N; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Kwak, Jin Hee; Zhang, Xinli; Soo, Chia

    2017-07-01

    Multiple case reports using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) have reported complications. However, the local adverse effects of rhBMP-2 application are not well documented. In this report we show that, in addition to promoting lumbar spinal fusion through potent osteogenic effects, rhBMP-2 augmentation promotes local cyst-like osteolytic formations in sheep trabecular bones that have undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Three months after operation, conventional computed tomography showed that the trabecular bones of the rhBMP-2 application groups could fuse, whereas no fusion was observed in the control group. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that the core implant area's bone volume fraction and bone mineral density increased proportionately with rhBMP-2 dose. Multiple cyst-like bone voids were observed in peri-implant areas when using rhBMP-2 applications, and these sites showed significant bone mineral density decreases in relation to the unaffected regions. Biomechanically, these areas decreased in strength by 32% in comparison with noncystic areas. Histologically, rhBMP-2-affected void sites had an increased amount of fatty marrow, thinner trabecular bones, and significantly more adiponectin- and cathepsin K-positive cells. Despite promoting successful fusion, rhBMP-2 use in clinical applications may result in local adverse structural alterations and compromised biomechanical changes to the bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ArgO145, a Stx2a prophage of a bovine O145 : H-STEC strain, is closely related to phages of virulent human strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krüger, A; Burgán, J; Friedrich, A W; Jwa, Rossen; Pma, Lucchesi

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are the main virulence factor of a pathogroup of Escherichia coli strains that cause severe human diseases. These toxins are encoded in prophages (Stx prophages), and generally their expression depends on prophage induction. Several studies have reported high diversity among both

  1. Tissue viscoelasticity is related to tissue composition but may not fully predict the apparent-level viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone – An experimental and finite element study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, X.; Tanska, P.; Malo, M. K.H.

    2017-01-01

    Trabecular bone is viscoelastic under dynamic loading. However, it is unclear how tissue viscoelasticity controls viscoelasticity at the apparent-level. In this study, viscoelasticity of cylindrical human trabecular bone samples (n = 11, male, age 18–78 years) from 11 proximal femurs were charact......). These findings indicate that bone tissue viscoelasticity is affected by tissue composition but may not fully predict the macroscale viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone....

  2. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  3. Association of immunity and tolerance of host H-2 determinants in irradiated F1 hybrid mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells from one parental strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprent, J.; von Boehmer, H.; Nabholz, M.

    1975-01-01

    Semiallogeneic radiation chimeras were prepared by injecting heavily irradiated F 1 hybrid mice with bone marrow cells from one parental strain; the bone marrow cells were treated with anti-theta serum and complement to remove T cells and injected in large numbers (2 x 10 7 cells). The mice survived in excellent health until sacrifice 6 mo later. Thoracic duct cannulation at this stage showed that the mice possessed normal numbers of recirculating lymphocytes. Close to 100 percent of thoracic duct lymphocytes and lymph node cells were shown to be of donor strain origin. The capacity of lymphocytes from the chimeras to respond to host-type determinants was tested in mixed leukocyte culture and in an assay for cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). Mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) were measured both in vitro and in vivo; tumor cells and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated blast cells were used as target cells for measuring CML. While responding normally to third party determinants, cells from the chimeras gave a definite, though reduced MLR when exposed to host-type determinants. However, this proliferative response to host-type determinants, unlike that to third party determinants, was not associated with differentiation into cytotoxic lymphocytes

  4. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation....... We also assessed bone formation by DPCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Results: We found that DPCs are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. Implantation of DPCs resulted...... remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for regenerative dentistry, for example mineralized tissue engineering to restore bone defects in relation to periodontitis, periimplantatis and orofacial surgery. Experiments in progress have proven that DPCSs are also useful for assessing...

  5. Trabecular bone microstructure is impaired in the proximal femur of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with normal bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakia, Galateia J; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lai, Andrew; Nardo, Lorenzo; Facchetti, Luca; Pasco, Courtney; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Han, Misung; Parrott, Amanda Hutton; Tien, Phyllis; Krug, Roland

    2018-02-01

    There is evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independent risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture which is not solely explained by changes in bone mineral density. Thus, we hypothesized that the assessment of trabecular microstructure might play an important role for bone quality in this population and might explain the increased fracture risk. In this study, we have assessed bone microstructure in the proximal femur using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as in the extremities using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in HIV-infected men and healthy controls and compared these findings to those based on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) which is the standard clinical parameter for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Eight HIV-infected men and 11 healthy age-matched controls were recruited and informed consent was obtained before each scan. High-resolution MRI of the proximal femur was performed using fully balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) on a 3T system. Three volumes of interest at corresponding anatomic locations across all subjects were defined based on registrations of a common template. Four MR-based trabecular microstructural parameters were analyzed at each region: fuzzy bone volume fraction (f-BVF), trabecular number (Tb.N), thickness (Tb.Th), and spacing (Tb.Sp). In addition, the distal radius and distal tibia were imaged with HR-pQCT. Four HR-pQCT-based microstructural parameters were analyzed: trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Tb.Sp. Total hip and spine aBMD were determined from DXA. Microstructural bone parameters derived from MRI at the proximal femur and from HR-pQCT at the distal tibia showed significantly lower bone quality in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. In contrast, DXA aBMD data showed no significant differences between HIV

  6. NOTE: A preliminary study for non-invasive quantification of manganese in human hand bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A.; Chettle, D. R.; McNeill, F. E.; Pysklywec, M. W.; Oudyk, J.

    2008-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body, but it is also toxic when humans are excessively exposed to Mn. Blood (or serum/plasma) and other body fluids reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive measurement of Mn stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following feasibility studies, a first pilot study, using neutron activation analysis to measure Mn in the bones of the hand of ten healthy male human subjects, was conducted with the approval of the concerned research ethics boards. The participants of this study had no known history of exposure to Mn. Two volunteers were excluded from this study due to technical problems with their measurements. The inverse variance weighted mean value of Mn/Ca for the participants of this study is 0.12 ± 0.68 µg Mn/g Ca which is comparable within uncertainties with the estimated range of 0.16 0.78 µg Mn/g Ca and mean value of 0.63 ± 0.30 µg Mn/g Ca derived from cadaver data. It is recommended to investigate the use of the diagnostic technique for in vivo measurements of workers exposed occupationally to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. The technique needs further development to improve the precision of in vivo measurements in the non-exposed population.

  7. Interleukin-17A increases leptin production in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Minsoo

    2012-03-01

    Lineage commitment of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) to adipocytes or osteoblasts has been suggested as a model system to study the relationship between type II diabetes and abnormal bone metabolism. Leptin and IL-17A inhibit adipogenesis whereas they promote osteogenesis in MSCs. Due to pathophysiologic roles of IL-17A in human metabolic diseases and bone metabolism, it was evaluated whether IL-17A-dependent inverse regulation on adipogenesis and osteogenesis was related to endogenous leptin production in hBM-MSCs. In the analysis of adiponectin and leptin secretion profiles of hBM-MSCs in response to various combinations of differentiation inducing factors, it was found that dexamethasone, a common molecule used for both adipogenesis and osteogenesis, increased leptin production in hBM-MSCs. Importantly, the level of leptin production during osteogenesis in hBM-MSCs was higher than that during adipogenesis, implicating a significant leptin production in extra-adipose tissues. IL-17A increased leptin production in hBM-MSCs and also under the condition of osteogenesis. In spite of direct inhibition on adipogenesis, IL-17A up-regulated leptin production in hBM-MSC-derived adipocytes. Anti-leptin antibody treatment partially antagonized the IL-17A dependent inhibition of adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs, suggesting a role of leptin in mediating the inverse regulation of IL-17A on osteogenesis and adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs. Therefore, the IL-17A-induced leptin production may provide a key clue to understand a molecular mechanism on the lineage commitment of hBM-MSCs into adipocytes or osteoblasts. In addition, leptin production in extra-adipose tissues like MSCs and osteoblasts should be considered in future studies on leptin-associated human diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A preliminary study for non-invasive quantification of manganese in human hand bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R; McNeill, F E; Pysklywec, M W; Oudyk, J

    2008-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient essential for regulating neurological and skeletal functions in the human body, but it is also toxic when humans are excessively exposed to Mn. Blood (or serum/plasma) and other body fluids reflect only the most recent exposure and rapidly return to within normal ranges, even when there has been a temporary excursion in response to exposure. In this context, we have been developing a non-invasive measurement of Mn stored in bone, using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Following feasibility studies, a first pilot study, using neutron activation analysis to measure Mn in the bones of the hand of ten healthy male human subjects, was conducted with the approval of the concerned research ethics boards. The participants of this study had no known history of exposure to Mn. Two volunteers were excluded from this study due to technical problems with their measurements. The inverse variance weighted mean value of Mn/Ca for the participants of this study is 0.12 ± 0.68 μg Mn/g Ca which is comparable within uncertainties with the estimated range of 0.16-0.78 μg Mn/g Ca and mean value of 0.63 ± 0.30 μg Mn/g Ca derived from cadaver data. It is recommended to investigate the use of the diagnostic technique for in vivo measurements of workers exposed occupationally to excessive amounts of Mn who could develop many-fold increased levels of Mn in bones as demonstrated through various animal studies. The technique needs further development to improve the precision of in vivo measurements in the non-exposed population. (note)

  9. 3D Synchrotron μ-x-ray fluorescence analysis on human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Wegrzynek, D.; Roschger, P.; Simon, R.; Staub, S.; Falkenberg, G.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between μ-x-ray fluorescence tomography and confocal μ-x-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF) will be presented. These techniques were used to study the three dimensional (3D) elemental distribution in human bone. Since bone shows very strong inhomogeneities in structure as well as in distribution of the chemical elements, two dimensional (2D) analysis (element mapping) of the samples always led to difficulties in interpreting the results and assigning elemental distributions to microscopic structures. Tomography scans in fluorescence and absorption mode have been carried out simultaneously at the fluo-topo beamline at ANKA, Karlsruhe, to determine the distribution of the elements over the depth of the previously prepared sample from human patella. A monochromatized x-ray beam (17 keV) from a bending magnet station focused by a compound refractive lens to a beamsize of 10 x 5 μm was used to perform the measurements. The transmitted beam signal measured with the SD detector was utilized to apply a simplified absorption correction to XRF tomographic images. Based on the XRF sinograms the elemental distribution within the object cross-section was reconstructed by means of filtered backprojection. The same section of human bone has been analyzed by confocal μ-XRF at HASYLAB, Hamburg, Germany beamline L. With this experiment two polycapillary half lenses were used; one for focusing the previously monochromatized primary x-ray beam onto the sample and the second half lens in front of a Si(Li) detector to get a small inspected area. By overlapping the two foci of the lenses a very well defined volume of investigation could be defined. Scanning the sample up- and downstream it was possible to determine the elemental distribution in depth of the sample. An absorption correction has been applied to get a corrected fluorescence image of the sample. Both methods showed consistent results and allowed a precise localization of the elements of interest. (author)

  10. An Emerging Tick-Borne Disease of Humans Is Caused by a Subset of Strains with Conserved Genome Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet, Anthony F.; Al-Khedery, Basima; Stuen, Snorre; Granquist, Erik G.; Felsheim, Roderick F.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of tick-borne diseases is increasing worldwide. One such emerging disease is human anaplasmosis. The causative organism, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is known to infect multiple animal species and cause human fatalities in the U.S., Europe and Asia. Although long known to infect ruminants, it is unclear why there are increasing numbers of human infections. We analyzed the genome sequences of strains infecting humans, animals and ticks from diverse geographic locations. Despite extensive variability amongst these strains, those infecting humans had conserved genome structure including the pfam01617 superfamily that encodes the major, neutralization-sensitive, surface antigen. These data provide potential targets to identify human-infective strains and have significance for understanding the selective pressures that lead to emergence of disease in new species. PMID:25437207

  11. Characterization of human erythroid burst-promoting activity derived from bone marrow conditioned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.N.; Ogawa, M.

    1982-01-01

    Bone marrow conditioned media (BMCM) increases burst number and the incorporation of 59 Fe into heme by bursts when peripheral blood or bone marrow cells are cultured at limiting serum concentrations. Burst-promoting activity (BPA) has now been purified approximately 300-fold from this source by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex and absorption chromatography on hydroxyapatite agarose gel. Marrow BPA increased burst number and hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. A larger increase in Hb synthesis than in burst number was consistently observed, which was probably a consequence of the increase in the number of cells per burst that occurs in the presence of BPA. The role of BPA in culture could be distinguished from erythropoietin (Ep), since no bursts grew in the absence of Ep, whether or not BPA was present, and since it had no effect on the growth of erythroid colonies scored at day 5 of culture. Our purified fraction did not support the growth of CFU-C in culture. Activity was stable at temperatures of 70 degrees C or lower for 10 min; exposure to 80 degrees C resulted in approximately 50% loss of activity. BPA was completely inactivated by treatment at 100 degrees C for 10 min. Thus, human bone marrow cells produce a heat-sensitive factor that specifically promotes the growth of early erythroid progenitors in culture

  12. [Consensus statement: recommendations for the management of metabolic bone disease in human immunodeficiency virus patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Esteban; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Reyes García, Rebeca; Carpintero, Pedro; Casado, José Luis; Del Pino Montes, Javier; Domingo Pedrol, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Maalouf, Jorge; Negredo, Eugenia; Ocampo, Antonio; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    To provide practical recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of metabolic bone disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Members of scientific societies related to bone metabolism and HIV: Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GeSIDA), Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN), Sociedad Española de Investigación Ósea y del Metabolismo Mineral (SEIOMM), and Sociedad Española de Fractura Osteoporótica (SEFRAOS). A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, and papers in English and Spanish with a publication date before 28 May 2013 were included. Recommendations were formulated according to GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) setting both their strength and the quality of supporting evidence. Working groups were established for each major part, and the final resulting document was later discussed in a face-to-face meeting. All the authors reviewed the final written document and agreed with its content. The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations on the detection and treatment of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. What do bones tell us? The study of human skeletons from the perspective of forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrieri, Brigida; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Human remains are present in a number of contexts. Some of these are archaeological burial sites, which can comprise individual or mass graves burials. Human remains are usually found buried (or cremated), but they can also be found in museums and in universities, as part of their anatomical collections. Human remains can be found in churches as relics, in ossuaries, and as part of objects. Hence human remains refer to not just a complete skeleton, but also apart of a bone or tooth, hair and mummified remains. In more recent forensic, police or medico-legal cases, human skeletal remains can be found in a number of contexts, such as fire scenes, natural disasters, clandestine graves, or on the surface in open areas (e.g. a woodland). One aspect ofphysical anthropology is that which studies human skeletal remains in order to reconstruct the past, understand human variation, and provide information about the deceased individuals, such as their age at death, sex, ancestry, stature, pathological conditions or traumatic injuries; the remains from medico-legal or police cases fall under the branch offorensic anthropology.

  14. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Mindaye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5,6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of calcium/phosphorus ratio in rib bone of healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzaphlidou, Margaret; Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The Ca/P ratio was estimated in intact rib bone samples from healthy humans, 37 women and 45 men, aged from 15 to 55 years using instrumental neutron activation analysis. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) age- or sex-related differences in the Ca/P ratio were observed. The mean value (M±SD) for the investigated parameter for the whole group studied, 2.33±0.34, was within a very wide range of published data and close to the median value

  16. Trace element determination in human bones using the neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarski, Sila; Saiki, Mitiko; Borelli, Aurelio; Batalha, Joao R.F.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained in the analysis of rib bone samples from normal human individuals by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. In these analyses, the elements Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sr and Zn were found at the ppm level and the elements Ca and P at the level of percentage. The precision and the of the results were evaluated by using biological reference materials NIST SRM 1577a Bovine Liver, IAEA A-11 Milk powder, NIES CRM 9 Sargasso e NIES CRM 10A Rice Flour Unpolished. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Pulsatile and steady-state hemodynamics of the human patella bone by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzam, Parisa; Zirak, Peyman; Durduran, Turgut; Binzoni, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    The cardiac cycle related pulsatile behavior of the absorption and scattering coefficients of diffuse light and the corresponding alterations in hemoglobin concentrations in the human patella was studied. The pulsations in scattering is considerably smaller than absorption. The difference in amplitude of absorption coefficient pulsations for different wavelengths was translated to pulsations in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, which leads to strong pulsations in the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. The physiological origin of the observed signals was confirmed by applying a thigh-cuff. Moreover, we have investigated the optical and physiological properties of the patella bone and their changes in response to arterial cuff occlusion. (paper)

  18. Pulsatile and steady-state hemodynamics of the human patella bone by diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam, Parisa; Zirak, Peyman; Binzoni, Tiziano; Durduran, Turgut

    2013-08-01

    The cardiac cycle related pulsatile behavior of the absorption and scattering coefficients of diffuse light and the corresponding alterations in hemoglobin concentrations in the human patella was studied. The pulsations in scattering is considerably smaller than absorption. The difference in amplitude of absorption coefficient pulsations for different wavelengths was translated to pulsations in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, which leads to strong pulsations in the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. The physiological origin of the observed signals was confirmed by applying a thigh-cuff. Moreover, we have investigated the optical and physiological properties of the patella bone and their changes in response to arterial cuff occlusion.

  19. Structural and molecular insights into novel surface-exposed mucus adhesins from Lactobacillus reuteri human strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzold, Sabrina; MacKenzie, Donald A; Jeffers, Faye; Walshaw, John; Roos, Stefan; Hemmings, Andrew M; Juge, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    The mucus layer covering the gastrointestinal tract is the first point of contact of the intestinal microbiota with the host. Cell surface macromolecules are critical for adherence of commensal bacteria to mucus but structural information is scarce. Here we report the first molecular and structural characterization of a novel cell-surface protein, Lar_0958 from Lactobacillus reuteri JCM 1112(T) , mediating adhesion of L. reuteri human strains to mucus. Lar_0958 is a modular protein of 133 kDa containing six repeat domains, an N-terminal signal sequence and a C-terminal anchoring motif (LPXTG). Lar_0958 homologues are expressed on the cell-surface of L. reuteri human strains, as shown by flow-cytometry and immunogold microscopy. Adhesion of human L. reuteri strains to mucus in vitro was significantly reduced in the presence of an anti-Lar_0958 antibody and Lar_0958 contribution to adhesion was further confirmed using a L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 lar_0958 KO mutant (6475-KO). The X-ray crystal structure of a single Lar_0958 repeat, determined at 1.5 Å resolution, revealed a divergent immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich fold, sharing structural homology with the Ig-like inter-repeat domain of internalins of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. These findings provide unique structural insights into cell-surface protein repeats involved in adhesion of Gram-positive bacteria to the intestine. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Glycation of human cortical and cancellous bone captures differences in the formation of Maillard reaction products between glucose and ribose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna E Sroga

    Full Text Available To better understand some aspects of bone matrix glycation, we used an in vitro glycation approach. Within two weeks, our glycation procedures led to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs at the levels that corresponded to approx. 25-30 years of the natural in vivo glycation. Cortical and cancellous bones from human tibias were glycated in vitro using either glucose (glucosylation or ribose (ribosylation. Both glucosylation and ribosylation led to the formation of higher levels of AGEs and pentosidine (PEN in cancellous than cortical bone dissected from all tested donors (young, middle-age and elderly men and women. More efficient glycation of bone matrix proteins in cancellous bone most likely depended on the higher porosity of this tissue, which facilitated better accessibility of the sugars to the matrix proteins. Notably, glycation of cortical bone from older donors led to much higher AGEs levels as compared to young donors. Such efficient in vitro glycation of older cortical bone could result from aging-related increase in porosity caused by the loss of mineral content. In addition, more pronounced glycation in vivo would be driven by elevated oxidation processes. Interestingly, the levels of PEN formation differed pronouncedly between glucosylation and ribosylation. Ribosylation generated very high levels of PEN (approx. 6- vs. 2.5-fold higher PEN level than in glucosylated samples. Kinetic studies of AGEs and PEN formation in human cortical and cancellous bone matrix confirmed higher accumulation of fluorescent crosslinks for ribosylation. Our results suggest that in vitro glycation of bone using glucose leads to the formation of lower levels of AGEs including PEN, whereas ribosylation appears to support a pathway toward PEN formation. Our studies may help to understand differences in the progression of bone pathologies related to protein glycation by different sugars, and raise awareness for excessive sugar

  1. Radiographic examination of keel bone damage in living laying hens of different strains kept in two housing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl Katharina Eusemann

    Full Text Available A high prevalence of deviations and fractures of the keel bone is a widespread welfare problem in laying hens. The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate this multifactorial problem throughout the laying period and to compare the prevalence and severity in different layer lines and different housing systems. High performing white (WLA and brown (BLA pure bred layer lines and low performing white (R11, G11 and brown layer lines (L68 were kept in both single cages and a floor housing system. A total of 97 hens (19 or 20 from each line, respectively were repeatedly radiographed in the 35th, 51st and 72nd week of age. Fracture prevalence increased with age (p<0.001. The proportion of deviated keel bone area increased only for caged BLA, WLA and R11 hens (p<0.05 and was significantly higher for caged WLA and R11 hens compared to floor-housed WLA and R11 hens in the 72nd week of age (p<0.05. In the 72nd week of age hens in the floor housing system showed significantly more fractures than hens kept in cages (p<0.05. Prevalence of keel bone deviations was significantly higher in the white layer line R11 but significantly lower in the white layer line G11 compared to both brown layer lines and WLA (p<0.05. Brown layers showed significantly more fractures than white layers (p<0.05 in the 51st and 72nd week of age. Within the brown layers there was a significantly lower prevalence of deviations (p<0.05 and fractures (p<0.05 in the low performing (L68 compared to the high performing line (BLA. Our results show a different development of keel bone damage in caged compared to floor-housed hens under experimental conditions. Additionally, they indicate genetic effects on keel bone damage.

  2. Isolation of a human intestinal anaerobe, Bifidobacterium sp. strain SEN, capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, T; Che, Q M; Kobashi, K; Yang, L; Hattori, M; Namba, T

    1994-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium capable of metabolizing sennosides was isolated from human feces and identified as Bifidobacterium sp., named strain SEN. The bacterium hydrolyzed sennosides A and B to sennidins A and B via sennidin A and B 8-monoglucosides, respectively. Among nine species of Bifidobacterium having beta-glucosidase activity, only Bifidobacterium dentium and B. adolescentis metabolized sennoside B to sennidin B, suggesting that the sennoside-metabolizing bacteria produce a novel type of beta-glucosidase capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins. PMID:8161172

  3. Below the Callus Surface: Applying Paleohistological Techniques to Understand the Biology of Bone Healing in Skeletonized Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Sandra; Keenleyside, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Bone trauma is a common occurrence in human skeletal remains. Macroscopic and imaging scrutiny is the approach most currently used to analyze and describe trauma. Nevertheless, this line of inquiry may not be sufficient to accurately identify the type of traumatic lesion and the associated degree of bone healing. To test the usefulness of histology in the examination of bone healing biology, we used an integrative approach that combines gross inspection and microscopy. Six bone samples belonging to 5 adult individuals with signs of bone trauma were collected from the Human Identified Skeletal Collection from the Museu Bocage (Lisbon, Portugal). Previous to sampling, the lesions were described according to their location, morphology, and healing status. After sampling, the bone specimens were prepared for plane light and polarized light analysis. The histological analysis was pivotal: (1) to differentiate between types of traumatic lesions; (2) to ascertain the posttraumatic interval, and (3) to diagnose other associated pathological conditions. The outer surface of a bone lesion may not give a complete picture of the biology of the tissue's response. Accordingly, microscopic analysis is essential to differentiate, characterize, and classify trauma signs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. External fixation of femoral defects in athymic rats: Applications for human stem cell implantation and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasa Foo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate animal model is critical for the research of stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering for bone regeneration in vivo. This study reports the design of an external fixator and its application to critical-sized femoral defects in athymic rats. The external fixator consists of clamps and screws that are readily available from hardware stores as well as Kirschner wires. A total of 35 rats underwent application of the external fixator with creation of a 6-mm bone defect in one femur of each animal. This model had been used in several separate studies, including implantation of collagen gel, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or bone morphogenetic protein-2. One rat developed fracture at the proximal pin site and two rats developed deep tissue infection. Pin loosening was found in nine rats, but it only led to the failure of external fixation in two animals. In 8 to 10 weeks, various degrees of bone growth in the femoral defects were observed in different study groups, from full repair of the bone defect with bone morphogenetic protein-2 implantation to fibrous nonunion with collagen gel implantation. The external fixator used in these studies provided sufficient mechanical stability to the bone defects and had a comparable complication rate in athymic rats as in immunocompetent rats. The external fixator does not interfere with the natural environment of a bone defect. This model is particularly valuable for investigation of osteogenesis of human stem/progenitor cells in vivo.

  5. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of 1698 yeast reference strains revealing potential emerging human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desnos-Ollivier

    Full Text Available New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes. Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001. Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically "resistant" to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens.

  6. Increased bone marrow blood flow in sickle cell anemia demonstrated by thallium-201 and Tc-99m human albumin microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Rucknagel, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Lower extremity vascularity in nine patients with sickle cell anemia was studied by intra-arterial /sup 99m/Tc human albumin microspheres or intravenous thallium-201. In eight patients, the normal pattern of greater muscle than bone activity was reversed with marked tracer localization in skeletal parts usually not visualized. In four cases, there were distinct focal abnormalities in the femurs and tibias which correlated with defects on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scans. TC-99m pyrophosphate bone scans demonstrated normal uptake in the same areas. The scintigraphic findings indicate a markedly increased relative bone marrow blood flow

  7. Graft versus host disease in the bone marrow, liver and thymus humanized mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Greenblatt

    Full Text Available Mice bearing a "humanized" immune system are valuable tools to experimentally manipulate human cells in vivo and facilitate disease models not normally possible in laboratory animals. Here we describe a form of GVHD that develops in NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human fetal bone marrow, liver and thymus (NS BLT mice. The skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and parotid glands are affected with progressive inflammation and sclerosis. Although all mice showed involvement of at least one organ site, the incidence of overt clinical disease was approximately 35% by 22 weeks after reconstitution. The use of hosts lacking the IL2 common gamma chain (NOD/SCID/γc(-/- delayed the onset of disease, but ultimately did not affect incidence. Genetic analysis revealed that particular donor HLA class I alleles influenced the risk for the development of GVHD. At a cellular level, GVHD is associated with the infiltration of human CD4+ T cells into the skin and a shift towards Th1 cytokine production. GVHD also induced a mixed M1/M2 polarization phenotype in a dermal murine CD11b+, MHC class II+ macrophage population. The presence of xenogenic GVHD in BLT mice both presents a major obstacle in the use of humanized mice and an opportunity to conduct preclinical studies on GVHD in a humanized model.

  8. Molecular characterization of a human G20P[28] rotavirus a strain with multiple genes related to bat rotaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esona, Mathew D; Roy, Sunando; Rungsrisuriyachai, Kunchala; Gautam, Rashi; Hermelijn, Sandra; Rey-Benito, Gloria; Bowen, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in the young of mammals and birds. This report describes characterization of an unusual G20P[28] rotavirus strain detected in a 24month old child from Suriname. Genomic sequence analyses revealed that the genotype constellation of the Suriname strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] was G20-P[28]-I13-R13-C13-M12-A23-N13-T15-E20-H15. Genes VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 were recently assigned novel genotypes by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG). Three of the 11 gene segments (VP7, VP4, VP6) were similar to cognate gene sequences of bat-like human rotavirus strain Ecu534 from Ecuador and the VP7, NSP3 and NSP5 gene segments of strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] were found to be closely related to gene sequences of bat rotavirus strain 3081/BRA detected in Brazil. Although distantly related, the VP1 gene of the study strain and bat strain BatLi09 detected in Cameroon in 2014 are monophyletic. The NSP1 gene was found to be most closely related to human strain QUI-35-F5 from Brazil. These findings suggest that strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] represents a zoonotic infection from a bat host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Damage characterization on human femur bone by means of ultrasonics and acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strantza, M; Boulpaep, F; Van Hemelrijck, D; Aggelis, D G; Polyzos, D; Louis, O

    2015-01-01

    Human bone tissue is characterized as a material with high brittleness. Due to this nature, visible signs of cracking are not easy to be detected before final failure. The main objective of this work is to investigate if the acoustic emission (AE) technique can offer valuable insight to the fracture process of human femur specimens as in other engineering materials characterization. This study describes the AE activity during fracture of whole femur bones under flexural load. Before fracture, broadband AE sensors were used in order to measure parameters like wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Waveform parameters like the duration, rise time and average frequency, were also examined relatively to the propagation distance as a preparation for the AE monitoring during fracture. After the ultrasonic study, the samples were partly cast in concrete and fixed as cantilevers. A point load was applied on the femur head, which due to the test geometry resulted in a combination of two different patterns of fracture, bending and torsion. Two AE broadband sensors were placed in different points of the sample, one near the fixing end and the other near the femur head. Preliminary analysis shows that parameters like the number of acquired AE signals and their amplitude are well correlated with the load history. Furthermore, the parameters of rise time and frequency can differentiate the two fracture patterns. Additionally, AE allows the detection of the load at the onset of fracture from the micro-cracking events that occur at the early loading stages, allowing monitoring of the whole fracture process. Parameters that have been used extensively for monitoring and characterization of fracture modes of engineering materials seem to poses characterization power in the case of bone tissue monitoring as well. (paper)

  10. Enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functions on cathodic arc plasma-treated titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu W

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhu,1 George Teel,1 Christopher M O’Brien,1 Taisen Zhuang,1 Michael Keidar,1 Lijie Grace Zhang1–3 1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Surface modification of titanium for use in orthopedics has been explored for years; however, an ideal method of integrating titanium with native bone is still required to this day. Since human bone cells directly interact with nanostructured extracellular matrices, one of the most promising methods of improving titanium’s osseointegration involves inducing biomimetic nanotopography to enhance cell–implant interaction. In this regard, we explored an approach to functionalize the surface of titanium by depositing a thin film of textured titanium nanoparticles via a cathodic arc discharge plasma. The aim is to improve human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC attachment and differentiation and to reduce deleterious effects of more complex surface modification methods. Surface functionalization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle testing, and specific protein adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination demonstrate the deposition of titanium nanoparticles and the surface roughness change after coating. The specific fibronectin adsorption was enhanced on the modified titanium surface that associates with the improved hydrophilicity. MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted on the nanocoated surface. More importantly, compared to bare titanium, greater production of total protein, deposition of calcium mineral, and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase were observed from MSCs on nanocoated titanium after 21 days. The method described herein presents a promising alternative method for inducing more cell favorable nanosurface for improved orthopedic applications

  11. Evidence for Within-Host Genetic Recombination among the Human Pegiviral Strains in HIV Infected Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoming; Padhi, Abinash; Xu, Junqiang; Gong, Xiaoyan; Tien, Po

    2016-01-01

    The non-pathogenic Human Pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C/HGV), the most prevalent RNA virus worldwide, is known to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. Although previous studies documented its ubiquity and important role in HIV-infected individuals, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms that maintain high genetic diversity of HPgV within the HIV-infected individuals. To assess the within-host genetic diversity of HPgV and forces that maintain such diversity within the co-infected hosts, we performed phylogenetic analyses taking into account 229 HPgV partial E1-E2 clonal sequences representing 15 male and 8 female co-infected HIV patients from Hubei province of central China. Our results revealed the presence of eleven strongly supported clades. While nine clades belonged to genotype 3, two clades belonged to genotype 2. Additionally, four clades that belonged to genotype 3 exhibited inter-clade recombination events. The presence of clonal sequences representing multiple clades within the HIV-infected individual provided the evidence of co-circulation of HPgV strains across the region. Of the 23 patients, six patients (i.e., five males and one female) were detected to have HPgV recombinant sequences. Our results also revealed that while male patients shared the viral strains with other patients, viral strains from the female patients had restricted dispersal. Taken together, the present study revealed that multiple infections with divergent HPgV viral strains may have caused within-host genetic recombination, predominantly in male patients, and therefore, could be the major driver in shaping genetic diversity of HPgV.

  12. Comparison of in vitro biocompatibility of NanoBone(®) and BioOss(®) for human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin; Douglas, Timothy; Zamponi, Christiane; Becker, Stephan T; Sherry, Eugene; Sivananthan, Sureshan; Warnke, Frauke; Wiltfang, Jörg; Warnke, Patrick H

    2011-11-01

    Scaffolds for bone tissue engineering seeded with the patient's own cells might be used as a preferable method to repair bone defects in the future. With the emerging new technologies of nanostructure design, new synthetic biomaterials are appearing on the market. Such scaffolds must be tested in vitro for their biocompatibility before clinical application. However, the choice between a natural or a synthetic biomaterial might be challenging for the doctor and the patient. In this study, we compared the biocompatibility of a synthetic bone substitute, NanoBone(®) , to the widely used natural bovine bone replacement material BioOss(®) . The in vitro behaviour of human osteoblasts on both materials was investigated. Cell performance was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell vitality staining and four biocompatibility tests (LDH, MTT, WST, BrdU). We found that both materials showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. The MTT proliferation test was superior for Nanobone(®) . Both scaffolds caused only little damage to human osteoblasts and justify their clinical application. However, NanoBone(®) was able to support and promote proliferation of human osteoblasts slightly better than BioOss(®) in our chosen test set-up. The results may guide doctors and patients when being challenged with the choice between a natural or a synthetic biomaterial. Further experiments are necessary to determine the comparison of biocompatibility in vivo. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Compact DD generator based in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system to determine sodium concentrations in human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Mychaela Dawn; Neumann, Colby R; Zhang, Xinxin; Byrne, Patrick; Liu, Yingzi; Weaver, Connie M; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2018-04-16

    This study presents the development of a non-invasive method for monitoring Na in human bone. Many diseases, such as hypertension and osteoporosis, are closely associated with sodium (Na) retention in the human body. Na retention is generally evaluated by calculating the difference between dietary intake and excretion. There is currently no method to directly quantify Na retained in the body. Bone is a storage for many elements, including Na, which renders bone Na an ideal biomarker to study Na metabolism and retention. Approach: A customized compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator was used to produce neutrons for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA), with a moderator/ reflector/ shielding assembly optimized for human hand irradiation in order to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the irradiation cave and to limit radiation exposure to the hand and the whole body. Main Results: The experimental results show that the system is able to detect sodium levels in the bone as low as 12 g Na/g dry bone with an effective dose to the body of about 27 μSv. The simulation results agree with the numbers estimated from the experiment. Significance: This is expected to be a feasible method for measuring the change of Na in bone. The low detection limit indicates this will be a useful system to study the association between Na retention and related diseases. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  14. Synchrotron Radiation and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Applications on Elemental Distribution in Human Hair and Bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Marques, A.F.; Brito, J.

    2003-01-01

    This work is an application of synchrotron microprobe X- Ray fluorescence in order to study elemental distribution along human hair samples of contemporary citizens. Furthermore, X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is also used to analyse human bones of different historical periods: Neolithic and contemporary subjects. The elemental content in the bones allowed us to conclude about environmental contamination, dietary habits and health status influence in the corresponding citizens. All samples were collected post-mortem. Quantitative analysis was performed for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Mn and Fe concentration were much higher in bones from pre-historic periods. On the contrary, Pb bone concentrations of contemporary subjects are much higher than in pre-historical ones, reaching 100 μg g-1, in some cases. Very low concentrations for Co, Ni, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed samples. Cu concentrations, allows to distinguish Chalcolithic bones from the Neolithic ones. The distribution of trace elements along human hair was studied for Pb and the obtained pattern was consistent with the theoretical model, based on the diffusion of this element from the root and along the hair. Therefore, the higher concentrations in hair for Pb of contemporary individuals were also observed in the bones of citizens of the same sampling sites. All samples were analysed directly without any chemical treatment

  15. Identification of Probiotic Strains from Human Milk in Breastfed Infants with Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamtu Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and industrial exploitation of probiotics from human milk is a goal for worldwide milk biotechnology centres because of their modulation effect on the immune system in infants and adults. In the proposed study we have analysed fermentation patterns of Lactobacilli isolated from human milk, the reliability of API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation system and a possible link between lactose concentrations and fermentation profiles on carbohydrates. We had succesfully identified three species of Lactobacillus (paracasei ssp paracasei, fermentum, acidophilus and one unsatisfactory identification of Lactoccocus lactis ssp lactis. These strains had different carbohydrate fermentation patterns but with common characteristics and showed no statistically significant correlations between their carbohydrate metabolic trends and lactose concentrations in the milk samples.

  16. Genetics of Bone Mineralization and Morphology in Inbred Mice: Analysis of the HcB/Dem Recombinant Congenic Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    sulfated vitamin C, however, the - 40% differ- Boskey, A.L, 1989. Hydroxyapatite formation in a dynamic geleigt is most likely attributable to the pre...proteoglycans was significanly in- . bone proteoglycans, decorin and biglycan on hydroxyapatite for-*c e s tin gthat ic ase by te .mation in a gelatin gel. Calcif...between type I collagen "., XR d Cy~stallinity 14ighly Correlated molecules areformed by condensation of hydroxylysine and, to Because of the well

  17. Identification of senescence-associated genes in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Eunsook; Hong, Su; Kang, Jaeku; Woo, Junghoon; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Jongho; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2008-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into several specialized cell types, including bone, cartilage, and fat cells. The proliferative capacity of hBMMSCs paves the way for the development of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, long-term in vitro culture of hBMMSCs leads to a reduced life span of the cells due to senescence, which leads eventually to growth arrest. To investigate the molecular mechanism behind the cellular senescence of hBMMSCs, microarray analysis was used to compare the expression profiles of early passage hBMMSCs, late passage hBMMSCs and hBMMSCs ectopically expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Using an intersection analysis of 3892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) out of 27,171 total genes analyzed, we identified 338 senescence-related DEGs. GO term categorization and pathway network analysis revealed that the identified genes are strongly related to known senescence pathways and mechanisms. The genes identified using this approach will facilitate future studies of the mechanisms underlying the cellular senescence of hBMMSCs

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 promotes chondrogenesis in human amniotic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junjie; Yu, Guangrong; Cao, Chengfu; Pang, Jinhui; Chen, Xianqi

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles at multiple stages of chondrogenesis. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) in the differentiation of chondrocytes using tissue engineering techniques. The impact of BMP-7 on human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) was tested. The hAECs were treated either with recombinant human BMP-7 cDNA or with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) as a positive control for three weeks in vitro. Cartilaginous differentiation and proliferation were assayed by quantitative RT-PCR, histology, and in situ hybridization. Our results were such that hAECs treated with either BMP-7 or TGF-β1 expressed cartilage markers (aggrecan, Sox9, CEP-68, and type II and X collagens) within three weeks. Compared with a control vector, BMP-7 induced a decrease in type I collagen expression, while the transcription of the cartilage-specific type II collagen remained stable. In induction experiments, BMP-7 transgenic hAECs exhibited the largest amount of matrix synthesis. In conclusion, these data indicate that BMP-7 plays an important role in inducing the production of cartilage by hAECs in vitro. Cartilage differentiation and matrix maturation can be promoted by BMPs in a cartilage engineering paradigm. These properties make BMPs promising tools in the engineering of cartilaginous joint bio-prostheses and as candidate biological agents or genes for cartilage stabilisation.

  19. Micro/Nano Structural Tantalum Coating for Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Xie, Youtao; Li, Kai; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2018-04-03

    Recently, tantalum has been attracting much attention for its anticorrosion resistance and biocompatibility, and it has been widely used in surface modification for implant applications. To improve its osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs), a micro/nano structure has been fabricated on the tantalum coating surface through the combination of anodic oxidation and plasma spraying method. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the modified coating were comprehensively studied by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of hierarchical structures as well as micro-porous structure of tantalum coating on the behavior for human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) were evaluated and compared at both cellular and molecular levels in vitro. The experimental results show that a hierarchical micro/nano structure with Ta₂O₅ nanotubes spread onto a micro-scale tantalum coating has been fabricated successfully, which is confirmed to promote cell adhesion and spreading. Besides, the hierarchical micro/nano tantalum coating can provide 1.5~2.1 times improvement in gene expression, compared with the micro-porous tantalum coating. It demonstrates that it can effectively enhance the proliferation and differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro.

  20. ECM microenvironment unlocks brown adipogenic potential of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle H; Goralczyk, Anna G; Kriszt, Rókus; Ang, Xiu Min; Badowski, Cedric; Li, Ying; Summers, Scott A; Toh, Sue-Anne; Yassin, M Shabeer; Shabbir, Asim; Sheppard, Allan; Raghunath, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Key to realizing the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of human brown/brite adipocytes is the identification of a renewable, easily accessible and safe tissue source of progenitor cells, and an efficacious in vitro differentiation protocol. We show that macromolecular crowding (MMC) facilitates brown adipocyte differentiation in adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), as evidenced by substantially upregulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and uncoupled respiration. Moreover, MMC also induced 'browning' in bmMSC-derived white adipocytes. Mechanistically, MMC creates a 3D extracellular matrix architecture enshrouding maturing adipocytes in a collagen IV cocoon that is engaged by paxillin-positive focal adhesions also at the apical side of cells, without contact to the stiff support structure. This leads to an enhanced matrix-cell signaling, reflected by increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a key transcription factor in UCP1 regulation. Thus, tuning the dimensionality of the microenvironment in vitro can unlock a strong brown potential dormant in bone marrow.

  1. Micro/Nano Structural Tantalum Coating for Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, tantalum has been attracting much attention for its anticorrosion resistance and biocompatibility, and it has been widely used in surface modification for implant applications. To improve its osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs, a micro/nano structure has been fabricated on the tantalum coating surface through the combination of anodic oxidation and plasma spraying method. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the modified coating were comprehensively studied by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The effects of hierarchical structures as well as micro-porous structure of tantalum coating on the behavior for human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs were evaluated and compared at both cellular and molecular levels in vitro. The experimental results show that a hierarchical micro/nano structure with Ta2O5 nanotubes spread onto a micro-scale tantalum coating has been fabricated successfully, which is confirmed to promote cell adhesion and spreading. Besides, the hierarchical micro/nano tantalum coating can provide 1.5~2.1 times improvement in gene expression, compared with the micro-porous tantalum coating. It demonstrates that it can effectively enhance the proliferation and differentiation of hBMSCs in vitro.

  2. HSP10 selective preference for myeloid and megakaryocytic precursors in normal human bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Cappello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs constitute a heterogeneous family of proteins involved in cell homeostasis. During cell life they are involved in harmful insults, as well as in immune and inflammatory reactions. It is known that they regulate gene expression, and cell proliferation, differentiation and death. HSP60 is a mitochondrial chaperonin, highly preserved during evolution, responsible of protein folding. Its function is strictly dependent on HSP10 in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements. We investigated the presence and the expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in a series of 20 normal human bone marrow specimens (NHBM by the means of immunohistochemistry. NHBM showed no expression of HSP60, probably due to its being below the detectable threshold, as already demonstrated in other normal human tissues. By contrast, HSP10 showed a selective positivity for myeloid and megakaryocytic lineages. The positivity was restricted to precursor cells, while mature elements were constantly negative.We postulate that HSP10 plays a role in bone marrow cell differentiation other than being a mitochondrial co-chaperonin. The present data emphasize the role of HSP10 during cellular homeostasis and encourage further investigations in this field.

  3. Bones and humanity. On Forensic Anthropology and its constitutive power facing forced disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huffschmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forensic anthropologists seek to decipher traces of anonymous dead, to restitute identities of human remains and to provide their families with the possibility to conclude mourning and even of justice. The article explores the contributions and meanings of forensic anthropology as state-independent practice beyond a mereley criminalistic approach, as it was conceptualized by the Argentine pioneers after the last dictatorship in this nation. I conceive this practice as a sort of arqueology of contemporary terror that seeks to confront a specific violence as the forced disappearance of persons and the deshumanization of their dead bodies. The article proposes reading forensic anthropology as a 'situated cience', with its complexities and ambigueties, that operates between nameless bones (the human remains and names without bodies (the so-called disappeared in settings of violent pasts such as Argentina or Guatemala, and especially in Mexico, where mass graves became the new symbol of a horrified present.

  4. Probiotic attributes of Lactobacillus strains isolated from food and of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudana, Sandeep B; Dhanani, Akhilesh S; Bagchi, Tamishraha

    2010-06-01

    Lactobacilli isolated from various sources were identified on the basis of 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic region amplification and subsequent sequencing of the smaller intergenic region. An in vitro analysis of probiotic properties including binding, ability to tolerate different concentrations of bile, survival in acidic buffer and antimicrobial activity of four different isolates and two standard strains (Lactobacillus plantarum American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 8014 and L. rhamnosus GG (LGG)) was carried out. The ability of each isolate to stimulate Caco-2 cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and THP-1 cells resulting in immunomodulation of these cells was analysed. Isolates L. rhamnosus CS25 and L. delbrueckii M and standard strain ATCC 8014 showed broad antimicrobial activity, and isolates CS25 (percentage of survival 6.9 % at pH 2.5, 5.1 % at pH 2.0) and L. plantarum CS23 (5.7 % at pH 2.5, 4.9 % at pH 2.0) have shown good tolerance to acidic pH. Isolate CS23 showed a good survival (14 %) after 2 h incubation in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium containing 3 % bile salts. Isolates CS23, CS25 and L. fermentum ASt1 could stimulate Caco-2 cells, human PBMC and THP-1 cells for a strong and varied immunomodulatory response in these cells. Though LGG showed poor antimicrobial activity as well as bile and acid tolerance, it was found to be the best binding strain tested. Child faecal isolate CS23 from the present study showed high binding ability (seventeen bacteria/Caco-2), high tolerance to acidic pH and bile salts and significant immunomodulation; therefore it is a good potential probiotic candidate.

  5. Interaction of Coxiella burnetii Strains of Different Sources and Genotypes with Bovine and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Sobotta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most human Q fever infections originate from small ruminants. By contrast, highly prevalent shedding of Coxiella (C. burnetii by bovine milk rarely results in human disease. We hypothesized that primary bovine and human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM represent a suitable in vitro model for the identification of strain-specific virulence properties at the cellular level. Twelve different C. burnetii strains were selected to represent different host species and multiple loci variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA genotypes. Infection efficiency and replication of C. burnetii were monitored by cell culture re-titration and qPCR. Expression of immunoregulatory factors after MDM infection was measured by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Invasion, replication and MDM response differed between C. burnetii strains but not between MDMs of the two hosts. Strains isolated from ruminants were less well internalized than isolates from humans and rodents. Internalization of MLVA group I strains was lower compared to other genogroups. Replication efficacy of C. burnetii in MDM ranged from low (MLVA group III to high (MLVA group IV. Infected human and bovine MDM responded with a principal up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α. However, MLVA group IV strains induced a pronounced host response whereas infection with group I strains resulted in a milder response. C. burnetii infection marginally affected polarization of MDM. Only one C. burnetii strain of MLVA group IV caused a substantial up-regulation of activation markers (CD40, CD80 on the surface of bovine and human MDM. The study showed that replication of C. burnetii in MDM and the subsequent host cell response is genotype-specific rather than being determined by the host species pointing to a clear distinction in C. burnetii virulence between the genetic groups.

  6. Genotyping of human and porcine Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia intertmedia, and Yersinia bercovieri strains from Switzerland by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehni-Boghenbor, Kathrin; On, Stephen L.W.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 231 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, 25 strains of Y. intermedia, and 10 strains of Y. bercovieri from human and porcine sources (including reference strains) were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), a whole-genome fingerprinting method for subtyping...

  7. Evidence supporting a zoonotic origin of human coronavirus strain NL63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Jeremy; Li, Shimena; Yount, Boyd; Smith, Alexander; Sturges, Leslie; Olsen, John C; Nagel, Juliet; Johnson, Joshua B; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J Edward; Frieman, Matthew B; Baric, Ralph S; Donaldson, Eric F

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between bats and coronaviruses (CoVs) has received considerable attention since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoV was identified in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae) in 2005. Since then, several bats throughout the world have been shown to shed CoV sequences, and presumably CoVs, in the feces; however, no bat CoVs have been isolated from nature. Moreover, there are very few bat cell lines or reagents available for investigating CoV replication in bat cells or for isolating bat CoVs adapted to specific bat species. Here, we show by molecular clock analysis that alphacoronavirus (α-CoV) sequences derived from the North American tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) are predicted to share common ancestry with human CoV (HCoV)-NL63, with the most recent common ancestor between these viruses occurring approximately 563 to 822 years ago. Further, we developed immortalized bat cell lines from the lungs of this bat species to determine if these cells were capable of supporting infection with HCoVs. While SARS-CoV, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15), and chimeric SARS-CoVs bearing the spike genes of early human strains replicated inefficiently, HCoV-NL63 replicated for multiple passages in the immortalized lung cells from this bat species. These observations support the hypothesis that human CoVs are capable of establishing zoonotic-reverse zoonotic transmission cycles that may allow some CoVs to readily circulate and exchange genetic material between strains found in bats and other mammals, including humans.

  8. Characterization of Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713, a strain isolated from human milk: from genotype to phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, Susana; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Delgado, Susana; Martín, Rebeca; Martín, Virginia; Jiménez, Esther; Ruíz-Barba, José L; Mayo, Baltasar; Connor, Ruth I; Suárez, Juan Evaristo; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713, isolated from human milk, has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antiinfectious properties, as revealed by several in vitro and in vivo assays, which suggests a strong potential as a probiotic strain. In this work, the relationships between several genetic features of L. salivarius CECT 5713 and the corresponding phenotypes were evaluated. Although it contains a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin cluster, no bacteriocin biosynthesis was observed, possibly due to a 4-bp deletion at the beginning of the histidine kinase determinant abpK. The genome of L. salivarius CECT 5713 harbours two apparently complete prophages of 39.6 and 48 kbp. Upon induction, the 48-kbp prophage became liberated from the bacterial genome, but no DNA replication took place, which resulted in lysis of the cultures but not in phage progeny generation. The strain was sensitive to most antibiotics tested and no transmissible genes potentially involved in antibiotic resistance were detected. Finally, the genome of L. salivarius CECT 5713 contained four ORFs potentially involved in human molecular mimetism. Among them, protein 1230 was considered of particular relevance because of its similarity with dendritic cell-related proteins. Subsequently, in vitro assays revealed the ability of L. salivarius CECT 5713 to stimulate the maturation of immature dendritic cells and to inhibit the in vitro infectivity of HIV-1.

  9. Bone marrow extract as a growth supplement for human iliac apophyseal chondrocyte culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Balakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Human bone marrow is rich in various growth factors which may support the chondrocyte growth. This study was conducted to compare the culture characteristics of human growth plate chondrocyte in foetal bovine serum (FBS and human autologous bone marrow extract (BME in monolayer culture. Methods: Iliac crest apophyseal cartilage was harvested from four donors, aged between two and nine years, undergoing hip surgery. Chondrocytes were propagated under two culture conditions, with 10 per cent FBS and 10 per cent autologous BME harvested from the same donors. C